WorldWideScience

Sample records for direct collapse keeping

  1. Collapse transition and cyclomatic number distribution of directed lattice animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.M.; Duarte, J.A.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors computed the specific heat of directed lattice animals using a Monte Carlo method for various animals sizes N, with N up to 100 on the square and N up to 125 on the simple cubic lattices. The specific heat as a function of the temperature for various animal sizes exhibits peaks which seem to approach a collapse transition temperature monotonically from below with increasing N. A least square fit together with finite-size scaling then gives both the transition temperature T/sub c/ and the specific heat exponent α for these lattices. The cyclomatic number distributions for the number of animals with fixed animal size N are also calculated and these seem to obey a scaling law for large N

  2. STELLAR TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS BY DIRECT-COLLAPSE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi [Theoretical Astrophysics Center, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Inayoshi, Kohei, E-mail: kashiyama@berkeley.edu, E-mail: inayoshi@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We analyze the early growth stage of direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) with ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, which are formed by collapse of supermassive stars in atomic-cooling halos at z ≳ 10. A nuclear accretion disk around a newborn DCBH is gravitationally unstable and fragments into clumps with a few × 10 M {sub ⊙} at ∼0.01–0.1 pc from the center. Such clumps evolve into massive Population III stars with a few × 10–10{sup 2} M {sub ⊙} via successive gas accretion, and a nuclear star cluster is formed. Radiative and mechanical feedback from an inner slim disk and the star cluster will significantly reduce the gas accretion rate onto the DCBH within ∼10{sup 6} yr. Some of the nuclear stars can be scattered onto the loss cone orbits also within ≲10{sup 6} yr and tidally disrupted by the central DCBH. The jet luminosity powered by such tidal disruption events can be L {sub j} ≳ 10{sup 50} erg s{sup 1}. The prompt emission will be observed in X-ray bands with a peak duration of δt {sub obs} ∼ 10{sup 5–6}(1 + z ) s followed by a tail ∝ t {sub obs} {sup 5/3}, which can be detectable by Swift BAT and eROSITA even from z ∼ 20. Follow-up observations of the radio afterglows with, e.g., eVLA and the host halos with James Webb Space Telescope could probe the earliest active galactic nucleus feedback from DCBHs.

  3. How realistic UV spectra and X-rays suppress the abundance of direct collapse black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Bovino, S.; Grassi, T.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, M.

    Observations of high-redshift quasars at z > 6 indicate that they harbour supermassive black holes (SMBHs) of a billion solar masses. The direct collapse scenario has emerged as the most plausible way to assemble SMBHs. The nurseries for the direct collapse black holes are massive primordial haloes

  4. Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code enzo-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/ N -body code gadget-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in gadget-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H 2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ∼ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, gadget-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than enzo-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.

  5. DIPOLE COLLAPSE AND DYNAMO WAVES IN GLOBAL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel [MAG (ENS/IPGP), LRA, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Petitdemange, Ludovic, E-mail: martin@schrinner.eu [Previously at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. (Germany)

    2012-06-20

    Magnetic fields of low-mass stars and planets are thought to originate from self-excited dynamo action in their convective interiors. Observations reveal a variety of field topologies ranging from large-scale, axial dipoles to more structured magnetic fields. In this article, we investigate more than 70 three-dimensional, self-consistent dynamo models in the Boussinesq approximation obtained by direct numerical simulations. The control parameters, the aspect ratio, and the mechanical boundary conditions have been varied to build up this sample of models. Both strongly dipolar and multipolar models have been obtained. We show that these dynamo regimes in general can be distinguished by the ratio of a typical convective length scale to the Rossby radius. Models with a predominantly dipolar magnetic field were obtained, if the convective length scale is at least an order of magnitude larger than the Rossby radius. Moreover, we highlight the role of the strong shear associated with the geostrophic zonal flow for models with stress-free boundary conditions. In this case the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. We interpret our results in terms of dynamo eigenmodes using the so-called test-field method. We can thus show that models in the dipolar regime are characterized by an isolated 'single mode'. Competing overtones become significant as the boundary to multipolar dynamos is approached. We discuss how these findings relate to previous models and to observations.

  6. Direct Collapse to Supermassive Black Hole Seeds with Radiative Transfer: Isolated Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Ardaneh, Kazem; Shlosman, Isaac; Nagamine, Kentaro; Wise, John H.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2018-05-01

    Direct collapse within dark matter haloes is a promising path to form supermassive black hole seeds at high redshifts. The outer part of this collapse remains optically thin. However, the innermost region of the collapse is expected to become optically thick and requires to follow the radiation field in order to understand its evolution. So far, the adiabatic approximation has been used exclusively for this purpose. We apply radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation to solve the evolution of coupled gas and radiation for isolated haloes. We find that (1) the photosphere forms at 10-6 pc and rapidly expands outwards. (2) A central core forms, with a mass of 1 M⊙, supported by gas pressure gradients and rotation. (3) Growing gas and radiation pressure gradients dissolve it. (4) This process is associated with a strong anisotropic outflow; another core forms nearby and grows rapidly. (5) Typical radiation luminosity emerging from the photosphere is 5 × 1037-5 × 1038 erg s-1, of the order the Eddington luminosity. (6) Two variability time-scales are associated with this process: a long one, which is related to the accretion flow within the central 10-4-10-3 pc, and 0.1 yr, related to radiation diffusion. (7) Adiabatic models evolution differs profoundly from that of the FLD models, by forming a geometrically thick disc. Overall, an adiabatic equation of state is not a good approximation to the advanced stage of direct collapse, because the radiation is capable of escaping due to anisotropy in the optical depth and associated gradients.

  7. Direct Collapse to Supermassive Black Hole Seeds with Radiation Transfer: Cosmological Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Luo, Yang; Shlosman, Isaac; Nagamine, Kentaro; Wise, John H.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2018-06-01

    We have modeled direct collapse of a primordial gas within dark matter halos in the presence of radiative transfer, in high-resolution zoom-in simulations in a cosmological framework, down to the formation of the photosphere and the central object. Radiative transfer has been implemented in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. Adiabatic models were run for comparison. We find that (a) the FLD flow forms an irregular central structure and does not exhibit fragmentation, contrary to adiabatic flow which forms a thick disk, driving a pair of spiral shocks, subject to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability forming fragments; (b) the growing central core in the FLD flow quickly reaches ˜10 M⊙ and a highly variable luminosity of 1038 - 1039 erg s-1, comparable to the Eddington luminosity. It experiences massive recurrent outflows driven by radiation force and thermal pressure gradients, which mix with the accretion flow and transfer the angular momentum outwards; and (c) the interplay between these processes and a massive accretion, results in photosphere at ˜10 AU. We conclude that in the FLD model (1) the central object exhibits dynamically insignificant rotation and slower than adiabatic temperature rise with density; (2) does not experience fragmentation leading to star formation, thus promoting the fast track formation of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) seed; (3) inclusion of radiation force leads to outflows, resulting in the mass accumulation within the central 10-3 pc, which is ˜100 times larger than characteristic scale of star formation. The inclusion of radiative transfer reveals complex early stages of formation and growth of the central structure in the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation.

  8. Collapsed polymer-directed synthesis of multicomponent coaxial-like nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Zhiqi; Liu, Yijing; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Xiaoxia; Li, Ang; Deng, Lin; Yi, Chenglin; Yang, Yang; Khashab, Niveen M.; Gong, Jinlong; Nie, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent colloidal nanostructures (MCNs) exhibit intriguing topologically dependent chemical and physical properties. However, there remain significant challenges in the synthesis of MCNs with high-order complexity. Here we show the development of a general yet scalable approach for the rational design and synthesis of MCNs with unique coaxial-like construction. The site-preferential growth in this synthesis relies on the selective protection of seed nanoparticle surfaces with locally defined domains of collapsed polymers. By using this approach, we produce a gallery of coaxial-like MCNs comprising a shaped Au core surrounded by a tubular metal or metal oxide shell. This synthesis is robust and not prone to variations in kinetic factors of the synthetic process. The essential role of collapsed polymers in achieving anisotropic growth makes our approach fundamentally distinct from others. We further demonstrate that this coaxial-like construction can lead to excellent photocatalytic performance over conventional core–shell-type MCNs.

  9. Collapsed polymer-directed synthesis of multicomponent coaxial-like nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Zhiqi

    2016-07-19

    Multicomponent colloidal nanostructures (MCNs) exhibit intriguing topologically dependent chemical and physical properties. However, there remain significant challenges in the synthesis of MCNs with high-order complexity. Here we show the development of a general yet scalable approach for the rational design and synthesis of MCNs with unique coaxial-like construction. The site-preferential growth in this synthesis relies on the selective protection of seed nanoparticle surfaces with locally defined domains of collapsed polymers. By using this approach, we produce a gallery of coaxial-like MCNs comprising a shaped Au core surrounded by a tubular metal or metal oxide shell. This synthesis is robust and not prone to variations in kinetic factors of the synthetic process. The essential role of collapsed polymers in achieving anisotropic growth makes our approach fundamentally distinct from others. We further demonstrate that this coaxial-like construction can lead to excellent photocatalytic performance over conventional core–shell-type MCNs.

  10. DIRECTED SEARCHES FOR BROADBAND EXTENDED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EMISSION IN NEARBY ENERGETIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M., E-mail: mvp@sejong.ac.kr [Room 614, Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong Gwangin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) are factories of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes. SNe Ib/c stand out as potentially originating in relatively compact stellar binaries and they have a branching ratio of about 1% into long gamma-ray bursts. The most energetic events probably derive from central engines harboring rapidly rotating black holes, wherein the accretion of fall-back matter down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) offers a window into broadband extended gravitational wave emission (BEGE). To search for BEGE, we introduce a butterfly filter in time–frequency space by time-sliced matched filtering. To analyze long epochs of data, we propose using coarse-grained searches followed by high-resolution searches on events of interest. We illustrate our proposed coarse-grained search on two weeks of LIGO S6 data prior to SN 2010br (z = 0.002339) using a bank of up to 64,000 templates of one-second duration covering a broad range in chirp frequencies and bandwidth. Correlating events with signal-to-noise ratios > 6 from the LIGO L1 and H1 detectors reduces the total to a few events of interest. Lacking any further properties reflecting a common excitation by broadband gravitational radiation, we disregarded these as spurious. This new pipeline may be used to systematically search for long-duration chirps in nearby CC-SNe from robotic optical transient surveys using embarrassingly parallel computing.

  11. Texture collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, T.; Sornborger, A.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    We study single-texture collapse using a leapfrog discretization method on a 30x30x30 spatial lattice. We investigate the influence of boundary conditions, physical size of the lattice, type of space-time background (flat, i.e., nonexpanding, vs radiation-dominated and matter-dominated universes), and spatial distribution of the initial texture configuration on collapse time and critical winding. For a spherically symmetric initial configuration of size equal to the horizon size on a lattice containing 12 (30) horizon volumes, the critical winding is found to be 0.621±0.001 (0.602±0.003) (flat case), 0.624±0.002 (0.604±0.005) (radiation era), 0.628±0.002 (0.612±0.003) (matter era). The larger the physical size of the lattice (in units of the horizon size), the smaller is the critical winding, and in the limit of an infinite lattice, we argue that the critical winding approaches 0.5. For radially asymmetric cases, contraction of one axis ( /Ipancake case) slightly reduces collapse time and critical winding, and contraction of two axes (d/Icigar case) reduces collapse time and critical winding significantly

  12. Six collapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The self-consistent dynamical development of six stellar systems, started from rotating spherical configurations, has been studied by means of a fully three-dimensional n-body integration. The six examples had different initial angular velocities and velocity dispersions. All settled down into prolate bars rotating about a short axis within two initial rotation periods. The bars are long-lived, robust, and stable. Bars are the natural form toward which rapidly rotating stellar dynamical systems develop, instead of the flattened axisymmetric disks that had been expected.The early stages of each collapse are reasonably well described by a theoretical model according to which a collapse passes through a sequence of rigidly rotating, uniform-density spheroids. The first significant departures from spheroidal form were axisymmetric in all cases. Rings formed in some examples, sheets in others, with transition cases between these extremes. Nonaxisymmetry forms developed from these intermediate stages

  13. Gravitational collapse and supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattimer, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The collapse of the core of a massive star and the subsequent birth of a neutron star in a supernova explosion are discussed, and a model of the supernova mechanism is developed. The basic theory is then compared with the particular case of SN1987A, whose emitted neutrinos permitted the first direct test of the model. (author)

  14. Lingering single-strand breaks trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks in the polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase mutant of fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arancha Sanchez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP protects genome integrity by restoring ligatable 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini at single-strand breaks (SSBs. In humans, PNKP mutations underlie the neurological disease known as MCSZ, but these individuals are not predisposed for cancer, implying effective alternative repair pathways in dividing cells. Homology-directed repair (HDR of collapsed replication forks was proposed to repair SSBs in PNKP-deficient cells, but the critical HDR protein Rad51 is not required in PNKP-null (pnk1Δ cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we report that pnk1Δ cells have enhanced requirements for Rad3 (ATR/Mec1 and Chk1 checkpoint kinases, and the multi-BRCT domain protein Brc1 that binds phospho-histone H2A (γH2A at damaged replication forks. The viability of pnk1Δ cells depends on Mre11 and Ctp1 (CtIP/Sae2 double-strand break (DSB resection proteins, Rad52 DNA strand annealing protein, Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase, and Rqh1 (BLM/WRN/Sgs1 DNA helicase. Coupled with increased sister chromatid recombination and Rad52 repair foci in pnk1Δ cells, these findings indicate that lingering SSBs in pnk1Δ cells trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks. From these data, we propose models for HDR-mediated tolerance of persistent SSBs with 3' phosphate in pnk1Δ cells.

  15. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  16. The number of pickers and stock-keeping unit arrangement on a uni-directional picking line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagspihl, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The order picking process is often the single largest expense in a distribution centre (DC. The DC considered in this paper uses a picking line configuration to perform order picking. The number of pickers in a picking line, and the initial arrangement of stock-keeping units (SKUs, are two important factors that affect the total completion time of the picking lines. In this paper, the picking line configuration is simulated with an agent-based approach to describe the behaviour of an individual picker. The simulation is then used to analyse the effect of the number of pickers and the SKU arrangement. Verification and validation of this model shows that the model represents the real-world picking line to a satisfactory degree. Marginal analysis (MA was chosen to determine a ‘good’ number of pickers by means of the simulation model. A look-up table is presented to provide decision support for the choice of a ‘good’ number of pickers to improve completion times of the picking line, for the properties of a specific picking line. The initial SKU arrangement on a picking line is shown to be a factor that can affect the level of picker congestion and the total completion time. The greedy ranking and partitioning (GRP and organ pipe arrangement (OPA techniques from the literature, as well as the historical SKU arrangements used by the retailer under consideration, were compared with the proposed classroom discipline heuristic (CDH for SKU arrangement. It was found that the CDH provides an more even spread of SKUs that are picked most frequently, thus decreasing congestion and total completion time.

  17. Gravitational collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While black holes are (almost) being detected and are increasingly used to model high energy astrophysical phenomena, naked singularities have turned into a topic of active discussion, aimed at understanding their structure and implications. Recent developments here are reviewed, indicating future directions.

  18. CT of lobar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, D. C.; Im, J. G.; Park, J. H.; Han, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings of labor collapse are analysed in an attempt to evaluate the patterns of labor collapse and to get the helpful signs in differentiation between benign and malignant causes of collapse. 43 cases of labor collapse with or without endobronchial obstruction were reviewed. In 29 of 43 cases the collapses were caused by lung cancer. Benign causes of labor collapse included tuberculosis(10), broncholith(2), organizing pneumonia(1) and hamartoma(1). The helpful signs favoring malignant cause of the labor collapse were proximal bulging of the collapsed lobe, low density mass within the collapsed lung, and endobronchial lesion. Above described differential findings were especially applicable in cases of upper lobe collapse

  19. Keep calm and carry on: improved frustration tolerance and processing speed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Plewnia

    Full Text Available Cognitive control (CC of attention is a major prerequisite for effective information processing. Emotional distractors can bias and impair goal-directed deployment of attentional resources. Frustration-induced negative affect and cognition can act as internal distractors with negative impact on task performance. Consolidation of CC may thus support task-oriented behavior under challenging conditions. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been put forward as an effective tool to modulate CC. Particularly, anodal, activity enhancing tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC can increase insufficient CC in depression as indicated by a reduction of attentional biases induced by emotionally salient stimuli. With this study, we provide first evidence that, compared to sham stimulation, tDCS to the left dlPFC enhances processing speed measured by an adaptive version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT that is typically thwarted by frustration. Notably, despite an even larger amount of error-related negative feedback, the task-induced upset was suppressed in the group receiving anodal tDCS. Moreover, inhibition of task-related negative affect was correlated with performance gains, suggesting a close link between enhanced processing speed and consolidation of CC by tDCS. Together, these data provide first evidence that activity enhancing anodal tDCS to the left dlPFC can support focused cognitive processing particularly when challenged by frustration-induced negative affect.

  20. Keep calm and carry on: improved frustration tolerance and processing speed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewnia, Christian; Schroeder, Philipp A; Kunze, Roland; Faehling, Florian; Wolkenstein, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control (CC) of attention is a major prerequisite for effective information processing. Emotional distractors can bias and impair goal-directed deployment of attentional resources. Frustration-induced negative affect and cognition can act as internal distractors with negative impact on task performance. Consolidation of CC may thus support task-oriented behavior under challenging conditions. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been put forward as an effective tool to modulate CC. Particularly, anodal, activity enhancing tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) can increase insufficient CC in depression as indicated by a reduction of attentional biases induced by emotionally salient stimuli. With this study, we provide first evidence that, compared to sham stimulation, tDCS to the left dlPFC enhances processing speed measured by an adaptive version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) that is typically thwarted by frustration. Notably, despite an even larger amount of error-related negative feedback, the task-induced upset was suppressed in the group receiving anodal tDCS. Moreover, inhibition of task-related negative affect was correlated with performance gains, suggesting a close link between enhanced processing speed and consolidation of CC by tDCS. Together, these data provide first evidence that activity enhancing anodal tDCS to the left dlPFC can support focused cognitive processing particularly when challenged by frustration-induced negative affect.

  1. Types of collapse calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo J [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., 76230 (Mexico)], E-mail: ger@geociencias.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera: those formed at the top of large volcanoes, 2) classic caldera: semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter and related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products, and 3) graben caldera: explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several fissural vents along the graben master faults and the intra-graben block faults. These in turn can collapse at least with three styles: 1) Piston: when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) Trap-door: when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) Piece-meal: when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of the magma chamber.

  2. State-of-the-Art-Review of Collapsible Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. AL-Rawas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Collapsible soils are encountered in arid and semi-arid regions. Such soils cause potential construction problems due to their collapse upon wetting. The collapse phenomenon is primarily related to the open structure of the soil. Several soil collapse classifications based on parameters such as moisture content, dry density, Atterberg limits and clay content have been proposed in the literature as indicators of the soil collapse potential. Direct measurement of the magnitude of collapse, using laboratory and/or field tests, is essential once a soil showed indications of collapse potential. Treatment methods such as soil replacement, compaction control and chemical stabilization showed significant reduction in the settlement of collapsible soils. The design of foundations on collapsible soils depends on the depth of the soil, magnitude of collapse and economics of the design. Strip foundations are commonly used when collapsing soil extends to a shallow depth while piles and drilled piers are recommended in cases where the soil extends to several meters. This paper provides a comprehensive review of collapsible soils. These include the different types of collapsible soils, mechanisms of collapse, identification and classification methods, laboratory and field testing, treatment methods and guidelines for foundation design.

  3. mode of collapse of square single panel reinforced concrete space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The models were loaded directly till collapse. The estimated and actual collapse loads of the five models were compared. The estimated collapse load for the slab was 35 kN/m2. Also, the numerical estimate of the collapse load for the beam was 10.2kN/m (with an equivalent slab load of 40.8kN/m2), while the shear capacity ...

  4. Mechanisms of cascade collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Smalinskas, K.; Averback, R.S.; Robertson, I.M.; Hseih, H.; Benedek, R.

    1988-12-01

    The spontaneous collapse of energetic displacement cascades in metals into vacancy dislocation loops has been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Simulations of 5 keV recoil events in Cu and Ni provide the following scenario of cascade collapse: atoms are ejected from the central region of the cascade by replacement collision sequences; the central region subsequently melts; vacancies are driven to the center of the cascade during resolidification where they may collapse into loops. Whether or not collapse occurs depends critically on the melting temperature of the metal and the energy density and total energy in the cascade. Results of TEM are presented in support of this mechanism. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Neutrinos from gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Schramm, D.N.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed calculations are made of the neutrino spectra emitted during gravitational collapse events (Type II supernovae). Those aspects of the neutrino signal which are relatively independent of the collapse model and those aspects which are sensitive to model details are discussed. The easier-to-detect high energy tail of the emitted neutrinos has been calculated using the Boltzmann equation which is compared with the result of the traditional multi-group flux limited diffusion calculations. 8 figs., 28 refs

  6. Collapse models and perceptual processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, Gian Carlo; Romano, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Theories including a collapse mechanism have been presented various years ago. They are based on a modification of standard quantum mechanics in which nonlinear and stochastic terms are added to the evolution equation. Their principal merits derive from the fact that they are mathematically precise schemes accounting, on the basis of a unique universal dynamical principle, both for the quantum behavior of microscopic systems as well as for the reduction associated to measurement processes and for the classical behavior of macroscopic objects. Since such theories qualify themselves not as new interpretations but as modifications of the standard theory they can be, in principle, tested against quantum mechanics. Recently, various investigations identifying possible crucial test have been discussed. In spite of the extreme difficulty to perform such tests it seems that recent technological developments allow at least to put precise limits on the parameters characterizing the modifications of the evolution equation. Here we will simply mention some of the recent investigations in this direction, while we will mainly concentrate our attention to the way in which collapse theories account for definite perceptual process. The differences between the case of reductions induced by perceptions and those related to measurement procedures by means of standard macroscopic devices will be discussed. On this basis, we suggest a precise experimental test of collapse theories involving conscious observers. We make plausible, by discussing in detail a toy model, that the modified dynamics can give rise to quite small but systematic errors in the visual perceptual process.

  7. Cooperation, cheating, and collapse in biological populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    Natural populations can collapse suddenly in response to small changes in environmental conditions, and recovery from such a collapse can be difficult. We have used laboratory microbial ecosystems to directly measure theoretically proposed early warning signals of impending population collapse. Yeast cooperatively break down the sugar sucrose, meaning that below a critical size the population cannot sustain itself. We have demonstrated experimentally that changes in the fluctuations of the population size can serve as an early warning signal that the population is close to collapse. The cooperative nature of yeast growth on sucrose suggests that the population may be susceptible to ``cheater'' cells, which do not contribute to the public good and instead merely take advantage of the cooperative cells. We confirm this possibility experimentally and find that such social parasitism decreases the resilience of the population.

  8. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  9. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  10. PSI collapse and relativistic covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa de Beauregard, Olivier

    1980-01-01

    We call macrorelativistic a theory invariant under the orthochronous Lorentz group and obeying the 'factlike' principle of retarded causality, and microrelativistic a theory invariant under the full Lorentz group and CPT symmetric. The Einstein correlations either direct (non-separability of measurements issuing from a common preparation) or reversed (non-separability of preparations producing a common measurement) are incompatible with the macro-, but compatible with the microrelativity. We assume that fundamental physics is fully Lorentz and CPT invariant (the transition to macrophysics introducing a 'factlike asymmetry) and consequently define the collapse-and-retrocollapse concept [fr

  11. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Neutrinos and supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The neutrino emission resulting from stellar collapse and supernova formation is reviewed. The electron capture and consequent neutronization of the collapsing stellar matter at the end of evolution determines both the initial adiabat of core collapse as well as the trapped lepton fraction. The initial lepton fraction, Y/sub l/ = .48 supplies the pressure for neutral support of the star at the Chandrasekhar limit. High trapping values, Y/sub l/ = .4, lead to soft core collapses; low values to harder collapses. The value of Y/sub l/ is presently in dispute. The neutrino emission from initial electron capture is relatively small. A strong core-bounce shock releases both electron neutrino as well as thermal muon and tau neutrinos. Subsequent neutrino emission and cooling can sometimes lead to an unstable buoyancy gradient in the core in which case unstable core overturn is expected. Calculations have already shown the importance of the largest possible eddy or equivalently the lowest mode of overturn. Present models of low lepton trapping ratio lead to high entropy creation by the reflected shock and the stabilization of the core matter against overturn. In such cases the exterior matter must cool below an entropy of approximately s/k approx. = 2 to become unstable. This may require too long a time approximately one second for neutrino cooling from a neutrinosphere at rho approx. = 2 x 10 12 g cm -3 . On the other hand, high values of Y/sub l/ such as .4 lead to softer bounces at lower density and values of the critical stabilizing entropy of 3 or higher. Under such circumstances, core overturn can still occur

  13. High-resolution simulations of cylindrical void collapse in energetic materials: Effect of primary and secondary collapse on initiation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Schmidt, Martin J.; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-04-01

    Void collapse in energetic materials leads to hot spot formation and enhanced sensitivity. Much recent work has been directed towards simulation of collapse-generated reactive hot spots. The resolution of voids in calculations to date has varied as have the resulting predictions of hot spot intensity. Here we determine the required resolution for reliable cylindrical void collapse calculations leading to initiation of chemical reactions. High-resolution simulations of collapse provide new insights into the mechanism of hot spot generation. It is found that initiation can occur in two different modes depending on the loading intensity: Either the initiation occurs due to jet impact at the first collapse instant or it can occur at secondary lobes at the periphery of the collapsed void. A key observation is that secondary lobe collapse leads to large local temperatures that initiate reactions. This is due to a combination of a strong blast wave from the site of primary void collapse and strong colliding jets and vortical flows generated during the collapse of the secondary lobes. The secondary lobe collapse results in a significant lowering of the predicted threshold for ignition of the energetic material. The results suggest that mesoscale simulations of void fields may suffer from significant uncertainty in threshold predictions because unresolved calculations cannot capture the secondary lobe collapse phenomenon. The implications of this uncertainty for mesoscale simulations are discussed in this paper.

  14. Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M.; Kono, M.; Sato, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)

  15. Spherically symmetric scalar field collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The very recent interest in scalar field collapse stems from a cosmological ... The objective of the present investigation is to explore the collapsing modes of a simple ..... The authors thank the BRNS (DAE) for financial support.

  16. Collapse settlement in compacted soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, AR

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into collapse settlement in compacted soils is described, with special reference to recent cases in Southern Africa where collapse settlement occurred in road embankments following wetting of the soil. The laboratory work described...

  17. The f electron collapse revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1987-03-01

    A reexamination of the collapse of 4f and 5f electrons in the lanthanide and actinide series is presented. The calculations show the well-known collapse of the f electron density at the thresholds of these series along with an f 2 collapse between thorium and protactinium. The collapse is sensitive to the choice of model for the exchange-correlation potential and the behavior of the potential at large radius

  18. Cardiopulmonary Collapse during Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Sitras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary collapse during labour is a catastrophic event caused by various medical, surgical and obstetrical conditions. It is an emergency that threatens the life of the mother and her unborn child. We present a case of a pregnant woman who suffered from preeclampsia and underwent induction of labour. Severe lung edema occurred early in labour that caused cardiopulmonary collapse. Advanced heart-lung resuscitation was established immediately and continued until an emergency cesarean section was performed few minutes later. The outcome was favourable for both mother and child. We further discuss some aspects of the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment of cardiorespiratory arrest during labour, which involves the coordinated action of the obstetric, pediatric and surgical ward personnel.

  19. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  20. Collapse, environment, and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Historical collapse of ancient states poses intriguing social-ecological questions, as well as potential applications to global change and contemporary strategies for sustainability. Five Old World case studies are developed to identify interactive inputs, triggers, and feedbacks in devolution. Collapse is multicausal and rarely abrupt. Political simplification undermines traditional structures of authority to favor militarization, whereas disintegration is preconditioned or triggered by acute stress (insecurity, environmental or economic crises, famine), with breakdown accompanied or followed by demographic decline. Undue attention to stressors risks underestimating the intricate interplay of environmental, political, and sociocultural resilience in limiting the damages of collapse or in facilitating reconstruction. The conceptual model emphasizes resilience, as well as the historical roles of leaders, elites, and ideology. However, a historical model cannot simply be applied to contemporary problems of sustainability without adjustment for cumulative information and increasing possibilities for popular participation. Between the 14th and 18th centuries, Western Europe responded to environmental crises by innovation and intensification; such modernization was decentralized, protracted, flexible, and broadly based. Much of the current alarmist literature that claims to draw from historical experience is poorly focused, simplistic, and unhelpful. It fails to appreciate that resilience and readaptation depend on identified options, improved understanding, cultural solidarity, enlightened leadership, and opportunities for participation and fresh ideas. PMID:22371579

  1. Collapse and equilibrium of rotating, adiabatic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical hydrodynamics computer code has been used to follow the collapse and establishment of equilibrium of adiabatic gas clouds restricted to axial symmetry. The clouds are initially uniform in density and rotation, with adiabatic exponents γ=5/3 and 7/5. The numerical technique allows, for the first time, a direct comparison to be made between the dynamic collapse and approach to equilibrium of unconstrained clouds on the one hand, and the results for incompressible, uniformly rotating equilibrium clouds, and the equilibrium structures of differentially rotating polytropes, on the other hand

  2. Keeping Score: Direct Student Lending. An Evaluation Prepared for the Iowa College Student Aid Commission and the Iowa Student Loan Liquidity Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, William

    This paper provides recommendations for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a demonstration program designed to assess direct lending as a replacement for the current federal student loan program. It offers a list of principles which the demonstration project should address. Recommendations include: (1) maintenance of student…

  3. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  4. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Fryer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  5. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.

  6. Keeping a Laboratory Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Since the keeping of good records is essential in the chemistry laboratory, general guidelines for maintaining a laboratory notebook are provided. Includes rationale for having entries documented or witnessed. (Author/JN)

  7. Scapholunate advanced collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Haller, J.; Resnick, D.

    1989-01-01

    Scapholunate advanced collapse 9SLAC) is a pattern of wrist malalignment (characterized mainly by radiocarpal abnormalities) that has been attributed to osteoarthritis. In order to determine the frequency of SLAC in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) disease, the authors have reviewed wrist radiographs in 190 cases of this disorder. Forty-two (22%) of these cases reveal wrist abnormalities typical of SLAC. Associated findings include bilateral alterations (63%), abnormal calcification (70%), scapholunate dissociation (70%), and additional compartmental arthropathies. The authors' results confirm that CPPD crystal deposition disease is a major cause of SLAC. They believe, therefore, that this pattern of malalignment is not specific for posttraumatic or spontaneous osteoarthritis of the wrist

  8. A collapsible shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Asadulin, Kh.F.; Maloiaroslavtsev, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Rastorquev, M.A.

    1980-08-15

    A collapsible shelter is proposed which includes a foundation, a framework with reinforced elements which form a roof, tie bolt elements which are riveted to the reinforced elements, and a railing; it is characterized by an arrangement whereby in order to simplify its construction and improve its reliability, the reinforced elements are detachable and are equipped with rigid connecting rods made of separate sections which are mounted to allow for movement via the reinforced elements; the connecting rod of each reinforcement element is connected to the connecting rod of the adjacent reinforced element using horizontal rods on which the shelter is secured. The shelter is made from separate planks.

  9. Timescales of isotropic and anisotropic cluster collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmann, M.; Ehlers, J.; Schneider, P.

    1993-12-01

    From a simple estimate for the formation time of galaxy clusters, Richstone et al. have recently concluded that the evidence for non-virialized structures in a large fraction of observed clusters points towards a high value for the cosmological density parameter Omega0. This conclusion was based on a study of the spherical collapse of density perturbations, assumed to follow a Gaussian probability distribution. In this paper, we extend their treatment in several respects: first, we argue that the collapse does not start from a comoving motion of the perturbation, but that the continuity equation requires an initial velocity perturbation directly related to the density perturbation. This requirement modifies the initial condition for the evolution equation and has the effect that the collapse proceeds faster than in the case where the initial velocity perturbation is set to zero; the timescale is reduced by a factor of up to approximately equal 0.5. Our results thus strengthens the conclusion of Richstone et al. for a high Omega0. In addition, we study the collapse of density fluctuations in the frame of the Zel'dovich approximation, using as starting condition the analytically known probability distribution of the eigenvalues of the deformation tensor, which depends only on the (Gaussian) width of the perturbation spectrum. Finally, we consider the anisotropic collapse of density perturbations dynamically, again with initial conditions drawn from the probability distribution of the deformation tensor. We find that in both cases of anisotropic collapse, in the Zel'dovich approximation and in the dynamical calculations, the resulting distribution of collapse times agrees remarkably well with the results from spherical collapse. We discuss this agreement and conclude that it is mainly due to the properties of the probability distribution for the eigenvalues of the Zel'dovich deformation tensor. Hence, the conclusions of Richstone et al. on the value of Omega0 can be

  10. Shearfree cylindrical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Santos, N. O.

    2009-01-01

    We consider diagonal cylindrically symmetric metrics, with an interior representing a general nonrotating fluid with anisotropic pressures. An exterior vacuum Einstein-Rosen spacetime is matched to this using Darmois matching conditions. We show that the matching conditions can be explicitly solved for the boundary values of metric components and their derivatives, either for the interior or exterior. Specializing to shearfree interiors, a static exterior can only be matched to a static interior, and the evolution in the nonstatic case is found to be given in general by an elliptic function of time. For a collapsing shearfree isotropic fluid, only a Robertson-Walker dust interior is possible, and we show that all such cases were included in Cocke's discussion. For these metrics, Nolan and Nolan have shown that the matching breaks down before collapse is complete, and Tod and Mena have shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the sense of Berger, Chrusciel, and Moncrief. The issues about energy that then arise are revisited, and it is shown that the exterior is not in an intrinsic gravitational or superenergy radiative state at the boundary.

  11. PREFACE: Collapse Calderas Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsmann, Jo; Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo

    2008-10-01

    Caldera-formation is one of the most awe-inspiring and powerful displays of nature's force. Resultant deposits may cover vast areas and significantly alter the immediate topography. Post-collapse activity may include resurgence, unrest, intra-caldera volcanism and potentially the start of a new magmatic cycle, perhaps eventually leading to renewed collapse. Since volcanoes and their eruptions are the surface manifestation of magmatic processes, calderas provide key insights into the generation and evolution of large-volume silicic magma bodies in the Earth's crust. Despite their potentially ferocious nature, calderas play a crucial role in modern society's life. Collapse calderas host essential economic deposits and supply power for many via the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs, and thus receive considerable scientific, economic and industrial attention. Calderas also attract millions of visitors world-wide with their spectacular scenic displays. To build on the outcomes of the 2005 calderas workshop in Tenerife (Spain) and to assess the most recent advances on caldera research, a follow-up meeting was proposed to be held in Mexico in 2008. This abstract volume presents contributions to the 2nd Calderas Workshop held at Hotel Misión La Muralla, Querétaro, Mexico, 19-25 October 2008. The title of the workshop `Reconstructing the evolution of collapse calderas: Magma storage, mobilisation and eruption' set the theme for five days of presentations and discussions, both at the venue as well as during visits to the surrounding calderas of Amealco, Amazcala and Huichapan. The multi-disciplinary workshop was attended by more than 40 scientist from North, Central and South America, Europe, Australia and Asia. Contributions covered five thematic topics: geology, geochemistry/petrology, structural analysis/modelling, geophysics, and hazards. The workshop was generously supported by the International Association of Volcanology and the Chemistry of The Earth's Interior

  12. Cylindrical collapse and gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, L [Escuela de FIsica, Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela (Venezuela); Santos, N O [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/FRE 2460 LERMA/ERGA, Tour 22-12, 4eme etage, BoIte 142, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, 25651-070 Petropolis RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2005-06-21

    We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non-zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time-dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation-though non-gravitational-in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.

  13. Completely quantized collapse and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearle, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Promotion of quantum theory from a theory of measurement to a theory of reality requires an unambiguous specification of the ensemble of realizable states (and each state's probability of realization). Although not yet achieved within the framework of standard quantum theory, it has been achieved within the framework of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. In CSL, a classical random field w(x,t) interacts with quantum particles. The state vector corresponding to each w(x,t) is a realizable state. In this paper, I consider a previously presented model, which is predictively equivalent to CSL. In this completely quantized collapse (CQC) model, the classical random field is quantized. It is represented by the operator W(x,t) which satisfies [W(x,t),W(x ' ,t ' )]=0. The ensemble of realizable states is described by a single state vector, the 'ensemble vector'. Each superposed state which comprises the ensemble vector at time t is the direct product of an eigenstate of W(x,t ' ), for all x and for 0≤t ' ≤t, and the CSL state corresponding to that eigenvalue. These states never interfere (they satisfy a superselection rule at any time), they only branch, so the ensemble vector may be considered to be, as Schroedinger put it, a 'catalog' of the realizable states. In this context, many different interpretations (e.g., many worlds, environmental decoherence, consistent histories, modal interpretation) may be satisfactorily applied. Using this description, a long-standing problem is resolved, where the energy comes from the particles gain due to the narrowing of their wave packets by the collapse mechanism. It is shown how to define the energy of the random field and its energy of interaction with particles so that total energy is conserved for the ensemble of realizable states. As a by-product, since the random-field energy spectrum is unbounded, its canonical conjugate, a self-adjoint time operator, can be discussed. Finally, CSL

  14. Keep your Sox on: Community genomics-directed isolation and microscopic characterization of the dominant subsurface sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in a sediment aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, S. W.; Wrighton, K. C.; Luef, B.; Wilkins, M. J.; Handley, K. M.; Williams, K. H.; Banfield, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Community genomics and proteomics (proteogenomics) can be used to predict the metabolic potential of complex microbial communities and provide insight into microbial activity and nutrient cycling in situ. Inferences regarding the physiology of specific organisms then can guide isolation efforts, which, if successful, can yield strains that can be metabolically and structurally characterized to further test metagenomic predictions. Here we used proteogenomic data from an acetate-stimulated, sulfidic sediment column deployed in a groundwater well in Rifle, CO to direct laboratory amendment experiments to isolate a bacterial strain potentially involved in sulfur oxidation for physiological and microscopic characterization (Handley et al, submitted 2012). Field strains of Sulfurovum (genome r9c2) were predicted to be capable of CO2 fixation via the reverse TCA cycle and sulfur oxidation (Sox and SQR) coupled to either nitrate reduction (Nap, Nir, Nos) in anaerobic environments or oxygen reduction in microaerobic (cbb3 and bd oxidases) environments; however, key genes for sulfur oxidation (soxXAB) were not identified. Sulfidic groundwater and sediment from the Rifle site were used to inoculate cultures that contained various sulfur species, with and without nitrate and oxygen. We isolated a bacterium, Sulfurovum sp. OBA, whose 16S rRNA gene shares 99.8 % identity to the gene of the dominant genomically characterized strain (genome r9c2) in the Rifle sediment column. The 16S rRNA gene of the isolate most closely matches (95 % sequence identity) the gene of Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1, a genome-sequenced deep-sea sulfur oxidizer. Strain OBA grew via polysulfide, colloidal sulfur, and tetrathionate oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Strain OBA also grew heterotrophically, oxidizing glucose, fructose, mannose, and maltose with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Over the range of oxygen concentrations tested, strain OBA was not

  15. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  16. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  17. Record Keeping Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  18. Keeping Plateaued Performers Motivated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLon, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of keeping library staff motivated when promotions are not available. Topics addressed include the importance of management training that emphasizes communication skills; alternative ways to help employees grow, including staff development programs, lateral transfers, job rotation, and short-term projects; and helpful…

  19. Keeping Track of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    A lack of consistent and accurate auditing and record keeping of district IT equipment can lead to confusion between administrative departments, including redundant purchases, transferred equipment being mislabeled as stolen, computers and other equipment simply being lost, or a variety of other scenarios. This had led to an increased demand for…

  20. Indicators of collapse in systems undergoing unsustainable growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Luca; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Unsustainable growth is typical of systems that rely on a finite pool of non-renewable resources that are tapped until they are depleted. The decrease in resource availability eventually leads these systems to a decline. Here we investigate the dynamics of systems that exhibit unsustainable growth and are prone to a collapse to an alternative ("degraded") state. For these systems the possible imminent occurrence of a collapse is difficult to avert because they keep growing as they approach the transition point. It is therefore important to identify some early warning signs that can be used to predict whether the system is approaching a critical and likely irreversible transition to an undesired and degraded state. This study evaluates whether existing theories of precursors of phase transitions based on the critical slowing down phenomenon are applicable as leading indicators of state shift in unsustainable growth dynamics. It is found that such indicators fail to serve as reliable early warning signs of the system's collapse.

  1. Langmuir field structures favored in wave collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.; Wouters, M.J.; Broderick, N.G.

    1996-01-01

    Study of Langmuir collapse thresholds shows that they have little polarization dependence and that moving packets have the lowest thresholds in the undamped case. However, incorporation of damping into the density response inhibits collapse of packets moving at more than a small fraction of the sound speed. Investigation of energy transfer to packets localized in density wells emdash the nucleation process emdash shows that at most a few trapped states can exist and that energy transfer is most effective when there is a single barely-trapped state. Coupled with an argument that closely packed wave packets have lower collapse thresholds, this argument yields an estimate of the number density of localized nucleating states in a turbulent plasma. It also leads to a simple and direct semiquantitative estimate of the collapse threshold. All these results are in accord with previous numerical simulations incorporating ion-sound damping, which show a preponderance of slow-moving or stationary packets with little or no intrinsic polarization dependence of thresholds. Likewise, the number densities obtained are in good agreement with simulation values, and the simple estimate of the threshold is semiquantitatively correct. The extent of the agreement supports the nucleation scenario with close-packed nucleation sites in the turbulent state. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Ph.; Rosenfeld, R.; Steer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity

  3. Spherical collapse in chameleon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Ph. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Rosenfeld, R. [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, 01140-070, São Paulo (Brazil); Steer, D.A., E-mail: brax@spht.saclay.cea.fr, E-mail: rosenfel@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: daniele.steer@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, UMR 7164, CNRS, Université Paris 7, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-08-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  4. Spherical Collapse in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Ph; Steer, D A

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity.

  5. Distributed Monitoring of Voltage Collapse Sensitivity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson-Porco, John W.; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of voltage stability margins is a promising direction for wide-area monitoring systems. Accurate monitoring architectures for long-term voltage instability are typically centralized and lack scalability, while completely decentralized approaches relying on local measurements tend towards inaccuracy. Here we present distributed linear algorithms for the online computation of voltage collapse sensitivity indices. The computations are collectively performed by processors embedded ...

  6. Hamiltonian treatment of the gravitational collapse of thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisostomo, Juan; Olea, Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    A Hamiltonian treatment of the gravitational collapse of thin shells is presented. The direct integration of the canonical constraints reproduces the standard shell dynamics for a number of known cases. The formalism is applied in detail to three-dimensional spacetime and the properties of the (2+1)-dimensional charged black hole collapse are further elucidated. The procedure is also extended to deal with rotating solutions in three dimensions. The general form of the equations providing the shell dynamics implies the stability of black holes, as they cannot be converted into naked singularities by any shell collapse process

  7. Collapse analysis of toroidal shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomares, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation

  8. Computational models of stellar collapse and core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Christian D; O'Connor, Evan; Schnetter, Erik; Loeffler, Frank; Burrows, Adam; Livne, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among Nature's most energetic events. They mark the end of massive star evolution and pollute the interstellar medium with the life-enabling ashes of thermonuclear burning. Despite their importance for the evolution of galaxies and life in the universe, the details of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism remain in the dark and pose a daunting computational challenge. We outline the multi-dimensional, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the core-collapse supernova problem and discuss computational strategies and requirements for its solution. Specifically, we highlight the axisymmetric (2D) radiation-MHD code VULCAN/2D and present results obtained from the first full-2D angle-dependent neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the post-core-bounce supernova evolution. We then go on to discuss the new code Zelmani which is based on the open-source HPC Cactus framework and provides a scalable AMR approach for 3D fully general-relativistic modeling of stellar collapse, core-collapse supernovae and black hole formation on current and future massively-parallel HPC systems. We show Zelmani's scaling properties to more than 16,000 compute cores and discuss first 3D general-relativistic core-collapse results.

  9. Computational models of stellar collapse and core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Christian D; O' Connor, Evan [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Schnetter, Erik; Loeffler, Frank [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Livne, Eli, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.ed [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2009-07-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among Nature's most energetic events. They mark the end of massive star evolution and pollute the interstellar medium with the life-enabling ashes of thermonuclear burning. Despite their importance for the evolution of galaxies and life in the universe, the details of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism remain in the dark and pose a daunting computational challenge. We outline the multi-dimensional, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the core-collapse supernova problem and discuss computational strategies and requirements for its solution. Specifically, we highlight the axisymmetric (2D) radiation-MHD code VULCAN/2D and present results obtained from the first full-2D angle-dependent neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the post-core-bounce supernova evolution. We then go on to discuss the new code Zelmani which is based on the open-source HPC Cactus framework and provides a scalable AMR approach for 3D fully general-relativistic modeling of stellar collapse, core-collapse supernovae and black hole formation on current and future massively-parallel HPC systems. We show Zelmani's scaling properties to more than 16,000 compute cores and discuss first 3D general-relativistic core-collapse results.

  10. The collapsed football pla yer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 265 ... FIFA Medical Officer and Honorary Part-time Lecturer, Wits Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Johannesburg .... Management of a collapsed player does not.

  11. Gravity induced wave function collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, G.; Toroš, M.; Donadi, S.; Bassi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Starting from an idea of S. L. Adler [in Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem, edited by M. Bell and S. Gao (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England 2016)], we develop a novel model of gravity induced spontaneous wave function collapse. The collapse is driven by complex stochastic fluctuations of the spacetime metric. After deriving the fundamental equations, we prove the collapse and amplification mechanism, the two most important features of a consistent collapse model. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, we constrain the strength ξ of the complex metric fluctuations with available experimental data. We show that ξ ≥10-26 in order for the model to guarantee classicality of macro-objects, and at the same time ξ ≤10-20 in order not to contradict experimental evidence. As a comparison, in the recent discovery of gravitational waves in the frequency range 35 to 250 Hz, the (real) metric fluctuations reach a peak of ξ ˜10-21.

  12. Collapse of large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, James

    2002-01-01

    In models of spacetime that are the product of a four-dimensional spacetime with an 'extra' dimension, there is the possibility that the extra dimension will collapse to zero size, forming a singularity. We ask whether this collapse is likely to destroy the spacetime. We argue, by an appeal to the four-dimensional cosmic censorship conjecture, that--at least in the case when the extra dimension is homogeneous--such a collapse will lead to a singularity hidden within a black string. We also construct explicit initial data for a spacetime in which such a collapse is guaranteed to occur and show how the formation of a naked singularity is likely avoided

  13. Stress evolution during caldera collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, E. P.; Schöpfer, M. P. J.; Walsh, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    The mechanics of caldera collapse are subject of long-running debate. Particular uncertainties concern how stresses around a magma reservoir relate to fracturing as the reservoir roof collapses, and how roof collapse in turn impacts upon the reservoir. We used two-dimensional Distinct Element Method models to characterise the evolution of stress around a depleting sub-surface magma body during gravity-driven collapse of its roof. These models illustrate how principal stress orientations rotate during progressive deformation so that roof fracturing transitions from initial reverse faulting to later normal faulting. They also reveal four end-member stress paths to fracture, each corresponding to a particular location within the roof. Analysis of these paths indicates that fractures associated with ultimate roof failure initiate in compression (i.e. as shear fractures). We also report on how mechanical and geometric conditions in the roof affect pre-failure unloading and post-failure reloading of the reservoir. In particular, the models show how residual friction within a failed roof could, without friction reduction mechanisms or fluid-derived counter-effects, inhibit a return to a lithostatically equilibrated pressure in the magma reservoir. Many of these findings should be transferable to other gravity-driven collapse processes, such as sinkhole formation, mine collapse and subsidence above hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  14. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  15. Let's keep in touch

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The GS, IT and PH Departments are currently finalising the installation of a new digital radio communication system. Known as TETRA, the system has been specially designed to meet emergency communication needs and will be used by the CERN Fire Brigade from next January.   A delicate operation: one of the three radio antennae of the TETRA communication system is installed on top of the water tower on the Meyrin site. Photo: Anthony Grossir. A blurred image followed by a blank screen. Marc has collapsed while carrying out maintenance work on technical equipment. It's 6.00 a.m., he's on his own and there's little chance of the firemen being alerted in time to save him. This scenario, although already unlikely today, will be impossible with the arrival of the new TETRA communication system. TETRA is a digital radio communication system already in service in many fire brigades across Europe. It will soon be used by the CERN Fire Brigade, as well as by hundreds of CERN pers...

  16. Magnetic tension and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsagas, Christos G

    2006-01-01

    The gravitational collapse of a magnetized medium is investigated by studying qualitatively the convergence of a timelike family of non-geodesic worldlines in the presence of a magnetic field. Focusing on the field's tension, we illustrate how the winding of the magnetic forcelines due to the fluid's rotation assists the collapse, while shear-like distortions in the distribution of the field's gradients resist contraction. We also show that the relativistic coupling between magnetism and geometry, together with the tension properties of the field, lead to a magneto-curvature stress that opposes the collapse. This tension stress grows stronger with increasing curvature distortion, which means that it could potentially dominate over the gravitational pull of the matter. If this happens, a converging family of non-geodesic worldlines can be prevented from focusing without violating the standard energy conditions

  17. Collapse of nonlinear Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion of sufficiently intensive Langmuir waves is determined by intrinsic (electron) nonlinearity. During Langmuir collapse the wave energy density required for the appearance of electron nonlinearity is attained, generally speaking, prior to the development of dissipative processes. Up to now, the effect of electron nonlinearity on the collapse dynamics and spectrum of strong Langmuir turbulence ( which may be very appreciable ) has not been studied extensively because of the difficulty of describing nonlinear Langmuir waves. In the present paper the positive determinacy of the electron nonlinear hamiltonian is proven, the increment of modulation instability of a nonlinear Langmuir wave cluster localized in a cavity is calculated, and the universal law of their collapse is found

  18. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, M.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Lee, C.-T.; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of core-collapse supernovae continues to improve as better microphysics is included in increasingly realistic neutrino-radiationhydrodynamic simulations. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors between 12 and 25 solar mass, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progresses on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  19. Electron capture and stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    In order, to investigate the function of electron capture in the phenomenon of pre-supernovae gravitacional collapse, an hydrodynamic caculation was carried out, coupling capture, decay and nuclear reaction equation system. A star simplified model (homogeneous model) was adopted using fermi ideal gas approximation for tthe sea of free electrons and neutrons. The non simplified treatment from quasi-static evolution to collapse is presented. The capture and beta decay rates, as wellas neutron delayed emission, were calculated by beta decay crude theory, while the other reaction rates were determined by usual theories. The preliminary results are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Moduli destabilization via gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Pedro, Francisco G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-06-15

    We examine the interplay between gravitational collapse and moduli stability in the context of black hole formation. We perform numerical simulations of the collapse using the double null formalism and show that the very dense regions one expects to find in the process of black hole formation are able to destabilize the volume modulus. We establish that the effects of the destabilization will be visible to an observer at infinity, opening up a window to a region in spacetime where standard model's couplings and masses can differ significantly from their background values.

  1. Field Experiment on Soaking Characteristics of Collapsible Loess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In collapsible loess area, migration of soil moisture often causes the temporal discontinuity and spatial nonuniformity of collapsibility, which leads to great damage for infrastructures. Therefore, the research on water infiltration is the key to solving the problem of collapsibility. The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of infiltration characteristics of collapsible loess. A field soaking experiment was conducted on collapsible loess in western China, in which a soaking pool with diameter of 15 m was built. Time-Domain-Reflectometry (TDR system and soil sampling were employed to measure the water content within the depth of 12 m. Then the saturation isograms were drawn for visualization of the process of infiltration. Also, a pilot tunnel was excavated to investigate how the free face can affect the infiltration behaviors. The experimental results revealed the characteristics of infiltration in both horizontal and vertical directions. Moreover, the response of free face on infiltration behaviors was also found. These findings of research could provide the data for the infiltration laws of unsaturated loess and thereby provide the basis for integrated treatment of collapsible loess.

  2. Correlated random walks induced by dynamical wavefunction collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedingham, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Wavefunction collapse models modify Schrödinger's equation so that it describes the collapse of a superposition of macroscopically distinguishable states as a genuine physical process [PRA 42, 78 (1990)]. This provides a basis for the resolution of the quantum measurement problem. An additional generic consequence of the collapse mechanism is that it causes particles to exhibit a tiny random diffusive motion. Furthermore, the diffusions of two sufficiently nearby particles are positively correlated -- it is more likely that the particles diffuse in the same direction than would happen if they behaved independently [PRA 89, 032713 (2014)]. The use of this effect is proposed as an experimental test of wave function collapse models in which pairs of nanoparticles are simultaneously released from nearby traps and allowed a brief period of free fall. The random displacements of the particles are then measured. The experiment must be carried out at sufficiently low temperature and pressure for the collapse effects to dominate over the ambient environmental noise. It is argued that these constraints can be satisfied by current technologies for a large class of viable wavefunction collapse models. Work supported by the Templeton World Charity Foundation.

  3. Temperature evolution during dissipative collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the gravitational collapse of a radiating sphere evolving into a final static configuration described by the interior Schwarzschild solution. The temperature profiles of this par- ticular model are obtained within the framework of causal thermodynamics. The overall temperature evolution is enhanced by ...

  4. Numerical investigations of gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI, Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1121 (Hungary)

    2010-03-01

    Some properties of a new framework for simulating generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitating systems are discussed. The framework can be used to investigate spacetimes that undergo complete gravitational collapse. The analytic setup is chosen to ensure that our numerical method is capable to follow the time evolution everywhere, including the black hole region.

  5. On the Induced Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Becerra Laura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm has been applied to explain the long gamma ray burst (GRB associated with type Ic supernova, and recently the Xray flashes (XRFs. The progenitor is a binary systems of a carbon-oxygen core (CO and a neutron star (NS. The CO core collapses and undergoes a supernova explosion which triggers the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion (up to 10-2 M⊙s-1. For the binary driven hypernova (BdHNe, the binary system is enough bound, the NS reach its critical mass, and collapse to a black hole (BH with a GRB emission characterized by an isotropic energy Eiso > 1052 erg. Otherwise, for binary systems with larger binary separations, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS is not sufficient to induced its gravitational collapse, a X-ray flash is produced with Eiso < 1052 erg. We’re going to focus in identify the binary parameters that limits the BdHNe systems with the XRFs systems.

  6. Transport in the Sawtooth Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.; Gill, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The rapid temperature collapse in tokamak sawtooth oscillations having incomplete magnetic reconnection is generally thought to occur through ergodization of the magnetic field. An experiment in JET using injected nickel indicates that this explanation is improbable. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Thermal duality and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Thermal duality is a relationship between the behaviour of heterotic string models of the E(8)×E(8) or SO(32) types at inversely related temperatures, a variant of T duality in the Euclidean regime. This duality would have consequences for the nature of the Hagedorn transition in these string models. We propose that the vacuum admits a family of deformations in situations where there are closed surfaces of constant area but high radial acceleration (a string regularized version of a Penrose trapped surface), such as would be formed in situations of extreme gravitational collapse. This would allow a radical resolution of the firewall paradox by allowing quantum effects to significantly modify the spacetime geometry around a collapsed object. A string bremsstrahlung process would convert the kinetic energy of infalling matter in extreme gravitational collapse to form a region of the deformed vacuum, which would be equivalent to forming a high temperature string phase. A heuristic criterion for the conversion process is presented, relating Newtonian gravity to the string tension, suggesting an upper limit to the strength of the gravitational interaction. This conversion process might have observable consequences for charged particles falling into a rotating collapsed object by producing high energy particles via a variant of the Penrose process. (paper)

  8. Collapse of simple harmonic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Graham et al constructed oscillating and static universe models which are stable with respect to all classical perturbations. Here we show that such universes are quantum-mechanically unstable and can collapse by quantum tunneling to zero radius. We also present instantons describing nucleation of oscillating and static universes from nothing

  9. Critical Effects in Gravitational Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmaj, T.

    2000-01-01

    The models of gravitational collapse of a dynamical system are investigated by means of the Einstein equations. Different types conjunctions to gravitational field are analyzed and it is shown that in the case of week scalar field (low energy density) the system evaluated to flat space while in the case of strong field (high energy density) to black hole

  10. Thermal conduction and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Jimenez, J.; Esculpi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres, reported some years ago by Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri, is extended to the case in which thermal conduction within the sphere is taken into account. By means of an explicit example it is shown that heat flow, if present, may play an important role, affecting the final outcome of collapse

  11. Origami-inspired, on-demand deployable and collapsible mechanical metamaterials with tunable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zirui; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Hanqing

    2018-03-01

    Origami has been employed to build deployable mechanical metamaterials through folding and unfolding along the crease lines. Deployable metamaterials are usually flexible, particularly along their deploying and collapsing directions, which unfortunately in many cases leads to an unstable deployed state, i.e., small perturbations may collapse the structure along the same deployment path. Here we create an origami-inspired mechanical metamaterial with on-demand deployability and selective collapsibility through energy analysis. This metamaterial has autonomous deployability from the collapsed state and can be selectively collapsed along two different paths, embodying low stiffness for one path and substantially high stiffness for another path. The created mechanical metamaterial yields load-bearing capability in the deployed direction while possessing great deployability and collapsibility. The principle in this work can be utilized to design and create versatile origami-inspired mechanical metamaterials that can find many applications.

  12. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  13. Keeping Up: Personal Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolls, Blanche

    2009-01-01

    Some essential components of "keeping current" with trends and new developments in the school library field for library media specialists includes attending conferences and reading professional literature. Beginning in May 2007, one article on "keeping up" each year has been devoted to summarizing the major themes in conferences and professional…

  14. Modelling of cladding creep collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koundy, V.; Forgeron, T.; Hivroz, J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the initial ovality and pressure level on the collapse time of Zircaloy-4 tubing subjected to uniform external pressure were examined experimentally and analytically. Experiments were performed on end closed tubes with two metallurgical states: stress relieved and recrystallized. Numerical simulations were accomplished with a specific computer program based on an analytical approach and the calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. As a comparison, the finite element method is also partially examined in this analysis. Numerical collapse times are in good agreement with regard to experimental results in the case of stress relieved structure. They seem to be too conservative in the case of a recrystallized metallurgical state and the use of the anisotropic option ameliorates numerical results. Sensibility of numerical solutions to the formulation of primary creep laws are presented

  15. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  16. Critical behavior of collapsing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Sourdis, C.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the mean curvature evolution of rotationally symmetric surfaces. Using numerical methods, we detect critical behavior at the threshold of singularity formation resembling that of gravitational collapse. In particular, the mean curvature simulation of a one-parameter family of initial...... data reveals the existence of a critical initial surface that develops a degenerate neckpinch. The limiting flow of the type II singularity is accurately modeled by the rotationally symmetric translating soliton....

  17. Soliton collapse during ionospheric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheerin, J.P.; Nicholson, D.R.; Payne, G.L.; Duncan, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    We present analytical and numerical work which indicates that during ionospheric heating with high-powered hf radio waves, the oscillating two-stream instability may dominate the parametric decay instability. The oscillating two-stream instability saturates nonlinearly through the formation of solitons which undergo a collisionally damped collapse. Using the heater and radar facilities at Arecibo Observatory, we have investigated this phenomenon experimentally. Recent results from our theoretical and experimental investigations are presented

  18. Collapse Mechanisms Of Masonry Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccaro, G.; Rauci, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines a possible approach to typology recognition, safety check analyses and/or damage measuring taking advantage by a multimedia tool (MEDEA), tracing a guided procedure useful for seismic safety check evaluation and post event macroseismic assessment. A list of the possible collapse mechanisms observed in the post event surveys on masonry structures and a complete abacus of the damages are provided in MEDEA. In this tool a possible combination between a set of damage typologies and each collapse mechanism is supplied in order to improve the homogeneity of the damages interpretation. On the other hand recent researches of one of the author have selected a number of possible typological vulnerability factors of masonry buildings, these are listed in the paper and combined with potential collapse mechanisms to be activated under seismic excitation. The procedure takes place from simple structural behavior models, derived from the Umbria-Marche earthquake observations, and tested after the San Giuliano di Puglia event; it provides the basis either for safety check analyses of the existing buildings or for post-event structural safety assessment and economic damage evaluation. In the paper taking advantage of MEDEA mechanisms analysis, mainly developed for the post event safety check surveyors training, a simple logic path is traced in order to approach the evaluation of the masonry building safety check. The procedure starts from the identification of the typological vulnerability factors to derive the potential collapse mechanisms and their collapse multipliers and finally addresses the simplest and cheapest strengthening techniques to reduce the original vulnerability. The procedure has been introduced in the Guide Lines of the Regione Campania for the professionals in charge of the safety check analyses and the buildings strengthening in application of the national mitigation campaign introduced by the Ordinance of the Central Government n. 3362

  19. HIERARCHICAL GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION. I. COLLAPSING CORES WITHIN COLLAPSING CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo-Romero, Raúl; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Loughnane, Robert M. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán, 58089, México (Mexico)

    2015-11-20

    We investigate the Hierarchical Gravitational Fragmentation scenario through numerical simulations of the prestellar stages of the collapse of a marginally gravitationally unstable isothermal sphere immersed in a strongly gravitationally unstable, uniform background medium. The core developes a Bonnor–Ebert (BE)-like density profile, while at the time of singularity (the protostar) formation the envelope approaches a singular-isothermal-sphere (SIS)-like r{sup −2} density profile. However, these structures are never hydrostatic. In this case, the central flat region is characterized by an infall speed, while the envelope is characterized by a uniform speed. This implies that the hydrostatic SIS initial condition leading to Shu's classical inside-out solution is not expected to occur, and therefore neither should the inside-out solution. Instead, the solution collapses from the outside-in, naturally explaining the observation of extended infall velocities. The core, defined by the radius at which it merges with the background, has a time-variable mass, and evolves along the locus of the ensemble of observed prestellar cores in a plot of M/M{sub BE} versus M, where M is the core's mass and M{sub BE} is the critical BE mass, spanning the range from the “stable” to the “unstable” regimes, even though it is collapsing at all times. We conclude that the presence of an unstable background allows a core to evolve dynamically from the time when it first appears, even when it resembles a pressure-confined, stable BE-sphere. The core can be thought of as a ram-pressure confined BE-sphere, with an increasing mass due to the accretion from the unstable background.

  20. Black hole formation in perfect fluid collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S

    2004-01-01

    We construct here a special class of perfect fluid collapse models which generalizes the homogeneous dust collapse solution in order to include nonzero pressures and inhomogeneities into evolution. It is shown that a black hole is necessarily generated as the end product of continued gravitational collapse, rather than a naked singularity. We examine the nature of the central singularity forming as a result of endless collapse and it is shown that no nonspacelike trajectories can escape from the central singularity. Our results provide some insights into how the dynamical collapse works and into the possible formulations of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, which is as yet a major unsolved problem in black hole physics

  1. Collapse of a cavitation bubble near a free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, G.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction between a collapsing bubble and a free surface is investigated theoretically and experimentally using high speed photography. A limiting value for the distance from the free surface to the center of the bubble reported to its radius is found. Under this limit the free surface is not disturbed during the collapse, in the first approximation. Only in this case, the method of images can be used and the free surface be replaced by an image-source, symmetrical with respect to the free surface to the sink representing the bubble. Above this limit, observations show a singular perturbation in the free surface with the formation of a thin spike directed to the air. In all cases the bubble is repelled from the free surface and the re-entering jet, formed during collapse, is oriented away from it [fr

  2. Protostellar formation in rotation interstellar clouds. III. Nonaxisymmetric collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A full three spatial-dimension gravitational hydrodynamics code has been used to follow the collapse of isothermal rotating clouds subjected to various nonaxialy symmetric perturbations (NAP). An initially axially symmetric cloud collapsed to form a ring which then fragmented into a binary protostellar system. A low thermal energy cloud with a large bar-shaped NAP collapsed and fragmented directly into a binary; higher thermal energy clouds damp out such NAPs while higher rotational rotational energy clouds produce binaries with wider separations. Fragmentation into single and binary systems has been seen. The tidal effects of other nearby protostellar clouds are shown to have an important effect upon the collapse and should not be neglected. The three-dimensional calculations indicate that isothermal interstellar clouds may fragment (with or without passing through a transitory ring phase) into protostellar objects while still in the isothermal regime. The fragments obtained have masses and specific spin angular momenta roughly a 10th that of the original cloud. Interstellar clouds and their fragments may pass through successive collapse phases with fragmentation and reduction of spin angular momentum (by conversion to orbital angular momentum and preferential accretion of low angular momentum matter) terminating in the formation of pre--main-sequence stars with the observed pre--main-sequence rotation rates

  3. Collapsing stage of 'bosonic matter'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukian, E.B.; Muthaporn, C.; Sirininlakul, S.

    2006-01-01

    We prove rigorously that for 'bosonic matter', if deflation occurs upon collapse as more and more such matter is put together, then for a non-vanishing probability of having the negatively charged particles, with Coulomb interactions, within a sphere of radius R, the latter necessarily cannot decrease faster than N -1/3 for large N, where N denotes the number of the negatively charged particles. This is in clear distinction with matter (i.e., matter with the exclusion principle) which inflates and R necessarily increases not any slower than N 1/3 for large N

  4. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  5. Stellar core collapse and supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Mayle, R.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.

    1985-04-01

    Massive stars that end their stable evolution as their iron cores collapse to a neutron star or black hole long been considered good candidates for producing Type II supernovae. For many years the outward propagation of the shock wave produced by the bounce of these iron cores has been studied as a possible mechanism for the explosion. For the most part, the results of these studies have not been particularly encouraging, except, perhaps, in the case of very low mass iron cores or very soft nuclear equations of state. The shock stalls, overwhelmed by photodisintegration and neutrino losses, and the star does not explode. More recently, slow late time heating of the envelope of the incipient neutron star has been found to be capable of rejuvenating the stalled shock and producing an explosion after all. The present paper discusses this late time heating and presents results from numerical calculations of the evolution, core collapse, and subsequent explosion of a number of recent stellar models. For the first time they all, except perhaps the most massive, explode with reasonable choices of input physics. 39 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  6. Collapsing stellar cores and supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, R J [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noorgaard, H [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Bond, J R [Niels Bohr Institutet, Copenhagen (Denmark); California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.)

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of a stellar core is studied during its final quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The core structure and the (poorly known) properties of neutron rich matter are parametrized to include most plausible cases. It is found that the density-temperature trajectory of the material in the central part of the core (the core-center) is insensitive to nearly all reasonable parameter variations. The central density at the onset of the dynamic phase of the collapse (when the core-center begins to fall away from the rest of the star) and the fraction of the emitted neutrinos which are trapped in the collapsing core-center depend quite sensitively on the properties of neutron rich matter. We estimate that the amount of energy Ecm which is imparted to the core-mantle by the neutrinos which escape from the imploded core-center can span a large range of values. For plausible choices of nuclear and model parameters Ecm can be large enough to yield a supernova event.

  7. Keeping Noise Down on the Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do > Keeping Noise Down on the Farm Keeping Noise Down on the Farm SHARE Some people may ... risks permanent hearing damage. Take steps to reduce noise from machinery. Keep machinery running smoothly by replacing ...

  8. Earthquakes as collapse precursors at the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelbeeck, Thierry; Quinif, Yves; Verheyden, Sophie; Vanneste, Kris; Knuts, Elisabeth

    2018-05-01

    Collapse activation is an ongoing process in the evolution of karstic networks related to the weakening of cave vaults. Because collapses are infrequent, few have been directly observed, making it challenging to evaluate the role of external processes in their initiation and triggering. Here, we study the two most recent collapses in the Dôme chamber of the Han-sur-Lesse Cave (Belgian Ardenne) that occurred on or shortly after 3rd December 1828 and between the 13th and 14th of March 1984. Because of the low probability that the two earthquakes that generated the strongest ground motions in Han-sur-Lesse since 1800, on 23rd February 1828 (Mw = 5.1 in Central Belgium) and 8th November 1983 (Mw = 4.8 in Liège) occurred by coincidence less than one year before these collapses, we suggest that the collapses are related to these earthquakes. We argue that the earthquakes accelerated the cave vault instability, leading to the collapses by the action of other factors weakening the host rock. In particular, the 1828 collapse was likely triggered by a smaller Mw = 4.2 nearby earthquake. The 1984 collapse followed two months of heavy rainfall that would have increased water infiltration and pressure in the rock mass favoring destabilization of the cave ceiling. Lamina counting of a stalagmite growing on the 1828 debris dates the collapse at 1826 ± 9 CE, demonstrating the possibility of dating previous collapses with a few years of uncertainty. Furthermore, our study opens new perspectives for studying collapses and their chronology both in the Han-sur-Lesse Cave and in other karstic networks. We suggest that earthquake activity could play a stronger role than previously thought in initiating cave collapses.

  9. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  10. Collapse models with non-white noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L; Bassi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    We set up a general formalism for models of spontaneous wavefunction collapse with dynamics represented by a stochastic differential equation driven by general Gaussian noises, not necessarily white in time. In particular, we show that the non-Schroedinger terms of the equation induce the collapse of the wavefunction to one of the common eigenstates of the collapsing operators, and that the collapse occurs with the correct quantum probabilities. We also develop a perturbation expansion of the solution of the equation with respect to the parameter which sets the strength of the collapse process; such an approximation allows one to compute the leading-order terms for the deviations of the predictions of collapse models with respect to those of standard quantum mechanics. This analysis shows that to leading order, the 'imaginary noise' trick can be used for non-white Gaussian noise

  11. Spherical dust collapse in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2004-01-01

    We consider here whether it is possible to recover cosmic censorship when a transition is made to higher-dimensional spacetimes, by studying the spherically symmetric dust collapse in an arbitrary higher spacetime dimension. It is pointed out that if only black holes are to result as the end state of a continual gravitational collapse, several conditions must be imposed on the collapsing configuration, some of which may appear to be restrictive, and we need to study carefully if these can be suitably motivated physically in a realistic collapse scenario. It would appear, that, in a generic higher-dimensional dust collapse, both black holes and naked singularities would develop as end states as indicated by the results here. The mathematical approach developed here generalizes and unifies the earlier available results on higher-dimensional dust collapse as we point out. Further, the dependence of black hole or naked singularity end states as collapse outcomes on the nature of the initial data from which the collapse develops is brought out explicitly and in a transparent manner as we show here. Our method also allows us to consider here in some detail the genericity and stability aspects related to the occurrence of naked singularities in gravitational collapse

  12. Geophysical Processes - MO 2013 Collapse Potential (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Collapse potential correlates with locations of underground mines and sinkholes. Computer-generated hazard calculations include areas in close proximity to mines and...

  13. Spherically symmetric radiation in gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridy, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates a previously neglected mode by which a star may lose energy in the late stages of gravitational collapse to the black hole state. A model consisting of a Schwarzschild exterior matched to a Friedman interior of collapsing pressureless dust is studied. The matter of the collapsing star is taken as the source of a massive vector boson field and a detailed boundary value problem is carried out. Vector mesons are strongly coupled to all nucleons and will be radiated by ordinary matter during the collapse. The time dependent coupling between interior and exterior modes matched across the moving boundary of the collapsing star and the presence of the gravitational fields and their gradients in the field equations may give rise to a parametric amplification mechanism and permit the gravitational field to pump energy into the boson field, greatly enhancing the amount of boson radiation. The significance of a radiative mechanism driven by collapse is that it can react back upon the collapsing source and deprive it of some of the very mass that drives the collapse via its self gravitation. If the mass loss is great enough, this may provide a mechanism to slow or even halt gravitational collapse in some cases

  14. Understand rotating isothermal collapses yet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohline, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A scalar virial equation is used to describe the dynamic properties of equilibrium gas clouds, taking into account the relative effects of surface pressure, rotation, self gravity and internal isothermal pressure. Details concerning the internal structure of the clouds are ignored in order to obtain a globalized analytical expression. The obtained solution to the equation is found to agree with the surface-pressure-dominated model of Stahler (1983), and the rotation-dominated model of Hayashi, Narita, and Miyama (1982). On the basis of the analytical expression of virial equilibrium in the clouds, some of the limiting properties of isothermal clouds are described, and a realistic starting model for cloud collapse is proposed. 18 references

  15. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...

  16. An axisymmetric gravitational collapse code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choptuik, Matthew W [CIAR Cosmology and Gravity Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hirschmann, Eric W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84604 (United States); Liebling, Steven L [Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968 (United States); Pretorius, Frans [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2003-05-07

    We present a new numerical code designed to solve the Einstein field equations for axisymmetric spacetimes. The long-term goal of this project is to construct a code that will be capable of studying many problems of interest in axisymmetry, including gravitational collapse, critical phenomena, investigations of cosmic censorship and head-on black-hole collisions. Our objective here is to detail the (2+1)+1 formalism we use to arrive at the corresponding system of equations and the numerical methods we use to solve them. We are able to obtain stable evolution, despite the singular nature of the coordinate system on the axis, by enforcing appropriate regularity conditions on all variables and by adding numerical dissipation to hyperbolic equations.

  17. An axisymmetric gravitational collapse code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choptuik, Matthew W; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Pretorius, Frans

    2003-01-01

    We present a new numerical code designed to solve the Einstein field equations for axisymmetric spacetimes. The long-term goal of this project is to construct a code that will be capable of studying many problems of interest in axisymmetry, including gravitational collapse, critical phenomena, investigations of cosmic censorship and head-on black-hole collisions. Our objective here is to detail the (2+1)+1 formalism we use to arrive at the corresponding system of equations and the numerical methods we use to solve them. We are able to obtain stable evolution, despite the singular nature of the coordinate system on the axis, by enforcing appropriate regularity conditions on all variables and by adding numerical dissipation to hyperbolic equations

  18. Racing to keep up; Aufholjagd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, Johannes

    2011-10-31

    In the summer of 2010, Manz AG presented a turnkey concept for production of thin film modules of copper-indium-gallium diselenide. The producer then had to make amends in view of the dramatic price drop. Thin film modules of micromorphous silicon have problems to keep up.

  19. The Collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An account of the factors that led to the collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' economy in 2008 and an explanation of the political effects and implications for Irish identity.......An account of the factors that led to the collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' economy in 2008 and an explanation of the political effects and implications for Irish identity....

  20. Non explosive collapse of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Schatzmann, E.

    1976-01-01

    We show that if a sufficiently cold carbon-oxygen white dwarf, close to the critical mass, accretes matter from a companion in a binary system, the time scale of collapse is long enough to allow neutronization before the onset of pycnonuclear reactions. This can possibly lead to the formation of X-ray sources by a non explosive collapse. (orig.) [de

  1. Homoclinic phenomena in the gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiller, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Soares, I.D.

    1984-01-01

    A class of Bianchi IX cosmological models is shown to have chaotic gravitational collapse, due to Poincare's homoclinic phenomena. Such models can be programmed so that for any given positive integer N (N=infinity included) the universe undergoes N non-periodic oscillations (each oscillation requiring a long time) before collapsing. For N=infinity the universe undergoes periodic oscillations. (Author) [pt

  2. On the collapse of iron stellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkat, Z.; Rakavy, G.; Reiss, Y.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The collapse of iron stellar cores is investigated to see whether the outward shock produced by the bounce at neutron star density is sufficient to burn appreciable amounts of the envelope around the iron core. Several models were tried, and in all cases no appreciable burn took place; hence no explosion results from the collapse of these models

  3. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  4. Collapse of Electrostatic Waves in Magnetoplasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Yu, M. Y.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1984-01-01

    The two-fluid model is employed to investigate the collapse of electrostatic waves in magnetized plasmas. It is found that nonlinear interaction of ion cyclotron, upper-, and lower-hybrid waves with adiabatic particle motion along the external magnetic field can cause wave-field collapse....

  5. Sharper criteria for the wave collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Rypdal, K.

    1995-01-01

    Sharper criteria for three-dimensional wave collapse described by the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (NLSE) are derived. The collapse threshold corresponds to the ground state soliton which is known to be unstable. Thus, for nonprefocusing distributions this represents the separatrix between...

  6. Contagious cooperation, temptation, and ecosystem collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, A.; van Soest, D.P.; Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Real world observations suggest that social norms of cooperation can be effective in overcoming social dilemmas such as the joint management of a common pool resource—but also that they can be subject to slow erosion and sudden collapse. We show that these patterns of erosion and collapse emerge

  7. Fire-induced collapses of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondera, Alexandru; Giuliani, Luisa

    Single-story steel buildings such as car parks and industrial halls are often characterised by stiff beams and flexible columns and may experience an outward (sway) collapse during a fire, endangering people and properties outside the building. It is therefore a current interest of the research...... to investigate the collapse behaviour of single-story steel frames and identify relevant structural characteristics that influence the collapse mode. In this paper, a parametric study on the collapse a steel beam-column assembly with beam hinged connection and fixed column support is carried out under...... on the beam. By means of those tables, a simple method for the assessment and the countermeasure of unsafe collapse mode of single-story steel buildings can be derived....

  8. Granular Silo collapse: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Eric; Gutierriez, Gustavo; Boltenhagen, Philippe; Lanuza, Jose

    2008-03-01

    We present an experimental work that develop some basic insight into the pre-buckling behavior and the buckling transition toward plastic collapse of a granular silo. We study different patterns of deformation generated on thin paper cylindrical shells during granular discharge. We study the collapse threshold for different bed height, flow rates and grain sizes. We compare the patterns that appear during the discharge of spherical beads, with those obtained in the axially compressed cylindrical shells. When the height of the granular column is close to the collapse threshold, we describe a ladder like pattern that rises around the cylinder surface in a spiral path of diamond shaped localizations, and develops into a plastic collapsing fold that grows around the collapsing silo.

  9. Research on Collapse Process of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Strong Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the collapse process and failure mechanism of long-span cable-stayed bridges under strong seismic excitations, a rail-cum-road steel truss cable-stayed bridge was selected as engineering background, the collapse failure numerical model of the cable-stayed bridge was established based on the explicit dynamic finite element method (FEM, and the whole collapse process of the cable-stayed bridge was analyzed and studied with three different seismic waves acted in the horizontal longitudinal direction, respectively. It can be found from the numerical simulation analysis that the whole collapse failure process and failure modes of the cable-stayed bridge under three different seismic waves are similar. Furthermore, the piers and the main pylons are critical components contributing to the collapse of the cable-stayed bridge structure. However, the cables and the main girder are damaged owing to the failure of piers and main pylons during the whole structure collapse process, so the failure of cable and main girder components is not the main reason for the collapse of cable-stayed bridge. The analysis results can provide theoretical basis for collapse resistance design and the determination of critical damage components of long-span highway and railway cable-stayed bridges in the research of seismic vulnerability analysis.

  10. Systematic thermal reduction of neutronization in core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantina, A.F.; Donati, P.; Pizzochero, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate to what extent the temperature dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy can affect the neutronization of the stellar core prior to neutrino trapping during gravitational collapse. To this end, we implement a one-zone simulation to follow the collapse until β-equilibrium is reached and the lepton fraction remains constant. Since the strength of electron capture on the neutron-rich nuclei associated to the supernova scenario is still an open issue, we keep it as a free parameter. We find that the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy consistently yields a small reduction of deleptonization, which corresponds to a systematic effect on the shock wave energetics: the gain in dissociation energy of the shock has a small yet non-negligible value of about 0.4 foe (1 foe=10 51 erg) and this result is almost independent from the strength of nuclear electron capture. The presence of such a systematic effect and its robustness under changes of the parameters of the one-zone model are significant enough to justify further investigations with detailed numerical simulations of supernova explosions.

  11. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a

  12. The covariant entropy bound in gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Sijie; Lemos, Jose P. S.

    2004-01-01

    We study the covariant entropy bound in the context of gravitational collapse. First, we discuss critically the heuristic arguments advanced by Bousso. Then we solve the problem through an exact model: a Tolman-Bondi dust shell collapsing into a Schwarzschild black hole. After the collapse, a new black hole with a larger mass is formed. The horizon, L, of the old black hole then terminates at the singularity. We show that the entropy crossing L does not exceed a quarter of the area of the old horizon. Therefore, the covariant entropy bound is satisfied in this process. (author)

  13. On the quantum corrected gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Ramón; Fayos, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previously found general class of quantum improved exact solutions composed of non-interacting (dust) particles, we model the gravitational collapse of stars. As the modeled star collapses a closed apparent 3-horizon is generated due to the consideration of quantum effects. The effect of the subsequent emission of Hawking radiation related to this horizon is taken into consideration. Our computations lead us to argue that a total evaporation could be reached. The inferred global picture of the spacetime corresponding to gravitational collapse is devoid of both event horizons and shell-focusing singularities. As a consequence, there is no information paradox and no need of firewalls

  14. On the quantum corrected gravitational collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Torres

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a previously found general class of quantum improved exact solutions composed of non-interacting (dust particles, we model the gravitational collapse of stars. As the modeled star collapses a closed apparent 3-horizon is generated due to the consideration of quantum effects. The effect of the subsequent emission of Hawking radiation related to this horizon is taken into consideration. Our computations lead us to argue that a total evaporation could be reached. The inferred global picture of the spacetime corresponding to gravitational collapse is devoid of both event horizons and shell-focusing singularities. As a consequence, there is no information paradox and no need of firewalls.

  15. On the quantum corrected gravitational collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ramón; Fayos, Francesc

    2015-07-01

    Based on a previously found general class of quantum improved exact solutions composed of non-interacting (dust) particles, we model the gravitational collapse of stars. As the modeled star collapses a closed apparent 3-horizon is generated due to the consideration of quantum effects. The effect of the subsequent emission of Hawking radiation related to this horizon is taken into consideration. Our computations lead us to argue that a total evaporation could be reached. The inferred global picture of the spacetime corresponding to gravitational collapse is devoid of both event horizons and shell-focusing singularities. As a consequence, there is no information paradox and no need of firewalls.

  16. Galileon radiation from a spherical collapsing shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-García, Javier [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 15, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á. [Instituto Universitario de Física Fundamental y Matemáticas (IUFFyM),Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2017-01-17

    Galileon radiation in the collapse of a thin spherical shell of matter is analyzed. In the framework of a cubic Galileon theory, we compute the field profile produced at large distances by a short collapse, finding that the radiated field has two peaks traveling ahead of light fronts. The total energy radiated during the collapse follows a power law scaling with the shell’s physical width and results from two competing effects: a Vainshtein suppression of the emission and an enhancement due to the thinness of the shell.

  17. A collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal shale gas wells with multiple weak planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since collapse of horizontal wellbore through long brittle shale interval is a major problem, the occurrence characteristics of weak planes were analyzed according to outcrop, core, and SEM and FMI data of shale rocks. A strength analysis method was developed for shale rocks with multiple weak planes based on weak-plane strength theory. An analysis was also conducted of the strength characteristics of shale rocks with uniform distribution of multiple weak planes. A collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal wells in shale formation with multiple weak planes was established, which takes into consideration the occurrence of each weak plane, wellbore stress condition, borehole azimuth, and in-situ stress azimuth. Finally, a case study of a horizontal shale gas well in southern Sichuan Basin was conducted. The results show that the intersection angle between the shale bedding plane and the structural fracture is generally large (nearly orthogonal; with the increase of weak plane number, the strength of rock mass declines sharply and is more heavily influenced by weak planes; when there are more than four weak planes, the rock strength tends to be isotropic and the whole strength of rock mass is greatly weakened, significantly increasing the risk of wellbore collapse. With the increase of weak plane number, the drilling fluid density (collapse pressure to keep borehole stability goes up gradually. For instance, the collapse pressure is 1.04 g/cm3 when there are no weak planes, and 1.55 g/cm3 when there is one weak plane, and 1.84 g/cm3 when there are two weak planes. The collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal wells proposed in this paper presented results in better agreement with those in actual situation. This model, more accurate and practical than traditional models, can effectively improve the accuracy of wellbore collapse pressure prediction of horizontal shale gas wells.

  18. Relativistic structure, stability, and gravitational collapse of charged neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, Cristian R.

    2005-01-01

    Charged stars have the potential of becoming charged black holes or even naked singularities. We present a set of numerical solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations that represents spherical charged compact stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. The stellar models obtained are evolved forward in time integrating the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. We assume an equation of state of a neutron gas at zero temperature. The charge distribution is taken as being proportional to the rest mass density distribution. The set of solutions present an unstable branch, even with charge-to-mass ratios arbitrarily close to the extremum case. We perform a direct check of the stability of the solutions under strong perturbations and for different values of the charge-to-mass ratio. The stars that are in the stable branch oscillate and do not collapse, while models in the unstable branch collapse directly to form black holes. Stars with a charge greater than or equal to the extreme value explode. When a charged star is suddenly discharged, it does not necessarily collapse to form a black hole. A nonlinear effect that gives rise to the formation of a shell of matter (in supermassive stars), is negligible in the present simulations. The results are in agreement with the third law of black hole thermodynamics and with the cosmic censorship conjecture

  19. Space shuttle solid rocket booster water entry cavity collapse loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, R. T.; Rawls, E. A.; Kross, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Solid rocket booster cavity collapse flight measurements included external pressures on the motor case and aft skirt, internal motor case pressures, accelerometers located in the forward skirt, mid-body area, and aft skirt, as well as strain gages located on the skin of the motor case. This flight data yielded applied pressure longitudinal and circumferential distributions which compare well with model test predictions. The internal motor case ullage pressure, which is below atmospheric due to the rapid cooling of the hot internal gas, was more severe (lower) than anticipated due to the ullage gas being hotter than predicted. The structural dynamic response characteristics were as expected. Structural ring and wall damage are detailed and are considered to be attributable to the direct application of cavity collapse pressure combined with the structurally destabilizing, low internal motor case pressure.

  20. Collapsing radiating stars with various equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassel, Byron P.; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D.

    2017-06-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of radiating stars in the context of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We consider a generalized Vaidya spacetime with three concentric regions. The local internal atmosphere is a two-component system consisting of standard pressure-free, null radiation and an additional string fluid with energy density and nonzero pressure obeying all physically realistic energy conditions. The middle region is purely radiative which matches to a third region which is the Schwarzschild exterior. We outline the general mathematical framework to study the conditions on the mass function so that future-directed nonspacelike geodesics can terminate at the singularity in the past. Mass functions for several equations of state are analyzed using this framework and it is shown that the collapse in each case terminates at a locally naked central singularity. We calculate the strength of these singularities to show that they are strong curvature singularities which implies that no extension of spacetime through them is possible.

  1. Convergence of repeated quantum nondemolition measurements and wave-function collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on quantum trapped fields, we give a rigorous proof that repeated indirect quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements converge to the collapse of the wave function as predicted by the postulates of quantum mechanics for direct measurements. We also relate the rate of convergence toward the collapsed wave function to the relative entropy of each indirect measurement, a result which makes contact with information theory.

  2. Gravitational collapse and the vacuum energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M

    2014-01-01

    To explain the accelerated expansion of the universe, models with interacting dark components (dark energy and dark matter) have been considered recently in the literature. Generally, the dark energy component is physically interpreted as the vacuum energy of the all fields that fill the universe. As the other side of the same coin, the influence of the vacuum energy on the gravitational collapse is of great interest. We study such collapse adopting different parameterizations for the evolution of the vacuum energy. We discuss the homogeneous collapsing star fluid, that interacts with a vacuum energy component, using the stiff matter case as example. We conclude this work with a discussion of the Cahill-McVittie mass for the collapsed object.

  3. Tetanus with multiple wedge vertebral collapses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... associated with traumatic injury, often a penetrating wound inflicted by dirty ... multiple vertebral collapses and the management chal- .... back pains and swelling as in our patient.9 There are usually no ... The cervical and.

  4. The collapse of interstellar gas clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, D.; Settle, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of spherically symmetric free-fall collapse to small radial perturbations is examined for non-uniform clouds. It is concluded that fragmentation of the central region of a collapsing gas cloud is possible if: (a) the density distribution is sufficiently smooth; and (b) the collapse is nearly free fall. Generally, perturbations enjoy only finite amplification during the collapse, and the amplification tends to decrease with increasing distance from the centre of the cloud. Unlimited amplification occurs only for uniform density clouds. Fragmentation is therefore unlikely to result from dynamical instability in the outer parts of a non-uniform cloud. Isothermal clouds are also briefly considered and, while it is argued that an earlier suggestion of their instability to fragmentation is unfounded, no general conclusion on the instability of such clouds could be drawn. (author)

  5. Lung lobe collapse: pathophysiology and radiologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, P.F.; Gomez, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The radiographic changes caused by collapse of lung lobes in pulmonary disease, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion depend on the lobar recoiling force and local pleural pressure. Differences in the tendency of normal lung lobes or regions to collapse depend on the relative surface-to-volume ratio, determined by shape and size of the region or lobe. This ratio affects the physiologic parameters of pulmonary interdependence, compliance, and collateral air flow. Pulmonary surfactant increases compliance, particularly at low volumes, maintains alveolar stability, and assists in maintaining capillary patency and preventing pulmonary edema. Its loss due to lung injury increases collapsing forces. In the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, diseases that cause lobar collapse produce localized air or fluid entrapment that is a diagnostic sign of the presence of the underlying pulmonary disease

  6. Simple Analytic Models of Gravitational Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.

    2005-02-09

    Most general relativity textbooks devote considerable space to the simplest example of a black hole containing a singularity, the Schwarzschild geometry. However only a few discuss the dynamical process of gravitational collapse, by which black holes and singularities form. We present here two types of analytic models for this process, which we believe are the simplest available; the first involves collapsing spherical shells of light, analyzed mainly in Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates; the second involves collapsing spheres filled with a perfect fluid, analyzed mainly in Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. Our main goal is pedagogical simplicity and algebraic completeness, but we also present some results that we believe are new, such as the collapse of a light shell in Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.

  7. Collapsed Lung: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Pneumothorax - infants (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Collapsed Lung updates ... Lung surgery Pneumothorax - slideshow Pneumothorax - infants Related Health Topics Chest Injuries and Disorders Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders ...

  8. Creep collapse of TAPS fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, S.M.; Anand, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Densification of UO 2 can cause axial gaps between fuel pelets and cladding in unsupported (internally) at these regions. An analysis is carried out regarding the possibility of creep collapse in these regions. The analysis is based on Timoshenko's theory of collapse. At various times during the residence of fuel in reactor following parameters are calculated : (1) inelastic collapse of perfectly circular tubes (2) plastic instability in oval tubes (3) effect of creep on ovality. Creep is considered to be a non-linear combination of the following : (a) thermal creep (b) intresenic creep (c) stress aided radiation enhanced (d) stress free growth (4) Critical pressure ratio. The results obtained are compared with G.E. predictions. The results do not predict collapse of TAPS fuel cladding for five year residence time. (author)

  9. Community Perspective of Alternative Methods of keeping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    methods of keeping childhood immunization records based on community's .... An alternative home-based record keeping ... coded before computer entry. Data was managed using the Statistical ..... encounter and also work to ensure accurate.

  10. Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Kelvin J.

    2015-02-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  11. Keeping Up-to-Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman L Jones

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As a senior (read older practising respirologist, I have come to appreciate my position as editor, which keeps me current with present practice standards. Everyone talks about the volume and flow of new knowledge, and not a week goes by in which I feel that I know enough to treat my patients optimally. This is particularly the case when it comes to antibiotic usage: the number of antibiotics and the confident way that junior colleagues bandy them about leaves me distinctly depressed because most of the names mean little to me; even the families and generations of antibiotics seem beyond my grasp. That is why I welcomed the request from Dr Lionel Mandell to publish a summary statement on the use of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, which appears on pages 371-382 of the current issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal.

  12. Collapse of strategic thinking, research and governance in Serbia and possible role of the spatial plan of the Republic of Serbia (2010 in its renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early reforms in Serbia (Yugoslavia were announced immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From the beginning of the 1990s few attempts of the kind announced have taken place, and, altogether, they still remain more or less uncompleted. To a large extent, this is a result of choices taken by the political and economic elites, in effect without any broader public dialogue undertaken about the strategic directions, contents and means for the implementation of such reforms. So far no overall societal consensus on the key strategic issues has been reached whatsoever, and, therefore, the choices in question have simply been imposed on the society at large by decree. The economic recovery from 2000 onwards, while fairly dynamic, has still been insufficient, and more or less assumes the form of “growth without development”. Serbia still keeps one of the most dissipating and non-sustainable economies, social services and spatial development patterns in Europe. Its “post-socialist Argonautics” has been facing a number of difficulties, also exacerbated by a lack of adequate institutional and organizational adjustments, as well as by a lack of proper cognitive and heuristic support. The spatial and environmental planning practice represents a mixture of old habits and substandard approaches, with only some new initiatives. There have been few attempts to redirect the improper development path, however, which have so far either failed of been uncompleted, mostly reflecting the collapse an overall collapse of strategic thinking, research and governance in this country.

  13. Current status of relativistic core collapse simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Jose A [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    With the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave laser interferometers already taking data, the availability of reliable waveform templates from astrophysical sources, which may help extract the signal from the anticipated noisy data, is urgently required. Gravitational stellar core collapse supernova has traditionally been considered among the most important astrophysical sources of potentially detectable gravitational radiation. Only very recently the first multidimensional simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse have been possible (albeit for models with simplified input physics), thanks to the use of conservative formulations of the hydrodynamics equations and advanced numerical methodology, as well as stable formulations of Einstein's equations. In this paper, the current status of relativistic core collapse simulations is discussed, with the emphasis given to the modelling of the collapse dynamics and to the computation of the gravitational radiation in the existing numerical approaches. Work employing the conformally-flat approximation (CFC) of the 3+1 Einstein's equations is reported, as well as extensions of this approximation (CFC+) and investigations within the framework of the so-called BSSN formulation of the 3+1 gravitational field equations (with no approximation for the spacetime dynamics). On the other hand, the incorporation of magnetic fields and the MHD equations in numerical codes to improve the realism of core collapse simulations in general relativity, is currently an emerging field where significant progress is bound to be soon achieved. The paper also contains a brief discussion of magneto-rotational simulations of core collapse, aiming at addressing the effects of magnetic fields on the collapse dynamics and on the gravitational waveforms.

  14. Current status of relativistic core collapse simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    With the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave laser interferometers already taking data, the availability of reliable waveform templates from astrophysical sources, which may help extract the signal from the anticipated noisy data, is urgently required. Gravitational stellar core collapse supernova has traditionally been considered among the most important astrophysical sources of potentially detectable gravitational radiation. Only very recently the first multidimensional simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse have been possible (albeit for models with simplified input physics), thanks to the use of conservative formulations of the hydrodynamics equations and advanced numerical methodology, as well as stable formulations of Einstein's equations. In this paper, the current status of relativistic core collapse simulations is discussed, with the emphasis given to the modelling of the collapse dynamics and to the computation of the gravitational radiation in the existing numerical approaches. Work employing the conformally-flat approximation (CFC) of the 3+1 Einstein's equations is reported, as well as extensions of this approximation (CFC+) and investigations within the framework of the so-called BSSN formulation of the 3+1 gravitational field equations (with no approximation for the spacetime dynamics). On the other hand, the incorporation of magnetic fields and the MHD equations in numerical codes to improve the realism of core collapse simulations in general relativity, is currently an emerging field where significant progress is bound to be soon achieved. The paper also contains a brief discussion of magneto-rotational simulations of core collapse, aiming at addressing the effects of magnetic fields on the collapse dynamics and on the gravitational waveforms

  15. Nonlinear analysis of collapse mechanism in superstructure vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.

    2017-04-01

    The EU directive 2001/85/EC is an official European text which describes the specifications for "single deck class II and III vehicles" required to be approved by the regulation UN/ECE no.66 (R66). To prevent the catastrophic consequences by occupant during an accident, the Malaysian government has reinforced the same regulation upon superstructure construction. This paper discusses collapse mechanism analysis of a superstructure vehicle using a Crash D nonlinear analysis computer program based on this regulation. The analysis starts by hand calculation to define the required energy absorption by the chosen structure. Simple calculations were then performed to define the weakest collapse mechanism after undesirable collapse modes are eliminated. There are few factors highlighted in this work to pass the regulation. Using the selected cross section, Crash D simulation showed a good result. Generally, the deformation is linearly correlates to the energy absorption for the structure with low stiffness. Failure of critical members such as vertical lower side wall must be avoided to sustain safety of the passenger compartment and prevent from severe and fatal injuries to the trapped occupant.

  16. Research in nuclear astrophysics: stellar collapse and supernovae. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.; Lattimer, J.M.; Yahil, A.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction between nuclear theory and some outstanding problems in astrophysics is examined. The chief emphasis of our program is on stellar collapse, supernovae and neutron star formation. Central to these topics are the parallel development of the equation of state of hot, dense matter and a novel type of hydrodynamical code. The LLPR compressible liquid drop model forms the basis for the former, and we propose to further refine it by including curvature corrections to the surface energy and by considering other nuclear force parameters which are in better agreement with experimentally determined quantities. The development of the equation of state has another bonus - it can be used to analyze intermediate energy heavy ion collisions, which, in turn, may illuminate the nucleon-nucleon force. The hydrodynamical code includes detailed neutrino transport and a fast, but accurate, approximation to the complete LLPR equation of state, which is necessary for numerical use. We propose to model not only the stellar collapse leading up to a supernova, but also the quasi-static deleptonization and cooling stages of the nascent neutron star. Our detailed studies of the role of neutrinos in stellar collapse and neutron star formation concentrate on their detectability and signatures - after all, neutrinos are the only direct method of observationally checking supernova theory. Complementary studies include modelling both mass accretion in the nuclei of galaxies (which is probably responsible for the quasar phenomenon) and investigations of galaxy clustering and the large scale structure of the universe

  17. Collapse instability of solitons in the nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation with dipole-dipole interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligoric, G; Hadzievski, Lj; Maluckov, A; Malomed, B A

    2009-01-01

    A model of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of dipolar atoms, confined in a combination of a cigar-shaped trap and optical lattice acting in the axial direction, is studied in the framework of the one-dimensional (1D) nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation (NPSE) with additional terms describing long-range dipole-dipole (DD) interactions. The NPSE makes it possible to describe the collapse of localized modes, which was experimentally observed in the self-attractive BEC confined in tight traps, in the framework of the 1D description. We study the influence of the DD interactions on the dynamics of bright solitons, especially concerning their collapse-induced instability. Both attractive and repulsive contact and DD interactions are considered. The results are summarized in the form of stability/collapse diagrams in a respective parametric space. In particular, it is shown that the attractive DD interactions may prevent the collapse instability in the condensate with attractive contact interactions.

  18. Review of collapse triggering mechanism of collapsible soils due to wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Loess soil deposits are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions and constitute about 10% of land area of the world. These soils typically have a loose honeycomb-type meta-stable structure that is susceptible to a large reduction in total volume or collapse upon wetting. Collapse characteristics contribute to various problems to infrastructures that are constructed on loess soils. For this reason, collapse triggering mechanism for loess soils has been of significant interest for researchers and practitioners all over the world. This paper aims at providing a state-of-the-art review on collapse mechanism with special reference to loess soil deposits. The collapse mechanism studies are summarized under three different categories, i.e. traditional approaches, microstructure approach, and soil mechanics-based approaches. The traditional and microstructure approaches for interpreting the collapse behavior are comprehensively summarized and critically reviewed based on the experimental results from the literature. The soil mechanics-based approaches proposed based on the experimental results of both compacted soils and natural loess soils are reviewed highlighting their strengths and limitations for estimating the collapse behavior. Simpler soil mechanics-based approaches with less parameters or parameters that are easy-to-determine from conventional tests are suggested for future research to better understand the collapse behavior of natural loess soils. Such studies would be more valuable for use in conventional geotechnical engineering practice applications.

  19. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  20. Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, Mauro, E-mail: mariani@carina.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); León, Gabriel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria – Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-01-10

    The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.

  1. Noncrossing timelike singularities of irrotational dust collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.T.

    1979-01-01

    Known naked singularities in spherical dust collapse are either due to shell-crossing or localized to the central world line. They will probably be destroyed by pressure gradients or blue-shift instabilities. To violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis in a more convincing and general context, collapse solutions with naked singularities that are at least nonshell-crossing and nonlocalized need to be constructed. Some results concerning the probable structure of a class of nonshellcrossing and nonlocalized timelike singularities are reviewed. The cylindrical dust model is considered but this model is not asymptotically flat. To make these noncrossing singularities viable counter examples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the occurrence of such singularities in asymptotically flat collapse needs to be demonstrated. (UK)

  2. Did mud contribute to freeway collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Friberg, Paul A.; Busby, Robert; Field, Edward F.; Jacob, Klaus H.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    At least 41 people were killed October 17 when the upper tier of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, Calif., collapsed during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Seismologists studying aftershocks concluded that soil conditions and resulting ground motion amplification were important in the failure of the structure and should be considered in the reconstruction of the highway.Structural design weaknesses in the two-tiered freeway, known as the Cypress structure, had been identified before the tragedy. The seismologists, from Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., and the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., found that the collapsed section was built on fill over Bay mud. A southern section of the Cypress structure built on alluvium of Quaternary age did not collapse (see Figure 1).

  3. COLLAPSE AND FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES WITH THE ENZO AMR MHD CODE. I. UNIFORM DENSITY SPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important contributors to the dynamics of collapsing molecular cloud cores, and can have a major effect on whether collapse results in a single protostar or fragmentation into a binary or multiple protostar system. New models are presented of the collapse of magnetic cloud cores using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo2.0. The code was used to calculate the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of initially spherical, uniform density, and rotation clouds with density perturbations, i.e., the Boss and Bodenheimer standard isothermal test case for three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics codes. After first verifying that Enzo reproduces the binary fragmentation expected for the non-magnetic test case, a large set of models was computed with varied initial magnetic field strengths and directions with respect to the cloud core axis of rotation (parallel or perpendicular), density perturbation amplitudes, and equations of state. Three significantly different outcomes resulted: (1) contraction without sustained collapse, forming a denser cloud core; (2) collapse to form a single protostar with significant spiral arms; and (3) collapse and fragmentation into binary or multiple protostar systems, with multiple spiral arms. Comparisons are also made with previous MHD calculations of similar clouds with a barotropic equations of state. These results for the collapse of initially uniform density spheres illustrate the central importance of both magnetic field direction and field strength for determining the outcome of dynamic protostellar collapse.

  4. Mechanisms and prevention of plant tissue collapse during dehydration: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothon, Frédéric; Ahrné, Lilia; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2003-01-01

    The appearance and functional properties are primordial in the quality assessment of semifinished fruit and vegetable products. These properties are often associated with shrunken, shriveled, darkened materials of poor rehydration ability after been subjected to air-drying--the most used drying method in the food industry. Fruits and vegetables are cellular tissues containing gas-filled pores that tend to collapse when subjected to dehydration. Collapse is an overall term that has different meanings and scale-settings in the literature depending on whether the author is a plant physiologist, a food technologist, a chemical engineer, or a material scientist. Some clarifications are given in this particular but wide field. The purpose of this work was to make a state-of-the-art contribution to the structural and textural effects of different types of dehydration on edible plant products and give a basis for preventing this phenomenon. The plant tissue is described, and the primordial role of the cell wall in keeping the structural integrity is emphasized. Water and its functionality at macro and micro levels of the cellular tissue are reviewed as well as its transport during dehydration. The effects of both dehydration and rehydration are described in detail, and the term "textural collapse" is proposed as an alternative to structural collapse.

  5. cD galaxy formation and dissipationless collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, G.; Roos, N.

    1990-01-01

    There is strong new evidence that first-ranked galaxies are aligned with their parent cluster and with the direction of the nearest neighbour cluster (scale 15 h -1 Mpc) and that the average ellipticity of first-ranked ellipticals is a strongly increasing function of radius. The alignment effect is limited to first-ranked galaxies and is stronger for cD and gE galaxies than for first-ranked galaxies of later type. In hierarchical clustering scenarios like the cold dark matter theory, clusters of galaxies are expected to have moderate asphericity. We present numerical results of a study of the dissipationless collapse of moderately aspherical systems. (author)

  6. Identification of voltage collapse point in self excited induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanasundaram Rajambal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a direct equilibrium tracing method for identifying the voltage collapse point of a self-excitedinduction generator (SEIG without many trials. The technique solves differential and algebraic equations simultaneously toobtain the variables in a single step. The load parameter is also automatically varied during equilibrium tracing and thisreduces the computational time significantly. Comparing the simulation results obtained through conventional iterative procedure shows the effectiveness of the technique. An experimental verification on a 1.5KW induction machine validates the simulation results.

  7. Sonographic Analysis of the Collapsed Gall Bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Jae Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Chung Ki; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jeong Mi

    1996-01-01

    This study was done to find answers for further following questions in cases of the collapsed gallbladder (GB) : What is the probability of the presence of stone when stony echo is visible in GB area? What is the probability of the presence of stone when only acoustic shadow is visible from GB area? What are the associated GB pathologies except stone or cholecystitis in previously mentioned situations and is it possible to differentiate them? What are the underlying pathologies of GB collapse without stony echo or acoustic shadow and is it possible to differentiate them sonographic ally? What are the rate and causes of re-expansion of the collapsed GB on follow-up study? Prospective study was done in 157 cases of collapsed GB with no visible or nearly no visible bile filled lumen in recent 3 years. Sonographic analysis for GB lesions was done in 61 confirmed cases. Changing pattern of GB lumen on follow-up study and their underlying pathologies were analyzed in 28 cases. Initial sonographic examination was done with 3 or 3.5 MHz transducer. No other transducer was used in cases showing stony echo or acoustic shadow in GB area, but additional examination was done with 5 or 7-4 MHz transducer in cases without stony echo or acoustic shadow. Among 31 cases, which showed stony echo, stone was found in 30 cases and milk of calcium bile in one case. Stone was present in all of the 11 cases which showed only acoustic shadow from the collapsed GB without stony echo. GB cancer was accompanied in 2 cases among upper 42 cases, and its possibility could be suspected sonographic ally. Underlying pathologies of the 19cases without stony echo or acoustic shadow were as follows : GB stone (3), cholecystitis (6), GB cancer (1), bile plug syndrome (1), hepatitis (5), and ascites (3). And sonographic differentiation of the underlying causes for the collapse was possible in only 1 case of GB cancer. Among 28 cases of the follow-up study, 20 cases showed re-expansion of the GB lumen and

  8. Relativistic collapse using Regge calculus: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubal, M.R.; Leicester Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Regge calculus is used to simulate the dynamical collapse of model stars. In this paper we describe the general methodology of including a perfect fluid in dynamical Regge calculus spacetimes. The Regge-Einstein equations for spherical collapse are obtained and are then specialised to mimic a particular continuum gauge. The equivalent continuum problem is also set up. This is to be solved using standard numerical techniques (i.e. the method of finite difference). A subsequent paper will consider the solution of the equations presented here and will use the continuum problem for comparison purposes in order to check the Regge calculus results. (author)

  9. Static axisymmetric discs and gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, A.; Gregory, R.; Stewart, J.M.

    1987-09-08

    Regular static axisymmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations representing the exterior field of a finite thin disc are found. These are used to describe the slow collapse of a disc-like object. If no conditions are placed on the matter, a naked singularity is formed and the cosmic censorship hypothesis would be violated. Imposition of the weak energy condition, however, prevents slow collapse to a singularity and preserves the validity of this hypothesis. The validity of the hoop conjecture is also discussed.

  10. Long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae have different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, A S; Levan, A J; Strolger, L; Vreeswijk, P M; Thorsett, S E; Bersier, D; Burud, I; Castro Cerón, J M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Conselice, C; Dahlen, T; Ferguson, H C; Fynbo, J P U; Garnavich, P M; Gibbons, R A; Gorosabel, J; Gull, T R; Hjorth, J; Holland, S T; Kouveliotou, C; Levay, Z; Livio, M; Metzger, M R; Nugent, P E; Petro, L; Pian, E; Rhoads, J E; Riess, A G; Sahu, K C; Smette, A; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Woosley, S E

    2006-05-25

    When massive stars exhaust their fuel, they collapse and often produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known as core-collapse supernovae. On occasion, this stellar collapse also powers an even more brilliant relativistic explosion known as a long-duration gamma-ray burst. One would then expect that these long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae should be found in similar galactic environments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. We find that the gamma-ray bursts are far more concentrated in the very brightest regions of their host galaxies than are the core-collapse supernovae. Furthermore, the host galaxies of the long gamma-ray bursts are significantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of the core-collapse supernovae. Together these results suggest that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the most extremely massive stars and may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Our results directly imply that long gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare in galaxies such as our own Milky Way.

  11. Cardiorespiratory collapse at high temperature in swimming adult sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Elevated summer river temperatures are associated with high in-river mortality in adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their once-in-a-lifetime spawning migration up the Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada). However, the mechanisms underlying the decrease in whole-animal performance and cardiorespiratory collapse above optimal temperatures for aerobic scope (T opt) remain elusive for aquatic ectotherms. This is in part because all the relevant cardiorespiratory variables have rarely been measured directly and simultaneously during exercise at supra-optimal temperatures. Using the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis as a framework, this study simultaneously and directly measured oxygen consumption rate (MO2), cardiac output [Formula: see text], heart rate (f H), and cardiac stroke volume (V s), as well as arterial and venous blood oxygen status in adult sockeye salmon swimming at temperatures that bracketed T opt to elucidate possible limitations in oxygen uptake into the blood or internal delivery through the oxygen cascade. Above T opt, the decline in MO2max and aerobic scope was best explained by a cardiac limitation, triggered by reduced scope for f H. The highest test temperatures were characterized by a negative scope for f H, dramatic decreases in maximal [Formula: see text] and maximal V s, and cardiac dysrhythmias. In contrast, arterial blood oxygen content and partial pressure were almost insensitive to supra-optimal temperature, suggesting that oxygen delivery to and uptake by the gill were not a limiting factor. We propose that the high-temperature-induced en route mortality in migrating sockeye salmon may be at least partly attributed to physiological limitations in aerobic performance due to cardiac collapse via insufficient scope for f H. Furthermore, this improved mechanistic understanding of cardiorespiratory collapse at high temperature is likely to have broader application to other salmonids and perhaps other

  12. Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Analysis Including Distributed Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osama Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity in nonlinear analytical models used to assess the potential for progressive collapse of steel framed regular building structures. Emphasis on this paper is on the deformation response under the notionally removed column, in a typical Alternate Path (AP method. The AP method employed in this paper is based on the provisions of the Unified Facilities Criteria – Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, developed and updated by the U.S. Department of Defense [1]. The AP method is often used for to assess the potential for progressive collapse of building structures that fall under Occupancy Category III or IV. A case study steel building is used to examine the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity, where moment frames were used on perimeter as well as the interior of the three dimensional structural system. It is concluded that the use of moment resisting frames within the structural system will enhance resistance to progressive collapse through ductile deformation response and that it is conserative to ignore the effects of distributed plasticity in determining peak displacement response under the notionally removed column.

  13. General relativistic collapse of rotating stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.

    1984-01-01

    When a rotating star begins to collapse, the gravity becomes so strong that there appears a region from which even a photon cannot escape. After the distortion of space-time is radiated as gravitational waves, a Kerr black hole is formed finally. One of the main goals for numerical relativity is to simulate the collapse of a rotating star under realistic conditions. However, to know both the dynamics of matter and the propagation of gravitational radiation seems to be very difficult. Therefore, in this paper the problem is divided into 4 stages. They are: (1) The time evolution of pure gravitational waves is calculated in a 2-D code. (2) In this stage, the author tries to understand the dynamics of a collapsing, rotating star in 2D code. (3) Combining the techniques from stages 1, 2, the author tries to know both the dynamics of matter and the propagation of gravitational waves generated by the nonspherical motion of matter. (4) The author simulates the gravitational collapse of a rotating star to a black hole in 3D. 25 references, 12 figures, 1 table

  14. Identification and behavior of collapsible soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Loess is a soil that can exhibit large deformations upon wetting. Cases of wetting induced collapse in loess have : been documented for natural deposits and man-made fills. These issues are of concern to the Indiana DOT due to the growth : of the sta...

  15. The collapse of turbulence in the evening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Baas, P.; Basu, S.; Sun, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A common experience in everyday weather is the fact that near-surface wind speeds tend to weaken in the evening, particularly in fair weather conditions. This cessation of wind usually coincides with the collapse of turbulence which leads to a quiet flow near the ground. As the absence of turbulent

  16. Collapsible structure for an antenna reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A collapsible support for an antenna reflector for use in supporting spacecraft antennas is described. The support has a regid base and a number of struts which are pivoted at the base. The deployment of the struts and their final configuration for supporting the antenna are illustrated.

  17. Hydrogen-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    Hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) signal the explosive death of stars more massive than the progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae, i.e., approximately in the range 15-50 M⊙ in main sequence. Since hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae include those that accompany gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were all rigorously identified with type Ic supernovae, their explosion energies cover almost two decades. The light curves and spectra are consequently very heterogeneous and often bear the signature of an asymmetric, i.e., aspherical, explosion. Asphericity is best traced by early-time (within days of the explosion) optical spectropolarimetry and by late-epoch (more than ˜ 100 days after explosion) low-resolution spectroscopy. While the relationship between hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae to hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae is not understood, a known case of association between an ultra-long gamma-ray burst and a very luminous hydrogen-poor supernova may help unraveling the connection. This is tantalizingly pointing to a magnetar powering source for both phenomena, although this scenario is still highly speculative. Host galaxies of hydrogen-poor supernovae are always star forming; in those of completely stripped supernovae and gamma-ray burst supernovae, the spatial distribution of the explosions follows the blue/ultraviolet light, with a correlation that is more than linear.

  18. Gravitational collapse with decaying vacuum energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of dark energy on the end state of spherical radiation collapse is considered within the context of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. It is found that it is possible to have both black holes as well as naked singularities.

  19. Schuster's law, black holes and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, C.

    1988-01-01

    Consequences of the application of Schuster's law to black holes are investigated. It is shown that Schuster's law can reduce the intrinsic angular momentum of a collapsing body. The possibility is supposed that Schuster's law provides the general mechanism required by the cosmic censorship hypothesis which is taken seriously as a fundamental law of nature

  20. A spherical collapse solution with neutrino outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-parameter family of solutions of Einstein's field equations is given that represents a collapsing perfect fluid with outgoing neutrino flux. Solutions with ''naked'' singularities are exhibited. They can be forbidden by requiring pressure less than or equal to the density as a condition of cosmic censorship

  1. Gravitational wave generation by stellar core collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Stars which have masses greater than 5 to 8 solar masses are thought to undergo a stage of catastrophic core collapse and subsequent supernova explosion at the end of their lives. If the core is not spherically symmetric, the bounce which halts its collapse at transnuclear densities will generate a pulse of gravitational waves. This thesis presents a fully relativistic model of core collapse which treats deviations from spherical symmetry as small perturbations on a spherical background. This model may be used to predict qualitative and quantitative features of the gravitational radiation emitted by stellar cores with odd-parity, axisymmetric fluid perturbations, and represents a first step in the application of perturbative methods to more general asymmetries. The first chapter reviews the present consensus on the physics of core collapse and outlines the important features, assumptions, and limitations of the model. A series of model runs are presented and discussed. Finally, several proposals for future research are presented. Subsequent chapters explore in detail the mathematical features of the present model and its realization on the computer

  2. The heterogeneity of world trade collapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses drivers of imports during the major world trade collapses of the Great Depression (1930s; 34 countries) and the Great Recession (1930s; 173 countries). The analysis deals with the first year of these episodes and develops a small empirical model that shows a

  3. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1 Stefano Diciotti,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Simone Lombardo,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Matteo Paoletti,1 Mario Mascalchi,3 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; 3Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28 and in females (n=27. Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10 showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second, and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD

  4. Lung collapse among aquatic reptiles and amphibians during long-term diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Gordon R; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Jackson, Donald C

    2004-09-01

    Numerous aquatic reptiles and amphibians that typically breathe both air and water can remain fully aerobic in normoxic (aerated) water by taking up oxygen from the water via extrapulmonary avenues. Nevertheless, if air access is available, these animals do breathe air, however infrequently. We suggest that such air breathing does not serve an immediate gas exchange function under these conditions, nor is it necessarily related to buoyancy requirements, but serves to keep lungs inflated that would otherwise collapse during prolonged submergence. We also suggest that lung deflation is routine in hibernating aquatic reptiles and amphibians in the northern portions of their ranges, where ice cover prevents surfacing for extended periods.

  5. KEEP Five-Year Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This brief summary outlines the activities and findings of the research and development efforts of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) from 1971 to 1976. The paper suggests that the original goals of the program were met and that the initial operating procedures agreed upon by KEEP and the Hawaii State Department of Education were…

  6. In situ Orbit Extraction from Live, High Precision Collisionless Simulations of Systems Formed by Cold Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Mendoza, H.; Aguilar, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    We performed high precision, N-body simulations of the cold collapse of initially spherical, collisionless systems using the GYRFALCON code of Dehnen (2000). The collapses produce very prolate spheroidal configurations. After the collapse, the systems are simulated for 85 and 170 half-mass radius dynamical timescales, during which energy conservation is better than 0.005%. We use this period to extract individual particle orbits directly from the simulations. We then use the TAXON code of Carpintero and Aguilar (1998) to classify 1 to 1.5% of the extracted orbits from our final, relaxed configurations: less than 15% are chaotic orbits, 30% are box orbits and 60% are tube orbits (long and short axis). Our goal has been to prove that direct orbit extraction is feasible, and that there is no need to "freeze" the final N-body system configuration to extract a time-independent potential.

  7. Identification and behavior of collapsible soils : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Collapsible soils are susceptible to large volumetric strains when they become saturated. Numerous soil types : fall in the general category of collapsible soils, including : loess, a well-known aeolian deposit, present throughout : most of Indiana. ...

  8. Dynamic Control of Collapse in a Vortex Airy Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    Here we study systematically the self-focusing dynamics and collapse of vortex Airy optical beams in a Kerr medium. The collapse is suppressed compared to a non-vortex Airy beam in a Kerr medium due to the existence of vortex fields. The locations of collapse depend sensitively on the initial power, vortex order, and modulation parameters. The collapse may occur in a position where the initial field is nearly zero, while no collapse appears in the region where the initial field is mainly distributed. Compared with a non-vortex Airy beam, the collapse of a vortex Airy beam can occur at a position away from the area of the initial field distribution. Our study shows the possibility of controlling and manipulating the collapse, especially the precise position of collapse, by purposely choosing appropriate initial power, vortex order or modulation parameters of a vortex Airy beam. PMID:23518858

  9. Research in nuclear astrophysics: Stellar collapse and supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattimer, J.M.; Yahil, A.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between nuclear theory and some outstanding problems in astrophysics is examined. We are actively researching the astrophysics of gravitational collapse, neutron star birth and neutrino emission, and neutron star cooling, on the one hand, and the nuclear physics of the equation of state of hot, dense matter on the other hand. There is close coupling between nuclear theory and supernova and neutron star phenomenon; some nuclear matter properties might be best delineated by astrophysical considerations. Our research has focused on the neutrinos emitted from supernovae, since they are the only available observables of the internal supernova mechanism. We are modifying our hydrodynamical code to use implicit differencing and to include multi-group neutrino diffusion and general relativity. In parallel, we are extending calculations of core collapse supernovae to long times after collapse by using a hybrid explicit-implicit hydrodynamical code and by using simplified neutrino transport. We hope to establish the existence or non-existence of the so-called long-term supernova mechanism. We are also extending models of the neutrino emission and cooling of neutron stars to include the effects of rotation and the direct Urca process that we recently discovered to be crucial. We have developed a rapid version of the dense matter equation of state for use in hydrodynamic codes that retains essentially all the physics of earlier, more detailed equations of state. This version also has the great advantage that nuclear physics inputs, such as the nuclear incompressibility, symmetry, energy, and specific heat, can be specified

  10. Unifying Research on Social-Ecological Resilience and Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Peterson, Garry D

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse. Analysis of 17 representative cases identified 14 mechanisms, in five classes, that explain social-ecological collapse. System structure influences the kind of collapse a system may experience. Mechanistic theories of collapse that unite structure and process can make fundamental contributions to solving global environmental problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Selecting and applying indicators of ecosystem collapse for risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A; Nicholson, Emily; Murray, Nicholas J; Keith, David A; Lester, Rebecca E; Bland, Lucie M

    2018-03-12

    Ongoing ecosystem degradation and transformation are key threats to biodiversity. Measuring ecosystem change towards collapse relies on monitoring indicators that quantify key ecological processes. Yet little guidance is available on selecting and implementing indicators for ecosystem risk assessment. Here, we reviewed indicator use in ecological studies of decline towards collapse in marine pelagic and temperate forest ecosystems. We evaluated the use of indicator selection methods, indicator types (geographic distribution, abiotic, biotic), methods of assessing multiple indicators, and temporal quality of time series. We compared these ecological studies to risk assessments in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List of Ecosystems (RLE), where indicators are used to estimate ecosystem collapse risk. We found that ecological studies and RLE assessments rarely reported how indicators were selected, particularly in terrestrial ecosystems. Few ecological studies and RLE assessments quantified ecosystem change with all three indicator types, and indicators types used varied between marine and terrestrial ecosystem. Several studies used indices or multivariate analyses to assess multiple indicators simultaneously, but RLE assessments did not, as RLE guidelines advise against them. Most studies and RLE assessments used time series spanning at least 30 years, increasing the chance of reliably detecting change. Limited use of indicator selection protocols and infrequent use of all three indicator types may hamper the ability to accurately detect changes. To improve the value of risk assessments for informing policy and management, we recommend using: (i) explicit protocols, including conceptual models, to identify and select indicators; (ii) a range of indicators spanning distributional, abiotic and biotic features; (iii) indices and multivariate analyses with extreme care until guidelines are developed; (iv) time series with sufficient data to

  12. A short review of our current understanding of the development of ring faults during collapse caldera formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina eGeyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term collapse caldera refers to those volcanic depressions resulting from the sinking of the chamber roof due to the rapid withdrawal of magma during the course of an eruption. During the last three decades, collapse caldera dynamics has been the focus of attention of numerous, theoretical, numerical and experimental studies. Nonetheless, even if there is a tendency to go for a general and comprehensive caldera dynamics model, some key aspects remain unclear, controversial or completely unsolved. This is the case of ring fault nucleation points and propagation and dip direction. Since direct information on calderas’ deeper structure comes mainly from partially eroded calderas or few witnessed collapses, ring faults layout at depth remains still uncertain. This has generated a strong debate over the detailed internal fault and fracture configuration of a caldera collapse and, in more detail, how ring faults initiate and propagate. We offer here a very short description of the main results obtained by those analogue and theoretical/mathematical models applied to the study of collapse caldera formation. We place special attention on those observations related to the nucleation and propagation of the collapse-controlling ring faults. This summary is relevant to understand the current state-of-the-art of this topic and it should be taken under consideration in future works dealing with collapse caldera dynamics.

  13. Collapse and revival in holographic quenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Emilia da; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  14. HII regions in collapsing massive molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, H.W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two-dimensional numerical calculations of the evolution of HII regions associated with self-gravitating, massive molecular clouds are presented. Depending on the location of the exciting star, a champagne flow can occur concurrently with the central collapse of a nonrotating cloud. Partial evaporation of the cloud at a rate of about 0.005 solar masses/yr results. When 100 O-stars are placed at the center of a freely falling cloud of 3x10 5 solar masses no evaporation takes place. Rotating clouds collapse to disks and the champagne flow can evaporate the cloud at a higher rate (0.01 solar masses/yr). It is concluded that massive clouds containing OB-stars have lifetimes of no more than 10 7 yr. (Auth.)

  15. Collapse and bounce of null fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Creelman, Bradley; Booth, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Exact solutions describing the spherical collapse of null fluids can contain regions which violate the energy conditions. Physically the violations occur when the infalling matter continues to move inwards even when non-gravitational repulsive forces become stronger than gravity. In 1991 Ori proposed a resolution for these violations: spacetime surgery should be used to replace the energy condition violating region with an outgoing solution. The matter bounces. We revisit and implement this p...

  16. Analysis of power system collapse risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleschova, Z.; Belan, A.; Cintula, B.; Smitkova, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper are analysed the initialization events with considering different scenarios and their impact on the power system transient stability. As an initialization event is considered a short circuit at various places of power line. In each scenario are considered protection failures (backup protection), circuit-breaker failures (breaker failure relay activation). The individual states are analysed and the power system collapse risk assessed based on the simulation experiments results (Authors)

  17. Rate of stellar collapses in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, K.; Stephens, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    From an analysis of pulsar spatial and luminosity distributions, the number density of observed pulsars in the local region is determined to be 1.1+-0.4x10 -7 pulsar pc -3 . Multiplication by the detection factor and by the ratio of Galaxy mass to local matter density and division by a mean lifetime of pulsars of 3x10 6 yr suggests a pulsar birth every 4 yr. A stellar collapse might occur even more often. (Auth.)

  18. Asymmetric explosion of core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeroni, Remi

    2016-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova represents the ultimate stage of the evolution of massive stars.The iron core contraction may be followed by a gigantic explosion which gives birth to a neutron star.The multidimensional dynamics of the innermost region, during the first hundreds milliseconds, plays a decisive role on the explosion success because hydrodynamical instabilities are able to break the spherical symmetry of the collapse. Large scale transverse motions generated by two instabilities, the neutrino-driven convection and the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI),increase the heating efficiency up to the point of launching an asymmetric explosion and influencing the birth properties of the neutron star. In this thesis, hydrodynamical instabilities are studied using numerical simulations of simplified models. These models enable a wide exploration of the parameter space and a better physical understanding of the instabilities, generally inaccessible to realistic models.The non-linear regime of SASI is analysed to characterize the conditions under which a spiral mode prevails and to assess its ability to redistribute angular momentum radially.The influence of rotation on the shock dynamics is also addressed. For fast enough rotation rates, a corotation instability overlaps with SASI and greatly impacts the dynamics. The simulations enable to better constrain the effect of non-axisymmetric modes on the angular momentum budget of the iron core collapsing into a neutron star. SASI may under specific conditions spin up or down the pulsar born during the explosion. Finally, an idealised model of the heating region is studied to characterize the non-linear onset of convection by perturbations such as those produced by SASI or pre-collapse combustion inhomogeneities. The dimensionality issue is examined to stress the beneficial consequences of the three-dimensional dynamics on the onset of the explosion. (author) [fr

  19. Cooperation, cheating, and collapse in microbial populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Natural populations can suffer catastrophic collapse in response to small changes in environmental conditions, and recovery after such a collapse can be exceedingly difficult. We have used laboratory yeast populations to study proposed early warning signals of impending extinction. Yeast cooperatively breakdown the sugar sucrose, meaning that there is a minimum number of cells required to sustain the population. We have demonstrated experimentally that the fluctuations in the population size increase in magnitude and become slower as the population approaches collapse. The cooperative nature of yeast growth on sucrose suggests that the population may be susceptible to cheater cells, which do not contribute to the public good and instead merely take advantage of the cooperative cells. We have confirmed this possibility experimentally by using a cheater yeast strain that lacks the gene encoding the cooperative behavior [1]. However, recent results in the lab demonstrate that the presence of a bacterial competitor may drive cooperation within the yeast population.[4pt] [1] Gore et al, Nature 459, 253 -- 256 (2009)

  20. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data

  1. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  2. Collapse postulate for observables with continuous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, M.D.

    1979-03-01

    In order to provide a mathematical framework for discussing the statistical correlations between the outcomes, when an arbitrary sequence of observables are measured, it is necessary to generalize the conventional von Neumann-Lueders collapse postulate to observables with a continuous spectrum. It is shown that the standard prescription in conventional quantum theory for the joint probabilities of compatible observables is sufficient to characterize, more or less completely, the appropriate ''generalized collapse postulate'' which associates with each observable a unique ''finitely additive expectation valued measure''. An interesting feature of the collapse associated with observables with continuous spectra, which again follows from the basic principles of conventional quantum theory, is that it must be formulated in terms of the so-called non-normal conditional expectations, which implies that the joint probabilities associated with successive observations of such observables are not in general σ-additive. The implications of this non-σ-additivity on the determination of expectation values, correlation functions etc., are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the basic prescriptions introduced in this paper constitute a natural completion of the framework of conventional quantum theory for discussing the statistics of an arbitrary sequence of observations

  3. The Collapse of Ecosystem Engineer Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Fontanari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the ultimate ecosystem engineers who have profoundly transformed the world’s landscapes in order to enhance their survival. Somewhat paradoxically, however, sometimes the unforeseen effect of this ecosystem engineering is the very collapse of the population it intended to protect. Here we use a spatial version of a standard population dynamics model of ecosystem engineers to study the colonization of unexplored virgin territories by a small settlement of engineers. We find that during the expansion phase the population density reaches values much higher than those the environment can support in the equilibrium situation. When the colonization front reaches the boundary of the available space, the population density plunges sharply and attains its equilibrium value. The collapse takes place without warning and happens just after the population reaches its peak number. We conclude that overpopulation and the consequent collapse of an expanding population of ecosystem engineers is a natural consequence of the nonlinear feedback between the population and environment variables.

  4. Matter and gravitons in the gravitational collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effects of gravitons in the collapse of baryonic matter that forms a black hole. We first note that the effective number of (soft off-shell gravitons that account for the (negative Newtonian potential energy generated by the baryons is conserved and always in agreement with Bekenstein's area law of black holes. Moreover, their (positive interaction energy reproduces the expected post-Newtonian correction and becomes of the order of the total ADM mass of the system when the size of the collapsing object approaches its gravitational radius. This result supports a scenario in which the gravitational collapse of regular baryonic matter produces a corpuscular black hole without central singularity, in which both gravitons and baryons are marginally bound and form a Bose–Einstein condensate at the critical point. The Hawking emission of baryons and gravitons is then described by the quantum depletion of the condensate and we show the two energy fluxes are comparable, albeit negligibly small on astrophysical scales.

  5. Matter and gravitons in the gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Roberto, E-mail: casadio@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Universià di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, IS FLAG, viale B. Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giugno, Andrea, E-mail: A.Giugno@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Giusti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.giusti@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Universià di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, IS FLAG, viale B. Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-12-10

    We consider the effects of gravitons in the collapse of baryonic matter that forms a black hole. We first note that the effective number of (soft off-shell) gravitons that account for the (negative) Newtonian potential energy generated by the baryons is conserved and always in agreement with Bekenstein's area law of black holes. Moreover, their (positive) interaction energy reproduces the expected post-Newtonian correction and becomes of the order of the total ADM mass of the system when the size of the collapsing object approaches its gravitational radius. This result supports a scenario in which the gravitational collapse of regular baryonic matter produces a corpuscular black hole without central singularity, in which both gravitons and baryons are marginally bound and form a Bose–Einstein condensate at the critical point. The Hawking emission of baryons and gravitons is then described by the quantum depletion of the condensate and we show the two energy fluxes are comparable, albeit negligibly small on astrophysical scales.

  6. Precombination Cloud Collapse and Baryonic Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1993-01-01

    A simple spherical model of dense baryon clouds in the hot big bang 'strongly nonlinear primordial isocurvature baryon fluctuations' is reviewed and used to describe the dependence of cloud behavior on the model parameters, baryon mass, and initial over-density. Gravitational collapse of clouds before and during recombination is considered including radiation diffusion and trapping, remnant type and mass, and effects on linear large-scale fluctuation modes. Sufficiently dense clouds collapse early into black holes with a minimum mass of approx. 1 solar mass, which behave dynamically like collisionless cold dark matter. Clouds below a critical over-density, however, delay collapse until recombination, remaining until then dynamically coupled to the radiation like ordinary diffuse baryons, and possibly producing remnants of other kinds and lower mass. The mean density in either type of baryonic remnant is unconstrained by observed element abundances. However, mixed or unmixed spatial variations in abundance may survive in the diffuse baryon and produce observable departures from standard predictions.

  7. Collapse postulate for observables with continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, M.D.; Madras Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In order to provide a mathematical framework for discussing the statistical correlations between the outcomes, when an arbitrary sequence of observables are measured, it is necessary to generalize the conventional von Neumann-Lueders collapse postulate to observables with a continuous spectrum. It is shown that the standard prescription in conventional quantum theory for the joint probabilities of compatible observables is sufficient to characterize, more or less completely, the appropriate 'generalized collapse postulate' which associates with each observable a unique 'finitely additive expectation valued measure'. An interesting feature of the collapse associated with observables with continuous spectra, which again follows from the basic principles of conventional quantum theory, is that it must be formulated in terms of the so-called non-normal conditional expectations, which implies that the joint probabilities associated with successive observations of such observables are not in general sigma-additive. The implications of this non-sigma-additivity on the determination of expectation values, correlation functions etc., are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the basic prescriptions introduced in this paper constitute a natural completion of the framework of conventional quantum theory for discussing the statistics of an arbitrary sequence of observations. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 CKA

  8. The dynamics of Affleck-Dine condensate collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari; McDonald, John

    2000-01-01

    In the MSSM, cosmological scalar field condensates formed along flat directions of the scalar potential (Affleck-Dine condensates) are typically unstable with respect to formation of Q-balls, a type of non-topological soliton. We consider the dynamical evolution of the Affleck-Dine condensate in the MSSM. We discuss the creation and linear growth, in F- and D-term inflation models, of the quantum seed perturbations which in the non-linear regime catalyse the collapse of the condensate to non-topological soliton lumps. We study numerically the evolution of the collapsing condensate lumps and show that the solitons initially formed are not in general Q-balls, but Q-axitons, a pseudo-breather which can have very different properties from Q-balls of the same charge. We calculate the energy and charge radiated from a spherically symmetric condensate lump as it evolves into a Q-axiton. We also discuss the implications for baryogenesis and dark matter

  9. FINDING THE FIRST COSMIC EXPLOSIONS. II. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Joggerst, Candace C.; Fryer, Chris L.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Heger, Alexander; Holz, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the properties of Population III (Pop III) stars is prerequisite to elucidating the nature of primeval galaxies, the chemical enrichment and reionization of the early intergalactic medium, and the origin of supermassive black holes. While the primordial initial mass function (IMF) remains unknown, recent evidence from numerical simulations and stellar archaeology suggests that some Pop III stars may have had lower masses than previously thought, 15-50 M ☉ in addition to 50-500 M ☉ . The detection of Pop III supernovae (SNe) by JWST, WFIRST, or the TMT could directly probe the primordial IMF for the first time. We present numerical simulations of 15-40 M ☉ Pop III core-collapse SNe performed with the Los Alamos radiation hydrodynamics code RAGE. We find that they will be visible in the earliest galaxies out to z ∼ 10-15, tracing their star formation rates and in some cases revealing their positions on the sky. Since the central engines of Pop III and solar-metallicity core-collapse SNe are quite similar, future detection of any Type II SNe by next-generation NIR instruments will in general be limited to this epoch.

  10. The Effects of Admixed Dark Matter on Accretion Induced Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shing-Chi; Chu, Ming-Chung; Lin, Lap-Ming; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    About 90% mass of matter in the universe is dark matter (DM) and most of its properties remain poorly constrained since it does not interact with electromagnetic and strong forces. To constrain the properties of DM, studying its effects on stellar objects is one of the methods. In [Leung et al., Phys. Rev. D 87, 123506 (2013); Leung et al., Astrophys. J. 812, 110 (2015)] we have shown that the dark matter admixture can significantly lower the Chandrasekhar mass of a white dwarf and also its corresponding explosion as a Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). This type of objects may explain some observed sub-luminous SNe Ia. Depending on their stellar evolution path and interactions with companion stars, such objects can also undergo a direct collapse to form neutron stars (NSs) instead of explosion. Here we present results of one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of a NS with admixed DM. The DM is assumed to be asymmetric and in the form of an ideal degenerate Fermi gas. We study how the admixture of DM affects the collapse dynamics, its neutrino signals and the properties of the proto-NS. Possible observational signals are also discussed.

  11. Collapsed state of polyglutamic acid results in amyloid spherulite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehli, Daniel; Mulaj, Mentor; Miti, Tatiana; Traina, Joshua; Foley, Joseph; Muschol, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of proteins and peptides into amyloid fibrils involves multiple distinct intermediates and late-stage fibrillar polymorphs. Understanding the conditions and mechanisms that promote the formation of one type of intermediate and polymorph over the other represents a fundamental challenge. Answers to this question are also of immediate biomedical relevance since different amyloid aggregate species have been shown to have distinct pathogenic potencies. One amyloid polymorph that has received comparatively little attention are amyloid spherulites. Here we report that self-assembly of the intrinsically disordered polymer poly(L-glutamic) acid (PLE) can generate amyloid spherulites. We characterize spherulite growth kinetics, as well as the morphological, optical and tinctorial features of this amyloid polymorph previously unreported for PLE. We find that PLE spherulites share both tinctorial and structural characteristics with their amyloid fibril counterparts. Differences in PLE's molecular weight, polydispersity or chemistry could not explain the selective propensity toward either fibril or spherulite formation. Instead, we provide evidence that PLE polymers can exist in either a collapsed globule or an extended random coil conformation. The collapsed globule consistently produces spherulites while the extended coil assembles into disordered fibril bundles. This results suggests that these 2 PLE conformers directly affect the morphology of the resulting macroscopic amyloid assembly.

  12. Collapsed state of polyglutamic acid results in amyloid spherulite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehli, Daniel; Mulaj, Mentor; Miti, Tatiana; Traina, Joshua; Foley, Joseph; Muschol, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of proteins and peptides into amyloid fibrils involves multiple distinct intermediates and late-stage fibrillar polymorphs. Understanding the conditions and mechanisms that promote the formation of one type of intermediate and polymorph over the other represents a fundamental challenge. Answers to this question are also of immediate biomedical relevance since different amyloid aggregate species have been shown to have distinct pathogenic potencies. One amyloid polymorph that has received comparatively little attention are amyloid spherulites. Here we report that self-assembly of the intrinsically disordered polymer poly(L-glutamic) acid (PLE) can generate amyloid spherulites. We characterize spherulite growth kinetics, as well as the morphological, optical and tinctorial features of this amyloid polymorph previously unreported for PLE. We find that PLE spherulites share both tinctorial and structural characteristics with their amyloid fibril counterparts. Differences in PLE's molecular weight, polydispersity or chemistry could not explain the selective propensity toward either fibril or spherulite formation. Instead, we provide evidence that PLE polymers can exist in either a collapsed globule or an extended random coil conformation. The collapsed globule consistently produces spherulites while the extended coil assembles into disordered fibril bundles. This results suggests that these 2 PLE conformers directly affect the morphology of the resulting macroscopic amyloid assembly. PMID:28232889

  13. Physical properties and collapse force of according to the z-position of poly-Si pattern using nano-tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo In; Lee, Chang Woo

    2011-02-01

    Nowadays, many researchers try to measure the collapse force of fine pattern. However, most of the researches use LFM to gauge it indirectly and LFM can measure not for collapse force directly but only limited for horizontal force. Thus, nano-scratch is suggested to measure the collapse force possibly. We used poly-Si pattern on Si plate and changed the z-location of the pattern. From these experiments, the stiffness was decease as depth increase from surface and well fitted with negative exponential curve. Also, the elastic modulus was decreased. From the results, the collapse force of poly-Si nano-patterns was decreased as the depth increased over than 30% from the surface and the maximum collapse force was 26.91 microN and pattern was collapsed between poly-Si and plate.

  14. KEEP Language Research Strategy. Technical Report #14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Roland G.; Gallimore, Ronald

    This paper outlines the strategies of Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) language research, and briefly reviews the findings through Spring 1974. A major research emphasis has been placed on the assessment of Standard English comptence of Hawaii school children. (CM)

  15. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...

  16. Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS) is part of the Clinical Information Support System (CISS) portal framework and the initial CISS partner system. OHRS...

  17. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  18. Collapse dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel Alan

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are micron-sized gas bubbles encapsulated with thin shells on the order of nanometers thick. The damping effects of these viscoelastic coatings are widely known to significantly alter the bubble dynamics for linear and low-amplitude behavior; however, their effects on strongly nonlinear and destruction responses are much less studied. This dissertation examines the behaviors of single collapsing shelled microbubbles using experimental and theoretical methods. The study of their dynamics is particularly relevant for emerging experimental uses of UCAs which seek to leverage localized mechanical forces to create or avoid specialized biomedical effects. The central component in this work is the study of postexcitation rebound and collapse, observed acoustically to identify shell rupture and transient inertial cavitation of single UCA microbubbles. This time-domain analysis of the acoustic response provides a unique method for characterization of UCA destruction dynamics. The research contains a systematic documentation of single bubble postexcitation collapse through experimental measurement with the double passive cavitation detection (PCD) system at frequencies ranging from 0.9 to 7.1 MHz and peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes (PRPA) ranging from 230 kPa to 6.37 MPa. The double PCD setup is shown to improve the quality of collected data over previous setups by allowing symmetric responses from a localized confocal region to be identified. Postexcitation signal percentages are shown to generally follow trends consistent with other similar cavitation metrics such as inertial cavitation, with greater destruction observed at both increased PRPA and lower frequency over the tested ranges. Two different types of commercially available UCAs are characterized and found to have very different collapse thresholds; lipid-shelled Definity exhibits greater postexcitation at lower PRPAs than albumin-shelled Optison. Furthermore, by altering

  19. Collapse of Incoherent Light Beams in Inertial Bulk Kerr Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Edmundson, Darran; Królikowski, Wieslaw

    1999-01-01

    We use the coherent density function theory to show that partially coherent beams are unstable and may collapse in inertial bulk Kerr media. The threshold power for collapse, and its dependence on the degree of coherence, is found analytically and checked-numerically. The internal dynamics of the...... of the walk-off modes is illustrated for collapsing and diffracting partially coherent beams.......We use the coherent density function theory to show that partially coherent beams are unstable and may collapse in inertial bulk Kerr media. The threshold power for collapse, and its dependence on the degree of coherence, is found analytically and checked-numerically. The internal dynamics...

  20. Gravitational collapse from smooth initial data with vanishing radial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Ashutosh; Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S

    2005-01-01

    We study here the spherical gravitational collapse assuming initial data to be necessarily smooth, as motivated by requirements based on physical reasonableness. A tangential pressure model is constructed and analysed in order to understand the final fate of collapse explicitly in terms of the density and pressure parameters at the initial epoch from which the collapse develops. It is seen that both black holes and naked singularities are produced as collapse end states even when the initial data are smooth. We show that the outcome is decided entirely in terms of the initial data, as given by density, pressure and velocity profiles at the initial epoch, from which the collapse evolves

  1. Keeping HL-LHC accountable

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This week saw the cost and schedule of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) and LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) projects come under close scrutiny from the external review committee set up for the purpose.    HL-LHC, whose implementation requires an upgrade to the CERN injector complex, responds directly to one of the key recommendations of the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, which urges CERN to prepare for a ‘major luminosity upgrade’, a recommendation that is also perfectly in line with the P5 report on the US strategy for the field. Responding to this recommendation, CERN set up the HL-LHC project in 2013, partially supported by FP7 funding through the HiLumi LHC Design Study (2011-2015), and coordinated with the American LARP project, which oversees the US contribution to the upgrade. A key element of HL-LHC planning is a mechanism for receiving independent expert advice on all aspects of the project.  To this end, several technical reviews h...

  2. O(d, - Collapse/inflation in Colliding Superstring Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, V.; Veneziano, G.

    2002-12-01

    The present formulation of pre-big bang cosmology relies on the principle of asymptotic past triviality (APT)1 , i.e. on the assumption that, in its initial state, the Universe was in a low-curvature, small-coupling regime and was thus adequately described in terms of the low-energy, tree-level effective action of string theory. The early universe can thus be visualized as a chaotic superposition of massless waves, seen as excitations over a trivial Minkowski background. The superposition of these perturbations can eventually lead to the gravitational collapse of the interaction region. Measuring distances in string units, such a collapse can become an inflationary, dilaton-driven, expansion. According to the scenario depicted in Ref. 1, the collapse/inflation of sufficiently large regions could then evolve in a universe resembling our own. An explicit example of this phenomenon was given by Feinstein, Kunze & Vázquez-Mozo2 who studied a particular exact solution of the field equations describing the collision of two four-dimensional gravi-dilatonic plane waves. In our work3, including from the start the Kalb-Ramond Bμν 2-form in an arbitrary number D of space-time dimensions we recover their result in a more general O(d, d)-invariant formulation, allowing a full investigation of a wider class of solutions. The two plane waves are taken to travel in opposite directions along the same axis, so that, assuming plane symmetry, all fields are functions of the time coordinate and the common direction of propagation z. The problem is thus endowed with d = D - 2 abelian isometries, the action being invariant for translations along the transverse directions. In this situation, it is possible to write the action in terms of the restriction of the metric on the non-trivial coordinates (t, z), the shifted dilaton and a 2d × 2d matrix M built by combining the remaining components of the metric and the antisymmetric field...

  3. Metastability versus collapse following a quench in attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, Jake; Ruhl, Joanna; Olshanii, Maxim; Dunjko, Vanja; Datta, Sumita; Malomed, Boris A.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with attractive two-body interactions in a cigar-shaped trap, initially prepared in its ground state for a given negative scattering length, which is quenched to a larger absolute value of the scattering length. Using the mean-field approximation, we compute numerically, for an experimentally relevant range of aspect ratios and initial strengths of the coupling, two critical values of quench. One corresponds to the weakest attraction strength, the quench to which causes the system to collapse before completing even a single return from the narrow configuration (pericenter) in its breathing cycle. The other is a similar critical point for the occurrence of collapse before completing two returns. In the latter case, we also compute the limiting value, as we keep increasing the strength of the postquench attraction towards its critical value, of the time interval between the first two pericenters. We also use a Gaussian variational model to estimate the critical quenched attraction strength below which the system is stable against the collapse for long times. These time intervals and critical attraction strengths, apart from being fundamental properties of nonlinear dynamics of self-attractive BECs, may provide clues to the design of upcoming experiments that are trying to create robust BEC breathers.

  4. Collapsible Photovoltaic Module for a Large-Scale Solar Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An elongate photovoltaic (PV) module for use in a solar energy conversion plant for the production of electricity from incident light, the PV-module comprising a top portion with a support panel (G) carrying on a front side a plurality of electrically connected PV cells (D), and a transparent...... protective layer (A) sealed to the support panel (G) so as to encapsulate the PV-cells (D) between the support panel (G) and the protective layer (A), wherein prior to installation of the PV-module at the deployment site a collapsible portion of the PV-module is configured to be collapsible in a longitudinal...... direction by folding and/or rolling, wherein the collapsible portion includes at least the top portion, wherein the PV-module further comprises one or more integrated ballast chambers (I) in a bottom portion of the PV-module arranged on a rear side of the support panel (G), wherein said integrated ballast...

  5. Asymmetries in core-collapse supernovae from maps of radioactive 44Ti in Cassiopeia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grefenstette, B W; Harrison, F A; Boggs, S E

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry is required by most numerical simulations of stellar core-collapse explosions, but the form it takes differs significantly among models. The spatial distribution of radioactive (44)Ti, synthesized in an exploding star near the boundary between material falling back onto the collapsing...... core and that ejected into the surrounding medium, directly probes the explosion asymmetries. Cassiopeia A is a young, nearby, core-collapse remnant from which (44)Ti emission has previously been detected but not imaged. Asymmetries in the explosion have been indirectly inferred from a high ratio...... and iron X-ray emission, the latter being visible only in shock-heated material. The observed spatial distribution rules out symmetric explosions even with a high level of convective mixing, as well as highly asymmetric bipolar explosions resulting from a fast-rotating progenitor. Instead...

  6. Collapse of the wave function models, ontology, origin, and implications

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This is the first single volume about the collapse theories of quantum mechanics, which is becoming a very active field of research in both physics and philosophy. In standard quantum mechanics, it is postulated that when the wave function of a quantum system is measured, it no longer follows the Schrödinger equation, but instantaneously and randomly collapses to one of the wave functions that correspond to definite measurement results. However, why and how a definite measurement result appears is unknown. A promising solution to this problem are collapse theories in which the collapse of the wave function is spontaneous and dynamical. Chapters written by distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics discuss the origin and implications of wave-function collapse, the controversies around collapse models and their ontologies, and new arguments for the reality of wave function collapse. This is an invaluable resource for students and researchers interested in the philosophy of physics and foundations of ...

  7. Collapse susceptibility mapping in karstified gypsum terrain (Sivas basin - Turkey) by conditional probability, logistic regression, artificial neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Isik; Keskin, Inan; Marschalko, Marian; Bednarik, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This study compares the GIS based collapse susceptibility mapping methods such as; conditional probability (CP), logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) applied in gypsum rock masses in Sivas basin (Turkey). Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was first constructed using GIS software. Collapse-related factors, directly or indirectly related to the causes of collapse occurrence, such as distance from faults, slope angle and aspect, topographical elevation, distance from drainage, topographic wetness index- TWI, stream power index- SPI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) by means of vegetation cover, distance from roads and settlements were used in the collapse susceptibility analyses. In the last stage of the analyses, collapse susceptibility maps were produced from CP, LR and ANN models, and they were then compared by means of their validations. Area Under Curve (AUC) values obtained from all three methodologies showed that the map obtained from ANN model looks like more accurate than the other models, and the results also showed that the artificial neural networks is a usefull tool in preparation of collapse susceptibility map and highly compatible with GIS operating features. Key words: Collapse; doline; susceptibility map; gypsum; GIS; conditional probability; logistic regression; artificial neural networks.

  8. An assessment on the use of bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques for collapse susceptibility in GIS environ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Işik; Marschalko, Marian; Bednarik, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The paper presented herein compares and discusses the use of bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques for collapse susceptibility modelling. Conditional probability (CP), logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) models representing the bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques were used in GIS based collapse susceptibility mapping in an area from Sivas basin (Turkey). Collapse-related factors, directly or indirectly related to the causes of collapse occurrence, such as distance from faults, slope angle and aspect, topographical elevation, distance from drainage, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) by means of vegetation cover, distance from roads and settlements were used in the collapse susceptibility analyses. In the last stage of the analyses, collapse susceptibility maps were produced from the models, and they were then compared by means of their validations. However, Area Under Curve (AUC) values obtained from all three models showed that the map obtained from soft computing (ANN) model looks like more accurate than the other models, accuracies of all three models can be evaluated relatively similar. The results also showed that the conditional probability is an essential method in preparation of collapse susceptibility map and highly compatible with GIS operating features.

  9. Magnetically regulated collapse in the B335 protostar? I. ALMA observations of the polarized dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, A. J.; Girart, J. M.; Zhang, Q.; Hennebelle, P.; Keto, E.; Rao, R.; Lai, S.-P.; Ohashi, N.; Galametz, M.

    2018-03-01

    The role of the magnetic field during protostellar collapse is poorly constrained from an observational point of view, although it could be significant if we believe state-of-the-art models of protostellar formation. We present polarimetric observations of the 233 GHz thermal dust continuum emission obtained with ALMA in the B335 Class 0 protostar. Linearly polarized dust emission arising from the circumstellar material in the envelope of B335 is detected at all scales probed by our observations, from radii of 50 to 1000 au. The magnetic field structure producing the dust polarization has a very ordered topology in the inner envelope, with a transition from a large-scale poloidal magnetic field, in the outflow direction, to strongly pinched in the equatorial direction. This is probably due to magnetic field lines being dragged along the dominating infall direction since B335 does not exhibit prominent rotation. Our data and their qualitative comparison to a family of magnetized protostellar collapse models show that, during the magnetized collapse in B335, the magnetic field is maintaining a high level of organization from scales 1000 au to 50 au: this suggests the field is dynamically relevant and capable of influencing the typical outcome of protostellar collapse, such as regulating the disk size in B335.

  10. Magnetically regulated collapse in the B335 protostar? I. ALMA observations of the polarized dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, A. J.; Girart, J. M.; Zhang, Q.; Hennebelle, P.; Keto, E.; Rao, R.; Lai, S.-P.; Ohashi, N.; Galametz, M.

    2018-06-01

    The role of the magnetic field during protostellar collapse is poorly constrained from an observational point of view, although it could be significant if we believe state-of-the-art models of protostellar formation. We present polarimetric observations of the 233 GHz thermal dust continuum emission obtained with ALMA in the B335 Class 0 protostar. Linearly polarized dust emission arising from the circumstellar material in the envelope of B335 is detected at all scales probed by our observations (50 to 1000 au). The magnetic field structure producing the dust polarization has a very ordered topology in the inner envelope, with a transition from a large-scale poloidal magnetic field, in the outflow direction, to strongly pinched in the equatorial direction. This is probably due to magnetic field lines being dragged along the dominating infall direction since B335 does not exhibit prominent rotation. Our data and their qualitative comparison to a family of magnetized protostellar collapse models show that, during the magnetized collapse in B335, the magnetic field is maintaining a high level of organization from scales 1000 au to 50 au: this suggests the field is dynamically relevant and capable of influencing the typical outcome of protostellar collapse, such as regulating the disc size in B335.

  11. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  12. Holographic probes of collapsing black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maxfield, Henry

    2014-01-01

    We continue the programme of exploring the means of holographically decoding the geometry of spacetime inside a black hole using the gauge/gravity correspondence. To this end, we study the behaviour of certain extremal surfaces (focusing on those relevant for equal-time correlators and entanglement entropy in the dual CFT) in a dynamically evolving asymptotically AdS spacetime, specifically examining how deep such probes reach. To highlight the novel effects of putting the system far out of equilibrium and at finite volume, we consider spherically symmetric Vaidya-AdS, describing black hole formation by gravitational collapse of a null shell, which provides a convenient toy model of a quantum quench in the field theory. Extremal surfaces anchored on the boundary exhibit rather rich behaviour, whose features depend on dimension of both the spacetime and the surface, as well as on the anchoring region. The main common feature is that they reach inside the horizon even in the post-collapse part of the geometry. In 3-dimensional spacetime, we find that for sub-AdS-sized black holes, the entire spacetime is accessible by the restricted class of geodesics whereas in larger black holes a small region near the imploding shell cannot be reached by any boundary-anchored geodesic. In higher dimensions, the deepest reach is attained by geodesics which (despite being asymmetric) connect equal time and antipodal boundary points soon after the collapse; these can attain spacetime regions of arbitrarily high curvature and simultaneously have smallest length. Higher-dimensional surfaces can penetrate the horizon while anchored on the boundary at arbitrarily late times, but are bounded away from the singularity. We also study the details of length or area growth during thermalization. While the area of extremal surfaces increases monotonically, geodesic length is neither monotonic nor continuous

  13. Gravitational collapse of conventional polytropic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Hu, Xu-Yao

    2017-07-01

    In reference to general polytropic and conventional polytropic hydrodynamic cylinders of infinite length with axial uniformity and axisymmetry under self-gravity, the dynamic evolution of central collapsing mass string in free-fall dynamic accretion phase is re-examined in details. We compare the central mass accretion rate and the envelope mass infall rate at small radii. Among others, we correct mistakes and typos of Kawachi & Hanawa (KH hereafter) and in particular prove that their key asymptotic free-fall solution involving polytropic index γ in the two power exponents is erroneous by analytical analyses and numerical tests. The correct free-fall asymptotic solutions at sufficiently small \\hat{r} (the dimensionless independent self-similar variable) scale as {˜ } -|ln \\hat{r}|^{1/2} in contrast to KH's ˜ -|ln \\hat{r}|^{(2-γ )/2} for the reduced bulk radial flow velocity and as {˜ } \\hat{r}^{-1}|ln \\hat{r}|^{-1/2} in contrast to KH's {˜ } \\hat{r}^{-1} |ln \\hat{r}|^{-(2-γ )/2} for the reduced mass density. We offer consistent scenarios for numerical simulation code testing and theoretical study on dynamic filamentary structure formation and evolution as well as pertinent stability properties. Due to unavoidable Jeans instabilities along the cylinder, such collapsing massive filaments or strings can further break up into clumps and segments of various lengths as well as clumps embedded within segments and evolve into chains of gravitationally collapsed objects (such as gaseous planets, brown dwarfs, protostars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes in a wide mass range, globular clusters, dwarf spheroidals, galaxies, galaxy clusters and even larger mass reservoirs etc.) in various astrophysical and cosmological contexts as articulated by Lou & Hu recently. As an example, we present a model scheme for comparing with observations of molecular filaments for forming protostars, brown dwarfs and gaseous planets and so forth.

  14. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed

  15. Formation and collapse of internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.I.; Yagi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical model of internal transport barrier (ITB) is developed. The transport model based on the self-sustained turbulence theory of the current-diffusive ballooning mode is extended to include the effects of ExB rotation shear. Delayed formation of ITB is observed in transport simulations. The influence of finite gyroradius is also discussed. Simulation of the current ramp-up experiment successfully described the radial profile of density, temperature and safety factor. A model of ITB collapse due to magnetic braiding is proposed. Sudden enhancement of transport triggered by overlapping of magnetic islands terminates ITB. The possibility of destabilizing global low-n modes is also discussed. (author)

  16. Formation and collapse of internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical model of internal transport barrier (ITB) is developed. The transport model based on the self-sustained turbulence theory of the current-diffusive ballooning mode is extended to include the effects of ExB rotation shear. Delayed formation of ITB is observed in transport simulations. The influence of finite gyroradius is also discussed. Simulation of the current ramp-up experiment successfully described the radial profile of density, temperature and safety factor. A model of ITB collapse due to magnetic braiding is proposed. Sudden enhancement of transport triggered by overlaping of magnetic islands terminates ITB. The possibility of destabilizing global low-n modes is also discussed. (author)

  17. Causes of New Zealand finance company collapses: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Yahanpath

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006 - 2010, 49 finance companies, in New Zealand, collapsed or entered moratoriums, owing investors in excess of $8 billion, and the fingers of blame continue to point in circles. The blame for this tremendous financial crisis is extensive and a consolidation of arguments is essential for the wider understanding of the topic and to put responsibilities into perspective. A part of this paper is to recognize who can and is being held legally responsible for investors’ sake, and also identify parties who have failed their responsibilities. We have highlighted the major issues created by corporate governance being the most direct cause of finance company failure in NZ. We believe in some way these findings will help avoid a similar crisis in the future and resolve a still commonly blurred line in public opinion.

  18. Particle swarm optimization for determining shortest distance to voltage collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, L.D.; Choube, S.C. [Electrical Engineering Department, S.G.S.I.T.S. Indore, MP 452 003 (India); Shrivastava, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College Ujjain, MP 456 010 (India); Kothari, D.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    This paper describes an algorithm for computing shortest distance to voltage collapse or determination of CSNBP using PSO technique. A direction along CSNBP gives conservative results from voltage security view point. This information is useful to the operator to steer the system away from this point by taking corrective actions. The distance to a closest bifurcation is a minimum of the loadability given a slack bus or participation factors for increasing generation as the load increases. CSNBP determination has been formulated as an optimization problem to be used in PSO technique. PSO is a new evolutionary algorithm (EA) which is population based inspired by the social behavior of animals such as fish schooling and birds flocking. It can handle optimization problems with any complexity since mechanization is simple with few parameters to be tuned. The developed algorithm has been implemented on two standard test systems. (author)

  19. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Chen

    1988-01-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion

  20. Anomalous polymer collapse winding angle distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narros, A.; Owczarek, A. L.; Prellberg, T.

    2018-03-01

    In two dimensions polymer collapse has been shown to be complex with multiple low temperature states and multi-critical points. Recently, strong numerical evidence has been provided for a long-standing prediction of universal scaling of winding angle distributions, where simulations of interacting self-avoiding walks show that the winding angle distribution for N-step walks is compatible with the theoretical prediction of a Gaussian with a variance growing asymptotically as Clog N . Here we extend this work by considering interacting self-avoiding trails which are believed to be a model representative of some of the more complex behaviour. We provide robust evidence that, while the high temperature swollen state of this model has a winding angle distribution that is also Gaussian, this breaks down at the polymer collapse point and at low temperatures. Moreover, we provide some evidence that the distributions are well modelled by stretched/compressed exponentials, in contradistinction to the behaviour found in interacting self-avoiding walks. Dedicated to Professor Stu Whittington on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

  1. Design and Analysis of Collapsible Scissor Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mohamad Nabil Aklif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Collapsible scissor bridge is a portable bridge that can be deployed during emergency state to access remote areas that are affected by disaster such as flood. The objective of this research is to design a collapsible scissor bridge which is able to be transported by a 4x4 vehicle and to be deployed to connect remote areas. The design is done by using Solidworks and numerical analysis for structural strength is conducted via ANSYS. The research starts with parameters setting and modelling. Finite element analysis is conducted to analyze the strength by determining the safety factor of the bridge. Kutzbach equation is also analyzed to ensure that the mechanism is able to meet the targeted degree of motion. There are five major components of the scissor structure; pin, deck, cross shaft and deck shaft. The structure is controlled by hydraulic pump driven by a motor for the motions. Material used in simulation is A36 structural steel due to limited library in ANSYS. However, the proposed material is Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP composites as they have a high strength to weight ratio. FRP also tends to be corrosion resistance and this characteristic is useful in flooded area.

  2. Suggestions of keeping L2 motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌

    2014-01-01

    How will we keep the motivation during the second language as long as we can, which confuses us, though what the L2 motivation is and how it is developed have been discussed by the psychologists, educators, etc. The aim of this passage is to clarify the basic content of motivation, including the definition, classification, importance, etc. how the current situation is in se-nior high students’English learning motivation, what should be done to keep such motivation. In the following part, it will be read that the introduction, the chapter stating the content and classification of (L 2) motivation, the chapter analyzing the necessity and state of L2 motivation at senor high, the chapter offering approach to keep that motivation, and the conclusion. All of them use the comparison, explanation and cites.

  3. Interfacial free energy governs single polystyrene chain collapse in water and aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Isaac T S; Walker, Gilbert C

    2010-05-12

    The hydrophobic interaction is significantly responsible for driving protein folding and self-assembly. To understand it, the thermodynamics, the role of water structure, the dewetting process surrounding hydrophobes, and related aspects have undergone extensive investigations. Here, we examine the hypothesis that polymer-solvent interfacial free energy is adequate to describe the energetics of the collapse of a hydrophobic homopolymer chain at fixed temperature, which serves as a much simplified model for studying the hydrophobic collapse of a protein. This implies that changes in polymer-solvent interfacial free energy should be directly proportional to the force to extend a collapsed polymer into a bad solvent. To test this hypothesis, we undertook single-molecule force spectroscopy on a collapsed, single, polystyrene chain in water-ethanol and water-salt mixtures where we measured the monomer solvation free energy from an ensemble average conformations. Different proportions within the binary mixture were used to create solvents with different interfacial free energies with polystyrene. In these mixed solvents, we observed a linear correlation between the interfacial free energy and the force required to extend the chain into solution, which is a direct measure of the solvation free energy per monomer on a single chain at room temperature. A simple analytical model compares favorably with the experimental results. This knowledge supports a common assumption that explicit water solvent may not be necessary for cases whose primary concerns are hydrophobic interactions and hydrophobic hydration.

  4. [The evolution of nursing record-keeping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didry, Pascale

    2017-05-01

    Nursing record-keeping forms an integral part of the provision of care. It helps to assure its traceability and monitoring. It also contributes to the circulation of information among the different players involved in the patient's treatment, thereby helping to assure the quality and safety of care. For nurses, whose professional history has its roots in a culture of oral communication, record-keeping represents the affirmation of a real nursing way of thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Keeping a Journal: A Path to Uncovering Identity (and Keeping Your Sanity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joanne E.

    2013-01-01

    A journal can help keep a person more organized, clarify their identity, and help them grapple with them own sense of belonging in the often bewildering world of academe. In this article, the author discusses: (1) the benefits and uses of keeping a journal; (2) Techniques for writing in a journal; and (3) Drawbacks of journal writing.

  6. Social and cognitive factors associated with children's secret-keeping for a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Heidi M; Lyon, Thomas D; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children's secret-keeping for a parent and its relation to trust, theory of mind, secrecy endorsement, and executive functioning (EF). Children (N = 107) between 4 and 12 years of age participated in a procedure wherein parents broke a toy and asked children to promise secrecy. Responses to open-ended and direct questions were examined. Overall, secret-keeping increased with age and promising to keep the secret was related to fewer disclosures in open-ended questioning. Children who kept the secret in direct questioning exhibited greater trust and better parental ratings of EF than children who disclosed the secret. Findings highlight the importance of both social and cognitive factors in secret-keeping development. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Social and cognitive factors associated with children’s secret-keeping for a parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Heidi M.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children’s secret-keeping for a parent and its relationship to trust, theory of mind, secrecy endorsement, and executive functioning (EF). Children (N = 107) between 4 and 12 years of age participated in a procedure wherein parents broke a toy and asked children to promise secrecy. Responses to open-ended and direct questions were examined. Overall, secret-keeping increased with age and promising to keep the secret was related to fewer disclosures in open-ended questioning. Children who kept the secret in direct questioning exhibited greater trust and better parental ratings of EF than children who disclosed the secret. Findings highlight the importance of both social and cognitive factors in secret-keeping development. PMID:25291258

  8. NRPB TLD and dose record keeping service - further progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenslade, E.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the National Radiological Protection Board's service are described. An increasing number of UK employers are transferring from film monitors, and record keeping is now provided for both large and small groups of workers. Data entry directly from punched cards prepared by the larger employers has reduced initial costs and therefore carries a reduced registration fee for these users. Computerized dose record keeping allows automatic retrieval of cumulative dose information from any NRPB record of previous employment, thus safeguarding itinerant workers. Warning Dose Reports are issued automatically when cumulative dose totals reach or exceed 60% of a limit, or when a dose rate greater than 0.1 rem per 4 weeks is recorded. Flexibility in wearing period results in dosemeter economy and reduces laboratory work load. High recorded doses can be checked by UV stimulation of both disks to confirm the accuracy of the previous measurement. Employers are provided with a comprehensive and accurate monitoring package, fulfilling HSE requirements and exempting employers from their former responsibility to keep their own comprehensive records. (UK)

  9. Small-angle neutron scattering study of micropore collapse in amorphous solid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterdorfer, Christian; Bauer, Marion; Youngs, Tristan G A; Bowron, Daniel T; Hill, Catherine R; Fraser, Helen J; Finney, John L; Loerting, Thomas

    2014-08-14

    Vapor-deposited amorphous solid water (ASW) is the most abundant solid molecular material in space, where it plays a direct role in both the formation of more complex chemical species and the aggregation of icy materials in the earliest stages of planet formation. Nevertheless, some of its low temperature physics such as the collapse of the micropore network upon heating are still far from being understood. Here we characterize the nature of the micropores and their collapse using neutron scattering of gram-quantities of D2O-ASW of internal surface areas up to 230 ± 10 m(2) g(-1) prepared at 77 K. The model-free interpretation of the small-angle scattering data suggests micropores, which remain stable up to 120-140 K and then experience a sudden collapse. The exact onset temperature to pore collapse depends on the type of flow conditions employed in the preparation of ASW and, thus, the specific surface area of the initial deposit, whereas the onset of crystallization to cubic ice is unaffected by the flow conditions. Analysis of the small-angle neutron scattering signal using the Guinier-Porod model suggests that a sudden transition from three-dimensional cylindrical pores with 15 Å radius of gyration to two-dimensional lamellae is the mechanism underlying the pore collapse. The rather high temperature of about 120-140 K of micropore collapse and the 3D-to-2D type of the transition unraveled in this study have implications for our understanding of the processing and evolution of ices in various astrophysical environments.

  10. Non-Spherical Gravitational Collapse of Strange Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zade S S; Patil K D; Mulkalwar P N

    2008-01-01

    We study the non-spherical gravitational collapse of the strange quark null fluid.The interesting feature which emerges is that the non-spherical collapse of charged strange quark matter leads to a naked singularity whereas the gravitational collapse of neutral quark matter proceeds to form a black hole.We extend the earlier work of Harko and Cheng[Phys.Lett.A 266 (2000) 249]to the non-spherical case.

  11. Collapsing dynamics of attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The self-similar collapse of 3D and quasi-2D atom condensates with negative scattering length is examined. 3D condensates are shown to blow up following the scenario of weak collapse, for which 3-body recombination weakly dissipates the atoms. In contrast, 2D condensates undergo a strong collapse......, that absorbs a significant amount of particles. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. The collapse of acoustic waves in dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Musher, S.L.; Shafarenko, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of the collapse of acoustic waves with a positive dispersion is demonstrated. A qualitative description of wave collapse, based on the analysis of invariants, is proposed. Through the use of a numerical simulation, it is established that, in the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili three-dimensional equation, collapse is accompanied by the formation of a weakly turbulent background by the wave radiation from the cavity

  13. The Wang-Meng interacting model and the gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Miguel de

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Several alternatives have appear in the literature to supply the accelerated process of universal expansion, and the simplest possibility is to consider the inclusion of a cosmological constant. The inclusion can be realized in both sides of the Einstein field equations, furnishing different physical interpretations in accord with the side of the Einstein field equations where the Λ is added. Considering the inclusion of the cosmological constant in the energy momentum tensor, this additional content is generally interpreted as the energy storage on the vacuum state of all fields in the universe. The inclusion of a vacuum component in the universal fluid furnishes an excellent description of the observed universe, but from the theoretical point of view we do not understand why the vacuum energy is so small and of the same order of magnitude of the matter density (cosmological constant problem). Depending on the point of view of the cosmological constant problem, competing approaches were developed considering a dynamical cosmological 'constant'. A more richer possibility is to consider a non-gravitational interaction models, where the interaction can occur between the dark components, the ordinary matter, and they do not evolve separately. The coupling between dark matter and dark energy has been considered in the literature in a three different ways: dark matter decaying to dark energy; dark energy decaying to dark matter; interacting in both directions. Wang and Meng (CQG 22, 283,2005) considered an alternative to the usual approach for the decay law of the Λ-term assuming the effect of the vacuum in the matter expansion rate. The simple manner adopt by the authors unified several current models that includes a vacuum decaying component interacting with matter content. The vacuum component alters the dynamics of the universal expansion process, then is a natural question: how is the influence of the vacuum energy in the gravitational collapse with a

  14. Radiologic evaluation of right middle lobe collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwun, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Deok; Kim, Jong Chul

    1989-01-01

    There are many pathogenetic factors for collapse of right middle lobe; profuse peribronchial clustering of lymph nodes about the right middle lobe bronchus, poor drainage of the bronchus because of its acute angle of take-off from the intermediate bronchus, and the isolation of this small lobe from the right upper and lower lobes, and thus from the aerating effects of collateral ventilation. Retrospectively we reviewed 36 cases of right of right middle lobe collapse of which causes were confirmed by histopathologic or bronchographic findings during the recent 6 years from March 1983 to February 1988 at Inje College Pusan Paik Hospital, and obtained the following results: 1. Male to female ratio was 1:1:4,and peak incidence (64%) was in the fifth and sixth decades with the mean age of 51.1 years. 2. Bronchiectasis was the most common cause (30.6%), and the others were chronic bronchitis (25.0%), pulmonary tuberculosis (19.4%), lung cancer (16.7%), and non-specific inflammatory disease (8.3%). This suggests benign disease is 5 times more common cause of right middle lobe collapse than lung cancer. 3. Among the plain chest radiolograph findings, obliteration of right cardiac border and triangular radiopaque density were the most frequent findings(77.8% in each) and the next was downward and anterior displacement of minor and major fissures (55.6%) 4. Bronchography was done in 11 cases; bronchiectasis was found in 8 cases and chronic bronchitis in 3 cases. Right middle lobe bronchus was obstructed in 2 cases of chronic bronchitis. 5. Chest CT scan was performed in 4 cases of lung cancer, 2 of non-specific inflammatory disease, and 1 of pulmonary tuberculosis: all of lung cancer revealed hilar mass, budged or lobulated fissures, in homogenous density, and mediastinal lymph node enlargement, and all benign disease showed homogenous density and flat to concave fissures. Right middle lobar bronchus narrowing was seen in 5 cases and its obstruction in 2 cases

  15. The onset of coherence collapse in DBR lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, S.L.; Koch, T.L.; Koren, U.

    1990-01-01

    The authors investigate how the onset of coherence collapse depends on laser output power. The lasers were three-section multiquantum-well distributed-Bragg-reflector (MQW-DBR) lasers. The fraction of light reflected back into the lasing mode was varied, and the point at which the transition to coherence collapse occurred was measured. This feedback level varies approximately linearly with laser output power. For these lasers, when the output power is 1 mW, the transition to coherence collapse beings when the optical feedback into the lasing mode is below - 40 dBm; when the feedback power is - 35 dBm the laser line is completely collapsed

  16. Developing empirical collapse fragility functions for global building types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; D'Ayala, D.

    2011-01-01

    Building collapse is the dominant cause of casualties during earthquakes. In order to better predict human fatalities, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program requires collapse fragility functions for global building types. The collapse fragility is expressed as the probability of collapse at discrete levels of the input hazard defined in terms of macroseismic intensity. This article provides a simple procedure for quantifying collapse fragility using vulnerability criteria based on the European Macroseismic Scale (1998) for selected European building types. In addition, the collapse fragility functions are developed for global building types by fitting the beta distribution to the multiple experts’ estimates for the same building type (obtained from EERI’s World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE)-PAGER survey). Finally, using the collapse probability distributions at each shaking intensity level as a prior and field-based collapse-rate observations as likelihood, it is possible to update the collapse fragility functions for global building types using the Bayesian procedure.

  17. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  18. Keep the best of your life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stultiens, Andrea

    Keep the Best of Your Life (for the Rest of Your Life) is part Making Oneself ‘a twofold exhibition of both historical investigations and contemporary showcases of photo studio practises in South and Southeast Asia and Uganda.’ ‘Making Oneself’ was one exhibitions of the Noorderlicht Photo festival

  19. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  20. Being@: keep company with electronic evidence!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, J.; Hopstaken, Kees

    2000-01-01

    The title heading this paper Being@ keep company with electronic evedence is referring to an university training on the Internet which is processing insight into how science 'works' (in the active sense of the word) under the articulation of information- and communication technology (ICT) and

  1. Towards station-keeping using GPI controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    In this paper, we propose to use a Generalized Proportional-Integral controller for station-keeping of a ship. For output feedback, this has the advantage of not requiring the use of an asymptotic Luenberger or Kalman observer. After describing the methodology for the simple case of controlling...

  2. Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Recycling Project Successful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Victor R.

    1975-01-01

    Through the efforts of community groups, the support of local industries, and the state government, Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Inc. (KNMB) is now operating a large-scale recycling business. KNMB has been able to save tons of natural resources, provide local employment, and educate the public to this environmental concern. (MA)

  3. Web Tools: Keeping Learners on Pace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloski, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching technology and engineering is pacing. Some students grasp new technological concepts quickly, while others need repetition and may struggle to keep pace. This poses an obstacle for the technology and engineering teacher, and is particularly true when teaching students to build a website. However, there…

  4. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  5. Improvement of group collapsing in TRANSX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Tae; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Kyun

    1996-07-01

    A cross section generating and processing computer code TRANSX version 2.15 in the K-CORE system, being developed by the KAERI LMR core design technology development team produces various cross section input files appropriated for flux calculation options from the cross section library MATXS. In this report, a group collapsing function of TRANSX has been improved to utilize the zone averaged flux file RZFLUX written in double precision as flux weighting functions. As a result, an iterative calculation system using double precision RZFLUX consisting of the cross section data library file MATXS, the effective cross section producing and processing code TRANSX, and the transport theory calculation code TWODANT has been set up and verified through a sample model calculation. 4 refs. (Author)

  6. Magnetorotational Explosions of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by formation of neutron stars. The gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed as SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. We present results of 2-D MHD simulations, where the source of energy is rotation, and magnetic eld serves as a "transition belt" for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of the explosion. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy initially grows linearly with time due to dierential rotation. When the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal eld, magneto-rotational instability develops, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. Finally, a fast MHD shock is formed, producing a supernova explosion. Mildly collimated jet is produced for dipole-like type of the initial field. At very high initial magnetic field no MRI development was found.

  7. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cañate, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.canate@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-09

    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  8. Asymptotic safety, singularities, and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Mirza, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic safety (an ultraviolet fixed point with finite-dimensional critical surface) offers the possibility that a predictive theory of quantum gravity can be obtained from the quantization of classical general relativity. However, it is unclear what becomes of the singularities of classical general relativity, which, it is hoped, might be resolved by quantum effects. We study dust collapse with a running gravitational coupling and find that a future singularity can be avoided if the coupling becomes exactly zero at some finite energy scale. The singularity can also be avoided (pushed off to infinite proper time) if the coupling approaches zero sufficiently rapidly at high energies. However, the evolution deduced from perturbation theory still implies a singularity at finite proper time.

  9. On spontaneous photon emission in collapse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L; Bassi, Angelo; Donadi, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    We reanalyze the problem of spontaneous photon emission in collapse models. We show that the extra term found by Bassi and Dürr is present for non-white (colored) noise, but its coefficient is proportional to the zero frequency Fourier component of the noise. This leads one to suspect that the extra term is an artifact. When the calculation is repeated with the final electron in a wave packet and with the noise confined to a bounded region, the extra term vanishes in the limit of continuum state normalization. The result obtained by Fu and by Adler and Ramazanoğlu from application of the Golden Rule is then recovered. (paper)

  10. Gas and vapor bubble growth and collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, J.; Reali, M.; Sardella, L.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of growth or collapse of a spherical bubble of gas or vapor under the effect of a nonequilibrium with the ambient liquid can be expressed in terms of generalized parameters taking into account either mass or heat diffusion. Diffusion equations have been solved either by numerical computation or under the form of a asymptotical solution, for a growing bubble only and with a constant nonequilibrium. Solutions are compared between them and with already published ones. Experimental results obtained match with a unique nonequilibrium parameter, analogous to a Jacob number. Discrepancies with asymptotical solutions can require in some cases complete numerical computation. But taking into account convection due to bubble lift will require a more sophisticated numerical computation [fr

  11. Large-scale Instability during Gravitational Collapse with Neutrino Transport and a Core-Collapse Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. G.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the energy released in the gravitational collapse of the cores of massive stars is carried away by neutrinos. Neutrinos play a pivotal role in explaining core-collape supernovae. Currently, mathematical models of the gravitational collapse are based on multi-dimensional gas dynamics and thermonuclear reactions, while neutrino transport is considered in a simplified way. Multidimensional gas dynamics is used with neutrino transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation to study the role of multi-dimensional effects. The possibility of large-scale convection is discussed, which is interesting both for explaining SN II and for setting up observations to register possible high-energy (≳10MeV) neutrinos from the supernova. A new multi-dimensional, multi-temperature gas dynamics method with neutrino transport is presented.

  12. Relationship between collapse history and ore distribution in Sage Breccia pipe, northwestern Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.A.; Mead, R.H.; McMurray, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Sage pipe is similar to other collapse breccia pipes in northern Arizona which have their beginnings in cave systems in the Redwall Limestone. Stoping of successively younger units caused the upward propagation of the pipe and provided the pipe-filling breccia. The Sage pipe extends at least 2,500 ft (762 m) vertically; the horizontal dimensions range from 100 to 300 ft (30.5-91 m), depending on variations in the adjoining host stratigraphy. The composition and distribution of breccia facies suggest a complex collapse history and variability in the mechanics of collapse. Rock failure took place both by block stoping and by decementation of sandstone and siltstone followed by flow of unconsolidated grains. The resulting breccias range from matrix to fragment-dominated, to sand flow breccia resulting from flow of individual grains. Episodic secondary collapse or readjustment within the breccia pile complicated facies distribution. Paragenetic studies indicate multiple periods of mineralization at Sage resulting in enrichment in an extensive suite of elements. Ore-grade uranium mineralization extends vertically for nearly 700 ft (213 m). Lateral distribution of the ore is variable and is directly related to breccia facies distribution. In generally, the more permeable breccias tend to be the most highly mineralized. Fracture, intergranular, and interfragment permeability were important to mineral distribution. Breccia continuity or plumbing was also important to lateral and vertical mineral distribution

  13. Vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve-paced respiration in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Mark C; Preciado, Diego A

    2012-01-01

    Phrenic nerve pacing can be used to treat congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). We report how the lack of normal vocal cord tone during phrenic paced respiration can result in passive vocal cord collapse and produce obstructive symptoms. We describe a case of passive vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve paced respiration in a patient with CCHS. As far as we know, this is the first report of this etiology of airway obstruction. The patient, a 7-year-old with CCHS and normal waking vocal cord movement, continued to require nightly continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) despite successful utilization of phrenic nerve pacers. On direct laryngoscopy, the patient's larynx was observed while the diaphragmatic pacers were sequentially engaged. No abnormal vocal cord stimulation was witnessed during engaging of either phrenic nerve stimulator. However, the lack of normal inspiratory vocal cord abduction during phrenic nerve-paced respiration resulted in vocal cord collapse and partial obstruction due to passive adduction of the vocal cords through the Bernoulli effect. Bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation resulted in more vocal cord collapse than unilateral stimulation. The lack of vocal cord abduction on inspiration presents a limit to phrenic nerve pacers.

  14. Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental problems have contributed to numerous collapses of civilizations in the past. Now, for the first time, a global collapse appears likely. Overpopulation, overconsumption by the rich and poor choices of technologies are major drivers; dramatic cultural change provides the main hope of averting calamity.

  15. Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R; Ehrlich, Anne H

    2013-03-07

    Environmental problems have contributed to numerous collapses of civilizations in the past. Now, for the first time, a global collapse appears likely. Overpopulation, overconsumption by the rich and poor choices of technologies are major drivers; dramatic cultural change provides the main hope of averting calamity.

  16. Collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lushnikov, P.M.; Saffman, M.

    2000-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation.......We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation....

  17. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous quintic nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    Collapse of (1 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed both numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams in which the homogeneous medium would blow up...

  18. Collapse of thin wall tubes with small initial ovality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model of creep collapse of tubes based on the bending theory of curved beams is developed. The model is compared with more complex models. The main result of this study is the definition of a new model of creep collapse of tubes with a minimum of limited hypothesis. (author) [es

  19. Collapse of thin wall tubes small initial ovality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.

    1977-01-01

    In this work a simple model of creep collapse of tubes based on the bending theory of curved beams, is developed. The model is compared with more complex models. The main result of this work is the definition of a new model of creep collapse of tubes with a minimum of limitative hypothesis. (Author) 6 refs

  20. Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

  1. Keeping You Close at a Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbenfeldt Bengtsson, Tea; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ethics into research with young people in vulnerable life situations is an on-going challenge that cannot be solved through predefined guidelines or fixed standards. In this article, we address the ethical predicaments of keeping in contact with young people in vulnerable life ...... the blurriness of what is appropriate could lead to suggestions for more well-defined ethical guidelines, we argue that the best and most ethical way to deal with this ambiguity is to recognize it and actively address it as both a practical and an academic challenge.......The integration of ethics into research with young people in vulnerable life situations is an on-going challenge that cannot be solved through predefined guidelines or fixed standards. In this article, we address the ethical predicaments of keeping in contact with young people in vulnerable life...

  2. Nucleosynthesis in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Taylor Shannon; Viktoria Ohstrom, Eva; Harris, James Austin; Hix, William R.

    2018-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis which occurs in core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) is one of the most important sources of elements in the universe. Elements from Oxygen through Iron come predominantly from supernovae, and contributions of heavier elements are also possible through processes like the weak r-process, the gamma process and the light element primary process. The composition of the ejecta depends on the mechanism of the explosion, thus simulations of high physical fidelity are needed to explore what elements and isotopes CCSN can contribute to Galactic Chemical Evolution. We will analyze the nucleosynthesis results from self-consistent CCSN simulations performed with CHIMERA, a multi-dimensional neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics code. Much of our understanding of CCSN nucleosynthesis comes from parameterized models, but unlike CHIMERA these fail to address essential physics, including turbulent flow/instability and neutrino-matter interaction. We will present nucleosynthesis predictions for the explosion of a 9.6 solar mass first generation star, relying both on results of the 160 species nuclear reaction network used in CHIMERA within this model and on post-processing with a more extensive network. The lowest mass iron core-collapse supernovae, like this model, are distinct from their more massive brethren, with their explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis being more like electron capture supernovae resulting from Oxygen-Neon white dwarves. We will highlight the differences between the nucleosynthesis in this model and more massive supernovae. The inline 160 species network is a feature unique to CHIMERA, making this the most sophisticated model to date for a star of this type. We will discuss the need and mechanism to extrapolate the post-processing to times post-simulation and analyze the uncertainties this introduces for supernova nucleosynthesis. We will also compare the results from the inline 160 species network to the post-processing results to study further

  3. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  4. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  5. Nonlinear bending and collapse analysis of a poked cylinder and other point-loaded cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, L.H.

    1983-06-01

    This paper analyzes the geometrically nonlinear bending and collapse behavior of an elastic, simply supported cylindrical shell subjected to an inward-directed point load applied at midlength. The large displacement analysis results for this thin (R/t = 638) poked cylinder were obtained from the STAGSC-1 finite element computer program. STAGSC-1 results are also presented for two other point-loaded shell problems: a pinched cylinder (R/t = 100), and a venetian blind (R/t = 250)

  6. Oxygen Issue in Core Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhamdi, A.

    2011-06-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties of a selected sample of 26 events within Core Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) family. Special attention is paid to the nebular oxygen forbidden line [OI] 6300, 6364 Å doublet. We analyze the line flux ratio F6300/F6364 and infer information about the optical depth evolution, densities, volume-filling factors in the oxygen emitting zones. The line luminosity is measured for the sample events and its evolution is discussed on the basis of the bolometric light curve properties in type II and in type Ib-c SNe. The luminosities are then translated into oxygen abundances using two different methods. The results are combined with the determined 56Ni masses and compared with theoretical models by means of the [O/Fe] vs. Mms diagram. Two distinguishable and continuous populations, corresponding to Ib-c and type II SNe, are found. The higher mass nature of the ejecta in type II objects is also imprinted in the [CaII] 7291, 7324Å to [OI] 6300, 6364Å luminosity ratios. Our results may be used as input parameters for theoretical models studying the chemical enrichment of galaxies.

  7. Asymmetric explosions of core collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of several hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena that could create an asymmetry in core collapse supernovae. In the first part giving the general context, we first describe the theoretical and observational indications suggesting an important asymmetry. We then present several instabilities that could break the initial spherical symmetry, insisting particularly on the role of the Stationary Accretion Shock Instability (SASI). The second part is dedicated to an hydrodynamic study of the Standing Accretion shock instability. We first give an argument using the frequency of unstable modes that enables us to distinguish between the two mechanisms proposed to explain the linear growth of SASI. As a second step, we study the non-linear dynamics of SASI and propose for the first time a mechanism responsible for its saturation. In this scenario, the saturation occurs when parasitic instabilities are able to grow fast enough on a SASI mode. The semi-analytical prediction of the saturation amplitude is successfully compared with published numerical simulations. The third part studies the effect of a moderate magnetic field. We find that such a magnetic field can have either a stabilizing or a destabilizing effect on SASI depending on its geometry. We then concentrate on the dynamics of the Alfven surface, where the Alfven and the advection speed coincide. We show that the amplification of Alfven waves near this surface creates a pressure feedback, which could affect significantly the dynamics of the shock if the magnetic energy is comparable to the kinetic energy. (author) [fr

  8. Tulsa Oklahoma Oktoberfest Tent Collapse Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Deal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. On October 17, 2007, a severe weather event collapsed two large tents and several smaller tents causing 23 injuries requiring evacuation to emergency departments in Tulsa, OK. Methods. This paper is a retrospective analysis of the regional health system’s response to this event. Data from the Tulsa Fire Department, The Emergency Medical Services Authority (EMSA, receiving hospitals and coordinating services were reviewed and analyzed. EMS patient care reports were reviewed and analyzed using triage designators assigned in the field, injury severity scores, and critical mortality. Results. EMT's and paramedics from Tulsa Fire Department and EMSA provided care at the scene under unified incident command. Of the 23 patients transported by EMS, four were hospitalized, one with critical spinal injury and one with critical head injury. One patient is still in ongoing rehabilitation. Discussion. Analysis of the 2007 Tulsa Oktoberfest mass casualty incident revealed rapid police/fire/EMS response despite challenges of operations at dark under severe weather conditions and the need to treat a significant number of injured victims. There were no fatalities. Of the patients transported by EMS, a minority sustained critical injuries, with most sustaining injuries amenable to discharge after emergency department care.

  9. Flux-driven simulations of turbulence collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. Y.; Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun; Rhee, T. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); CASS and Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Using three-dimensional nonlinear simulations of tokamak turbulence, we show that an edge transport barrier (ETB) forms naturally once input power exceeds a threshold value. Profiles, turbulence-driven flows, and neoclassical coefficients are evolved self-consistently. A slow power ramp-up simulation shows that ETB transition is triggered by the turbulence-driven flows via an intermediate phase which involves coherent oscillation of turbulence intensity and E×B flow shear. A novel observation of the evolution is that the turbulence collapses and the ETB transition begins when R{sub T} > 1 at t = t{sub R} (R{sub T}: normalized Reynolds power), while the conventional transition criterion (ω{sub E×B}>γ{sub lin} where ω{sub E×B} denotes mean flow shear) is satisfied only after t = t{sub C} ( >t{sub R}), when the mean flow shear grows due to positive feedback.

  10. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  11. Tourism's collapse puts Gambian women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Despite efforts of the Gambian government, which established a ministry in 1981 that would tackle gender issues, improve women's health, and promote empowerment, women are underrepresented in government and business, and 84% are illiterate. Child mortality is among the highest in Africa; 134 children per 1000 die before their fifth birthday. In the mid-1980s austerity measures adopted by the World Bank and IMF left the ministry without funds. Rice and vegetable production, the main source of income for women, fell in the 1990s. In 1994, paddy production dropped 23% from the previous year; this was due to a lack of technical and financial assistance. The collapse of tourism with Capt. Yahya Jammeh's seizure of power has put prostitutes catering to tourists out of work, but women who have lost jobs in the hotel industry may be pushed into local prostitution to survive. The impact of this on the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unclear. Although Gambia is one of the world's most aid-dependent countries (more than a quarter of the GNP before the coup), corruption and mismanagement in the nongovernmental sector is widespread. The director of the Women in Development Programme, a $15m World Bank project, was forced to resign over allegations of fraud. The political process sidelines women; only village chiefs, who are traditionally men, are allowed to vote when new heads are elected.

  12. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  13. Exploring the role of genome and structural ions in preventing viral capsid collapse during dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Natalia; Guérin Darvas, Sofía M.; Durana, Aritz; Marti, Gerardo A.; Guérin, Diego M. A.; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2018-03-01

    Even though viruses evolve mainly in liquid milieu, their horizontal transmission routes often include episodes of dry environment. Along their life cycle, some insect viruses, such as viruses from the Dicistroviridae family, withstand dehydrated conditions with presently unknown consequences to their structural stability. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to monitor the structural changes of viral particles of Triatoma virus (TrV) after desiccation. Our results demonstrate that TrV capsids preserve their genome inside, conserving their height after exposure to dehydrating conditions, which is in stark contrast with other viruses that expel their genome when desiccated. Moreover, empty capsids (without genome) resulted in collapsed particles after desiccation. We also explored the role of structural ions in the dehydration process of the virions (capsid containing genome) by chelating the accessible cations from the external solvent milieu. We observed that ion suppression helps to keep the virus height upon desiccation. Our results show that under drying conditions, the genome of TrV prevents the capsid from collapsing during dehydration, while the structural ions are responsible for promoting solvent exchange through the virion wall.

  14. Research in astrophysics: Stellar collapse and supernovae: Termination report, August 1, 1980-November 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.; Lattimer, J.M.; Mazurek, T.J.; Yahil, A.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction between nuclear theory and some outstanding problems in astrophysics has been examined. The chief emphasis of the program was on stellar collapse, Type II supernovae and neutron star formation. Central to these topics are the development of an equation of state of hot, dense matter and numerical simulations of gravitational collapse and neutron star birth. The LLPR compressible liquid drop model is the basis of the former. It has been refined to include curvature corrections to the surface energy and nuclear force parameters which are in better agreement with experimental quantities. Numerically optimized versions were used in supernova simulations. Such studies of the equation of state can also be used to analyze intermediate energy heavy ion collisions, which, in turn, may illuminate the nucleon-nucleon force. A novel hydrodynamical code in which shocks are treated via Riemann resolution rather than with artificial viscosity was developed. We modeled not only the stellar collapse leading up to a supernova, but also the quasi-static deleptonization and cooling of the nascent neutron star. For the latter evolution we also used a hydrostatic code with detailed neutrino transport. Our studies of neutrinos in stellar collapse and neutron star formation concentrated on their detectability and signatures, as neutrinos are the only direct probe of collapse and early supernova dynamics. The neutrino signatures seen from SN1987a are in complete accord with the predictions our group has been making since 1982. Complementary studies included modeling nucleosynthesis and the accretion process in quasars, and investigating the influence of galaxy clustering on the large scale structure of the universe. The last study might impose constraints on high energy theories, such as those of inflation and GUT, which can now only be tested astrophysically. 38 refs

  15. Predicting mining collapse: Superjerks and the appearance of record-breaking events in coal as collapse precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiang; Liu, Hanlong; Main, Ian G.; Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2017-08-01

    The quest for predictive indicators for the collapse of coal mines has led to a robust criterion from scale-model tests in the laboratory. Mechanical collapse under uniaxial stress forms avalanches with a power-law probability distribution function of radiated energy P ˜E-ɛ , with exponent ɛ =1.5 . Impending major collapse is preceded by a reduction of the energy exponent to the mean-field value ɛ =1.32 . Concurrently, the crackling noise increases in intensity and the waiting time between avalanches is reduced when the major collapse is approaching. These latter criteria were so-far deemed too unreliable for safety assessments in coal mines. We report a reassessment of previously collected extensive collapse data sets using "record-breaking analysis," based on the statistical appearance of "superjerks" within a smaller spectrum of collapse events. Superjerks are defined as avalanche signals with energies that surpass those of all previous events. The final major collapse is one such superjerk but other "near collapse" events equally qualify. In this way a very large data set of events is reduced to a sparse sequence of superjerks (21 in our coal sample). The main collapse can be anticipated from the sequence of energies and waiting times of superjerks, ignoring all weaker events. Superjerks are excellent indicators for the temporal evolution, and reveal clear nonstationarity of the crackling noise at constant loading rate, as well as self-similarity in the energy distribution of superjerks as a function of the number of events so far in the sequence Es j˜nδ with δ =1.79 . They are less robust in identifying the precise time of the final collapse, however, than the shift of the energy exponents in the whole data set which occurs only over a short time interval just before the major event. Nevertheless, they provide additional diagnostics that may increase the reliability of such forecasts.

  16. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi.

    1996-06-01

    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  17. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  18. Gravitational collapse of charged dust shell and maximal slicing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    1980-01-01

    The maximal slicing condition is a good time coordinate condition qualitatively when pursuing the gravitational collapse by the numerical calculation. The analytic solution of the gravitational collapse under the maximal slicing condition is given in the case of a spherical charged dust shell and the behavior of time slices with this coordinate condition is investigated. It is concluded that under the maximal slicing condition we can pursue the gravitational collapse until the radius of the shell decreases to about 0.7 x (the radius of the event horizon). (author)

  19. Search for stellar gravitational collapses with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Raino, J A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1140/epjc/s2004-01981-3

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of the search for stellar gravitational collapses obtained by the MACRO experiment. The detector was active for a stellar collapse search for more than 11 years and it was sensitive to collapses occurring all over in our galaxy for 8.6 years. A real time system for a prompt recognition of neutrino bursts was developed and was operating on-line for almost the whole life of the experiment. No signal compatible with a neutrino burst from a galactic supernova was observed.

  20. Recoverable and Programmable Collapse from Folding Pressurized Origami Cellular Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Fang, H; Wang, K W

    2016-09-09

    We report a unique collapse mechanism by exploiting the negative stiffness observed in the folding of an origami solid, which consists of pressurized cells made by stacking origami sheets. Such a collapse mechanism is recoverable, since it only involves rigid folding of the origami sheets and it is programmable by pressure control and the custom design of the crease pattern. The collapse mechanism features many attractive characteristics for applications such as energy absorption. The reported results also suggest a new branch of origami study focused on its nonlinear mechanics associated with folding.

  1. Coexistence of collapse and stable spatiotemporal solitons in multimode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, Olga V.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal solitons in multimode optical fibers and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons, in a sharp contrast to earlier predictions of collapse of multidimensional solitons in three-dimensional media. We discuss the coexistence of blow-up solutions and collapse stabilization by a low-dimensional external potential in graded-index media, and also predict the existence of stable higher-order nonlinear waves such as dipole-mode spatiotemporal solitons. To support the main conclusions of our numerical studies we employ a variational approach and derive analytically the stability criterion for input powers for the collapse stabilization.

  2. Scalar field collapse in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Narayan; Paul, Tanmoy

    2018-02-01

    We consider a "scalar-Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet" theory in four dimension, where the scalar field couples non-minimally with the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. This coupling with the scalar field ensures the non-topological character of the GB term. In this scenario, we examine the possibility for collapsing of the scalar field. Our result reveals that such a collapse is possible in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet gravity for suitable choices of parametric regions. The singularity formed as a result of the collapse is found to be a curvature singularity which is hidden from the exterior by an apparent horizon.

  3. Scalar field collapse in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Paul, Tanmoy [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2018-02-15

    We consider a ''scalar-Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet'' theory in four dimension, where the scalar field couples non-minimally with the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. This coupling with the scalar field ensures the non-topological character of the GB term. In this scenario, we examine the possibility for collapsing of the scalar field. Our result reveals that such a collapse is possible in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet gravity for suitable choices of parametric regions. The singularity formed as a result of the collapse is found to be a curvature singularity which is hidden from the exterior by an apparent horizon. (orig.)

  4. Self-similar Langmuir collapse at critical dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, L.; Dousseau, Ph.; Pelletier, G.; Pesme, D.

    1991-01-01

    Two spherically symmetric versions of a self-similar collapse are investigated within the framework of the Zakharov equations, namely, one relative to a vectorial electric field and the other corresponding to a scalar modeling of the Langmuir field. Singular solutions of both of them depend on a linear time contraction rate ξ(t) = V(t * -t), where t * and V = -ξ denote, respectively, the collapse time and the constant collapse velocity. It is shown that under certain conditions, only the scalar model admits self-similar solutions, varying regularly as a function of the control parameter V from the subsonic (V >1) regime. (author)

  5. Good Thoughts to Keep in Mind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保行

    2005-01-01

    I magine life as a game in which you are juggling some five balls in the air.You name them:Work,Family,Health,Friends,Spirit.And you are keeping all of these in the air.You will soon understand that work is a rubber ball.lf you drop it,it will bounce back.But the other four balls-family,health,friends and spirit are made of glass.lf you drop one of these,they will be irrevocably scuffed,marked,nicked,damaged or even shattered .They will never be the same.You must understand that and strive for balance inyour life.

  6. Keeping education fresh-not just in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2017-11-15

    Innovative practice from around the globe, addressing a range of recent educational themes and trends, was published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Keeping Education Fresh' in October 2017. Its thought-provoking content is reviewed here to more directly facilitate reflections and discussions in the professional community. The focus is on best practice approaches when enhancing student engagement, how to adjust those to the diversity of learners, learning situations and infrastructures, and to a broad range of subjects. The need for authentic learning and to move away from didactic teaching is emphasized. The 'students as researchers' theme is featured e.g. in context of service learning. Creative approaches are presented such as using performing arts, popular culture and gamification. The development of interdisciplinary and intercultural competences, and the exploration of socioscientific themes and philosophical issues are considered. Revisions of curricula and programmes, reflective of educational advancements and sector drivers, are discussed from undergraduate to postgraduate and professional specialist level also in light of problem-based learning, interactive distance and on-campus learning, and even the legacy of Massive Open Online Courses. Such changes always require resources and skills, and carry risks. Yet, innovation is a risk worth taking to keep education fresh. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  8. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  9. [A retrieval method of drug molecules based on graph collapsing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, J W; Lv, X Q; Liu, Z M; Liao, Y; Sun, P H; Wang, B; Tang, Z

    2018-04-18

    To establish a compact and efficient hypergraph representation and a graph-similarity-based retrieval method of molecules to achieve effective and efficient medicine information retrieval. Chemical structural formula (CSF) was a primary search target as a unique and precise identifier for each compound at the molecular level in the research field of medicine information retrieval. To retrieve medicine information effectively and efficiently, a complete workflow of the graph-based CSF retrieval system was introduced. This system accepted the photos taken from smartphones and the sketches drawn on tablet personal computers as CSF inputs, and formalized the CSFs with the corresponding graphs. Then this paper proposed a compact and efficient hypergraph representation for molecules on the basis of analyzing factors that directly affected the efficiency of graph matching. According to the characteristics of CSFs, a hierarchical collapsing method combining graph isomorphism and frequent subgraph mining was adopted. There was yet a fundamental challenge, subgraph overlapping during the collapsing procedure, which hindered the method from establishing the correct compact hypergraph of an original CSF graph. Therefore, a graph-isomorphism-based algorithm was proposed to select dominant acyclic subgraphs on the basis of overlapping analysis. Finally, the spatial similarity among graphical CSFs was evaluated by multi-dimensional measures of similarity. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the proposed system was firstly compared with Wikipedia Chemical Structure Explorer (WCSE), the state-of-the-art system that allowed CSF similarity searching within Wikipedia molecules dataset, on retrieval accuracy. The system achieved higher values on mean average precision, discounted cumulative gain, rank-biased precision, and expected reciprocal rank than WCSE from the top-2 to the top-10 retrieved results. Specifically, the system achieved 10%, 1.41, 6.42%, and 1

  10. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yoichi; Mio, Hiroshi; Orimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM) was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke's collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  11. Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, H.M.; Menocal, P.B. de; Hemming, S.; Hemming, G.; Brown, F.H.; Guilderson, T.; Sirocko, F.

    2000-04-01

    The Akkadian empire ruled Mesopotamia from the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf during the late third millennium B.C. Archeological evidence has shown that this highly developed civilization collapsed abruptly near 4,170 {+-} 150 calendar yr B.P., perhaps related to a shift to more arid conditions. Detailed paleoclimate records to test this assertion from Mesopotamia are rare, but changes in regional aridity are preserved in adjacent ocean basins. The authors document Holocene changes in regional aridity using mineralogic and geochemical analyses of a marine sediment core from the Gulf of Oman, which is directly downwind of Mesopotamian dust source areas and archeological sites. Results document a very abrupt increase in eolian dust and Mesopotamian aridity, accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates to 4,025 {+-} 125 calendar yr B.P., which persisted for {approximately} 300 yr. Radiogenic (Nd and Sr) isotope analyses confirm that the observed increase in mineral dust was derived from Mesopotamian source areas. Geochemical correlation of volcanic ash shards between the archeological site and marine sediment record establishes a direct temporal link between Mesopotamian aridification and social collapse, implicating a sudden shift to more arid conditions as a key factor contributing to the collapse of the Akkadian empire.

  12. FEAST 3.1: finite-element modeling of sheath deformation such as longitudinal ridging and collapse into axial gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Xu, Z.; Kim, Y-S.; Lai, L.; Cheng, G.; Xu, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    During normal operation, the collapsible CANDU® fuel sheath deforms, especially, it may deform into longitudinal ridges or collapse instantaneously into the axial gaps between the end pellet and endcap or between two neighbouring pellets. These phenomena occur under certain conditions, such as the coolant pressure exceeding critical pressures for longitudinal ridging or axial collapse. Both longitudinal ridging and axial collapse phenomena result from plastic instability in the sheath under coolant pressure. Longitudinal ridging features one or multiple lobes or 'ridges' (outward from the sheath surface) formed along the sheath in the longitudinal direction. Axial collapse features a 'valley' around the sheath circumference. Both phenomena can lead to sheath overstrain, which in turn potentially leads to sheath failure. The LONGER code, which contains empirical correlations, has been used to predict the critical pressures for these two sheath deformation phenomena. To study fuel behaviour outside of the application ranges of the LONGER empirical correlations, a mechanistic model is needed. FEAST (Finite Element Analysis for Stresses) is an AECL computer code used to assess the structural integrity of the CANDU fuel element. The FEAST code has recently been developed (to Version 3.1) to model processes occurring during longitudinal ridge formation and instantaneous collapse into the axial gap. The new models include those for geometric non-linearity (large deformation, large material rotation), non-linear stress-strain curve for plastic deformation, Zr-4 sheath creep law, and variable Young’s Modulus etc. This paper describes the mechanistic model (FEAST 3.1) development for analyses of longitudinal ridging and instantaneous collapse into axial gap, and the comparison with the results from empirical correlations in LONGER. (author)

  13. FEAST 3.1: finite-element modeling of sheath deformation such as longitudinal ridging and collapse into axial gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Xu, Z.; Kim, Y-S.; Lai, L.; Cheng, G.; Xu, S.

    2010-01-01

    During normal operation, the collapsible CANDU® fuel sheath deforms, especially, it may deform into longitudinal ridges or collapse instantaneously into the axial gaps between the end pellet and endcap or between two neighbouring pellets. These phenomena occur under certain conditions, such as the coolant pressure exceeding critical pressures for longitudinal ridging or axial collapse. Both longitudinal ridging and axial collapse phenomena result from plastic instability in the sheath under coolant pressure. Longitudinal ridging features one or multiple lobes or 'ridges' (outward from the sheath surface) formed along the sheath in the longitudinal direction. Axial collapse features a 'valley' around the sheath circumference. Both phenomena can lead to sheath overstrain, which in turn potentially leads to sheath failure. The LONGER code, which contains empirical correlations, has been used to predict the critical pressures for these two sheath deformation phenomena. To study fuel behaviour outside of the application ranges of the LONGER empirical correlations, a mechanistic model is needed. FEAST (Finite Element Analysis for Stresses) is an AECL computer code used to assess the structural integrity of the CANDU fuel element. The FEAST code has recently been developed (to Version 3.1) to model processes occurring during longitudinal ridge formation and instantaneous collapse into the axial gap. The new models include those for geometric non-linearity (large deformation, large material rotation), non-linear stress-strain curve for plastic deformation, Zr-4 sheath creep law, and variable Young’s Modulus etc. This paper describes the mechanistic model (FEAST 3.1) development for analyses of longitudinal ridging and instantaneous collapse into axial gap, and the comparison with the results from empirical correlations in LONGER. (author)

  14. Discrete Ordinates Method-Like Computation with Group Condensation and Angle Collapsing in Transport Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Hyuck; Cho, Nam Zin

    2010-01-01

    In group condensation for transport method, it is well-known that angle-dependent total cross section is generated. To remove this difficulty on angledependent total cross section, we normally perform the group condensation on total cross section by using scalar flux weight as used in neutron diffusion method. In this study, angle-dependent total cross section is directly applied to the discrete ordinates method. In addition, angle collapsing concept is introduced based on equivalence to reduce calculational burden of transport computation. We also show numerical results for a heterogeneous 1-D slab problem with local/global iteration, in which fine-group discrete ordinates calculation is used in local problem while few-group angle collapsed discrete ordinates calculation is used in global problem iteratively

  15. Electron thermal capacity in plasma generated at cavitation bubble collapse in D-acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenko, B.F.; Pribis, J.

    2004-01-01

    The latest experimental data on nuclear reaction product registration at cavitation bubble collapse in deuterated acetone (C 3 D 6 O) still argue in favour of existence of a new possibility to realize the thermonuclear synthesis. Theoretical description based on numerical solution of simultaneous conservation equations for gaseous and liquid phases also confirms this possibility, although it requires further more precise definitions. In particular, description of electron degrees of freedom in dense nonequilibrium plasma generated at the final stage of bubble collapse need specification. Calculations of electron thermal capacity in the deuterated acetone multiple ionization region at electron temperatures T e ≅ 10 4 K and above and compression range ρ/ρ 0 ≅ 1 - 100 have been fulfilled on the basis of direct numerical solution of equation for chemical potential. (author)

  16. Electron Thermal Capacity in Plasma Generated at Cavitation Bubble Collapse in D-acetone

    CERN Document Server

    Kostenko, B F

    2004-01-01

    The latest experimental data on nuclear reaction product registration at cavitation bubble collapse in deuterated acetone (C$_3$D$_6$O) still argue in favour of existence of a new possibility to realize the thermonuclear synthesis. Theoretical description based on numerical solution of simultaneous conservation equations for gaseous and liquid phases also confirms this possibility, although it requires further more precise definitions. In particular, description of electron degrees of freedom in very dense nonequilibrium plasma generated at the final stage of bubble collapse needs specification. In the present paper, calculations of electron thermal capacity in the deuterated acetone multiple ionization region at electron temperatures $T_e \\simeq 10^4 $ K and above and compression range $\\rho/\\rho_0 \\simeq 1 \\div 100$ have been fulfilled on the basis of direct numerical solution of equation for chemical potential.

  17. Closed-edged bilayer phosphorene nanoribbons producing from collapsing armchair phosphorene nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiangbiao; Xiao, Hang; Lu, Xiaobo; Chen, Youlong; Shi, Xiaoyang; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-01

    A new phosphorous allotrope, closed-edged bilayer phosphorene nanoribbon, is proposed via radially deforming armchair phosphorene nanotubes. Using molecular dynamics simulations, the transformation pathway from round PNTs falls into two types of collapsed structures: arc-like and sigmoidal bilayer nanoribbons, dependent on the number of phosphorene unit cells. The fabricated nanoribbions are energetically more stable than their parent nanotubes. It is also found via ab initio calculations that the band structure along tube axis substantially changes with the structural transformation. The direct-to-indirect transition of band gap is highlighted when collapsing into the arc-like nanoribbons but not the sigmoidal ones. Furthermore, the band gaps of these two types of nanoribbons show significant size-dependence of the nanoribbon width, indicative of wider tunability of their electrical properties.

  18. Hydromagnetic instabilities and magnetic field amplification in core collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Duran, P; Obergaulinger, M; Mueller, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-st. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aloy, M A; Font, J A, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    Some of the most violent events in the universe, the gamma ray burst, could be related to the gravitational collapse of massive stellar cores. The recent association of long GRBs to some class of type Ic supernova seems to support this view. In such scenario fast rotation, strong magnetic fields and general relativistic effects are key ingredients. It is thus important to understand the mechanism that amplifies the magnetic field under that conditions. I present global simulations of the magneto-rotational collapse of stellar cores in general relativity and semi-global simulations of hydromagnetic instabilities under core collapse conditions. I discuss effect of the magneto-rotational instability and the magnetic field amplification during the collapse, the uncertainties in this process and the dynamical effects in the supernova explosion.

  19. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Geng Chao; Kwok, Chung Yee; Sobral, Yuri Dumaresq

    2017-06-01

    Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and discrete element method (DEM). It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  20. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Geng Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and discrete element method (DEM. It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  1. Rotating collapse of stellar iron cores in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, C D; Dimmelmeier, H; Marek, A; Janka, H-T; Zink, B; Hawke, I; Schnetter, E

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the first 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 simulations of the collapse of rotating stellar iron cores in general relativity employing a finite-temperature equation of state and an approximate treatment of deleptonization during collapse. We compare full 3 + 1 and conformally-flat spacetime evolution methods and find that the conformally-flat treatment is sufficiently accurate for the core-collapse supernova problem. We focus on the gravitational wave (GW) emission from rotating collapse, core bounce and early postbounce phases. Our results indicate that the GW signature of these phases is much more generic than previously estimated. In addition, we track the growth of a nonaxisymmetric instability of dominant m = 1 character in two of our models that leads to prolonged narrow-band GW emission at ∼920-930 Hz over several tens of milliseconds

  2. Important Details in Performing and Interpreting the Scratch Collapse Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lorna C; Yee, Andrew; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-02-01

    The utility of the scratch collapse test has been demonstrated in examination of patients with carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes and long thoracic and peroneal nerve compressions. In the authors' clinic, this lesser known test plays a key role in peripheral nerve examination where localization of the nerve irritation or injury is not fully understood. Test utility and accuracy in patients with more challenging presentations likely correlate with tester understanding and experience. This article offers a clear outline of all stages of the test to improve interrater reliability. The nuances of test performance are described, including a description of situations where the scratch collapse test is deemed inappropriate. Four clinical scenarios where the scratch collapse test may be useful are included. Corresponding video content is provided to improve performance and interpretation of the scratch collapse test. Diagnostic, V.

  3. Probing spontaneous wave-function collapse with entangled levitating nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tiancai; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Wave-function collapse models are considered to be the modified theories of standard quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. By introducing nonlinear stochastic terms in the Schrödinger equation, these models (different from standard quantum mechanics) predict that it is fundamentally impossible to prepare macroscopic systems in macroscopic superpositions. The validity of these models can only be examined by experiments, and hence efficient protocols for these kinds of experiments are greatly needed. Here we provide a protocol that is able to probe the postulated collapse effect by means of the entanglement of the center-of-mass motion of two nanospheres optically trapped in a Fabry-Pérot cavity. We show that the collapse noise results in a large reduction of the steady-state entanglement, and the entanglement, with and without the collapse effect, shows distinguishable scalings with certain system parameters, which can be used to determine unambiguously the effect of these models.

  4. Collapse above the world's largest potash mine (Ural, Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk Vjacheslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the study of a huge collapse that occurred in June 1986 within the area of the 3rd Berezniki potash mine (the Verkhnekamsky potash deposit, Ural. Processes that took place between the first appearance of a water inflow through the mine roof and the eventual collapse are reconstructed in detail. The origin and development of a cavity that induced the collapse are revealed. Two factors played a major role in the formation of the collapse: the presence of a tectonic fold/rupture zone with in both the salt sequence and the overburden (the zone of crush and enhanced permeability, and the ductile pillars mining system.

  5. Forecasting giant, catastrophic slope collapse: lessons from Vajont, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Petley, David N.

    2003-08-01

    Rapid, giant landslides, or sturzstroms, are among the most powerful natural hazards on Earth. They have minimum volumes of ˜10 6-10 7 m 3 and, normally preceded by prolonged intervals of accelerating creep, are produced by catastrophic and deep-seated slope collapse (loads ˜1-10 MPa). Conventional analyses attribute rapid collapse to unusual mechanisms, such as the vaporization of ground water during sliding. Here, catastrophic collapse is related to self-accelerating rock fracture, common in crustal rocks at loads ˜1-10 MPa and readily catalysed by circulating fluids. Fracturing produces an abrupt drop in resisting stress. Measured stress drops in crustal rock account for minimum sturzstrom volumes and rapid collapse accelerations. Fracturing also provides a physical basis for quantitatively forecasting catastrophic slope failure.

  6. Spherical collapse in quintessence models with zero speed of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; D'Amico, Guido; Noreña, Jorge; Senatore, Leonardo; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    We study the spherical collapse model in the presence of quintessence with negligible speed of sound. This case is particularly motivated for w Q /Ω m . This gives a distinctive modification of the total mass function at low redshift

  7. Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks. Sanjay Jain Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  8. 7 CFR 3200.9 - Accountability and record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability and record keeping. 3200.9 Section... TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.9 Accountability and record keeping. USDA requires that Federal... accountability and record keeping systems. ...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1925 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... it is important to keep required information readily available. (b) Keep the following paper or electronic records of your in-use testing for five years after you complete all the testing required for an... determine why a vehicle failed the vehicle-pass criteria described in § 86.1912. (3) Keep a copy of the...

  10. Dynamic Deformation and Collapse of Granular Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.; Doi, S.

    2009-12-01

    Large dynamic deformation of granular materials may be found in nature not only in the failure of slopes and cliffs — due to earthquakes, rock avalanches, debris flows and landslides — but also in earthquake faulting itself. Granular surface flows often consist of solid grains and intergranular fluid, but the effect of the fluid may be usually negligible because the volumetric concentration of grains is in many cases high enough for interparticle forces to dominate momentum transport. Therefore, the investigation of dry granular flow of a mass might assist in further understanding of the above mentioned geophysical events. Here, utilizing a high-speed digital video camera system, we perform a simple yet fully-controlled series of laboratory experiments related to the collapse of granular columns. We record, at an interval of some microseconds, the dynamic transient granular mass flow initiated by abrupt release of a tube that contains dry granular materials. The acrylic tube is partially filled with glass beads and has a cross-section of either a fully- or semi-cylindrical shape. Upon sudden removal of the tube, the granular solid may fragment under the action of its own weight and the particles spread on a rigid horizontal plane. This study is essentially the extension of the previous ones by Lajeunesse et al. (Phys. Fluids 2004) and Uenishi and Tsuji (JPGU 2008), but the striped layers of particles in a semi-cylindrical tube, newly introduced in this contribution, allow us to observe the precise particle movement inside the granular column: The development of slip lines inside the column and the movement of particles against each other can be clearly identified. The major controlling parameters of the spreading dynamics are the initial aspect ratio of the granular (semi-)cylindrical column, the frictional properties of the horizontal plane (substrate) and the size of beads. We show the influence of each parameter on the average flow velocity and final radius

  11. Ocean wave generation by collapsing ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Bassis, J. N.; Okal, E. A.; Aster, R. C.; Cathles, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    The 28-29 February, 2008, break-up of the Wilkins Ice Shelf, Antarctica, exemplifies the now-familiar, yet largely unexplained pattern of explosive ice-shelf break-up. While environmental warming is a likely ultimate cause of explosive break-up, several key aspects of their short-term behavior need to be explained: (1) The abrupt, near-simultaneous onset of iceberg calving across long spans of the ice front margin; (2) High outward drift velocity (about 0.3 m/s) of a leading phalanx of tabular icebergs that originate from the seaward edge of the intact ice shelf prior to break-up; (3) Rapid coverage of the ocean surface in the wake of this leading phalanx by small, capsized and dismembered tabular icebergs; (4) Extremely large gravitational potential energy release rates, e.g., up to 3 × 1010 W; (5) Lack of proximal iceberg-calving triggers that control the timing of break-up onset and that maintain the high break-up calving rates through to the conclusion of the event. Motivated by seismic records obtained from icebergs and the Ross Ice Shelf that show hundreds of micro- tsunamis emanating from near the ice shelf front, we re-examine the basic dynamic features of ice- shelf/ocean-wave interaction and, in particular, examine the possibility that collapsing ice shelves themselves are a source of waves that stimulate the disintegration process. We propose that ice-shelf generated surface-gravity waves associated with initial calving at an arbitrary seed location produce stress perturbations capable of triggering the onset of calving on the entire ice front. Waves generated by parting detachment rifts, iceberg capsize and break-up act next to stimulate an inverted submarine landslide (ice- slide) process, where gravitational potential energy released by upward movement of buoyant ice is radiated as surface gravity waves in the wake of the advancing phalanx of tabular icebergs. We conclude by describing how field research and remote sensing can be used to test the

  12. Growing quasi-modes in dynamics of supersonic collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.; Khudik, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis of globally stable self-similar regimes existence for supersonic Langmuir collapse plays a significant role in the attempts to construct a theory of strong Langmuir turbulence. A possibility for destruction of the stable against infinitely small perturbations self-similar regime of supersonic collapse by growing quasi-modes is demonstrated via the numerical solution of Cauchi problem for Zakharov equations. The quantitative criterion for the destruction of self-similar regimes is formulated. 9 refs.; 5 figs

  13. De Novo Collapsing Glomerulopathy in a Renal Allograft Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanodia K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG, characterized histologically by segmental/global glomerular capillary collapse, podocyte hypertrophy and hypercellularity and tubulo-interstitial injury; is characterized clinically by massive proteinuria and rapid progressive renal failure. CG is known to recur in renal allograft and rarely de novo. We report de novo CG 3 years post-transplant in a patient who received renal allograft from haplo-identical type donor.

  14. Wave function collapse implies divergence of average displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2005-01-01

    We show that propagating a truncated discontinuous wave function by Schr\\"odinger's equation, as asserted by the collapse axiom, gives rise to non-existence of the average displacement of the particle on the line. It also implies that there is no Zeno effect. On the other hand, if the truncation is done so that the reduced wave function is continuous, the average coordinate is finite and there is a Zeno effect. Therefore the collapse axiom of measurement needs to be revised.

  15. Naked singularities in self-similar spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ori, A.; Piran, T.

    1987-01-01

    We present general-relativistic solutions of self-similar spherical collapse of an adiabatic perfect fluid. We show that if the equation of state is soft enough (Γ-1<<1), a naked singularity forms. The singularity resembles the shell-focusing naked singularities that arise in dust collapse. This solution increases significantly the range of matter fields that should be ruled out in order that the cosmic-censorship hypothesis will hold

  16. Investigation of karst collapse based on 3-D seismic technique and DDA method at Xieqiao coal mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Zhong-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Rock Mechanical and Fractals, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, Su-Ping; Li, Yong-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Xie, He-Ping [Institute of Rock Mechanical and Fractals, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-06-01

    Karst collapse is a serious geological problem in most of the coal mines in the north of China, but recently it has been found in the south as well. The present study is aimed at investigating subsidence mechanism and deformation field of a karst collapse column at Xieqiao, in the south of China. A method of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic technique has been successful in exploring the spatial morphology of the karst collapse at Xieqiao, and the discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) method is used to calculate the deformation field and analyze the subsidence mechanism. The results indicated that DDA could approximately simulate and back analyze the subsidence process and strata deformation fields. The subsidence processes of the collapse column depend on the sizes of the karst caves. With the continuous expansion of the karst caves, a semi-elliptic stress field, local separation strata and fracture zone will be formed around the karst cave. Moreover, they will gradually expand upwards along the vertical direction. The paper also indicates that the subsidence failure stage may trigger a sudden collapse of the karst column because of the sudden energy release. Also, it will make a great impact on the vicinity working face so as to cause a rock burst. The effects of the friction angle of rock strata on the subsidence mechanism were reported firstly based on DDA. (author)

  17. Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.

  18. Gravitational radiation from stellar collapse: The initial burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The burst of gravitational radiation emitted during the initial collapse and rebound of a homogeneous, uniformly rotating spheroid with internal pressure is analyzed numerically. The surface of the collapsing spheroid is assumed to start at rest from infinity with negligible eccentricity (''zero-energy collapse''). The adopted internal pressure function is constant on self-similar spheroidal surfaces, and its central value is described by a polytropic law with index n< or =3. The Newtonian equations of motion are integrated numerically to follow the initial collapse and rebound of the configuration for the special case in which the collapse is time-reversal invariant about the moment of maximum compression, and the total energy and frequency spectrum of the emitted quadrupole radiation are computed. The results are employed to estimate the (approx.minimum) total energy and frequency distribution of the initial burst of gravitational radiation emitted during the formation of low-mass (Mapproximately-less-thanM/sub sun/) neutron stars and during the collapse of supermassive gas clouds

  19. Intracapsular implant rupture: MR findings of incomplete shell collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, M S; Kornguth, P J; Walsh, R; Elenberger, C; Georgiade, G S; DeLong, D; Spritzer, C E

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of the MR findings of incomplete shell collapse for detecting implant rupture in a series of surgically removed breast prostheses. MR images of 86 breast implants in 44 patients were studied retrospectively and correlated with surgical findings at explantation. MR findings included (a) complete shell collapse (linguine sign), 21 implants; (b) incomplete shell collapse (subcapsular line sign, teardrop sign, and keyhole sign), 33 implants; (c) radial folds, 31 implants; and (d) normal, 1 implant. The subcapsular line sign was seen in 26 implants, the teardrop sign was seen in 27 implants, and the keyhole sign was seen in 23 implants. At surgery, 48 implants were found to be ruptured and 38 were intact. The MR findings of ruptured implants showed signs of incomplete collapse in 52% (n = 25), linguine sign in 44% (n = 21), and radial folds in 4% (n = 2). The linguine sign perfectly predicted implant rupture, but sensitivity was low. Findings of incomplete shell collapse improved sensitivity and negative predictive values, and the subcapsular line sign produced a significant incremental increase in predictive ability. MRI signs of incomplete shell collapse were more common than the linguine sign in ruptured implants and are significant contributors to the high sensitivity and negative predictive values of MRI for evaluating implant integrity.

  20. Vapour and air bubble collapse analysis in viscous compressible water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bazanini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the collapse of bubbles (or cavities are shown, using the finite difference method, taking into account the compressibility of the liquid, expected to occur in the final stages of the collapse process. Results are compared with experimental and theoretical data for incompressible liquids, to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the bubble collapse. Pressure fields values are calculated in an area of 800 x 800 mm, for the case of one bubble under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry. Results are shown as radius versus time curves for the collapse (to compare collapse times, and pressure curves in the plane, for pressure fields. Such calculations are new because of their general point of view, since the existing works do not take into account the existence of vapour in the bubble, neither show the pressure fields seen here. It is also expected to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the collapse time, and in the pressure field, when comparing pressure values.

  1. Inertial collapse of bubble pairs near a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of applications ranging from naval structures to biomedical ultrasound. One important consequence is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated inertial collapse of vapor bubbles. Although the mechanical loading produced by the collapse of a single bubble has been widely investigated, less is known about the detailed dynamics of the collapse of multiple bubbles. In such a problem, the bubble-bubble interactions typically affect the dynamics, e.g., by increasing the non-sphericity of the bubbles and amplifying/hindering the collapse intensity depending on the flow parameters. Here, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics, as well as the pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of gas bubbles near a rigid surface. We perform high-resolution simulations of this problem by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The results are used to investigate the non-spherical bubble dynamics and characterize the pressure and temperature fields based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuration (angle, relative size, distance), collapse strength. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 and NSF Grant CBET 1253157.

  2. Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2003-01-01

    At the siting and conceptual design stage of a nuclear facility the first records pertaining to that facility are produced and stored. Subsequent phases in the facility's life cycle (detailed design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown) will include the production and retention of a large variety of records. Design, as-built drawings and operational records are essential for safe and efficient operation of any nuclear facility. This set of records is constantly updated and augmented during operation. Records from all phases of a nuclear facility are important for planning its decommissioning. Although not all of these records need to be included explicitly in the decommissioning plan itself, the process of initial, ongoing and final planning utilizes pertinent records for, and ultimately achieves, safe and cost effective decommissioning. When a nuclear facility is shutdown for decommissioning, current operating experience may be lost. Therefore, one important element of planning is to identify, secure and store appropriate operational records to support decommissioning. This process is preferably initiated during the design and construction phase and continues throughout operation including shutdown. Part of the records inventory from operation will become records for decommissioning and it is cost effective to identify these records before final facility shutdown. Experience shows that lack of attention to record keeping may result in an undue waste of time, other resources and additional costs. The newly established Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management recognizes the importance of keeping decommissioning-related records. In addition, the systematic management of records is an essential part of quality assurance and is often a licence condition. A good comprehensive decommissioning records management system (RMS) is one specific application of the broader concepts of 'Protection

  3. Finite element analysis of the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes applications to the oil industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Eduardo N

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of the models that were developed to simulate the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes. The finite element method offers to engineers the possibility of developing models to simulate the collapse behavior of casings inside oil wells and the collapse behavior of deepwater pipelines. However, if technological decisions are going to be reached from these model results, with implications for the economic success of industrial operations, for the occupational safety and health and for the environment, the engineering models need to be highly reliable. Using these models engineers can quantify the effect of manufacturing tolerances, wear, corrosion, etc. This book describes in great details the experimental programs that are developed to validate the numerical results.

  4. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  5. Pancreatic and duodenal injuries: keep it simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Matthew J F X; Brohi, Karim; Bautz, Peter C

    2005-07-01

    The management of pancreatic and duodenal trauma has moved away from complex reconstructive procedures to simpler methods in keeping with the trend towards organ-specific, damage control surgery. A retrospective case note review was undertaken over a 30-month period to evaluate a simplified protocol for the management of these injuries. Of 100 consecutive patients there were 51 with pancreatic injury, 30 with a duodenal injury and 19 with combined pancreaticoduodenal trauma. Overall mortality was 18.0%, with a late mortality (after 24 h) of 9.9%. This is comparable to previous studies. Morbidity from abscesses, fistulas and anastomotic breakdown was acceptably low. The concept of staged laparotomy can be successfully applied to wounds of the pancreas and duodenum. Debridement of devitalized tissue and drainage can be employed for most cases of pancreatic trauma. Most duodenal injuries can be managed with debridement and primary repair. Temporary exclusion and reoperation should be employed for unstable patients.

  6. The book-keeping program INDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, H.

    1975-12-01

    When the automatic measuring device for bubble chamber film, the Spiral Reader, at the Institute of Physics, University of Stockholm, came into operation in 1971, the 19 GeV/c pd-experiment was the first one to use it. New software was needed in order to process events, found in the scanning to the Spiral Reader for measurement. This piece of software should also be able to combine information from different scans into one unique record of necessary information per event. It was also desirable that this software could keep track of the events when further processed through the bubble chamber chain of programs. In addition it was wanted that events, which failed somewhere in the program chain, were not further processed, but instead were selected for remeasurement or rerunning if there was hope to get them through by such a procedure. The program called INDEX was constructed according to these demands. (Auth.)

  7. IAEA instrumentation programme keeping pace with technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortakov, V.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear components, nuclear practices and nuclear facilities have all improved with the maturing of the industry. These improvements have been driven by forces, which are beyond the normal evolutionary pressures, such as increased safety, as low as possible radiation exposure for the workers as well as for the public and the increasing competiveness of alternative forms of energy generation. International nuclear safeguards has had to keep pace with these technological and administrative changes. Moreover, the political climate has changed since the initial implementation of safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Implementation of safeguards agreements has accommodated to these changes as well as to the technical innovations. One important component of safeguards implementation, namely the instruments deployed by inspectors, has matured with the help of Member States. Continued efforts in the development and deployment of appropriate instruments are needed to maintain an acceptable level of efficiency and credibility. (orig.)

  8. 3D visualization of liquefaction-induced dune collapse in the Navajo Sandstone, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Colby; Nick, Kevin; Bryant, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    The eolian Navajo Sandstone outcrop on the Canyon Overlook Trail in Zion National Park in Southern Utah is dissected by modern erosion in a way which reveals a great deal of the three-dimensional architecture of a major soft-sediment deformation event. The feature is bounded below by a well-developed interdune complex made up of two superimposed carbonate lenses, above by an irregular truncational surface, and incorporates 3 - 10 m of sandstone over an approximately 2 km area. The material above the deformed interval is undeformed cross-bedded sandstone, with crossbeds downlapping onto the surface of truncation. The stratigraphic confinement of deformation and the irregularity of the upper bounding surface suggests a deformation process which created topography, which was in turn covered by the next upwind dune before it could be eroded flat. The deformed material itself is laterally segmented by a stacked succession of shear surfaces, which all strike approximately perpendicular to the paleo-wind direction and dip at decreasing angles in the down paleo-wind direction. These factors point to the collapse of a major dune into the downwind interdune area, likely initiated by liquefaction in the interdune complex. The foundering of the dune's toe into the liquefied area created a powerful lateral stress field which did not extend significantly into the subsurface. The dune collapse process has been used in the past to describe other soft-sediment deformation features in the Navajo Sandstone, but this site provides a wealth of physical details which were not previously associated with dune collapse. Shear surfaces originate in the interdune deposit as slip between laminae, then the cohesive muds provided support as they were thrust upward to angles of up to 50 degrees. The margins of the site also contain important paleoenvironmental indicators. Dinosaur tracks are exposed both at the extreme upwind and downwind margins of the interdune deposit in and slightly above

  9. Strategies To Keep Secret Through Sophie Kinsella’s Novel “Can You Keep A Secret”

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Mariaty A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper entitled “Strategies to Keep Secret Through Sophie Kinsella’a novel : Can You Keep a Secret is about Emma Corrigan who like every girl in the world. She has a few little secrets. Can You Keep a Secret is the fifth novel that written by Sophie Kinsella and get best seller. The writer discusses about the strategies to keep secret. The strategies are Trust, Silence, and Cooperation. The writer interested in analyzing this novel, because it’s contain some informantions about keeping a s...

  10. Endograft Collapse After Endovascular Treatment for Thoracic Aortic Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandorski, Dirk; Brueck, Martin; Guenther, Hans-Ulrich; Manke, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular treatment is an established therapy for thoracic aortic disease. Collapse of the endograft is a potentially fatal complication. We reviewed 16 patients with a thoracic endograft between 2001 and 2006. Medical records of the treated patients were studied. Data collected include age, gender, diagnosis, indication for endoluminal treatment, type of endograft, and time of follow up. All patients (n = 16; mean age, 61 years; range, 21-82 years) underwent computed tomography (CT) for location of the lesion and planning of the intervention. Time of follow-up with CT scan ranged from 1 to 61 months. Indications for endovascular treatment were degenerative aneurysm (n = 7; 44%), aortic dissection (n = 2; 12%), perforated aortic ulcer (n = 4; 25%), and traumatic aortic injury (n = 3; 19%). Three patients suffered from a collapse of the endograft (one patient distal, two patients proximal) between 3 and 8 days after endovascular treatment. These patients were younger (mean age, 37 ± 25 years vs. 67 ± 16 years; P 0.05]; distal, 45 ± 23.5% vs. 38 ± 21.7% [P > 0.05]). Proximal collapse was corrected by placing a bare stent. In conclusion, risk factors for stent-graft collapse are a small lumen of the aorta and a small radius of the aortic arch curvature (young patients), as well as oversizing, which is an important risk factor and is described for different types of endografts and protheses (Gore TAG and Cook Zenith). Dilatation of the collapsed stent-graft is not sufficient. Following therapy implantation of a second stent or surgery is necessary in patients with a proximal endograft collapse. Distal endograft collapse can possibly be treated conservatively under close follow-up.

  11. Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Zheng

    Full Text Available In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS and methylprednisolone (MPS. Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut % and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of

  12. Shock-induced nanobubble collapse and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedadi, Mohammad Hossein

    The shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field. Monitoring the collapse of a cavitation nanobubble, we observe a focused nanojet at the onset of bubble shrinkage and a water hammer shock wave upon bubble collapse. The nanojet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. The shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of approximately 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. Moreover, a substantial number of positive and negative ions appear when the nanojet hits the distal side of the nanobubble and the water hammer shock forms. Furthermore, two promising applications of shock-induced nanobubble collapse have been explored. Our simulations of poration in lipid bilayers due to shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles reveal penetration of nanojets into lipid bilayers. The nanojet impact generates shear flow of water on bilayer leaflets and pressure gradients across them, which transiently enhance the bilayer permeability by creating nanopores through which water molecules translocate across the bilayer. The effects of nanobubble size and temperature on the porosity of lipid bilayers are examined. Finally, the shock-induced collapse of CO2-filled nanobubbles in water is investigated. The energetic nanojet and high-pressure water hammer shock formed during and after collapse of the nanobubble trigger mechano-chemical H2O-CO2 reactions, some of which lead to splitting of water molecules. The dominant pathways through which splitting of water molecules occur are identified.

  13. Bounds on quantum collapse models from matter-wave interferometry: calculational details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroš, Marko; Bassi, Angelo

    2018-03-01

    We present a simple derivation of the interference pattern in matter-wave interferometry predicted by a class of quantum master equations. We apply the obtained formulae to the following collapse models: the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber (GRW) model, the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model together with its dissipative (dCSL) and non-Markovian generalizations (cCSL), the quantum mechanics with universal position localization (QMUPL), and the Diósi-Penrose (DP) model. We discuss the separability of the dynamics of the collapse models along the three spatial directions, the validity of the paraxial approximation, and the amplification mechanism. We obtain analytical expressions both in the far field and near field limits. These results agree with those already derived in the Wigner function formalism. We compare the theoretical predictions with the experimental data from two recent matter-wave experiments: the 2012 far-field experiment of Juffmann T et al (2012 Nat. Nanotechnol. 7 297-300) and the 2013 Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau (KDTL) near-field experiment of Eibenberger et al (2013 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15 14696-700). We show the region of the parameter space for each collapse model that is excluded by these experiments. We show that matter-wave experiments provide model-insensitive bounds that are valid for a wide family of dissipative and non-Markovian generalizations.

  14. Hydroacoustic monitoring of a salt cavity: an analysis of precursory events of the collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert, F.; Bernardie, S.; Mainsant, G.

    2011-09-01

    One of the main features of "post mining" research relates to available methods for monitoring mine-degradation processes that could directly threaten surface infrastructures. In this respect, GISOS, a French scientific interest group, is investigating techniques for monitoring the eventual collapse of underground cavities. One of the methods under investigation was monitoring the stability of a salt cavity through recording microseismic-precursor signals that may indicate the onset of rock failure. The data were recorded in a salt mine in Lorraine (France) when monitoring the controlled collapse of 2 000 000 m3 of rocks surrounding a cavity at 130 m depth. The monitoring in the 30 Hz to 3 kHz frequency range highlights the occurrence of events with high energy during periods of macroscopic movement, once the layers had ruptured; they appear to be the consequence of the post-rupture rock movements related to the intense deformation of the cavity roof. Moreover the analysis shows the presence of some interesting precursory signals before the cavity collapsed. They occurred a few hours before the failure phases, when the rocks were being weakened and damaged. They originated from the damaging and breaking process, when micro-cracks appear and then coalesce. From these results we expect that deeper signal analysis and statistical analysis on the complete event time distribution (several millions of files) will allow us to finalize a complete typology of each signal families and their relations with the evolution steps of the cavity over the five years monitoring.

  15. Development of IoT-based Urban Sinkhole and Road Collapse Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B.; Bang, E.; Lee, H. J.; Jeong, S. W.; Ryu, D.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, B. K.; Yum, B. W.; Lee, I. H.

    2015-12-01

    The consortium of Korean government-funded research institutes is developing IoT- (Internet of things) based underground safety monitoring and alerting system to manage risks arisen from land subsidence and road collapses in metropolitan areas in South Korea. The system consists of four major functional units: subsurface monitoring sensors sending data directly through the internet, centralized servers capable of collecting and processing big data, computational modules providing physical and statistical models for predicting high-risk areas, and geologic information service platforms visualizing underground safety maps for the public. The target urban area will be regionally covered by multi-sensors monitoring soil and groundwater conditions, and by high resolution satellite InSAR images filtering vertical land movements in a centimeter scale. Integrity of buried water supply and sewer lines are also monitored for the possibility of underground cavity formation. Once high-risk area is predicted, more tangible surveying methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and resistivity survey can be applied for locating the cavities. Additionally, laboratory and field experiments are performed to understand overall road collapsing mechanism from the initial cavity creation to its progressive development depending on soil types, degree of compaction, and groundwater condition. Acquired results will update existing fully-coupled hydromechanical models for more accurate prediction of the collapsing-vulnerable area. Preliminary laboratory experiments show that the upward propagation of subsurface cavity is closely related to the soil properties, such as sand-clay ratios and moisture contents, and groundwater dynamics.

  16. Investigation of the current collapse induced in InGaN back barrier AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiaojia; Wang Xiaoliang; Xiao Hongling; Feng Chun; Jiang Lijuan; Qu Shenqi; Wang Zhanguo; Hou Xun

    2013-01-01

    Current collapses were studied, which were observed in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with and without InGaN back barrier (BB) as a result of short-term bias stress. More serious drain current collapses were observed in InGaN BB AlGaN/GaN HEMTs compared with the traditional HEMTs. The results indicate that the defects and surface states induced by the InGaN BB layer may enhance the current collapse. The surface states may be the primary mechanism of the origination of current collapse in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for short-term direct current stress. (semiconductor devices)

  17. An integral condition for core-collapse supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we derive an integral condition for core-collapse supernova (CCSN) explosions and use it to construct a new diagnostic of explodability. The fundamental challenge in CCSN theory is to explain how a stalled accretion shock revives to explode a star. In this manuscript, we assume that the shock revival is initiated by the delayed-neutrino mechanism and derive an integral condition for spherically symmetric shock expansion, v_s > 0. One of the most useful one-dimensional explosion conditions is the neutrino luminosity and mass-accretion rate (L_ν-- M-dot ) critical curve. Below this curve, steady-state stalled solutions exist, but above this curve, there are no stalled solutions. Burrows & Goshy suggested that the solutions above this curve are dynamic and explosive. In this manuscript, we take one step closer to proving this supposition; we show that all steady solutions above this curve have v_s > 0. Assuming that these steady v_s > 0 solutions correspond to explosion, we present a new dimensionless integral condition for explosion, Ψ > 0. Ψ roughly describes the balance between pressure and gravity, and we show that this parameter is equivalent to the τ condition used to infer the L_ν-- M-dot critical curve. The illuminating difference is that there is a direct relationship between Ψ and v_s. Below the critical curve, Ψ may be negative, positive, and zero, which corresponds to receding, expanding, and stalled-shock solutions. At the critical curve, the minimum Ψ solution is zero; above the critical curve, Ψ_m_i_n > 0, and all steady solutions have v_s > 0. Using one-dimensional simulations, we confirm our primary assumptions and verify that Ψ_m_i_n > 0 is a reliable and accurate explosion diagnostic.

  18. Characterization of granular collapse onto hard substrates by acoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Toussaint, Renaud; De Rosny, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Brittle deformation in granular porous media can generate gravitational instabilities such as debris flows and rock avalanches. These phenomena constitute a major natural hazard for the population in mountainous, volcanic and coastal areas but their direct observation on the field is very dangerous. Recent studies showed that gravitational instabilities can be detected and characterized (volume, duration,...) thanks to the seismic signal they generate. In an avalanche, individual block bouncing and rolling on the ground are expected to generated signals of higher frequencies than the main flow spreading. The identification of the time/frequency signature of individual blocks in the recorded signal remains however difficult. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the acoustic signature of diverse simple sources corresponding to grains falling over thin plates of plexiglas and rock blocks. The elastic energy emitted by a single bouncing steel bead into the support was first quantitatively estimated and compared to the potential energy of fall and to the potential energy change during the shock. Next, we consider the collapse of granular columns made of steel spherical beads onto hard substrates. Initially, these columns were held by a magnetic field allowing to suppress suddenly the cohesion between the beads, and thus to minimize friction effects that would arise from side walls. We varied systematically the column volume, the column aspect ratio (height over length) and the grain size. This is shown to affect the signal envelope and frequency content. In the experiments, two types of acoustic sensors were used to record the signals in a wide frequency range: accelerometers (1 Hz to 56 kHz) and piezoelectric sensors (100 kHz to 1 MHz). The experiments were also monitored optically using fast cameras. We developed a technique to use quantitatively both types of sensors to evaluate the elastic energy emitted by the sources. Eventually, we looked at what

  19. Constraining quantum collapse inflationary models with CMB data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetti, Micol; Alcaniz, Jailson S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Landau, Susana J., E-mail: micolbenetti@on.br, E-mail: slandau@df.uba.ar, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, PabI, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2016-12-01

    The hypothesis of the self-induced collapse of the inflaton wave function was proposed as responsible for the emergence of inhomogeneity and anisotropy at all scales. This proposal was studied within an almost de Sitter space-time approximation for the background, which led to a perfect scale-invariant power spectrum, and also for a quasi-de Sitter background, which allows to distinguish departures from the standard approach due to the inclusion of the collapse hypothesis. In this work we perform a Bayesian model comparison for two different choices of the self-induced collapse in a full quasi-de Sitter expansion scenario. In particular, we analyze the possibility of detecting the imprint of these collapse schemes at low multipoles of the anisotropy temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using the most recent data provided by the Planck Collaboration. Our results show that one of the two collapse schemes analyzed provides the same Bayesian evidence of the minimal standard cosmological model ΛCDM, while the other scenario is weakly disfavoured with respect to the standard cosmology.

  20. Can static regular black holes form from gravitational collapse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yiyang; Zhu, Yiwei; Modesto, Leonardo; Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the Oppenheimer-Snyder model, we know how in classical general relativity the gravitational collapse of matter forms a black hole with a central spacetime singularity. It is widely believed that the singularity must be removed by quantum-gravity effects. Some static quantum-inspired singularity-free black hole solutions have been proposed in the literature, but when one considers simple examples of gravitational collapse the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the collapsing matter expands for ever. We may expect three possible explanations: (i) the static regular black hole solutions are not physical, in the sense that they cannot be realized in Nature, (ii) the final product of the collapse is not unique, but it depends on the initial conditions, or (iii) boundary effects play an important role and our simple models miss important physics. In the latter case, after proper adjustment, the bouncing solution would approach the static one. We argue that the ''correct answer'' may be related to the appearance of a ghost state in de Sitter spacetimes with super Planckian mass. Our black holes have indeed a de Sitter core and the ghost would make these configurations unstable. Therefore we believe that these black hole static solutions represent the transient phase of a gravitational collapse but never survive as asymptotic states. (orig.)

  1. Classical Collapse to Black Holes and Quantum Bounces: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Malafarina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last four decades, different programs have been carried out aiming at understanding the final fate of gravitational collapse of massive bodies once some prescriptions for the behaviour of gravity in the strong field regime are provided. The general picture arising from most of these scenarios is that the classical singularity at the end of collapse is replaced by a bounce. The most striking consequence of the bounce is that the black hole horizon may live for only a finite time. The possible implications for astrophysics are important since, if these models capture the essence of the collapse of a massive star, an observable signature of quantum gravity may be hiding in astrophysical phenomena. One intriguing idea that is implied by these models is the possible existence of exotic compact objects, of high density and finite size, that may not be covered by an horizon. The present article outlines the main features of these collapse models and some of the most relevant open problems. The aim is to provide a comprehensive (as much as possible overview of the current status of the field from the point of view of astrophysics. As a little extra, a new toy model for collapse leading to the formation of a quasi static compact object is presented.

  2. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, C.D. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); O' Connor, E.P. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Drasco, S. [Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa (United States); TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova.

  3. Self-Gravitating Stellar Collapse: Explicit Geodesics and Path Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishna, Jayashree; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Moran, Christine C.

    2016-01-01

    We extend the work of Oppenheimer and Synder to model the gravitational collapse of a star to a black hole by including quantum mechanical effects. We first derive closed-form solutions for classical paths followed by a particle on the surface of the collapsing star in Schwarzschild and Kruskal coordinates for space-like, time-like, and light-like geodesics. We next present an application of these paths to model the collapse of ultra-light dark matter particles, which necessitates incorporating quantum effects. To do so we treat a particle on the surface of the star as a wavepacket and integrate over all possible paths taken by the particle. The waveform is computed in Schwarzschild coordinates and found to exhibit an ingoing and an outgoing component, where the former contains the probability of collapse, while the latter contains the probability that the star will disperse. These calculations pave the way for investigating the possibility of quantum collapse that does not lead to black hole formation as well as for exploring the nature of the wavefunction inside r = 2M.

  4. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, C.D.; O'Connor, E.P.; Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T.; Drasco, S.

    2013-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova

  5. Self-Gravitating Stellar Collapse: Explicit Geodesics and Path Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, Jayashree [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Harris-Stowe State University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bondarescu, Ruxandra [Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Moran, Christine C., E-mail: corbett@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Department of Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-11-25

    We extend the work of Oppenheimer and Synder to model the gravitational collapse of a star to a black hole by including quantum mechanical effects. We first derive closed-form solutions for classical paths followed by a particle on the surface of the collapsing star in Schwarzschild and Kruskal coordinates for space-like, time-like, and light-like geodesics. We next present an application of these paths to model the collapse of ultra-light dark matter particles, which necessitates incorporating quantum effects. To do so we treat a particle on the surface of the star as a wavepacket and integrate over all possible paths taken by the particle. The waveform is computed in Schwarzschild coordinates and found to exhibit an ingoing and an outgoing component, where the former contains the probability of collapse, while the latter contains the probability that the star will disperse. These calculations pave the way for investigating the possibility of quantum collapse that does not lead to black hole formation as well as for exploring the nature of the wavefunction inside r = 2M.

  6. A novel animal model for hyperdynamic airway collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; O'Donnell, Carl R; Garland, Robert; Herth, Felix; Decamp, Malcolm; Ernst, Armin

    2010-12-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is increasingly recognized as a condition associated with significant pulmonary morbidity. However, treatment is invasive and complex, and because there is no appropriate animal model, novel diagnostic and treatment strategies are difficult to evaluate. We endeavored to develop a reliable airway model to simulate hyperdynamic airway collapse in humans. Seven 20-kg male sheep were enrolled in this study. Tracheomalacia was created by submucosal resection of > 50% of the circumference of 10 consecutive cervical tracheal cartilage rings through a midline cervical incision. A silicone stent was placed in the trachea to prevent airway collapse during recovery. Tracheal collapsibility was assessed at protocol-specific time points by bronchoscopy and multidetector CT imaging while temporarily removing the stent. Esophageal pressure and flow data were collected to assess flow limitation during spontaneous breathing. All animals tolerated the surgical procedure well and were stented without complications. One sheep died at 2 weeks because of respiratory failure related to stent migration. In all sheep, near-total forced inspiratory airway collapse was observed up to 3 months postprocedure. Esophageal manometry demonstrated flow limitation associated with large negative pleural pressure swings during rapid spontaneous inhalation. Hyperdynamic airway collapse can reliably be induced with this technique. It may serve as a model for evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for TBM.

  7. 3-D collapse of rotating stars to Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiotti, L; Hawke, I; Montero, P J; Loeffler, F L; Rezzolla, L; Stergioulas, N; Font, J A; Seidel, E

    2005-01-01

    We study gravitational collapse of uniformly rotating neutron stars to Kerr black holes, using a new three-dimensional, fully general relativistic hydrodynamics code, which uses high-resolution shock-capturing techniques and a conformal traceless formulation of the Einstein equations. We investigate the gravitational collapse by carefully studying not only the dynamics of the matter, but also that of the trapped surfaces, i.e. of both the apparent and event horizons formed during the collapse. The use of these surfaces, together with the dynamical horizon framework, allows for a precise measurement of the black-hole mass and spin. The ability to successfully perform these simulations for sufficiently long times relies on excising a region of the computational domain which includes the singularity and is within the apparent horizon. The dynamics of the collapsing matter is strongly influenced by the initial amount of angular momentum in the progenitor star and, for initial models with sufficiently high angular velocities, the collapse can lead to the formation of an unstable disc in differential rotation

  8. Young children mostly keep, and expect others to keep, their promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Köymen, Bahar; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Promises are speech acts that create an obligation to do the promised action. In three studies, we investigated whether 3- and 5-year-olds (N=278) understand the normative implications of promising in prosocial interactions. In Study 1, children helped a partner who promised to share stickers. When the partner failed to uphold the promise, 3- and 5-year-olds protested and referred to promise norms. In Study 2, when children in this same age range were asked to promise to continue a cleaning task-and they agreed-they persisted longer on the task and mentioned their obligation more frequently than without such a promise. They also persisted longer after a promise than after a cleaning reminder (Study 3). In prosocial interactions, thus, young children feel a normative obligation to keep their promises and expect others to keep their promises as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D C; Scarton, H A

    1985-03-01

    Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plate assemblies was first noted in experimental reactors such as the ORNL High Flux Reactor Assembly and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The ETR assembly is a stack of 19 thin flat rectangular fuel plates separated by narrow channels through which a coolant flows to remove the heat generated by fission of the fuel within the plates. The uranium alloyed plates have been noted to buckle laterally and plastically collapse at the system design coolant flow rate of 10.7 m/s, thus restricting the coolant flow through adjacent channels. A methodology and criterion are developed for predicting the plastic collapse of ETR fuel plates. The criterion is compared to some experimental results and the Miller critical velocity theory.

  10. Production Potential Of Nchanga Underground Mines Collapsed Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugie Kabwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract the main purpose of this study is to recommend modification to block caving at Nchanga ensure that it meets anticipated production levels and address the adverse ground conditions of the intensely fractured orebody. Excavations of current methods are driven close to the incompetent orebody. Determination of the appropriate method based on criteria of selection techniques together with the analysis of operating costs and safety. Reclamation of ore in the collapsed blocks entirely depended on maximizing revenue recovery of the mineral and safe working environment for equipment and personnel. On recommendation of a suitable method extent of the collapsed blocks was another aspect considered. The proposed methods of extraction were variants of block caving further shortlisted based on the extent of collapse. Economic appraisal of both the recommended and current mining methods employed included extraction recovery development reclamation costs revenue estimation and revenue raised from finished copper.

  11. Gravitational collapse of a magnetized fermion gas with finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Gaspar, I. [Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia (IGA), La Habana (Cuba); Perez Martinez, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Sussman, Roberto A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico); Ulacia Rey, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    We examine the dynamics of a self-gravitating magnetized fermion gas at finite temperature near the collapsing singularity of a Bianchi-I spacetime. Considering a general set of appropriate and physically motivated initial conditions, we transform Einstein-Maxwell field equations into a complete and self-consistent dynamical system amenable for numerical work. The resulting numerical solutions reveal the gas collapsing into both, isotropic (''point-like'') and anisotropic (''cigar-like''), singularities, depending on the initial intensity of the magnetic field. We provide a thorough study of the near collapse behavior and interplay of all relevant state and kinematic variables: temperature, expansion scalar, shear scalar, magnetic field, magnetization, and energy density. A significant qualitative difference in the behavior of the gas emerges in the temperature range T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -6} and T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -3}. (orig.)

  12. Localized microjetting in the collapse of surface macrocavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, K. L.; Chiu, P.-H.; Benson, D. J.; Higgins, A.; Serge, M.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2015-02-01

    This paper focuses on the multiscale mechanism of collapse of hemicylindrical annular surface macrocavities in steel caused by high-strain, high-strain rate plastic flow of copper. Experiments and simulations revealed that a two-stage process is responsible for the observed microjetting phenomena: the formation of lateral copper microjets from the localized shear flow in copper at the interface during the filling of the cavity, and their subsequent collision at the apex of the macrocavity generating two additional horizontal microjets. The lengths of these microjets were an order of magnitude smaller than the cavity size but linearly scaled with the cavity radius. This process of microjet development is sensitive to the cavity geometry and is unlike the previously observed jetting phenomena in cavitation, impact crater collapse, or shock-induced cavity collapse.

  13. A Critique: Jared Diamond’s Collapse Put In Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Gause

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jared Diamond’s book 'Collapse' captivated readers with its tales of past great civilizations succumbing to dramatic cycles of decline, and among them are the ancient Maya. Diamond’s model of the Maya collapse has become quite popular since its publication, however numerous other divergent theories exist as well, which attempt to explain the phenomenon. Diamond, buoyed by the success of his book and his renown as an author, is the assumed authority, despite academic criticism. By comparing Diamond’s 'Collapse' with current research I hope to critique Diamond and thus elucidate the condition of the Maya decline concerning the roles of the environment, the regional variability of various sociopolitical dynamics, such as those that were played out in the Petexbatun region, and the extent of Post Classic continuation of Maya tradition.

  14. Shock waves from non-spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    Combining simultaneous high-speed imaging and hydrophone measurements, we uncover details of the multiple shock wave emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles collapsing in a non-spherical way. For strongly deformed bubbles collapsing near a free surface, we identify the distinct shock waves caused by the jet impact onto the opposite bubble wall and by the individual collapses of the remaining bubble segments. The energy carried by each of these shocks depends on the level of bubble deformation, quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ, the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For jetting bubbles, at ζ water hammer as ph = 0.45 (ρc2 Δp) 1 / 2ζ-1 .

  15. Improved Noninterferometric Test of Collapse Models Using Ultracold Cantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinante, A.; Mezzena, R.; Falferi, P.; Carlesso, M.; Bassi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Spontaneous collapse models predict that a weak force noise acts on any mechanical system, as a consequence of the collapse of the wave function. Significant upper limits on the collapse rate have been recently inferred from precision mechanical experiments, such as ultracold cantilevers and the space mission LISA Pathfinder. Here, we report new results from an experiment based on a high-Q cantilever cooled to millikelvin temperatures, which is potentially able to improve the current bounds on the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model by 1 order of magnitude. High accuracy measurements of the cantilever thermal fluctuations reveal a nonthermal force noise of unknown origin. This excess noise is compatible with the CSL heating predicted by Adler. Several physical mechanisms able to explain the observed noise have been ruled out.

  16. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi.

    1986-01-01

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs

  17. How summit calderas collapse on basaltic volcanoes: new insights from the April 2007 caldera collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, Laurent; Catry, Thibault; Merle, Olivier [Laboratoire GeoSciences Reunion, Universite de la Reunion, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7154 - Geologie des Systemes Volcaniques, 15 avenue Rene Cassin, 97715 Saint Denis (France); Villeneuve, Nicolas [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, US 140, BP172, 97492 Sainte-Clotilde cedex (France)], E-mail: laurent.michon@univ-reunion.fr

    2008-10-01

    In April 2007, Piton de la Fournaise volcano experienced a caldera collapse during its largest historical eruption. We present here the resulting deformation and a synthesis of the seismicity recorded during recent caldera collapses. It allows us to propose a unifying mechanism that explains the pulsating collapse dynamics.

  18. Oilpatch Infobahn: SCADANet keeps gas marketers up to speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschart, M.

    2002-01-01

    A new SCADAnet product that keeps tabs on the performance of natural gas wells in real time is described. The system consists of two subgroups. In one subgroup the system acts as a SCADA host for groups of wells, via the field connection, that communicate directly to the SCADAnet server through a dedicated remote terminal. In the second subgroup an augmented PC at the plant concentrates data from a number of SCADA hosts and plant-distributed control systems. One of the system's key selling points is the ability to provide real-time data to marketers, who up-to-now had to rely on old (up to a month) figures when estimating the amount of sales gas a producing company has available. The software not only allows incorporation of field data directly into its production accounting system, but also has an alarm feature notifying the operator or marketer of a production problem at a specific well via e-mail, pager or voice mail. Since the developers of the system had remote plant sites in mind when developing the system, SCADAnet contains few display-stalling, high resolution graphic images. It is designed for 19.2 bytes/sec modem in mind, so that even with a relatively slow Internet connection producers can access real-time production data and analyze the information with the software's trending features

  19. Oilpatch Infobahn: SCADANet keeps gas marketers up to speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschart, M.

    2002-08-01

    A new SCADAnet product that keeps tabs on the performance of natural gas wells in real time is described. The system consists of two subgroups. In one subgroup the system acts as a SCADA host for groups of wells, via the field connection, that communicate directly to the SCADAnet server through a dedicated remote terminal. In the second subgroup an augmented PC at the plant concentrates data from a number of SCADA hosts and plant-distributed control systems. One of the system's key selling points is the ability to provide real-time data to marketers, who up-to-now had to rely on old (up to a month) figures when estimating the amount of sales gas a producing company has available. The software not only allows incorporation of field data directly into its production accounting system, but also has an alarm feature notifying the operator or marketer of a production problem at a specific well via e-mail, pager or voice mail. Since the developers of the system had remote plant sites in mind when developing the system, SCADAnet contains few display-stalling, high resolution graphic images. It is designed for 19.2 bytes/sec modem in mind, so that even with a relatively slow Internet connection producers can access real-time production data and analyze the information with the software's trending features.

  20. Gravitational Collapse of Massless Fields in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Chul-Moon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field with the periodic boundary condition in a cubic box is reported. This system can be regarded as a lattice universe model. The initial data is constructed for a Gaussian like profile of the scalar field taking the integrability condition associated with the periodic boundary condition into account. For a large initial amplitude, a black hole is formed after a certain period of time. While the scalar field spreads out in the whole region for a small initial amplitude. The difference of the late time expansion law of the lattice universe depending on the final fate of the gravitational collapse is discussed.

  1. Collapse of triangular channels in a soft elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepáyotl-Ramírez, Daniel; Lu, Tong; Park, Yong-Lae; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We extend classical solutions in contact mechanics to examine the collapse of channels in a soft elastomer. These channels have triangular cross-section and collapse when pressure is applied to the surrounding elastomer. Treating the walls of the channel as indenters that penetrate the channel base, we derive an algebraic mapping between pressure and cross-sectional area. These theoretical predictions are in strong agreement with results that we obtain through finite element analysis and experimental measurements. This is accomplished without data fitting and suggests that the theoretical approach may be generalized to a broad range of cross-sectional geometries in soft microfluidics.

  2. Evaluating nuclear physics inputs in core-collapse supernova models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, E.; Hix, W. R.; Baird, M. L.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.

    Core-collapse supernova models depend on the details of the nuclear and weak interaction physics inputs just as they depend on the details of the macroscopic physics (transport, hydrodynamics, etc.), numerical methods, and progenitors. We present preliminary results from our ongoing comparison studies of nuclear and weak interaction physics inputs to core collapse supernova models using the spherically-symmetric, general relativistic, neutrino radiation hydrodynamics code Agile-Boltztran. We focus on comparisons of the effects of the nuclear EoS and the effects of improving the opacities, particularly neutrino--nucleon interactions.

  3. Statistical evidence against simple forms of wavefunction collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-01-01

    If the initial quantum state of the universe is a multiverse superposition over many different sets of values of the effective coupling ‘constants’ of physics, and if this quantum state collapses to an eigenstate of the set of coupling ‘constants’ with a probability purely proportional to the absolute square of the amplitude (with no additional factor for something like life or consciousness), then one should not expect that the coupling ‘constants’ would be so biophilic as they are observed to be. Therefore, the observed biophilic values (apparent fine tuning) of the coupling ‘constants’ is statistical evidence against such simple forms of wavefunction collapse

  4. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    . Calculations have been compared with nearly 200 test results found in the literature. Satisfactory agreement has been found. The analyses are conducted on concentrically loaded caps supported by four piles. The paper briefly outlines how the approach may be extended to more complicated loadings and geometries......This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism...

  5. Two-dimensional collapse calculations of cylindrical clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, P.; Mitalas, R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code has been extensively modified and expanded to study the collapse of non-rotating interstellar clouds. The physics and the numerical methods involved are discussed. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the Jeans number. The critical Jeans number for collapse of non-rotating cylindrical clouds whose length is the same as their diameter is 1.00. No evidence for fragmentation has been found for these clouds, but fragmentation seems quite likely for more elongated cylindrical clouds. (author)

  6. Statistical evidence against simple forms of wavefunction collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2013-02-26

    If the initial quantum state of the universe is a multiverse superposition over many different sets of values of the effective coupling ‘constants’ of physics, and if this quantum state collapses to an eigenstate of the set of coupling ‘constants’ with a probability purely proportional to the absolute square of the amplitude (with no additional factor for something like life or consciousness), then one should not expect that the coupling ‘constants’ would be so biophilic as they are observed to be. Therefore, the observed biophilic values (apparent fine tuning) of the coupling ‘constants’ is statistical evidence against such simple forms of wavefunction collapse.

  7. Diagnosis of ischemic vertebral collapse using selective spinal angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, J.; Kovac, V.

    1981-01-01

    During the year of 1980 we observed 3 patients with a vertebral collapse of indistinct origin. As there was no recent trauma in the past history, selective spinal angiography (SSA) was used to clarify the diagnosis. In each of the three cases we found evident rarefaction, in some places even an occlusion of the arteries of the adjacent affected vertebra. On the bases of this finding we concluded that this might be an ischemic vertebral collapse, an entity which had been under discussion long ago but not exactly confirmed so far. (orig.) [de

  8. Gravitational collapse, chaos in CFT correlators and the information paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahi, Arya, E-mail: aryaf@umich.edu; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A., E-mail: lpandoz@umich.edu

    2014-06-27

    We consider gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. Following the AdS/CFT dictionary we further study correlations in the field theory side by way of the Klein–Gordon equation of a probe scalar field in the collapsing background. We present evidence that in a certain regime the probe scalar field behaves chaotically, thus supporting Hawking's argument in the black hole information paradox proposing that although the information can be retrieved in principle, deterministic chaos impairs, in practice, the process of unitary extraction of information from a black hole. We emphasize that quantum chaos will change this picture.

  9. Weak Interaction processes in core-collapse supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the role that weak interaction processes play in supernova. This includes electron captures and inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (INNS). Electron captures during the collapse occur mainly in heavy nuclei, however the proton contribution is responsible for the convergence of different models to a 'norm' stellar trajectory. Neutrino-nucleus cross sections at supernova neutrino energies can be determined from precise data on the magnetic dipole strength. The results agree well with large-scale shell-model calculations. When incorporated in core-collapse simulations INNS increases the neutrino opacities noticeably and strongly reduces the high-energy part of the supernova spectrum

  10. Gravitational Collapse of Radiating Dyon Solution and Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, K. D.; Zade, S. S.; Mohod, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of cosmic censorship violation in the gravitational collapse of radiating dyon solution. It is shown that the final outcome of the collapse depends sensitively on the electric and magnetic charge parameters. The graphs of the outer apparent horizon, inner Cauchy horizon for different values of parameters are drawn. It is found that the electric and magnetic components push the apparent horizon towards the retarded time-coordinate axis, which in turn reduces the radius of the apparent horizon in Vaidya spacetime. Also, we extend the earlier work of Chamorro and Virbhadra [Pramana, J. Phys. 45 (1995) 181

  11. The Negativity of Times. Collapsed Futures in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how urban temporalities in Maputo, Mozambique’s capital, erupt from collapsed futures, which endure within the present as traces of that which will no longer be. The argument is built on an ethnographic analysis of kuzama utomi (‘trying to make a life’), a temporal trope......, which prefigures the future as a failure on a linear scale. Still, although it is identifyed by its collapse, the future wedges itself within the present as a trace of that which will never be. While manifesting the efforts needed in order to reach a desired objective, it also exposes the powers at work...

  12. Keep online应用趋势预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢剑超

    2010-01-01

    @@ 随着执智能机的普及和上网资费下降,用户逐渐形成了keep online的使用习惯.保持在线是现在智能终端的最主要的特点. Keep online不是always oline,keep online 表示用户保持在线,而不指用户一直使用应用.Keep lnline 并不代表用户使用应用的时间变长,而是指用户使用应用更加频繁.

  13. "Everything keeps moving, nothing stays the same."

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Annette Svaneklink

    2012-01-01

    In terms of building new architecture, there are ways of letting time and change play a significant role; for instance when contextual factors get to have direct impact on the formal expression of a building or directly animate parts of a building. One of the earliest examples is Toyo Ito’s “Towe...... the experience of living-with, of being part of the same reality, be central to the work. This article suggests that SANAAs work explicits an architectural becoming with context....

  14. Flow and oscillations in collapsible tubes: Physiological applications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pressure changes associated with fluid flow in the tube may be enough to generate large area changes. Collapsible ... As a very simple model, consider a single, uniform pipe containing viscous fluid flowing steadily at volume ..... (1986). For each mode the instability occurs through a Hopf bifurcation, which is supercritical.

  15. Scanning the parameter space of collapsing rotating thin shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2018-06-01

    We present results of a comprehensive study of collapsing and bouncing thin shells with rotation, framing it in the context of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The analysis is based on a formalism developed specifically for higher odd dimensions that is able to describe the dynamics of collapsing rotating shells exactly. We analyse and classify a plethora of shell trajectories in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The parameters varied include the shell’s mass and angular momentum, its radial velocity at infinity, the (linear) equation-of-state parameter and the spacetime dimensionality. We find that plunges of rotating shells into black holes never produce naked singularities, as long as the matter shell obeys the weak energy condition, and so respects cosmic censorship. This applies to collapses of dust shells starting from rest or with a finite velocity at infinity. Not even shells with a negative isotropic pressure component (i.e. tension) lead to the formation of naked singularities, as long as the weak energy condition is satisfied. Endowing the shells with a positive isotropic pressure component allows for the existence of bouncing trajectories satisfying the dominant energy condition and fully contained outside rotating black holes. Otherwise any turning point occurs always inside the horizon. These results are based on strong numerical evidence from scans of numerous sections in the large parameter space available to these collapsing shells. The generalisation of the radial equation of motion to a polytropic equation-of-state for the matter shell is also included in an appendix.

  16. Acoustical signature of the collapse of a cavitation bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, G.L.

    1978-10-01

    The influence of the proximity of a wall on the noise emitted when an isolated cavitation bubble collapses is studied qualitatively by correlation between the noise emitted and the dynamics of the bubble, by amplitude analysis and by time analysis [fr

  17. Excision technique in constrained formulations of Einstein equations: collapse scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero-Carrión, I; Vasset, N; Novak, J; Jaramillo, J L

    2015-01-01

    We present a new excision technique used in constrained formulations of Einstein equations to deal with black hole in numerical simulations. We show the applicability of this scheme in several scenarios. In particular, we present the dynamical evolution of the collapse of a neutron star to a black hole, using the CoCoNuT code and this excision technique. (paper)

  18. Three-dimensional simulations of void collapse in energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    The collapse of voids in porous energetic materials leads to hot-spot formation and reaction initiation. This work advances the current knowledge of the dynamics of void collapse and hot-spot formation using 3D reactive void collapse simulations in HMX. Four different void shapes, i.e., sphere, cylinder, plate, and ellipsoid, are studied. For all four shapes, collapse generates complex three-dimensional (3D) baroclinic vortical structures. The hot spots are collocated with regions of intense vorticity. The differences in the vortical structures for the different void shapes are shown to significantly impact the relative sensitivity of the voids. Voids of high surface area generate hot spots of greater intensity; intricate, highly contorted vortical structures lead to hot spots of corresponding tortuosity and therefore enhanced growth rates of reaction fronts. In addition, all 3D voids are shown to be more sensitive than their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. The results provide physical insights into hot-spot formation and growth and point to the limitations of 2D analyses of hot-spot formation.

  19. Simulation of the collapse and dissipation of Langmuir wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.L.; Winglee, R.M.; Robinson, P.A.; Glanz, J.; Goldman, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of isolated Langmuir wave packets is studied numerically in two dimensions using both particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and by integrating the Zakharov partial differential equations (PDE's). The initial state consists of a localized Langmuir wave packet in an ion background that either is uniform or has a profile representative of the density wells in which wave packets form during strong plasma turbulence. Collapse thresholds are determined numerically and compared to analytical estimates. A model in which Langmuir damping is significantly stronger than Landau damping is constructed which, when included in the PDE simulations, yields good agreement with the collapse dynamics observed in PIC simulations for wave packets with initial wave energy densities small compared to the thermal level. For more intense initial Langmuir fields, collapse is arrested in PIC simulations at lower field strengths than in PDE simulations. Neither nonlinear saturation of the density perturbation nor fluid electron nonlinearities can account for the difference between simulation methods in this regime. However, at these wave levels inhomogeneous electron heating and coherent jets of transit-time accelerated electrons in phase space are observed, resulting in further enhancement of wave damping and the consequent reduction of fields in the PIC simulations

  20. Heterogeneous economic resilience and the great recession's world trade collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.; Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This special section aims to fill a gap in the regional resilience literature and to stimulate future spatial studies of resilience to include the international dimension in empirical analyses. It demonstrates the do-ability and relevance by the natural experience of the global trade collapse that

  1. An experimental investigation of untriggered film boiling collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, P.

    1985-03-01

    Film boiling has been investigated in a stagnant pool, using polished brass or anodised aluminium alloy rods in water. Experimental boiling curves were obtained, and pronounced ripples on the vapour/liquid interface were photographed. A criterion for untriggered film boiling collapse is proposed, consistent with experimental results. Application of the results to molten fuel coolant interaction studies is discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechikha, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode due to the presence of the resistive anode plasma layer was found. This effect is more damaging at higher diode voltages and may be responsible for the parasitic load effect observed in the experiments. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs

  3. Modelling Technique for Demonstrating Gravity Collapse Structures in Jointed Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, B.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a base-friction modeling technique for studying the development of collapse structures in jointed rocks. A moving belt beneath weak material is designed to simulate gravity. A description is given of the model frame construction. (Author/SA)

  4. On stellar collapse: continual or oscillatory. A short comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    We comment on a previously published paper on the oscillatory dynamics of stellar collapse and conclude that the Schwarzschild interior solution applied to the 'inflection points' can never give rise to a 'turning back' motion, in spite of the fact that the geodesic equation really does not always describe an attractive gravitational acceleration

  5. Explosive X-point collapse in relativistic magnetically dominated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Sironi, Lorenzo; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Porth, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    The extreme properties of the gamma-ray flares in the Crab nebula present a clear challenge to our ideas on the nature of particle acceleration in relativistic astrophysical plasma. It seems highly unlikely that standard mechanisms of stochastic type are at work here and hence the attention of theorists has switched to linear acceleration in magnetic reconnection events. In this series of papers, we attempt to develop a theory of explosive magnetic reconnection in highly magnetized relativistic plasma which can explain the extreme parameters of the Crab flares. In the first paper, we focus on the properties of the X-point collapse. Using analytical and numerical methods (fluid and particle-in-cell simulations) we extend Syrovatsky's classical model of such collapse to the relativistic regime. We find that the collapse can lead to the reconnection rate approaching the speed of light on macroscopic scales. During the collapse, the plasma particles are accelerated by charge-starved electric fields, which can reach (and even exceed) values of the local magnetic field. The explosive stage of reconnection produces non-thermal power-law tails with slopes that depend on the average magnetization . For sufficiently high magnetizations and vanishing guide field, the non-thermal particle spectrum consists of two components: a low-energy population with soft spectrum that dominates the number census; and a high-energy population with hard spectrum that possesses all the properties needed to explain the Crab flares.

  6. Review of literature on the asymmetric collapse of vapor bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremd, R.; Froehlich, G.

    1977-06-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the asymmetric collape of vapor bubbles by cavitation with special consideration to vapor explosions. Two numerical models, which describe the collapse of cavities in the neighbourhood of a solid surface, are presented. Moreover experimental results for this case are provided. Propositions to apply the numerical models to vapor explosions are made. (orig.) [de

  7. Building Failures And Collapses: A Case Study Of Portharcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cases of Building failures and consequent collapse in Nigeria has reached an alarming and lamentable stage. It is a disaster comparable to flood disaster, earthquake and aeroplane clash considering the loss of life and destruction of property. Building failure are mostly observed in big cities where there are multiple ...

  8. Surviving a cluster collapse: risk aversion as a core value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Hospers, Gerrit J.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper analyses firms, which survived in a collapsed regional cluster. The target is to analyze whether the principles for enduring success identified researching success factors of very old firms also apply in such an environment. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conduct a

  9. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurence, W. F.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 489, č. 7415 (2012), s. 290-294 ISSN 0028-0836 Grant - others:NSF grant(AU) RCN-0741956 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * tropical forest * collapse Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 38.597, year: 2012 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/nature11318.pdf

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor convective overturn in stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenn, S.W.; Buchler, J.R.; Livio, M.

    1979-01-01

    Rayleigh--Taylor convective overturn in collapsing stellar cores is modeled with a one-dimensional parametrization. The results of a numerical hydrodynamic study are very encouraging and indicate that such an overturn could well be a dominant feature in the supernova explosion mechanism

  11. The collapse of an anti-de Sitter bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.F.; Coleman, S.

    1985-01-01

    We prove that the ultimate fate of a bubble of negative energy density which forms in a metastable universe of zero energy density is gravitational collapse. We improve on previous treatments in that we allow departures from O(3,1) symmetry in the initial state, so long as they are not too great. (orig.)

  12. Spherical collapse model in time varying vacuum cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis; Sola, Joan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the virialization of cosmic structures in the framework of flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological models, in which the vacuum energy density evolves with time. In particular, our analysis focuses on the study of spherical matter perturbations, as they decouple from the background expansion, 'turn around', and finally collapse. We generalize the spherical collapse model in the case when the vacuum energy is a running function of the Hubble rate, Λ=Λ(H). A particularly well-motivated model of this type is the so-called quantum field vacuum, in which Λ(H) is a quadratic function, Λ(H)=n 0 +n 2 H 2 , with n 0 ≠0. This model was previously studied by our team using the latest high quality cosmological data to constrain its free parameters, as well as the predicted cluster formation rate. It turns out that the corresponding Hubble expansion history resembles that of the traditional ΛCDM cosmology. We use this Λ(t)CDM framework to illustrate the fact that the properties of the spherical collapse model (virial density, collapse factor, etc.) depend on the choice of the considered vacuum energy (homogeneous or clustered). In particular, if the distribution of the vacuum energy is clustered, then, under specific conditions, we can produce more concentrated structures with respect to the homogeneous vacuum energy case.

  13. Collapse arrest and soliton stabilization in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Wyller, John

    2002-01-01

    that nonlocality of the nonlinearity prevents collapse in, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates and optical Kerr media in all physical dimensions. The nonlocal nonlinear response must be symmetric and have a positive definite Fourier spectrum, but can otherwise be of completely arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality...

  14. Pore collapse and regrowth in silicon electrodes for rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCaluwe, S. C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering; Colorado School of Mines; USA; Center for Neutron Research; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Dhar, B. M. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Material Measurement Laboratory; Huang, L. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; He, Y. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy; Yang, K. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Owejan, J. P. [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Technology; State University of New York; Alfred; USA; Zhao, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy; University of Georgia; Athens; USA; Talin, A. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Gaithersburg; USA; Sandia National Laboratories; Dura, J. A. [Center for Neutron Research; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Gaithersburg; USA; Wang, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering; University of Maryland; College Park; USA; Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-01-01

    In-operando Neutron Reflectometry establishes the pore collapse and regrowth (PCRG) mechanism in amorphous Si. Upon lithiation, porosity is first consumed by expansion of solid Si domains, with little thickness increase. After, the whole film expands. Porosity returns upon delithiation.

  15. Automatic lung segmentation in the presence of alveolar collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshadi Areg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung ventilation and perfusion analyses using chest imaging methods require a correct segmentation of the lung to offer anatomical landmarks for the physiological data. An automatic segmentation approach simplifies and accelerates the analysis. However, the segmentation of the lungs has shown to be difficult if collapsed areas are present that tend to share similar gray values with surrounding non-pulmonary tissue. Our goal was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm that is able to approximate dorsal lung boundaries even if alveolar collapse is present in the dependent lung areas adjacent to the pleura. Computed tomography data acquired in five supine pigs with injured lungs were used for this purpose. First, healthy lung tissue was segmented using a standard 3D region growing algorithm. Further, the bones in the chest wall surrounding the lungs were segmented to find the contact points of ribs and pleura. Artificial boundaries of the dorsal lung were set by spline interpolation through these contact points. Segmentation masks of the entire lung including the collapsed regions were created by combining the splines with the segmentation masks of the healthy lung tissue through multiple morphological operations. The automatically segmented images were then evaluated by comparing them to manual segmentations and determining the Dice similarity coefficients (DSC as a similarity measure. The developed method was able to accurately segment the lungs including the collapsed regions (DSCs over 0.96.

  16. The final outcome of dissipative collapse in the presence of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the gravitational collapse of conformally flat, radiating spheres. ... Comprehensive studies of static fluid spheres in the presence of a cosmological constant have led .... tions with isotropic pressures in the presence of heat flux and cosmological constant ..... radiation from the stellar surface reaches our observer at infinity.

  17. Influence Of Collapsing Matter On The Enveloping Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, A. Latif

    2005-01-01

    Using a collapsing matter model at the center of an expanding universe as described by Weinberg we assume a special type of generated pressure. This pressure transmits into the surrounding expanding universe. Under certain restriction the ensuing hubble parameter is positive. The deacceleration parameter fluctuates with time, indicating that the universe accelerates for certain time and decelerates for other time intervals.

  18. Cosmic censorship in a Kerr-like collapse scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, W. [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Rzeszow (Poland)

    1998-04-01

    In this contribution we discuss a recent result which shows that a gravitational collapse cannot in generic situations lead to the formation of a final state resembling the Kerr solution with a naked singularity. This result supports the validity of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. (author)

  19. Stability of a collapsed scalar field and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, S.

    1988-01-01

    The static and asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-massless-scalar model with spherical symmetry describes the spacetime with a naked singularity when it has a nonvanishing scalar charge. We show that such a solution is unstable against the spherical scalar monopole perturbation. This suggests the validity of the cosmic censorship hypothesis in the spherical collapse of the scalar field

  20. Cosmic censorship in a Kerr-like collapse scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, W.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss a recent result which shows that a gravitational collapse cannot in generic situations lead to the formation of a final state resembling the Kerr solution with a naked singularity. This result supports the validity of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. (author)

  1. Electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechikha, A V [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1997-12-31

    The effect of the electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode due to the presence of the resistive anode plasma layer was found. This effect is more damaging at higher diode voltages and may be responsible for the parasitic load effect observed in the experiments. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  2. Plastic collapse behavior for thin tube with two parallel cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong In; Chang, Yoon Suk; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jin Ho; Song, Myung Ho; Choi, Young Hwan; Kim, Joung Soo

    2004-01-01

    The current plugging criterion is known to be too conservative for some locations and types of defects. Many defects detected during in-service inspection take on the form of multiple cracks at the top of tube sheet but there is no reliable plugging criterion for the steam generator tubes with multiple cracks. Most of the previous studies on multiple cracks are confined to elastic analyses and only few studies have been done on the steam generator tubes failed by plastic collapse. Therefore, it is necessary to develop models which can be used to estimate the failure behavior of steam generator tubes with multiple cracks. The objective of this study is to verify the applicability of the optimum local failure prediction models proposed in the previous study. For this, plastic collapse tests are performed with the tube specimens containing two parallel through-wall cracks. The plastic collapse load of the steam generator tubes containing two parallel through-wall cracks are also estimated by using the proposed optimum global failure model and the applicability is investigated by comparing the estimated results with the experimental results. Also, the interaction effect between two cracks was evaluated to explain the plastic collapse behavior

  3. Geophysical Assessment of Two Collapsed and Concealed Septic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... m and depth of about 2.9 m. The delineated clayey soils at shallow depths suggest that there could be seasonal soil swelling and shrinkages due to seasonal variation in moisture content of the clay. These most likely led to annual ground movements, cumulative soil creep and the subsequent collapse of the septic tanks.

  4. Dangers of collapsible ventricular drainage systems. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, A H; Wallace, D

    1982-02-01

    Ventricular drainage systems employing a collapsible plastic bag for fluid collection were postulated to cause an increasing back-pressure produced in part by the elasticity of the bag. This postulate was shown to be correct in an experimental situation. There was a logarithmic rise in cerebrospinal fluid pressure as the bag filled. By increasing the size of the bag, the problem was overcome.

  5. Surface tension effects on the behavior of a cavity growing, collapsing, and rebounding near a rigid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Zhang, Hui-sheng

    2004-11-01

    Surface tension effects on the behavior of a pure vapor cavity or a cavity containing some noncondensible contents, which is growing, collapsing, and rebounding axisymmetrically near a rigid wall, are investigated numerically by the boundary integral method for different values of dimensionless stand-off parameter gamma, buoyancy parameter delta, and surface tension parameter beta. It is found that at the late stage of the collapse, if the resultant action of the Bjerknes force and the buoyancy force is not small, surface tension will not have significant effects on bubble behavior except that the bubble collapse time is shortened and the liquid jet becomes wider. If the resultant action of the two force is small enough, surface tension will have significant and in some cases substantial effects on bubble behavior, such as changing the direction of the liquid jet, making a new liquid jet appear, in some cases preventing the bubble from rebound before jet impact, and in other cases causing the bubble to rebound or even recollapse before jet impact. The mechanism of surface tension effects on the collapsing behavior of a cavity has been analyzed. The mechanisms of some complicated phenomena induced by surface tension effects are illustrated by analysis of the computed velocity fields and pressure contours of the liquid flow outside the bubble at different stages of the bubble evolution.

  6. High-precision radiocarbon dating of political collapse and dynastic origins at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; MacLellan, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Palomo, Juan Manuel; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Pinzón, Flory; Nasu, Hiroo

    2017-02-07

    The lowland Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, had a long history of occupation, spanning from the Middle Preclassic Period through the Terminal Classic (1000 BC to AD 950). The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since 2005 and has obtained 154 radiocarbon dates, which represent the largest collection of radiocarbon assays from a single Maya site. The Bayesian analysis of these dates, combined with a detailed study of ceramics, allowed us to develop a high-precision chronology for Ceibal. Through this chronology, we traced the trajectories of the Preclassic collapse around AD 150-300 and the Classic collapse around AD 800-950, revealing similar patterns in the two cases. Social instability started with the intensification of warfare around 75 BC and AD 735, respectively, followed by the fall of multiple centers across the Maya lowlands around AD 150 and 810. The population of Ceibal persisted for some time in both cases, but the center eventually experienced major decline around AD 300 and 900. Despite these similarities in their diachronic trajectories, the outcomes of these collapses were different, with the former associated with the development of dynasties centered on divine rulership and the latter leading to their downfalls. The Ceibal dynasty emerged during the period of low population after the Preclassic collapse, suggesting that this dynasty was placed under the influence from, or by the direct intervention of, an external power.

  7. Reproducibility of aluminum foam properties: Effect of precursor distribution on the structural anisotropy and the collapse stress and its dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosko, M.; Simancik, F.; Florek, R.

    2010-01-01

    The porous structure of aluminum foam manufactured through the foaming of precursors containing blowing agent is stochastic in nature, usually with a random distribution of pores of different size and shape, creating difficulties in the modeling and prediction of foam properties. In this study, the effect of the initial location of the precursor material in the mold on the foam structure and compression behavior was investigated. Structural characterization showed that the porosity distribution, surface skin thickness and pore orientation was affected by the location of the precursors in the mold and by the extrusion direction of the precursors. Moreover, compression tests demonstrated a significant effect of the structural anisotropy on the collapse stress and its dispersion. The collapse stress of the foam increased if the loading was performed parallel to the thicker surface skin or parallel to the preferential pore orientation, leading to a 20% difference in collapse stress. The dispersion of the collapse stress could be significantly decreased if the loading was performed with regard to the structural anisotropy.

  8. Prediction of the wetting-induced collapse behaviour using the soil-water characteristic curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Li; Li, Ping; Vanapalli, Sai K.; Wang, Jia-Ding

    2018-01-01

    Collapsible soils go through three distinct phases in response to matric suction decrease during wetting: pre-collapse phase, collapse phase and post-collapse phase. It is reasonable and conservative to consider a strain path that includes a pre-collapse phase in which constant volume is maintained and a collapse phase that extends to the final matric suction to be experienced by collapsible soils during wetting. Upon this assumption, a method is proposed for predicting the collapse behaviour due to wetting. To use the proposed method, two parameters, critical suction and collapse rate, are required. The former is the suction value below which significant collapse deformations take place in response to matric suction decease, and the later is the rate at which void ratio reduces with matric suction in the collapse phase. The value of critical suction can be estimated from the water-entry value taking account of both the microstructure characteristics and collapse mechanism of fine-grained collapsible soils; the wetting soil-water characteristic curve thus can be used as a tool. Five sets of data of wetting tests on both compacted and natural collapsible soils reported in the literature were used to validate the proposed method. The critical suction values were estimated from the water-entry value with parameter a that is suggested to vary between 0.10 and 0.25 for compacted soils and to be lower for natural collapsible soils. The results of a field permeation test in collapsible loess soils were also used to validate the proposed method. The relatively good agreement between the measured and estimated collapse deformations suggests that the proposed method can provide reasonable prediction of the collapse behaviour due to wetting.

  9. Intense electromagnetic outbursts from collapsing hypermassive neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Liebling, Steven L.; Thompson, Christopher; Hanna, Chad

    2012-11-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of a magnetized neutron star using a novel numerical approach able to capture both the dynamics of the star and the behavior of the surrounding plasma. In this approach, a fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics implementation models the collapse of the star and provides appropriate boundary conditions to a force-free model which describes the stellar exterior. We validate this strategy by comparing with known results for the rotating monopole and aligned rotator solutions and then apply it to study both rotating and nonrotating stellar collapse scenarios and contrast the behavior with what is obtained when employing the electrovacuum approximation outside the star. The nonrotating electrovacuum collapse is shown to agree qualitatively with a Newtonian model of the electromagnetic field outside a collapsing star. We illustrate and discuss a fundamental difference between the force-free and electrovacuum solutions, involving the appearance of large zones of electric-dominated field in the vacuum case. This provides a clear demonstration of how dissipative singularities appear generically in the nonlinear time evolution of force-free fluids. In both the rotating and nonrotating cases, our simulations indicate that the collapse induces a strong electromagnetic transient, which leaves behind an uncharged, unmagnetized Kerr black hole. In the case of submillisecond rotation, the magnetic field experiences strong winding, and the transient carries much more energy. This result has important implications for models of gamma-ray bursts. Even when the neutron star is surrounded by an accretion torus (as in binary merger and collapsar scenarios), a magnetosphere may emerge through a dynamo process operating in a surface shear layer. When this rapidly rotating magnetar collapses to a black hole, the electromagnetic energy released can compete with the later output in a Blandford-Znajek jet. Much less electromagnetic energy is

  10. KEEP Motivational Research: Strategy and Results. Technical Report #24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report briefly summarizes the motivation research strategy and results from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). The rationale behind KEEP's use of on-task behavior to measure student motivation is discussed and the two strategies of motivation enhancement researched are described. These two strategies were: (1) staff training in…

  11. The KEEP Phone Discrimination Test. Technical Report No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth; And Others

    The urban, ethnically Hawaiian child typically experiences great difficulty in learning to read English. In order to determine whether phonological confusion is a source of dialectical interference, the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Phone Discrimination Test (KPDT) was developed for the one hundred twelve students in the KEEP school…

  12. 78 FR 78504 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ..., logistical questions, and conclusion. The total estimated annual burden will be 15 hours. Participants will incur no costs from the data collection and participants will incur no record keeping burden and no record keeping cost from the information collection. If the Optional Task is funded, we assume a subset...

  13. 78 FR 23824 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... questions, potential participant questions, logistical questions, and conclusion. The total estimated annual burden will be 40 hours. Participants will incur no costs from the data collection and participants will incur no record keeping burden and no record keeping cost from the information collection. Authority: 44...

  14. 4-H Animal Science: Financial Record Keeping Book

    OpenAIRE

    Callan, Peter L.; Thompson, John; Woodard, Scott; Kastan, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This document includes six lessons that focus on financial record keeping in relation to raising and caring for livestock. These lessons include activities and objectives ranging from selection of an animal for the project to keeping records of costs of feed, and other expenses. There are lessons which also analysis of data to determine if goals were met, and if the project was profitable.

  15. Why Should Scholars Keep Coming Back to John Dewey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    This essay attempts to explain why philosophers, philosophers of education, and scholars of democracy should keep coming back to John Dewey for insights and inspiration on issues related to democracy and education. Mordechai Gordon argues that there are four major reasons that contribute to scholars' need to keep returning to Dewey for inspiration…

  16. Good government and good governance: record keeping in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenges that arise when record keeping systems are advocated as a necessary under-pinning for good government and good governance. The relationship between record keeping and accountability is analysed and contextualised in relation to transparency and Freedom of Information ...

  17. 40 CFR 1068.455 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068.455 What records must I keep? (a) We may review your records at any time so it is important to keep required...) If you shipped the engine/equipment for testing, the date you shipped it, the associated storage or...

  18. Probability of lek collapse is lower inside sage-grouse Core Areas: Effectiveness of conservation policy for a landscape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Suzuki Spence

    Full Text Available Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus occupy sagebrush (Artemisia spp. habitats in 11 western states and 2 Canadian provinces. In September 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced the listing status for sage-grouse had changed from warranted but precluded to not warranted. The primary reason cited for this change of status was that the enactment of new regulatory mechanisms was sufficient to protect sage-grouse populations. One such plan is the 2008, Wyoming Sage Grouse Executive Order (SGEO, enacted by Governor Freudenthal. The SGEO identifies "Core Areas" that are to be protected by keeping them relatively free from further energy development and limiting other forms of anthropogenic disturbances near active sage-grouse leks. Using the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's sage-grouse lek count database and the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission database of oil and gas well locations, we investigated the effectiveness of Wyoming's Core Areas, specifically: 1 how well Core Areas encompass the distribution of sage-grouse in Wyoming, 2 whether Core Area leks have a reduced probability of lek collapse, and 3 what, if any, edge effects intensification of oil and gas development adjacent to Core Areas may be having on Core Area populations. Core Areas contained 77% of male sage-grouse attending leks and 64% of active leks. Using Bayesian binomial probability analysis, we found an average 10.9% probability of lek collapse in Core Areas and an average 20.4% probability of lek collapse outside Core Areas. Using linear regression, we found development density outside Core Areas was related to the probability of lek collapse inside Core Areas. Specifically, probability of collapse among leks >4.83 km from inside Core Area boundaries was significantly related to well density within 1.61 km (1-mi and 4.83 km (3-mi outside of Core Area boundaries. Collectively, these data suggest that the Wyoming Core Area Strategy has benefited

  19. Probability of lek collapse is lower inside sage-grouse Core Areas: Effectiveness of conservation policy for a landscape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Emma Suzuki; Beck, Jeffrey L; Gregory, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) occupy sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats in 11 western states and 2 Canadian provinces. In September 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced the listing status for sage-grouse had changed from warranted but precluded to not warranted. The primary reason cited for this change of status was that the enactment of new regulatory mechanisms was sufficient to protect sage-grouse populations. One such plan is the 2008, Wyoming Sage Grouse Executive Order (SGEO), enacted by Governor Freudenthal. The SGEO identifies "Core Areas" that are to be protected by keeping them relatively free from further energy development and limiting other forms of anthropogenic disturbances near active sage-grouse leks. Using the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's sage-grouse lek count database and the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission database of oil and gas well locations, we investigated the effectiveness of Wyoming's Core Areas, specifically: 1) how well Core Areas encompass the distribution of sage-grouse in Wyoming, 2) whether Core Area leks have a reduced probability of lek collapse, and 3) what, if any, edge effects intensification of oil and gas development adjacent to Core Areas may be having on Core Area populations. Core Areas contained 77% of male sage-grouse attending leks and 64% of active leks. Using Bayesian binomial probability analysis, we found an average 10.9% probability of lek collapse in Core Areas and an average 20.4% probability of lek collapse outside Core Areas. Using linear regression, we found development density outside Core Areas was related to the probability of lek collapse inside Core Areas. Specifically, probability of collapse among leks >4.83 km from inside Core Area boundaries was significantly related to well density within 1.61 km (1-mi) and 4.83 km (3-mi) outside of Core Area boundaries. Collectively, these data suggest that the Wyoming Core Area Strategy has benefited sage

  20. On the possibility of a two-bang supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, V.S.; Castagnoli, C.; Dokuchaev, V.I.; Galeotti, P.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of a two-bang stellar collapse originating SN 1987a, and having the characteristics of the events recorded in Mont Blanc and Kamiokande, is discussed here. According to the ''standard'' collapse models of nonrotating stars, which predict the formation of a neutrino-sphere with a nondegenerate neutrino gas inside the star, the Mont Blanc and kamiokande data for the first burst give a too large stellar mass. On the contrary, a degenerate neutrino gas with low temperature T ∼ 0.5 MeV, and chemical potential μ ∼ (12-15), predicts a relatively low total energy outflow W ν ∼ (2-6) x 10 54 erg, and a small number of expected interactions in Kamiokande. A possible scenario is suggested: a massive (M ∼ 20M o ) rotating star is fragmented into two pieces, one light and the other heavy, at the onset of the collapse.The massive component collapses to a black hole, and produces the first burst. Neutrinos are trapped inside the collapsing star because of elastic scattering in the outer core off heavy nuclei, with A ∼ 300. It is shown that neutrinos fill up the quantum states, producing a degenerate neutrino gas. The second burst is explained by coalescence of the light fragment (M ∼ (1-3)M o ) onto the massive black hole. The time delay between the two observed bursts (4.7h) is mostly connected with gravitational braking, when the light fragment falls down onto the black hole, with an accompanying emission of gravitational waves for times of order of hours

  1. Determination of karst collapse intensity indicator in area of nuclear power plant construction using incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharapov, R

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the definition of karst collapse intensity. The technique for determining the intensity of karst formation and collapse on the basis of calculation and probabilistic method is given. Karst collapse formation is affected by a great variety of natural and anthropogenic factors. Each factor can vary quite widely. The paper describes a technique for determining karst collapse intensity from incomplete data. It uses karst processes monitoring data in the area and monitoring data of areas with similar values of the most significant factors leading to the karst collapses. The method used for determination of karst collapse intensity indicator in area of Nizhny Novgorod nuclear power plant construction

  2. Keep-Left Behavior Induced by Asymmetrically Profiled Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. L. N.; Vieira, A. P.; Helbing, D.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    We show, computationally and analytically, that asymmetrically shaped walls can organize the flow of pedestrians driven in opposite directions through a corridor. Precisely, a two-lane ordered state emerges in which people always walk on the left-hand side (or right-hand side), controlled by the system's parameters. This effect depends on features of the channel geometry, such as the asymmetry of the profile and the channel width, as well as on the density and the drift velocity of pedestrians, and the intensity of noise. We investigate in detail the influence of these parameters on the flow and discover a crossover between ordered and disordered states. Our results show that an ordered state only appears within a limited range of drift velocities. Moreover, increasing noise may suppress such flow organization, but the flow is always sustained. This is in contrast with the "freezing by heating" phenomenon according to which pedestrians tend to clog in smooth channels for strong noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1240 (2000)]. Therefore, the ratchetlike effect proposed here acts on the system not only to induce a "keep-left" behavior but also to prevent the freezing by heating clogging phenomenon. Besides pedestrian flow, this new phenomenon has other potential applications in microfluidics systems.

  3. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    Full Text Available Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates.

  4. Integrating Innovation: Keeping the Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    access inside Army com- mand posts. Commercial innovation also can be built directly into our con- tract structure. Just as today’s smartphones ...moving to publish detailed guidance this year on how gov- ernment and industry partners will comply with the Modular Open Systems Architecture...which outlines design principles and interface characteristics allowing for modular hardware While the Army cannot predict the future or design

  5. Keeping Dublin Core Simple: Cross-Domain Discovery or Resource Description?; First Steps in an Information Commerce Economy: Digital Rights Management in the Emerging E-Book Environment; Interoperability: Digital Rights Management and the Emerging EBook Environment; Searching the Deep Web: Direct Query Engine Applications at the Department of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoze, Carl; Neylon, Eamonn; Mooney, Stephen; Warnick, Walter L.; Scott, R. L.; Spence, Karen J.; Johnson, Lorrie A.; Allen, Valerie S.; Lederman, Abe

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss Dublin Core metadata, digital rights management and electronic books, including interoperability; and directed query engines, a type of search engine designed to access resources on the deep Web that is being used at the Department of Energy. (LRW)

  6. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012 revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively. A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  7. Monte Carlo investigation of collapsed versus rotated IMRT plan verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, Elaine; Alexander, Andrew; Ruo, Russell; Chung, Eunah; Seuntjens, Jan; Foley, Mark J

    2014-05-08

    IMRT QA requires, among other tests, a time-consuming process of measuring the absorbed dose, at least to a point, in a high-dose, low-dose-gradient region. Some clinics use a technique of measuring this dose with all beams delivered at a single gantry angle (collapsed delivery), as opposed to the beams delivered at the planned gantry angle (rotated delivery). We examined, established, and optimized Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimetry for IMRT verification of treatment plans for these two different delivery modes (collapsed versus rotated). The results of the simulations were compared to the treatment planning system dose calculations for the two delivery modes, as well as to measurements taken. This was done in order to investigate the validity of the use of a collapsed delivery technique for IMRT QA. The BEAMnrc, DOSXYZnrc, and egs_chamber codes were utilized for the Monte Carlo simulations along with the MMCTP system. A number of different plan complexity metrics were also used in the analysis of the dose distributions in a bid to qualify why verification in a collapsed delivery may or may not be optimal for IMRT QA. Following the Alfonso et al. formalism, the kfclin,frefQclin,Q correction factor was calculated to correct the deviation of small fields from the reference conditions used for beam calibration. We report on the results obtained for a cohort of 20 patients. The plan complexity was investigated for each plan using the complexity metrics of homogeneity index, conformity index, modulation complexity score, and the fraction of beams from a particular plan that intersect the chamber when performing the QA. Rotated QA gives more consistent results than the collapsed QA technique. The kfclin,frefQclin,Qfactor deviates less from 1 for rotated QA than for collapsed QA. If the homogeneity index is less than 0.05 then the kfclin,frefQclin,Q factor does not deviate from unity by more than 1%. A value this low for the homogeneity index can only be obtained

  8. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  9. Improving the quality of endodontic record keeping through clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E; Shekaran, L; Muthukrishnan, A

    2017-03-10

    Introduction Record keeping is an essential part of day-to-day practice and plays an important role in treatment, audit and dento-legal procedures. Creating effective endodontic records is challenging due to the scope of information required for comprehensive notes. Two audits were performed to assess the standards of endodontic record keeping by dentists in a restorative dentistry department and students on an endodontic MSc course.Methods Fifty sets of departmental records and 10 sets of student records were retrospectively evaluated against the European Society of Endodontology 2006 guidelines. Results of the first cycle of both audits were presented to departmental staff and MSc students, alongside an educational session. Additionally, departmental guidelines, consent leaflets and endodontic record keeping forms were developed. Both audits were repeated using the same number of records, thus completing both audit cycles.Results The most commonly absent records included consent, anaesthetic details, rubber dam method, working length reference point, irrigation details and obturation technique. Almost all areas of record keeping improved following the second audit cycle, with some areas reaching 100% compliance when record keeping forms were used. Statistically significant improvements were seen in 24 of the 29 areas in the departmental audit and 14 of the 29 areas in the MSc audit (P = 0.05).Conclusions Significant improvements in endodontic record keeping can be achieved through the provision of education, departmental guidelines, consent leaflets and endodontic record keeping forms.

  10. Investigation of Seismic Waves from Non-Natural Sources: A Case Study for Building Collapse and Surface Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houng, S.; Hong, T.

    2013-12-01

    The nature and excitation mechanism of incidents or non-natural events have been widely investigated using seismological techniques. With introduction of dense seismic networks, small-sized non-natural events such as building collapse and chemical explosions are well recorded. Two representative non-natural seismic sources are investigated. A 5-story building in South Korea, Sampoong department store, was collapsed in June 25, 1995, causing casualty of 1445. This accident is known to be the second deadliest non-terror-related building collapse in the world. The event was well recorded by a local station in ~ 9 km away. P and S waves were recorded weak, while monotonic Rayleigh waves were observed well. The origin time is determined using surface-wave arrival time. The magnitude of event is determined to be 1.2, which coincides with a theoretical estimate based on the mass and volume of building. Synthetic waveforms are modeled for various combinations of velocity structures and source time functions, which allow us to constrain the process of building collapse. It appears that the building was collapsed once within a couple of seconds. We also investigate a M2.1 chemical explosion at a fertilizer plant in Texas on April 18, 2013. It was reported that more than one hundred people were dead or injured by the explosion. Seismic waveforms for nearby stations are collected from Incorporated Research Institution of Seismology (IRIS). The event was well recorded at stations in ~500 km away from the source. Strong acoustic signals were observed at stations in a certain great-circle direction. This observation suggests preferential propagation of acoustic waves depending on atmospheric environment. Waveform cross-correlation, spectral analysis and waveform modeling are applied to understand the source physics. We discuss the nature of source and source excitation mechanism.

  11. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human–goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats’ inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development. PMID:28083538

  12. Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, A S; McCann, K S; Gellner, G; Turkington, R

    2013-02-07

    Long-term and persistent human disturbances have simultaneously altered the stability and diversity of ecological systems, with disturbances directly reducing functional attributes such as invasion resistance, while eliminating the buffering effects of high species diversity. Theory predicts that this combination of environmental change and diversity loss increases the risk of abrupt and potentially irreversible ecosystem collapse, but long-term empirical evidence from natural systems is lacking. Here we demonstrate this relationship in a degraded but species-rich pyrogenic grassland in which the combined effects of fire suppression, invasion and trophic collapse have created a species-poor grassland that is highly productive, resilient to yearly climatic fluctuations, and resistant to invasion, but vulnerable to rapid collapse after the re-introduction of fire. We initially show how human disturbance has created a negative relationship between diversity and function, contrary to theoretical predictions. Fire prevention since the mid-nineteenth century is associated with the loss of plant species but it has stabilized high-yield annual production and invasion resistance, comparable to a managed high-yield low-diversity agricultural system. In managing for fire suppression, however, a hidden vulnerability to sudden environmental change emerges that is explained by the elimination of the buffering effects of high species diversity. With the re-introduction of fire, grasslands only persist in areas with remnant concentrations of native species, in which a range of rare and mostly functionally redundant plants proliferate after burning and prevent extensive invasion including a rapid conversion towards woodland. This research shows how biodiversity can be crucial for ecosystem stability despite appearing functionally insignificant beforehand, a relationship probably applicable to many ecosystems given the globally prevalent combination of intensive long-term land

  13. Biology, Culture, and the Origins of Pet-Keeping

    OpenAIRE

    Harold A. Herzog

    2014-01-01

    Attachments between non-human animals of different species are surprisingly common in situations involving human agency (e.g., homes, zoos, and wildlife parks). However, cross-species animal friendships analogous to pet-keeping by humans are at least rare and possibly non-existent in nature. Why has pet-keeping evolved only in Homo sapiens? I review theories that explain pet-keeping either as an adaptation or an evolutionary by-product. I suggest that these explanations cannot account for the...

  14. Multiple edifice-collapse events in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt: The role of sloping substrate and implications for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo; Diaz-Castellon, Rodolfo; Siebert, L.; Hubbard, B.; Sheridan, M.F.; Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2006-01-01

    The Citlalte??petl-Cofre de Perote volcanic chain forms an important physiographic barrier that separates the Central Altiplano (2500??masl) from the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP) (1300??masl). The abrupt eastward drop in relief between these provinces gives rise to unstable conditions and consequent gravitational collapse of large volcanic edifices built at the edge of the Altiplano. Eastward sloping substrate, caused by the irregular configuration of the basement rocks, is the dominant factor that controls the direction of collapsing sectors in all major volcanoes in the region to be preferentially towards the GCP. These collapses produced voluminous debris avalanches and lahars that inundated the well-developed drainages and clastic aprons that characterize the Coastal Plain. Large catastrophic collapses from Citlalte??petl, Las Cumbres, and Cofre de Perote volcanoes are well documented in the geologic record. Some of the avalanches and transformed flows have exceptionally long runouts and reach the Gulf of Mexico traveling more than 120??km from their source. So far, no direct evidence has been found for magmatic activity associated with the initiation of these catastrophic flank-collapses. Apparently, instability of the volcanic edifices has been strongly favored by very intense hydrothermal alteration, abrupt topographic change, and intense fracturing. In addition to the eastward slope of the substrate, the reactivation of pre-volcanic basement structures during the Late Tertiary, and the E-W to ENE-SSW oriented regional stress regimes may have played an important role in the preferential movement direction of the avalanches and flows. In addition to magmatic-hydrothermal processes, high amounts of rainfall in the area is another factor that enhances alteration and eventually weakens the rocks. It is very likely that seismic activity may be the principal triggering mechanism that caused the flank collapse of large volcanic edifices in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic

  15. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  16. Coupled dynamics of translation and collapse of acoustically driven microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anil J; Szeri, Andrew J

    2002-10-01

    Pressure gradients drive the motion of microbubbles relative to liquids in which they are suspended. Examples include the hydrostatic pressure due to a gravitational field, and the pressure gradients in a sound field, useful for acoustic levitation. In this paper, the equations describing the coupled dynamics of radial oscillation and translation of a microbubble are given. The formulation is based on a recently derived expression for the hydrodynamic force on a bubble of changing size in an incompressible liquid [J. Magnaudet and D. Legendre, Phys. Fluids 10, 550-556 (1998)]. The complex interaction between radial and translation dynamics is best understood by examination of the added momentum associated with the liquid motion caused by the moving bubble. Translation is maximized when the bubble collapses violently. The new theory for coupled collapse and translation dynamics is compared to past experiments and to previous theories for decoupled translation dynamics. Special attention is paid to bubbles of relevance in biomedical applications.

  17. Collapse of Non-Rectangular Channels in a Soft Elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepayotl-Ramirez, Daniel; Park, Yong-Lae; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    We examine the collapse of microchannels in a soft elastomer by treating the sidewalls as in- denters that penetrate the channel base. This approach leads to a closed-form algebraic mapping between applied pressure and cross-sectional deformation that are in strong agreement with ex- perimental measurements and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation. Applications of this new approach to modeling soft microchannel collapse range from lab-on-a-chip microfluidics for pressure-controlled protein filtration to soft-matter pressures sensing. We demonstrate the latter by comparing theoretical predictions with experimental measurements of the pressure-controlled electrical resistance of liquid-phase Gallium alloy microchannels embedded in a soft silicone elas- tomer.

  18. Quantum gravitational collapse: non-singularity and non-locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gravitational collapse in the context of quantum mechanics. We take primary interest in the behavior of the collapse near the horizon and near the origin (classical singularity) from the point of view of an infalling observer. In the absence of radiation, quantum effects near the horizon do not change the classical conclusions for an infalling observer, meaning the horizon is not an obstacle for him. However, quantum effects are able to remove the classical singularity at the origin, since the wave function is non-singular at the origin. Also, near the classical singularity, some non-local effects become important. In the Schrodinger equation describing behavior near the origin, derivatives of the wave function at one point are related to the value of the wave function at some other distant point.

  19. Gravitational perfect fluid collapse in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, G.; Tahir, M. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-08-15

    The Einstein Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity is the low-energy limit of heterotic super-symmetric string theory. This paper deals with gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity by considering the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. For this purpose, the closed form of the exact solution of the equations of motion has been determined by using the conservation of the stress-energy tensor and the condition of marginally bound shells. It has been investigated that the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet coupling term α > 0 and the pressure of the fluid modifies the structure and time formation of singularity. In this analysis a singularity forms earlier than a horizon, so the end state of the collapse is a naked singularity depending on the initial data. But this singularity is weak and timelike, which goes against the investigation of general relativity. (orig.)

  20. Quantum continual measurements and a posteriori collapse on CCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belavkin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    A quantum stochastic model for the Markovian dynamics of an open system under the nondemolition unsharp observation which is continuous in time, is given. A stochastic equation for the posterior evolution of a quantum continuously observed system is derived and the spontaneous collapse (stochastically continuous reduction of the wave packet) is described. The quantum Langevin evolution equation is solved for the case of a quasi-free Hamiltonian in the initial CCR algebra with a linear output channel, and the posterior dynamics corresponding to an initial Gaussian state is found. It is shown for an example of the posterior dynamics of a quantum oscillator that any mixed state under a complete nondemolition measurement collapses exponentially to a pure Gaussian one. (orig.)

  1. Heat flow during sawtooth collapse in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Kazuaki

    1994-01-01

    Heat flow during sawtooth collapse was studied on the WT-3 tokamak by using temporal evolution of soft X-ray intensity profile in the poloidal cross section in a lower hybrid current driven plasma as well as an electron cyclotron heated plasma. Two phase in sawtooth collapses were observed. In the first phases, the hottest spot that is the peak of the soft X-ray distribution approaches the inversion surface and heat flows out through a narrow gate on the inversion surface. In the second phase, the hottest spot stays on the inversion surface, and heat flows out through the whole inversion surface. This suggests that magnetic reconnection as predicted by Kadomtsev's model occurs in the first phase, but in the second phase, a different mechanism dominates heat flow. (author)

  2. The Strong Disjoint Blow-Up/Collapse Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor N. Salas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a topological vector space, and let be the algebra of continuous linear operators on . The operators are disjoint hypercyclic if there is such that the orbit is dense in . Bès and Peris have shown that if satisfy the Disjoint Blow-up/Collapse property, then they are disjoint hypercyclic. In a recent paper Bès, Martin, and Sanders, among other things, have characterized disjoint hypercyclic -tuples of weighted shifts in terms of this property. We introduce the Strong Disjoint Blow-up/Collapse property and prove that if satisfy this new property, then they have a dense linear manifold of disjoint hypercyclic vectors. This allows us to give a partial affirmative answer to one of their questions.

  3. Gravitational collapse and evolution of holographic black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, R [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna and I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Germani, C [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-01

    Gravitational collapse is analyzed in the Brane-World by arguing that regularity of five-dimensional geodesics require that stars on the brane have an atmosphere. For the simple case of a spherically symmetric cloud of non-dissipating dust, conditions are found for which the collapsing star evaporates and approaches the Hawking behavior as the (apparent) horizon is being formed. The effective energy of the star vanishes at a finite radius and the star afterwards re-expands and 'anti-evaporates'. Israel junction conditions across the brane (holographically related to the matter trace anomaly) and the projection of the Weyl tensor on the brane (holographically interpreted as the quantum back-reaction on the brane metric) contribute to the total energy as, respectively, an 'anti-evaporation' and an 'evaporation' term.

  4. Rates of collapse and evaporation of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Piet; Djorgovski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Observational estimates of the dynamical relaxation times of Galactic globular clusters are used here to estimate the present rate at which core collapse and evaporation are occurring in them. A core collapse rate of 2 +/- 1 per Gyr is found, which for a Galactic age of about 12 Gyr agrees well with the fact that 27 clusters have surface brightness profiles with the morphology expected for the postcollapse phase. A destruction and evaporation rate of 5 +/- 3 per Gyr is found, suggesting that a significant fraction of the Galaxy's original complement of globular clusters have perished through the combined effects of mechanisms such as relaxation-driven evaporation and shocking due to interaction with the Galactic disk and bulge.

  5. Fire-induced collapse mechanisms of steel buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Aiuti, Riccardo; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the failure modes of steel building in fire, with the aim of identify basic collapse mechanisms and design characteristics that play a role in the development and propagation of failures through the structural system. In particular, the effect of deformations...... and eigen-stresses induced by a restrained thermal expansion are not considered by current design methods and regulations, but are known to have driven the collapse of several steel and composite structures. In this study, the effect of restrained thermal expansions of steel beams exposed to fire...... is investigated with respect to two different structural typologies, i.e. single- and multi-story frames. In single-story buildings, such as car parks or industrial halls, the presence of stiff beams, typically required by large spans and higher service loads due to the different occupancy of the premises, may...

  6. Collapse of white dwarfs in low mass binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isern, J.; Canal, R.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Hernanz, M.; Labay, J.

    1987-01-01

    Low-mass binary X-ray sources and cataclysmic variables are composed of a compact star plus a non-degenerate star with a mass of the order of 1 M sun . In the first case, the degenerate star is a neutron star. In the second case, the star is a white dwarf. The similarities of both systems are so high that it is worthwhile to look for the possibility of obtaining a neutron star from the collapse of a white dwarf that accretes matter. The present work shows that massive, initially cold white dwarfs can collapse non-explosively if they accrete mass at a rate greater than 1.0E-7 M sun per year. (Author)

  7. Kax and kol: Collapse and resilience in lowland Maya civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Nicholas P.; Beach, Timothy P.; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Episodes of population loss and cultural change, including the famous Classic Collapse, punctuated the long course of Maya civilization. In many cases, these downturns in the fortunes of individual sites and entire regions included significant environmental components such as droughts or anthropogenic environmental degradation. Some afflicted areas remained depopulated for long periods, whereas others recovered more quickly. We examine the dynamics of growth and decline in several areas in the Maya Lowlands in terms of both environmental and cultural resilience and with a focus on downturns that occurred in the Terminal Preclassic (second century Common Era) and Terminal Classic (9th and 10th centuries CE) periods. This examination of available data indicates that the elevated interior areas of the Yucatán Peninsula were more susceptible to system collapse and less suitable for resilient recovery than adjacent lower-lying areas. PMID:22371571

  8. Fast Radio Bursts from the Collapse of Strange Star Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Geng, Jin-Jun; Huang, Yong-Feng

    2018-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are transient radio sources at cosmological distances. No counterparts in other bands have been observed for non-repeating FRBs. Here we suggest the collapse of strange star (SS) crusts as a possible origin for FRBs. SSs, which are composed of almost equal numbers of u, d, and s quarks, may be encapsulated by a thin crust of normal hadronic matter. When a SS accretes matter from its environment, the crust becomes heavier and heavier. It may finally collapse, leading to the release of a large amount of magnetic energy and plenty of electron/positron pairs on a very short timescale. Electron/positron pairs in the polar cap region of the SS can be accelerated to relativistic velocities, streaming along the magnetic field lines to form a thin shell. FRBs are produced by coherent emission from these electrons when the shell is expanding. Basic characteristics of observed FRBs can be explained in our model.

  9. Gravitational collapse with rotating thin shells and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V; Santarelli, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The study of gravitational collapse is a subject of great importance, both from an astrophysical and a holographic point of view. In this respect, exact solutions can be very helpful but known solutions are very scarce, especially when considering dynamical processes with rotation. We describe a setup in which gravitational collapse of rotating matter shells can be addressed with analytic tools, at the expense of going to higher dimensions and considering equal angular momenta spacetimes. The framework for an exact treatment of the dynamics, relying on a thin shell approximation, is developed. Our analysis allows the inclusion of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss applications of this machinery to the construction of stationary solutions describing matter around rotating black holes and to the cosmic censorship conjecture. (paper)

  10. Scalar field critical collapse in 2+1 dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Jałmużna, Joanna; Gundlach, Carsten; Chmaj, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    We carry out numerical experiments in the critical collapse of a spherically symmetric massless scalar field in 2+1 spacetime dimensions in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and compare them against a new theoretical model. We approximate the true critical solution as the $n=4$ Garfinkle solution, matched at the lightcone to a Vaidya-like solution, and corrected to leading order for the effect of $\\Lambda

  11. The Great Gatsby and the Collapse of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄红

    2014-01-01

    Gatsby's dream is a typical American Dream. His failure signified the decay of the American post-war spirit. His death belled the alarm for the other disillusioned people from fantasy dreams and set them to reconsider the social reality.This thesis would discuss the collapse of the Gatsby's dream and that of American dream based on the book plot and the background of 1920s.

  12. Velocity structure of protostellar envelopes: gravitational collapse and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloche, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of pre-stellar condensations in molecular clouds. The major aim of this thesis is to compare the predictions of collapse models with observations of both very young (class 0) protostars and starless condensations in millimeter molecular lines. We wish to understand what determines the masses of forming stars and whether the initial conditions have an effect on the dynamical evolution of a condensation. Using a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, we analyze rotation and infall spectroscopic signatures to study the velocity structure of a sample of protostellar condensations. We show that the envelope of the class 0 protostar IRAM 04191 in the Taurus molecular cloud is undergoing both extended, subsonic infall and fast, differential rotation. We propose that the inner part of the envelope is a magnetically supercritical core in the process of decoupling from the ambient cloud still supported by the magnetic field. We suggest that the kinematical properties observed for IRAM 04191 are representative of the physical conditions characterizing isolated protostars shortly after point mass formation. On the other hand, a similar study for the pre-stellar condensations of the Rho Ophiuchi proto-cluster yields mass accretion rates that are an order of magnitude higher than in IRAM 04191. This suggests that individual protostellar collapse in clusters is induced by external disturbances. Moreover, we show that the condensations do not have time to orbit significantly through the proto-cluster gas before evolving into protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. This seems inconsistent with models which resort to dynamical interactions and competitive accretion to build up a mass spectrum comparable to the stellar initial mass function. We conclude that protostellar collapse is nearly spontaneous in regions of isolated star formation such as the Taurus cloud but probably strongly induced in proto-clusters. (author) [fr

  13. Multidimensional, multiphysics simulations of core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, O E B [National Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6008 (United States); Bruenn, S W [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Blondin, J M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Hix, W R; Mezzacappa, A [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    CHIMERA is a multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code designed to study core-collapse supernovae. The code is made up of three essentially independent parts: a hydrodynamics module, a nuclear burning module, and a neutrino transport solver combined within an operator-split approach. We review the code's architecture and some recently improved implementations used in the code. We also briefly discuss preliminary results obtained with the code in three spatial dimensions.

  14. Lower bounds of collapse loads in axisymmetrical vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Neto, J. de D.; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1981-01-01

    The rigid-plastic limit analysis of shells of revolution subject to rotationally symmetric loadings, is presented. After assembling the finite elements, the limit analysis program is reduced to a simple application of the non-linear programming technique, where the sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT) is utilized for the statically admissible approach. Lower bounds of the collapse loads are presented and compared with the results described in the literature. (Author) [pt

  15. Effects of Gas Dynamics on Rapidly Collapsing Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Spenser; Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rapidly collapsing bubbles are of great interest due to the high degree of energy focusing that occurs withing the bubble. Molecular dynamics provides a way to model the interior of the bubble and couple the gas dynamics with the equations governing the bubble wall. While much theoretical work has been done to understand how a bubble will respond to an external force, the internal dynamics of the gas system are usually simplified greatly in such treatments. This paper shows ho...

  16. Dynamics of zonal shear collapse with hydrodynamic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theory for the collapse of the edge zonal shear layer, as observed at the density limit at low β. This paper investigates the scaling of the transport and mean profiles with the adiabaticity parameter α, with special emphasizes on fluxes relevant to zonal flow (ZF) generation. We show that the adiabaticity parameter characterizes the strength of production of zonal flows and so determines the state of turbulence. A 1D reduced model that self-consistently describes the spatiotemporal evolution of the mean density n ¯ , the azimuthal flow v¯ y , and the turbulent potential enstrophy ɛ=⟨(n˜ -∇2ϕ˜ ) 2/2 ⟩ —related to fluctuation intensity—is presented. Quasi-linear analysis determines how the particle flux Γn and vorticity flux Π=-χy∇2vy+Πre s scale with α, in both hydrodynamic and adiabatic regimes. As the plasma response passes from adiabatic (α > 1) to hydrodynamic (α y=Πre s/χy —representative of the strength of the shear—also drops. The shear layer then collapses and turbulence is enhanced. The collapse is due to a decrease in ZF production, not an increase in damping. A physical picture for the onset of collapse is presented. The findings of this paper are used to motivate an explanation of the phenomenology of low β density limit evolution. A change from adiabatic ( α=kz2vth 2/(|ω|νei)>1 ) to hydrodynamic (α < 1) electron dynamics is associated with the density limit.

  17. Algebraic collapsing acceleration of the characteristics method with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.; Roy, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics solvers implemented in the lattice code Dragon are extended to allow a complete anisotropic treatment of the collision operator. An efficient synthetic acceleration method, called Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA), is presented. Tests show that this method can substantially speed up the convergence of scattering source iterations. The effect of boundary conditions, either specular or white reflections, on anisotropic scattering lattice-cell problems is also considered. (author)

  18. Numerical study of rotating interstellar clouds: equilibrium and collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    Equilibrium and collapse of rotating, axisymmetric, idealized interstellar gas clouds is calculated with a 2D hydrodynamics code. The hydrodynamics features an improved angular momentum advection algorithm. Angular momentum is advected consistently with mass by deriving angular momentum fluxes from mass fluxes and the local distribution of specific angular momentum. Local conservation is checked by a graph of mass versus specific angular momentum for the cloud as a whole

  19. Gravitational wave extraction in simulations of rotating stellar core collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisswig, C.; Ott, C. D.; Sperhake, U.; Schnetter, E.

    2011-01-01

    We perform simulations of general relativistic rotating stellar core collapse and compute the gravitational waves (GWs) emitted in the core-bounce phase of three representative models via multiple techniques. The simplest technique, the quadrupole formula (QF), estimates the GW content in the spacetime from the mass-quadrupole tensor only. It is strictly valid only in the weak-field and slow-motion approximation. For the first time, we apply GW extraction methods in core collapse that are fully curvature based and valid for strongly radiating and highly relativistic sources. These techniques are not restricted to weak-field and slow-motion assumptions. We employ three extraction methods computing (i) the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar Ψ 4 , (ii) Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief master functions, and (iii) Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) allowing for the extraction of GWs at future null infinity, where the spacetime is asymptotically flat and the GW content is unambiguously defined. The latter technique is the only one not suffering from residual gauge and finite-radius effects. All curvature-based methods suffer from strong nonlinear drifts. We employ the fixed-frequency integration technique as a high-pass waveform filter. Using the CCE results as a benchmark, we find that finite-radius NP extraction yields results that agree nearly perfectly in phase, but differ in amplitude by ∼1%-7% at core bounce, depending on the model. Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief waveforms, while, in general, agreeing in phase, contain spurious high-frequency noise of comparable amplitudes to those of the relatively weak GWs emitted in core collapse. We also find remarkably good agreement of the waveforms obtained from the QF with those obtained from CCE. The results from QF agree very well in phase and systematically underpredict peak amplitudes by ∼5%-11%, which is comparable to the NP results and is certainly within the uncertainties associated with core collapse physics.

  20. A model for voltage collapse study considering load characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L B [Companhia de Energia Eletrica da Bahia (COELBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a model for analysis of voltage collapse and instability problem considering the load characteristics. The model considers fundamentally the transmission lines represented by exact from through the generalized constants A, B, C, D and the loads as function of the voltage, emphasizing the cases of constant power, constant current and constant impedance. the study treats of the system behavior on steady state and presents illustrative graphics about the problem. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Physics of collapses. Probabilistic occurrence of ELMs and crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Toda, S.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, K.; Fukuyama, A.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical picture for the collapse is proposed. The physics picture of the crash phenomena, which is based on the turbulence-turbulence transition, is extended to include the statistical variance of observables. The dynamics of the plasma gradient and the turbulence level is studied, with the hysteresis nature in the flux-gradient relation. The probabilistic excitation is predicted. The critical condition is described by the statistical probability. (author)

  2. Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.H.; Haxton, W.C.; Hoffman, R.D.; Woosley, S.E.; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA

    1990-01-01

    Almost all of the 3·10 53 ergs liberated in a core collapse supernova is radiated as neutrinos by the cooling neutron star. The neutrinos can excite nuclei in the mantle of the star by their neutral and charged current reactions. The resulting spallation reactions are an important nuleosynthesis mechanism that may be responsible for the galactic abundances of 7 Li, 11 B, 19 F, 138 La, 180 Ta, and number of other nuclei. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Managing organizational errors: Three theoretical lenses on a bank collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Giolito, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Errors have been shown to be a major source of organizational disasters, yet scant research has paid attention to the management of errors that is, what managers do once errors have occurred and how actions may determine outcomes. In an early attempt to build a theory of the management of organizational errors, this paper examines how extant theory applies to the collapse of a bank. The financial industry was chosen because of the systemic risks it entails, as demonstrated by the financial cr...

  4. Collapse, conquest and Maya survival at Lamanai, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graham

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The Maya civilization of Central America prompts visions of mysterious stone temples now buried in tropical forest. It is commonly supposed to have collapsed suddenly in the ninth century AD, but some Maya settlements, such as Lamanai, survived into the colonial period. Here a new member of the Institute's academic staff gives a personal account of how working in Belize transformed her understanding of Maya civilization and its aftermath.

  5. Collapse, conquest and Maya survival at Lamanai, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    The Maya civilization of Central America prompts visions of mysterious stone temples now buried in tropical forest. It is commonly supposed to have collapsed suddenly in the ninth century AD, but some Maya settlements, such as Lamanai, survived into the colonial period. Here a new member of the Institute's academic staff gives a personal account of how working in Belize transformed her understanding of Maya civilization and its aftermath.

  6. Universality of collapsing two-dimensional self-avoiding trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D P

    2009-01-01

    Results of a numerically exact transfer matrix calculation for the model of interacting self-avoiding trails are presented. The results lead to the conclusion that at the collapse transition, self-avoiding trails are in the same universality class as the O(n = 0) model of Bloete and Nienhuis (or vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk), which has thermal exponent ν = 12/23, contrary to previous conjectures. (fast track communication)

  7. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2001-01-01

    Collapse of (2 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams that in a homogeneous medium would collapse may...

  8. The spectral appearance of solar-type collapsing protostellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertout, C.; Yorke, H.W.

    1978-04-01

    In this paper, we review the spectral properties of collapsing protostellar clouds, based on radiative transfer computations in hydrodynamic protostar models. In the first section, the basic results of protostar evolution computations in spherically symmetric and axially symmetry geometries, as they pertain to the appearance of protostars, are briefly reviewed. In the second section, we discuss the continuum appearance of spherically symmetric protostars with various masses. Also, we present recent results for the continuum appearance of an axially symmetric protostellar cloud. The third section deals with the line formation problem and describes preliminary results for a OH molecule in an axially symmetric collapsing cloud. Then we review recent theoretical and observational results obtained for the last evolutionary phase of protostars, known as the YY Orionis phase, when the stellar core first becomes visible in the optical range. Some of the new results and conclusions presented here can be summarized as follows: Rotating collapsing clouds are in general less luminous and cooler than corresponding non-rotating clouds - due to the longer evolutionary time scale. Nevertheless, high resolution studies (resolution [de

  9. INTERPLAY OF NEUTRINO OPACITIES IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony; Hix, W. Raphael [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Messer, O. E. Bronson [National Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States); Bruenn, Stephen W., E-mail: elentz@utk.edu [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We have conducted a series of numerical experiments using spherically symmetric, general relativistic, neutrino radiation hydrodynamics with the code Agile-BOLTZTRAN to examine the effects of modern neutrino opacities on the development of supernova simulations. We test the effects of opacities by removing opacities or by undoing opacity improvements for individual opacities and groups of opacities. We find that improvements to electron capture (EC) on nuclei, namely EC on an ensemble of nuclei using modern nuclear structure models rather than the simpler independent-particle approximation (IPA) for EC on a mean nucleus, plays the most important role during core collapse of all tested neutrino opacities. Low-energy neutrinos emitted by modern nuclear EC preferentially escape during collapse without the energy downscattering on electrons required to enhance neutrino escape and deleptonization for the models with IPA nuclear EC. During shock breakout the primary influence on the emergent neutrinos arises from non-isoenergetic scattering (NIS) on electrons. For the accretion phase, NIS on free nucleons and pair emission by e {sup +} e {sup -} annihilation have the largest impact on the neutrino emission and shock evolution. Other opacities evaluated, including nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung and especially neutrino-positron scattering, have little measurable impact on neutrino emission or shock dynamics. Modern treatments of nuclear EC, e {sup +} e {sup -}-annihilation pair emission, and NIS on electrons and free nucleons are critical elements of core-collapse simulations of all dimensionality.

  10. A model for particle acceleration in lower hybrid collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retterer, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A model for particle acceleration during the nonlinear collapse of lower hybrid waves is described. Using the Musher-Sturman wave equation to describe the effects of nonlinear processes and a velocity diffusion equation for the particle velocity distribution, the model self-consistently describes the exchange of energy between the fields and the particles in the local plasma. Two-dimensional solutions are presented for the modulational instability of a plane wave and the collapse of a cylindrical wave packet. These calculations were motivated by sounding rocket observations in the vicinity of auroral arcs in the Earth close-quote s ionosphere, which have revealed the existence of large-amplitude lower-hybrid wave packets associated with ions accelerated to energies of 100 eV. The scaling of the sizes of these wave packets is consistent with the theory of lower-hybrid collapse and the observed lower-hybrid field amplitudes are adequate to accelerate the ionospheric ions to the observed energies

  11. HYPERCRITICAL ACCRETION, INDUCED GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE, AND BINARY-DRIVEN HYPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm has been successfully applied to the explanation of the concomitance of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with supernovae (SNe) Ic. The progenitor is a tight binary system composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The explosion of the SN leads to hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion, which reaches the critical mass, hence inducing its gravitational collapse to a black hole (BH) with consequent emission of the GRB. The first estimates of this process were based on a simplified model of the binary parameters and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion rate. We present here the first full numerical simulations of the IGC phenomenon. We simulate the core-collapse and SN explosion of CO stars to obtain the density and ejection velocity of the SN ejecta. We follow the hydrodynamic evolution of the accreting material falling into the Bondi-Hoyle surface of the NS all the way up to its incorporation in the NS surface. The simulations go up to BH formation when the NS reaches the critical mass. For appropriate binary parameters, the IGC occurs in short timescales ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s owing to the combined effective action of the photon trapping and the neutrino cooling near the NS surface. We also show that the IGC scenario leads to a natural explanation for why GRBs are associated only with SNe Ic with totally absent or very little helium.

  12. RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate observational properties of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs) in radio frequencies. If AIC is triggered by accretion from a companion star, a dense circumstellar medium can be formed around the progenitor system. Then, the ejecta from AIC collide with the dense circumstellar medium, creating a strong shock. The strong shock can produce synchrotron emission that can be observed in radio frequencies. Even if AIC occurs as a result of WD mergers, we argue that AIC may cause fast radio bursts (FRBs) if a certain condition is satisfied. If AIC forms neutron stars (NSs) that are so massive that rotation is required to support themselves (i.e., supramassive NSs), the supramassive NSs may immediately lose their rotational energy by the r-mode instability and collapse to black holes. If the collapsing supramassive NSs are strongly magnetized, they may emit FRBs, as previously proposed. The AIC radio transients from single-degenerate systems may be detected in future radio transient surveys like the Very Large Array Sky Survey or the Square Kilometer Array transient survey. Because AIC has been proposed as a source of gravitational waves (GWs), GWs from AIC may be accompanied by radio-bright transients that can be used to confirm the AIC origin of observed GWs.

  13. RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-10-20

    We investigate observational properties of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs) in radio frequencies. If AIC is triggered by accretion from a companion star, a dense circumstellar medium can be formed around the progenitor system. Then, the ejecta from AIC collide with the dense circumstellar medium, creating a strong shock. The strong shock can produce synchrotron emission that can be observed in radio frequencies. Even if AIC occurs as a result of WD mergers, we argue that AIC may cause fast radio bursts (FRBs) if a certain condition is satisfied. If AIC forms neutron stars (NSs) that are so massive that rotation is required to support themselves (i.e., supramassive NSs), the supramassive NSs may immediately lose their rotational energy by the r-mode instability and collapse to black holes. If the collapsing supramassive NSs are strongly magnetized, they may emit FRBs, as previously proposed. The AIC radio transients from single-degenerate systems may be detected in future radio transient surveys like the Very Large Array Sky Survey or the Square Kilometer Array transient survey. Because AIC has been proposed as a source of gravitational waves (GWs), GWs from AIC may be accompanied by radio-bright transients that can be used to confirm the AIC origin of observed GWs.

  14. Axisymmetric core collapse simulations using characteristic numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebel, Florian; Mueller, Ewald; Font, Jose A.; Papadopoulos, Philippos

    2003-01-01

    We present results from nonrotating axisymmetric stellar core collapse simulations in general relativity. Our hydrodynamics code has proved robust and accurate enough to allow for a detailed analysis of the global dynamics of the collapse. Contrary to traditional approaches based on the 3+1 formulation of the gravitational field equations, our framework uses a foliation based on a family of outgoing light cones, emanating from a regular center, and terminating at future null infinity. Such a coordinate system is well adapted to the study of interesting dynamical spacetimes in relativistic astrophysics such as stellar core collapse and neutron star formation. Perhaps most importantly this procedure allows for the extraction of gravitational waves at future null infinity, along with the commonly used quadrupole formalism for the gravitational wave extraction. Our results concerning the gravitational wave signals show noticeable disagreement when those are extracted by computing the Bondi news at future null infinity on the one hand and by using the quadrupole formula on the other hand. We have a strong indication that for our setup the quadrupole formula on the null cone does not lead to physical gravitational wave signals. The Bondi gravitational wave signals extracted at infinity show typical oscillation frequencies of about 0.5 kHz

  15. Multidimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae with CHIMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Eric J.; Bruenn, S. W.; Yakunin, K.; Endeve, E.; Blondin, J. M.; Harris, J. A.; Hix, W. R.; Marronetti, P.; Messer, O. B.; Mezzacappa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are driven by a multidimensional neutrino radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) engine, and full simulation requires at least axisymmetric (2D) and ultimately symmetry-free 3D RHD simulation. We present recent and ongoing work with our multidimensional RHD supernova code CHIMERA to understand the nature of the core-collapse explosion mechanism and its consequences. Recently completed simulations of 12-25 solar mass progenitors(Woosley & Heger 2007) in well resolved (0.7 degrees in latitude) 2D simulations exhibit robust explosions meeting the observationally expected explosion energy. We examine the role of hydrodynamic instabilities (standing accretion shock instability, neutrino driven convection, etc.) on the explosion dynamics and the development of the explosion energy. Ongoing 3D and 2D simulations examine the role that simulation resolution and the removal of the imposed axisymmetry have in the triggering and development of an explosion from stellar core collapse. Companion posters will explore the gravitational wave signals (Yakunin et al.) and nucleosynthesis (Harris et al.) of our simulations.

  16. Topographic stress and catastrophic collapse of volcanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Martel, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Flank collapse of volcanic islands can devastate coastal environments and potentially induce tsunamis. Previous studies have suggested that factors such as volcanic eruption events, gravitational spreading, the reduction of material strength due to hydrothermal alteration, steep coastal cliffs, or sea level change may contribute to slope instability and induce catastrophic collapse of volcanic flanks. In this study, we examine the potential influence of three-dimensional topographic stress perturbations on flank collapses of volcanic islands. Using a three-dimensional boundary element model, we calculate subsurface stress fields for the Canary and Hawaiian islands to compare the effects of stratovolcano and shield volcano shapes on topographic stresses. Our model accounts for gravitational stresses from the actual shapes of volcanic islands, ambient stress in the underlying plate, and the influence of pore water pressure. We quantify the potential for slope failure of volcanic flanks using a combined model of three-dimensional topographic stress and slope stability. The results of our analysis show that subsurface stress fields vary substantially depending on the shapes of volcanoes, and can influence the size and spatial distribution of flank failures.

  17. Jim Peters' collapse in the 1954 Vancouver Empire Games marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Tim; Mekler, Jackie; Pedoe, Dan Tunstall

    2008-08-01

    On 7 August 1954, the world 42 km marathon record holder, Jim Peters, collapsed repeatedly during the final 385 metres of the British Empire and Commonwealth Games marathon held in Vancouver, Canada. It has been assumed that Peters collapsed from heatstroke because he ran too fast and did not drink during the race, which was held in windless, cloudless conditions with a dry-bulb temperature of 28 degrees C. Hospital records made available to us indicate that Peters might not have suffered from exertional heatstroke, which classically produces a rectal temperature > 42 degrees C, cerebral effects and, usually, a fatal outcome without vigorous active cooling. Although Peters was unconscious on admission to hospital approximately 60 minutes after he was removed from the race, his rectal temperature was 39.4 degrees C and he recovered fully, even though he was managed conservatively and not actively cooled. We propose that Peters' collapse was more likely due to a combination of hyperthermia-induced fatigue which caused him to stop running; exercise-associated postural hypotension as a result of a low peripheral vascular resistance immediately he stopped running; and combined cerebral effects of hyperthermia, hypertonic hypernatraemia associated with dehydration, and perhaps undiagnosed hypoglycaemia. But none of these conditions should cause prolonged unconsciousness, raising the possibility that Peters might have suffered from a transient encephalopathy, the exact nature of which is not understood.

  18. Formation of protostars in collapsing, rotating, turbulent clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regev, O.; Shaviv, G.

    1981-01-01

    Collapse and star formation processes in rotating turbulent interstellar gas clouds have been studied. For this purpose numerical collapse calculations have been performed for a number of representative cases. These calculations have been carried out by a two-dimensional hydrodynamical computer code, which solves the equations of hydrodynamics explicitly, coupled to the Poisson equation. The computer code has been written especially for this work and has been thoroughly tested. The calculations in this work have been performed with an effort to obtain physically reliable results (by repeating the same calculations with different numerical spatial resolutions). A physical mechanism for angular momentum transport by turbulent viscosity has been proposed and incorporated in new collapse calculations. The main results can be summerized as follows: When there is no physical mechanism for angular momentum transport, the result of the collaps is a ringlike structure. The turbulent viscosity affects the nature of the collaps. For the two cases studied, the mass of the central object is a major fraction (30%) of the total mass of the system. The exact form of the central object and its ultimate fate depend on the parameters, especially rotational energy/gravitational energy and Re. The present calculations cannot predict the future evolution of the central object. In the new theoretical model proposed, a central protostar forms as a result of the collaps of a protostellar rotating cloud

  19. Crucial Physical Dependencies of the Core-Collapse Supernova Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, A.; Vartanyan, D.; Dolence, J. C.; Skinner, M. A.; Radice, D.

    2018-02-01

    We explore with self-consistent 2D F ornax simulations the dependence of the outcome of collapse on many-body corrections to neutrino-nucleon cross sections, the nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung rate, electron capture on heavy nuclei, pre-collapse seed perturbations, and inelastic neutrino-electron and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Importantly, proximity to criticality amplifies the role of even small changes in the neutrino-matter couplings, and such changes can together add to produce outsized effects. When close to the critical condition the cumulative result of a few small effects (including seeds) that individually have only modest consequence can convert an anemic into a robust explosion, or even a dud into a blast. Such sensitivity is not seen in one dimension and may explain the apparent heterogeneity in the outcomes of detailed simulations performed internationally. A natural conclusion is that the different groups collectively are closer to a realistic understanding of the mechanism of core-collapse supernovae than might have seemed apparent.

  20. Tunneling into microstate geometries: quantum effects stop gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Puhm, Andrea; Vercnocke, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Collapsing shells form horizons, and when the curvature is small classical general relativity is believed to describe this process arbitrarily well. On the other hand, quantum information theory based (fuzzball/firewall) arguments suggest the existence of some structure at the black hole horizon. This structure can only form if classical general relativity stops being the correct description of the collapsing shell before it reaches the horizon size. We present strong evidence that classical general relativity can indeed break down prematurely, by explicitly computing the quantum tunneling amplitude of a collapsing shell of branes into smooth horizonless microstate geometries. We show that the amplitude for tunneling into microstate geometries with a large number of topologically non-trivial cycles is parametrically larger than e −S BH , which indicates that the shell can tunnel into a horizonless configuration long before the horizon has any chance to form. We also use this technology to investigate the tunneling of M2 branes into LLM bubbling geometries.