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Sample records for direct coal liquefaction

  1. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  2. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, N.; Rinaldi, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Due to decreasing of petroleum reserves, direct coal liquefaction is attracting renewed interest as an alternative process to produce liquid fuels. The combination of hydrogen peroxide and coal is not a new one. In the early 1980, Vasilakos and Clinton described a procedure for desulfurization by leaching coal with solutions of sulphuric acid/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. But so far, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has never been ascribed a major role in coal liquefaction. Herein, we describe a novel approach for liquefying low-rank coals using a solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in presence of a soluble non-transition metal catalyst. (orig.)

  3. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  4. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  5. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  6. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  7. Novel use of residue from direct coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianli Yang; Zhaixia Wang; Zhenyu Liu; Yuzhen Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2009-09-15

    Direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) is, commonly, designed to be used as a feed stock for gasification or combustion. Use of DCLR as a value added product is very important for improving overall economy of direct coal liquefaction processes. This study shows that the DCLR may be used as a pavement asphalt modifier. The modification ability is similar to that of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), a superior commercial modifier. Asphalts modified by two DCLRs meet the specifications of ASTM D5710 and BSI BS-3690 designated for the TLA-modified asphalts. The required addition amount for the DCLRs tested is less than that for TLA due possibly to the high content of asphaltene in DCLRs. Different compatibility was observed for the asphalts with the same penetration grade but from the different origin. Different components in the DCLR play different roles in the modification. Positive synergetic effects among the fractions were observed, which may due to the formation of the stable colloid structure. Unlike polymer-type modifier, the structure of asphalt-type modifier has a similarity with petroleum asphalts which favors the formation of a stable dispersed polar fluid (DPF) colloid structure and improves the performance of pavement asphalt. 12 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  8. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  9. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  10. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  11. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  12. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  13. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  14. Motor fuels made by direct liquefaction of coal, peat and biomass. Drivmedel genom direktfoervaetskning av kol, torv och biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granath, L; Karlsson, G; Karlsson, G; Nilsson, T

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology has completed a system study concerning direct liquefaction of peat and biomass to produce transportation fuel. A comprehensive survey of coal liquefaction is included. Gasoline produced in Sweden from direct liquefaction of imported coal may compete with regular gasoline at the earliest around 1985. Biomass can become a competitive alternative to black coal at the beginning of the 21st century. Methanol can be produced from wood with a higher efficiency than the transportation fuels which are produced by direct liquefaction. The peat is not good source for liquefaction as wood chips. A continuously working liquefaction plant designed also for peat among other substances is under construction at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.

  15. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  16. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  17. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins; Jasna Tomic

    2000-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the roles of a solid catalyst and the solvent in Direct Coal Liquefaction, a small reactor was equipped with a porous-walled basket which was permeable to the solvent but was not permeable to the coal or solid catalyst. With this equipment and a high volatile bituminous coal it was found that direct contact between the catalyst in the basket and the coal outside the basket is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. The character of the solvent in this system makes a significant difference in the conversion of the coal, the better solvents being strong donor solvents. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory, it was noted that the peak temperature for volatiles evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a variety of coals of a range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatiles evolution was a quite precise indicator of rank and correlated closely with the rank value obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile material evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amounts of alkene and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolytic products and not volatilization products of the coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with Thermogravimetric-photoionization-mass spectrometry (TG-PI-MS) indicated that the low boiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight

  18. Characterization of the impregnated iron based catalyst for direct coal liquefaction by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianli; Zhun Jisheng; Liu Zhenyu; Zhong Bing

    2002-01-01

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction (DCL). Iron catalysts are regarded as the most attractive catalysts for DCL. To maximize catalytic effect and minimize catalysts usage, ultra-fine size catalysts are preferred. The most effective catalysts are found to be those impregnated onto coal because of their high dispersion on coal surface and intimate contact with coal particles. Besides the physical size, chemical form of a catalyst or a catalyst precursor is also important in determination of DCL activity. The expended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy technique were used in this study. It was shown that the catalysts tested are in nanomater range and have structure mainly in the form of γ-FeOOH and FeS, or possibly of Fe/O/S. The presence of γ-FeOOH can be attributed to the interaction between Fe and the oxygen containing groups of coal or oxygen from moisture

  19. Catalysis in coal liquefaction: New directions for research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbyshire, F.J.

    1988-06-01

    The economic viability and operability of processes to convert coals to useful liquid products could be greatly improved by the successful development and application of suitable catalysts. New and improved catalysts can lead to more favorable process economics by increasing the rates of reaction and product selectively and by lowering reaction temperatures and pressures. Hydrogenation catalysts, such as certain metal sulfides, may function by providing a source of H atoms through the dissociation of molecular hydrogen. The H atoms can promote bond cleavage reactions and assist in stabilizing the products of these reactions. The partial pressure of H/sub 2/S is important to the catalyst mechanism. Acid catalysts, such as metal halides, promote bond cleavage by an ionic mechanism. In general, they are not particularly active hydrogenation catalysts which create the potential for the stabilization of cracked products through the formation of high molecular weight adducts. Consideration has been given to the limitations of these catalysts and to approaches which could lead to improvements in their performance and utilization. Multicomponent systems appear to offer excellent prospects for the development of more active and selective catalysts. Existing supported catalysts are quite adequate to the task of hydroprocessing distillate coal liquids. In the presence of high boiling and nondistillable coal-derived liquids they are rapidly deactivated by the deposition of carbonaceous materials and metals. One prospective solution to this problem is to generate feeds which are more amenable to upgrading by enhanced catalytic control of the dissolution process. There is also a need for the development of supported catalysts which are resistant to deactivation. 275 refs.

  20. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  1. Co, Fe and Ni catalysts supported on coke for direct coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Jose A; Villalba, Oscar A; Rodriguez, Luis I; Hernandez, Orlando; Agamez, Yasmin Y; Dias Jose de Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal catalysts supported on coke were prepared by impregnation with a solution of complex of metal-thiourea, that is produced from salt precursors of cobalt chloride, Nickel chloride or iron sulfate and ammonium. sulphide formation on the support surface was generated by decomposition of the metal complex. The catalysts obtained were used in direct coal liquefaction of a medium volatile bituminous coal (Yerbabuena N 1) from Cundinamarca using a 250 Ml, Parr reactor at 723 K and a hydrogen-donor solvent. The catalytic results show, for all samples, both a good coal conversion and an enhancement of the yield of oils, this indicates that the proposed preparation method of catalyst is effective and that eventually the H 2 S sulphidation conventional process could be replaced

  2. Unconventional Coal in Wyoming: IGCC and Gasification of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    Two unconventional uses for Wyoming Powder River Basin coal were investigated in this study. The first was the use of coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to generate electricity. Twenty-eight different scenarios were modeled using AspenPlusRTM software. These included slurry, mechanical and dried fed gasifiers; Wyodak and Green River coals, 0%, 70%, and 90% CO2 capture; and conventional evaporative vs air cooling. All of the models were constructed on a feed basis of 6,900 tons of coal per day on an "as received basis". The AspenPlus RTM results were then used to create economic models using Microsoft RTM Excel for each configuration. These models assumed a 3 year construction period and a 30 year plant life. Results for capital and operating costs, yearly income, and internal rates of return (IRR) were compared. In addition, the scenarios were evaluated to compare electricity sales prices required to obtain a 12% IRR and to determine the effects of a carbon emissions tax on the sales price. The second part of the study investigated the gasification potential of residue remaining from solvent extraction or liquefaction of Powder River Basin Coal. Coal samples from the Decker mine on the Wyoming-Montana border were extracted with tetralin at a temperature of 360°C and pressure of 250 psi. Residue from the extraction was gasified with CO2 or steam at 833°C, 900°C and 975°C at pressures of 0.1 and 0.4 MPa. Product gases were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Results were used to determine activation energies, reaction order, reaction rates and diffusion effects. Surface area and electron microscopic analyses were also performed on char produced from the solvent extraction residue.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  4. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  5. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  7. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  8. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Asphalt Binders Modified by THFS Extracted From Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the preparation and viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder modified by tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction (THFS extracted from direct coal liquefaction residue. The modified asphalt binders, which blended with SK-90 (control asphalt binder and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% THFS (by weight of SK-90, were fabricated. The preparation process for asphalt binder was optimized in terms of the orthogonal array test strategy and gray correlation analysis results. The properties of asphalt binder were measured by applying Penetration performance grade and Superpave performance grade specifications. In addition, the temperature step and frequency sweep test in Dynamic Shear Rheometer were conducted to predict the rheological behavior, temperature and frequency susceptibility of asphalt binder. The test results suggested the optimal preparation process, such as 150 °C shearing temperature, 45 min shearing time and 4000 rpm shearing rate. Subsequently, the addition of THFS was beneficial in increasing the high-temperature properties but decreased the low-temperature properties and resistance to fatigue. The content analysis of THFS showed the percentage of 4~6% achieved a balance in the high-and-low temperature properties of asphalt binder. The asphalt binder with higher THFS content exhibited higher resistance to rutting and less sensitivity to frequency and temperature.

  10. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  11. Coal liquefaction technologies for producing ultra clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.S.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.; Islam, N.

    2011-01-01

    The expanding demand for petroleum, accompanied by the diminishing petroleum reserves and the energy security, has intensified the significance in coal liquefaction technologies (CTL) globally and specially in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. The Geological Survey of Pakistan based on wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 sq. km, a total of 175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been assessed. This paper overviews a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of CLT such as direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) technologies. (author)

  12. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  13. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  14. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  15. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  16. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  17. Coal liquefaction committee report for fiscal 1981; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the assurance of smooth progress of coal technology development endeavors, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has installed coal technology development committees (general committee on coal technologies, coal liquefaction committee, plant materials committee, coal type survey committee, total system committee, and coal gasification committee). The coal liquefaction committee deliberates and evaluates liquefaction technology and propels forward smoothly the efforts to develop the technology. Under the coal liquefaction committee, there are four subcommittees, which are the 1st subcommittee (primary liquefaction subcommittee), 2nd subcommittee (solid/liquid separation subcommittee), 3rd subcommittee (secondary hydrogenation subcommittee), and the 4th subcommittee (brown coal liquefaction subcommittee). The 2nd and 3rd subcommittees deal with common tasks as they were studied in fiscal 1980. The 1st subcommittee incorporates into itself the old subcommittees that respectively worked on the three liquefaction processes (the direct hydrogenation process, the solvent extraction process, and the Solvolysis process), and is designed to provide a site for information exchange. A brown coal liquefaction committee is incorporated into the coal liquefaction committee as the 4th subcommittee. This report is a compilation of the agendas of the respective subcommittees of the coal liquefaction committee. (NEDO)

  18. Prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartiniati; Dasuki, A.S.; Artanto, Yu.; Sulaksono, D.; Gunanjar

    1997-01-01

    With the current known oil reserves of about 11 billion barrel and annual production of approximately 500 million barrel, the country's oil reserves will be depleted by 2010, and Indonesia would have become net oil importer if no major oil fields be found somewhere in the archipelago. Under such circumstances the development of new sources of liquid fuel becomes a must, and coal liquefaction can be one possible solution for the future energy problem in Indonesia, particularly in the transportation sector due to the availability of coal in huge amount. This paper present the prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia and look at the possibility of integrating the process with HTR as a heat supplier. Evaluation of liquidability of several low grade Indonesian coals will also be presented. Coal from South Banko-Tanjung Enim is found to be one of the most suitable coal for liquefaction. Several studies show that an advanced coal liquefaction technology recently developed has the potential to reduce not only the environmental impact but also the production cost. The price of oil produced in the year 2000 is expected to reach US $ 17.5 ∼ 19.2/barrel and this will compete with the current oil price. Not much conclusion can be drawn from the idea of integrating HTR with coal liquefaction plant due to limited information available. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  19. EROI Analysis for Direct Coal Liquefaction without and with CCS: The Case of the Shenhua DCL Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are considerable discrepancies between China’s central government and some local governments in attitudes towards coal to liquids (CTL technology. Energy return on investment (EROI analysis of CTL could provide new insights that may help solve this dilemma. Unfortunately, there has been little research on this topic; this paper therefore analyses the EROI of China’s Shenhua Group Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL project, currently the only DCL commercial project in the world. The inclusion or omission of internal energy and by-products is controversial. The results show that the EROIstnd without by-product and with internal energy is 0.68–0.81; the EROIstnd (the standard EROI without by-product and without internal energy is 3.70–5.53; the EROIstnd with by-product and with internal energy is 0.76–0.90; the EROIstnd with by-product and without internal energy is 4.13–6.14. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider carbon capture and storage (CCS as a means to control the CO2 emissions. Considering the added energy inputs of CCS at the plant level, the EROIs decrease to 0.65–0.77, 2.87–3.97, 0.72–0.85, and 3.20–4.40, respectively. The extremely low, even negative, net energy, which may be due to high investments in infrastructure and low conversion efficiency, suggests CTL is not a good choice to replace conventional energy sources, and thus, Chinese government should be prudent when developing it.

  20. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  1. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  2. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant and researches on liquefaction reactions in the presence of iron-based catalyst); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tetsukei shokubai ni yoru ekika hanno no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at development of iron-based catalyst suited for direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction by elucidating the effects of the catalyst on the liquefaction reactions. The iron-based catalyst seems to act as the radical stabilizer rather than the reaction promoter, because the increased quantity of the catalyst and increased H{sub 2} pressure share the common pattern rather than the catalyst enhances the activity, which is associated with increased reaction temperature or residence time. This is more notably observed when the coal species is changed to brown coal. In other words, recombination of the decomposition products by polycondensation is accelerated in the presence of the catalyst in decomposition of brown coal from bituminous coal, with the result that the catalyst effects are more notably observed. Whether this results from difference in age between brown coal and bituminous coal or content of specific types of ashes should be elucidated, because this point is considered to deeply relate to eventual development of the liquefaction reaction system. The FY 1980 program includes the primary screening of different types of iron compounds and tests of some iron-metal-based catalysts. (NEDO)

  3. Sunshine Program for fiscal 1981. Research on direct coal-liquefaction reactor; 1981 nendo sekitan chokusetsu ekika hannoki no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-04-17

    The research aims to develop a new-type high-efficiency reactor for direct coal-liquefaction from a reaction engineering viewpoint and, at the same time, to settle problems expected to occur in industrializing this technique. The research items are Item 1 on the analysis of characteristics of a tubular continuous reactor and Item 2 on high-activity catalysts. Under Item 1, on the assumption that liquefaction reaction is dominantly a reaction in a continuous phase, a reactor is selected in consideration of homogeneous-phase reaction, and operating conditions are set according to the selected reactor and to the liquefaction reaction characteristics. A somewhat large Re number is assigned to the paste. Since the hydrogen partial pressure lowers with the progress of reaction, hydrogen is resupplied at the middle of the reaction tube. The volume of gas increases toward the final stage of reaction, decreasing the continuous phase holdup. Since it is undesirable to let the decrease stand, a vapor-liquid separator is provided for the control of the gas volume. In this fiscal year, investigation is conducted into details so as to determine if the reactor is equipped with intended characteristics. Under Item 2, the iron ore is deemed to be the most promising as disposal catalysts for liquefaction. In this fiscal year, studies are conducted to disclose the activity etc. of catalysts of this type. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on research under Sunshine Program. Research on direct liquefaction reaction of coal; 1993 nendo sekitan no chokusetsu ekika hanno ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The reaction velocity constant of coal or the distribution of products in a high-pressure hydrocracking process of coal are found not to be affected by the temperature rise rate. The liquefaction of coal using CO and water is analyzed using a high-pressure differential thermal analyzer. The hydrogen gas generated during the water gas reaction reacts with CO for the formation of alcohols, carbonic acid, etc. The reaction rate is found to be higher when the specimen contains more oxygen. When coals greatly different from each other in terms of thermolytic reactivity, caking property, and intersolubility with medium oils are mixed, synergistic effects are exhibited, positive when active hydrogen supply is abundant and negative when it is short. In the case of the Hokkaido coal which contains 73.0-87.4% carbon, the grain diameter does not affect the liquefaction rate when the coal is crushed to the 48-mesh size approximately. Reaction velocity in direct liquefaction does not relate to hydrogen pressure. Asphaltenes in coal liquefaction are produced at the beginning of reaction, to be reduced in molecular weight due to cleavage of methylene crosslinks with the progress of reaction. Studies are conducted in a 0.1t/d-capable bench plant about liquefaction reaction characteristics and coal liquid properties, and chemical structures. (NEDO)

  5. Effect of hydrogen pressure on free radicals in direct coal liquefaction/coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seehra, M.S.; Ibrahim, M.M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the coprocessing of coal with waste tires and commingled plastics and to characterize the relevant catalysts, using high pressure/high temperature in-situ ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) spectroscopy. The recent results from high pressure ESR spectroscopy are emphasized. During this period, considerable progress was made in developing the high pressure capabilities in in-situ ESR spectroscopy and new results carried out in 1000 psi of H{sub 2}gas are presented. In these experiments, sapphire tubes were used to contain the high pressures at temperatures up to 500{degrees}C. Results of the experiments carried out under 1000 psi of H{sub 2} are compared with those under 1000 psi of non-interacting argon and with the earlier experiments in flowing H{sub 2} gas where the volatiles are removed by the flowing gas. In these experiments, the free radical density N of the Blind Canyon coal was measured at each temperature and pressure by double integration of the ESR signal and calibrating it against a standard. The details of the experimental apparatus and procedures have been described in earlier publications.

  6. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Transport fuels from two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.; Prado, J.G. (Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-03-01

    Four Spanish lignites and their vitrinite concentrates were evaluated for coal liquefaction. Correlationships between the content of vitrinite and conversion in direct liquefaction were observed for the lignites but not for the vitrinite concentrates. The most reactive of the four coals was processed in two-stage liquefaction at a higher scale. First-stage coal liquefaction was carried out in a continuous unit at Clausthal University at a temperature of 400[degree]C at 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and with anthracene oil as a solvent. The coal conversion obtained was 75.41% being 3.79% gases, 2.58% primary condensate and 69.04% heavy liquids. A hydroprocessing unit was built at the Instituto de Carboquimica for the second-stage coal liquefaction. Whole and deasphalted liquids from the first-stage liquefaction were processed at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The effects of liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), temperature, gas/liquid ratio and catalyst on the heteroatom liquids, and levels of 5 ppm of nitrogen and 52 ppm of sulphur were reached at 450[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.08 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock and with Harshaw HT-500E catalyst. The liquids obtained were hydroprocessed again at 420[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and 0.06 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock to hydrogenate the aromatic structures. In these conditions, the aromaticity was reduced considerably, and 39% of naphthas and 35% of kerosene fractions were obtained. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  9. Report on 1981 result of Sunshine Project. Research on direct liquefaction reactor of coal; 1981 nendo sekitan no chokusetsu ekika hannoki no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This paper explains the results of research on direct liquefaction reaction of coal in fiscal 1981. The direct liquefaction is a reaction of three phases, gas-liquid-solid, under high temperature and high pressure. A tube type was employed in order to increase volume efficiency of the reactor, the continuous phase disperse number was decreased in order to bring it close to plug flow, and the paste Re number was increased to some extent in order to prevent sedimentation of coal particles. Hydrogen was supplied from the tube halfway for the purpose of supplementing the lowering of hydrogen partial pressure with the progress of reaction. A gas-liquid separator was installed so that increase in gas quantity was controlled in the rear stage of the reactor. As for catalysts, iron ore-sulfur system was examined which was promising as a disposable catalyst in place of the conventional iron system. Effect of catalytic addition was clearly recognizable in comparison with non-catalytic, with an exothermic peak observed comparable to the coal hydrogenation reaction of 350-420 degree C. Its catalytic effect was also presumable from the high pressure differential thermal analysis curve. The catalytic mechanism in the case where sulfur is added to hematite and limonite is similar to that of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} - sulfur catalyst, with the center of activity supposed to be Fe{sub 1-x}S. The catalytic effect is largely dependent on the particle size. (NEDO)

  10. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  11. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  12. Mongolian coal liquefaction test; Mongorutan no ekika tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kubo, H. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsedevsuren, T. [National Research Center of Chemistry and Technology of Coal in Mongoria (Mongolia)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes the results of liquefaction tests of Mongolian coals using an autoclave and a flow micro reactor. Uvdughudag coal, Hootiinhonhor coal, and Shivee-Ovoo coal were used for liquefaction tests with an autoclave. Oil yields of Uvdughudag and Hootiinhonhor coals were 55.56 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, which were similar to that of Wyoming coal. Similar results were obtained, as to produced gas and water yields. These coals were found to be suitable for coal liquefaction. Lower oil yield, 42.55 wt% was obtained for Shivee-Ovoo coal, which was not suitable for liquefaction. Liquefaction tests were conducted for Uvdughudag coal with a flow micro reactor. The oil yield was 55.7 wt%, which was also similar to that of Wyoming coal, 56.1 wt%. Hydrogen consumption of Uvdughudag coal was also similar to that of Wyoming coal. From these, Uvdughudag coal can be a prospective coal for liquefaction. From the distillation distribution of oil, distillate fraction yield below 350{degree}C of Uvdughudag coal was 50.7 wt%, which was much higher than that of Wyoming coal, 35.6 wt%. Uvdughudag coal is a coal with high light oil fraction yield. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  14. Kinetics of coal liquefaction during heating-up and isothermal stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian Li; Haoquan Hu; Shengwei Zhu; Shuxun Hu; Bo Wu; Meng Meng [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Direct liquefaction of Shenhua bituminous coal was carried out in a 500 ml autoclave with iron catalyst and coal liquefaction cycle-oil as solvent at initial hydrogen of 8.0 MPa, residence time of 0-90 min. To investigate the liquefaction kinetics, a model for heating-up and isothermal stages was developed to estimate the rate constants of both stages. In the model, the coal was divided into three parts, easy reactive part, hard reactive part and unreactive part, and four kinetic constants were used to describe the reaction mechanism. The results showed that the model is valid for both heating-up and isothermal stages of liquefaction perfectly. The rate-controlled process for coal liquefaction is the reaction of preasphaltene plus asphaltene (PAA) to oil plus gas (O + G). The upper-limiting conversion of isothermal stage was estimated by the kinetic calculation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  16. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  17. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  18. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  19. Two-stage liquefaction of a Spanish subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.T.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M.; Cebolla, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.H. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A Spanish subbituminous coal has been processed in two-stage liquefaction in a non-integrated process. The first-stage coal liquefaction has been carried out in a continuous pilot plant in Germany at Clausthal Technical University at 400[degree]C, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and anthracene oil as solvent. The second-stage coal liquefaction has been performed in continuous operation in a hydroprocessing unit at the Instituto de Carboquimica at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The total conversion for the first-stage coal liquefaction was 75.41 wt% (coal d.a.f.), being 3.79 wt% gases, 2.58 wt% primary condensate and 69.04 wt% heavy liquids. The heteroatoms removal for the second-stage liquefaction was 97-99 wt% of S, 85-87 wt% of N and 93-100 wt% of O. The hydroprocessed liquids have about 70% of compounds with boiling point below 350[degree]C, and meet the sulphur and nitrogen specifications for refinery feedstocks. Liquids from two-stage coal liquefaction have been distilled, and the naphtha, kerosene and diesel fractions obtained have been characterized. 39 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  1. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  2. Effect of properties of iron compounds on the catalytic activity in direct coal liquefaction; Tetsu kagobutsu no keitai to sekitan ekika kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shimasaki, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    When considering merchandising scale of the coal liquefaction process, it is a preliminary condition that metal used for its catalyst is rich in resource volume, cheap in production cost, without pollution, and so forth, and application of cheap iron ore and ferrous compounds to disposable catalyst is desired. As liquefaction activity of the iron ore was hitherto improved by its micro crushing, its mechanical crush had a limit of about 2 {mu}m in mean particle diameter. However, together with recent crushing technique, crushers with high performance were developed, and then micro crushing by sub-micron became possible industri8ally even for iron ore. In this study, three kinds of Australian iron ores such as limonite of ferric hydroxide type iron ore, pyrite of ferrous sulfide type, and hematite of ferric oxide type were micro crushed to examine coal liquefaction activity and hydrogenation reaction activity of 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) and also relationship between properties and activity of catalyst for the latter before and after reaction. 11 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Outline of research achievement of fiscal 1983. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1983 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    Reported are the results of (1) the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, (2) development of brown coal liquefaction technology, (3) experimental fabrication and development of plant equipment and materials therefor, and (4) a survey on coal type selection. The goals of the development are mentioned below. Under Item (1), an optimum liquefaction process and a solid/liquid separation process are to be defined, the effect of iron-based catalysts upon liquefaction reaction is to be elucidated, a technology for constructing a direct hydroliquefaction unit is to be established, and a plant using such a unit is to be developed. Under Item (2), an optimum liquefaction technology is to be established, high in economic efficiency and reliability, by subjecting Australia's Victoria brown coal to the direct liquefaction process. In particular, a new brown coal liquefaction technology is to be established, which will be an organic combination of a novel, raw brown coal slurry dehydration technology, a solvent deashing technology, and the secondary hydrogenation technology, all centering on the basic technology of primary hydrogenation. Under Item (3), reactor materials, accessory materials, slurry pumps, etc., are to be experimentally manufactured and developed further. Under Item (4), data are to be collected on coal resources, coal quality, liquefaction characteristics, etc., during the process of technology development for liquefaction, etc. Furthermore, methods are to be established for the effective utilization of liquefaction products and for their optimum refining. (NEDO)

  4. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. [Mainly, the effect of preteatment of coal with carbon monoxide and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    CAER/UK: Detail coal and starting solvents from Wilsonville were analyzed to develop the data necessary to conduct process studies in the CO Pretreatment and Catalyst Evaluation segment of this program. A comparison of the solvent separation analysis with the distillation/separation used at Wilsonville showed that the residual solvent components contained a large amount of residual pentane soluble products. The ashy resid contained 3% iron and 400 ppM molybdenum. Although the iron content in the distillate and deashed resid was much less, namely about 200 ppM., the molybdenum concentrations in these fractions were not significantly reduced over the concentration in the ashy resid, i.e., 200 ppM in each. The pretreatment of coal with CO/H{sub 2}O in the presence of NaOH and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has been shown to give a product which is lower in oxygen content and higher in hydrogen content compared to the raw coal. The atomic H/C ratios of the H{sub 2}O-insolubles, THF insolubles and the PA+A fractions of the products-together with the hydrogen consumption data suggested that the raw coal has been substantially depolymerized and hydrogenated via the WGS reaction during the pretreatment process. The extensive amount of molecular reconstruction that has occurred in the solid product was evident from the ease of solubilization of the product into pyridine. The result of the pretreatment process is a product which is highly reactive under hydroliquefaction conditions at 400{degrees}C. Reaction rates seem to be much faster than the raw coal, especially at shorter reaction times, providing the opportunity for major reductions in plant vessel sizes, and preliminary data has led us to believe that better efficiency in hydrogen utilization is achieved.

  5. Geological occurrence response to trace elemental migration in coal liquefaction based on SPSS: take no. 11 coalbed in Antaibao mine for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Weifeng

    2013-03-01

    Coal liquefaction is an adoptable method to transfer the solid fossil energy into liquid oil in large scale, but the dirty material in which will migrate to different step of liquefaction. The migration rule of some trace elements is response to the react activity of macerals in coal and the geological occurrence of the element nature of itself. In this paper, from the SPSS data correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram about the trace elements with macerals respond to coal liquefaction yield, it shows the trace elements in No.11 Antaibao coal seam originated from some of lithophile and sulphophle elements. Correlation coefficient between liquefaction yield of three organic macerals and migration of the elements in liquefaction residue indicated that the lithophile are easy to transfer to residue, while sulphophle are apt to in the liquid products. The activated macerals are response to sulphophle trace elements. The conclusion is useful to the coal blending and environmental effects on coal direct liquefaction.

  6. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  7. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1994 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reported the FY 1994 activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee. The Coal Liquefaction Committee in this fiscal year was held on November 29, 1994 (1st) and March 22, 1995 (2nd), and report was made on the bituminous coal liquefaction study and state of the R and D of liquefaction base technology. Report was also made on the state of construction of bituminous coal liquefaction PP, outline of the results of the PSU operation, outline of the 11th Japan-U.S. JTM, etc. In the liquefaction base study, report/discussion were made about the improvement/rationalization of liquefaction process, study of innovative technology of coal liquefaction, study of coal liquefaction conditions, study for higher liquefaction element technology, project on the internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, etc. As to the relation of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant, report/discussion were made about survey/study on the processing of coal for coal gasification use (survey of coal kind selection, development of information processing system for coal conversion technology). Besides, as a topic, report was made on the economical evaluation/calculation of a commercial plant for brown coal liquefaction. (NEDO)

  9. Report on the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992. The first committee meeting was held on August 21. After having confirmed the minutes of the previous meeting, an explanation was given on the research and development plans in fiscal 1992. The explanation covered the general explanation, bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and the common and fundamental aspects. The presented topics included the achievements in the operations using a bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and a small device, the status of compiling the achievements in the brown coal liquefaction project, preparation of the basic policy on developing the common basic technologies, and structuring of a coal liquefaction technology package. The second meeting was held on March 18, 1993. The meeting verified the minutes of the previous meeting, and gave the sub-committee reports for fiscal 1992. The sub-committees include those for bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, environmental safety evaluation, and separation and refining technologies. As the summary of the achievements in fiscal 1992, descriptions were given on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and common and basic aspects. The fiscal 1993 plan presented included the budget aspect. A description was given as a topic on the economic performance evaluation and the working scheme (the execution plan) for the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  10. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  11. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  12. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  13. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  14. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  15. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  16. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  17. Mineral catalysis of oil producing reactions in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    This work was concerned primarily with the development of a relatively inexpensive, readily available, high activity catalyst that can be used as a disposable catalyst in coal liquefaction processes. For a fair evaluation of the developmental mineral catalyst (presulfided iron oxide), it was necessary to determine at different stages of this work, whether catalyst inhibition, deactivation or activity was the limiting factor in coal liquefaction catalysis. First, different routes were explored to prepare a high hydrogenation activity, iron-based catalyst. Naphthalene hydrogenation was used as a model reaction to rate the hydrogenation activities of different additives. Presulfiding of iron oxide with H/sub 2/S, under controlled conditions, rendered the highest hydrogenation activity mineral catalyst, which had a hydrogenation activity even greater than that of commercial CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst sulfided with creosote oil and hydrogen. Sulfiding of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst with H/sub 2/S remarkably improved its initial hydrogenation activity. Second, the catalyst inhibition and deactivation during liquefaction were studied. Liquefaction-process solvents contain a number of compounds that can either deactivate or inhibit the hydrogenation activity of a catalyst. Finally, the hydrocracking activity of the presulfided iron oxide catalyst was compared with that of commercial catalysts, CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and low alumina FCC catalyst.

  18. FY 1992 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee in FY 1992. In the 1st committee meeting, report/discussion were made of the summary of the FY 1992 R and D plan on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction and the common/basic technology. Further, the following were reported as topics: results of the operation by bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and small equipment, state of arrangement of the results of the brown coal liquefaction project, making of the basic policy for development of the common/basic technology, construction of package of coal liquefaction technology. In the 2nd committee meeting, the summary of the results of the FY 1992 R and D was reported/discussed. As to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, study using pilot plant and support study were reported. Concerning the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, study using a 50t/d pilot plant and complementary study of operation. Relating to the development of the common/basic technology, trial manufacture/development of plant equipment/materials, survey of selection of coal kind, etc. The paper also reported a scheme on the evaluation of efficiency of the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  19. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  20. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel

  1. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.

  2. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  3. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  4. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  5. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  6. Coal liquefaction policy in China: Explaining the policy reversal since 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang; Victor, David G.

    2011-01-01

    China has emerged as a leader in coal liquefaction. While the country's abundant coal resources and acute concerns about oil security help explain China's interest in liquefaction, the driving forces for this industry are complicated and policy has been inconsistent. Since 2006 Beijing has tried to slow down the development of liquefaction; even as China has become more dependent on imported oil, the central government has been wary about the large impact of liquefaction technologies on scarce resources such as water. However, local government officials in coal rich areas have strong incentives to pour investment into the technology, which helps explain the uneven development and policy. The future of coal liquefaction will depend on how these forces unfold along with major Beijing-led reforms in the Chinese coal industry, which is closing smaller mines and favoring the emergence of larger coal producing firms. Those reforms will have mixed effects on liquefaction. They temporarily contribute to higher prices for coal while over the longer term creating coal companies that have much greater financial and technical skills needed to deploy technologies such as coal liquefaction at a scale needed if this energy pathway is to be competitive with conventional sources of liquid fuel. - Highlights: ► We explain swings in Chinese policy on coal liquefaction, a possible substitute for imported oil. ► Since 2006 Beijing's support has waned due to fears about environmental impacts and cost of liquefaction. ► Local governments in some coal rich regions remain strongly supportive. ► Volatile oil prices and rising coal prices make this industry more risky than previously thought. ► Consolidation of the coal industry will have mixed effects on viability of liquefaction projects.

  7. Comparison of FeS, FeS + S and solid superacid catalytic properties for coal hydro-liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Hengfu Shui; Dexiang Zhang; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2007-03-15

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction. This paper focuses on the catalytic behavior of a novel SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} superacid catalyst in coal hydro-liquefaction. A series of hydro-liquefaction experiments were conducted under mild conditions - 400{sup o}C, 30 min and H{sub 2} initial pressure 4 MPa in a batch autoclave with a volume of 100 ml. The catalytic property of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} was compared with FeS and FeS + S by Shenhua coal. The liquefaction products catalyzed by different catalysts were analyzed by FTIR spectrum, {sup 1}H NMR spectrum and element analysis. In addition, the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} solid superacid was characterized. The results indicated that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} solid superacid shows outstanding catalytic property for direct liquefaction of coal and gives the highest coal conversion and gas + oil yield compared to other two catalysts. The THF conversion and the extraction yield of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent of liquefied coal catalyzed with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} are 76.3%, daf and 81.2%, daf respectively, and the yield of gas + oil is 62.5%, daf under the condition used in this study. The pyrolysis of coal macromolecular clusters can be promoted by catalysts such as FeS, FeS + S and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2}. There may be only the pyrolysis of volatile matter and the relaxation of the structure of coal macromolecular clusters in non-catalytic liquefaction at 400{sup o}C. Added sulfur in FeS can improve the catalytic activity of hydrogenation. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} is a notable catalyst in the study of coal direct liquefaction because it shows excellent catalytic activities for the pyrolysis and the hydrogenation. In addition, it has been found that the C-O bond is the most stable group in coal liquefaction reaction except for the covalent bond between carbon and carbon. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its solvent extraction and liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Effects of pre-swelling of coal on solvent extraction and liquefaction properties were studied with Shenhua coal. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of the coal in three solvents, i.e., toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its extraction yield and liquefaction conversion, and differed the liquefied product distributions. The pre-swollen coals after removing the swelling solvents showed increased conversion in liquefaction compared with that of the swollen coals in the presence of swelling solvents. It was also found that the yields of (oil + gas) in liquefaction of the pre-swollen coals with NMP and TOL dramatically decreased in the presence of swelling solvent. TG and FTIR analyses of the raw coal, the swollen coals and the liquefied products were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism governing the effects of pre-swelling treatment on coal extraction and liquefaction. The results showed that the swelling pre-treatment could disrupt some non-covalent interactions of the coal molecules, relax its network structure and loosened the coal structure. It would thus benefit diffusion of a hydrogen donor solvent into the coal structure during liquefaction, and also enhance the hydrogen donating ability of the hydrogen-rich species derived from the coal. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  10. BP and NCB to collaborate in coal liquefaction study. [Supercritical gas extraction; dissolution in anthracene oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-17

    British Petroleum and NCB are collaborating in a two year study of coal liquefaction which could result in a demonstration plant being built. The two liquefaction techniques which the NCB is developing at present are supercritical extraction, and dissolution in anthracene oil. A disadvantage of the latter process is that high grade coking coals must be used.

  11. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  12. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  13. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  14. FY 1991 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section; 1991 nendo rekiseitan ekikabukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction section in FY 1991. In the 1st bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the plan on the FY 1991 research using pilot plant and the support study of pilot plant. In the 2nd section meeting, report was made on 'How the development of coal liquefaction technology should be in the 21st century,' a report made by the joint section of bituminous coal/brown coal liquefaction. In the 3rd section meeting, report/discussion were made on the state of progress of the FY 1991 R and D and results. In the study using the bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, report was made on the outline of construction of a 150t/d pilot plant, study on the acquisition of material balance, analytical study of the data on liquefaction tower, testing survey on properties of coal slurry, and testing survey on slurry preheating furnace. In the support study of pilot plant, report was made on the study using 1t/d PUS, study on the development of the optimum coal refining technology and improvement in the distillate distribution, study of conditions for coal liquefaction and study of solvent hydrogenation catalyst. (NEDO)

  15. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The effects of pre-swelling of Shenhua coal on its liquefaction property were studied in this paper. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of Shenhua coal in three solvents, i.e toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its liquefaction conversion, and the liquefied product distributions were also quite different. Removal of the pre-swelling solvent from the swollen coals further increased the liquefaction conversion compared to that of the swollen coals with the swelling solvent existed in them. It was found that oil and gas yields for the liquefaction of swollen coals in NMP and TOL with swelling solvent existed dramatically decreased. Pre-swelling in THN at 120{sup o}C gave the highest liquefaction conversion, however the liquefaction conversion decreased with the increase of pre-swelling temperature in the case of NMP. TG and FTIR analyses of raw coal, the swollen coals and liquefied products were carried out and the mechanism of the effects of pre-swelling of coal on its extraction and liquefaction behaviors were probed in the paper. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology in fiscal 1981; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika setsumeisho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of coal liquefaction technology under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. In connection with solvent extraction and liquefaction, an 1 t/day experimental plant was completed for bituminous coals and operated continuously for 153 hours. An examination also started for the development of a 250 t/day pilot plant. As the element studies, R and D is in progress on the solvent extraction and liquefaction process, solid-liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, and plant materials. In brown coals, the construction work of a 50 t/day pilot plant started for the purpose of establishing liquefaction technology for brown coal in Victoria State, Australia, with a part of the equipment manufactured. As the element studies, research was conducted on primary hydrogenation, deliming, secondary hydrogenation, dehydration and catalysts. In solvolysis liquefaction, a short-time concluding liquefaction reaction was continuously performed by a plant of 1 t/day scale. In direct hydro-liquefaction, a 2.4 t/day experimental plant was constructed, with the element studies conducted successively. In other words, researches were carried out by the bench scale plant on liquefaction, solid-liquid separation, iron-based catalysts, catalyst and reutilization, motive force recovery system by hydrohoist, and effect of preheating and deaeration. (NEDO)

  18. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  19. Fiscal 1991 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1991 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1991, the 2nd in August 1991, and the 3rd in March 1992, when fiscal 1990 research and development results, fiscal 1991 research and development programs, fiscal 1991 research and development results, etc., were reported and deliberated. At the 2nd meeting, the meaning of coal liquefaction technology development and how to go ahead with the task were described, which topic for discussion was entitled 'How coal liquefaction technology should be for the 21st century.' After discussion, it was agreed upon that a coal liquefaction technology package be completed in fiscal 2000 based on the absorption of each other's findings and on the utilization of basic studies common to both to be realized through the exchange of technologies between the brown coal liquefaction project and the bituminous coal liquefaction project. Under the brown coal liquefaction project, a 50 ton/day pilot plant was built and operated in Victoria, Australia, and the operation was completed in October 1990. The results of research and development under the coal brown liquefaction project will be compiled by fiscal 1993. (NEDO)

  20. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  1. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  2. Survey on development of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of literature survey on brown coal liquefaction reactions and elementary techniques. Liquefaction of brown coal in the presence of CO and steam, or CO, H{sub 2} and steam has been investigated. It is not clear by the literature survey whether it is superior to the normal process which uses hydrogen. Brown coal contains moisture at high contents, and the drying techniques are necessary to be developed for its liquefaction. The future coal liquefaction plant will be much larger than the past one, and there are a number of problems to be solved, such as those involved in the designs of large-sized high-pressure slurry pumps, heat exchangers and preheaters. It is also necessary to develop the materials of and production techniques for large reactors which are serviceable under severe conditions. The solid-liquid separation for liquefaction products involves a number of the elementary techniques characteristic of coal liquefaction processes, and needs many technological developments. The one-stage brown coal liquefaction process is compared with the two-stage process for the secondary hydrogenation of SCR, but no clear conclusions are reached. (NEDO)

  3. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  4. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  6. Hydrotreating of heavy distillate derived from Wandoan coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Osaka (Japan). Hydrocarbon Research Lab.

    1997-12-03

    The paper reports how the hydrotreatment of coal-derived heavy distillate, obtained from the liquefaction of Wandoan coal using a 1 t/day bench unit, was performed to clarify the effects of catalyst species, reaction temperature and hydrogen pressure on the chemical composition of the product. Experimental runs were carried out over alumina-supported Go-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts in a fixed bed reactor of 20 ml in volume at 350-390{degree}C under hydrogen pressure of 50-150 kg/cm{sup 2}G with liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.5-2 h{sup -1}. The product, as analyzed by gas chromatography, indicated that larger amounts of alkylbenzenes such as toluene or xylenes were produced at the elevated temperature of 390{degree}C, but the concentrations of condensed aromatics such as naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene and phenanthrene decreased with the severity of reaction conditions. Pyrene and methylpyrene decreased in amount with a shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure, but increased at higher temperature of 390{degree}C. Shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure are much more effective in hydrogenation, hydrodnitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation than the higher reaction temperature up to 390{degree}C.

  7. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  8. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  9. FY 1980 Report on results of research and development project, recommissioned by Sunshine Project. Development of direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction plant (Development of power recovery system by hydrohoist); 1980 nendo chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hydrohoist ni yoru doryoku kaishu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The R and D program was implemented for a hydrohoist system, with the objectives to reduce wear and power requirements in the direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction plant. Direct hydrogenation, operating at elevated pressure in the presence of catalyst, is suitable for liquefaction of coal to produce light liquid products, which are in great demand. However, there are many mechanical problems to be solved, because the plant is operated under very severe conditions. The proposed hydrohoist system combines supply of the feed slurry with the let-down step for the slurry effluent as the product of the high-pressure system, to save energy by recovering power from the effluent slurry and, at the same time, reduce wear of the pumps and let-down valves, for the direct hydrogenation plant operating at 150 to 300 kg/cm{sup 2} in the presence of catalyst to liquefy coal. Such a system has been already commercialized for transferring coal and other minerals. In the FY 1980, basic tests are conducted using a small autoclave, to extract the problematical points for the test system. The results serve as the bases for designs and construction of the basic test system by which the hydrohoist system is to be studied and evaluated. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1990 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1990 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made concerning the progress of research and development activities. Reported and discussed in relation to the pilot plant support research, etc., are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum coal refining technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum pretreatment technique and improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.); and studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.). Reported and discussed in relation to researches using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant are the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.), the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry pre-heating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  11. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  13. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  14. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  16. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fiscal 1989 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1989 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are given and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. Reported and discussed in relation to the progress of the pilot plant support research are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); development of an optimum decalcification technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd., and Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.); and studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.). In relation to studies using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil, Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) are reported and discussed, the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry preheating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  18. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-06-01

    This report covers results from both tubing-bomb experiments and continuous PDU runs. The following materials were evaluated in the PDU on Elkhorn No. 2 coal from Floyd County, Kentucky: Molybdic oxides; iron oxide; pyrite; pyrite/iron oxide mixture, and iron sulfate impregnation. A base case liquefaction run was also made for direct comparison. All of the above materials were examined at both 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Tubing-bomb experiments are reported on pyrite, red mud, sodium sulfide and organic compounds of cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, chromium and lead. Significant conclusions were drawn on the catalysis by different materials. Especially significant was the higher level of activity resulting from impregnation versus particle incorporation of the catalyst in the system. Impregnation of coal decreased the hydrocarbon gases yield and increased oil yield. Hydrogen consumption was significantly reduced by impregnation. Addition of molybdic oxide containing 90% MoO/sub 3/ and 10% silica to coal liquefaction reaction mixture had the following effect: coal conversion increased, oil yield increased by more than a factor of two at both temperatures, hydrogen consumption increased, solvent/oil fraction showed substantial increase in hydrogen content, and molybdenum in the resulting liquefaction residue was apparently transformed into an amorphous material. A more thorough evaluation of completely sulfided molybdenum will be made to see if its activity increases. In the tubing-bomb experiments organic compound of molybdenum showed the highest activity for coal conversion and oil production. Significant synergism was noted between red mud and sodium sulfide in the coal liquefaction reaction.

  19. Report for fiscal 1994 by subcommittee on coal liquefaction basic technology; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report covers the proceedings of subcommittee meetings. Using PDUs (process development unit), comparison is made between bituminous coal-derived oils (150t/d plant for the Indonesian coal) and brown coal-derived oils (50t/d plant for the Yallourn coal), product quality is improved by a 2-stage refining process, engines are tested, etc., all these demonstration and research efforts intended to win social recognition for coal liquefaction products. Among basic studies, there are the development of technologies for reforming coal-derived oils and for mixing them will petroleum, development of new catalysts for reforming, development of a technology for separating heterocompounds and the like, and the development of their applications. Furthermore, technologies are developed for environmentally friendly coal liquefaction, feasibility of coal liquefaction technology internationalization is deliberated, and technical researches and joint researches are conducted. At the second meeting of the subcommittee, achievements relative to the refining and applications of liquefaction products are presented, including the hydrorefining of naphtha, heating oil, and light oil; development of new catalysts; heterocompound separation technology; and the development of new applications. In relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technologies, studies are presented on liquefaction conditions and on the upgrading of basic technologies of liquefaction. Also referred to are the reports delivered at a meeting on liquefaction catalysts (January 1995). (NEDO)

  20. Research on mechanism of and catalysts for extraction liquefaction of coal using coal-based solvents; Sekitankei yozai ni yoru sekitan no chushutsu ekika kiko to shokubai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    Papers of Professor Yoshio Kamiya of Tokyo University are compiled into this report. The list of the papers includes (1) Synthesis of heavy fuel oils from coal; (2) Research and development of coal liquefaction; (3) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (I); (4) Effect of hydrogen-donor solvent on the liquefaction of coal; (5) Recent studies on the chemical structure of solvent refined coal; (6) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (II); (7) Future of coal as energy material; (8), (9), (10) same as (6) in the subject discussed; (11) Recent studies on coal liquefaction catalysts; (12) Environmental problems and drain treatment to accompany processes of converting fossil resources into fuels; (13) Chemistry of coal oxidation; (14) Fractionation and analysis of solvent refined coal by gel permeation chromatography; (15) Current state of research and development of coal liquefaction; (16) Properties and components of coal oils from coal liquefaction processes under development; (17) Solvent effect of coal derived aromatic compounds on the liquefaction of Akabira coal; (18) Chemistry of coal liquefaction; (19) Research and development of coal liquefaction in the U.S.; (20) Thermal treatment of coal-related aromatic ethers in tetralin solution; (21) Recent technology of utilizing heavy carbon resources; (22) Chemical properties and reactivity of coal; (23) Current state and future of development of coal liquefaction processes; and (24) Development of overseas coal liquefaction projects. (NEDO)

  1. Activity and selectivity of three molybdenum catalysts for coal liquefaction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.; Pellegrino, J.L.

    The activity and selectivity of three different molybdenum catalysts for reactions occurring in coal liquefaction, specifically for hydrogenation (HYD), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrocracking (HYC), have been examined. The three molybdenum catalysts used were molybdenum napthenate, molybdenum on ..gamma..-alumina, and a precipitated, disordered MoS/sub 2/. Molybdenum naphthenate was most selective for HYD and HDN. All three catalysts exhibited approximately equal activity for HDS and HDO and little selectivity for HYC of alkyl bridge structures. The activity and selectivity of the three molybdenum catalysts for producing hydrocarbons and removing heteroatoms from coal during liquefaction were determined and compared. Molybdenum naphthenate was the most active catalyst for hydrocarbon production and removal of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing species during coal liquefaction. 31 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1993 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1993, the 2nd in December 1993, and the 3rd in March 1994, when fiscal 1993 research and development programs and results were reported and discussed. Reported and discussed at the 2nd meeting were the compilation of brown coal liquefaction technology development project results, evaluation report on the same, hydrorefining of oil from brown coal and the research and development of application technologies for the same, and an environmental safety evaluation test on the same. In selecting a standard coal for the operation of the 150 ton/day pilot plant, PSU (process supporting unit)-aided studies were made on the analytical values presented by coals, yield of the liquid, yield of the liquefaction residue, yield of the generated gas, amount of the hydrogen consumed, coal oil properties, liquefaction residue properties, operationality, etc. On-site investigations were conducted also in Indonesia, and a conclusion was reached that Tanito Harum coal would be the most suitable for the pilot plant. Concerning the liquefaction catalyst for the pilot plant, a report was given on a comparison made between the activity of a synthetic iron sulfide and that of natural pyrite. (NEDO)

  3. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-02-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds in the reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with hydrogen under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds have been examined in the hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The metal compounds are candidate catalyst precursors for direct coal liquefaction. The reactions were carried out in batch microautoclave reactors at 400{degrees}C for 30 minutes with 6.9 MPa (cold) hydrogen pressure, and tridecane solvent. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% resulted in low conversion and only hydrogenation. Addition of sulfur in 4:1 molar ratio led only to a minor increase in conversion and hydrodesulfurization. The use of a higher boiling solvent (octadecane vs. tridecane) was beneficial in providing increased conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrogenation. An increase in metal compound loading to 36.2 mol% led to a dramatic increase in conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. Molybdenum hexacarbonyl at 36 mol% loading, with added sulfur at 6:1 ratio and octadecane solvent, gave 100% conversion of dibenzothiophene to other products with 100% hydrodesulfurization. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and molybdenum(III) chloride are less active under similar conditions. A cobalt-molybdenum thiocubane complex gave unexpectedly low conversions. Iron and cobalt carbonyls also provided very low conversions, even with added sulfur.

  4. Report on results for fiscal 1997 on development of coal liquefaction technology . Development of liquefaction base technology (studies on development and internationalization of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology); 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu seika hokokusho. Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (kankyo chowagata sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu oyobi kokusaika kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The research objective is the development of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology and the studies on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology. Implemented for the former are (1) research on improvement and rationalization of liquefaction process and (2) research on advancement of liquefaction base technology. In (1), studies were made on in-oil preprocessing technology and scale suppressing measures for the purpose of obtaining reform/high grade of coal, and on improvement of liquefied oil collecting ratio, sophistication of coal slurry and attainment of light oil/high grade from liquefied crude oil for the purpose of optimizing liquefaction reactive conditions and improving a solvent. In (2), in developing high activity/high dispersion type new catalysts, catalytic sufurization behavior and activity manifestation mechanism were explored, as were iron hydroxide based iron ore properties and liquefaction reactive characteristics. The initial reactive characteristics of liquefaction for example were investigated for the purpose of collecting basic data for expanding kinds of coal. In order to attain the latter objective of the research, a feasibility study of liquefaction location was conducted, as were the investigation including sampling of iron ore for catalytic material and the investigation of coal gasification technology. After the completion of the Australian brown coal liquefaction project, the development of the coal liquefaction technology commenced in fiscal 1994 produced a number of useful records and ended in 1997. (NEDO)

  5. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fiscal 1989 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1989 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had its 1st meeting in June 1989 and 2nd meeting in March 1990, when fiscal 1989 research and development programs and fiscal 1989 research and development results, etc., were reported and discussed. The operating status of the 1 ton/day PSU (process supporting unit) for bituminous coal liquefaction was reported and discussed. The report included its 1st operation for the demonstration of a long-term stable run under standard conditions that continued for trouble-free 50 days, the 2nd operation for the investigation of the effect of liquefaction reaction temperature in which the liquefaction yield recorded the maximum at 450 degrees C with the collection of coal oils of 55 wt.% on the average, and the 3rd operation for the investigation of the effects of liquefaction reaction pressure and catalyst injection size whose details were being analyzed. Reported in relation with the brown coal liquefaction pilot plant was a comprehensive operation of a series of 1st hydrogenation, solvent deashing, and 2nd hydrogenation processes completed after a continuous operation of 460 hours establishing a total operating time of 1050 hours. (NEDO)

  7. Study on hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction by tritium and carbon-14 tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoh, Osamu; Kabe, Toshiaki; Kabe, Yaeko.

    1985-01-01

    For the analysis of mechanism of hydrogenation and cracking of coal, the liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal using tritium labeled gaseous hydrogen and tritium labeled tetralin with small amounts of carbon-14 labeled naphthalene has been studied. Taiheiyo coal(25g) was thermally decomposed in tetralin or naphthalene solvent(75g) at 400--440 0 C under the initial hydrogen pressure of 5.9MPa for 30min with Ni-Mo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst(0--5g). The reaction mixture in an autoclave was separated by filtration, distillation and solvent extraction. Produced gas, oils and the solvent were analyzed by gas chromatography. The tritium and carbon-14 contents of separated reaction products were measured with a liquid scintilation counter to study the hydrogen transfer mechanism. The distribution of reaction products and the amount of hydrogen transfer from gas or solvent to the products were also determined. In hydrogen donor solvent such as tetralin, the coal liquefaction yield was independent from the catalyst, but the catalyst was effective in hydrocracking of preasphaltene and asphaltene. In naphthalene solvent, the coal liquefaction reaction hardly occured in the absence of the catalyst, because hydrogen transfer from both the solvent and gaseous hydrogen was scarce. Tritium distribution in the reaction products showed that complicated hydrogen exchange reactions between gaseous hydrogen, coal liquids and solvent came out by the presence of coal liquids and catalyst. The very small amounts of carbon-14 transferred to the liquefaction products showed that carbon exchange or transfer between solvent and coal did not take place. (author)

  8. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used {sub 31}P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850{degrees}F{sup +} distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.{sup 31}P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different {sup 31}P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a {sup 31}P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used [sub 31]P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850[degrees]F[sup +] distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.[sup 31]P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different [sup 31]P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a [sup 31]P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe[sub 2]CMe[sub 2]O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  11. Report on coal refining and chemical equipment analogous to coal liquefaction equipment in fiscal 1981. Maintenance of equipment for direct desulfurization, indirect desulfurization, and fluidized catalytic cracking; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika ruiji seiyu seisei oyobi kagaku sochi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Chokudatsu, kandatsu, ryudo sesshoku bunkai sochi no hozen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This questionnaire survey was intended to investigate the actual state of maintenance such as materials used, conditions for use, anti-corrosion measures, and cases and handling of damage, concerning primary apparatus in the direct/indirect desulfurization equipment and the fluidized catalytic crackers, which are owned by each oil refinery and which are analogous to coal liquefaction equipment. The questionnaire was intended for the following equipment and apparatus, with the actual state of their maintenance investigated. 1. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of direct desulfurization (reactor, high temperature separation tank, material furnace tube, reactor exit piping, high temperature heat exchanger, low temperature heat exchanger, and pressure reducing valve), 2. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of indirect desulfurization (reactor, high temperature separation tank, material furnace tube, reactor exit piping, high temperature heat exchanger, low temperature heat exchanger, and pressure reducing valve), 3. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of fluidized catalytic cracker (reactor, regeneration tower, riser pipe, and fractionator bottom pump). The questionnaire this time was distributed to 27 domestic oil companies, with the reply received from 23 of them. The replies were summarized by each type of equipment. Shown at the back of the report were the cases of damage and handling in FCC's and reactors. (NEDO)

  12. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Prieto, S; Harrison, S B; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  15. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  17. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  18. Hydrotreatment of heavy oil from coal liquefaction on Sulfide Ni - W Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-ping Lei; Li-juan Gao; Heng-fu Shui; Shi-biao, Ren; Zhi-cai Wang; Kang-shi Gang, E-mail: shhf@ahut.edu.c [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Anhui Key Lab. of Coal Clean Conversion and Utilization

    2011-07-01

    Heavy oil (distillation temperature: 320-340 deg C) derived from the direct coal liquefaction process using Shengli coal were hydrotreated using sulfided Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ni-W/SiO{sub 2} catalysts respectively. The sulfided catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR and NH{sub 3}-TPD respectively. The evaluations of the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) properties of heavy oil on the three catalysts were carried out at 400 deg C and 5.0 MPa initial H2 pressure. The W-based catalysts displayed better performances than Mo-based catalysts for the HDN and HDA reactions. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts were found to have higher catalytic activities than on SiO{sub 2} supported ones. The activities of sulfided catalysts were associated mainly with the nature of active sites, acidity, metal sulfide crystallite size and the amount of the reducible sulfur species of metal sulfide. (author)

  19. Hydrotreatment of heavy oil from coal liquefaction on Sulfide Ni - W Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-ping Lei; Li-juan Gao; Heng-fu Shui; Shi-biao, Ren; Zhi-cai Wang; Kang-shi Gang

    2011-01-01

    Heavy oil (distillation temperature: 320-340 deg C) derived from the direct coal liquefaction process using Shengli coal were hydrotreated using sulfided Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 , Ni-W/Al 2 O 3 , and Ni-W/SiO 2 catalysts respectively. The sulfided catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, H 2 -TPR and NH 3 -TPD respectively. The evaluations of the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) properties of heavy oil on the three catalysts were carried out at 400 deg C and 5.0 MPa initial H2 pressure. The W-based catalysts displayed better performances than Mo-based catalysts for the HDN and HDA reactions. Al 2 O 3 supported catalysts were found to have higher catalytic activities than on SiO 2 supported ones. The activities of sulfided catalysts were associated mainly with the nature of active sites, acidity, metal sulfide crystallite size and the amount of the reducible sulfur species of metal sulfide. (author)

  20. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  1. Development of liquefaction process of coal and biomass in supercritical water; Chorinkaisui wo mochiita sekitan biomass doji ekika process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Masuno, Y.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Liquefaction of coal and biomass in supercritical water has been investigated, in which strong solubilization force of supercritical water against hydrocarbons is utilized. Free radicals are formed through the cleavage of covalent bonds in coal under the heating condition at around 400{degree}C during coal liquefaction. It is important to stabilize these unstable intermediate products by hydrogen transfer. On the other hand, hydrogen is not required for the liquefaction of biomass having higher H/C atomic ratio and oxygen content than those of coal. Co-liquefaction of coal and biomass was conducted using supercritical water, in which excess hydrogen from the liquefaction of biomass would be transferred to coal, resulting in the effective liquefaction of coal. Mixture of coal and cellulose was liquefied in supercritical water at 390{degree}C under the pressure of 25 MPa using a semi-continuous reactor, and the results were compared with those from the separate liquefaction of them. The co-liquefaction of coal and cellulose did not show any difference in the residue yield from the separate liquefaction of these, but led to the increased production of compounds with lower molecular weight. The liquefaction was completed in 15 minutes. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Non-catalytic transfer hydrogenation in supercritical CO2 for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussien, Hussien

    This thesis presents the results of the investigation on developing and evaluating a low temperature (coal dissolution in supercritical CO2. The main idea behind the thesis was that one hydrogen atom from water and one hydrogen atom from the hydrogen transfer agent (HTA) were used to hydrogenate the coal. The products of coal dissolution were non-polar and polar while the supercritical CO2, which enhanced the rates of hydrogenation and dissolution of the non-polar molecules and removal from the reaction site, was non-polar. The polar modifier (PM) for CO2 was added to the freed to aid in the dissolution and removal of the polar components. The addition of a phase transfer agent (PTA) allowed a seamless transport of the ions and by-product between the aqueous and organic phases. DDAB, used as the PTA, is an effective phase transfer catalyst and showed enhancement to the coal dissolution process. COAL + DH- +H 2O → COAL.H2 + DHO-- This process has a great feature due to the fact that the chemicals were obtained without requir-ing to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The experiments were conducted in a unique reactor set up that can be connected through two lines. one line to feed the reactor with supercritical CO 2 and the other connected to gas chromatograph. The use of the supercritical CO2 enhanced the solvent option due to the chemical extraction, in addition to the low environmental impact and energy cost. In this thesis the experiment were conducted at five different temperatures from atmos-pheric to 140°C, 3000 - 6000 psi with five component of feed mixture, namely water, HTA, PTA, coal, and PM in semi batch vessels reactor system with a volume of 100 mL. The results show that the chemicals were obtained without requiring to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The results show that the conversion was found to be 91.8% at opti-mum feed mixtures values of 3, 1.0 and 5.4 for water: PM

  3. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  4. Deuterium as a tracer in coal liquefaction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Barron, P.F.; Vassallo, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Deuterium has been used to trace the pathways by which hydrogen reacts with an Australian bituminous coal (Liddell) in the presence of a nickel/molybdenum catalyst. The results show that at 400 0 C extensive scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium occurs among aromatic and α to aromatic aliphatic hydrogen and deuterium substituents. Deuterium can enter all structural groups in both asphaltene and hexane-soluble fractions of the coal-derived liquids, but it enters aromatic and α to aromatic groups in preference to alkyl groups remote from aromatic rings. Thus the results indicate that hydrogen atoms are very mobile during coal hydrogenation. Deuterium from deuterium oxide generated during conversion can also be incorporated into the coal-derived liquids. During coal hydrogenation, the eventual fate of much of the hydrogen in the gas phase is to substitute for hydrogen already in the coal. (Auth.)

  5. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In 1994, a memorandum on the research cooperation was agreed between NEDO and BPPT (The Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology) in Indonesia, based on the request for the coal liquefaction technology cooperation from BPPT. It includes the following items: conference for professionals to be held, invitation and training of Indonesian engineers, activity for joint field survey and potential survey of location of coal liquefaction commercial plant. Further in 1997, the secondary memorandum was concluded for the potential survey for securing the hydrogen required for coal liquefaction by coal gasification. The survey was summarized as the potential survey for location of coal liquefaction. In the testing study for improving economical efficiency of liquefaction process, it was made clear that the higher the Fe content of Banko coal is, the higher the reaction of liquefaction is, and that Fe compounds in coal show catalysis. In the Soroako area in Sulawesi island, there are the nickel mine run by PT. Inco. Soroako limonite is promising as catalyst material for commercial-scale coal liquefaction. In the gasification method, the plant construction cost increases, but the production amount of coal-derived liquid can be increased. That is more profitable than the production of hydrogen from natural gas. (NEDO)

  6. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report No. 7, April 1--July 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1993-07-14

    In our last report we discussed observations in our cell concerning the behavior or Illinois No. 6 coal in tetralin to 460{degrees}C. We noted that there were possibly two distinct types of particles comprising the organic phase, reacting respectively at 420{degrees}--430{degrees}C, and at 450{degrees}--460{degrees}C. Alternatively we could interpret the data as describing a range of reactivity bounded by those temperatures. As evidenced by the contraction of the particles, the reactions were rapid. The particles lost half of their substance within 1 min, and we suggested that the rates were too fast to be accommodated by the commonly held scheme for coal liquefaction involving thermolytic scission of weak, bibenzyl-like bonds. Our analyses were aided by our use of Adobe Photoshop, which allows us to store, digitized versions of our recorded images. The images can then be manipulated at will to provide quantitative data on morphological changes. We noted in our last report that printer limitations prevented us from presenting images with the desirable quality, and we are at present attempting to find access to equipment which will provide satisfactory figures. Accordingly our progress will be described here without any photographs, and we expect to present a more complete account of our work in our next report. The work reported here includes studies of Illinois No. 6 coal with water as the medium, and a control run with argon as medium. Our temperature ramping was like that used last time, 25{degrees}C/min to 250{degrees}C, and then 10{degrees}C/min to 450{degrees}C. The results from the earlier work and the data presented here can therefore be directly compared.

  7. Characterization of catalytically hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction in petroleum asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; Oishi, T.; Korai, Y.; Fujitsu, H.; Takeshita, K.

    1983-03-01

    A hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction of a feed originally consisting of 66% petroleum asphalt and 34% coal liquid was characterized. The hydrotreatment was carried out over a Co-Mo catalyst in order to upgrade moderately and selectively the coal-derived fraction. The present process was found very effective to depolymerize rather selectively the coal-derived fraction, originally benzene insoluble, to be soluble in benzene in the dominant presence of petroleum asphalt, while 20% of the asphalt was converted to be distillable with ..cap alpha..-methylnaphthalene (the hydrotreatment solvent). Structural analyses of the fractions before and after hydrotreatment were compared to reveal what kinds of chemical reactions had taken place during hydro treatment. The major reactions of the coal derived fraction are hydrodeoxygenation and hydrodealkylation, both of which are effective for depolymerization. No significant hydrogenation on aromatic rings was observed. Hydrotreated liquid was further pyrolyzed to obtain oils and cokes of high quality. (14 refs.)

  8. Indirect coal liquefaction - the first commercial CTL project in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, K.; Battensby, D.; Marsico, C.; Hooper, M.; Mather, C. [Uhde GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The polygeneration of fuels, chemical and power offers an innovative and economically advantageous way to utilise disadvantaged fuels, such as lignite, waste coal and petroleum coke, in a coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant by means of integration of three main process blocks: gasification island to convert coal into clean synthesis gas; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to convert synthesis gas into clean liquid fuels and chemicals; and combustion of synthesis gas to produce electric power and steam. This paper describes the process and technology side of this indirect coal liquefaction project with key plant data that has been elaborated for a commercial scale CTL project, which is expected to be the first CTL plant in the USA. The plant will use the Shell Coal Gasification process. 6 figs.

  9. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 25, 1990--October 24, 1991: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  11. Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan C.

    1977-03-08

    A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

  12. Survey on peripheral techniques of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru shuhen gijutsu no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of survey on brown coal liquefaction techniques and peripheral techniques, centered by COSTEAM process under development in USA, solubilization by alcohol and liquefaction and cracking with the aid of tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor under development in Japan, and low-temperature carbonization and new promising techniques. The COSTEAM process shows higher reaction rates, conversions and oil yields for brown coal liquefaction than the one using hydrogen gas. Some of the problems involved in this process high viscosity and oxygenated compound content of the product oil. The product oil is acceptable as fuel for power generating plants and can be produced at a moderate cost, but may be unsuitable as vehicle fuel. Coal liquefaction and solubilization processes are mainly represented by those which use hydrogen. The hydrogen cost, which is high, determines the product price. The processes which use alcohol or tetrahydroquinoline are still in the experimental stage. (NEDO)

  13. Studies on characteristics of fluid dynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor; Sekitan ekika hanno tonai no ryudo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakawaki, K.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tachikawa, N.; Moki, T.; Ishikawa, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To design the coal liquefaction reactor of large scale plant in future, it is important to understand characteristics of fluid dynamics within the coal liquefaction reactor. In this study, to measure the fluid dynamics of liquid phase within the coal liquefaction reactor operated under high temperature and high pressure coal liquefaction condition, neutron attenuating tracer (NAT) technique, one of the tracer test methods, was applied using 1 t/d coal treating PSU. The residence time of liquid phase within the reactor can be measured by utilizing property of neutron of being absorbed by materials. The tracer was injected at the inlets of first and third reactors, and the neutron was counted at each outlet. The concentration of tracer was derived from the discrete value, to determine the residence time distribution of liquid phase. The mean residence time of liquid phase in the single first reactor and in the total three reactors were prolonged under the severe operation conditions of liquefaction. The more severe the liquefaction operation condition was, the more active the mixing of liquid phase was in the first reactor. It was found that the progress of reaction was accelerated. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-30

    The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

  15. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  16. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  17. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Kinetic discussion in initial stage of coal liquefaction. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Sekitan ekika shoki dankai no sokudoronteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, T; Ikenaga, N; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1990-11-29

    Discussions were given on features of various kinds of coal liquefaction catalysts exhibited by them in hydrocracking of coal (Taiheiyo coal), and particularly on selectivity of the reaction in its initial stage. Four kinds of catalysts were tested: Adkins catalyst which is an oxide of copper and chromium, Fe2O3+S, Mo-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3. Three grams of coal and 0.3 gram each of the catalysts were charged into an autoclave reactor and experiment was conducted under an initial hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa, temperatures from 653 K to 693 K and for durations of 0 to 120 minutes to derive apparent reaction rate constants. The MoS3-Al2O3 catalyst has promoting the reaction apparently in the primary reaction at any temperature, while the other catalysts had the rate constants varied in the initial and the later stages. It was recognized that the temperature dependence of rate constants varies considerably according to the types of catalyst. Particularly the MoO3-TiO3 catalyst has small temperature dependence in the rate constants, and high molecular weight reducing power. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Low temperature coal depolymerization-liquefaction: conversion of a North Dakota lignite to a light hydrocarbon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Yuan Zhang (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    A new low temperature method of coal liquefaction is described which includes intercalation of the coal with FeCl{sub 3}, depolymerization under supercritical conditions, and hydroprocessing of the depolymerized product. Results indicate a high yield conversion of lignites to light hydrocarbon oils. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Report on the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. With an intention of developing a technology on the process (NEDOL) suitable for liquefaction of wide range of coal types placing sub-bituminous coal at the center, researches were carried out by using a pilot plant, and engineering data purposed for practical application of the technology were acquired. The construction of the pilot plant was launched in fiscal 1991. It is necessary to execute the pilot plant plan steadily in the future, and at the same time, reliably acquire different data by means of supportive researches. Economic performance of the process is also important. The first sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the 150-t/d pilot plant, tests and investigations thereon, research works by using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, development of a coal pretreatment technology, improvement of the distilled oil distribution, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. The second sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the pilot plant, tests and investigations on improving the performance of natural pylite catalyst and circulating solvent, technological investigations on structuring a liquefying reaction data analyzing system, studies using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project. Technology assessment on coal gasification and liquefaction; 1975 nendo sekitan no gas ka ekika gijutsu no technology assessment seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research was intended to find the desirable direction of technological development, by discussing the effects of coal gasification/liquefaction technologies from every angle, for the purpose coping with the social demand for steadily and continuously obtaining clean energy. This year, the examination was conducted not only on the energy conversion technologies of coal gasification/liquefaction, but also on the impact generating from the entire supply system of coal energy from coal mine development to mining, transportation, storage and conversion to secondary energy. For this purpose, while the outline was grasped of coal resources in the world as well as each technology for the mining, transportation, storage, electric power generation by gasification, and high calorie gasification, a case study was made on the assumption that electric power generation and high calorie gasification were conducted by importing 1,000 tons of coal from overseas, extracting the impact on the basis of this case study. In addition, examination was made on the position of coal energy in the energy supply of the future, with an impact investigated on condition that about 300 million tons were imported equivalent to roughly 16% of energy supply in the year 2000 or about. (NEDO)

  1. Investigations into the ``in vitro-liquefaction`` of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakoussa, R.M.; Frost, P.; Schwaemmle, A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie

    1997-12-31

    Brown coal can be liquefied/solubilized by a number of lignin-degrading fungi. However, with regard to technical applications in the future, the use of whole fungal cells is severely limited due to the mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the hyphae, and the expensive nutrition of the living cells. Therefore, many attempts have been made to make use of the coal-degrading enzymes produced by the fungus, mainly lignin peroxidases, manganese dependent peroxidases, and laccases. As it turned out, however, the isolated enzymes could not lower the mean molecular weight of the coal substances, but led to polymerization reactions due to the formation of reactive radical species. Apparently the living cell is able to prevent excessive levels of radical concentrations by the means of sensitive regulating mechanisms. (orig.)

  2. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of materials for the coal liquefaction plant); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika plant zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A 1 T/D solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction test plant was constructed and operated to obtain the technical data for the design of, and establish the techniques for, an efficient coal liquefaction plant. The FY 1980 program includes surveys on the materials for coal liquefaction plants, covering those already developed and under development, to clarify the problematical points; drafting the test schedules; and conceptual designs of the material testing facilities. The major problems involved in the materials for coal liquefaction plants include erosion by fluidizing coal slurry, hydrogen embrittlement of the reactor materials, and corrosion by the liquefaction products (e.g., stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steel, and corrosion by organic acids). The surveys on materials research trends suggest that USA seems to concentrate their research efforts on the reactor materials. The corrosion tests are mostly of in-plant tests, but the stress corrosion and slurry erosion tests are conducted on a laboratory scale. The conceptual designs are drawn for some testing units, e.g., the loop type material testing unit and basic testing unit for jet-spray type slurry erosion. (NEDO)

  3. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  5. Report for fiscal 1981 of Sunshine Program coal group. Basic research on Solvolysis liquefaction technology; 1981 nendo solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Basic research is conducted on the Solvolysis liquefaction process for the purpose of producing from coal an ashless, low-sulfur, pollution-free liquid fuel. In the research on the Solvolysis liquefaction (1st stage liquefaction) of coal using a hydrogenation solvent, the Solvolysis liquefaction of coal is studied, for which a refined Solvolysis pitch containing coal substances and a hydride of solvent refined coal are used as Solvolysis liquefaction solvents for the 1st stage. In the research on the 1st stage liquefaction reaction conditions using a high-temperature closed process, two methods are employed. One is a method that uses a mini-pump type reactor in which a small hermetic container is submerged in a high-temperature solvent for rapid heating and the other is a method that uses a pipe type reactor in which coal slurry is caused to travel through a pipe heated to a high temperature. For the analysis of the 2nd stage liquefaction (hydrogenation) reaction conditions, the properties of the 2nd coal liquid, and the constitution of the 2nd coal liquid, and the for the research on the 1st stage liquefaction capacity, the hydrogenation of anthracene oil and solvent refined coal as recyclable solvent models is studied. (NEDO)

  6. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  7. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  8. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  9. Analysis of the relationship between the coal properties and their liquefaction characteristics by using the coal data base; Tanshu data base ni yoru tanshitsu to ekika tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbayashi, Y.; Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The relationship between coal properties and liquefaction or gasification characteristics was analyzed by using the analysis and test results and liquefaction characteristics in the coal data base. On liquefaction reaction, the close relation between an oil yield and coal constituent composition or a coal rank is well-known. Various multivariable regression analyses were conducted by using 6 factors as variables such as calorific value, volatile component, O/C and H/C atomic ratios, exinite+vitrinite content and vitrinite reflectance, and liquefaction characteristics as variate. On liquefaction characteristics, the oil yield of dehydrated and deashed coals, asphaltene yield, hydrogen consumption, produced water and gas quantities, and oil+asphaltene yield were predicted. The theoretical gasification efficiency of each specimen was calculated to evaluate the liquefaction reaction obtained. As a result, the oil yield increased with H/C atomic ratio, while the theoretical gasification efficiency increased with O/C atomic ratio. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Highly Dispersed Pseudo-Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts Synthesized via Inverse Micelle Solutions for the Liquefaction of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampden-Smith, M.; Kawola, J.S.; Martino, A.; Sault, A.G.; Yamanaka, S.A.

    1999-01-05

    The mission of this project was to use inverse micelle solutions to synthesize nanometer sized metal particles and test the particles as catalysts in the liquefaction of coal and other related reactions. The initial focus of the project was the synthesis of iron based materials in pseudo-homogeneous form. The frost three chapters discuss the synthesis, characterization, and catalyst testing in coal liquefaction and model coal liquefaction reactions of iron based pseudo-homogeneous materials. Later, we became interested in highly dispersed catalysts for coprocessing of coal and plastic waste. Bifunctional catalysts . to hydrogenate the coal and depolymerize the plastic waste are ideal. We began studying, based on our previously devised synthesis strategies, the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts with a bifunctional nature. In chapter 4, we discuss the fundamental principles in heterogeneous catalysis synthesis with inverse micelle solutions. In chapter 5, we extend the synthesis of chapter 4 to practical systems and use the materials in catalyst testing. Finally in chapter 6, we return to iron and coal liquefaction now studied with the heterogeneous catalysts.

  11. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-01-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics

  12. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  13. Mechanism of Wandoan coal liquefaction by the use of tritium and 14C tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabe, Toshiaki; Nitoh, Osamu; Kawakami, Akira; Marumoto, Motoi; Nakagawa, Kouhei

    1986-01-01

    In order to make the behavior of hydrogen donor solvent clear, Wandoan coal was liquefied in tritium labeled tetralin solvent contained a small amount of 14 C labeled naphthalene, under initial H 2 pressure : 5.9 MPa, reaction temperature range : 400-440 deg C and with or without Ni-Mo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst. The concentration of 14 C in tetralin indicated that the hydrogenation of naphthalene to tetralin occurred. From tritium and hydrogen distributions in coal products, solvents and molecular hydrogen, the amounts of hydrogen which transferred by hydrogen addition and exchange reactions were estimated, and the effects of the catalyst and reaction temperature were examined. Without catalyst, the coal liquefaction proceeded mainly by the hydrogen addition from hydrogen donor solvent to coal and the hydrogen addition from molecular hydrogen to coal products hardly occurred. The catalyst was effective in the hydrocracking of preasphaltenes, but did not promote the hydrocracking of oil. Furthermore, the catalyst promoted the hydrogen addition from molecular hydrogen to coal products and solvents, and activated the hydrogen exchange between molecular hydrogen and solvents, but the hydrogen exchanges did not reach to equilibrium under the condition of 440 deg C. (author)

  14. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  15. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008; La liquefaction du charbon: ou en est-on aujourd'hui? - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel.

  16. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  17. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project by Coal Group. Basic researches on coal liquefaction techniques by solvolysis; 1980 nendo sunshine keikaku sekitanhan hokokusho. Sekitan no solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    The basic experimental researches were carried out for coal liquefaction by solvolysis. The studied items include hydrogenation conditions for treating the primary liquefied products, asphalt, pitch and model solvents (e.g., anthracene oil) in the presence of a commercial catalyst, solvolysis conditions for finely divided, molten coal using a hydrogenation recycled solvent, hydrotreating solvents, analysis of solvolysis-liquefied products, and liquefaction capacity of fractionated solvents for finely divided, molten coal. The studied items for separation of minerals include settlement at high temperature of the solid residue from the first liquefaction stage, and changed coal particle size distribution as a result of the first-stage liquefaction reactions in the presence of a hydrogenation solvent. The experimental study results indicate that conversion of finely divided molten coal into asphaltenes and preasphaltenes is notably accelerated in the phase-II coal liquefaction process by solvolysis, when a hydrotreating solvent is used for the first stage solvolysis process. (NEDO)

  18. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  20. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  1. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Data attached 2. Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo (fuzoku shiryo 2))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the project for internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, this paper reported on the potential survey for location of Indonesian low grade coal liquefaction (study of applicability of the improved BCL process and survey of hydrogen production technology using coal gasification). The survey was conducted of a locational possibility of a coal liquefaction commercial plant to be located at mine site in South Sumatra for Banko coal raw material. The improved BCL process was applied in which the results of the study by NBCL Takasago Research Institute were reflected. Further, the hydrogen production was studied by gasification of Banko coal, and the comparison was made with the conventional natural gas reforming method. As a result of the study using information/knowledge obtained during the conceptual design of Australian brown coal, the construction cost of commercial scale liquefaction plant with the Banko coal processing amount of 30,000 tons/day became 549.8 billion yen in the case of using natural gas as raw material for hydrogen production. This construction cost is the lowest as compared with 601.7 billion yen in the demonstrative BCL process and with 577.1 billion yen in the advanced BCL process. This is a process making use of features of Banko coal. The process for hydrogen production by the steam reforming method using natural gas has an advantage of increasing the production amount of coal-derived liquid the most of the three other methods. (NEDO)

  2. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Data attached 1. Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo (fuzoku shiryo-1))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the project for internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, this paper reported on the potential survey for location of Indonesian low grade coal liquefaction (study of applicability of the improved BCL process and survey of hydrogen production technology using coal gasification). The survey was conducted of a locational possibility of a coal liquefaction commercial plant to be located at mine site in South Sumatra for Banko coal raw material. The improved BCL process was applied in which the results of the study by NBCL Takasago Research Institute were reflected. Further, the hydrogen production was studied by gasification of Banko coal, and the comparison was made with the conventional natural gas reforming method. As a result of the study using information/knowledge obtained during the conceptual design of Australian brown coal, the construction cost of commercial scale liquefaction plant with the Banko coal processing amount of 30,000 tons/day became 549.8 billion yen in the case of using natural gas as raw material for hydrogen production. This construction cost is the lowest as compared with 601.7 billion yen in the demonstrative BCL process and with 577.1 billion yen in the advanced BCL process. This is a process making use of features of Banko coal. The process for hydrogen production by the steam reforming method using natural gas has an advantage of increasing the production amount of coal-derived liquid the most of the three other methods. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant and 2.4 T/D test plant); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2.4T/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at construction and operation of a 2.4 T/D test plant for eventual commercialization of the direct hydrogenation type liquefaction process. The FY 1980 program includes designs of the test plant, procurement and manufacture of some equipment, and works for construction of the bases, buildings and scaffolds. The construction site for the 2.4 T/D plant was changed in July 1980 from Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding's Chiba works to NKK's Keihin Steelworks, which was accompanied by some changes in the basic and detailed designs. The detailed designs were reviewed for construction of the test plant, to reflect the results of the individual elementary researches. The works for the FY 1980 program also include preparations for obtaining approvals of plant construction, based on the revised designs, from the related government offices, and equipment procurement. This paper presents the major drawings for the plant construction, including those for PID designs, overall plant layouts, piping systems, buildings, scaffolds, and pipe racks. The loading data are also included. (NEDO)

  4. Survey on the trend of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, broken down by application; Sekitan no ekika gas ka no yotobetsu gijutsu no doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    To drive forward the development of the above-named technologies efficiently and effectively, it is necessary to clearly define what coal derived products will meet the need of the clientele and to develop coal derived products accordingly. This survey aims to disclose the whole pictures of the oil/gas using areas and enable the study and evaluation of the possibilities of using coal derived products as substitutes in every one of the expected applications. It also aims to clarify product characteristics, use conditions, technical tasks, and problems to accompany actual substitution in the applications where possibilities are high of their serving as substitutes. Chapter 1, explaining the trend of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, describes projects for the development of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, trend of the development of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, and properties of coal liquefaction/gasification products. Chapter 2, explaining the trend of demand for energy for use in the respective applications, analyzes the trend of demands for oil products, gases, and methanol. Chapter 3 summarizes the applications of chemical materials and fuels for studying the use of coal liquefaction/gasification products as substitutes in the respective applications. Chapter 4 collects problems to solve for the enhancement of coal liquefaction/gasification projects. (NEDO)

  5. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-04-01

    Results from screening studies showed that the pyrite samples separated from various coal seams had similar catalytic activity. The addition of all the pyrite samples to feed slurry increased conversion of coal and production of oil. A sample of fusinite was also tested for its liquefaction behavior with and without added pyrite. The addition of pyrite increased the conversion of fusinite and production of oil. These results show that pyrite catalyzes the conversion of fusinite and therefore improves overall coal conversion. Conversion of coal and oil production increased by impregnating coal with iron and molybdenum compounds. Coal conversion and oil production also increased with increasing concentration of both iron and molybdenum impregnated on coal. Addition of various transition metal sulfides increased coal conversion and oil production. Dramatic improvements were noted with nickel, vanadium, and tin sulfides. Addition of transition metal naphthenates produced mixed results; some of them improved coal conversion and others had no effect. The effect of metal concentration on coal conversion was also not clear. Deep cleaning of coal did not affect coal conversion, but it significantly reduced oil production. Addition of pyrite separated from coal to deep cleaned coal sample regained the oil production to the original value, i.e., oil produced from liquefaction of raw coal.Coal cleaned by oil agglomeration gave highest coal conversion and oil production. Basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds reduced the naphthalene hydrogenation activity of both Co-Mo-Al and sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was inactive for denitrogenation of quinoline, and the reaction product mainly consisted of hydrogenated and hydrocracked quinoline. On the contrary, Co-Mo-Al was active for denitrogenation of quinoline, resulting in lower quinoline poisoning.

  6. Pyrolysis and liquefaction of acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin swelled Mukah Balingian Malaysian sub-bituminous coal-The effect on coal conversion and oil yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Khudzir Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The effect of swelling on Mukah Balingian (MB) Malaysian sub-bituminous coal macrostructure was observed by pyrolysing the swelled coal via thermogravimetry under nitrogen at ambient pressure. The DTG curves of the pyrolyzed swelled coal samples show the presence of evolution peaks at temperature ranging from 235 - 295 degree Celsius that are due to releasing of light molecular weight hydrocarbons. These peaks, however, were not present in the untreated coal, indicating some changes in the coal macrostructure has occurred in the swelled coal samples. The global pyrolysis kinetics for coal that follows the first-order decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the activation energy of the pyrolyzed untreated and swelled coal samples. The results thus far have shown that the activation energy for the acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin-swelled coal samples exhibit lower values than untreated coal, indicating less energy is required during the pyrolysis process due to the weakening of the coal-coal macromolecular interaction network. Moreover, liquefaction on the swelled coal samples that was carried out at temperatures ranging from 360 to 450 degree Celsius at 4 MPa of nitrogen pressure showed the enhancement of the coal conversion and oil yield at temperature of 420 degree Celsius, with retrogressive reaction started to dominate at higher temperature as indicated by decreased and increased in oil yield and high molecular weight pre-asphaltene, respectively. These observations suggest that the solvent swelling pre-treatment using acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin can improve the coal conversion and oil yields at less severe liquefaction condition. (author)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of coal liquefaction technology (Conceptual designs for coal liquefaction pilot plants - Solvent extraction liquefaction process); 1982 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika pilot plant no gainen sekkei (yozai chushutsu ekikaho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This research aims to prepare conceptual designs for a 250t/d-class and 500t/d-class coal liquefaction pilot plants based on the achievement of research on solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. It also aims to define the solvent extraction process and provide decision-making material relative to the development and promotion of coal liquefaction technologies in the future. Development started in 1978 of the technology of solvent extraction liquefaction of coal, and a 1t/d PDU (process development unit) was completed in 1981. Studies through its operation have continued for more than 3000 hours already, and technical data are being accumulated steadily. Techniques acquired through operating the 1t/d PDU have been put together, and rough process conditions are established. A rough process result is achieved of the same conditions. In these two respects, the newly developed process is equal to other processes. The phenomena in this process are roughly grasped. It is deemed that, with the existing technique combined with the technique acquired here, a technological level has been reached where conceptual designs of large pilot plants may be worked out for solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. Under the circumstances, with a view to developing a commercial plant whose main products will be fuel oils, conceptual designs are prepared for large pilot plants, and are compiled into this report. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Research on liquefaction characteristics different between coal types and on technical physical properties; 1984 nendo tanshu ni yoru ekika tokusei to kogakuteki busseichi ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Liquefaction characteristics of coal specimens, collected from many locations across the world, are determined so as to make clear the correlations between coal type and liquefaction reactivity. Conducted for this purpose are the analysis of chemical structures of the specimens, liquefaction tests in an autoclave using various catalysts and medium oils, liquefaction tests in a 0.1t/d bench plant, investigation of the constituents of the generated oil and their separation, and the secondary stabilization treatment for the commercialization of the product. The reaction tower is kept under constant conditions, the state of the liquid mixture in the reaction tower is evaluated by tracking the flow of coal out of the reaction tower after switchover from anthracene oil to coal paste, the gas flow in the reaction tower is estimated by tracking time-wise changes in the concentration level of inert gas at the reaction tower outlet port, the inert gas having been injected in pulses into the reaction system operating under the reaction conditions. For the implementation of the above-mentioned steps, a system is designed and constructed for directly collecting samples from the vapor phase section in the reaction tower operating under given reaction conditions (temperature: 400-450 degrees C, pressure 150-300kg/cm{sup 2}), and experiments are conducted to collect gas/liquid equilibrium data in the reaction tower under the given reaction conditions. (NEDO)

  9. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  10. Fiscal 1999 research cooperation project report. Research cooperation on coal liquefaction technology; 1999 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research cooperation project result on coal liquefaction technology. Cooperative FS was made on coal liquefaction technology of Indonesian coal as petroleum substituting energy. To obtain the basic data necessary for the FS, study was made on the applicability of Indonesian natural minerals as catalytic materials. Promising low-cost abundant Soroako Limonite ore showed a high catalytic activity for liquefaction reaction of Banko coal, and an excellent grindability. Improved BCL process including hydrogenation process was promising for production of high-quality coal liquid superior in storage stability with less nitrogen and sulfur contents. Survey was made on the general conditions of Tanjung Enim area including South Banko coal field concerned, and the geological features and coal seam of South Banko coal field which is composed of 3 seams including coal deposits of 6.35 hundred million tons. To study the marketability of coal liquid, survey was made on the current situation of oil, oil product standards, and blendability of coal liquid. Hydrogen for the liquefaction process can be obtained by coal gasification. (NEDO)

  11. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, June 1, 1980-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D; Givens, E N; Schweighardt, F K; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, W J; Shridharani, K

    1980-09-01

    Additional data on the pyrite catalysis of liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal are presented. The liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal was significantly catalyzed by the presence of pyrite. Coal conversion, oil yield and preasphaltene conversion all increased when pyrite was added. An increase in hydrocarbon gas make accompanied by a higher hydrogen consumption were also observed. The higher activity in the presence of pyrite could be utilized by running the liquefaction step at milder conditions which would mean a lower gas make. Although we had heard reports that sulfur elimination from the SRC was improved by use of pyrite, our data showed only very small changes. Nitrogen removal from the solvent, however, was definitely observed. At 850/sup 0/F nitrogen in the oil product went from 1.61 to 1.12 on adding pyrite. This increased nitrogen removal was also seen in the added ammonia yields. Kentucky number 9 coal also responded very well to the presence of pyrite. Conversions and oil yields increased while the hydrocarbon yields decreased at both temperatures that were tested, i.e., 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Hydrogen consumptions also increased. In the screening program the results from testing a number of materials are reported. None of the zeolites gave any significant improvement over coal itself. The iron, molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt rich materials had significant activity, all 85 to 90% conversion with high oil yields.Among materials specifically reported this period the clays failed to show any significant catalytic effect.

  12. Coal Liquefaction characteristics and chemical structure of product oil; Sekitan ekika hanno tokusei to seiseibutsu no kagaku kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H.; Sato, M.; Chiba, T.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Sasaki, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Through the hydrogenolysis of Wandoan coal and Tanito Harum coal which are used for the NEDOL process, differences of liquefaction characteristics between them were found. The purpose of this study is to grasp these differences as differences of chemical structures of oil fractions. The compound type analysis was conducted for oil fractions obtained at varied reaction temperature for varied reaction time. Coal liquefaction characteristics of these coals were discussed by relating oil yields and chemical structures. For Tanito Harum coal, yields of gas and oil were considered to be lower than those for Wandoan coal, which reflected that the contents of partially hydrogenated hydroaromatics in oil fraction from the former were lower than those from the latter, and that the remarkable change of composition did not occur with the progress of the reaction. For both the coals, the remarkable changes in the average molecular weight of oil fraction were not observed with the progress of the reaction. While, the content of methane gradually increased with the progress of the reaction, which suggested that oil was gradually dealkylated. 5 figs.

  13. Report on the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1993; 1993 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1993. With an intention of developing a technology on the process (NEDOL) suitable for liquefaction of wide range of coal types placing sub-bituminous coal at the center, researches were carried out by using a pilot plant, and engineering data purposed for practical application of the technology were acquired. The construction of the pilot plant, launched in fiscal 1991, will be performed under the operation research plan for efficient operation, based on the result of discussing the total project cost in fiscal 1992. The status of constructing the 150-t/d pilot plant in fiscal 1993 is in the phase of making the foundations subsequently from fiscal 1992, procurement of devices and construction materials, constructions of iron structures, installation, heat insulation, and painting, and building the central control building and piping facilities outside the battery limit. The paper also reports the tests and investigations on improving performance of natural pylite catalyst, the tests and investigations on improving performance of circulating solvent, and the technological investigations on structuring a liquefying reaction data analyzing system. For the supportive researches on the pilot plant, the paper describes studies by using a 1-t/d PSU, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, studies on synthesized iron sulfide catalysts, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. A comprehensive discussion was also given. (NEDO)

  14. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1987. Surveys on coal selection and coal types (Surveys on coal resources for liquefaction); 1987 nendo tanshu sentei chosa tanshu chosa seika hokokusho. Ekikayo sekitan shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The survey purpose is to identify availability of coal resources for liquefaction in major coal producing countries in the Pacific basin area. Therefore, collection is carried out on such data as coal existing conditions, coal qualities, production quantities, and infrastructures on coal mines being operated and projects under development or investigation. Coal samples are collected in wide range and exhaustively unbiased to particular coal fields and mines to acquire data to perform selection and evaluation of coals that can be fed to coal liquefying plants. The present survey was intended to acquire fundamental data for the liquefying coal selection, such as coal existing conditions, natures, and infrastructures for the coal resources, taking up as the survey object countries the State of Alaska, U.S.A. and Indonesia. The coal types as the object of the survey are mainly sub-bituminous coal, and additionally brown coal and partly bituminous coal. The amount of coal deposit as the subject of the investigation is 100 million tons or more as the verified reserve. The subject areas cover coal mines in the State of Alaska, U.S.A. (Northern Alaska, Nenana, Beluga, and Matanuska coal fields), and Indonesia (the Sumatra and Kalimantan islands). The survey items are made up of 14 items (see the coal mine survey tables in JN0040851). (NEDO)

  15. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Development of a coal liquefaction technology (Liquefaction performance test on Chinese coals); 1988 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu, Chugokutan ekika seino shiken seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    Development has been carried out on a Chinese coal liquefaction technology jointly by Japan and China. The Japanese side fabricated and built a small continuous testing equipment. Shenbei coal produced in Liaoning Province, Tienju coal produced in Gansu Province and Shenmu coal produced in Shaanxi Province were used as test sample coals. These coals were crushed, washed with water, sorted, dried, pulverized below 100 mesh, and used as the test samples. For catalysts, a reagent Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and S as an auxiliary catalyst made in China were used. Anthracene oil freed from crystal was used as a starting solvent when making one-through operation and recycling operation. Hydrogen used had purity of 99.5% or higher. The current fiscal year has performed smoothly to the end either of the one-through operation or the solvent circulating operation on RUN-2200, 2300 (Chenbei coal) and 2,400, 2500 (Tienju coal). Operation of 2600, 2700 (Shenmu coal) experienced noise in the stirrer of the reactor, and leakage of the circulating gas from the recycled gas compressor. In addition, the differential pressure during operating the last run has increased to 50 k, when the temperature and pressure were reduced, and substances clogging the reactor inlet line were removed. Three kinds of the liquefied oils were brought back to Japan for detailed analyses. (NEDO)

  16. Studies on catalytic hydrotreating of recycled solvents from coal liquefaction process. Part 1. Characteristics changes of recycled solvents during hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimura, Y.; Nakata, S.; Yokota, Y.; Shirota, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mitarai, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Y. [Nippon Ketjen Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    A bituminous coal liquefaction process, called the NEDOL process, is under development by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Important features of this process include the capacity to produce hydrogen-donatable solvents, obtained by hydrogenation of middle distillates of coal derived oils, and to recycle these solvents to a liquefaction stage as hydrogen donor solvents. These recycled solvents, obtained by liquefaction of Wandoan coal, and their catalytic hydrotreated oils, have been extensively characterized, using a variety of analytical methods. The following items have been examined and are discussed in this study: (1) Influence of chemical hydrogen consumption on the reactivities of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrogenation of aromatic-rings, during hydrotreating; (2) Changes in composition of hydrocarbon types, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, as a function of chemical hydrogen consumption; (3) Changes of average molecular weights; (4) Characteristics changes of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, and reactivities of HDO and HDN; (5) Characteristics changes of donatable hydrogen as a function of a degree of hydrogenation ({delta}fa). 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project. A comprehensive report on development of coal liquefaction technologies and a performance test on Chinese coal liquefaction (fiscals 1981 through 1987); Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chugokutan ekika seino shiken sogo hokokusho (1981 nendo kara 1987 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The present Japan-China joint development project is intended to study liquefaction performance of different types of Chinese coals, select coal types suitable for coal liquefaction, and serve for enhancement in the coal liquefaction technologies employed by the Chinese side. Since a small continuous testing device has been installed in fiscal 1982 and begun with the trial operation in March 1983, the liquefaction test has been performed for about five years, and is scheduled to continue another three years. Chinese coals produced in seven provinces and two autonomous regions have been subjected to the coal type selection, on which discussions were given for liquefying reaction characteristics by using autoclave testing and small continuous testing devices. As a result, circulation tests were performed by the end of fiscal 1987 on five coal types, namely Beisu coal, Texgxian coal, Xianfeng coal, Shenmu coal, and Meihekou coal. Data were acquired during the circulation and at the equilibrium. Comparison of the results of tests on these five coal types with the results having been acquired from the 0.1-t/d BSU in Japan before modification verified the result being nearly reasonable. (NEDO)

  18. Study of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Increase in oil yield with suppression of retrogressive reaction during initial stage; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, K.; Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the coal liquefaction, improvement of liquefaction conditions and increase of liquefied oil yield are expected by suppressing the recombination through rapid stabilization of pyrolytic radicals which are formed at the initial stage of liquefaction. Two-stage liquefaction combining prethermal treatment and liquefaction was performed under various conditions, to investigate the effects of reaction conditions on the yields and properties of products as well as to increase liquefied oil yield. Consequently, it was found that the catalyst contributes greatly to the hydrogen transfer to coal at the prethermal treatment. High yield of n-hexane soluble fraction with products having low condensation degree could be obtained by combining the prethermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst with the concentration of slurry after the treatment. This was considered to be caused by the synergetic effect between the improvement of liquefaction by suppressing polymerization/condensation at the initial stage of reaction through the prethermal treatment and the effective hydrogen transfer accompanied with the improvement of contact efficiency of coal/catalyst by the concentration of slurry at the stage of liquefaction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.Y.; Feng, J.; Xie, K.C.; Kandiyoti, R. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350 {sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  20. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Ying Li; Jie Feng; Ke-Chang Xie; R. Kandiyoti [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology for Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  1. Report on results for fiscal 1997 (B edition) on development of coal liquefaction technology. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (research by pilot plant) 1/2; 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu) 2/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports the operation of a pilot plant of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology as the 1/2 report. The operation research of the Run-2 through the Run-4-2 was conducted using, as the material, tanitoharum coal which is operating basis coal. The Run-2 achieved a coal charging continuous operation for 42 days. During the operation of 80% slurry supply load, various data were obtained including material balance under the NEDOL standard liquefaction conditions, with a liquefaction yield of 54% daf coal achieved. Steam blowing into the heating tube was found effective as measures to cope with coking generation in the heating furnace of a vacuum distillation tower. The softening point of liquefaction residuals was improved to 178 degrees C through the extracting adjustment of reduced pressure heavy gravity light oil fraction for washing. The Run-3/4-1 achieved a plant load ratio of 100% and a long-term coal charging continuous operation for 80 days, while the Run-3 achieved a slurry supply load of 100% under the NEDOL standard liquefaction conditions. The Run-4-1 achieved a high liquefaction yield of 58wt% daf coal. Performance was confirmed of a neutron beam source irradiation apparatus/measuring system and a tracer injection equipment. (NEDO)

  2. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Report on evaluation for SRC-2 coal liquefaction project; SRC-II sekitan ekika project hyoka sagyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-10-01

    Among the EDS, H-Coal and SRC-2 lined up in the coal liquefaction project of the U.S., the SRC is aimed at producing 6,000 t/day as a module for a 30,000 t/day commercial plant. They expect Ash contents (iron, sulfur, etc.) in coal without basically using catalysts. The products are applicable to fuels for electricity and gas for the moment. In the element technology, there are some problems in manufacturing hydrogen by gasification of residuals as well as in slurry systems, reaction towers, etc.. In the 30,000 ton commercial plant, the coal-liquefied oil costs $19.89/bbl (price as of 1978) assuming coal costs $29.47; therefore, the feasibility is strong as a substitute for petroleum. Japan's share for the required funds will be 86.8 billion yen (if 250 yen per dollar). Since the kinds of coal are conceivably increased in number through the improvement of the process, the Pacific rim countries and these which lie on the Indian Ocean are assumed to be the major coal producing countries for Japan. The stability in storage of coal-liquefied oil is experimentally excellent, as is the compatibility with petroleum products for example. Great results can be expected in the technical know-how and the spread of element technology for Japan. (NEDO)

  5. Report on evaluation for SRC-2 coal liquefaction project; SRC-II sekitan ekika project hyoka sagyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-10-01

    Among the EDS, H-Coal and SRC-2 lined up in the coal liquefaction project of the U.S., the SRC is aimed at producing 6,000 t/day as a module for a 30,000 t/day commercial plant. They expect Ash contents (iron, sulfur, etc.) in coal without basically using catalysts. The products are applicable to fuels for electricity and gas for the moment. In the element technology, there are some problems in manufacturing hydrogen by gasification of residuals as well as in slurry systems, reaction towers, etc.. In the 30,000 ton commercial plant, the coal-liquefied oil costs $19.89/bbl (price as of 1978) assuming coal costs $29.47; therefore, the feasibility is strong as a substitute for petroleum. Japan's share for the required funds will be 86.8 billion yen (if 250 yen per dollar). Since the kinds of coal are conceivably increased in number through the improvement of the process, the Pacific rim countries and these which lie on the Indian Ocean are assumed to be the major coal producing countries for Japan. The stability in storage of coal-liquefied oil is experimentally excellent, as is the compatibility with petroleum products for example. Great results can be expected in the technical know-how and the spread of element technology for Japan. (NEDO)

  6. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Shridharani, K.; Huang, W.J.

    1981-02-01

    The effects of minerals and inexpensive ores or by-products (pyrites, red mud, flue dust, speculites, zinc sulfides, calcium oxide, dolomites, mica, molybdenite) in catalysing coal liquefaction or the hydrogenation of process solvents was studied with different cokes and solvents. Improved results were obtained in several cokes and th results are given in terms of oil fields, hydrogen consumption, desulfurization of SRC, etc. The addition of pyrite resulted in increased production of oils and increased conversion of coal; however, the effects varied from coal to coal. Dolomite, mica and molybdenite had insignificant catalytic activity. The reduction of pyrite, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at process conditions was studied. (LTN)

  7. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-04-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more, efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires infinite contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potential of bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors in their use in model compound liquefaction reactions. This quarterly report describes the use of three precursors in model compound reactions. The first catalyst is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule. The second is a thiocubane type complex consisting of cobalt, molybdenum and sulfur. The third is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur and the fourth, the pure inorganic salt ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM). It was found that the structure and the ligands in the model complexes affect the activity of the resulting catalyst significantly. The optimum reaction at a pressure of 6.9 MPa hydrogen gas varied for different catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts generated in situ from the organometallic precursor are more active than monometallic catalysts like ATTM and the thiocubane type cluster Fe{sub 4}. Main products are hydrogenated phenanthrene derivatives, like DBP, THP, sym-OHP, cis- and trans-unsym-OHP with minor isomerization products such as sym-OHA. Our results indicate that other transition metal and ligand combinations in the organometallic precursors and the use of another model compound could result in substantially higher conversion activity.

  8. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  10. Report on 1979 result of R and D under Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction technology (development of solvent treatment and liquefaction plant); 1979 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yozai shori ekika plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    A report was made on the result for fiscal 1979 of the development of a coal solvent treatment and liquefaction plant. With the purpose of establishing a technology of making equipment for a coal liquefaction plant by a solvent treatment method, R and D were conducted on a solid liquid separation method and on the construction and operation of an experimental equipment having a scale of the maximum 1 t/day coal processing, providing technical data for the construction of an efficient coal liquefaction equipment. In studying the operation of a centrifugal separator, it was run using heating solvent, dummy slurry and coal extraction slurry, with no abnormality found in each equipment and with knowledge obtained of the separation state of the solid. The machine is capable of obtaining SRC of 0.2-0.3% low ash contents. Water operation was performed for the extraction processing device (agitation tank, heating furnace, compression pump, circulation pump, etc.) of the 1 t/day experimental plant and, as a result, a relation was confirmed between a water flow rate and pressure loss of the piping part. The detailed design, manufacture and installation were completed for a part (pulverizer, solvent tank, feeding pump, etc.) of the equipment for the coal pre-processing slurry making process and the extraction process, with a trial run implemented for adjustment and confirmation of the operation. The cold/hot continuous trial run by a solvent smoothly proceeded, proving the performance to be the same as the specifications. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1981 Report on the results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of techniques for liquefaction of coal (Development of extraction type liquefaction plant using brown coal-based solvent and researches on milling at high temperature in oil); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, kattankei yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This program is aimed at establishment of the techniques for milling of brown coal treated by primary dehydration and slurry adjustment, and secondary hydration plant, as part of the project for developing the techniques for liquefaction of brown coal. Brown coal (Australian Yallourn coal) treated by primary dehydration, solvents (creosote and decrystallized anthracene), and catalysts are used as the stock samples, to investigate the coal characteristics with respect to milling crushability, dehydration and liquefaction reactivity, and the slurries are prepared by changing coal charge rate, solvent and preparation temperature, to collect the data regarding, e.g., coal concentration, coal particle size, moisture level and liquefaction reactivity. It is found that milling crushability tends to decrease as coal charge rate or solvent/coal ratio increases whether creosote or decrystallized anthracene is used as the solvent. Milling crushability is unaffected by slurry preparation temperature. Content of residual moisture in the slurry decreases to 1% or less, when slurry preparation temperature is increased to 100 degrees C or higher. Liquefaction reactivity of the slurry shows slight dependence on slurry preparation temperature, when it is increased to 180 degrees C. (NEDO)

  12. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  13. Summary of the research achievements in fiscal 1988. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1988 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    This paper reports the summary of the research and development works in fiscal 1988. The following researches were carried out: as development of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology, studies by using a pilot plant, studies on support of the pilot plant (studies by using an experimental plant (studies by using a 1-t/d PSU, development of an optimal pretreatment technology for coals to be used for liquefaction, studies on improvement in fraction oil distribution in the NEDOL process, and studies by using a 1-t/d plant)), and (studies by using a small device (studies on coal liquefying conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenation catalysts)). Studies were carried out on operation of the pilot plant, and on support of the pilot plant operation. Materials for auxiliary machinery were developed (including in-plant test of new materials), and so were the devices (including development of a let-down valve) as trial fabrication and development of the plant devices and materials. As coal type selection and survey, coal types were surveyed, and liquefaction performance of Chinese coals was tested. In order to develop applications of coal liquefied products and a refining technology, developments were carried out on up-grading of the coal liquefied oil, a petroleum mixing technology, and a technology to separate hetero compounds in coal liquefied oil, and applications of the compounds. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Part 2. Program-assisted project. Research and development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of direct coal hydroliquefaction plant; development of 2.4T/day-capable research plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. 2.4t/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the goal of developing a direct coal hydroliquefaction plant, designing of a 2.4T/day-capable research plant is conducted as in the preceding fiscal year, devices are purchased and manufactured, and construction work is carried out. The construction work is now over, and the plant is subjected to various inspections by the relevant Government offices. Preparatory tasks are discharged for the study of operation. The material of the 2.4T/day-capable research plant presented here is a compilation of charts of the piping routes, charts of civil engineering and construction, charts of instrumentation, charts of electrical systems, documents of approvals and licenses, etc. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the brown coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the brown coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1992. The first sub-committee meeting presented an interim report on the status of progress in complementary researches in fiscal 1992. The report covers the following items: discussions on effects of reaction factors on scale deposition in a preheater and a reactor and the liquefaction oil yield, supplementary experiments to enhance recovery rate of naphtha from under-flow in the de-ashing system and enhance accuracy of expression to estimate the interface precipitation velocity, and discussions on product oil types and catalyst types. The second sub-committee meeting reported fundamental discussions on the primary hydrogenation and hot water treatment of brown coal as an interim report on the achievements, and discussions on de-ashing and catalyst properties, liquefying reaction activity and scaling performance of catalysts. The third meeting reported the support on compiling the achievements by means of collecting complementary data of the pilot plant using PDU. A 7,800-hour life verification test was completed on the fixed bed secondary hydrogenation catalyst. A method was established to recover naphtha from the under-flow in a de-ashing settler. An expression to estimate the interface precipitation velocity was also established. Affirmation was made on the pylite catalyst performance, and reactivity of the category A coal assumed in the demonstration device. (NEDO)

  16. Reports on 1976 result of Sunshine Project. Investigation on development policy and position of various coal liquefaction processes in Japan; 1976 nendo Nippon ni okeru kakushu sekitan ekika process no kaihatsu hoshin to ichizuke ni kansuru chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report is the summary of the 'investigation results concerning development policy and position of various coal liquefaction processes in Japan'. The purpose of this investigative research is primarily to clarify the position of coal energy in the future energy supply, technologies of converting coal to clean fuel as the form of coal energy utilization most suitable for Japan, and the position of coal liquefaction in such converting technologies, and also to decide on the policy of R and D on coal liquefaction process in Japan at present. Accordingly, this paper investigates the status quo of various liquefaction processes including the coal liquefaction technologies for which R and D are conducted under the Sunshine Project; making analysis/assessment from such viewpoint as clean process as environmental safeguard and a precondition for coal energy utilization, technical problems concerning coal import and transportation, and suitability for the present energy consumption structure centering on oil; and further, examining the position of coal liquefaction in the general effective utilization of coal as organic carbonaceous resources in the distant future. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, equipment and devices were procured for the product oil reforming facilities and their installation was partly accomplished. In the coal injection operation, a 60-day slurry operation was conducted, using coal types of the upper limit and lower limit qualities, for expanding the scope of coal types applicable to the NEDOL process and for exploring optimum conditions, and another operation of 37 days was conducted using Chinese coal and Chinese-prepared liquefaction catalysts, and the two operations were studied for difference in yields and in operationality. Characteristics of the liquefaction reactors were investigated and basic studies were made relative to the physical property of the yielded coal oil. In the operation for maintenance, the 1st liquefaction reactor was singly operated for an 8-day slurry operation, which was to check the progress of liquefaction in a 1-reactor setup. Concerning the reforming of the product oil, the hydrogenation reactors were checked for their response to temperature control. Moreover, hydrogenation solvents were produced for the PSU and for China. (NEDO)

  18. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Rheological studies of coal liquefaction process. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Sekitan ekika process no rheology teki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, T; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-11-07

    Hydrogenolysis of different rank coals as Taiheiyo coal (75.7C%) and Pittston coal (85.4C%) were conducted in the presence of four kinds of catalysts (CuCrO4, Fe2O3+S, MoO3-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3) with an addition of tetralin as vehicle. The variation in viscosity in every reaction system was traced in the initial stage of the reaction by a torque meter attached to an autoclave. As a result, in every system, the torque decreased in the initial stage of temperature rise because of reduction of a solvent viscosity. The torque subsequently increased with temperature indicating two peaks before the following gradual decrease. In Taiheiyo coal, both peaks were low, and its coal conversion was more than 85%, while in Pittston coal, both peaks were sharp and high, and both subsequent torque reduction and coal conversion were smaller than those of Taiheiyo coal. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  1. Direct hydrothermal liquefaction of undried macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera using acid catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Liu, Shishi; Feng, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-oil from liquefaction of wet E. prolifera was as feasible as dry powder. • Adding acid catalysts could improve the flow property of bio-oil. • Alkenes in the bio-oil converted to ketones in the presence of acid catalysts. • Content of 5-methyl furfural increased in the bio-oil obtained with acid catalysts. • Esters were formed in the bio-oil when adding sulfuric acid as a catalyst. - Abstract: Direct liquefaction of macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera without predrying treatment was performed in a batch reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time, biomass-to-water ratio and acid catalysts (sulfuric acid and acetic acid) on liquefaction products were investigated. Raw material and liquefaction products were analyzed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results showed that liquefaction at 290 °C for 20 min with 1:3 biomass-to-water ratio produced the highest bio-oil yield of 28.4 wt%, and high heating value (HHV) was 29.5 MJ/kg. Main components of bio-oil were fatty acids, ketones, alkenes and 5-methyl furfural, and main components of water soluble organics (WSOs) were pyridines, carboxylic acids and glycerol. In the bio-oil obtained with acid catalysts, content of ketones significantly increased while alkenes disappeared. Content of 5-methyl furfural also increased. Flow property of bio-oils was improved in the presence of acid catalysts. Moreover, esters were formed when adding sulfuric acid

  2. The Analysis of the Experience in Commercialization of Indirect Coal Liquefaction Technologies in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated that, taking into account the world trends in the development of fuel and energy complexes, in the near future the most preferable direction in using solid fossil fuels will become not just their burning but advanced thermochemical processing, which will result in obtaining such end products as substitutes for natural gas, electricity, and synthetic analogues of hydrocarbons. There analyzed foreign experience on commercialization of indirect coal gasification technologies, among which the technologies of traditional and plasma gasification are singled out. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are systematized, and the hypothesis about better prospects for using the technology of plasma gasification of coal in comparison with the traditional analogues that are based on the Fischer-Tropsch process is put forward.

  3. Proceedings of the sixteenth international conference on coal and slurry technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of this conference are grouped under the following headings: Update in operating slurry pipeline systems; Environmental aspects; Materials and equipment; Indirect coal, liquefaction, Pipeline technology; Coal preparation and beneficiation; Direct coal liquefaction; Rheology characterization and formulation; Atomization and combustion; Demonstrations and evaluations; Small scale applications

  4. When is the liquefaction of coal economic. [Including safe and secure supplies, low interest, multiplier effect of money spent inside the country, employment, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Usually the commercialization of a technology is determined by the economic viability. However, looking at coal conversion we recognize that there is also a strategic factor to be considered. Before entering into what is almost a political debate about the strategic value of coal conversion, let us look at the economic data. Table 2 shows specific cost numbers for coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electricity from coal. When the total cost of the different fuels is calculated with capital charges as would be required by private industry, one would arrive at indeed high figures, high compared to the present day cost of liquid energy. However, in the capital intensive electricity industry, capital can be accounted for on a capital charge basis of 7 to 17%. If this type of soft financing is applied to coal, coal liquids and coal gas, the figures already become much more attractive. Money internally spent within a country will turnover a few times. This is described by economists as the effect of the multiplier. To even further improve the prospects of home-made liquids one can add the value of avoiding unemployment. A labor intensive industry like the coal gasification and liquefaction industry may give a boost to the number of jobs and as a result have even another additional value to the country involved. Such an analysis leads to the conclusion that coal gasification and liquefaction could develop as a utility type industry under rather tight Government control. This has its strategic advantages with respect to stability and security of supply. On the other hand it may discourage private industry from getting involved in this business. Much will therefore depend on the political decision making process and that maybe is one of the biggest unknowns left in answer to the question when coal conversion will become of economic significance.

  5. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  6. Report on the coal group in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Studies on a coal treatment technology in the initial process in liquefaction; 1989 nendo ekika shoki kotei ni okeru sekitan shori gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988 in studies on the studies of the initial process in liquefaction. It is intended to identify the swelling phenomenon in coal particles in the coal slurry preparation and preheating processes, and change in the slurry viscosity associated with the heating. The slurry viscosity starts decreasing from around 300 degrees C at which the liquefying reaction begins, and decreases sharply at around 350 degrees C. Therefore, rise in the viscosity at temperatures below 300 degrees C is caused by factors other than the liquefying reaction. The rise starting at 100 to 120 degrees C is due to absorption of the solvent by coal. The rise starting at 210 to 260 degrees C requires further discussions. The equilibrium swelling ratio was measured on different types of coals by using the hydrogenated anthracene oil solvent. No coals swelled at 100 degrees C. The temperature of 200 degrees C largely divides coals into those swelling and those not swelling. At 300 degrees C, the coals were divided into those shrinking after largely swelling, those not swelling and those swelling monotonously. For consideration of the utilization as an auxiliary solvent, petroleum-based heavy oil was used to perform coal liquefaction to discuss effects of the solvent on the liquefaction rates. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Research on coal liquefaction reaction and the reforming and utilization of products; 1984 nendo sekitan no ekika hanno to seiseibutsu no kaishitsu riyo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Upon the development into a single law of the three liquefaction related laws, studies are started on coal liquefaction reaction and the reforming and utilization of the products. In the research on coal liquefaction reaction, the solvent ratio, change in reaction time, and change in liquefaction product constitution in case of repeated circulation of the solvent are tracked, and their relations with the liquefaction rate and yield are studied, these efforts involving the Taiheiyo coal, Yallourn coal, and the Miike coal. The Taiheiyo coal is subjected to a short-duration liquefaction reaction test. In the research on product reforming, the medium-gravity fraction from coal liquefaction is subjected to hydrogenation, and the effect of the reaction conditions on the properties and constitution of the thus-treated oil are studied. An SRC (solvent refined coal) solution of the Taiheiyo coal is subjected to hydrogenation in the presence of a Ni-Mo catalyst, and the SRC cracking rate and product properties are compared with those obtained from another solution treated with a Co-Mo catalyst. In the research on product utilization, the medium-gravity fraction from coal liquefaction is subjected to hydrogenation under three sets of different reaction conditions in the presence of a Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based catalyst. In this process, specimens are prepared by mixing the original oil, its hydrogenated product, and a petroleum-based light oil, and a study is made about the usability of the specimens and their mixtures with petroleum-based heater oil as light oil or heater oil. (NEDO)

  8. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Development of coal liquefaction plant (Research on total system); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika plant no kaihatsu (total system no kenkyu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For a quantitative analysis of a coal liquefaction process and its constituent sub-processes from both engineering and economic viewpoints, research is conducted for the development of a coal liquefaction process simulator. In the development of a liquefaction simulator, surveys and studies are performed relative to a coal liquefaction process, which is the object of this development effort, its system, existing like simulators, computation for the estimation of the physical properties that a liquefaction simulator should be equipped with, liquefaction yield prediction model, unit operation model, etc. Based on the results of these studies, a conceptual system design is drawn, which is the first step toward the programming of a more concrete software program. Also compiled into this book are the contents of advice and guidance provided by the total system committee in the period September 1981-February 1982 on the research for the development of a liquefaction simulator, and reports by researchers who were dispatched to the U.S. etc. for the development of a coal liquefaction simulator. (NEDO)

  10. Report on 1979 result of Sunshine Project (detailed design). Part 1. Forty t/day solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant; 1979 nendo 40T/nichi solvolysis sekitan pilot plant shosai sekkei. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    The subject design documents are the compilation of the result of the design operation for the 'detailed design of 40 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant'. The design of this pilot plant was conducted using, as the fundamental reference, the basic data provided by Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute and Kyushu University and the results of a contract research on '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant'. The subject detailed design was intended for Phase 1 centering on a single stage liquefaction - coal liquefaction (transformation into pitch) by solvolysis liquefaction reaction. The areas covered consists of the pre-treatment process, material mixing process, reaction process, reaction freezing process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, pitch refining process, utility facilities, and waste water treatment facilities. Incidentally, the processes for which the design operation has been completed this year, particularly the reaction process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, etc., are in the field untrodden technologically in the world; therefore, their design method is supposed to be established from the results of the R and D on coal liquefaction, '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant.' (NEDO)

  11. Report on 1979 result of Sunshine Project (detailed design). Part 1. Forty t/day solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant; 1979 nendo 40T/nichi solvolysis sekitan pilot plant shosai sekkei. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    The subject design documents are the compilation of the result of the design operation for the 'detailed design of 40 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant'. The design of this pilot plant was conducted using, as the fundamental reference, the basic data provided by Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute and Kyushu University and the results of a contract research on '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant'. The subject detailed design was intended for Phase 1 centering on a single stage liquefaction - coal liquefaction (transformation into pitch) by solvolysis liquefaction reaction. The areas covered consists of the pre-treatment process, material mixing process, reaction process, reaction freezing process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, pitch refining process, utility facilities, and waste water treatment facilities. Incidentally, the processes for which the design operation has been completed this year, particularly the reaction process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, etc., are in the field untrodden technologically in the world; therefore, their design method is supposed to be established from the results of the R and D on coal liquefaction, '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant.' (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1996 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, detailed designs were prepared for product oil reforming facilities and some equipment and devices were procured. In addition, the 3rd liquefaction reactor cone section and the neutron attenuation-aided measuring device were refurbished. In the injection of coal, a 62-day and 23-day slurry injection operations were accomplished using Tanito Harum coal, when the impact imposed on the yield of the product, etc., by the change of liquefaction catalysts and by gas phase hydrogen concentration enriching conditions was investigated, and the unit was examined for operationality. During a 42-day operation for maintenance, the unit was operated using only the slurry heater for the investigation of the initial reaction in liquefaction, and studies were conducted about the heater exit temperature, G/L (gas-liquid ratio), and the effect to ensue from the use of a different solvent. In the effort to develop and evaluate new materials, implantation tests were conducted for metallic materials and the 3rd liquefaction reactor was subjected to a non-destructive inspection. Wastewater from the process was examined for quality, and environment-related measurements were performed for the atmosphere. (NEDO)

  13. Noncatalytic Direct Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin by Ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Madsen, Line Riis

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in lignin valorization to biofuels and chemicals. Here, we propose a novel and simple noncatalytic process to directly liquefy lignin rich solid residual from second generation bioethanol production by solvolysis with ethanol. Through an extensive parameter study...... in batch autoclaves assessing the effects of varying reaction temperature, reaction time, and solvent:lignin ratio, it is shown that hydrothermally pretreated enzymatic hydrolysis lignin solvolysis in supercritical ethanol can produce a heptane soluble bio-oil without the need for exhaustive deoxygenation....... The process does not require addition of catalyst or a reducing agent such as hydrogen. The process is advantageously carried out with a low reaction period ((ethanol:lignin (w/w) ratio of 2:1) which is a previously unexplored domain for lignin...

  14. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  15. Investigation on characterization and liquefaction of coals from Tavan tolgoi deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Purevsuren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a high-rank G mark stone coal. The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of coal ash show that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a subbituminous coal. The ash of Tavan tolgoi coal has an acidic character. The results of pyrolysis of Tavan tolgoi coal at different heating temperatures show that a maximum yield - 5.0% of liquid product can be obtained at 700°C. The results of thermal dissolution of Tavan tolgoi coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 50.0% of liquid product can be obtained after thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.191 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p12-19

  16. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120

  17. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Jerald [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs).

  18. Characterization of phenols from coal liquefaction products by 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, E.; Faure, R.; Lena, L.; Vincent, E.J.; Metzger, J.

    1985-01-01

    The 119 Sn NMR chemical shifts for tri-n-butyltin derivatives of 33 phenols commonly found in coal-derived liquids are reported. Analysis of coal-derived phenol fractions by this methods is comparatively straightforward and quantitative. Chemical shift ranges of phenol derivatives by various NMR methods and the present one using 119 Sn NMR are compared. 32 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  19. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1998 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant) 2/2; 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. 2/2. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1998. In the operation study, the coal charging operation has been carried out for 269 days (6,169 hours) in total since the operation has been launched, and the targets were achieved. In the facility repairs, periodical inspections were performed including daily maintenance during the operation, the legal inspection on the boiler and the pressure vessel of the category one after completing the RUN-5, and disassembling and opening inspections on other devices. After having completed the RUN-6 and 7, the final verification inspection and the facility rinsing were performed after the operation studies have been completed. The data acquired in the facility maintenance were summarized as part of the technological package after the assessment. The investigative researches have executed development of a liquefying reaction simulator, tests and investigations on pulverization of the liquefying catalyst, evaluation on the activity of the used hydrogenating catalyst, and investigation on the effect of the coal liquefaction facilities and products on the environment. The technologies were investigated on coal liquefaction, and the plans for disassembling studies were established. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. For the modification of facilities, product oil reforming facilities were installed. In the coal injection operation, a 59-day slurry operation was carried out using Tanito Harum coal, which was for the evaluation of the reforming effect under the product reforming conditions, operationality, and liquefaction characteristics. A 37-day slurry operation was also performed using Chinese coal, which was intended to pursue improved cost performance and to collect the light oil fraction in the flow of reforming operation. In the operation for maintenance, investigations were conducted into conditions for hydrogenation in a 1-through operation involving the solvent hydrogenation process and the normal pressure distillation facilities and into the effect of pre-hydrogenation solvent properties, which aimed at grasping the effect of product oil reforming measures and their influence on operationality. In the survey of environments, the properties of wastewater from the liquefaction process using Tanito Harum coal were studied and toxicity evaluation tests were conducted for activated sludge. (NEDO)

  1. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  2. FUNDAMENTAL KINETICS OF SUPERCRITICAL COAL LIQUEFACTION: EFFECT OF CATALYSTS AND HYDROGEN-DONOR SOLVENTS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin J. McCoy; J.M. Smith

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines a distribution kinetics approach to macromolecular reactions that has been applied to several processes. The objective was to develop an understanding of high-temperature, dense-phase thermolytic processes for complex macromolecular systems, such as coal. Experiments and theory are described for chemical models that simulate depolymerization of coal. The approach has been exceptionally successful for the model macromolecular systems. Development of a novel chemical reaction engineering analysis, based on distribution kinetics, was a major accomplishment of the current research

  3. Development of brown coal liquefaction. Design, construction and operation of a 50 t/d pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    As for the development of 50t/d pilot plant for the development of liquefaction plant of Victorian brown coal in Australia, outline of the results of the researches in 1984 is reported from the following 4 viewpoints; 1: design of process apparatuses, 2: manufacture of apparatuses, 3: field work of the construction, 4: preparation for operation of the plant. On the first item, the outline of ordering designed equipment from Japanese and Australian companies is described. On the second item the acceptance of purchasing goods from Japan and Australia and promotion of the inspection and quality assurance system. On the third item, contents of the continuous construction of the first stage are described. On the fourth item, the establishment and review of rules and regulations, training and education for operators, enviromental assessment, contents of safety and maintenance work and commissioning work by the promoting department for preparation of operation are described. Moreover support works of wide range for the promotion and adoption by necessary personnel, labour unions, the state of labour and activities for local discricts are described.

  4. Coal liquefaction by base-catalyzed hydrolysis with CO.sub.2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin

    2014-03-18

    The one-step hydrolysis of diverse biomaterials including coal, cellulose materials such as lumber and forestry waste, non-food crop waste, lignin, vegetable oils, animal fats and other source materials used for biofuels under mild processing conditions which results in the formation of a liquid fuel product along with the recovery of a high purity CO.sub.2 product is provided.

  5. Ultrasonic characterization of coal liquefaction products. Final report, April 11, 1979-February 11, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffert, C. B.; Weisman, L.; Moore, D.

    1980-02-29

    The Wayne State University ultrasonic device and technique was used successfully to calibrate coal-derived 0 to 45% wt % asphaltene-in-oil mixtures (2 wt % increments) for transmitted signal strength versus temperature (25 to 100/sup 0/C). Computer-aided cross plots of the transmitted signal strength versus concentration of asphaltene showed that a wide range of concentration and temperature exists where the viscosity-dominated (lower temperature) sound absorption is such that a single-valued number for the concentration of the asphaltene can be obtained from measurement of the sample temperature and transmitted signal strength and thus obtain a measure of the quality of the coal-derived product. Sufficient samples were not provided to obtain a complete calibration of added particulate matter of ash and undissolved coal at all asphaltene in oil concentrations; however, calibrations were made of added ash to three concentrations of asphaltene-in-oil and the data showed the greatest effect at the higher temperatures indicating (as planned) that sound attenuation from Rayleigh scattering is predominant with the suspended particles. We conclude from these two sets of measurements that there is a excellent expectation that the Wayne State ultrasonic device and technique could be used to simultaneously measure (on-line) the suspended particle concentration as well as the quality of the coal-derived product.

  6. Analysis of solvent extracts from coal liquefaction in a flowing solvent reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Ke-Chang [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, No. 79 Yingze West Street, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kandiyoti, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College, University of London, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-15

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents, tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) at two temperatures 350 and 450 C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. The three solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilise free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. The extracts were prepared in a flowing solvent reactor to minimise secondary thermal degradation of the primary extracts. Analysis of the pentane-insoluble fractions of the extracts was achieved by size exclusion chromatography, UV-fluorescence spectroscopy in NMP solvent and probe mass. With increasing extraction temperature, the ratio of the amount having big molecular weight to that having small molecular weight in tetralin extracts was increased; the tetralin extract yield increased from 12.8% to 75.9%; in quinoline, increasing extraction temperature did not have an effect on the molecular weight of products but there was a big increase in extract yield. The extracts in NMP showed the enhanced solvent extraction power at both temperatures, with a shift in the ratio of larger molecules to smaller molecules with increasing extraction temperature and with the highest conversion of Point of Ayr coal among these three solvents at both temperatures. Solvent adducts were detected in the tetralin and quinoline extracts by probe mass spectrometry; solvent products were formed from NMP at both temperatures.

  7. Effect of CuO receptor on the liquid yield and composition of oils derived from liquefaction of coals by microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagmur, Emine; Simsek, Emir H.; Aktas, Zeki; Togrul, Taner

    2008-01-01

    The effects of microwave receptor to coal (receptor/coal) ratio and the period of heating by microwave energy on the solubilization of Turkish coals in tetralin have been investigated. CuO was used as microwave receptor. The amount of receptor and the type of coal significantly affected the yield of liquid product. The addition of the CuO receptor caused to increase in the lignite conversions to oil fractions. The yield of THF soluble fraction increased in the presence of CuO receptor, however, due to catalytic effect of CuO, the yields of preasphaltene (PAS) and asphaltene (AS) decreased. The oil fractions were obtained from the experiments treated by microwave energy in the presence of 3/5 CuO/coal ratio and in the absence of receptor for 20 min liquefaction periods. The compositions of the oil fractions were determined by GC/MS. The composition of the oil fractions of the coals strongly depends on the type of coal. It was observed that the oil fractions contain oxygenated aromatic compounds in addition to condensed aromatic structures. Considerable amounts of 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone (alpha-tetralone) were found in the oil fractions of lignites treated by microwave energy

  8. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  9. Report on results for fiscal 1997 (B edition) on development of coal liquefaction technology. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (research by pilot plant) 1/2; 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B gan). Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu) 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Through the design, construction and operation of a pilot plant, the NEDOL method was verified, with its operation technology established, and also with a target set in collecting and accumulating data and knowledge required for a commercial plant in the future. With the Run-2, 3, 4 implemented using operating basis coal as the material, the operating stability of equipment/machines was confirmed, and a method of obtaining material balance as well as the operation technology was established, thereby demonstrating the NEDOL process, proving a long-term continuous operability and verifying the highest liquefaction yield. In addition, various process data, engineering data, operation control data, etc., were acquired, classified and analyzed. In the Run-3/4-1, a long-term coal charging continuous operation for 80 days was achieved, as was a high liquefaction yield of 58%. Moreover, data of material balance and thermal balance were obtained, with the performance confirmed of various kinds of equipment. Using the operating basis coat as the material, the coal charging operation of the Run-4-2 was commenced, with the performance verification test carried out for a neutron attenuation tracer method (NAT method), for the purpose of obtaining data of the flow characteristics of the liquefaction reaction tower. (NEDO)

  10. Survey report for fiscal 1993 on development of coal and brown coal liquefaction technologies. Part 2. Survey of economic efficiency of brown coal liquefaction process; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu kattan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. 2. Kattan ekika process no keizaisei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Financial assessment is carried out by estimating the liquefaction product cost (selling price) at which the predetermined rate of return on investment is to be earned, which is calculated by the DCF (discount cash flow) method. The cash flow is determined from the net after taxes for each business year, and the balance after the subtraction of long- and short-term borrowings is converted to the present worth as of the operation commencement year at the predetermined discount rate, and a total is calculated for the period. When the difference between the total and the equity does not vanish, the coal liquid selling price is changed, and this process is repeated until the difference vanishes. If a 20% reduction in the plant construction cost is feasible, the coal liquefaction product will be competing with the crude oil in the market in around 2030. Although the financial analysis is a profitability analysis from the fund providers' viewpoint, the benefit as seen from the project siting country needs to be assessed by an economic analysis, and probabilities are that, in the presence of great profits, the project will materialize if the two are found to earn more than average after the profits are impartially divided. Japan's benefits and expenditures are compared and subjected to an economic analysis, and a result of 6-15% is obtained. This means that the project will realize in case EIRR (economic internal rate of return) is higher than the fund procuring cost of 11%. (NEDO)

  11. Survey report for fiscal 1993 on development of coal and brown coal liquefaction technologies. Part 2. Survey of economic efficiency of brown coal liquefaction process; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu kattan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. 2. Kattan ekika process no keizaisei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Financial assessment is carried out by estimating the liquefaction product cost (selling price) at which the predetermined rate of return on investment is to be earned, which is calculated by the DCF (discount cash flow) method. The cash flow is determined from the net after taxes for each business year, and the balance after the subtraction of long- and short-term borrowings is converted to the present worth as of the operation commencement year at the predetermined discount rate, and a total is calculated for the period. When the difference between the total and the equity does not vanish, the coal liquid selling price is changed, and this process is repeated until the difference vanishes. If a 20% reduction in the plant construction cost is feasible, the coal liquefaction product will be competing with the crude oil in the market in around 2030. Although the financial analysis is a profitability analysis from the fund providers' viewpoint, the benefit as seen from the project siting country needs to be assessed by an economic analysis, and probabilities are that, in the presence of great profits, the project will materialize if the two are found to earn more than average after the profits are impartially divided. Japan's benefits and expenditures are compared and subjected to an economic analysis, and a result of 6-15% is obtained. This means that the project will realize in case EIRR (economic internal rate of return) is higher than the fund procuring cost of 11%. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of 1 T/D test plant, and researches on the solvent-extraction type liquefaction process); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika process no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at establishing the techniques for solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction plant by constructing and operating a 1 T/D test plant to obtain the technical data for the efficient plant. The test plant is operated to confirm the effects of temperature and coal slurry concentration on liquefaction conversion by the solvent-extraction for a short time in the furnace for the extraction unit. The extraction type coal liquefaction tests can be conducted for a reaction time of around 1 hour by the test plant. The recycled solvent purification unit is installed, to regenerate the hydrogen donor solvent. For researches on the solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction process, the continuous extraction is conducted, to investigate the effects of extraction reaction rate at relatively low pressure. The optimum hydrogenation conditions are studied for the test plant. It is confirmed that a Mo-based catalyst is suitable for the hydrogenation. The batch type reaction system is operated to investigate the liquid yield of Wandoan coal, and recycled solvent balances and compositions. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Surveys and studies on patent information (liquefaction and gasification of coal); 1986 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    It is intended to extract patents related to the Sunshine Project, and identify movements in research and development as seen from the patent aspect. This paper describes the summary and technological trends in patents on the coal related new technologies disclosed during fiscal 1986. While the total number of patents was the same as that in the last year at 334 patents, the contents show marks of remarkable progress in several points. The first point is that the patent application fields are concentrated, where the majority is accounted for by patent applications in liquefying devices related to solvent, catalyst and reaction for the direct hydrogenation liquefaction in the field of liquefaction; preparation of CWM and surface active agent in the field of mixed fuels; and jet flow bed gasification furnaces in the field of gasification. The second point is that the patent application has increased in element technologies and system technologies based on actual records in each department, showing the marks of steady progress in the development stage. The third points is that the patent applications are systematized and performed in correspondence with issue points, which are the common trends among the applying companies. While this is thought because of technological levels in the companies having risen, the focuses of applications have become considerably clear. (NEDO)

  14. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  16. Report on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1990. Studies on liquefaction characteristics by coal types and on engineering properties; 1990 nendo tanshu ni yoru ekika tokusei to kogakuteki busseichi ni kansuru kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the achievements at the Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1990. Surveys were carried on different catalytic activities for co-liquefaction of various types of coals. The Ru system was found preferable in acquiring fatty family products of low boiling points. Reactions of co-liquefaction constituents do not progress independently, but have positive interaction. Adding Ru is effective in accelerating hydrogenation of condensed aromatic rings and hydrogenation of cleaving nucleus, but in view of the hydrogenating decomposition capability, the Mo-system may be better. In a liquefaction plant test, diesel oil was manufactured by reforming and improving the Yallourn coal light oil. However, the oxygen content was too high, aggravating the temperature distribution control in catalyst bed, and not having achieved the intended denitrification rate. Discussions were given on co-liquefaction of the depressurization residues of Cold Lake (CLVB[vacuum bottom])/Athabasca (ATVB) and Battle River coal. The CLCVB and ATVB were turned into lower molecules easily through hydrogenation treatment. The reaction characteristics reflected the characteristics of medium oil. Depolymerization of coal has progressed faster in ATVB. In the study on the engineering property values, discussions were given on behavior of solid particles in a bubble column, and gas hold-up of slurry. (NEDO)

  17. Factors influencing the organic matter extraction from the coal by using the process of liquefaction in static system; Fatores que influenciam a extracao da materia organica do carvao mineral atraves do processo de liequefacao em sistema estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Livia Mari; Lancas, Fernando Mauro

    1996-07-01

    This work describes the liquefaction process for extraction of the organic matter from coal, presently researched in Brazil, particularly with supercritical fluids. The extraction can be a future economically viable and environmentally correct alternative for supplying the emerging necessities of fuels, pharmaceuticals and chemicals sources.

  18. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1998 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant) 1/2; 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. 1/2. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1998. In the operation study RUN-5, the operation was carried out by using the Tanito Harum coal of Indonesia, and raising the slurry concentration to 50% by weight. The operation stability when the high concentration slurry was used was verified, and the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired by using the NAT method. In the RUN-6 and 7, for the purpose of verifying the applicability of the NEDOL process to the wide range of coal types as the process feature, the Adaro coal of Indonesia and the Ikejima coal of Japan were used, and the operation at high slurry concentration was performed at 80% load and under the standard NEDOL conditions. The operation stability when the upper and lower limit coals was used was verified, and the operability at high slurry concentration was identified. At the same time, the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired. The development targets established by the Industrial Technology Council have all been achieved. (NEDO)

  19. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  20. Fiscal 1994 achievement report 1/2. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho 1/2. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Modification was made, which involved the installation of a high-temperature/high-pressure sampling device for observing reaction and fluidity in the liquefaction reactor, a differential pressure measuring device, and a neutron attenuation-aided measuring device. Relative to coal injection, a 49.5-day and 49.3-day slurry injections were carried out using Tanito Harum coal, when impacts on the product yield and the operability of the unit were examined. A verification test was conducted for an improved hydrogenation catalyst, and liquefaction reactor characteristics were investigated. During a 19-day operation for the study of maintenance, newly installed equipment and devices were verified for function, and operating methods were probed into. In the survey of environments, characteristics were examined of the wastewater discharged from the Tanito Harum coal liquefaction process, and wastewater treatment methods were studied. The air, odor, and tar mist were examined with the PSU in operation, and the measured values were found to be below the management limits showing that its operation did not pose any problems relating to working environments. (NEDO)

  1. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981 (development of motive force recovery system by hydrohoist); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hydrohoist ni yoru doryoku kaishu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of a hydrohoist system in a direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Coal liquefaction deals with three phases of gas, liquid and solid at high pressures of 100-300 kg/cm{sup 2}. Slurry consisting of coal, catalyst and solvent is once fed into a supply chamber by a low pressure slurry pump. A high pressure slurry formed in a liquefaction reactor, after the separation of gaseous object, is boosted by a booster pump and force-fitted into the supply chamber from the above, discharging the slurry in the chamber to the high pressure reactor side. Since the high pressure product is used as the driving liquid, a force-feeding motive force can be greatly curtailed. It is a motive force recovery type hydrohoist. The product slurry in the supply chamber is discharged from a valve in the upper part; with the inner pressure going down quickly, the discharge valve wears very little. The basic experimental equipment was manufactured in fiscal 1980, with a test research conducted using the improved main equipment in fiscal 1981, and with the conceptual design of the hydrohoist also implemented on the assumption that it was applied to a pilot plant. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1999 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant); 1999 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1999. In the disassembling study, wear, corrosion, and wall thickness change were investigated, and non-destructive inspection was performed on the major four facilities, and such newly developed devices as the liquefying catalyst manufacturing facilities, the slurry heat exchanger, and the let-down valves. The sampled test pieces were investigated of changes in the mechanical properties by means of the metallic structure inspection, hardness test, tensile test, and impact test. Deposits in the devices were investigated of their depositing conditions and constituents. The result reveals that the 3 Cr-1Mo-1/4V-Ti-B steel developed for the high-temperature, high-pressure, and hydrogen environment of the coal liquefaction plant showed excellent low-temperature tenacity and maintained good characteristics. No problems were discovered in corrosion resistance if PP using materials are used. The slurry handling centrifugal pump and instrumentation vales were worn out severely requiring replacements during the operation, for which further discussions are desired to be given. (NEDO)

  3. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Zhuang, Yingbin; Li, Yan; Chen, Limei; Guo, Jingxue; Li, Demao; Ye, Naihao

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C 16 to C 20 . - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  4. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Specific behaviours of coals of different ranks in their hydrogenolysis reactions catalyzed by various kinds of catalysts. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Suisoka bunkai seiseibutsu sosei ni oyobosu kakushu shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Y; Ikenaga, N; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-11-07

    Three kinds of coals with different rank of 76, 85 and 87C% were hydrocracked to study the specific reaction behavior of four kinds of 1coal liquefaction catalysts such as CuCrO4, Fe2O3+S, MoO3-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3. The reaction was conducted without any solvent to find out the specific phenomenon of each combination of coal and catalyst, and terminated at the point where nearly 30% of an initial amount of coal is converted to benzene-soluble. The products were separated by GPC into four fractions, and their average molecular weights and intrinsic viscosities were measured to study characteristics of each combination. As a result, the molecular weight distribution was obviously dependent on the combination of coal and catalyst, and no specific relation was observed between the molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity. The molecular of each fraction had a bar shape with an elliptic section indicating no apparent correlation with the molecular weight. 3 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, August 1981-October 1981. [Using model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Model compound reactions were studied to evaluate the effects of mass transfer, solvent type, solvent blending, hydrogen partial pressure, temperature, reactant concentration, additive loading and its preparation, etc. Naphthalene hydrogenation and benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization were investigated under the conditions comparable to commercial coal liquefaction and related processes. Both of these reaction systems were observed to be surface reaction controlled under the reaction conditions used in this work. Certain aromatic compounds were observed to cause a reduction in the reaction rates of naphthalene and benzothiophene. Single stage coal dissolution was investigated using tetralin as a hydrogen donor solvent and a commercial cobalt-molybdate catalyst. A spinning basket system was developed to allow injection of the catalyst at a desired time in the reaction cycle. This catalyst injection technique proved to be reliable for the exploratory work done here. The degree of catalyst deactivation was rated by comparing the activities of the spent catalyst for model compound (naphthalene and cumene) reactivities relative to those of the fresh catalyst. No substantial reduction in deactivation was observed to result with delayed contacting of the catalyst with the coal-tetralin reaction mixture. The effect of reaction temperature on the initial rate of catalyst deactivation was also studied.

  6. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Final technical report, September 1, 1988--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  7. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvolysis liquefaction plant (development of a 1 t/d experimental plant and research on solvolysis liquefaction process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, solvolysis ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu (solvolysis ekika process no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981 in development of a solvolysis liquefaction plant. The solvolysis process is characterized by performing the first stage reaction (liquefaction) in a short time by using hydrogenated heavy solvent produced spontaneously in the process. This short-time liquefaction reaction was carried out continuously by using a 1-t/d experimental plant, and a prospect was obtained on smooth operation and realization of the device. A test using a testing device allowing the temperature to rise within several minutes was performed on the effectiveness of a hydrogenated coal based heavy solvent (fractions of a hydrogenated heavy anthracene as a model) as a study on the first stage reaction. Partially hydrogenated materials of polycyclic condensed aromatics in the heavy solvent is largely involved in the initial reaction. In the solid-liquid separation, solids and heavy fractions are selected and removed from the first stage reaction products, and the light fraction is supplied into the second stage reaction (hydrogenation). The solvent deliming process was tested by using a batch type solid-liquid separator, whose effectiveness was verified. Studies were performed by using Australian sub-bituminous coal on operation of a continuous operation device consisted of systems for the first stage reaction (liquefaction), solid-liquid separation, second stage reaction (hydrogenation), and solvent circulation. (NEDO)

  8. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1987. Collection of data from coal liquefaction processes, and development of a disposal system; 1987 nendo sekitan ekika process nado no data no shushu, shori system nado no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the current status of the information control system in the coal liquefaction technology development project, and structure a coal liquefaction database system to manage and utilize comprehensively the items of information provided by the system. Section 2 shows the result of epitomizing opinions on the purpose of the coal liquefaction database by means of a questionnaire survey to NEDO, and opinions of people of experience and academic standing. Section 3 depicts the basic conception of a coal database total system. Section 4 summarizes the conceptual idea of the fundamental database by washing out the data input and output, and the contents recorded in the database. Section 5 summarizes the basic sub-system required for management and utilization of the database, and different application systems for data analysis required in each stage of performing the coal liquefaction technology development, and for operation assistance. Section 6 summarizes a general technological information retrieval system, in which general information on coal liquefaction is recorded, processed, and registered and accumulated in the database, and then the information retrieval and the original information providing service are carried out. Section 7 summarizes philosophies on development and operation of the coal liquefaction database, operating institutions, and problems to be solved. (NEDO)

  9. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Report on 1980 result of R and D under Sunshine Project. Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology and demonstrative investigation on development of brown coal liquefaction technology (studies on high-temperature in-oil pulverization); 1980 nendo yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu / kattan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu jissho chosa seika hokokusho. Koon'yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of coal liquefaction technology under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. As a part of the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, pulverization of the first-dehydration brown coal was technologically established, as were adjustment of slurry and equipment for the second-dehydration process. A 20kg/h high temperature in-oil pulverizer was designed, constructed and made ready for the studies. A high temperature mill was a wet type ball mill, 500mm{phi}(diameter) x 1,500 mm length and 2.2kw. Coal was fully pulverized even in a solvent such as creosote oil and anthracene oil freed from crystal, and was adjustable to a prescribed particle size distribution. The wet type slurry adjustment method offered prospects that solvent/coal slurry moisture could be controlled to a prescribed value. An analysis was made on the mill outlet gas and drain collection liquid at the time of high temperature in-oil pulverization, which provided knowledge of securing safety. An analysis was also made on the influence of the heating temperature rise of the mill on the strength, which provided basic data for examining the strength of the mill. Using brown coal as the raw material, slurry was prepared, which confirmed that the device had functions as planned. (NEDO)

  11. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2). © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  13. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2)....

  14. Report on the final evaluation on the 'development of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology (NEDOL method)' in the Sunshine Project; Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu (NEDOL ho) kaihatsu saishu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Development of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology (NEDOL method) can be judged appropriate as a national project in the comprehensive view with the 21st century just around the corner. It is a fact that this project has spent the national budget not in a small amount. There is no prospect of the technology to be put into practical use in Japan at the present time. The coal liquefaction technology is a technology required inevitably in the situation where shortage of crude oil supply may endanger the existence of a nation. Therefore, there is sufficient significance in having demonstrated the effectiveness of the NEDOL method which can be applied to a large number of coal types and expected of high liquefaction yield. The contents of the 'technological package' to be prepared are so demanded that its usefulness can be retained until the time of a demonstration plant design and operation will come in the future. It is also desired that the human resources and the testing devices will be kept ensured, and the technologies developed under this project will be maintained and expanded. The present technology has low necessity of immediately putting into practical use in Japan at the present time. However, the technology should be kept available for use at any time, and retained for use in an urgent situation. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Surveys on systems to structure a coal liquefaction database; 1986 nendo sekitan ekika database kochiku no tame no system chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    Surveys are carried out on the current status of information control systems for development projects being performed or planned in developing coal liquefaction technologies. The conception for structuring a coal liquefaction database (CLDB) is made clear to manage comprehensively and utilize effectively the information in the systems. Section 3 investigated and analyzed the current status of data processing for experimental plants. The data for each experimental plant are processed individually. Therefore, it is preferable that the CLDB shall be provided with accommodating locations to receive respective data. Section 4 put into order the flows of operation and information in the coal liquefaction research, and depicted an overall configuration diagram for the system. Section 5 discusses problems in structuring this system. There is a large number of problems to be discussed from now on, not only in the technological aspect, but in analyzing the organizational roles of NEDO and commissioned business entities, and the needs of users. The last section summarizes the steps and schedule for developing this system. The development steps should preferably be implemented stepwise along the progress of the experimental plants, in such an order as the fundamental database, analysis database and engineering database. (NEDO)

  16. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. 4. Radical formation and structural change with thermal decomposition of coal; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Netsubunkai ni tomonau radical seisei kyodo to kozo henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction reaction, the effect of the coexistence of transferable hydrogen (TH) from process solvent on reduction of radical concentration and the effect of pre-heat treatment on average structure of coals were studied. In experiment, change in radical concentration with temperature rise was measured using the system composed of Yallourn coal and process solvent. The results are as follows. Process solvent with a wide boiling point range of 180-420{degree}C is effective in suppressing an increase in radical concentration even at higher temperature. The effect of hydrogen-donating solvent increases with TH. It was also suggested that high-boiling point constituents in solvent stabilize radicals even over 400{degree}C by vapor phase hydrogenation. The experimental results of pre-heat treatment are as follows. Although the conversion improvement effect of TH is equivalent to that of the model solvent, TH tends to produce soluble products with smaller ring numbers. It was thus suggested that pre-heat treatment in process solvent is effective to inhibit retrogressive reactions. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Utilisation potential of products of microbial coal liquefaction. Final report; Verwertungspotential der Produkte der mikrobiellen Kohleverfluessigung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepsel, R.; Schmiers, H.; Grosse, S.; Weber, A.

    2002-07-01

    Ever since the discovery in the 1980s that microorganisms are capable of converting coal into soluble products research groups all over the world have been exploring the bioconversion of coal. It was at an advance stage of the present integrated project, which initially only involved microbiology research groups, that the need for a chemical working group with knowledge and experience in the area of coal chemistry and structural analysis of coal was recognised. The task of the chemical working group was to provide knowledge on the chemical nature of bioconversion products and the chemical processes of coal bioconversion. This involved identifying structural changes occurring in the feed coal as well as in its constituent humic acids and macromolecular matrix as a result of the activity of coal degrading microorganisms. [German] Nachdem Anfang der achtziger Jahre entdeckt wurde, dass sich Kohlen durch Mikroorganismen in loesliche Produkte ueberfuehren lassen, agieren weltweit Forschergruppen auf dem Gebiet der Biokonversion von Kohle. In einem fortgeschrittenen Bearbeitungsstadium des Verbundprojektes, an dem zunaechst nur mikrobiologische Arbeitsgruppen beteiligt waren, wurde die Notwendigkeit erkannt, eine chemische Arbeitsgruppe mit Kenntnissen und Erfahrungen auf den Gebieten der Kohlechemie und der Strukturanalytik von Kohlen zu integrieren. Aufgabenstellung der chemischen Arbeitsgruppe war und ist es, Erkenntnisse ueber die chemische Natur der Biokonversionsprodukte und die chemischen Ablaeufe der mikrobiellen Kohlekonversion bereitstellen. Die Aufgabenstellung umfasst die Aufklaerung der strukturellen Veraenderung der Einsatzkohle sowie ihrer Komponenten Huminsaeuren und makromolekulare Matrix durch die Einwirkung kohleabbauender Mikroorganismen. (orig.)

  18. Summary of the achievements in fiscal 1991 in developing the coal liquefaction technology and the bituminous coal liquefaction technology. Studies by using a pilot plant; 1991 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika gaiyo. Pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes the achievements in 1991 on studies on the bituminous coal liquefaction technology using a pilot plant. Based on the detailed design of the 150-t/d pilot plant, study problems and analysis items were reviewed, and a material balance acquiring method and a reaction column data analyzing method were discussed. Utilization of the liquefaction simulator was attempted. Efficient execution of the pilot plant operation study requires to have the basic and support study achievements reflected on the pilot plant operation, and clarify the roles to be played by the groups. Therefore, discussion items were compiled. The overall process plan for the design and construction was reviewed based on the plan discussed in fiscal 1990. Fiscal 1991 has launched common civil engineering constructions. The operation plans for the main four facilities in the pilot plant, which have been prepared in fiscal 1988, were continued of reviewing to cope with the situation of the decreased construction budget. The budget was reviewed again in fiscal 1991, which would present a prospect of starting the operation in fiscal 1995. Annual reviews on the basic operation plans for the main four facilities and the conceptions taken to date were put into order. The project management system was also expanded and re-arranged, including the information registration and retrieval system. (NEDO)

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  20. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  1. Development of technology for brown coal liquefaction. Design, construction and operation of pilot plant; development of 50t/d pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    As for the development of 50t/d pilot plant for the development of liquefaction plant of Victorian brown coal in Austraria, outline of the contents about the second stage construction following the first stage construction up to this time is reported from the following 4 viewpoints; 1: design of process apparatuses, 2: manufacture of apparatuses, 3: fieldwork of the construction and 4: operation of the first stage facilities. On the first item the outline of detail design made by Japanese and Australian companies is described. On the second item the acceptance of purchasing goods from Japan and Australia and the condition of inspection and quality assurance to specific principal parts are described. On the third item the supplementary construction of the first stage, contents of constructions of the second stage are described. On the fourth item, preparation for operation, target, the whole circumstances and the results of maintenance, especially review of operation technique, training of operators, and occurrence and repair of troubles are described. As other relevant works, envirommental assessment, waste disposal, enviromental monitoring for exhaust gases, drainage and working enviroments, safety measure, educational training and moreover activities for local district people and the state of labor market as the support for execution of the project are described.

  2. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  3. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    CAER/UK: Detail coal and starting solvents from Wilsonville were analyzed to develop the data necessary to conduct process studies in the CO Pretreatment and Catalyst Evaluation segment of this program. A comparison of the solvent separation analysis with the distillation/separation used at Wilsonville showed that the residual solvent components contained a large amount of residual pentane soluble products. The ashy resid contained 3% iron and 400 ppM molybdenum. Although the iron content in the distillate and deashed resid was much less, namely about 200 ppM., the molybdenum concentrations in these fractions were not significantly reduced over the concentration in the ashy resid, i.e., 200 ppM in each. The pretreatment of coal with CO/H{sub 2}O in the presence of NaOH and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has been shown to give a product which is lower in oxygen content and higher in hydrogen content compared to the raw coal. The atomic H/C ratios of the H{sub 2}O-insolubles, THF insolubles and the PA+A fractions of the products-together with the hydrogen consumption data suggested that the raw coal has been substantially depolymerized and hydrogenated via the WGS reaction during the pretreatment process. The extensive amount of molecular reconstruction that has occurred in the solid product was evident from the ease of solubilization of the product into pyridine. The result of the pretreatment process is a product which is highly reactive under hydroliquefaction conditions at 400{degrees}C. Reaction rates seem to be much faster than the raw coal, especially at shorter reaction times, providing the opportunity for major reductions in plant vessel sizes, and preliminary data has led us to believe that better efficiency in hydrogen utilization is achieved.

  4. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Coal energy (Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil); 1988 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu binsekiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The present study, as part of the studies on coal liquefying technologies, was originally intended to develop optimal catalysts that make it possible to manufacture a liquid fuel from hydrogenation treatment of coal, and establish optimal reaction operation for the liquefaction process. To achieve the intentions, studies were moved forward on the following four sub-themes: (1) fundamentals and developmental research on catalysts for the direct liquefaction, (2) chemical structures of organic constituents in the coal liquefaction process, (3) research on the optimal reaction operation in the direct coal liquefaction process, and (4) studies on nature and behavior of ash constituent in the coal liquefaction process. The current fiscal year has performed the discussions on the following items based on the achievements attained by fiscal 1987: 1. as a study on liquefaction catalysts, (1) a study on properties of liquefaction catalysts, and (2) a study on characteristics of the liquefying reaction; 2. as a study on the analytic method, (1) a study on the liquefying reaction analyzing method, and (2) a study on the liquefied oil property analyzing method. In Item 1-(1), a prototype zeolite-based catalyst having high hydrogenating decomposition activity was used to execute a reaction to lighten the liquefied oil. As a result, it was revealed that the liquefied oil can be lightened efficiently by having the oil go through a two-stage reforming reaction. (NEDO)

  5. Direct liquefaction of wood through solvolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation: an engineering assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, J.M.; Overend, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Liquefaction of wood to produce fuel and chemical intermediates has been intensively studied over the last decade. The results of Canadian research into process feasibility are presented on the basis of two studies, the first in 1980 utilizing data of the mid-70s and the other on the basis of research conducted up to 1982. The earlier study was for a single reactor concept in which catalyst, wood and hydrogen were reacted to produce a proto-oil, while the later study embodies a two-stage concept involving dissolution of the polymer matrix followed by fractionation and catalytic upgrading using hydrodeoxygenation. Increased knowledge of the characteristics of the first stage products show that there are many component mixtures containing between 10 and 20% oxygen. Most of the oxygen is in aromatic phenol-type structures with some ether linkages, and low severity processes to deoxygenate the product while increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio are called for. The economic prospects for a two-stage process are described on the basis of a hydrocarbon process proposed by HRI International for Kraft process lignin. These show that a mix of BTX products and fuel oil could generate a profitable rate of return. 62 references.

  6. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Development of a collection and processing system for data of the coal liquefaction process; 1988 nendo sekitan ekika process nado no data no shushu, shori system nado no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    Storing and managing comprehensively a huge amount of data acquired in developing the coal liquefaction technologies would greatly contribute to moving forward the development of the coal liquefaction technologies, and realizing a commercial plant being the ultimate goal. It is intended to investigate the current status of information management systems used for development projects being implemented or planned in developing the coal liquefaction technologies. It is also intended to structure a coal liquefaction database system to utilize comprehensively and effective the information discovered by the above investigation. The current fiscal year has performed developments on the following items to structure a coal liquefaction database system by using a computer: (1) conceptual design of the fundamental database, and (2) basic design on a general technological information retrieval system. The development during the current fiscal year established a method to classify levels of data accommodation for the fundamental database based on the investigation and analysis of the experimental data. In addition, with regard to the general technological information retrieval system, summarization was performed on the specifications of the hardware and software, the basic configuration, the input and output specifications, and the retrieval screens. (NEDO)

  7. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, May-July 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.

    1984-03-01

    This report examines liquid-phase adsorption as a possible method of studying the interactions between coal liquids and hydrotreating catalysts. The duel purposes of this work are to develop a method to determine specific surface areas of porous catalysts and to examine how compounds commonly found in coal liquids are adsorbed on hydrotreating catalysts. The liquid-phase adsorption studies were performed at room temperature in tubing bomb reactors. Adsorption isotherms obtained from these experiments were assumed to follow Langmuir-type behavior. Compounds used in these studies included PNA compounds, a basic nitrogen containing compound, and an acidic oxygen containing compound. Various commercial grade catalysts as well as presulfided CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and presulfided iron oxide were used as adsorbents. Experiments have shown that quinoline, a basic nitrogen containing compound, appears to be an excellent compound for surface area determination via liquid-phase adsorption. Adsorption of compounds such as pyrene, a PNA compound, and phenol, an acidic oxygen containing compound, may be used to determine the relative areas of different types of sites on catalyst surfaces. The sensitivity of this liquid-phase adsorption technique was evaluated by adsorbing different solutes on various catalyst surfaces. This technique shows that the adsorptivity of different coal liquids is a distinct function of the individual properties of the adsorbate as well as the properties of adsorbent used. Comparison of the adsorption properties of these coal liquids on various adsorbents may give insights as to how they adsorb on hydrotreating catalysts, how they compete for the active catalyst sites, and what types of sites the adsorbed molecules occupy. 29 references, 37 figures, 41 tables.

  8. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  9. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of solid-liquid separation process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu, koeki bunriho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among researches on solvent extraction and liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in development of a solid-liquid separation technology. In the research of operation of a centrifugal separation device, a solid-liquid separation test was performed on slurry extracted from the Australian Wandoan coal being sub-bituminous coal. The deliming rate has reached 99% equilibrium at an addition rate of 20% by weight of anti-solvent (a kind of normal paraffin, which reduces solubility of part of coal extracts and enhances removal rates of ash and solids by utilizing coagulating action of the extracts). Asphaltene among the liquefaction formed materials may be recovered nearly completely, but the recovery rate for pre-asphaltene was lower. An operation test was also carried out by using slurry extracted in a 1 t/d experimental plant. In the study on operation of a 5-l/h continuous sedimentation and separation device, a maximum effect was derived with addition of anti-solvent at 25% by weight and at a stirring rate of 700 rpm. The solid-liquid separability changes depending on the kind of slurry. The low conversion rate slurry becomes difficult of separation because its viscosity is high and the difference in density between solids and liquid is small. Furthermore, the high conversion rate slurry has become difficult of separation due to small particle size of the solids. (NEDO)

  10. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

  11. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 4. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (Shiryo 4). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elements, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include instrumentation-related drawings covering an instrumentation loop sketch, instrument inspection specifications (flow meter, level gage, pressure gage, thermometer, regulation meter, analyzing meter, signal receiving meter, and instrument board), general specifications for electrical instrumentation facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 4. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (Shiryo 4). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elements, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include instrumentation-related drawings covering an instrumentation loop sketch, instrument inspection specifications (flow meter, level gage, pressure gage, thermometer, regulation meter, analyzing meter, signal receiving meter, and instrument board), general specifications for electrical instrumentation facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  15. Combustion oil production by direct liquefaction of the black liquor; Obtencao de oleo combustivel atraves da liquefacao direta de lixivia negra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J L.M. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rodrigues, J A.R.; Schuchardt, U [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    A large number of publications about the liquefaction of carbonaceous materials with carbon monoxide in water have appeared. As carbon monoxide reacts with water to form formate. We have decided to use this compound for the direct liquefaction of black liquor, obtained from the pulp and paper industry. The reactions were performed in a stainless steel autoclave of 1 litre using a ratio of water/black liquor/sodium formate of 69/29,5/1,5 %. The reaction conditions were varied between 200 and 300 deg C and 110 to 130 bar of inert gas. We obtained heavy oils of an average molecular weight around 500 in 90 to 100 % yield on a dry and ash-free basis. The calorific value of this oil was estimated in 38000 kJ/kg. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Surveys on coal type selection (coal type survey); 1986 nendo tanshu sentei chosa seika hokokusho. Tanshu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to elucidate coal quality features of different types of coals and identify the relationship between the coal quality features and the liquefaction characteristics by performing liquefaction characteristic evaluation tests. Based on the result therefrom, a method is established for coal field assessment that can estimate yield of liquefaction in coal fields and coal mines to serve for selection of coal types suitable for liquefaction. Coal quality feature surveys and liquefaction characteristics evaluation tests under the standard conditions have been completed on 48 coal types including Canadian, Australian and American coals. Elucidating the coal quality features of different coals can specify parameters for the coal quality features related to the liquefaction characteristics. Coal ranks elucidate the vitrinite reflectance, structure constituent factors the vitrinite content, composite factors the volatile matter content, quantity of heat generation, and number of H/C and O/C atoms. Investigating the relationship between the coal quality features and the liquefaction characteristics can provide fundamental data for primary screening of raw material coals for liquefaction. The result of the liquefaction characteristics evaluation test under the standard conditions can be the detailed comparative data relative to data derived from the simplified liquefaction characteristics test that is performed to estimate liquefaction yield of specific coal field and coal mine. (NEDO)

  17. Clean coal technology challenges for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2001-01-01

    China is rich in coal reserves and also the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal constitutes over 70% of the total energy consumption, some 86% of coal production is burned directly, which causes serious air pollution problems. However, based on China's specific energy structure, coal utilisation will remain the dominant means of energy usage and clean coal technology must be the way forward if the environmental problems are to be resolved. This article discusses China's Clean Coal Technology Program, its implementation, including the clean coal technologies being developed and introduced, with reference to the key R & D institutes for each of the coal-using sectors. The article is an edited version of the 2000 Robens Coal Science Lecture, delivered in London in October 2000. The China Coal Technology Program for the 9th Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was approved in 1997. The technologies included in the Program considered in this article are in: coal washing and grading, coal briquette, coal water slurry; circulating fluidised bed technology; pressurised fluidised bed combined cycle; integrated gasification combined cycle; coal gasification, coal liquefaction and flue gas desulfurisation. 4 tabs.

  18. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  19. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  20. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on some properties of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhi-cai; Shui Heng-fu; Zhang De-xiang; Gao Jin-sheng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Effects of hydrothermal treatment on swelling, extraction and liquefaction behavior of Shenhua coal were studied through analyses of element content, ash content, volatile content and IR spectrum of treated coal. The results indicate that hydrogenation of coal is distinctly carried out in the process of hydrothermal pre-treatment and the hydrogen content of treated coal is more than that of raw coal. The contents of ash and volatile matters of treated coal are lower than those of raw coal. With the increase of treatment temperature the volatile content of the hydrothermal treated coal decreases and the ash content of treated coal increases. CO{sub 2} is main gas product and unvaries with the temperature changing, whereas CO and CH{sub 4} are formed when the temperature is above 250{sup o}C and increase with the temperature during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment is not in favor of coal swelling and the swelling ratio of treated coal decreases with the increase of treatment temperature. The swelling ratio of extraction residue by CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent in NMP solvent is lower than that of the corresponding raw coal. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction yields of coal treated at appropriate temperature are higher than that of raw coal, but the extraction yields of treated coal obtained by n-hexane, toluene and THF successive Soxhelt extraction are lower. Hydrothermal treatment at 250-300{sup o}C can increase the conversion of treated coal in direct hydro-liquefaction. The gas + oil yield of treated coal is lower than that of raw coal and the preasphaltene yield of treated coal is much higher. IR spectra of treated coals show that the forms of non-covalent bonds are changed by hydrothermal treatment, and the hydrolysis of ester and ether bonds and the pyrolysis of aromatic side chains also maybe occur at high treatment temperature. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Direct Quantitative Analysis of Arsenic in Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple method based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is described for the direct determination of arsenic in coal fly ash. Solid samples were directly introduced into the atomizer without preliminary treatment. The direct analysis method was not always free of spectral matrix interference, but the stabilization of arsenic by adding palladium nitrate (chemical modifier and the optimization of the parameters in the furnace program (temperature, rate of temperature increase, hold time, and argon gas flow gave good results for the total arsenic determination. The optimal furnace program was determined by analyzing different concentrations of a reference material (NIST1633b, which showed the best linearity for calibration. The optimized parameters for the furnace programs for the ashing and atomization steps were as follows: temperatures of 500–1200 and 2150°C, heating rates of 100 and 500°C s−1, hold times of 90 and 7 s, and medium then maximum and medium argon gas flows, respectively. The calibration plots were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. This method was validated using arsenic-containing raw coal samples in accordance with the requirements of the mass balance calculation; the distribution rate of As in the fly ashes ranged from 101 to 119%.

  2. Direct measurement of oxygen in brown coals and carbochemical products by means of fast neutron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeppel, P.; Foerster, H.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of elemental oxygen by means of fast neutron activation permit high-accuracy measurements of oxygen concentrations in East German brown coal; this applies to run-of-mine brown coal as well as to demineralized brown coal. The relative error was 4% in the first case and 2% in the latter case. Pre-washing with 1n ammonium acetate solution permits direct analyses of the oxygen bonded to the coal minerals. The method is applicable to other carbonaceous materials, e.g. coal ashes, solid hydrogenation residues, cokes, coal extracts, asphaltenes, oils, etc., at oxygen concentrations of 1-50%. (orig.) [de

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Research and development of materials for coal liquefaction plant (Research on materials); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika plant zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu (zairyo no kenkyu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research and development is started of materials for constituting a liquefaction reactor which is the primary apparatus in the coal liquefaction process. Tested in the basic research on the designing of alloys for the reactor are Cr-Mo-V-Ti based alloys prepared by adding V, Ti, and B to Cr-Mo based alloys presently in use as materials for pressure vessels. They are melted and 50kg test ingots of steel are prepared, and an alloy with a constitution of Low Si-3%Cr-1%Mo-0.25%V-0.02%Ti-0.002%B is selected. In the designing of alloys to serve as stainless steel overlay welding materials and in the development of basic welding technologies, studies are conducted in search for materials that exhibit excellent durability under the conditions of liquefaction reaction and for technologies in this connection. These are accomplished using a test device installed this fiscal year, which is capable of reproducing high-temperature high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere. As the result, basic technologies are acquired, which will enable the achievement of the goal. In the study of on-site production technologies using medium-size ingots as the materials, an 85-ton medium size steel ingot of a new chemical constitution of Low Si-3Cr-1Mo-1/4V-Ti-B is melted, and a shell which is 400mm in thickness and 2m in internal diameter is forged, and the shell is subjected to a property and performance qualification test. (NEDO)

  4. Liquefaction technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A survey of coal liquefaction technology and analysis of projected relative performance of high potential candidates has been completed and the results are reported here. The key objectives of the study included preparation of a broad survey of the status of liquefaction processes under development, selection of a limited number of high potential process candidates for further study, and an analysis of the relative commercial potential of these candidates. Procedures which contributed to the achievement of the above key goals included definition of the characteristics and development status of known major liquefaction process candidates, development of standardized procedures for assessing technical, environmental, economic and product characteristics for the separate candidates, and development of procedures for selecting and comparing high potential processes. The comparisons were made for three production areas and four marketing areas of the US. In view of the broad scope of the objectives the survey was a limited effort. It used the experience gained during preparation of seven comprehensive conceptual designs/economic evaluations plus comprehensive reviews of the designs, construction and operation of several pilot plants. Results and conclusions must be viewed in the perspective of the information available, how this information was treated, and the full context of the economic comparison results. Comparative economics are presented as ratios; they are not intended to be predictors of absolute values. Because the true cost of constructing and operating large coal conversion facilities will be known only after commercialization, relative values are considered more appropriate. (LTN)

  5. Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Y. T.; Stiegel, G. J.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1981-02-01

    Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur besides having a high aromatic and metals content. It is therefore envisaged that modifications to existing petroleum refining technology will be necessary in order to economically upgrade coal liquids. In this review, compositional data for various coal liquids are presented and compared with those for petroleum fuels. Studies reported on the stability of coal liquids are discussed. The feasibility of processing blends of coal liquids with petroleum feedstocks in existing refineries is evaluated. The chemistry of hydroprocessing is discussed through kinetic and mechanistic studies using compounds which are commonly detected in coal liquids. The pros and cons of using conventional petroleum refining catalysts for upgrading coal liquids are discussed.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 5. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 5). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elementary matters, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include engineering specifications related to electrical designs, lists of electrical items, specifications related to civil engineering designs, drawings such as planning drawings, and a detailed construction design drawn by an Australian engineering corporation and related documents and drawings. Concerning the manufacture of mechanical systems, items procurable in Japan, specifications of items procurable in Australia, lists, drawings, etc., are shown. Also included are the details of on-site preparation for construction and on-site work, conceptual designs of processes of dehydration, deashing, and secondary hydrogenation, etc. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 5. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 5). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elementary matters, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include engineering specifications related to electrical designs, lists of electrical items, specifications related to civil engineering designs, drawings such as planning drawings, and a detailed construction design drawn by an Australian engineering corporation and related documents and drawings. Concerning the manufacture of mechanical systems, items procurable in Japan, specifications of items procurable in Australia, lists, drawings, etc., are shown. Also included are the details of on-site preparation for construction and on-site work, conceptual designs of processes of dehydration, deashing, and secondary hydrogenation, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 3. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 3). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the instrumentation design, such as the meter specifications, front view drawings for meter panels, drawings for panel arrangement in the central control room, a computer room layout drawing, control system explanation drawings, interlock diagrams, and the instrumentation power supply diagrams. (NEDO)

  9. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program analyzes the applicable coal species centered by Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal, which are promising alternative fuel sources for Japan for their reserves, prices, availability, suitability for liquefaction, etc, in order to clarify the possible problems, and commercialize the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. This report consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 describes development situations of brown coal, specifically for Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal. Chapter 2 describes characteristics of the reactions involved in the brown coal liquefaction. Chapter 3 describes current status of various liquefaction processes (solvolysis, solvent extraction, direct hydrogenation and C-SRC) under development in Japan, and problems involved in their future developments. Chapter 4 describes current status of the elementary techniques, e.g., those for slurry pretreatment (e.g., dehydration and crushing), solid/liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, product upgrading and gasification. Chapter 5 describes the related techniques, and Chapter 6 discusses the demonstration survey results of de-ashing, primary/secondary hydrogenation, and dehydration of brown coal. (NEDO)

  10. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program analyzes the applicable coal species centered by Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal, which are promising alternative fuel sources for Japan for their reserves, prices, availability, suitability for liquefaction, etc, in order to clarify the possible problems, and commercialize the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. This report consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 describes development situations of brown coal, specifically for Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal. Chapter 2 describes characteristics of the reactions involved in the brown coal liquefaction. Chapter 3 describes current status of various liquefaction processes (solvolysis, solvent extraction, direct hydrogenation and C-SRC) under development in Japan, and problems involved in their future developments. Chapter 4 describes current status of the elementary techniques, e.g., those for slurry pretreatment (e.g., dehydration and crushing), solid/liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, product upgrading and gasification. Chapter 5 describes the related techniques, and Chapter 6 discusses the demonstration survey results of de-ashing, primary/secondary hydrogenation, and dehydration of brown coal. (NEDO)

  11. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  12. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981 for development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology. Development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant (Research on a primary hydrogenation technology, research on a deliming technology, research on a secondary hydrogenation technology, research on a dehydrogenation technology, and research on liquefaction from catalytic aspect); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (ichiji suiten gijutsu no kenkyu, dakkai gijutsu no kenkyu, niji suiten gijutsu no kenkyu, shokubaimen kara no ekika kenkyu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in development of brown coal based solvent extraction in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Element researches were performed to complement and support the development of a liquefaction technology for brown coal produced in Victoria, Australia by using a 50-T/D pilot plant. For the primary hydrogenation technology, a manufacturing experiment was completed by means of nine cycles using a brown coal balancing solvent in a 0.1-t/day bench scale test. Distribution of the formed materials, the solvent properties, and the SRC properties have become nearly constant after 5 to 6 cycles. A test using a batch type device was performed to derive the relationship among dissolution parameters, SRC recovery rates, and deliming rates by using different solvents. For the secondary hydrogenation technology, SRC being the heavy fraction in a primary hydrogenation system (+420 degrees C) was hydrogenated by using an Ni{center_dot}Mo based catalyst at 360 degrees C and 250 kg/cm{sup 2}. A prospect was attained that the processing is possible by using a fixed bed reactor. A test using a small continuous dehydration testing device was carried out by using creosote oil as the solvent and by varying the evaporator operating conditions. Dehydration rate of 90 to 95% was obtained. Discussions were given on selecting catalysts for the secondary hydrogenation of the fixed bed method, and on factors of activity deterioration. A secondary hydrogenation test reactor of the suspended bed method was completed. (NEDO)

  13. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  14. Report for fiscal 1995 by basic liquefaction technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Delivered at the 1st meeting are a report on the fiscal 1995 research plan and an interim report, involving the use of coal-derived oils, research on refining technology using a PDU (process developing unit), reforming technology and petroleum blending technology for coal-derived oils, development of new reforming catalysts, technology of heterocompound separation, and the development of applications. Reported in relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology are the study of coal liquefaction conditions, study of the upgrading of basic liquefaction techniques for the improvement and rationalization of the liquefaction process, and a project of liquefaction technology internationalization. A report is also given on a liquefaction catalyst study meeting. At the 2nd meeting, reports are delivered on the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology, including a briefing on the situation in general, designing of highly active catalysts, elucidation of the mechanism of emergence of activity, achievement of the marginal yield of coal-derived oils, and the properties of catalyst attached to coal. Delivered in relation with the use of coal-derived oils and technology for their refining are a briefing on the situation in general and reports on the blockup to occur in the naphtha fraction process and measures to counter the problem, control of the metamorphosis of active metals in reaction, heterocompound separation technology, and the development of applications. (NEDO)

  15. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  16. Report on the achievements in development of a coal liquefaction technology (a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology) in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 1. Development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant (50 t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 1). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the data-1 for developing a brown coal based solvent extraction plant in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. The data are for the development of a liquefaction plant for Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). Fiscal 1981 has performed detailed design on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the machines and devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. Detailed design documents and drawings were prepared. The data collected in relation with the plant design included the followings: device lists, entire factory layout drawings, device arrangement drawings, process flow sheets, utility flow sheets (fuel gas and fuel oil systems, steam and condensate systems, air for instrumentation, plant air, cooling water supply and return, industrial water and treated water, a waste water treatment system, a nitrogen system, and a waste gas system), public pollution preventing facilities, hazardous location classifying plans, and material balances. The data collected in relation with the machine design included pressure vessel engineering specifications, heat exchanger engineering specifications, and device purchase specifications. (NEDO)

  17. Report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the first and second coal type committee meetings. It describes liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals in the coal type selection and investigation. In order to develop jointly by Japan and China the coal liquefaction technology, liquefaction tests have been performed on Chinese coals since fiscal 1982 by using the small continuous testing equipment (0.1 t/d) installed in the Beijing Soot and Coal Science Research Institute. The test is now in the third phase. The first sub-committee meeting reported the result on the Shenmu Simengou coal. The coal type investigation has analyzed coal samples collected from the world, classified them into brown coal, sub-bituminous coal of low coal rank, sub-bituminous coal, highly volatile bituminous coal of low coal rank, and highly volatile bituminous coal, and presented a list of candidate coals for liquefaction. Regarding the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals, the second coal type committee meeting reported the result on the Fuxin Qinghemen coal, and the result on the Tianzhu coal as revealed by using the NEDOL process BSU. The paper also presents the interim report on the research achievements in fiscal 1988 on the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals and the research achievements of the investigation and study in fiscal 1988 on the treatment technologies for coals used for coal gasification 'coal type selection and investigation'. (NEDO)

  18. Effect of operating conditions on direct liquefaction of low-lipid microalgae in ethanol-water co-solvent for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changhao; He, Zhixia; Wang, Qian; Xu, Guisheng; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Zhixiang; Ji, Hengsong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-lipid microalgae was selected as feedstock for DL in ethanol-water co-solvent. • Operating conditions had great influence on product yields and conversion rate. • Bio-oil could be obtained from all three main components. • Ethanol and water showed obviously synergistic effect during the DL of microalgae. • Bio-oil composition from DL of microalgae was different from lignocellulose biomass. - Abstract: In this work, the direct liquefaction (DL) of low-lipid microalgae Spirulina was investigated in a 50 ml autoclave reactor with ethanol and water as co-solvent. The objective of this research was carried out to examine the effect of operating conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent/microalgae (S/M) ratio and ethanol-water co-solvent (EWCS) composition on product distribution and bio-oil characterization. The results revealed that the optimal operating conditions for bio-oil yield and conversion rate were reaction temperature of 300 °C, reaction time of 45 min, ethanol content of 50 vol.% and S/M ratio of 40/4 ml/g, which gave the bio-oil yield of 59.5% and conversion rate of 94.73%. Conversion rate in EWCS was significantly higher than that in pure water or ethanol, suggesting the synergistic effect between ethanol and water during microalgae DL. Distinct difference in composition and relative content of compound among bio-oils in different solvents were observed by GC–MS and FT-IR. Compared with hydrothermal liquefaction, the most abundant compounds in bio-oil from both EWCS and pure ethanol were esters. The presence of ethanol could enhance the bio-oil yield and improve bio-oil quality by promoting the formation of esters.

  19. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  20. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvolysis liquefaction plant (research on realization of solvolysis pitch hydrogenation equipment); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, solvolysis ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solvolysis pitch no suiten sochika kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among researches on solvolysis coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the research on realization of solvolysis pitch hydrogenation equipment. In realizing a hydrogenation and decomposition reacting equipment for the second stage reaction process, it is important to stabilize operation by preventing coking and catalytic deterioration in elevated temperature zones. Therefore, a reactor of catalytic fluid system was assumed. Fiscal 1981 has fabricated and experimented a flow testing equipment for the purpose of acquiring data for realization of the equipment. A reactor that can deal with temperatures higher than 400 degrees C was installed in a 0.1-t/d continuously operating equipment. For selecting adequate operating conditions, an operation manual was prepared from the results of the cold model test and the fundamental test on hydrogenation and decomposition. The devices used were verified to have good operability. As the gasification rate increases when the reaction temperature is raised, resulting in reduced oil yield, it is necessary to keep the temperature lower than 430 degrees C. Increased pressure does not increase the oil yield as much as it increases hydrogen consumption, hence pressure of 200 kg/cm{sup 2} or lower is suitable. The secondary hydrogenation solvent requires no proton donation performance, and light fraction should be preferable. Catalysts were also discussed, and a clue to improvements was obtained. (NEDO)

  2. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  3. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  4. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  5. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  6. Development of direct observation aparatus of coal carbonization process by x-ray computerized tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakawa, Mitsuhiro; Shiraishi, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Shimomura, Yasuto

    1987-01-01

    Coke production by chamber ovens has a long history and efforts are being continued to make the manufacturing process efficient and to preserve the environment. In this production by this method, however, it is hardly possible to obtain direct information during coal carbonization. Since the elements that compose coal and coke are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc. and are similar to those of the human body, authors has developed a coke oven that permits the direct observation of the coal carbonization process using a soft X-ray computerized tomography (CT) apparatus used in medical treatment. The following phenomena can be observed as images by the coke oven for the CT method : 1) Changes in the bulk density of charge coal (including the difference in the water content), 2) Width of the plastic layer and movement of the plastic layer in the coke oven chamber, 3) Expansion and shrinkage of the charge in the coke oven chamber, 4) Initiation and growth of cracks. (author)

  7. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  8. Trends and outlook of coal energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal Abidin Husin (Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Fuel and Materials Management Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Current energy policy in Malaysia is directed towards development of natural gas resources although there is a strategy to diversify energy sources to gas, hydro, coal and oil. By the year 2000, however, coal could emerge as a major energy source. The author advocates the need for a policy direction for the coal industry - for exploration, mine planning, mixing methods, transport and regulations to ensure occupational health and safety. Malaysia has abundant coal resources but most are in Sarawak and Sabah whereas the bulk of energy demand is in the Peninsula Malaysia. A table defines known coal resources in Malaysia and a map shows their location. To ensure successful development of the coal industry, technologies must be developed to meet environmental requirements and global market competition. Several emerging technologies are mentioned: production of process-derived fuel and coal-derived liquid from sub-bituminous coal, coal liquefaction, manufacture of coal water mixture, coal beneficiation, and fluidised bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Survey of Australian industrial capability and construction capability relative to Australian brown coal liquefaction plant construction project; 1981 nendo Goshu kattan ekika plant no kensetsu ni kakawaru kogyoryoku, kensetsu kojiryoku ni kansuru chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The industrial capability and construction capability of Australia are surveyed in relation with the project of constructing a brown coal liquefaction plant there. Australian heavy industry is conspicuously advanced in the field of mining machinery involving coal, iron ore, and other mineral resources. On the other hand, in the fields of general-purpose machinery for plants and of civil engineering machinery, it is behind other countries in terms of technology and cost because of the small market. When an industrial project is implemented in Australia, consulting firms, engineering contractors, etc., operate independently from each other, and the project is propelled forward under a perfect specialization system. Labor-related problems in the civil engineering and construction industry are the recruitment of laborers which is difficult and the delay in and suspension of construction due to labor disputes that take place very frequently. In Victoria State where a brown coal liquefaction plant is under construction, the availability of laborers specializing in construction is rather higher than in other states, and there is no important problem in this respect. One cannot be too prudent in Victoria State, however, since it includes a region which is the most notorious in Australia in terms of labor-management dispute. (NEDO)

  11. Coal chemistry and technology. Komur Kimyasi ve Teknolojisi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, O [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 18 chapters cover the following topics: mining in Turkey; formation, petrography and classification of coal; chemical and physical properties of coal; mechanical properties of coal; spontaneous combustion of coal and the methods of prevention; sampling of coal; coal preparation and plants; desulfurization of coal; bituminous coal and its consumption; lignite and its consumption; world coal trade and transportation; other important carbon fuels; briquetting of coal; carbonization and coking formed coke; liquefaction of coal; gasification of coal; underground gasification of coal; and combustion models, fluidized-bed combustion, furnaces. An English-Turkish coal dictionary is included. 641 refs., 244 figs., 108 tabs.

  12. Intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char combustion by direct measurement of ignition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ryang-Gyoon; Jeon, Chung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A wire heating reactor that can use a synchronized experimental method was developed to obtain the intrinsic kinetics of large coal char particles ranging in size from 0.4 to 1 mm. This synchronization system consists of three parts: a thermocouple wire for both heating and direct measurement of the particle temperature, a photodetector sensor for determining ignition/burnout points by measuring the intensity of luminous emission from burning particles, and a high-speed camera–long-distance microscope for observing and recording the movement of luminous zone directly. Coal char ignition was found to begin at a spot on the particle's external surface and then moved across the entire particle. Moreover, the ignition point determined according to the minimum of dT/dt is a spot point and not a full growth point. The ignition temperature of the spot point rises as the particle diameter increases. A spot ignition model, which describes the ignition in terms of the internal conduction and external/internal oxygen diffusion, was then developed to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics and predict the ignition temperature of the coal char. Internal conduction was found to be important in large coal char particles because its effect becomes greater than that of oxygen diffusion as the particle diameter increases. In addition, the intrinsic kinetics of coal char obtained from the spot ignition model for two types of coal does not differ significantly from the results of previous investigators. -- Highlights: • A novel technique was used to measure the coal char particle temperature. • The ignition point determined from a dT/dt minimum is a spot ignition point. • A spot ignition model was suggested to analyze the intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char. • Internal conduction has to be considered in order to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics for larger particle (above 1 mm)

  13. Prospects for coal science in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Qing Li; Zhen Yu Liu (eds.)

    1999-07-01

    391 papers are presented under the following session headings: physical, chemical and petrographic characterisation; structure and chemical reactivity; combustion and gasification; pyrolysis and carbonization; liquefaction and hydropyrolysis; chemicals and materials from coal; coal preparation and beneficiation; and environmental aspects.

  14. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  15. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  16. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that employ coal and natural gas and produce electric power and clean transportation fuels. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H(sub 2)S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at Research Triangle Institute (RTI) in which the H(sub 2)S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H(sub 2)S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. Specifically, we aim to: Measure the kinetics of direct oxidation of H(sub 2)S to elemental sulfur over selective catalysts in the presence of major

  17. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 3. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 3). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the instrumentation design, such as the meter specifications, front view drawings for meter panels, drawings for panel arrangement in the central control room, a computer room layout drawing, control system explanation drawings, interlock diagrams, and the instrumentation power supply diagrams. (NEDO)

  18. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  20. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  1. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Ismail B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that

  2. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (development of a 1-t/d experimental plant and research on the solvent extraction and liquefaction process); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/d jikken plant no kaihatsu (yozai chushutsu ekika process no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among the items of the solvent extraction and liquefaction plant technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in developing a 1-t/d experimental plant and the solvent extraction and liquefaction process. Basic facilities were completed by giving expansion constructions on the extraction reaction column, gas-liquid separation column, and hydrogenation reaction column. The operation was performed with the primary object placed on verifying the effect of measures on problems that have been extracted, and checking the solvent balance. The conversion rate at an extraction reaction temperature of 450 degrees C was 83%, agreeing with the result of the fundamental study. The solvent has turned light as a result of 153-hour continuous operation, but circulating use was possible. Progress of the reaction has become easily controllable in the hydrogenation system. Fundamental discussions were given on engineering aspects, which require further accumulation of data. In the research of the solvent extraction and liquefaction process, fiscal 1981 has performed discussions on liquefaction catalysts, and on the effect of the hydrogen donating solvents. The discussions were for the fundamental research to establish adequate conditions for the 1-t/d experimental plant by operating a small continuous operation facility to its full extent, and by using a batch type reaction device. Screening was also carried out on catalysts. (NEDO)

  3. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fractionated Light Bio-Oil: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Lange, Jean Paul; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The direct thermal liquefaction of lignocellulose can provide a biocrude that could be used as a precursor for biofuels. However, earlier attempts to use the whole reactor effluent as a liquefaction medium, by recycling it to the liquefaction reactor, were hampered by the buildup of heavy products.

  4. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  5. Report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the first and second coal type committee meetings. It describes liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals in the coal type selection and investigation. In order to develop jointly by Japan and China the coal liquefaction technology, liquefaction tests have been performed on Chinese coals since fiscal 1982 by using the small continuous testing equipment (0.1 t/d) installed in the Beijing Soot and Coal Science Research Institute. The test is now in the third phase. The first sub-committee meeting reported the result on the Shenmu Simengou coal. The coal type investigation has analyzed coal samples collected from the world, classified them into brown coal, sub-bituminous coal of low coal rank, sub-bituminous coal, highly volatile bituminous coal of low coal rank, and highly volatile bituminous coal, and presented a list of candidate coals for liquefaction. Regarding the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals, the second coal type committee meeting reported the result on the Fuxin Qinghemen coal, and the result on the Tianzhu coal as revealed by using the NEDOL process BSU. The paper also presents the interim report on the research achievements in fiscal 1988 on the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals and the research achievements of the investigation and study in fiscal 1988 on the treatment technologies for coals used for coal gasification 'coal type selection and investigation'. (NEDO)

  6. Report for the coal type committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the coal type committee in fiscal 1992, and summarizes the main technological achievements. In the Chinese coal liquefaction test, fiscal 1991 has performed liquefaction tests on Fushun coal by using a small continuous testing facility (0.1 t/d) at the Coal Chemistry Research Institute in Beijing. Fiscal 1992 has completed the liquefaction tests on Shengli coal. In October, a liquefaction test was carried out by using Tianzhu coal according to the NEDOL process. This paper reports the result of the liquefaction test on the Shengli coal, and the result of the analysis on the Fushun coal liquefied oil. The coal type selection and investigation having been performed to date reveals close correlation among the maceral composition of coal, coal rank and liquefied oil yield. Coals having good reactivity and suitable for liquefaction are generally suitable also for gasification. In the pretreatment of coal as a gasification material for hydrogen manufacture, a test was performed by using A heavy oil and tar sand bitumen plus A heavy oil as the granulating agents. With Montana coal, the highest de-ashing rate was achieved when the oil was added at 35% by weight. Both of the reaction rate and oil yield were improved. A handling test was carried out up to 72.5 degrees C, wherein Tatung coal presented no problems in both of the discharging and sticking tendencies. (NEDO)

  7. Application of infiltrated LSCM-GDC oxide anode in direct carbon/coal fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiangling; Arenillas, Ana; Irvine, John T S

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid direct carbon/coal fuel cells (HDCFCs) utilise an anode based upon a molten carbonate salt with an oxide conducting solid electrolyte for direct carbon/coal conversion. They can be fuelled by a wide range of carbon sources, and offer higher potential chemical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and have the potential to decrease CO2 emissions compared to coal-fired power plants. In this study, the application of (La, Sr)(Cr, Mn)O3 (LSCM) and (Gd, Ce)O2 (GDC) oxide anodes was explored in a HDCFC system running with two different carbon fuels, an organic xerogel and a raw bituminous coal. The electrochemical performance of the HDCFC based on a 1-2 mm thick 8 mol% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and the GDC-LSCM anode fabricated by wet impregnation procedures was characterized and discussed. The infiltrated oxide anode showed a significantly higher performance than the conventional Ni-YSZ anode, without suffering from impurity formation under HDCFC operation conditions. Total polarisation resistance (Rp) reached 0.8-0.9 Ω cm(2) from DCFC with an oxide anode on xerogel and bituminous coal at 750 °C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values in the range 1.1-1.2 V on both carbon forms. These indicated the potential application of LSCM-GDC oxide anode in HDCFCs. The chemical compatibility of LSCM/GDC with carbon/carbonate investigation revealed the emergence of an A2BO4 type oxide in place of an ABO3 perovskite structure in the LSCM in a reducing environment, due to Li attack as a result of intimate contact between the LSCM and Li2CO3, with GDC being stable under identical conditions. Such reaction between LSCM and Li2CO3 was not observed on a LSCM-YSZ pellet treated with Li-K carbonate in 5% H2/Ar at 700 °C, nor on a GDC-LSCM anode after HDCFC operation. The HDCFC durability tests of GDC-LSCM oxide on a xerogel and on raw bituminous coal were performed under potentiostatic operation at 0.7 V at 750 °C. The degradation mechanisms were

  8. Direct energy balance based active disturbance rejection control for coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hua, Qingsong; Li, Donghai; Pan, Lei; Xue, Yali; Lee, Kwang Y

    2017-09-01

    The conventional direct energy balance (DEB) based PI control can fulfill the fundamental tracking requirements of the coal-fired power plant. However, it is challenging to deal with the cases when the coal quality variation is present. To this end, this paper introduces the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to the DEB structure, where the coal quality variation is deemed as a kind of unknown disturbance that can be estimated and mitigated promptly. Firstly, the nonlinearity of a recent power plant model is analyzed based on the gap metric, which provides guidance on how to set the pressure set-point in line with the power demand. Secondly, the approximate decoupling effect of the DEB structure is analyzed based on the relative gain analysis in frequency domain. Finally, the synthesis of the DEB based ADRC control system is carried out based on multi-objective optimization. The optimized ADRC results show that the integrated absolute error (IAE) indices of the tracking performances in both loops can be simultaneously improved, in comparison with the DEB based PI control and H ∞ control system. The regulation performance in the presence of the coal quality variation is significantly improved under the ADRC control scheme. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed strategy is shown comparable with the H ∞ control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  10. Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedel, Julien

    The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high

  11. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    All first-stage experimental tests were completed for Task 4 (and the Contract). The first-stage one-liter autoclave tests that were made were duplicates of Run 41-LA. The conditions used were chosen last quarter to reduce the cost of the first-stage of the process from those used at the conclusion of Task 3. Filtration and second-stage tests were made using the products of the first-stage tests. Post-second-stage filtration, tested as an alternative to interstage (pre-second- stage) filtration, resulted in low filtration rates. Different catalyst loadings and type and residence time for second-stage hydrotreating were explored. Longer residence times did not result in significantly more resid conversion. Higher catalyst loadings were more effective in converting the resid at the same residence time. The material and elemental balances for the first-stage were completed. The material and elemental balances for the second-stage were initiated

  12. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  13. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  14. Elucidation of hydrogen mobility in tetralin under coal liquefaction conditions using a tritium tracer method. Effects of the addition of H2S and H2O; Tritium tracer ho wo mochiita sekitan ekika hanno jokenka deno tetralin no suiso idosei hyoka. Ryuka suiso oyobi mizu no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, M.; Saito, M.; Ishihara, A.; Kabe, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously reported that the tritium tracer method is useful for the quantitative consideration of hydrogen behavior in coal during coal liquefaction reaction. Tetralin is excellent hydrogen donating solvent, and is considered as one of the model compounds of coal. In this study, effects of H2S and H2O on the hydrogen exchange reaction between tetralin and gaseous hydrogen labeled by tritium were investigated. It was suggested that the conversion of tetralin and the hydrogen exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and tetralin proceed through the radical reaction mechanism with a tetralyl radical as an intermediate product. When H2S existed in this reaction, the hydrogen exchange yield increased drastically without changing the conversion yield. This suggested that the hydrogen exchange reaction proceeds even in the reaction where radical does not give any effect. In the case of H2O addition, the conversion yield and hydrogen exchange rate decreased into a half or one-third. It was suggested that H2O inhibited the formation process of tetralyl radical. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  16. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, H-Y; Jiang, X-G; Song, X-F; Liu, L; Ni, Z-Y; Gao, C-X; Zhang, Y-Z

    2014-01-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development

  17. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Surveys on coal type selection and surveys on coal types (Data file); 1986 nendo tanshu sentei chosa tanshu chosa seika hokokusho. Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    This data file is a data file concerning coal types for liquefaction in the report on the achievements in the surveys on coal type selection and on coal types (JN0040843). Such items of information were filed as existence and production of coals, various kinds of analyses, and test values relative to data for liquefaction tests that have been collected and sent to date. The file consists of two files of a test sample information file related to existence and production of coals and coal mines, and an analysis and test file accommodating the results of different analyses and tests. However, the test sample information files (1) through (6) have not been put into order on such items of information as test samples and sample collection, geography, geology, ground beds, coal beds, coal mines, development and transportation. The analysis and test file contains (7) industrial analyses, (8) element analysis, (9) ash composition, (10) solubility of ash, (11) structure analysis, (12) liquefaction characteristics (standard version), (13) analysis of liquefaction produced gas, (14) distillation characteristics of liquefaction produced oil, (15) liquefaction characteristics (simplified version), (16) analysis of liquefaction produced gas (simplified version), and (17) distillation characteristics of liquefaction produced oil (simplified version). However, the information related to liquefaction test using a tubing reactor in (15) through (17) has not been put into order. (NEDO)

  18. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275[degrees]C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  19. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  1. Report for the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988; 1987 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The first committee meeting was held on September 30, 1987. The major agenda included: a development plan for the basic research, and as the summary of the achievements in fiscal 1986, Chinese coal liquefaction tests, coal type surveys, coal resource surveys, and as the research plan for fiscal 1987, coal resource surveys (Alaskan coal and Kalimantan coal), coal type surveys, and Chinese coal liquefaction tests. The results thereon were reported and deliberated. The second committee meeting was held on February 25, 1988. The agenda included: an interim report on the Chinese coal liquefaction tests, coal type surveys, coal resource surveys, (Alaskan coal and Kalimantan coal), as the interim report on the research achievements in fiscal 1987. Among the agenda, especially on the Chinese coal liquefaction tests, the data of the tests performed by the Chinese side and presented at the Japan-China joint technology sub-committee were introduced in detail, having drawn attention of the attendants. The first committee meeting reported the result of the autoclave test carried out by the Chinese side, the result of operation of the small continuous device (0.1 t/d) in fiscal 1986, and the result of the autoclave test performed by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for comparison. The second committee meeting reported the result of continuous operation implemented in China from August through September 1987 in the Chinese coal liquefaction test. (NEDO)

  2. Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, Adam C.; Giddey, Sarbjit; Kulkarni, Aniruddha; Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation mechanism studied for demineralised coal in a direct carbon fuel cell. • Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N 2 . • Major fuel cell performance loss occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts. • The anode retained its phase structure with minor other phases formed in operation. - Abstract: The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N 2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO 2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO 2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance

  3. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. FY 1998 survey report. Survey to prepare a data book related to new energy technology development (Trends on the waste power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy cars, coal liquefaction/coal gasification and new energy); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy, jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi shin energy kanren doko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Together with the progress of technology development, policies for the introduction/promotion of new energy technology are being developed such as promotion of the commercialization development, revision of the law system, and expansion of the subsidy system for promotion. To push the introduction/promotion forward more effectively, it is necessary to arrange various kinds of data comprehensively/systematically and to make them the basic data for contribution to the spread/education. As to the six fields of the waste power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy cars, coal liquefaction, and coal gasification of the technology fields of new energy, this report collected/arranged the data made public recently in terms mainly of the following: trends of the introduction in Japan and abroad, policy/law/subsidy system in Japan and abroad, cost, system outline, basic terms, a list of the main affiliated companies and groups, and the nation's outlook for energy introduction and policies of each new energy technology in Japan and abroad, and the trends. Moreover, characteristics by field were described of the state of the commercialization/introduction of new energy technology. (NEDO)

  5. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  6. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  7. Survey for preparing the database for R and D of new engines. Waste power generation, solar heat system, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicle, coal liquefaction/gasification, and combined systems; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki tema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The present developmental conditions and issues of new energies are systematically arranged for effective promotion of their diffusion. One hundred and forty six general waste power generation facilities of 558,000kW are in operation in 1995, and among them 89 facilities supplies 1,080 GWh to power companies. 50 industrial waste power facilities of 247,000kW are in operation. 20,000 solar systems and 180,000 hot water heaters are in operation in 1995. Commercial geothermal power generation facilities of 490,000kW and private ones of 36,000kW are in operation. Introduction of expensive clean energy vehicles is making very slow progress. The pilot study on bituminous coal liquefaction is in promotion mainly by NEDO. The experiment of entrained bed coal gasification in Nakoso was successfully completed, and development of a commercial plant is to be expected. Power rates of 10 power companies were reduced in 1996, and unit purchase prices of surplus power of photovoltaic and wind power generation were also revised. The new menu and unit purchase price were announced in 1996 for surplus power of waste power generation and fuel cell. 67 figs., 284 tabs.

  8. FY 1981 Report on the results of Sunshine Project. Coal energy; 1981 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Sekitan energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This report presents the results of (researches on solvolysis liquefaction mechanisms and reaction promotion with oil- and coal-based solvents), conducted as part of the research and development project for coal liquefaction techniques. The FY 1981 program includes researches on (1) the effects of liquefaction reaction conditions on liquefaction yield and production of light products for coal species of low degree of carbonization, including brown coal, (2) the effects of pretreatment of coal on its liquefaction reactivity, and (3) up-grading of the solvolysis coal liquid (SCL). For the item (1), HA240 (hydrogenated Ashland's A240) is used to investigate its liquefaction capacity for various coal species of low degree of carbonization, including brown coal. For the item (2), the effects of pretreatment in a hot water bath with reflux was investigated for sub-bituminous coal in the FY 1980. In the FY 1981, various pretreatment methods are attempted for enhancing liquefaction reactivity of brown coal. As a result, it is found that ash content of brown coal is decreased to one-third of the initial level, when it is treated in a diluted hydrochloric acid bath with reflux. For the item (3), SCL hydrogenated by Birch reduction (B-SCL, 1) is compared with H-SCL with respect to properties, structures and thermal crackability, to discuss the items required for the catalyst to be used in the second stage by clarifying effectiveness of the catalyst. (NEDO)

  9. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  10. Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, H.B.; Arango, I.; Chan, C.K.

    1975-10-01

    The results of a three-year research program conducted to investigate the settlement and liquefaction of sands under multi-directional shaking are evaluated. The investigation indicated that the behavior of a saturated sand under cyclic loading conditions is a function of its geologic and seismic history and grain structure as well as its placement density. It is concluded that the resistance to liquefaction of a sand deposit can best be estimated by laboratory testing on undisturbed samples. It is shown that cyclic triaxial tests used in conjunction with appropriate correction factors to account for multi-directional shaking, simple shear loading conditions, and overconsolidation effects can provide valid data on cyclic loading characteristics. The concepts of ''limited strain potential'' and acceptable value of the factor of safety against initial liquefaction are introduced. Finally, the two basic methods for evaluating liquefaction potential and the effects of liquefaction are reviewed and updated with the information obtained through this research effort

  11. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kamlya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Utaki, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    This paper reviews the development status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. Liquid hydrogen is in cryogenic temperatures and therefore high efficient liquefaction method must be studied. Magnetic refrigeration which uses the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency > 50 %, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system > 80 % liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 second of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the total efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained in the magnetic refrigeration system operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  12. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  13. Coal Corporation of Victoria annual report 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on operations, strategic planning, brown coal production and finance. Divisional reports are presented for the following divisions of the Coal Corporation of Victoria: marketing, technical marketing and special projects, research and development, and corporate services. The activities of the technical marketing and special projects division are discussed under the following headings: the coal for industry programme, the Brown Coal Liquefaction (Victoria) Pty. Ltd. project, dried brown coal activities, and resource development planning and policy activities. The corporation is currently conducting research into the following areas: ion exchange materials, activated carbons, and horticultural and agricultural applications of brown coal.

  14. Fiscal 1994 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in August 1994 and the 2nd in March 1995, when preceding fiscal year's research results, fiscal 1994 research plans, fiscal 1994 research results, etc., were introduced, and deliberated. In the study of hydrorefining of naphtha, kerosene, and light oil fractions, a nitrogen concentration level of not more than 5 ppm was achieved by refining oils from Indonesian coal. Studies were also made about the two-step hydrorefining system, the relationship between the coal oil refining level and sludge formation, etc. In the research for the development of novel catalysts for upgrading coal oil, the active life of a nickel-supporting catalyst for hydrogenation at the 1st step was somewhat prolonged with an increase in the amount of nickel. In the study of coal liquefaction conditions, an AWIP method was deliberated, wherein liquefaction process waste water was utilized as one of catalytic component adjusting materials. For upgrading liquefaction key technologies, studies were made for catalyst improvement and pretreatment method development, and about the behavior of liquefaction reaction in a high boiling solvent-aided process. (NEDO)

  15. Co-Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 3 - Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions. To minimize retrogressive reactions, the liquefaction of coal was carried out in a flowing solvent reactor in which a fixed bed of coal is continuously permeated by hot solvent. Solvent flowing through the coal bed carries the liquefaction products out of the reactor. Unlike experiments carried out under similar conditions in a batch reactor no increase in solid residue is observed during long time high temperature runs in the flowing solvent reactor. There is a greater appreciation of the importance of retrograde, or polymerization, reactions. If the free radicals formed when coal breaks down are not quickly capped with hydrogen, they react with each other to form large molecules that are much harder to break down than the original coal. Reaction time impacts both the co-liquefaction cost and the product yield. So as to study this idea, the experiments of Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure co-liquefaction carried out by changing the reaction time from 30 to 120 minutes. As a result, the greatest oil products yields obtained at 60 minutes. Therefore, by thinking about the oil products yield values acquired, the optimal reaction time was obtained to be 60 minutes for Elbistan lignite (EL) with manure liquefied with the temperature of 350°C and 400°C. Above 425°C did not examine because solvent (tetraline) loses its function after 425 °C. The obtained optimum temperature found 400°C due to higher total conversion of liquefaction products and also oil+gas yields.

  16. Plasma electrolytic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingliang, TANG; Xianhui, ZHANG; Si-ze, YANG

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the rapid liquefaction of a corncob was achieved by plasma electrolysis, providing a new method for cellulosic biomass liquefaction. The liquefaction rate of the corncob was 95% after 5 min with polyethylene glycol and glycerol as the liquefying agent. The experiments not only showed that H+ ions catalyzed the liquefaction of the corncob, but also that using accelerated H+ ions, which were accelerated by an electric field, could effectively improve the liquefaction efficiency. There was an obvious discharge phenomenon, in which the generated radicals efficiently heated the solution and liquefied the biomass, in the process of plasma electrolytic liquefaction. Finally, the optimum parameters of the corncob liquefaction were obtained by experimentation, and the liquefaction products were analyzed.

  17. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    REEs using the ADP technology. In AOI 1, Ohio coal sources with the potential to provide a consistent source of rare earth element concentrations above 300 parts per million will be identified. Coal sample inventories from West Virginia and Pennsylvania will also be assessed for purposes of comparison. Three methods of preparing the coal ash will be evaluated for their potential to enhance the technical feasibility and economics of REE recovery. Three sources of coal ash are targeted for evaluation of the economics of REE recovery in this project: (1) coal ash from power generation stations, to include fly ash and/or bottom ash, (2) ash generated in a lower temperature ashing process, and (3) ash residual from Battelle’s coal liquefaction process. Making use of residual ash from coal liquefaction processes directly leverages work currently being conducted by Battelle for DOE NETL in response to DE-FOA-0000981 entitled “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Research and Development Leading to Cost-Competitive Coal-to-Liquids Based Jet Fuel Production.” Using the sample characterization results and regional information regarding REE concentration, availability and cost, a TEA will be developed. The previously generated laboratory testing results for leaching and REE recovery via the ADP will be used to perform the TEA, along with common engineering assumptions for scale up of equipment and labor costs. Finally, upon validation of the economic feasibility of the process by the TEA, limited laboratory testing will be performed to support the design of a bench scale system. In a future project phase, it is envisioned that the bench scale system will be constructed and operated to prove the process on a continuous basis.

  18. Alternative reaction routes during coal hydrogenation and coal derived oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Kordokuzis, G.; Langner, M. (University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Engler-Bunte-Institute)

    1989-10-01

    Alternative reaction routes have been traced for the hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of coal structure related model compounds. Reaction pathways are very structure specific. It is shown how reaction mechanisms switch from one route to another with changes in reaction conditions and catalyst features. Optimization of coal liquefaction processes can make use of this detailed understanding of selectivity. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  20. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  1. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  2. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  3. Operational experiences of (in)direct co-combustion in coal and gas fired power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Korbee, R.; Meijer, R.; Konings, T.; Van Aart, F.

    2001-02-01

    The operational experiences of direct and indirect co-combustion of biomass/waste in European coal and natural gas fired power plants are addressed. The operational experiences of mainly Dutch direct co-combustion activities in coal fired power plants are discussed; whereas an overview of European indirect co-combustion activities is presented. The technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of different indirect co-combustion concepts (i.e. upstream gasification, pyrolysis, combustion with steam-side integration) is investigated, and the results are compared with the economic preferable concept of direct co-combustion. Main technical constraints that limit the co-combustion capacity of biomass/waste in conventional coal fired power plants are: the grindability of the biomass/coal blend, the capacity of available unit components, and the danger of severe slagging, fouling, corrosion and erosion. The main environmental constraints that have to be taken into account are the quality of produced solid waste streams (fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum) and the applicable air emission regulations. 6 refs

  4. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of secondary hydrogenation); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niji suiten no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among the items of the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981 for development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant, this paper describes the achievements in developing secondary hydrogenation. A small continuous hydrogenation device equipped with three reaction columns that can be filled with catalyst of 50 cc, and a dedicated testing room were designed, and orders were placed with manufacturers. The fabrication, assembly, delivery, installation, piping and wiring were all completed. The device passed a completion inspection based on the high-pressure gas safety assurance law in December 1981. After leakage due to gas and material oil was checked, a trial operation was performed, and verified of normal operation. A screening test was carried out on three kinds of commercially available and prototype catalysts before testing the SRC containing material for studying the secondary hydrogenation. The circulating solvent having a boiling point from 180 to 430 degree C (F56-01) was used as the test sample. In order to investigate the relationship between the kinds of solvent used for the SRC fraction and the secondary hydrogenation capability, solvents were made by treating the spent solvent F56-01. Trial manufacture was begun on the alumina based catalyst as a deliming catalyst, and on the red mud, bauxite and alumina based catalysts as hydrogenation and decomposition catalysts. (NEDO)

  5. Reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction: hydrogenolysis of model compound using synthetic pyrite as catalysts. 7. Property change of synthetic pyrite catalyst with the time after production; Sekitan ekika hanno kiko (model kagobutsu no hanno). 7. Gosei ryukatetsu shokubai no keiji henka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Meno, H.; Uemaki, O.; Shibata, T.; Tsuji, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Reactions of various model compounds were investigated using synthetic pyrites for coal liquefaction. In this study, successive changes of the catalysts were investigated from the reactions of model compounds by using three different synthetic pyrites with the lapse of time after production. Benzyl phenyl ether, dibenzyl, and n-octylbenzene were used as model compounds. Reactions were conducted in an autoclave, into which sample, catalyst, decalin as solvent, and initial hydrogen pressure 10 MPa were charged. The autoclave was held at 450 or 475{degree}C of reaction temperature for 1 hour. The catalyst with a shorter lapse of time after production acted to hydrogen transfer, and inhibited the formation of condensation products due to the stabilization of decomposed fragment. It also acted to isomerization of materials by cutting alkyl side chains. When adding sulfur to the catalyst with longer lapse of time after production under these reaction conditions, it inhibited the formation of condensation products for the reaction of benzyl phenyl ether. However, it did not provide the effect for the reaction of n-octylbenzene. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  7. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  8. Direct synthesis of carbon nanofibers from South African coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsho, Nomso; Shaikjee, Ahmed; Masenda, Hilary; Naidoo, Deena; Billing, Dave; Franklyn, Paul; Durbach, Shane

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), cylindrical nanostructures containing graphene, were synthesized directly from South African fly ash (a waste product formed during the combustion of coal). The CNFs (as well as other carbonaceous materials like carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were produced by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition method (CCVD) in the presence of acetylene gas at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 700°C. The fly ash and its carbonaceous products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser Raman spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. It was observed that as-received fly ash was capable of producing CNFs in high yield by CCVD, starting at a relatively low temperature of 400°C. Laser Raman spectra and TGA thermograms showed that the carbonaceous products which formed were mostly disordered. Small bundles of CNTs and CNFs observed by TEM and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the catalyst most likely responsible for CNF formation was iron in the form of cementite; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed these findings.

  9. EARTHQUAKE INDUCED LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam, which is part ... sugar cane plantation in an area of 60,000 hectares. The project .... The model is prepared using the QUAKE/W program for the ..... Geo-slope International, Ltd., Canada. Dynamic ...

  10. Experimental validation of a mathematical model for seabed liquefaction in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt ( d50 = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range 7.7-18 cm with the water depth 55 cm and the wave period 1.6 s enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data was used to validate the model. A numerical...

  11. Probabilistic liquefaction hazard analysis at liquefied sites of 1956 Dunaharaszti earthquake, in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Bán, Zoltán; Horváth, Tibor

    2017-04-01

    Liquefaction potential evaluations are generally made to assess the hazard from specific scenario earthquakes. These evaluations may estimate the potential in a binary fashion (yes/no), define a factor of safety or predict the probability of liquefaction given a scenario event. Usually the level of ground shaking is obtained from the results of PSHA. Although it is determined probabilistically, a single level of ground shaking is selected and used within the liquefaction potential evaluation. In contrary, the fully probabilistic liquefaction potential assessment methods provide a complete picture of liquefaction hazard, namely taking into account the joint probability distribution of PGA and magnitude of earthquake scenarios; both of which are key inputs in the stress-based simplified methods. Kramer and Mayfield (2007) has developed a fully probabilistic liquefaction potential evaluation method using a performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework. The results of the procedure are the direct estimate of the return period of liquefaction and the liquefaction hazard curves in function of depth. The method combines the disaggregation matrices computed for different exceedance frequencies during probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with one of the recent models for the conditional probability of liquefaction. We have developed a software for the assessment of performance-based liquefaction triggering on the basis of Kramer and Mayfield method. Originally the SPT based probabilistic method of Cetin et al. (2004) was built-in into the procedure of Kramer and Mayfield to compute the conditional probability however there is no professional consensus about its applicability. Therefore we have included not only Cetin's method but Idriss and Boulanger (2012) SPT based moreover Boulanger and Idriss (2014) CPT based procedures into our computer program. In 1956, a damaging earthquake of magnitude 5.6 occurred in Dunaharaszti, in Hungary. Its epicenter was located

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Survey of Australian industrial capability and construction capability relative to Australian brown coal liquefaction plant construction project (Annexed materials: Lists of projects undertaken by important corporations in Australia); 1981 nendo Goshu kattan ekika plant no kensetsu ni kakawaru kogyoryoku, kensetsu kojiryoku ni kansuru chosa seika hokokusho (fuzoku shiryo). Australia ni okeru shuyo kigyo no jisshi project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In relation with the construction of an Australian brown coal liquefaction plant, a survey is conducted into projects being undertaken by important businesses in Australia, and lists are compiled about them. Mentioned in the lists are the head office, directors, number of employees, line of business, contents of projects, the names of clients, etc., for each of 12 corporations including consulting firms and engineering contractors such as the Bechtel Pacific Corporation Limited. Named in the lists also are 17 manufacturers of pipes and tubes, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, tower tanks, steel structures and other fabricated metallic items, boilers, water treatment systems, pumps, electrical equipment, instrumentation, valves, iron and steel, etc. Furthermore, in relation with civil engineering and construction, 7 corporations including the Citra Constructions Limited are mentioned. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1995 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in September 1955 and the 2nd in March 1996, when fiscal 1995 research plans and research results were introduced and deliberated. In the study for designing a high-dispersion catalyst and the elucidation of the mechanism of activity expression, catalysts of highly dispersed iron supported on the brown coal surface in various ways were compared with each other in terms of liquefaction activity. Furthermore, geometric changes in the iron catalyst during the sulfurizing process were examined using the XRD (X-ray diffraction) and TEM (transient electromagnetic) methods. An improved catalyst was found to achieve a liquefaction yield near the Yallourn coal liquefaction limit in a high boiling solvent system. Concerning the study of coal oil product applications and refining technologies, reports were delivered on research results relating to the problem of blocking to occur during naphtha fraction refining and measures therefor, inhibition of active metal geometric changes during reaction, methods for separating hetero-compounds from coal oil and application thereof, and so forth. (NEDO)

  14. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction....

  15. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others. Appendix; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho. Furoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report, consisting of 7 chapters, summarizes literature related to liquefaction of coal. Chapter 1 describes the results of the (Project Lignite), i.e., development of the concept of two-stage liquefaction of lignite. Chapter 2 describes the COSTEAM process, which uses synthesis gas (CO-H{sub 2}) as the reducing agent and coal moisture as the hydrogen source for liquefaction of coal of low degree of carbonization, e.g., brown coal. Chapter 3 describes solubilization of coal with alcohol, where coal is reacted with ethanol and NaOH at 300 to 420 degrees C. Chapter 4 describes liquefaction of coal and production of lighter products with tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor. Chapter 5 describes low-temperature carbonization as the process for liquefying coal, in particular brown coal. Chapter 6 describes possibility of development of new liquefaction techniques for brown coal, including solvolysis for liquefaction, role, recovery and reuse of catalysts, short contact time processes, and coal pretreatment. Chapter 7 describes economic viability of the secondary hydrogenation. (NEDO)

  16. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.

  17. Prospects for coal science in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Qing Li; Zhen Yu Liu [eds.

    1999-07-01

    391 papers are presented under the following session headings: physical, chemical and petrographic characterization; structure and chemical reactivity; combustion and gasification; pyrolysis and carbonization; liquefaction and hydropyrolysis; chemicals and materials from coal; coal preparation and beneficiation; and environmental aspects. Papers have been abstracted separately.

  18. Fluorine determination in coal using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Patrícia M.; Morés, Silvane; Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard, E-mail: w.bernardo@terra.com.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Carasek, Eduardo [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. de [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    The absorption of the calcium mono-fluoride (CaF) molecule has been employed in this study for the determination of fluorine in coal using direct solid sample analysis and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS). The rotational line at 606.440 nm was used for measuring the molecular absorption in the gas phase. The pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 700 °C and 2100 °C, respectively. Different chemical modifiers have been studied, such as Pd and Ir as permanent modifiers, and Pd and the mixed Pd/Mg modifier in solution. The limit of detection and the characteristic mass were 0.3 and 0.1 ng F, respectively. One certified reference material (CRM) of coal (NIST 1635) and four CRMs with a non-certified value for F (SARM 18, SARM 20, BCR 40, BCR 180) were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the method, obtaining good agreement (104%) with the certified value and with the informed values (ranging from 90 to 103%). - Highlights: • High-resolution Graphite Furnace Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (HR-GF MAS) • Fluorine has been determined using HR-GF MAS of the CaF molecule. • The CaF molecule was generated in a graphite furnace at a temperature of 2100 °C • Coal samples have been analyzed using direct solid sample introduction. • Aqueous standard solutions have been used for calibration.

  19. Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

  20. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  1. 57Fe NGR studies on three-stage hydroliquefaction of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamond, M.; Bacaud, R.; Bussiere, P.; Charcosset, H.; Nickel-Pepin-Donat, B.

    1990-01-01

    Iron Moessbauer spectroscopy has been performed on liquefaction residues of two different French coals. In a three-stage liquefaction of high volatile bituminous coal (Freyming), without an added catalyst, the coal pyrite is not entirely converted into pyrrhotites, whereas in the presence of an added catalyst, coal pyrite is totally transformed into more dispersed pyrrhotites than those from the sample without an added catalyst; furthermore, the whole added catalyst precursor is reduced into pyrrhotites. In the case of liquefaction of subbituminous coal (Gardanne), full conversion of coal pyrite into pyrrhotites (even without an added catalyst) occurs. In addition, in the presence of the added catalyst, besides pyrrhotites, FeS is evidenced. When molybdenum-iron oxide is added as a catalyst precursor, no mixed Fe-Mo phase is detected. (orig.)

  2. Coal: a revival for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brones, W.

    2007-01-01

    All energy consumption forecasts indicate a world production peak of fossil fuels around 2030 followed by a rapid decline. The oil peak should probably occur earlier. In this context the huge worldwide reserves of coal represent a fantastic opportunity to meet the world power demand which should double between 2002 and 2030 with in particular a huge growth in China and India. If promising alternate technologies (coal liquefaction..) exist which would allow to replace petroleum by coal, the main question remains the management of CO 2 . Capture and sequestration techniques are already implemented and tested and the search for new coal deposits is going on, in particular in France in the Nievre area. Economic studies about the profitability of coal exploitation in France stress on the socio-economical advantage that a revival of this activity would represent, in particular in terms of employment. (J.S.)

  3. Coal liquids -- Who needs them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the global energy demand situation as presented at the last World Energy Congress. The total energy demand was calculated for each country and projected to 2100. The paper then discusses the energy situation in the United States, especially the forecasted demand for crude oil and natural gas liquids. Imports will be needed to make up the shortfall in domestic production. The shortfall in conventional petroleum could be supplied by converting coal into liquid fuels. Currently the cost of high quality coal liquids is too high to compete with petroleum, but trends suggest that the price will be competitive in the year 2030 using current technology. Continuing research on coal liquefaction will reduce the price of coal liquids so that coal liquids could play a significant role sooner

  4. Liquefaction macrophenomena in the great Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Sun, Rui; Dong, Lin; Wang, Weiming; Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Hongjuan

    2009-06-01

    On May 12, 2008 at 14:28, a catastrophic magnitude M s 8.0 earthquake struck the Sichuan Province of China. The epicenter was located at Wenchuan (31.00°N, 103.40°E). Liquefaction macrophenomena and corresponding destruction was observed throughout a vast area of 500 km long and 200 km wide following the earthquake. This paper illustrates the geographic distribution of the liquefaction and the relationship between liquefaction behavior and seismic intensity, and summarizes the liquefaction macrophenomena, including sandboils and waterspouts, ground subsidence, ground fissures etc., and relevant liquefaction features. A brief summary of the structural damage caused by liquefaction is presented and discussed. Based on comparisons with liquefaction phenomena observed in the 1976 Tangshan and 1975 Haicheng earthquakes, preliminary analyses were performed, which revealed some new features of liquefaction behavior and associated issues arising from this event. The site investigation indicated that the spatial non-uniformity of liquefaction distribution was obvious and most of the liquefied sites were located in regions of seismic intensity VIII. However, liquefaction phenomena at ten different sites in regions of seismic intensity VI were also observed for the first time in China mainland. Sandboils and waterspouts ranged from centimeters to tens of meters, with most between 1 m to 3 m. Dramatically high water/sand ejections, e.g., more than 10 m, were observed at four different sites. The sand ejections included silty sand, fine sand, medium sand, course sand and gravel, but the ejected sand amount was less than that in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Possible liquefaction of natural gravel soils was observed for the first time in China mainland.

  5. Achieving a production goal of 1 million B/D of coal liquids by 1990. [Impediments and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Charles; LaRosa, Dr., P. J.; Coles, E. T.; Fein, H. L.; Petros, J. J.; Iyer, R. S.; Merritt, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Under this contract, Bechtel analyzed the resource requirements and reviewed major obstacles to the daily production of several million barrels of synthetic coal liquids. Further, the study sought to identify the industry infrastructure needed to support the commercial readiness of the coal liquefaction process. A selected list of critical resource items and their domestic/international availability was developed and examined, and the impact of their supply on the various synthetic coal liquids programs was evaluated. The study approach was to develop representative, or generic, direct and indirect coal liquefaction conceptual designs from available technology and costs data. The generic processes were to employ technology that would be considered commercial by the mid- or late-1980s. The size of the generic construction mobilization was considered reasonable at the outset of the program. The product slate was directed toward unrefined liquid fuels rather than diesel oil or gasoline. The generic processes were to use a wide range of coals to permit siting in most coal-producing regions across the country. Because of the dearth of conceptual design data in the literature, Bechtel developed generic plant designs by using in-house design expertise. Bechtel assumed that because it is first generation technology, the indirect process will be used at the outset of the liquids program, and the direct process will be introduced two to four years later as a second generation technology. The products of either of these processes will be limited to boiler fuels and/or other liquid products which require further upgrading. Cost estimates were developed from equipment lists, as well as material and labor estimates, which enabled the determination of an order-of-magnitude cost estimate and target plant construction schedule for both processes.

  6. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  7. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction is increa...

  8. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  9. Co-liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 2 - Effect of Biomass Type, Waste to Lignite Ratio and Solid to Liquid Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hüseyin; Koyunoglu, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    Most coal hydrogenation processes require a large quantity of hydrogen. In general, a coal derived liquid such as anthracene oil was used as a hydrogen donor solvent. Tetralin, partially hydrogenated pyrene, phenantrene and coal-derived solvents, which contain hydroaromatic compounds, are efficient solvents to donate hydrogen. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. This must be hydrogenated during or before the process and recycled. To reduce the cost of hydrogen donor vehicles instead of liquids recycled from the liquefaction process or several biomass types, industrial by products, liquid fractions derived from oil sands bitumen were successfully used to solubilize a coal from the past. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. However, when hydrogen is supplied from the hydroaromatic structures present in the solvent, the activity of coal minerals is too low to rehydrogenate the solvent in-situ. Nevertheless, a decrease of using oxygen, in addition to enhanced usage of the hydrogen supply by using various waste materials might lead to a decrease of the cost of the liquefaction procedure. So instead of using tetralin another feeding material such as biomass is becoming another solution improving hydrogen donor substances. Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions, early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Alternatively, to understand the hydrogen transfer from biomass to coal, in this study, Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure, tea

  10. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R. [CeraMem Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent deashing (Rose{sup {reg_sign}} process from Kerr-McGee) and filtration (U.S. Filter leaf filter as used by British Coal). These methods produce ash reject streams containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. Consequently, CeraMem proposed the use of low cost, ceramic crossflow membranes for the filtration of coal liquids bottoms to remove mineral matter and subsequent diafiltration (analogous to cake washing in dead-ended filtration) for the removal of coal liquid from the solids stream. The use of these ceramic crossflow membranes overcomes the limitations of traditional polymeric crossflow membranes by having the ability to operate at elevated temperature and to withstand prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon and solvent media. In addition, CeraMem`s membrane filters are significantly less expensive than competitive ceramic membranes due to their unique construction. With these ceramic membrane filters, it may be possible to reduce the product losses associated with traditional deashing processes at an economically attractive cost. The performance of these ceramic membrane microfilters is discussed.

  11. Low severity conversion of activated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  12. Report of liquefaction catalyst study meeting (March 1996); Ekika shokubai kentokai hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Studied in the research are four iron-based catalysts, which are natural pyrite, synthetic iron sulfide, synthetic iron hydroxide, and catalyst-attached carbon. Tanito Harum coal is treated in a 0.01t/d-capable continuous operation furnace (once-through) under conditions of 450 degrees C and 170kgf/cm{sup 2} with catalyst addition of 1.0, 3.0wt% (catalyst-attached carbon 0.6, 1.0wt%), and a liquid yield of 41.5-48.6wt%-daf coal is achieved. A higher yield results when more catalyst is added. The same yield as achieved by the addition of 3wt% natural pyrite is obtained by the addition of 1.9wt% synthetic iron sulfide, 1.5wt% of synthetic iron hydroxide, or 0.7wt% catalyst-attached coal. The catalyst cost for treating a ton of coal is 4-9 hundred yen, which is far more expensive than the cost set forth as the target. Catalysts whose production process embodiment is now under study are natural pyrite and synthetic iron sulfide, and studies for others are just preliminary. Provided that the practical application of the liquefaction technology realizes in about 2000, then the petroleum price is predicted to be 23 dollars per barrel. Coal liquefaction products will have to be produced at a cost which will enable competition with the said petroleum price. (NEDO)

  13. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    , Ce1-xREExO2-δ (REE = Pr, Sm)) and metal oxides (LiMn2O4, Ag2O). Materials showing the highest activity in carbon black (Mn2O3, CeO2, Ce0.6Pr0.4O2-δ, Ag2O) were subsequently tested for catalytic activity toward bituminous coal, as revealed by both I-V-P curves and electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS). Catalytic activity was evaluated as a function of various physical characteristics of doped ceria and manganese-based materials....

  14. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  15. Report for the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1993; 1993 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports a joint meeting of the coal liquefaction committee and the coal type committee in fiscal 1993. The report is focussed on the coal type selection (the final report) for the coal used in the 150-t/d coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) among other agenda. Initially the Australian Wandoan coal was scheduled to be selected as the reference coal for the PP operation, but the mine has not gone into operation, hence the schedule was given up. Screening was carried out to select a coal which is commercially produced and exported, and contains ash at 10% by weight or less, sulfur at 1.5% by weight or less, and chlorine at 300 ppm or less. An autoclave and a 0.01-t/d flowing type device were used to evaluate liquefaction performance, whereas the Tanito Harum coal produced in Indonesia, very similar to the Wandoan coal, was selected as a promising candidate. A PSU was used to demonstrate overall operation performance. The coal is an appropriate reference coal as seen from the aspects of liquefied oil yield, nature, operability, and site surveys in Indonesia. Among the actual record of four kinds of PSU coals in the past, the present coal has the oil yield ranked high, has the least liquefaction residues, and is advantageous economically. The oil yield per ton of coal has cleared the PP target of four barrels. The coal has less ash, is easy in solid/liquid separation in the depressurized distillation, and has no problems in operability, excepting the matter of coal supply. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 on development of a jet flow bed gasification electric power plant. Investigative research on a technology to treat coals used for coal gasification (investigation for coal type selection); 1993 nendo funryusho gas ka hatsuden plant kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan gas kayotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (tanshu sentei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 in the investigation for coal type selection. The investigation is purposed to elucidate the status of existence and resources of coals as the raw material for coal gasification and liquefaction, the coal quality features, and the gasification and liquefaction characteristics. The results will be used as the fundamental materials for technological development. Discussions will also be given on the coal applicability to the composite gasification power generation system in which liquefied residue generated in the process are mixed with the supplied coal. Coal quality analysis and a liquefaction test under the standard condition were completed on 389 test samples composed of 136 kinds of coals produced in Canada, Australia, the U.S.A., China and Indonesia. Coal types were enumerated according to the oil yield. A gasification test was performed on the specific gravity separated coals of Chinese coals to discuss the effect of change in the ash amount on the gasification characteristics. A partial coal combustion test revealed that fuel ratio, oxygen partial pressure, and oxygen molar fraction parameters affect the combustion characteristics. The micro-gravity field is effective in discussing the combustion characteristics of particulate groups of dust coal. A coal oxidizing test was performed, wherein oxidizing characteristics and spontaneous ignition performance were estimated successfully from temperature rise of heat stored in coal. The coal type matrix data were prepared. (NEDO)

  17. Earthquake-induced liquefaction in Ferland, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Seeber, L.

    1991-02-01

    Detailed geological investigations are under way at a number of liquefaction sites in the Ferland-Boilleau valley, Quebec, where sand boils, ground cracks and liquefaction-related damages to homes were documented immediately following the Ms=6.0, Mblg=6.5 Saguenay earthquake of November 25, 1988. To date, results obtained from these subsurface investigations of sand boils at two sites in Ferland, located about 26 km from the epicentre, indicate that: the Saguenay earthquake induced liquefaction in late-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments which was recorded as sand dikes, sills and vents in near-surface sediments and soils; earthquake-induced liquefaction and ground failure have occurred in this area at least three times in the past 10,000 years; and, the size and morphology of liquefaction features and the liquefaction susceptibility of source layers of the features may be indicative of the intensity of ground shaking. These preliminary results are very promising and suggest that with continued research liquefaction features will become a useful tool in glaciated terrains, such as northeastern North America, for determining not only the timing and location but also the size of past earthquakes

  18. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  19. Proceedings of the 11th international conference on coal science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'Exploring the horizons of coal'. The proceedings include 370 papers dealing with coal petrography, physical structure and properties, advanced characterization, oxidation and weathering, coal preparation and beneficiation, liquefaction and pyrolysis reactivity and products, combustion and combustion modeling, NOx, SO{sub x} and particulate emissions and controls, gasification fundamentals and processing, coal in iron making processes, chemistry of S, N, and Cl, mineral matter, trace elements and HAPS, chemicals, carbons and carbon products, coal combustion byproducts and ash chemistry, and greenhouse gases and sequestration. Although 'proceedings' are published, the conference was cancelled.

  20. Monitoring coal conversion processes by IR-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobert, H.; Kempe, J.; Stephanowitz, H. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-01-01

    Explains application of infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis by an on-line computer system for assessing coal quality and suitability of brown coal for conversion processes. Coal samples were pelletized under addition of KBr and analyzed using an IRF 180 Fourier transform spectrometer in the spectral range of 400 to 2,000 cm{sup -1}. Components of spectra are presented; the oil yield from coal hydrogenation is calculated by regression analysis. Covariance spectra of carbon, organic hydrogen and sulfur are shown. It is concluded that the field of application for the method includes industrial coal liquefaction, gasification as well as briquetting and coking. 8 refs.

  1. Histotripsy Liquefaction of Large Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Monsky, Wayne L; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15-20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms-fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  3. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in investigations and studies on treatment technologies for coals used in coal gasification. A report on coal type investigation; Sekitan gas ka yotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. Tanshu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the investigation on coal types for coal gasification in the Sunshine Project. With regard to the status of existence, production and dressing of coals as the material for coal gasification and liquefaction, summarized site investigations and sampling were performed on underground mining coal mines being operated in Japan. Test sample coals are put into a data file as the important fundamental data for gasification and liquefaction characteristics tests at the Japan Coal Energy Center. The sampling investigation is planned to start in fiscal 1988. The coal mines having been investigated to date include: Taiheiyo Coal Mine (Kushiro), Mitsui Coal Mining Industry (Miike), Matsushima Coal Mine (Ikejima), Mitsubishi Coal Mining Industry (Minami O-Yubari), Sumitomo Coal Akabira Coal Mine (Akabira), Mitsui Coal Mining Industry (Ashibetsu), and Sorachi Coal Mine (Sorachi). Coal beds subjected to the sampling were selected upon carefully discussing with the site engineers on the current status of the coal mine, and the coal beds that could be operated in the future. The sampling method was such that the whole coal bed from the upper bed to the lower bed at the facing was sampled and put into vinyl sampling bags each at about 2 kg as the target. (NEDO)

  4. Possibility of chemical products from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G A; Sinnett, C E; Swift, H E

    1982-01-01

    An account of the SRC-II plant, which produces solvent refined coal (SRC), a liquid product. SRC is a raw material with potential as a new source of hydrocarbons. Topics discussed include the possibilities of its use as a petrochemical feedstock; derivatives and the amounts obtained; economic assessments and expected prices. The translator of this article puts forward the view that, due to the difficulty of obtaining the type of coal needed for SRC-II, the best policy for Japanese coal liquefaction is methanol synthesis.

  5. Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czelada, J. A.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    The simplified empirical procedure in its original form presented in Youd et al (2001) and some further developments given in Idriss and Boulanger (2006) for evaluating liquefaction resistance of soils is presented in this paper only for the criteria based on standard penetration test (SPT). Methods for estimating the ground improvement techniques by stone columns and dynamics compaction are presented. For stone columns Priebe method (1995) and homogenized method (equivalent parameters) are present. for dynamic compaction methods proposed by Recomendacion Geotecnica para las Obras Maritimas y/o Porturaria - ROM 0.5-05 (2005) and Nashed et al. (2009) are described. These analysis methods for each ground improvement technique are compared in two different case histories showing similar results in each one. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  7. Proceedings of the papers of the 33rd Coal Science Conference (1996); Dai 33 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi happyo ronbunshu (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-28

    This is a proceedings of the papers made public in the 33rd (fiscal 1996) Coal Science Conference held by the Japan Institute of Energy. The number of the papers included is 82. The processes such as coal liquefaction, coal gasification and pyrolysis are largely influenced by reaction of the carbon compound in coal. However, coal, which is different in reaction characteristics depending on its producing area, is a comprehensive compound. Therefore, the trial has been made for clarifying the molecular structure and skeleton. In the sense, the following papers are taken notice of: Suzuki and others` Estimation for origin of coals by biomaker analysis; Sugimoto and others` Change of unit skeletons during the artificial coalification; Hirado and others` Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Okawa and others` Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kanbayashi and others` Analysis of the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction characteristics by using the coal database.

  8. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, W.P.; Slifka, A.J.; Bitsy, R.M.; Sparks, L.L.; Johnson, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50/l for LH2 (1989 prices). A neon liquefaction plant has been designed and constructed to capture, purify, and refrigerate the neon boil-off from calorimetry experiments. Recycling the neon reduces operating costs to approximately $20/l. The system consists of a purification section, a heat exchanger, LNe and LH2 storage dewars, and a fully automated control system. After purification, neon is liquified in the heat exchanger by LH2 flowing countercurrently through stainless steel cooling coils. Hydrogen flow is automatically adjusted to keep the neon at its normal saturation temperature, 27 K. The liquid neon is then stored in a dewar placed directly below the heat exchanger

  11. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  12. Study on the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Hengfu Shui; Zhanning Pei; Jinsheng Gao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, the hydrothermal treatment of Shenhua coal was carried out under 0.1 MPa (initial pressure) nitrogen and different temperature. Effects of hydrothermal treatment on the structure and the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal were investigated by the ultimate and proximate analyses, the FTIR measurements and TG analyses of hydrothermally treated coals, and the characterizations of extraction and swelling properties, and the batch hydro-liquefaction of treated coal were also carried out. The results indicate that hydrothermal treatment above 200{sup o}C can increase the hydrogen content of treated coal and decrease the yield of volatiles and the content of ash, especially a large amount of CO and CH{sub 4} are found in gas products obtained by the hydrothermal treatment above 250{sup o}C. Hydrothermal treatment disrupts the weak covalent bond such as ether, ester and side-chain substituent by hydrolysis and pyrolysis, and changes the distribution of H-bond in coal. The swelling ratio and the Soxhlet extraction yield of treated coal decrease with the increase of hydrothermal treatment temperature. The conversion of liquefaction and the yield of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction at ambient temperature are enhanced by hydrothermal treatment at 300{sup o}C. Therefore hydrogen donation reactions and the rupture of non-covalent bond and weak covalent bonds present in the process of hydrothermal treatment resulting in the changes of structure and reactivity of Shenhua coal. The results show that the hydro-liquefaction activity of Shenhua coal can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment between 250{sup o}C and 300{sup o}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. FY 1989 report on the Coal Kind Committee; 1989 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The paper reported the FY 1989 activities of the Coal Kind Committee. The Coal Kind Committee in this fiscal year was held on July 24, 1989 (1st) and on February 21, 1990 (second), and report/discussion were made about the performance test on liquefaction of Chinese coal, survey of coal kind selection and international standards of coal. As to the performance test on liquefaction of Chinese coal, comparison was made between the results of the re-analysis/detailed analysis of the coal-derived liquids of Liaoning Province and Inner Mongolia in China which were tested at BSU in Beijing in this fiscal year and the results of the liquefaction test of the coal of Gansu Province in China which was made at BSU in Japan and BSU in China, and the discussion was actively made. Relating to the coal kind survey, report was detailedly made on the automatic analysis of maceral. The analysis of coal maceral requires time and skills, and to make it promptly and universally, the points to be cleared up, handling of two kinds of vitrinite, etc. were made clear. About the international standards of coal, the paper reported on the progress of the international conference held in Sidney in November 1988. (NEDO)

  14. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  15. Isotopic and chemical characterization of coal in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Hasany, S.M.; Javed, T.; Sajjad, M.I.; Shah, Z.; Rehman, H.

    1993-11-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta/sup 13/C PDB) and toxic/trace element concentration levels are determined for Tertiary coal samples collected from seven coal fields in Pakistan. No systematic isotope effects are found in the process of coal liquefaction from peat to Tertiary lignites and sub bituminous coal. Similarly, no age effects are observed during the Tertiary regime. The observed variations in the carbon isotopic composition of coal obtained from 'Sharigh coal field' and the 'Sor-Range/Degari coal field' in Baluchistan are attributed to the depositional environments. More sampling of stable carbon isotope analysis are required to validate these observations. Significant concentrations of toxic elements such as S, Cr, Cd and Pb in Makarwal coal may pose environmental and engineering/operational problems for thermal power plants. (author)

  16. Studies of coal liquefaction (50). Catalysis of iron compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Tomoyuki; Ogata, Eisuke; Kamiya, Yoshio

    1956-10-23

    A study is made to determine the catalytic actions and changes in grain size and surface area of various iron compound catalysts used for hydrogenation of phenanthrene. Effects of oxygen-containing compounds on the reaction are also investigated. Reactions of phenanthrene or CLB samples are performed in decalin or 1-methylnaphthalene as solvent. The solid reaction residue, including the catalyst used, is filtered and washed in acetone to provide specimens for SEM, surface area measurement (BET) and XRD. Three of the iron catalysts examined, CGS, FE(CO)/sub 5/ and FeS/sub 2/, are found to be highly effective for both phenanthrene hydrogenation and CLB decomposition, while Fe/sub 3/C does not work effectively for either of them. Fe (zero valene) and Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are found effective for phenanthrene hydrogenation but not for CLB decomposition. (7 tabs)

  17. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  18. Test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst. Coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology; Jisedai sekitan ekika shokubai shiken chosa. Sekitan ekika gijutsu shogyoka kiban to shite no sekitan bunshi kagaku shiken chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst present a new proposal to raise catalytic activity in coal liquefaction, and perform demonstration experiments in a laboratory scale to search for possibility of developing a new coal liquefying catalyst from various viewpoints. To explain, discussions were given on the catalyst to perform the followings: liquefaction under extremely mild conditions by using ultra strong acids not limited only to metals; ion exchange method and swell carrying method to raise catalyst dispersion very highly, enhance the catalytic activity, and reduce the amount of catalyst to be used; mechanism of producing catalyst activating species to further enhance the activity of iron catalysts; and pursuit of morphological change in the activating species. The coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology performed the studies on the following items: pretreatment of coal that can realize reduction of coal liquefaction cost; configuration of the liquefaction reaction, liquefying catalysts, hydrocarbon gas generating mechanism, status of catalysts after liquefaction reaction, and reduction in gas purification cost by using gas separating membranes. Future possibilities were further searched through frank and constructive opinion exchanges among the committee members. (NEDO)

  19. Methods for producing and upgrading liquid hydrocarbons from Alberta coal. [Canada - Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Production of synthetic crude oils by co-processing coal and heavy oil or bitumen has been the subject of research efforts in Alberta since 1979. This booklet describes the treatment that is necessary for these crude oils to become suitable as feedstocks for refineries as evolved in research projects. Sections are headed: hydroprocessing of coal-based liquids; functional group analysis; isotopic studies of co-processing schemes; chemistry of coal liquefaction; co-processing process development; molecular interactions between heavy oil and coal species during co-processing; combined processing of coal, heavy oil and natural gas; and coprocessing of coal and bitumen with molten halide catalysts. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  20. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  1. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  2. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  3. Characterization and suitability of superclean coals for hydroliquefaction feedstocks: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam

    1989-05-30

    Superclean coals have been studied for their suitability as liquefaction feedstocks. The effects of ash and sulfur contents and two catalysts on a hydrogen donor solvent liquefaction reaction have been studied. Experiments were run using a unique coal of small particle size (90% <22 microns). The coal was characterized in terms of its chemical and its physical properties. This information made it possible to determine the effects of the static tube flotation separation on the coal. Once characterized the coals were liquefied in the hydrogen donor tetralin under a hydrogen atmosphere of 500 psig. The first series of experiments was to determine the effects of the ash on the liquefaction reaction. The second group of experiments dealt with the effects of catalysts (ammonium molybdate and titanium carbide) on low ash coals at various conditions. A model for batch liquefaction in a hydrogen donor solvent is then developed. This model is based on the assumption that the reaction is due to two competing mechanisms; (1) a thermal decomposition of the coal and (2) a catalytic reaction. The thermal reaction produces unwanted products while the catalytic reaction produces the desired products. To accurately model the batch system, mass transfer is considered. 51 refs., 50 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. These asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. Those coal-derived asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions will be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units in the United States. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions. The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  5. Survival of Legionella in earthquake-induced soil disturbance (liquefaction) in residential areas, Christchurch, New Zealand: implications for disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Frances F; Harte, David Jg

    2017-05-12

    To investigate a possible link between liquefaction dust exposure and the noticeable increase in legionellosis cases in response to major earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 that resulted in widespread soil disturbance (liquefaction) in parts of Christchurch, New Zealand. We culture tested liquefaction-affected soil for Legionella spp. in the six months following the first earthquake in 2010. Thirty silt samples were collected randomly from locations within Christchurch's metropolitan area that were affected by liquefaction. The samples were tested to determine the presence of Legionella using qualitative and quantitative methods. Liquefaction-affected soil samples from three sites were further subjected to particle size distribution analysis and determination of major oxides. A controlled field study was established using six silt samples and one control (commercial compost), seeded with a wild-type strain of Legionella bozemanae serogroup (sg) 1 and persistence monitored over a 60-day period by culturing for the presence of Legionella. Dry matter determinations were undertaken so that total Legionella could be calculated on a dry weight basis. Legionella bacteria were undetectable after day one in the silt samples. However, L. bozemanae sg1 was detected in the control sample for the entire study period. This study showed that the liquefaction-affected soil could not contribute directly to the observed increase in legionellosis cases after the earthquakes due to its inability to support growth and survival of the Legionella bacteria.

  6. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  7. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  8. Probabilistic versus deterministic hazard assessment in liquefaction susceptible zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Gerosa, Daniele; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), usually adopted in the framework of seismic codes redaction, is based on Poissonian description of the temporal occurrence, negative exponential distribution of magnitude and attenuation relationship with log-normal distribution of PGA or response spectrum. The main positive aspect of this approach stems into the fact that is presently a standard for the majority of countries, but there are weak points in particular regarding the physical description of the earthquake phenomenon. Factors like site effects, source characteristics like duration of the strong motion and directivity that could significantly influence the expected motion at the site are not taken into account by PSHA. Deterministic models can better evaluate the ground motion at a site from a physical point of view, but its prediction reliability depends on the degree of knowledge of the source, wave propagation and soil parameters. We compare these two approaches in selected sites affected by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, that caused widespread liquefaction phenomena unusually for magnitude less than 6. We focus on sites liquefiable because of their soil mechanical parameters and water table level. Our analysis shows that the choice between deterministic and probabilistic hazard analysis is strongly dependent on site conditions. The looser the soil and the higher the liquefaction potential, the more suitable is the deterministic approach. Source characteristics, in particular the duration of strong ground motion, have long since recognized as relevant to induce liquefaction; unfortunately a quantitative prediction of these parameters appears very unlikely, dramatically reducing the possibility of their adoption in hazard assessment. Last but not least, the economic factors are relevant in the choice of the approach. The case history of 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, with an officially estimated cost of 6 billions

  9. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular proteins

  10. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular

  11. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  12. Improvements on mapping soil liquefaction at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing

    Earthquake induced soil liquefaction is an important secondary hazard during earthquakes and can lead to significant damage to infrastructure. Mapping liquefaction hazard is important in both planning for earthquake events and guiding relief efforts by positioning resources once the events have occurred. This dissertation addresses two aspects of liquefaction hazard mapping at a regional scale including 1) predictive liquefaction hazard mapping and 2) post-liquefaction cataloging. First, current predictive hazard liquefaction mapping relies on detailed geologic maps and geotechnical data, which are not always available in at-risk regions. This dissertation improves the predictive liquefaction hazard mapping by the development and validation of geospatial liquefaction models (Chapter 2 and 3) that predict liquefaction extent and are appropriate for global application. The geospatial liquefaction models are developed using logistic regression from a liquefaction database consisting of the data from 27 earthquake events from six countries. The model that performs best over the entire dataset includes peak ground velocity (PGV), VS30, distance to river, distance to coast, and precipitation. The model that performs best over the noncoastal dataset includes PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to water body, and precipitation. Second, post-earthquake liquefaction cataloging historically relies on field investigation that is often limited by time and expense, and therefore results in limited and incomplete liquefaction inventories. This dissertation improves the post-earthquake cataloging by the development and validation of a remote sensing-based method that can be quickly applied over a broad region after an earthquake and provide a detailed map of liquefaction surface effects (Chapter 4). Our method uses the optical satellite images before and after an earthquake event from the WorldView-2 satellite with 2 m spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Our method

  13. Assessment of direct radiological risk and indirect associated toxic risks originated by Coal-Fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dinis, M. L.; Fiúza, António; Góis, Joaquim; Carvalho, José Soeiro de; Meira Castro, A C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been some discussion concerning the increase of the natural background radiation originated by coal-fired power plants, due to the uranium and thorium content present in combustion ashes. The radioactive decay products of uranium and thorium, such as radium, radon, polonium, bismuth and lead, are also released in addition to a significant amount of 40K. Since the measurement of radioactive elements released by the gaseous emissions of coal power plants i...

  14. Ground Characterization Studies in Canakkale Pilot Site of LIQUEFACT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Oztoprak, S.; Aysal, N.; Bozbey, I.; Tezel, O.; Ozer, C.; Sargin, S.; Bekin, E.; Almasraf, M.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Ozdemir, K.

    2017-12-01

    The our aim is to outline the ground characterisation studies in Canakkale test site. Study is based on the EU H2020 LIQUEFACT project entitled "Liquefact: Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters". Objectives and extent of ground characterization for Canakkale test site includes pre-existing soil investigation studies and complementary field studies. There were several SPT and geophysical tests carried out in the study area. Within the context of the complementary tests, six (6) study areas in the test site were chosen and complementary tests were carried out in these areas. In these areas, additional boreholes were opened and SPT tests were performed. It was decided that additional CPT (CPTU and SCPT) and Marchetti Dilatometer (DMT) tests should be carried out within the scope of the complementary testing. Seismic refraction, MASW and micro tremor measurements had been carried out in pre-existing studies. Shear wave velocities obtained from MASW measurements were evaluated to the most rigorous level. These tests were downhole seismic, PS-logging, seismic refraction, 2D-ReMi, MASW, micro tremor (H/V Nakamura method), 2D resistivity and resonance acoustic profiling (RAP). RAP is a new technique which will be explained briefly in the relevant section. Dynamic soil properties had not been measured in pre-existing studies, therefore these properties were investigated within the scope of the complementary tests. Selection of specific experimental tests of the complementary campaign was based on cost-benefit considerations Within the context of complementary field studies, dynamic soil properties were measured using resonant column and cyclic direct shear tests. Several sieve analyses and Atterberg Limits tests which were documented in the pre-existing studies were evaluated. In the complementary study carried out

  15. Low severity conversion of activated coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  16. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard Christensen, Per; Peng, Gaël; Vogel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum was processed by hydrothermal liquefaction in order to assess the influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the product and elemental distribution. The experiments were carried out at different reaction times (5 and 15 min) and over a wide range...

  17. Evaluating liquefaction potential. A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blystra, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Several earthen hydropower embankment dams in the midwestern United States were constructed using hydraulic fill methods and are liable to liquefaction during an earthquake due to the use of very loose, saturated sand in the embankment or foundations. A case history is presented describing the methodology used in evaluating the liquefaction potential of the largest earthfill dam in Michigan. The methodology includes the use of standard penetration and cone penetration test data in the formulation of a simplified procedure. Field investigations, laboratory testing, and analyses used are described. In addition to the drilling program, field work included an extensive ground penetrating radar survey, acoustic emission testing, and an electrical resistivity survey. It was found that the lowest calculated factor of safety against liquefaction is 0.63 for a loose zone ca 140 feet below the top of the embankment, and the factor of safety against slope failure, should the zone liquefy, is 1.49. It was concluded that while liquefaction is possible, post earthquake stability is adequate. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Liquefaction of torrefied wood using microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas Eberhardt; Pingping Xin; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction is an effective pretreatment method to improve the uniformity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass before further thermal processing (e.g., gasification, combustion). The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of torrefaction as a pretreatment before liquefaction. Wood chips were torrefied for 2 h at three different temperatures (230, 260,...

  19. FY 1981 report on the Coal Kind Survey Committee; 1981 nendo tanshu chosa iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing coal liquefaction/gasification technology, investigational survey on the usable coal resource in Japan was made to collect/file the data on the state of coal existence, coal kind, etc. by the Coal Kind Survey Committee and the section. In the 1st committee meeting, an idea of the coal kind survey was discussed, and in the 2nd committee meeting, a summary of activities in this fiscal year was reported. In the section meeting, the following were carried out: discussion of a course of the coal kind survey in the 1st meeting; discussion about how to proceed with the coal kind survey/items of data filing in the 2nd meeting; examinational study of items of data filing in the 3rd meeting; summary of activities in this fiscal year in the 4th meeting. As examples of the coal kind survey, the following were cited: special study report on coal resource and gasification/liquefaction characteristics by Science and Technology Agency; results of the survey by Joint Coal Board and Queensland Coal Board in Australia; Report of 1978 by The Fuel Society of Japan; Report of 1976 by Pennsylvania State University; data on process raw coal by The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  1. Use of stable sulphur isotopes to monitor directly the behaviour of sulphur in coal during thermal desulphurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed using stable sulphur isotope analyses to monitor the behaviour of sulphur forms in a coal during thermal desulphurization. In this method, the natural stable isotopic composition of the pyritic and organic sulphur in coal is used as a tracer to follow their mobility during the desulphurization process. This tracer method is based on the fact that the isotopic compositions of pyritic and organic sulphur are significantly different in some coals. Isotopic results of pyrolysis experiments at temperatures ranging from 350 to 750 ??C indicate that the sulphur released with the volatiles is predominantly organic sulphur. The pyritic sulphur is evolved in significant quantities only when pyrolysis temperatures exceed 500 ??C. The presence of pyrite seems to have no effect on the amount of organic sulphur evolved during pyrolysis. The chemical and isotopic mass balances achieved from three different samples of the Herrin (No. 6) coal of the Illinois Basin demonstrate that this stable isotope tracer method is quantitative. The main disadvantage of this tracing technique is that not all coals contain isotopically distinct organic and pyritic sulphur. ?? 1987.

  2. The complex using of coals of Ekibastuz coal basin and wastes of their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, E.G.; Kost, L.A.; Lebedeva, L.N.; Shpirt, M.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to main directions of complex using of coals of Ekibastuz coal basin and wastes of their development. It was found that gasification of Ekibastuz coals is the perspective way of their using. It is defined that coal gasification could solve the ecological problems which arise at industrial combustion of coal. Therefore, the thermodynamic and experimental researches were conducted.

  3. A brief petrographic review on Nigerian coal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Abaa, S. I.; Najime, T.; Suh, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    The coal resources of Nigeria are located mainly within the Benue Trough. In the lower Benue, subbituminous coals occur within the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation. High - volatile bituminous coals are found within the Turonian - Santonian Awgu Formation in the middle Benue while the upper Benue contains lignites and sub-bituminous coals in the Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone Formation. Maceral analyses show that himinite dominates in the petrographic composition of the lower and upper Benue Trough coals with vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.30 to 0.63% Rm. In coals from the middle Benue, vitrinite macerals predominate and Rm values range from 0.74 to 1.25%. The present review suggests that the sub-bituminous coals in the lower and upper Benue are optimum for combustion and sub-optimum for liquefaction; while the high-volatile bituminous coals in the middle Benue, apart form being optimum for liquefaction, are the most suitable as raw material for coke making (carbonization) in steel manufacture

  4. Modeling electrochemical resistance with coal surface properties in a direct carbon fuel cell based on molten carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seongyong; Ahn, Seongyool; Kang, Kijoong; Choi, Gyungmin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a numerical model of activation and ohmic polarization is modified, taking into account the correlation function between surfac