WorldWideScience

Sample records for direct brain communication

  1. Direct Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krajačić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Today we use numerous methods of direct communications, for which we use a technical term Unified Communications. It is almost impossible to imagine the business world today without Unified Communications, which are improving productivity and reducing costs. The goal of using Unified Communications is to ensure a consistent user experience at any location and any device. Skype for Business, a Microsoft product, is one of the solutions for Unified Communications and is described in this thesis...

  2. Adrenergic Blockade Bi-directionally and Asymmetrically Alters Functional Brain-Heart Communication and Prolongs Electrical Activities of the Brain and Heart during Asphyxic Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fangyun; Liu, Tiecheng; Xu, Gang; Li, Duan; Ghazi, Talha; Shick, Trevor; Sajjad, Azeem; Wang, Michael M.; Farrehi, Peter; Borjigin, Jimo

    2018-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2-mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model. Rats received either saline, phentolamine, atenolol, or phentolamine plus atenolol, 30 min before the onset of asphyxia. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were simultaneously collected from each rat during the entire process and investigated for cardiac and brain functions using a battery of analytic tools. We found that adrenergic blockade significantly suppressed the initial decline of cardiac output, prolonged electrical activities of both brain and heart, asymmetrically altered functional connectivity within the brain, and altered, bi-directionally and asymmetrically, functional, and effective connectivity between the brain and heart. The protective effects of adrenergic blockers paralleled the suppression of brain and heart connectivity, especially in the right hemisphere associated with central regulation of sympathetic function. Collectively, our results demonstrate that blockade of brain-heart connection via alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers significantly prolonged the detectable activities of both the heart and the brain in asphyxic rat. The beneficial effects of combined alpha and beta blockers may help extend the survival of cardiac arrest patients. PMID:29487541

  3. Adrenergic Blockade Bi-directionally and Asymmetrically Alters Functional Brain-Heart Communication and Prolongs Electrical Activities of the Brain and Heart during Asphyxic Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyun Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2-mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model. Rats received either saline, phentolamine, atenolol, or phentolamine plus atenolol, 30 min before the onset of asphyxia. Electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG signals were simultaneously collected from each rat during the entire process and investigated for cardiac and brain functions using a battery of analytic tools. We found that adrenergic blockade significantly suppressed the initial decline of cardiac output, prolonged electrical activities of both brain and heart, asymmetrically altered functional connectivity within the brain, and altered, bi-directionally and asymmetrically, functional, and effective connectivity between the brain and heart. The protective effects of adrenergic blockers paralleled the suppression of brain and heart connectivity, especially in the right hemisphere associated with central regulation of sympathetic function. Collectively, our results demonstrate that blockade of brain-heart connection via alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers significantly prolonged the detectable activities of both the heart and the brain in asphyxic rat. The beneficial effects of combined alpha and beta blockers may help extend the survival of cardiac arrest patients.

  4. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  5. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender) and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver) relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus). The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  6. Silent communication: toward using brain signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaomei; Hill, Jeremy; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    From the 1980s movie Firefox to the more recent Avatar, popular science fiction has speculated about the possibility of a persons thoughts being read directly from his or her brain. Such braincomputer interfaces (BCIs) might allow people who are paralyzed to communicate with and control their environment, and there might also be applications in military situations wherever silent user-to-user communication is desirable. Previous studies have shown that BCI systems can use brain signals related to movements and movement imagery or attention-based character selection. Although these systems have successfully demonstrated the possibility to control devices using brain function, directly inferring which word a person intends to communicate has been elusive. A BCI using imagined speech might provide such a practical, intuitive device. Toward this goal, our studies to date addressed two scientific questions: (1) Can brain signals accurately characterize different aspects of speech? (2) Is it possible to predict spoken or imagined words or their components using brain signals?

  7. Quantum direct communication with authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2006-01-01

    We propose two quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols with user authentication. Users can identify each other by checking the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Alice can directly send a secret message to Bob without any previously shared secret using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. Our second QDC protocol can be used even though there is no quantum link between Alice and Bob. The security of the transmitted message is guaranteed by properties of entanglement of GHZ states

  8. Direct Marketing Communication at SEAL Communication Company

    OpenAIRE

    Wachtler, Kamilla Dóra

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of the Internet and new, rapidly changing emerging online technologies have led to some fundamental changes in marketing -- especially direct marketing. Besides the growing popularity of the Internet, the appearance of databases and one-to-one marketing are challenging traditional marketing methods. This thesis attempts to illustrate how direct marketing techniques can be implemented in an IT company. It starts with an overview of the concepts of direct marketing and its techni...

  9. A Robust and Self-Paced BCI System Based on a Four Class SSVEP Paradigm: Algorithms and Protocols for a High-Transfer-Rate Direct Brain Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Parini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present, with particular focus on the adopted processing and identification chain and protocol-related solutions, a whole self-paced brain-computer interface system based on a 4-class steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs paradigm. The proposed system incorporates an automated spatial filtering technique centred on the common spatial patterns (CSPs method, an autoscaled and effective signal features extraction which is used for providing an unsupervised biofeedback, and a robust self-paced classifier based on the discriminant analysis theory. The adopted operating protocol is structured in a screening, training, and testing phase aimed at collecting user-specific information regarding best stimulation frequencies, optimal sources identification, and overall system processing chain calibration in only a few minutes. The system, validated on 11 healthy/pathologic subjects, has proven to be reliable in terms of achievable communication speed (up to 70 bit/min and very robust to false positive identifications.

  10. Multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, X.-M.; Dong, L.; Gao, Y.-J.; Chi, F.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical scheme of a multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The supervisor prepares a communication network with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs and auxiliary particles. After passing a security test of the communication network, a supervisor tells the users the network is secure and they can communicate. If the controllers allow the communicators to communicate, the controllers should perform measurements and inform the communicators of the outcomes. The communicators then begin to communicate after they perform a security test of the quantum channel and verify that it is secure. The recipient can decrypt the secret message in a classical message from the sender depending on the protocol. Any two users in the network can communicate through the above processes under the control of the supervisor and the controllers

  11. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C.; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  12. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M.L.; Newman-Norlund, S.E.; Ruiter, J.P.A. de; Hagoort, P.; Levinson, S.C.; Toni, I.

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  13. Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min-Jie, Wang; Wei, Pan

    2008-01-01

    We propose two schemes of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) combined ideas of user authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] and direct communication with dense coding [Phys. Rev. A. 68 (2003) 042317]. In these protocols, the privacy of authentication keys and the properties of the EPR pairs not only ensure the realization of identity authentication but also further improve the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the messages were broken. (general)

  14. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-02

    Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.

  15. Quantum Secure Direct Communication Using W State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Chi Feng

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical scheme of quantum secure direct communication using teleportation is proposed. In the scheme, the sender needs to prepare a class of three-particle W states to use as quantum channel. The two communicators may communicate after they test the security of the quantum channel. The security of the protocol is ensured by quantum entanglement and quantum no-cloning theorem. The receiver can obtain the secret message determinately if the quantum channel is secure

  16. Bidirectional communication using delay coupled chaotic directly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. ... 30 September 2009. Abstract. Chaotic synchronization of two directly modulated semiconductor lasers with ... For InGaAsP lasers used in optical communication systems, the nonlinear gain re- duction is very strong and its ...

  17. Direct marketing and market communication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct marketing is marketing which demands immediate reply. That reply can be an order, a request for an additional information, a registration, a telephone call or a visit. This work presents direct marketing as the most contemporary method of company communications with environs. A concept of direct marketing is made and aimed for complete identification of existing customers and for finding out potential customers. Mail, printed documents e-mail and new medias are used as modern communications channels. It is especially emphasizes the Internet as an important media.

  18. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  19. Guidelines for Better Communication with Brain Impaired Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Guidelines for Better Communication with Brain-Impaired Adults Printer- ... there are no easy solutions, following some basic guidelines should ease communication, and lower levels of stress ...

  20. Deterministic Secure Direct Communication Using Mixed state

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show an improved ping-pong protocol which is based on the protocol showed by Kim Bostrom and Timo Felbinger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 187902 (2002); quant-ph/0209040]. We show that our protocol is asymptotically secure key distribution and quasisecure direct communication using a single photon resource. And this protocol can be can be carried out with great efficiency and speed using today's technology.

  1. Cerebro, lenguaje y comunicacion (Brain, Language, and Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strejilevich, Leonardo

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the brain, language, and communication in the following sections: (1) combining words, (2) language as a system, (3) language as a function of the brain, (4) the science of communication, and (5) language as a social institution. (NCR)

  2. Rejuvenating direct modulation and direct detection for modern optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Li, An; Chen, Xi; Hu, Qian; Shieh, William

    2018-02-01

    High-speed transoceanic optical fiber transmission using direct modulation (DM) and direct detection (DD) was one of the most stirring breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1990s, which drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the later evolution of optical coherent communications in 2000s gradually took over the long-haul applications, due to its superior optical spectral efficiency. Nowadays, DM-DD systems are dominant mainly in cost- and power-sensitive short-reach applications, because of its natural characteristics-the simplicity. This paper reviews the recent advances of DM-DD transceivers from both hardware and signal processing perspectives. It introduces a variety of modified DM and/or DD systems for 3 application scenarios: very-short-reach interconnect with little fiber channel impact; single or a few spans of fiber transmission up to several hundred km; and distance beyond the 2nd scenario. Besides the DM-DD and multi-dimension DM-DD with polarization diversity, this paper focuses on how to rejuvenate traditional DM and DD technologies in order to bridge the transmission application gap between DM-DD and coherent transceivers, using technologies such as dispersion compensation, signal field recovery from the intensity-only DD receiver, and complex direct modulation with coherent detection. More than 30 years since the birth, DM and DD still hold indispensable roles in modern optical communications.

  3. GAP junctional communication in brain secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Camilla; Andreu, Abraham; Echevarria, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown. Among the big family of Cxs, several are expressed in nervous tissue but just a few are expressed in the anterior neural tube of vertebrates. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular bases of Cxs cell biology and how they influence the morphogenetic signal activity produced by brain signaling centers. These centers, orchestrated by transcription factors and morphogenes determine the axial patterning of the mammalian brain during its specification and regionalization. The present review revisits the findings of GJ composed by Cx43 and Cx36 in neural tube patterning and discuss Cx43 putative enrollment in the control of Fgf8 signal activity coming from the well known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer. © 2016 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. Communication networks in the brain: neurons, receptors, neurotransmitters, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinger, David M

    2008-01-01

    Nerve cells (i.e., neurons) communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Within the neuron, electrical signals driven by charged particles allow rapid conduction from one end of the cell to the other. Communication between neurons occurs at tiny gaps called synapses, where specialized parts of the two cells (i.e., the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons) come within nanometers of one another to allow for chemical transmission. The presynaptic neuron releases a chemical (i.e., a neurotransmitter) that is received by the postsynaptic neuron's specialized proteins called neurotransmitter receptors. The neurotransmitter molecules bind to the receptor proteins and alter postsynaptic neuronal function. Two types of neurotransmitter receptors exist-ligand-gated ion channels, which permit rapid ion flow directly across the outer cell membrane, and G-protein-coupled receptors, which set into motion chemical signaling events within the cell. Hundreds of molecules are known to act as neurotransmitters in the brain. Neuronal development and function also are affected by peptides known as neurotrophins and by steroid hormones. This article reviews the chemical nature, neuronal actions, receptor subtypes, and therapeutic roles of several transmitters, neurotrophins, and hormones. It focuses on neurotransmitters with important roles in acute and chronic alcohol effects on the brain, such as those that contribute to intoxication, tolerance, dependence, and neurotoxicity, as well as maintained alcohol drinking and addiction.

  5. Comment on 'Quantum direct communication with authentication'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhan-jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Dong; Shi, Shou-hua

    2007-01-01

    Two protocols of quantum direct communication with authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042305 (2006)] were recently proposed by Lee, Lim, and Yang. In this paper we will show that in the two protocols the authenticator Trent should be prevented from knowing the secret message. The first protocol can be eavesdropped on by Trent using the intercept-measure-resend attack, while the second protocol can be eavesdropped on by Trent using a simple single-qubit measurement. To fix these leaks, we revise the original versions of the protocols by using the Pauli Z operation σ z instead of the original bit-flip operation X. As a consequence, the attacks we present can be prevented and accordingly the protocol securities are improved

  6. Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aidong; Zhang Shou; Xia Yan; Fan Qiubo

    2006-01-01

    We propose the schemes of quantum secure direct communication based on a secret transmitting order of particles. In these protocols, the secret transmitting order of particles ensures the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the communication is interrupted for security. This strategy of security for communication is also generalized to a quantum dialogue. It not only ensures the unconditional security but also improves the efficiency of communication

  7. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABA A , glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABA B , as well as an adenosine A 1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel

  8. Bidirectional Microglia-Neuron Communication in the Healthy Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpong B. Eyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. Traditionally recognized for their immune functions during disease, new roles are being attributed to these cells in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS including specific communication with neurons. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. We discuss these interactions along two lines. First, we review data that suggest that microglial activity is modulated by neuronal signals, focusing on evidence that (i neurons are capable of regulating microglial activation state and influence basal microglial activities; (ii classic neurotransmitters affect microglial behavior; (iii chemotactic signals attract microglia during acute neuronal injury. Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. Signaling mechanisms include (i direct physical contact of microglial processes with neuronal elements; (ii microglial regulation of neuronal synapse and circuit by fractalkine, complement, and DAP12 signaling. In addition, we discuss the use of microglial depletion strategies in studying the role of microglia in neuronal development and synaptic physiology. Deciphering the mechanisms of bidirectional microglial-neuronal communication provides novel insights in understanding microglial function in both the healthy and diseased brain.

  9. Communicative versus strategic rationality: Habermas theory of communicative action and the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael; Denke, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In the philosophical theory of communicative action, rationality refers to interpersonal communication rather than to a knowing subject. Thus, a social view of rationality is suggested. The theory differentiates between two kinds of rationality, the emancipative communicative and the strategic or instrumental reasoning. Using experimental designs in an fMRI setting, recent studies explored similar questions of reasoning in the social world and linked them with a neural network including prefrontal and parietal brain regions. Here, we employed an fMRI approach to highlight brain areas associated with strategic and communicative reasoning according to the theory of communicative action. Participants were asked to assess different social scenarios with respect to communicative or strategic rationality. We found a network of brain areas including temporal pole, precuneus, and STS more activated when participants performed communicative reasoning compared with strategic thinking and a control condition. These brain regions have been previously linked to moral sensitivity. In contrast, strategic rationality compared with communicative reasoning and control was associated with less activation in areas known to be related to moral sensitivity, emotional processing, and language control. The results suggest that strategic reasoning is associated with reduced social and emotional cognitions and may use different language related networks. Thus, the results demonstrate experimental support for the assumptions of the theory of communicative action.

  10. Direct counterfactual communication via quantum Zeno effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Cao, Zhu; Yin, Juan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-05-01

    Intuition from our everyday lives gives rise to the belief that information exchanged between remote parties is carried by physical particles. Surprisingly, in a recent theoretical study [Salih H, Li ZH, Al-Amri M, Zubairy MS (2013) Phys Rev Lett 110:170502], quantum mechanics was found to allow for communication, even without the actual transmission of physical particles. From the viewpoint of communication, this mystery stems from a (nonintuitive) fundamental concept in quantum mechanics—wave-particle duality. All particles can be described fully by wave functions. To determine whether light appears in a channel, one refers to the amplitude of its wave function. However, in counterfactual communication, information is carried by the phase part of the wave function. Using a single-photon source, we experimentally demonstrate the counterfactual communication and successfully transfer a monochrome bitmap from one location to another by using a nested version of the quantum Zeno effect.

  11. Distributed Optimization of Multi Beam Directional Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Distributed Optimization of Multi-Beam Directional Communication Networks Theodoros Tsiligkaridis MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA 02141, USA...based routing. I. INTRODUCTION Missions where multiple communication goals are of in- terest are becoming more prevalent in military applications...Multilayer communications may occur within a coalition; for example, a team consisting of ground vehicles and an airborne set of assets may desire to

  12. Understanding intercellular communication in the brain: Identified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transmission of information between nerve cells in the brain takes place at specialized sites of ... period of 10 days, and the giant chromosomes of larval salivary glands. ... extensive use of Drosophila in order to assay the effects of the genetic changes in ... the muscle responds only to a small percentage of the stimuli.

  13. Smart Plants: Memory and Communication without Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Leopold, A

    2014-08-08

    The immobility of plants is consistent with their principal function: collecting light to provide photosynthetic substrate for the biological system. Their immobility does impose limitations on some basic requirements, such as the need for pollination, for seed dispersal, and for protection against herbivores. Meeting these three needs will logically necessitate some ability for plant communication - at least a capability for beneficial adaptive behavior. Three types of plant behavior provide evidence of memory and communication abilities: a capability for memory, a capability for measuring time, and extensive evidence of chemical signaling systems. These may provide benefits for genetic outcrossing, seed dispersal and protection - beneficial adaptive behaviors. The chemical signaling system constitutes a wireless communication network that draws mobile animals into assisting plant functions that require mobility. Plants share their chemical signaling systems most frequently with insects and birds. These beneficial adaptable behaviors may be interpreted as some type of consciousness.

  14. Smart plants: memory and communication without brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A Carl

    2014-01-01

    The immobility of plants is consistent with their principal function: collecting light to provide photosynthetic substrate for the biological system. Their immobility does impose limitations on some basic requirements, such as the need for pollination, for seed dispersal, and for protection against herbivores. Meeting these 3 needs will logically necessitate some ability for plant communication - at least a capability for beneficial adaptive behavior. Three types of plant behavior provide evidence of memory and communication abilities: a capability for memory, a capability for measuring time, and extensive evidence of chemical signaling systems. These may provide benefits for genetic outcrossing, seed dispersal and protection - beneficial adaptive behaviors. The chemical signaling system constitutes a wireless communication network that draws mobile animals into assisting plant functions that require mobility. Plants share their chemical signaling systems most frequently with insects and birds. These beneficial adaptable behaviors may be interpreted as some type of consciousness.

  15. Polyrhythmic communicational devices appear as languagein the brains of musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Østergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between music and language has been oneof the most fiercely debated subjects in the modern literatureof neuroscience and music. In this paper we argue thata musicological study of the online communication betweenjazz musicians in combination with brain imaging studiesoffers...... a unique setting to evaluate communicational aspectsof music practices that rarely enters the present discourseon the subject. We employ Miles Davis' quintet of the1960es and its use of polyrhythmic structures as a generalexample of a jazz group focusing on communication. First,we consider jazz...

  16. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Wang Chuan; Zhang Ru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with authentication. The authentication key expansion method is introduced to improve the life of the keys with security. In the first scheme, the third party, called Trent is introduced to authenticate the users that participate in the communication. He sends the polarized photons in blocks to authenticate communication parties Alice and Bob using the authentication keys. In the communication process, polarized single photons are used to serve as the carriers, which transmit the secret messages directly. The second QSDC process with authentication between two parties is also discussed.

  17. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  18. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  19. [Theraplay--a direct communication play therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, U

    1990-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic concepts and the application of the directive short-term play therapy called Theraplay. Goals and methods are illustrated by examples from the assessment (Marschak Interaction Method) and by sessions with a 6 year old regressive noncompliant mutistic twin.

  20. Controlled and secure direct communication using GHZ state and teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, T.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for controlled and secure direct communication is proposed. The communication is based on GHZ state and controlled quantum teleportation. After insuring the security of the quantum channel (a set of qubits in the GHZ state), alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states in the GHZ state and transmits them to Bob, supervised by Charlie using controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded messages directly by the measurement on his qubits. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret messages between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if a perfect quantum channel is used. The feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side. (orig.)

  1. Exponential Communication Complexity Advantage from Quantum Superposition of the Direction of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Philippe Allard; Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav

    2016-09-01

    In communication complexity, a number of distant parties have the task of calculating a distributed function of their inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. It is known that with quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum channels, one can obtain significant reductions in the communication complexity of some tasks. In this work, we study the role of the quantum superposition of the direction of communication as a resource for communication complexity. We present a tripartite communication task for which such a superposition allows for an exponential saving in communication, compared to one-way quantum (or classical) communication; the advantage also holds when we allow for protocols with bounded error probability.

  2. Navigating a 2D Virtual World using Direct Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby M. Losey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Can the human brain learn to interpret inputs from a virtual world delivered directly through brain stimulation? We answer this question by describing the first demonstration of humans playing a computer game utilizing only direct brain stimulation and no other sensory inputs. The demonstration also provides the first instance of artificial sensory information, in this case depth, being delivered directly to the human brain through noninvasive methods. Our approach utilizes transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the human visual cortex to convey binary information about obstacles in a virtual maze. At certain intensities, TMS elicits visual percepts known as phosphenes, which transmits information to the subject about their current location within the maze. Using this computer-brain interface (CBI, five subjects successfully navigated an average of 92% of all the steps in a variety of virtual maze worlds. They also became more accurate in solving the task over time. These results suggest that humans can learn to utilize information delivered directly and noninvasively to their brains to solve tasks that cannot be solved using their natural senses, opening the door to human sensory augmentation and novel modes of human-computer interaction.

  3. The brain's silent messenger: using selective attention to decode human thought for brain-based communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naci, Lorina; Cusack, Rhodri; Jia, Vivian Z; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-05-29

    The interpretation of human thought from brain activity, without recourse to speech or action, is one of the most provoking and challenging frontiers of modern neuroscience. In particular, patients who are fully conscious and awake, yet, due to brain damage, are unable to show any behavioral responsivity, expose the limits of the neuromuscular system and the necessity for alternate forms of communication. Although it is well established that selective attention can significantly enhance the neural representation of attended sounds, it remains, thus far, untested as a response modality for brain-based communication. We asked whether its effect could be reliably used to decode answers to binary (yes/no) questions. Fifteen healthy volunteers answered questions (e.g., "Do you have brothers or sisters?") in the fMRI scanner, by selectively attending to the appropriate word ("yes" or "no"). Ninety percent of the answers were decoded correctly based on activity changes within the attention network. The majority of volunteers conveyed their answers with less than 3 min of scanning, suggesting that this technique is suited for communication in a reasonable amount of time. Formal comparison with the current best-established fMRI technique for binary communication revealed improved individual success rates and scanning times required to detect responses. This novel fMRI technique is intuitive, easy to use in untrained participants, and reliably robust within brief scanning times. Possible applications include communication with behaviorally nonresponsive patients.

  4. Networked Airborne Communications Using Adaptive Multi Beam Directional Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    Networked Airborne Communications Using Adaptive Multi-Beam Directional Links R. Bruce MacLeod Member, IEEE, and Adam Margetts Member, IEEE MIT...provide new techniques for increasing throughput in airborne adaptive directional net- works. By adaptive directional linking, we mean systems that can...techniques can dramatically increase the capacity in airborne networks. Advances in digital array technology are beginning to put these gains within reach

  5. Brain communication in the locked-in state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massari, Daniele; Ruf, Carolin A; Furdea, Adrian; Matuz, Tamara; van der Heiden, Linda; Halder, Sebastian; Silvoni, Stefano; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-06-01

    Patients in the completely locked-in state have no means of communication and they represent the target population for brain-computer interface research in the last 15 years. Although different paradigms have been tested and different physiological signals used, to date no sufficiently documented completely locked-in state patient was able to control a brain-computer interface over an extended time period. We introduce Pavlovian semantic conditioning to enable basic communication in completely locked-in state. This novel paradigm is based on semantic conditioning for online classification of neuroelectric or any other physiological signals to discriminate between covert (cognitive) 'yes' and 'no' responses. The paradigm comprised the presentation of affirmative and negative statements used as conditioned stimuli, while the unconditioned stimulus consisted of electrical stimulation of the skin paired with affirmative statements. Three patients with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis participated over an extended time period, one of which was in a completely locked-in state, the other two in the locked-in state. The patients' level of vigilance was assessed through auditory oddball procedures to study the correlation between vigilance level and the classifier's performance. The average online classification accuracies of slow cortical components of electroencephalographic signals were around chance level for all the patients. The use of a non-linear classifier in the offline classification procedure resulted in a substantial improvement of the accuracy in one locked-in state patient achieving 70% correct classification. A reliable level of performance in the completely locked-in state patient was not achieved uniformly throughout the 37 sessions despite intact cognitive processing capacity, but in some sessions communication accuracies up to 70% were achieved. Paradigm modifications are proposed. Rapid drop of vigilance was detected suggesting attentional

  6. Risk communication, public participation and the Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Simmons, P.; Wynne, B.; Irwin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Risk communication and public participation are considered in the context of the forthcoming requirements of the 'Seveso II' Directive. The discussion draws substantially on the findings of a research project which has investigated public perceptions of the risks from major accident hazards in seven communities in the UK. Implications for the Directive's requirements on emergency information provision, public access to safety reports and consultation on emergency plans are considered. Our conclusions stress the need for risk communication to be seen as a long term and ongoing process, involving active listening to public reasoning about risk and a sensitivity to the context in which communication is taking place. In meeting both needs and rights to information and encouraging and enabling public participation, we conclude that the Directive should contribute in some degree to an improved environment for dialogue and the building of trust. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Neurodharma Self-Help: Personalized Science Communication as Brain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    Over the past ten to fifteen years, medical interventions, therapeutic approaches and scientific studies involving mindfulness meditation have gained traction in areas such as clinical psychology, psychotherapy, and neuroscience. Simultaneously, mindfulness has had a very strong public appeal. This article examines some of the ways in which the medical and scientific meaning of mindfulness is communicated in public and to the public. In particular, it shows how experts in the field of mindfulness neuroscience seek to communicate to the public at large the imperative of brain fitness for the promotion of health, wellbeing and happiness. The study identifies claims being made in popular outlets that, by and large, bypass traditional mass media, such as self-help books, websites and online videos. By treating this material as a form of personalized science communication, this article contributes to the body of literature that understands science communication as a continuum and the boundary between science and popularized science as the outcome of human negotiations. The study finds that processes of personalization help to build bridges between scientific findings and their supposed application, that they infuse science with subjective meaning, and turn expert communication with the public into a moral vocation.

  8. Possible existence of optical communication channels in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sourabh; Boone, Kristine; Tuszyński, Jack; Barclay, Paul; Simon, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections. We propose experiments, both in vivo and in vitro, to test our hypothesis. We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain.

  9. Estimating direction in brain-behavior interactions: Proactive and reactive brain states in driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Javier O; Brooks, Justin; Kerick, Scott; Johnson, Tony; Mullen, Tim R; Vettel, Jean M

    2017-04-15

    Conventional neuroimaging analyses have ascribed function to particular brain regions, exploiting the power of the subtraction technique in fMRI and event-related potential analyses in EEG. Moving beyond this convention, many researchers have begun exploring network-based neurodynamics and coordination between brain regions as a function of behavioral parameters or environmental statistics; however, most approaches average evoked activity across the experimental session to study task-dependent networks. Here, we examined on-going oscillatory activity as measured with EEG and use a methodology to estimate directionality in brain-behavior interactions. After source reconstruction, activity within specific frequency bands (delta: 2-3Hz; theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-25Hz) in a priori regions of interest was linked to continuous behavioral measurements, and we used a predictive filtering scheme to estimate the asymmetry between brain-to-behavior and behavior-to-brain prediction using a variant of Granger causality. We applied this approach to a simulated driving task and examined directed relationships between brain activity and continuous driving performance (steering behavior or vehicle heading error). Our results indicated that two neuro-behavioral states may be explored with this methodology: a Proactive brain state that actively plans the response to the sensory information and is characterized by delta-beta activity, and a Reactive brain state that processes incoming information and reacts to environmental statistics primarily within the alpha band. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Understanding the role of marketing communications in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Naik; N. Piersma (Nanda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe standard RFM models used by direct marketers include behavioral variables, but ignore the role of marketing communications. In addition, RFM models allow customer responsiveness to vary across different customers, but not across diiferent time periods. Hence, the authors first

  11. A little more conversation - The influence of communicative context on syntactic priming in brain and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte eSchoot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an fMRI syntactic priming experiment in which we measure brain activity for participants who communicate with another participant outside the scanner. We investigated whether syntactic processing during overt language production and comprehension is influenced by having a (shared goal to communicate. Although theory suggests this is true, the nature of this influence remains unclear. Two hypotheses are tested: i. syntactic priming effects (fMRI and RT are stronger for participants in the communicative context than for participants doing the same experiment in a non-communicative context, and ii. syntactic priming magnitude (RT is correlated with the syntactic priming magnitude of the speaker’s communicative partner. Results showed that across conditions, participants were faster to produce sentences with repeated syntax, relative to novel syntax. This behavioral result converged with the fMRI data: we found repetition suppression effects in the left insula extending into left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47/45, left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, left inferior parietal cortex (BA 40, left precentral gyrus (BA 6, bilateral precuneus (BA 7, bilateral supplementary motor cortex (BA 32/8 and right insula (BA 47. We did not find support for the first hypothesis: having a communicative intention does not increase the magnitude of syntactic priming effects (either in the brain or in behavior per se. We did find support for the second hypothesis: if speaker A is strongly/weakly primed by speaker B, then speaker B is primed by speaker A to a similar extent. We conclude that syntactic processing is influenced by being in a communicative context, and that the nature of this influence is bi-directional: speakers are influenced by each other.

  12. Determinants of Effective Caregiver Communication After Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart-Porter, Laura; Wade, Shari; Minich, Nori; Kirkwood, Michael; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, Hudson Gerry

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the effects of caregiver mental health and coping strategies on interactions with an injured adolescent acutely after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Multi-site, cross-sectional study. Outpatient setting of 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 2 tertiary general medical centers. Adolescents (N = 125) aged 12-17 years, 1-6 months after being hospitalized with complicated mild to severe TBI. Data were collected as part of a multi-site clinical trial of family problem-solving therapy after TBI. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of caregiver and environmental characteristics to the dimensions of effective communication, warmth, and negativity during caregiver-adolescent problem-solving discussions. Adolescent and caregiver interactions, as measured by the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. Caregivers who utilized problem-focused coping strategies were rated as having higher levels of effective communication (P teen interactions. Problem-focused coping strategies are associated with higher levels of effective communication and lower levels of caregiver negativity during the initial months after adolescent TBI, suggesting that effective caregiver coping may facilitate better caregiver-adolescent interactions after TBI. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eGrenham

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behaviour. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain-gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the centre of focus for some

  14. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anindita [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Department of Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Kolkata 700091 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@jiit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ► Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ► One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ► It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ► It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ► Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  16. Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanjun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the two-step protocol [F.G. Deng, G.L. Long, X.S. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 042317], we propose a (n,n)-threshold multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol of secure direct communication. In our protocol, the sender's secure direct communication message can be extracted only if all the sharers collaborate. We show a variant version of this protocol based on the variant two-step protocol. This variant version can considerably reduce the realization difficulty in experiment. In contrast to the use of multi-particle GHZ states in the case that the sharer number is larger than 3, the use and identification of Bell states are enough in our two protocols disregarding completely the sharer number, hence, our protocols are more feasible in technique

  17. Robust Quantum Secure Direct Communication over Collective Rotating Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Sujuan; Gao Fei; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2010-01-01

    A quantum secure direct communication protocol over a collective rotating channel is proposed. The protocol encodes logical bits in noiseless subspaces, and so it can function over a quantum channel subjected to an arbitrary degree of collective rotating noise. Although entangled states are used, both the sender and receiver are only required to perform single-particle product measurement or Pauli operations. The protocol is feasible with present-day technique. (general)

  18. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Secure Direct Communication Using Teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojing

    2007-01-01

    We present an (n,n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and teleportation. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states and transmits it to the receivers by teleportation. The receivers can recover the secret message by combining their measurement results with the sender's result. If a perfect quantum channel is used, our scheme is completely secure because the transmitting particle sequence does not carry the secret message. We also show our scheme is secure for noise quantum channel.

  19. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Five-Qubit Entangled State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Song; Liu Xiao-Fen; Gao Fei

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a genuine five-qubit entangled state has been achieved by Brown et al.[J. Phys. A 38 (2005) 1119]. Later it was indicated that this state can be used for quantum teleportation and quantum state sharing. Here we build a quantum secure direct communication protocol with this state, and prove that it is secure in ideal conditions. In the protocol, the sender performs unitary transformations to encode a secret message on his/her particles and sends them to the receiver. The receiver then performs projective determinate measurement to decode the secret message directly. Furthermore, this protocol utilizes superdense coding to achieve a high intrinsic efficiency and source capacity. (general)

  20. Quantum secure direct communication by EPR pairs and entanglement swapping

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, T; Yan, F L; 10.1393/ncb/i2004-10090-1

    2004-01-01

    We present, a quantum secure direct communication scheme achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. In this scheme a set of ordered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (HPIl) pairs is used as a quantum information channel for sending secret messages directly. After insuring the safety of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret messages directly by applying a series local operations on her particle sequences according to their stipulation. Using three EPR pairs, three bits of secret classical information can be faithfully transmitted from Alice to remote Bob without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. By both Alice and Bob's GHZ state measurement results, Bob is able to read out the encoded secret messages directly. The protocol is completely secure if perfect quantum channel is used, because there is not a transmission of the qubits carrying the secret message between Alice and Bob in the public channel.

  1. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Amy L; Ball, Karen L; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M; Faughnan, Marie E; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A; McCulloch, Charles E; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla; Young, William L

    2013-04-01

    Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in "research silos" with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation , and HHT Foundation International . Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations.

  2. Music Therapy, Acquired Brain Injury and Interpersonal Communication Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren

    2012-01-01

    that music is a useful tool to stimulate interaction since musical interaction can be engaged at almost any cognitive and physical level and still be meaningful (Baker & Tamplin, 2006; Gilbertson, 2005; Hald, 2011). In addition, music therapy researchers specialising in ABI have found that: - Music therapy......Acquired brain injury (ABI) often affects physical, cognitive and psychological aspects of a person's functioning (Bateman, et al., 2010). Psychosocial problems associated with ABI may be the major challenge facing the rehabilitation process (Morton & Wehman, 1995) Consequently, interventions...... is a powerful means to improve communication, general behavior, and musical behavior (Purdie, Hamilton & Baldwin, 1997). - Music therapy can increase emotional stability, clarify thoughts, stimulate spontaneous interaction, and increase motivation and cooperation (Nayak, Wheeler, Shiflett & Agostinelli, 2000...

  3. Dynamics of Gut-Brain Communication Underlying Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Lisa R; Chen, Yiming; Ahn, Jamie S; Lin, Yen-Chu; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2017-10-11

    Communication between the gut and brain is critical for homeostasis, but how this communication is represented in the dynamics of feeding circuits is unknown. Here we describe nutritional regulation of key neurons that control hunger in vivo. We show that intragastric nutrient infusion rapidly and durably inhibits hunger-promoting AgRP neurons in awake, behaving mice. This inhibition is proportional to the number of calories infused but surprisingly independent of macronutrient identity or nutritional state. We show that three gastrointestinal signals-serotonin, CCK, and PYY-are necessary or sufficient for these effects. In contrast, the hormone leptin has no acute effect on dynamics of these circuits or their sensory regulation but instead induces a slow modulation that develops over hours and is required for inhibition of feeding. These findings reveal how layers of visceral signals operating on distinct timescales converge on hypothalamic feeding circuits to generate a central representation of energy balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Culture, mind, and the brain: current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Uskul, Ayse K

    2011-01-01

    Current research on culture focuses on independence and interdependence and documents numerous East-West psychological differences, with an increasing emphasis placed on cognitive mediating mechanisms. Lost in this literature is a time-honored idea of culture as a collective process composed of cross-generationally transmitted values and associated behavioral patterns (i.e., practices). A new model of neuro-culture interaction proposed here addresses this conceptual gap by hypothesizing that the brain serves as a crucial site that accumulates effects of cultural experience, insofar as neural connectivity is likely modified through sustained engagement in cultural practices. Thus, culture is "embrained," and moreover, this process requires no cognitive mediation. The model is supported in a review of empirical evidence regarding (a) collective-level factors involved in both production and adoption of cultural values and practices and (b) neural changes that result from engagement in cultural practices. Future directions of research on culture, mind, and the brain are discussed.

  5. Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. A brain-computer interface (BCI) system This brain-computer interface (BCI) system ...

  6. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  7. A New Quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme with Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Liu; Chang-Xing, Pei; Dong-Xiao, Quan; Nan, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    A new quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme with authentication is proposed based on polarized photons and EPR pairs. EPR pairs are used to transmit information, while polarized photons are used to detect Eve and their encoding bases are used to transmit authentication information. Alice and Bob have their own identity number which is shared by legal users only. The identity number is encoded on the bases of polarized photons and distilled if there is no Eve. Compared with other QSDC schemes with authentication, this new scheme is considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting

  8. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions.

  9. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Qian, Christopher; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Yan, Yick-Chun; Luo, Qian-Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Zhang, Fa-Li; Jiang, Li-Rong; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2017-10-01

    The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP) astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM) induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Amy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario Canada. Methods A population-based cohort of patients discharged from acute hospital with an ABI code in any diagnosis position in 2004 through 2007 in Ontario was identified from administrative data. Publicly funded health care utilization was obtained from several Ontario administrative healthcare databases. Patients were stratified according to traumatic and non-traumatic causes of brain injury and whether or not they were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation center. Health system costs were calculated across a continuum of institutional and community settings for up to three years after initial discharge. The continuum of settings included acute care emergency departments inpatient rehabilitation (IR complex continuing care home care services and physician visits. All costs were calculated retrospectively assuming the government payer’s perspective. Results Direct medical costs in an ABI population are substantial with mean cost in the first year post-injury per TBI and nTBI patient being $32132 and $38018 respectively. Among both TBI and nTBI patients those discharged to IR had significantly higher treatment costs than those not discharged to IR across all institutional and community settings. This tendency remained during the entire three-year follow-up period. Annual medical costs of patients hospitalized with a brain injury in Ontario in the first follow-up year were approximately $120.7 million for TBI and $368.7 million for nTBI. Acute care cost accounted for 46

  11. Long distance communication in the human brain: timing constraints for inter-hemispheric synchrony and the origin of brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of corpus callosum fiber composition reveals that inter-hemispheric transmission time may put constraints on the development of inter-hemispheric synchronic ensembles, especially in species with large brains like humans. In order to overcome this limitation, a subset of large-diameter callosal fibers are specialized for fast inter-hemispheric transmission, particularly in large-brained species. Nevertheless, the constraints on fast inter-hemispheric communication in large-brained species can somehow contribute to the development of ipsilateral, intrahemispheric networks, which might promote the development of brain lateralization.

  12. Movement: How the Brain Communicates with the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew B

    2016-03-10

    Voluntary movement is a result of signals transmitted through a communication channel that links the internal world in our minds to the physical world around us. Intention can be considered the desire to effect change on our environment, and this is contained in the signals from the brain, passed through the nervous system to converge on muscles that generate displacements and forces on our surroundings. The resulting changes in the world act to generate sensations that feed back to the nervous system, closing the control loop. This Perspective discusses the experimental and theoretical underpinnings of current models of movement generation and the way they are modulated by external information. Movement systems embody intentionality and prediction, two factors that are propelling a revolution in engineering. Development of movement models that include the complexities of the external world may allow a better understanding of the neuronal populations regulating these processes, as well as the development of solutions for autonomous vehicles and robots, and neural prostheses for those who are motor impaired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Instrumental, directive, and affective communication in hospital leaflets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Uribe Rivera, Francisco Javier; Castiel, Luis David

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the typical semantic systems extracted from hospital staff communicative resources which attempt to validate information as an "object" to be transferred to patients. We describe the models of textual communication in 58 patient information leaflets from five hospital units in Brazil, gathered from 1996 to 2002. Three categories were identified, based on the theory of speech acts (Austin, Searle, and Habermas): 1) cognitive-instrumental utterances: descriptions by means of technical terms validated by self-referred, incomplete, or inaccessible argumentation, with an implicit educational function; 2) technical-directive utterances: self-referred (to the context of the source domains), with a shifting of everyday acts to a technical terrain with a disciplinary function and impersonal features; and 3) expressive modulations: need for inter-subjective connections to strengthen bonds of trust and a tendency to use childish arguments. We conclude that the three categories displayed: fragmentary sources; assumption of univocal messages and invariable use of information (idealized motivations and interests, apart from individualized perspectives); and assumption of universal interests as generators of knowledge.

  14. Quantum Secure Direct Communication by Using Three-Dimensional Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Gong Yanxiao; Xu Ping; Zhu Shining; Zhan Youbang

    2011-01-01

    We propose two schemes for realizing quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) by using a set of ordered two-photon three-dimensional hyperentangled states entangled in two degrees of freedom (DOFs) as quantum information channels. In the first scheme, the photons from Bob to Alice are transmitted only once. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs single-photon two-DOF Bell bases measurements on her photons. This scheme has better security than former QSDC protocols. In the second scheme, Bob transmits photons to Alice twice. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs two-photon Bell bases measurements on each DOF. The scheme has more information capacity than former QSDC protocols. (general)

  15. Axonal Conduction Delays, Brain State, and Corticogeniculate Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelzel, Carl R; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Swadlow, Harvey A

    2017-06-28

    Thalamocortical conduction times are short, but layer 6 corticothalamic axons display an enormous range of conduction times, some exceeding 40-50 ms. Here, we investigate (1) how axonal conduction times of corticogeniculate (CG) neurons are related to the visual information conveyed to the thalamus, and (2) how alert versus nonalert awake brain states affect visual processing across the spectrum of CG conduction times. In awake female Dutch-Belted rabbits, we found 58% of CG neurons to be visually responsive, and 42% to be unresponsive. All responsive CG neurons had simple, orientation-selective receptive fields, and generated sustained responses to stationary stimuli. CG axonal conduction times were strongly related to modulated firing rates (F1 values) generated by drifting grating stimuli, and their associated interspike interval distributions, suggesting a continuum of visual responsiveness spanning the spectrum of axonal conduction times. CG conduction times were also significantly related to visual response latency, contrast sensitivity (C-50 values), directional selectivity, and optimal stimulus velocity. Increasing alertness did not cause visually unresponsive CG neurons to become responsive and did not change the response linearity (F1/F0 ratios) of visually responsive CG neurons. However, for visually responsive CG neurons, increased alertness nearly doubled the modulated response amplitude to optimal visual stimulation (F1 values), significantly shortened response latency, and dramatically increased response reliability. These effects of alertness were uniform across the broad spectrum of CG axonal conduction times. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Corticothalamic neurons of layer 6 send a dense feedback projection to thalamic nuclei that provide input to sensory neocortex. While sensory information reaches the cortex after brief thalamocortical axonal delays, corticothalamic axons can exhibit conduction delays of <2 ms to 40-50 ms. Here, in the corticogeniculate

  16. When thoughts become action: an fMRI paradigm to study volitional brain activity in non-communicative brain injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M; Coleman, M R; Davis, M H; Hampshire, A; Bor, D; Moonen, G; Maquet, P A; Pickard, J D; Laureys, S; Owen, A M

    2007-07-01

    The assessment of voluntary behavior in non-communicative brain injured patients is often challenging due to the existence of profound motor impairment. In the absence of a full understanding of the neural correlates of consciousness, even a normal activation in response to passive sensory stimulation cannot be considered as proof of the presence of awareness in these patients. In contrast, predicted activation in response to the instruction to perform a mental imagery task would provide evidence of voluntary task-dependent brain activity, and hence of consciousness, in non-communicative patients. However, no data yet exist to indicate which imagery instructions would yield reliable single subject activation. The aim of the present study was to establish such a paradigm in healthy volunteers. Two exploratory experiments evaluated the reproducibility of individual brain activation elicited by four distinct mental imagery tasks. The two most robust mental imagery tasks were found to be spatial navigation and motor imagery. In a third experiment, where these two tasks were directly compared, differentiation of each task from one another and from rest periods was assessed blindly using a priori criteria and was correct for every volunteer. The spatial navigation and motor imagery tasks described here permit the identification of volitional brain activation at the single subject level, without a motor response. Volunteer as well as patient data [Owen, A.M., Coleman, M.R., Boly, M., Davis, M.H., Laureys, S., Pickard J.D., 2006. Detecting awareness in the vegetative state. Science 313, 1402] strongly suggest that this paradigm may provide a method for assessing the presence of volitional brain activity, and thus of consciousness, in non-communicative brain-injured patients.

  17. Eye-gaze independent EEG-based brain-computer interfaces for communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, A.; Mattia, D.; Simione, L.; Olivetti, M.; Cincotti, F.

    2012-08-01

    The present review systematically examines the literature reporting gaze independent interaction modalities in non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication. BCIs measure signals related to specific brain activity and translate them into device control signals. This technology can be used to provide users with severe motor disability (e.g. late stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); acquired brain injury) with an assistive device that does not rely on muscular contraction. Most of the studies on BCIs explored mental tasks and paradigms using visual modality. Considering that in ALS patients the oculomotor control can deteriorate and also other potential users could have impaired visual function, tactile and auditory modalities have been investigated over the past years to seek alternative BCI systems which are independent from vision. In addition, various attentional mechanisms, such as covert attention and feature-directed attention, have been investigated to develop gaze independent visual-based BCI paradigms. Three areas of research were considered in the present review: (i) auditory BCIs, (ii) tactile BCIs and (iii) independent visual BCIs. Out of a total of 130 search results, 34 articles were selected on the basis of pre-defined exclusion criteria. Thirteen articles dealt with independent visual BCIs, 15 reported on auditory BCIs and the last six on tactile BCIs, respectively. From the review of the available literature, it can be concluded that a crucial point is represented by the trade-off between BCI systems/paradigms with high accuracy and speed, but highly demanding in terms of attention and memory load, and systems requiring lower cognitive effort but with a limited amount of communicable information. These issues should be considered as priorities to be explored in future studies to meet users’ requirements in a real-life scenario.

  18. New Directions in the Study of Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Donald; Farace, Richard V.

    For knowledge of organizational communication to increase, new concepts must be developed and correlative or even causal relationships between communication concepts and other organizational variables must be established. Here, meanings of "organization,""information,""communication," and "other organizational variables" are explicated, and three…

  19. Development of three-dimensional brain arteriovenous malformation model for patient communication and young neurosurgeon education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mengqi; Chen, Guangzhong; Qin, Kun; Ding, Xiaowen; Zhou, Dong; Peng, Chao; Zeng, Shaojian; Deng, Xianming

    2018-01-15

    Rapid prototyping technology is used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) models and facilitate presurgical patient communication and medical education for young surgeons. Two intracranial AVM cases were selected for this study. Using 3D CT angiography or 3D rotational angiography images, the brain AVM models were reconstructed on personal computer and the rapid prototyping process was completed using a 3D printer. The size and morphology of the models were compared to brain digital subtraction arteriography of the same patients. 3D brain AVM models were used for preoperative patient communication and young neurosurgeon education. Two brain AVM models were successfully produced. By neurosurgeons' evaluation, the printed models have high fidelity with the actual brain AVM structures of the patients. The patient responded positively toward the brain AVM model specific to himself. Twenty surgical residents from residency programs tested the brain AVM models and provided positive feedback on their usefulness as educational tool and resemblance to real brain AVM structures. Patient-specific 3D printed models of brain AVM can be constructed with high fidelity. 3D printed brain AVM models are proved to be helpful in preoperative patient consultation, surgical planning and resident training.

  20. Return to Work and Social Communication Ability Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jacinta M.; Bracy, Christine A.; Snow, Pamela C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Return to competitive employment presents a major challenge to adults who survive traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was undertaken to better understand factors that shape employment outcome by comparing the communication profiles and self-awareness of communication deficits of adults who return to and maintain employment with those…

  1. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Communication Treatments for Individuals with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…

  2. Trends & Challenges in Neuroengineering: Towards ‘Intelligent’ Neuroprostheses through Brain-‘Brain Inspired Systems’ Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vassanelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Future technologies aiming at restoring and enhancing organs function will intimately rely on near-physiological and energy-efficient communication between living and artificial biomimetic systems. Interfacing brain-inspired devices with the real brain is at the forefront of such emerging field, with the term ‘neurobiohybrids’ indicating all those systems where such interaction is established. We argue that achieving a ‘high-level’ communication and functional synergy between natural and artificial neuronal networks in vivo, will allow the development of a heterogeneous world of neurobiohybrids, which will include ‘living robots’ but will also embrace ‘intelligent’ neuroprostheses for augmentation of brain function. The societal and economical impact of intelligent neuroprostheses is likely to be potentially strong, as they will offer novel therapeutic perspectives for a number of diseases, and going beyond classical pharmaceutical schemes. However, they will unavoidably raise fundamental ethical questions on the intermingling between man and machine and, more specifically, on how deeply it should be allowed that brain processing is affected by implanted ‘intelligent’ artificial systems.Following this perspective, we provide the reader with insights on ongoing developments and trends in the field of neurobiohybrids. We address the topic also from a ‘community building’ perspective, showing through a quantitative bibliographic analysis, how scientists working on the engineering of brain-inspired devices and brain-machine interfaces are increasing their interactions. We foresee that such trend preludes to a formidable technological and scientific revolution in brain-machine communication and to the opening of new avenues for restoring or even augmenting brain function for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Quantum secure direct communication scheme using a W state and teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Haijing; Song Heshan

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is proposed, where a three-qubit symmetric W state functions as a quantum channel. Two legitimate communicators can transmit their secret information by using quantum teleportation and local measurements

  4. Cholinergic neuromodulation controls directed temporal communication in neocortex in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Roopun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12 – 80 Hz. Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex.

  5. Cholinergic Neuromodulation Controls Directed Temporal Communication in Neocortex in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopun, Anita K.; LeBeau, Fiona E.N.; Rammell, James; Cunningham, Mark O.; Traub, Roger D.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12–80 Hz). Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex. PMID:20407636

  6. A communication training perspective on AND versus DNR directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tomer T; Coyle, Nessa

    2015-04-01

    From a communication perspective, the term "do not resuscitate" (DNR) is challenging to use in end-of-life discussions because it omits the goals of care. An alternative, "Allow Natural Death" (AND), has been proposed as a better way of framing this palliative care discussion. We present a case where a nurse unsuccessfully discusses end-of-life goals of care using the term DNR. Subsequently, with the aid of a communication trainer, he is coached to successfully use the term "AND" to facilitate this discussion and advance his goal of palliative care communication and planning. We contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the term AND from the communication training perspective and suggest that AND-framing language replace DNR as a better way to facilitate meaningful end-of-life communication. One well-designed, randomized, controlled simulation study supports this practice. We also consider the communication implications of "natural" versus "unnatural" death.

  7. Direct cellular vs. indirect pager communication during orthopaedic surgical procedures: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gil R; Taksali, Sudeep; Smart, Ryan; Baumgaertner, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone use within the hospital setting has increased as physicians, nurses, and ancillary staff incorporate wireless technologies in improving efficiencies, cost, and maintaining patient safety and high quality healthcare [11]. Through the use of wireless, cellular communication, an overall improvement in communication accuracy and efficiency between intraoperative orthopaedic surgeons and floor nurses may be achieved. Both communication types occurred while the surgeon was scrubbed in the operating room (OR). Indirect communication occurred when the pager call was answered by the OR circulating nurse with communication between the surgeon, circulating nurse, and floor nurse. Direct communication consisted of cell phone and Jabra Bluetooth BT200 wireless ear piece used by the surgeon. The surgeon answered the floor nurse's cellular call by phone ring-activated automatic answering. The study was conducted during scheduled orthopaedic procedures. An independent observer measured time variables with a stop-watch while orthopaedic nurses randomly called via pager or cell phone. The nurses asked for patient caregiver confirmation and answers to 30 different patient-care questions. Sixty trials were performed with 30 cell and 30 page communications. Direct cellular communication showed a better response rate than indirect page (Cell 100%, Page 73%). Indirect page communication allowed a 27% and 33% error rate with patient problem and surgeon solution communications, respectively. There were no reported communication errors while using direct wireless, cellular communication. When compared to page communications, cellular communications showed statistically significant improvements in mean time intervals in response time (Cell = 11s, Page = 211s), correct patient identification (Cell = 5s, Page = 172s), patient problem and solution time (Cell = 13s, Page = 189s), and total communication time (Cell = 32s, Page = 250s) (s = seconds, all P < 0.001). Floor nurse

  8. Direct Signaling from Astrocytes to Neurons in Cultures of Mammalian Brain Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, Maiken

    1994-03-01

    Although astrocytes have been considered to be supportive, rather than transmissive, in the adult nervous system, recent studies have challenged this assumption by demonstrating that astrocytes possess functional neurotransmitter receptors. Astrocytes are now shown to directly modulate the free cytosolic calcium, and hence transmission characteristics, of neighboring neurons. When a focal electric field potential was applied to single astrocytes in mixed cultures of rat forebrain astrocytes and neurons, a prompt elevation of calcium occurred in the target cell. This in turn triggered a wave of calcium increase, which propagated from astrocyte to astrocyte. Neurons resting on these astrocytes responded with large increases in their concentration of cytosolic calcium. The gap junction blocker octanol attenuated the neuronal response, which suggests that the astrocytic-neuronal signaling is mediated through intercellular connections rather than synaptically. This neuronal response to local astrocytic stimulation may mediate local intercellular communication within the brain.

  9. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sue eGrenham; Gerard eClarke; Gerard eClarke; John F Cryan; John F Cryan; Timothy G Dinan; Timothy G Dinan

    2011-01-01

    Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous i...

  10. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  11. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  12. c-Fos expression in the paternal mouse brain induced by communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Liang, Mingkun; Akther, Shirin; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-09-11

    Appropriate parental care by fathers greatly facilitates health in human family life. Much less is known from animal studies regarding the factors and neural circuitry that affect paternal behavior compared with those affecting maternal behavior. We recently reported that ICR mouse sires displayed maternal-like retrieval behavior when they were separated from pups and caged with their mates (co-housing) because the sires receive communicative interactions via ultrasonic and pheromone signals from the dams. We investigated the brain structures involved in regulating this activity by quantifying c-Fos-immunoreactive cells as neuronal activation markers in the neural pathway of male parental behavior. c-Fos expression in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) was significantly higher in sires that exhibited retrieval behavior (retrievers) than those with no such behavior (non-retrievers). Identical increased expression was found in the mPOA region in the retrievers stimulated by ultrasonic vocalizations or pheromones from their mates. Such increases in expression were not observed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) or ventral palladium (VP). On the following day that we identified the families of the retrievers or non-retrievers, c-Fos expression in neuronal subsets in the mPOA, VTA, NAcc and VP was much higher in the retriever sires when they isolated together with their mates in new cages. This difference was not observed in the singly isolated retriever sires in new cages. The non-retriever sires did not display expression changes in the four brain regions that were assessed. The mPOA neurons appeared to be activated by direct communicative interactions with mate dams, including ultrasonic vocalizations and pheromones. The mPOA-VTA-NAcc-VP neural circuit appears to be involved in paternal retrieval behavior.

  13. A High Density Electrophysiological Data Analysis System for a Peripheral Nerve Interface Communicating with Individual Neurons in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    of-the-art instrumentation to communicate with individual neurons in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. The major theme of the research is...Nerve Interface Communicating with Individual Neurons in the Brain The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author... Communicating with Individual Neurons in the Brain Report Title The high density electrophysiological data acquisition system obtained through this

  14. Validation of network communicability metrics for the analysis of brain structural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Andreotti

    Full Text Available Computational network analysis provides new methods to analyze the brain's structural organization based on diffusion imaging tractography data. Networks are characterized by global and local metrics that have recently given promising insights into diagnosis and the further understanding of psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Most of these metrics are based on the idea that information in a network flows along the shortest paths. In contrast to this notion, communicability is a broader measure of connectivity which assumes that information could flow along all possible paths between two nodes. In our work, the features of network metrics related to communicability were explored for the first time in the healthy structural brain network. In addition, the sensitivity of such metrics was analysed using simulated lesions to specific nodes and network connections. Results showed advantages of communicability over conventional metrics in detecting densely connected nodes as well as subsets of nodes vulnerable to lesions. In addition, communicability centrality was shown to be widely affected by the lesions and the changes were negatively correlated with the distance from lesion site. In summary, our analysis suggests that communicability metrics that may provide an insight into the integrative properties of the structural brain network and that these metrics may be useful for the analysis of brain networks in the presence of lesions. Nevertheless, the interpretation of communicability is not straightforward; hence these metrics should be used as a supplement to the more standard connectivity network metrics.

  15. Lossless quantum data compression and secure direct communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Kim

    2004-07-01

    This thesis deals with the encoding and transmission of information through a quantum channel. A quantum channel is a quantum mechanical system whose state is manipulated by a sender and read out by a receiver. The individual state of the channel represents the message. The two topics of the thesis comprise 1) the possibility of compressing a message stored in a quantum channel without loss of information and 2) the possibility to communicate a message directly from one party to another in a secure manner, that is, a third party is not able to eavesdrop the message without being detected. The main results of the thesis are the following. A general framework for variable-length quantum codes is worked out. These codes are necessary to make lossless compression possible. Due to the quantum nature of the channel, the encoded messages are in general in a superposition of different lengths. It is found to be impossible to compress a quantum message without loss of information if the message is not apriori known to the sender. In the other case it is shown that lossless quantum data compression is possible and a lower bound on the compression rate is derived. Furthermore, an explicit compression scheme is constructed that works for arbitrarily given source message ensembles. A quantum cryptographic protocol - the “ping-pong protocol” - is presented that realizes the secure direct communication of classical messages through a quantum channel. The security of the protocol against arbitrary eavesdropping attacks is proven for the case of an ideal quantum channel. In contrast to other quantum cryptographic protocols, the ping-pong protocol is deterministic and can thus be used to transmit a random key as well as a composed message. The protocol is perfectly secure for the transmission of a key, and it is quasi-secure for the direct transmission of a message. The latter means that the probability of successful eavesdropping exponentially decreases with the length of the

  16. 26 CFR 56.4911-2 - Lobbying expenditures, direct lobbying communications, and grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rebuttable presumption regarding certain paid mass media communications) and § 56.4911-5 (special, more... mass media communications about highly publicized legislation. Paragraph (d) of this section contains... the farm economy. The advertisement is not a mass media communication described in paragraph (b)(5)(ii...

  17. Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct electrical stimulation - brain mapping methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, K.; Tanova, R.; Busarski, A.; Penkov, M.; Penev, L.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery requires accurate preoperative and intraoperative localization of brain pathologies but also of brain functions. The presence of individual variations in healthy subjects and the shift of brain functions in brain diseases provoke the introduction of various methods for brain mapping. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most widespread methods for brain mapping: Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES). This study included 4 patients with preoperative brain mapping using Wada-test and fMRI. Intraoperative mapping with DES during awake craniotomy was performed in one case. The histopathological diagnosis was low-grade glioma in 2 cases, cortical dysplasia (1 patient) and arteriovenous malformation (1 patient). The brain mapping permits total lesion resection in three of four patients. There was no new postoperative deficit despite surgery near or within functional brain areas. Brain plasticity provoking shift of eloquent areas from their usual locations was observed in two cases. The brain mapping methods allow surgery in eloquent brain areas recognized in the past as 'forbidden areas'. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. The precise location of brain functions and pathologies frequently requires combination of different brain mapping methods. (authors)

  18. Hermetic electronic packaging of an implantable brain-machine-interface with transcutaneous optical data communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettler, Martin; Kohler, Fabian; Ordonez, Juan S; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Future brain-computer-interfaces (BCIs) for severely impaired patients are implanted to electrically contact the brain tissue. Avoiding percutaneous cables requires amplifier and telemetry electronics to be implanted too. We developed a hermetic package that protects the electronic circuitry of a BCI from body moisture while permitting infrared communication through the package wall made from alumina ceramic. The ceramic package is casted in medical grade silicone adhesive, for which we identified MED2-4013 as a promising candidate.

  19. A Heuristic Approach to Intra-Brain Communications Using Chaos in a Recurrent Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Ken-ichiro; Mori, Ryota; Sato, Ryuichi; Nara, Shigetoshi

    2011-09-01

    To approach functional roles of chaos in brain, a heuristic model to consider mechanisms of intra-brain communications is proposed. The key idea is to use chaos in firing pattern dynamics of a recurrent neural network consisting of birary state neurons, as propagation medium of pulse signals. Computer experiments and numerical methods are introduced to evaluate signal transport characteristics by calculating correlation functions between sending neurons and receiving neurons of pulse signals.

  20. Quantum secure direct communication network with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Li Chunyan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hongyu

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the four requirements for a real point-to-point quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) first, and then present two efficient QSDC network schemes with an N ordered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. Any one of the authorized users can communicate another one on the network securely and directly

  1. 32 CFR 705.4 - Communication directly with private organizations and individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication directly with private... Communication directly with private organizations and individuals. (a) Questions from the public and requests... current date may be purchased from the National Archives. Details are available from: Audio-Visual Branch...

  2. Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Li Yansong; Liu Xiaoshu; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2005-01-01

    A protocol for quantum secure direct communication with quantum superdense coding is proposed. It combines the ideas of block transmission, the ping-pong quantum secure direct communication protocol, and quantum superdense coding. It has the advantage of being secure and of high source capacity

  3. A Contingency Approach to Communication Skill Importance: The Impact of Occupation, Direction, and Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Vincent S.; Larsen, Janet K.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of direction and occupation on the importance of communication skills for entry-level positions in finance, management, engineering, and law. Results substantiate a three-dimensional model (based on direction, occupation, and position) for the examination and application of communication skill importance in organization. (JD)

  4. A comparison of two assessments of high level cognitive communication disorders in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Tanya; Scott, Amanda; Bond, Annabelle; Paul, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently encounter cognitive communication disorders. Deficits can be subtle but can seriously influence an individual's ability to achieve life goals. Feedback from rehabilitation facilities indicated that high level cognitive communication disorders are not consistently identified in the acute setting. This study aimed to compare the cognitive communication results from two screening assessments, the Cognistat and the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT), in participants with a mild traumatic brain injury and to relate these findings to a range of prognostic indicators. Eighty-three adults post-TBI (16-81 years; 79.5% males) were recruited at an acute trauma centre. The language components of the two tests were analysed. The CLQT identified more participants with an impairment in language than the Cognistat, 19.3% compared to 1.2% (p communication deficits than the Cognistat in the acute setting.

  5. Childhood brain tumors: epidemiology, current management and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Ian F; Jakacki, Regina I

    2011-07-26

    Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. With the increasingly widespread availability of MRI, the incidence of childhood brain tumors seemed to rise in the 1980s, but has subsequently remained relatively stable. However, management of brain tumors in children has evolved substantially during this time, reflecting refinements in classification of tumors, delineation of risk groups within histological subsets of tumors, and incorporation of molecular techniques to further define tumor subgroups. Although considerable progress has been made in the outcomes of certain tumors, prognosis in other childhood brain tumor types is poor. Among the tumor groups with more-favorable outcomes, attention has been focused on reducing long-term morbidity without sacrificing survival rates. Studies for high-risk groups have examined the use of intensive therapy or novel, molecularly targeted approaches to improve disease control rates. In addition to reviewing the literature and providing an overview of the complexities in diagnosing childhood brain tumors, we will discuss advances in the treatment and categorization of several tumor types in which progress has been most apparent, as well as those in which improvements have been lacking. The latest insights from molecular correlative studies that hold potential for future refinements in therapy will also be discussed.

  6. Driving and driven architectures of directed small-world human brain functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaogan Yan

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a small-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions. However, most of these studies have only focused on undirected connections between regions in which the directions of information flow are not taken into account. How the brain regions causally influence each other and how the directed network of human brain is topologically organized remain largely unknown. Here, we applied linear multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA and graph theoretical approaches to a resting-state functional MRI dataset with a large cohort of young healthy participants (n = 86 to explore connectivity patterns of the population-based whole-brain functional directed network. This directed brain network exhibited prominent small-world properties, which obviously improved previous results of functional MRI studies showing weak small-world properties in the directed brain networks in terms of a kernel-based GCA and individual analysis. This brain network also showed significant modular structures associated with 5 well known subsystems: fronto-parietal, visual, paralimbic/limbic, subcortical and primary systems. Importantly, we identified several driving hubs predominantly located in the components of the attentional network (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, insula and fusiform gyrus and several driven hubs predominantly located in the components of the default mode network (e.g., the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Further split-half analyses indicated that our results were highly reproducible between two

  7. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  8. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed....... Participants with medium-to-severe ABI self-rated their interpersonal communication skills using the modified ICCS. Cronbach Alpha test was performed on both scales followed by a correlation analysis. Results: Seventeen participants with medium-to-severe ABI and staff and relatives (n¼37) were involved...... of the proxy-rating revealed six meaningful sub-groups of interpersonal communication competencies....

  9. Reply to 'Comment on 'Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time-pad''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2005-01-01

    We reply to the preceding comment which focused on whether there exists a quantum privacy amplification technique for purifying the unknown single-photon states transmitted. In this Reply, we will show that quantum privacy amplification is principally possible, and a specific scheme for direct communication protocol based on single photons has been constructed and will be published elsewhere. Then the secure direct quantum communication is secure against the attack strategy in the preceding comment by using quantum privacy amplification directly

  10. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  11. Decoding of intended saccade direction in an oculomotor brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Brincat, Scott L.; Salazar-Gómez, Andrés F.; Panko, Mikhail; Guenther, Frank H.; Miller, Earl K.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To date, invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research has largely focused on replacing lost limb functions using signals from the hand/arm areas of motor cortex. However, the oculomotor system may be better suited to BCI applications involving rapid serial selection from spatial targets, such as choosing from a set of possible words displayed on a computer screen in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application. Here we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a BCI utilizing the oculomotor system. Approach. We developed a chronic intracortical BCI in monkeys to decode intended saccadic eye movement direction using activity from multiple frontal cortical areas. Main results. Intended saccade direction could be decoded in real time with high accuracy, particularly at contralateral locations. Accurate decoding was evident even at the beginning of the BCI session; no extensive BCI experience was necessary. High-frequency (80-500 Hz) local field potential magnitude provided the best performance, even over spiking activity, thus simplifying future BCI applications. Most of the information came from the frontal and supplementary eye fields, with relatively little contribution from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significance. Our results support the feasibility of high-accuracy intracortical oculomotor BCIs that require little or no practice to operate and may be ideally suited for ‘point and click’ computer operation as used in most current AAC systems.

  12. Perspectives on Treatment for Communication Deficits Associated with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the current treatment research for communication (prosodic, discourse, and pragmatic) deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage and to provide suggestions for treatment selection given the paucity of evidence specifically for this population. Method: The discussion covers (a) clinical decision processes and…

  13. Left and Right Hemisphere Brain Functions and Symbolic vs. Spontaneous Communication Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ross

    Recent findings on the communicative functions of the left versus the right hemisphere of the brain may suggest that there is a distinction between the intentional use of symbols for the sending of specific messages or propositions (language, signing, pantomime) and spontaneous expressive behaviors that signal their meaning through a natural…

  14. Brain Insulin Signaling and Alzheimer's Disease: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Schiöth, Helgi B.; Craft, Suzanne; Brooks, Samantha J.; Frey, William H.; Benedict, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Insulin receptors in the brain are found in high densities in the hippocampus, a region that is fundamentally involved in the acquisition, consolidation, and recollection of new information. Using the intranasal method, which effectively bypasses the blood–brain barrier to deliver and target insulin directly from the nose to the brain, a series of experiments involving healthy humans has shown that increased central nervous system (CNS) insulin action enhances learning and memory processes as...

  15. Role of Self-Directed Learning in Communication Competence and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngshin; Yun, Soon Young; Kim, Sun-Ae; Ahn, Eun-Kyong; Jung, Mi Sook

    2015-10-01

    Although effective self-directed learning (SDL) has been shown to improve clinical performance, little is known about its role between communication competence and communication self-efficacy in nursing students. This study aimed to identify whether SDL mediates the relationship between communication competence and communication self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample of 213 nursing students taking a basic fundamentals of nursing course. A path diagram, using structural equation modeling, was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of communication competence on communication self-efficacy, controlling for SDL as a mediator. A structural equation model confirmed direct and indirect effects of communication competence on communication self-efficacy when SDL was controlled as a mediator. An appropriate fit to the data was identified in this mediation model of SDL. For enhancing self-efficacy regarding communication skill, the specified SDL program based on the level of communication competence will yield more effective results. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Bottlenecks to Clinical Translation of Direct Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijail Demian Serruya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite several decades of research into novel brain-implantable devices to treat a range of diseases, only two- cochlear implants for sensorineural hearing loss and deep brain stimulation for movement disorders- have yielded any appreciable clinical benefit. Obstacles to translation include technical factors (e.g., signal loss due to gliosis or micromotion, lack of awareness of current clinical options for patients that the new therapy must outperform, traversing between federal and corporate funding needed to support clinical trials, and insufficient management expertise. This commentary reviews these obstacles preventing the translation of promising new neurotechnologies into clinical application and suggests some principles that interdisciplinary teams in academia and industry could adopt to enhance their chances of success.

  17. Direct observation during surgery shows preservation of cerebral microcirculation in patients with traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bárcena, Jon; Romay, Eduardo; Llompart-Pou, Juan Antonio; Ibáñez, Javier; Brell, Marta; Llinás, Pedro; González, Elsa; Merenda, Amedeo; Ince, Can; Bullock, Ross

    2015-01-01

    To describe the alterations of the cortical microcirculation of the brain (blood flow and vessel density) in TBI patients who and compare them with a control group. Prospective and observational study in a third-level university hospital. Cortical microcirculation in the brain was directly observed

  18. Development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI): A screening tool for identifying acquired communication disorders in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth M; Ciccone, Natalie; Hersh, Deborah; Katzenellebogen, Judith; Coffin, Juli; Thompson, Sandra; Flicker, Leon; Hayward, Colleen; Woods, Deborah; McAllister, Meaghan

    2017-06-01

    Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments. The literature searches revealed no existing screening tool for ACD in these populations, but identified tools in the areas of cognition and social-emotional wellbeing. Articles retrieved described details of the content and style of these tools, with recommendations for the development and administration of a new tool. The findings from the interview and focus group views were consistent with the approach recommended in the literature. There is a need for a screening tool for ACD to be developed but any tool must be informed by knowledge of Aboriginal language, culture and community input in order to be acceptable and valid.

  19. Numerical simulation of the effect of dissipation and phase fluctuation in a direct communication scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zhang, Jun-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state. (paper)

  20. Numerical simulation of the effect of dissipation and phase fluctuation in a direct communication scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state.

  1. Globalizing Technical Communication Programs: Visions, Challenges, and Emerging Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia

    Speakers Maylath, Mousten and Vandepitte, co-authors of two chapters on what they call the Trans-Atlantic Project, will describe the programmatic framework for establishing the collaborative partnerships in which students studying technical writing in the U.S. work with students studying...... help achieve common program objectives, particularly in regard to intercultural negotiation and mediation processes. In addition, they will describe how they met course-specific objectives. For the technical writing course, such objectives included broadening students' awareness of the needs of readers...... translation in Europe to create procedural documents in Danish, Dutch, English, French, German and/or Italian. They will provide guidelines for  how international partnerships of this kind can be established between technical communication programs and translation programs anywhere, even in the abscence...

  2. Hybrid Polling Method for Direct Link Communication for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.

  3. Semi-quantum communication: protocols for key agreement, controlled secure direct communication and dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.

  4. Brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer's disease: current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Craft, Suzanne; Brooks, Samantha J; Frey, William H; Benedict, Christian

    2012-08-01

    Insulin receptors in the brain are found in high densities in the hippocampus, a region that is fundamentally involved in the acquisition, consolidation, and recollection of new information. Using the intranasal method, which effectively bypasses the blood-brain barrier to deliver and target insulin directly from the nose to the brain, a series of experiments involving healthy humans has shown that increased central nervous system (CNS) insulin action enhances learning and memory processes associated with the hippocampus. Since Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to CNS insulin resistance, decreased expression of insulin and insulin receptor genes and attenuated permeation of blood-borne insulin across the blood-brain barrier, impaired brain insulin signaling could partially account for the cognitive deficits associated with this disease. Considering that insulin mitigates hippocampal synapse vulnerability to amyloid beta and inhibits the phosphorylation of tau, pharmacological strategies bolstering brain insulin signaling, such as intranasal insulin, could have significant therapeutic potential to deter AD pathogenesis.

  5. Bi-directional Multi Dimension CAP Transmission for Smart Grid Communication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Binti Othman, Maisara; Pang, Xiaodan

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency.......We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency....

  6. Evaluating communication to optimise consumer-directed energy efficiency interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Awareness campaigns, education and training programmes, label schemes and smart metering are all initiatives based on the principle that more and better information will encourage consumers to use less energy. Initiatives of this type can realise efficiency savings of up to 30%, and are likely to remain politically popular while preferred by the public to legislation or fines. While widespread, such programmes can have mixed performance, with savings often not reaching potential. This article investigates whether existing theoretical models can usefully be combined for evaluations of such message-oriented programmes. To do this it examines relationships between the variables of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using empirical data from participants exposed to energy behaviour change projects. Analysis revealed that when used together, the theories may offer insight into the impact of messaging. While a single exploratory study can only describe what has occurred, it offers initial evidence to advocate further analysis of the potential of the combined framework. The author offers an illustration of how the framework might be utilised by other schemes by example of its application to a major EU project to save energy in Europe’s public buildings. - Highlights: • Consumer energy saving schemes have huge potential as a route to emissions reduction. • Mixed performance could be addressed by focus on impact of communication. • Evidence from exploratory study supports case for proposed evaluation framework. • Framework is illustrated at varying stages: planning, mid-term, and impact

  7. Multimodal communication in animals, humans and robots: an introduction to perspectives in brain-inspired informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermter, S; Page, M; Knowles, M; Gallese, V; Pulvermüller, F; Taylor, J

    2009-03-01

    Recent years have seen convergence in research on brain mechanisms and neurocomputational approaches, culminating in the creation of a new generation of robots whose artificial "brains" respect neuroscience principles and whose "cognitive" systems venture into higher cognitive domains such as planning and action sequencing, complex object and concept processing, and language. The present article gives an overview of selected projects in this general multidisciplinary field. The work reviewed centres on research funded by the EU in the context of the New and Emergent Science and Technology, NEST, funding scheme highlighting the topic "What it means to be human". Examples of such projects include learning by imitation (Edici project), examining the origin of human rule-based reasoning (Far), studying the neural origins of language (Neurocom), exploring the evolutionary origins of the human mind (Pkb140404), researching into verbal and non-verbal communication (Refcom), using and interpreting signs (Sedsu), characterising human language by structural complexity (Chlasc), and representing abstract concepts (Abstract). Each of the communication-centred research projects revealed individual insights; however, there had been little overall analysis of results and hypotheses. In the Specific Support Action Nestcom, we proposed to analyse some NEST projects focusing on the central question "What it means to communicate" and to review, understand and integrate the results of previous communication-related research, in order to develop and communicate multimodal experimental hypotheses for investigation by future projects. The present special issue includes a range of papers on the interplay between neuroinformatics, brain science and robotics in the general area of higher cognitive functions and multimodal communication. These papers extend talks given at the NESTCOM workshops, at ICANN (http://www.his.sunderland.ac.uk/nestcom/workshop/icann.html) in Porto and at the first

  8. When the brain speaks for itself : exploiting hemodynamic brain signals for motor-independent communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorger, B.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of human interaction but can be compromised in several clinical conditions. In the so-called 'locked-in' syndrome (LIS), resulting from a severe motor paralysis, patients are literally confined to their own bodies, while at the same time being fully conscious

  9. Parent-child communication and psychological adjustment in children with a brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adduci, Annarita; Jankovic, Momcilo; Strazzer, Sandra; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo; Poggi, Geraldina

    2012-08-01

    Internalizing problems, anxiety, depression, withdrawal, and consequent social problems are frequently observed in children with brain tumors. The objective of this work is to describe the relationship between these psychological problems and the type of parent-child communication established about the disease. A group of 64 children surviving a brain tumor (aged 4-18 years) underwent psychological assessment by means of parent reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). A semi-structured interview with each child and their parents enabled us to classify the method of communication regarding the disease as "avoidance," "ineffective," and "effective." Demographic, clinical, and functional data relating to the disease were also collected. A significant relationship between the onset of Internalizing problems, withdrawal, anxiety-depression, and social problems and the presence of avoidance or ineffective communication about the disease was observed (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.01, respectively). These psychological problems did not prove to be associated to demographic or clinical variables; however, they were found to be related to the children's residual functional problems. By contrast, the method of communication proved to be unrelated to clinical or functional variables, but it was associated to demographic variables such as sex and age at assessment. Effective (complete, truthful, consistent, comprehensible, gradual and continuous, and tailored) communication to the child about his/her condition proved to be associated with a better psychological outcome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Medicine, market and communication: ethical considerations in regard to persuasive communication in direct-to-consumer genetic testing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Manuel; Schicktanz, Silke

    2018-06-05

    Commercial genetic testing offered over the internet, known as direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), currently is under ethical attack. A common critique aims at the limited validation of the tests as well as the risk of psycho-social stress or adaption of incorrect behavior by users triggered by misleading health information. Here, we examine in detail the specific role of advertising communication of DTC GT companies from a medical ethical perspective. Our argumentative analysis departs from the starting point that DTC GT operates at the intersection of two different contexts: medicine on the one hand and the market on the other. Both fields differ strongly with regard to their standards of communication practices and the underlying normative assumptions regarding autonomy and responsibility. Following a short review of the ethical contexts of medical and commercial communication, we provide case examples for persuasive messages of DTC GT websites and briefly analyze their design with a multi-modal approach to illustrate some of their problematic implications. We observe three main aspects in DTC GT advertising communication: (1) the use of material suggesting medical professional legitimacy as a trust-establishing tool, (2) the suggestion of empowerment as a benefit of using DTC GT services and (3) the narrative of responsibility as a persuasive appeal to a moral self-conception. While strengthening and respecting the autonomy of a patient is the focus in medical communication, specifically genetic counselling, persuasive communication is the normal mode in marketing of consumer goods, presuming an autonomous, rational, independent consumer. This creates tension in the context of DTC GT regarding the expectation and normative assessment of communication strategies. Our analysis can even the ground for a better understanding of ethical problems associated with intersections of medical and commercial communication and point to perspectives of analysis of

  11. Communication: Direct tests of single-parameter aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part of the die......This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part...... Tool-Narayanaswamy aging formalism, which makes it possible to calculate one relaxation curve directly from another without any fitting to analytical functions....

  12. Very short intracavity directional coupler for high-speed communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, Giora

    1993-07-01

    We propose a novel intracavity modulator/switch that consists of a directional-coupler located inside a Fabry-Perot cavity. The back mirror of the cavity has a unit reflectivity so that both input and output signals are at the same side. In this way we obtain a two-port, single side element, with coupling length of 83.5 μm, which is the shortest modulation coupler proposed so far. The upper frequency limit due to photon lifetime is 275 GHz, which is well over the bandwidth constraints of microwave lumped structures. A unified approach for the analysis of this device and other similar structures is presented and discussed.

  13. Directional antenna array (DAA) for communications, control, and data link protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-06-01

    A next generation of Smart antennas with point-to-point communication and jam, spoof protection capability by verification of spatial position is offered. A directional antenna array (DAA) with narrow irradiation beam provides counter terrorism protection for communications, data link, control and GPS. Communications are "invisible" to guided missiles because of 20 dB smaller irradiation outside the beam and spatial separation. This solution can be implemented with current technology. Directional antennas have higher gain and can be multi-frequency or have wide frequency band in contrast to phase antenna arrays. This multi-directional antenna array provides a multi-functional communication network and simultaneously can be used for command control, data link and GPS.

  14. Communication and quality of life outcomes in people with acquired brain injury following project-based treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Behn, N.

    2016-01-01

    Communication impairments are common following acquired brain injury (ABI) and have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life (QOL) post-injury. While some treatments have improved communication skills, few have measured QOL, and even fewer have shown improved QOL for people with ABI following communication-based treatments. Project-based treatment is an alternative treatment approach that could have an impact on communication skills and QOL for people with ABI who are long-term post...

  15. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental ...

  16. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  18. Abnormal neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long-Chun; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Yue; Zhang, Min-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Hua; Zhao, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Guang-Yu

    2017-10-13

    The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods. We exerted the stimulating signal to the primary auditory cortices of the virtual brain and observed the brain region activations. We found that patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss presented weaker brain region activations in the auditory and language networks, but enhanced neural activities in the default mode network as compared with normally hearing subjects. Especially, the right cerebral hemisphere presented more changes than the left. Additionally, weaker neural activities in the primary auditor cortices were also strongly associated with poorer cognitive performance. Finally, causal analysis revealed several interactional circuits among activated brain regions, and these interregional causal interactions implied that abnormal neural activities of the directional brain networks in the deaf patients impacted cognitive function.

  19. Remediation of social communication impairments following traumatic brain injury using metacognitive strategy intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emma; Cornwell, Petrea; Copley, Anna; Doig, Emmah; Fleming, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    To perform a pilot study to evaluate whether a novel metacognitive, goal-based intervention improved and maintained the social communication skills of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eight community-dwelling participants with TBI completed three study phases: (1) baseline, (2) eight-week intervention targeting social communication impairments and (3) follow-up. Participants completed the Profile of Pragmatic Impairment in Communication (PPIC), LaTrobe Communication Questionnaire (LCQ) and Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) at the commencement of baseline phase, pre- and post-intervention and completion of the follow-up phase. During the intervention programme phase, participants attended two 1-hour therapy sessions (one individual; one group) per week focusing on remediating impaired social communication skills using metacognitive strategy intervention and goal-based therapy. Variable changes in PPIC feature-summary scores were observed post-intervention. A non-significant improvement in LCQ scores was also observed. There was a significant increase in GAS goal T-scores following the intervention, with six of the eight participants achieving or exceeding their expected level of performance on all goals. A goal-driven, metacognitive approach to intervention may assist individuals with TBI to achieve their personal social communication goals, with benefits reported by participants and observable during conversations. Further research is required.

  20. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  1. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks with Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Alshbatat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.

  2. Quantitative radioautographic determination of brain tyrosine hydroxylase after direct transfer into nitro-cellulose and immunochemical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, D.; Labatut, R.; Gillon, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    An improved quantitative immuno chemical determination of tyrosine hydroxylase brain concentrations was designed by using direct transfer into nitro-cellulose from 20 μm thick brain sections followed by immuno-detection and quantitative radioautography [fr

  3. Do you know what I mean? Brain oscillations and the understanding of communicative intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella eBrunetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pointing gesture allows children to communicate their intentions before the acquisition of language. In particular, two main purposes seem to underlie the gesture: to request a desired object (imperative pointing or to share attention on that object (declarative pointing. Since the imperative pointing has an instrumental goal and the declarative an interpersonal one, only the latter gesture is thought to signal the infant’s awareness of the communicative partner as a mental agent. The present study examined the neural responses of adult subjects with the aim to test the hypothesis that declarative rather than imperative pointing reflects mentalizing skills. Fourteen subjects were measured in a MEG environment including 4 conditions, based on the goal of the pointing–imperative or declarative–and the role of the subject–sender or receiver of pointing. Time-Frequency modulations of brain activity in each condition (Declarative Production and Comprehension, Imperative Production and Comprehension were analyzed. Both low BETA and high BETA power were stronger during Declarative than Imperative condition, in anterior cingulated cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus, respectively. Furthermore, high GAMMA activity was higher in right temporo-parietal junction during the sender than receiving condition. This suggests that communicative pointing modulated brain regions previously described in neuroimaging research as linked to social cognitive skills and that declarative pointing is more capable of eliciting that activation than imperative. Our results contribute to the understanding of the roles of brain rhythm dynamics in social cognition, thus supporting neural research on that topic during developmental both in typical and atypical conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder. In particular, the identification of relevant regions in a mature brain may stimulate a future work on the developmental changes of neural activation in

  4. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

  5. Multi-user bidirectional communication using isochronal synchronisation of array of chaotic directly modulated semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Bindu M.; John, Manu P.; Nandakumaran, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Isochronal synchronisation between the elements of an array of three mutually coupled directly modulated semiconductor lasers is utilized for the purpose of simultaneous bidirectional secure communication. Chaotic synchronisation is achieved by adding the coupling signal to the self feedback signal provided to each element of the array. A symmetric coupling is effective in inducing synchronisation between the elements of the array. This coupling scheme provides a direct link between every pair of elements thus making the method suitable for simultaneous bidirectional communication between them. Both analog and digital messages are successfully encrypted and decrypted simultaneously by each element of the array.

  6. Aspects of oral communication in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aline Nunes da; Beber, Bárbara Costa; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Rieder, Carlos Roberto de Mello; Dornelles, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been satisfactorily used to control the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about its impact on communication. This study aimed to characterize the aspects of cognition, language, speech, voice, and self-perception in two patients with PD, pre- and post- DBS implant surgery. The patients were assessed using a cognitive screening test, a brief language evaluation, a self-declared protocol, and an analysis of the aspects of voice and speech, which was conducted by a specialized Speech-language Therapist who was blinded for the study. At the pre-surgery assessment, Case I showed impairment regarding the aspects of cognition, language and voice, whereas Case II showed impairment only with respect to the voice aspect. The post-surgery evaluation of the cases showed an opposite pattern of the effect of DBS after analysis of the communication data: Case I, who presented greater impairment before the surgery, showed improvement in some aspects; Case II, who presented lower communicative impairment before the surgery, showed worsening in other aspects. This study shows that DBS may influence different communication aspects both positively and negatively. Factors associated with the different effects caused by DBS on the communication of patients with PD need to be further investigated.

  7. Sociosexual and communication deficits after traumatic injury to the developing murine brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette D Semple

    Full Text Available Despite the life-long implications of social and communication dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury, there is a poor understanding of these deficits in terms of their developmental trajectory and underlying mechanisms. In a well-characterized murine model of pediatric brain injury, we recently demonstrated that pronounced deficits in social interactions emerge across maturation to adulthood after injury at postnatal day (p 21, approximating a toddler-aged child. Extending these findings, we here hypothesized that these social deficits are dependent upon brain maturation at the time of injury, and coincide with abnormal sociosexual behaviors and communication. Age-dependent vulnerability of the developing brain to social deficits was addressed by comparing behavioral and neuroanatomical outcomes in mice injured at either a pediatric age (p21 or during adolescence (p35. Sociosexual behaviors including social investigation and mounting were evaluated in a resident-intruder paradigm at adulthood. These outcomes were complemented by assays of urine scent marking and ultrasonic vocalizations as indices of social communication. We provide evidence of sociosexual deficits after brain injury at p21, which manifest as reduced mounting behavior and scent marking towards an unfamiliar female at adulthood. In contrast, with the exception of the loss of social recognition in a three-chamber social approach task, mice that received TBI at adolescence were remarkably resilient to social deficits at adulthood. Increased emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs as well as preferential emission of high frequency USVs after injury was dependent upon both the stimulus and prior social experience. Contrary to the hypothesis that changes in white matter volume may underlie social dysfunction, injury at both p21 and p35 resulted in a similar degree of atrophy of the corpus callosum by adulthood. However, loss of hippocampal tissue was greater after p21

  8. Direct observation of weight-related communication in primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Calum T; Laidlaw, Anita H; Cecil, Joanne E

    2016-08-01

    Primary care is ideally placed to play an effective role in patient weight management; however, patient weight is seldom discussed in this context. A synthesis of studies that directly observe weight discussion in primary care is required to more comprehensively understand and improve primary care weight-related communication. To systematically identify and examine primary care observational research that investigates weight-related communication and its relationship to patient weight outcomes. A systematic review of literature published up to August 2015, using seven electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Scopus and PsycINFO), was conducted using search terms such as overweight, obese and/or doctor-patient communication. Twenty papers were included in the final review. Communication analysis focused predominantly on 'practitioner' use of specific patient-centred communication. Practitioner use of motivational interviewing was associated with improved patient weight-related outcomes, including patient weight loss and increased patient readiness to lose weight; however, few studies measured patient weight-related outcomes. Studies directly observing weight-related communication in primary care are scarce and limited by a lack of focus on patient communication and patient weight-related outcomes. Future research should measure practitioner and patient communications during weight discussion and their impact on patient weight-related outcomes. This knowledge may inform the development of a communication intervention to assist practitioners to more effectively discuss weight with their overweight and/or obese patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications : a survey conducted in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Straus, Sabine M. J. M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals.

  10. Spreading depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and are associated with poor outcome in brain trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Watanabe, Tomas; Bullock, M Ross

    2011-01-01

    , although prolonged events have not been observed in animal models. To determine whether detrimental penumbral-type depolarizations occur in human brain trauma, we analysed electrocorticographic recordings obtained by subdural electrode-strip monitoring during intensive care. Of 53 patients studied, 10......Cortical spreading depolarizations occur spontaneously after ischaemic, haemorrhagic and traumatic brain injury. Their effects vary spatially and temporally as graded phenomena, from infarction to complete recovery, and are reflected in the duration of depolarization measured by the negative direct...... current shift of electrocorticographic recordings. In the focal ischaemic penumbra, peri-infarct depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and cause progressive recruitment of the penumbra into the core infarct. In traumatic brain injury, the effects of spreading depolarizations are unknown...

  11. Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein- Podolsky-Rosen pair block

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Guo Deng; Xiao Shu Liu; 10.1103/PhysRevA.68.042317

    2003-01-01

    A protocol for quantum secure direct communication using blocks of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs is proposed. A set of ordered N EPR pairs is used as a data block for sending secret message directly. The ordered N EPR set is divided into two particle sequences, a checking sequence and a message-coding sequence. After transmitting the checking sequence, the two parties of communication check eavesdropping by measuring a fraction of particles randomly chosen, with random choice of two sets of measuring bases. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret message directly on the message-coding sequence and sends them to Bob. By combining the checking and message-coding sequences together, Bob is able to read out the encoded messages directly. The scheme is secure because an eavesdropper cannot get both sequences simultaneously. We also discuss issues in a noisy channel. (30 refs).

  12. Network-Assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) Direct Proximity Discovery with Underlay Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    ) direct communication between proximate devices. While (ii) is treated extensively in the recent literature, (i) has received relatively little attention. In this paper we analyze a network-assisted underlay proximity discovery protocol, where a cellular device can take the role of: announcer (which......Device-to-Device communications are expected to play an important role in current and future cellular generations, by increasing the spatial reuse of spectrum resources and enabling lower latency communication links. This paradigm has two fundamental building blocks: (i) proximity discovery and (ii......, we consider the case where the announcers underlay their messages in the downlink transmissions that are directed towards the monitoring devices. We propose a power control scheme applied to the downlink transmission, which copes with the underlay transmission via additional power expenditure, while...

  13. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  14. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  15. Direct estimation of functionals of density operators by local operations and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Carolina Moura; Horodecki, Pawel; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Kwek, L. C.; Ekert, Artur K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method of direct estimation of important properties of a shared bipartite quantum state, within the ''distant laboratories'' paradigm, using only local operations and classical communication. We apply this procedure to spectrum estimation of shared states, and locally implementable structural physical approximations to incompletely positive maps. This procedure can also be applied to the estimation of channel capacity and measures of entanglement

  16. Social communication features in children following moderate to severe acquired brain injury: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breau, Lynn M; Clark, Brenda; Scott, Ori; Wilkes, Courtney; Reynolds, Shawn; Ricci, Florencia; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R

    2015-04-01

    We compared the social communication deficits of children with moderate to severe acquired brain injury or autism spectrum disorder, while accounting for the role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Parents of 20 children aged 6 to 10 years (10 acquired brain injury; 10 autism spectrum disorder) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire, and Conners 3 Parent Short. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between groups in Social Communication Questionnaire restricted repetitive behavior scores, but not reciprocal social interaction or social communication. Multiple linear regressions indicated diagnosis did not predict reciprocal social interaction or social communication scores and that Conners 3 Parent Short Form hyperactivity scores were the strongest predictor of Social Communication Questionnaire reciprocal social interaction scores after accounting for age and Intelligence Quotient. The lack of difference in social communication deficits between groups may help in understanding the pathophysiology underlying the behavioral consequences of acquired brain injury. The link between hyperactivity and reciprocal interaction suggests that targeting hyperactivity may improve social outcomes in children following acquired brain injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Brain 'talks over' boring quotes: top-down activation of voice-selective areas while listening to monotonous direct speech quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2012-04-15

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said, "I'm hungry") is perceived as more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said that she was hungry). This vividness distinction has previously been found to underlie silent reading of quotations: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that direct speech elicited higher brain activity in the temporal voice areas (TVA) of the auditory cortex than indirect speech, consistent with an "inner voice" experience in reading direct speech. Here we show that listening to monotonously spoken direct versus indirect speech quotations also engenders differential TVA activity. This suggests that individuals engage in top-down simulations or imagery of enriched supra-segmental acoustic representations while listening to monotonous direct speech. The findings shed new light on the acoustic nature of the "inner voice" in understanding direct speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deterministic secure direct communication using GHZ states and swapping quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, T; Yan, F L; Wang, Z X

    2005-01-01

    We present a deterministic secure direct communication scheme via entanglement swapping, where a set of ordered maximally entangled three-particle states (GHZ states), initially shared by three spatially separated parties, Alice, Bob and Charlie, functions as a quantum information channel. After ensuring the safety of the quantum channel, Alice and Bob apply a series of local operations on their respective particles according to the tripartite stipulation and the secret message they both want to send to Charlie. By three of Alice, Bob and Charlie's Bell measurement results, Charlie is able to infer the secret messages directly. The secret messages are faithfully transmitted from Alice and Bob to Charlie via initially shared pairs of GHZ states without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Since there is no transmission of the qubits carrying the secret message between any two of them in the public channel, it is completely secure for direct secret communication if a perfect quantum channel is used

  19. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement.

  20. Brain Death and Organ Donation: Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes of Medical, Law, Divinity, Nursing, and Communication Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaay, A F; Celik, S U; Eker, T; Oksuz, N E; Akyol, C; Tuzuner, A

    2015-06-01

    Throughout the world, there is a shortage of suitable organs for organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of medical, law, divinity, nursing, and communication students, who will be involved in this issue in the future, regarding brain death and organ donation. Data were collected with the use of a 30-item questionnaire. Of the 341 participants, 228 (66.8%) were female and overall average age was 21.6 ± 2.8 years. Nearly one-half of them (51.3%), especially nursing and medical students, wanted to be a donor, but only 2% had an organ donation card; 78.3% emphasized that family must have the right to make the decision for organ donation, and the vast majority of the participants considered that the organs could not be taken without any permission. Kidney and heart were the most commonly identified transplantable organs; the less frequently known organ was intestine. Only 71 participants, most of them medical, divinity, and law students, correctly answered all questions about brain death; 68.6% stated that organ donation is allowed by religion, and 5% expressed that it is religiously forbidden; 37.3% did not have confidence in health care policy. Law students were more confident, nursing students less confident. Better understanding of organ donation and concepts by the doctors, nurses, legislators, religious officials, and mass communications professionals who will give direction to society's behaviors and beliefs would help to spread positive attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation in the public. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-Capacity Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Quantum Hyperdense Coding with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tie-Jun; Li Tao; Du Fang-Fang; Deng Fu-Guo

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum hyperdense coding protocol with hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom of photons first and then give the details for a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol based on this quantum hyperdense coding protocol. This QSDC protocol has the advantage of having a higher capacity than the quantum communication protocols with a qubit system. Compared with the QSDC protocol based on superdense coding with d-dimensional systems, this QSDC protocol is more feasible as the preparation of a high-dimension quantum system is more difficult than that of a two-level quantum system at present. (general)

  2. Controlled quantum secure direct communication using a non-symmetric quantum channel with quantum superdense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yan; Song, He-Shan

    2007-01-01

    We present a controlled quantum secure direct communication protocol that uses a 2-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state and a 3-dimensional Bell-basis state and employs the high-dimensional quantum superdense coding, local collective unitary operations and entanglement swapping. The proposed protocol is secure and of high source capacity. It can effectively protect the communication against a destroying-travel-qubit-type attack. With this protocol, the information transmission is greatly increased. This protocol can also be modified, so that it can be used in a multi-party control system

  3. Visual elements in direct-to-consumer advertising: Messages communicated to patients with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising saturates popular health magazines, communicating persuasive messages to readers that may influence attitudes and behaviors. This research used a two-prong approach to investigate the visual elements used in DTC advertising and their influence on consumers' understanding of a disease and its treatment options. An analysis was conducted of DTC advertisements (N = 62) from a population sample of Arthritis Today magazine, 2000-2010. Three panels of people with arthritis were used to validate the findings and discuss implications for health literacy. Pharmaceutical companies have an opportunity to communicate tailored messages to readers of niche publications and improve disease management.

  4. The Unlock Project: a Python-based framework for practical brain-computer interface communication "app" development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S; Lorenz, Sean D; Galbraith, Byron V; Guenther, Frank H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for reducing the development time needed for creating applications for use in non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Our framework is primarily focused on facilitating rapid software "app" development akin to current efforts in consumer portable computing (e.g. smart phones and tablets). This is accomplished by handling intermodule communication without direct user or developer implementation, instead relying on a core subsystem for communication of standard, internal data formats. We also provide a library of hardware interfaces for common mobile EEG platforms for immediate use in BCI applications. A use-case example is described in which a user with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis participated in an electroencephalography-based BCI protocol developed using the proposed framework. We show that our software environment is capable of running in real-time with updates occurring 50-60 times per second with limited computational overhead (5 ms system lag) while providing accurate data acquisition and signal analysis.

  5. Brain correlates of recognition of communicative interactions from biological motion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Ł; Wordecha, M; Jarkiewicz, M; Kossowski, B; Lee, J; Marchewka, A

    2017-11-27

    Recognition of communicative interactions is a complex social cognitive ability which is associated with a specific neural activity in healthy individuals. However, neural correlates of communicative interaction processing from whole-body motion have not been known in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Therefore, the current study aims to examine the neural activity associated with recognition of communicative interactions in SCZ by using displays of the dyadic interactions downgraded to minimalistic point-light presentations. Twenty-six healthy controls (HC) and 25 SCZ were asked to judge whether two agents presented only by point-light displays were communicating or acting independently. Task-related activity and functional connectivity of brain structures were examined with General Linear Model and Generalized Psychophysiological Interaction approach, respectively. HC were significantly more efficient in recognizing each type of action than SCZ. At the neural level, the activity of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) was observed to be higher in HC compared with SCZ for communicative v. individual action processing. Importantly, increased connectivity of the right pSTS with structures associated with mentalizing (left pSTS) and mirroring networks (left frontal areas) was observed in HC, but not in SCZ, during the presentation of social interactions. Under-recruitment of the right pSTS, a structure known to have a pivotal role in social processing, may also be of importance for higher-order social cognitive deficits in SCZ. Furthermore, decreased task-related connectivity of the right pSTS may result in reduced use of additional sources of information (for instance motor resonance signals) during social cognitive processing in schizophrenia.

  6. Directed connectivity of brain default networks in resting state using GCA and motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhuqing; Wang, Huan; Ma, Kai; Zou, Ling; Xiang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between key brain regions. In this paper, Granger causality analysis (GCA) and motif structure are adopted to study directed connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs) in resting state. Firstly, the time series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in resting state were extracted, and the causal relationship values of the nodes representing related brain regions are analyzed in time domain to construct a default network. Then, the network structures were searched from the default networks of controls and patients to determine the fixed connection mode in the networks. The important degree of motif structures in directed connectivity of default networks was judged according to p-value and Z-score. Both node degree and average distance were used to analyze the effect degree an information transfer rate of brain regions in motifs and default networks, and efficiency of the network. Finally, activity and functional connectivity strength of the default brain regions are researched according to the change of energy distributions between the normals and the patients' brain regions. Experimental results demonstrate that, both normal subjects and stroke patients have some corresponding fixed connection mode of three nodes, and the efficiency and power spectrum of the patient's default network is somewhat lower than that of the normal person. In particular, the Right Posterior Cingulate Gyrus (PCG.R) has a larger change in functional connectivity and its activity. The research results verify the feasibility of the application of GCA and motif structure to study the functional connectivity of default networks in resting state.

  7. Technology and its role in rehabilitation for people with cognitive-communication disability following a traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Melissa; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Togher, Leanne; Palmer, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on communication technologies in rehabilitation for people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and: (a) determine its application to cognitive-communicative rehabilitation, and b) develop a model to guide communication technology use with people after TBI. This integrative literature review of communication technology in TBI rehabilitation and cognitive-communication involved searching nine scientific databases and included 95 studies. Three major types of communication technologies (assistive technology, augmentative and alternative communication technology, and information communication technology) and multiple factors relating to use of technology by or with people after TBI were categorized according to: (i) individual needs, motivations and goals; (ii) individual impairments, activities, participation and environmental factors; and (iii) technologies. While there is substantial research relating to communication technologies and cognitive rehabilitation after TBI, little relates specifically to cognitive-communication rehabilitation. Further investigation is needed into the experiences and views of people with TBI who use communication technologies, to provide the 'user' perspective and influence user-centred design. Research is necessary to investigate the training interventions that address factors fundamental for success, and any impact on communication. The proposed model provides an evidence-based framework for incorporating technology into speech pathology clinical practice and research.

  8. Why direct effects of predation complicate the social brain hypothesis: And how incorporation of explicit proximate behavioral mechanisms might help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Kolm, Niclas

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of studies have found that large brains may help animals survive by avoiding predation. These studies provide an alternative explanation for existing correlative evidence for one of the dominant hypotheses regarding the evolution of brain size in animals, the social brain hypothesis (SBH). The SBH proposes that social complexity is a major evolutionary driver of large brains. However, if predation both directly selects for large brains and higher levels of sociality, correlations between sociality and brain size may be spurious. We argue that tests of the SBH should take direct effects of predation into account, either by explicitly including them in comparative analyses or by pin-pointing the brain-behavior-fitness pathway through which the SBH operates. Existing data and theory on social behavior can then be used to identify precise candidate mechanisms and formulate new testable predictions. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Direct modulation of aberrant brain network connectivity through real-time NeuroFeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramot, Michal; Kimmich, Sara; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Popal, Haroon; White, Emily; Gotts, Stephen J; Martin, Alex

    2017-09-16

    The existence of abnormal connectivity patterns between resting state networks in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has been well established. Traditional treatment methods in ASD are limited, and do not address the aberrant network structure. Using real-time fMRI neurofeedback, we directly trained three brain nodes in participants with ASD, in which the aberrant connectivity has been shown to correlate with symptom severity. Desired network connectivity patterns were reinforced in real-time, without participants' awareness of the training taking place. This training regimen produced large, significant long-term changes in correlations at the network level, and whole brain analysis revealed that the greatest changes were focused on the areas being trained. These changes were not found in the control group. Moreover, changes in ASD resting state connectivity following the training were correlated to changes in behavior, suggesting that neurofeedback can be used to directly alter complex, clinically relevant network connectivity patterns.

  10. Direct modulation of aberrant brain network connectivity through real-time NeuroFeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmich, Sara; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Popal, Haroon; White, Emily; Gotts, Stephen J; Martin, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The existence of abnormal connectivity patterns between resting state networks in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has been well established. Traditional treatment methods in ASD are limited, and do not address the aberrant network structure. Using real-time fMRI neurofeedback, we directly trained three brain nodes in participants with ASD, in which the aberrant connectivity has been shown to correlate with symptom severity. Desired network connectivity patterns were reinforced in real-time, without participants’ awareness of the training taking place. This training regimen produced large, significant long-term changes in correlations at the network level, and whole brain analysis revealed that the greatest changes were focused on the areas being trained. These changes were not found in the control group. Moreover, changes in ASD resting state connectivity following the training were correlated to changes in behavior, suggesting that neurofeedback can be used to directly alter complex, clinically relevant network connectivity patterns. PMID:28917059

  11. NASA space communications R and D (Research and Development): Issues, derived benefits, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Space communication is making immense strides since ECHO was launched in 1962. It was a simple passive reflector of signals that demonstrated the concept. Today, satellites incorporating transponders, sophisticated high-gain antennas, and stabilization systems provide voice, video, and data communications to millions of people nationally and worldwide. Applications of emerging technology, typified by NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1992, will use newer portions of the frequency spectrum (the Ka-band at 30/20 GHz), along with antennas and signal-processing that could open yet new markets and services. Government programs, directly or indirectly, are responsible for many space communications accomplishments. They are sponsored and funded in part by NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense since the early 1950s. The industry is growing rapidly and is achieving international preeminence under joint private and government sponsorship. Now, however, the U.S. space communications industry - satellite manufacturers and users, launch services providers, and communications services companies - are being forced to adapt to a different environment. International competition is growing, and terrestrial technologies such as fiber optics are claiming markets until recently dominated by satellites. At the same time, advancing technology is opening up opportunities for new applications and new markets in space exploration, for defense, and for commercial applications of several types. Space communications research, development, and applications (RD and A) programs need to adjust to these realities, be better coordinated and more efficient, and be more closely attuned to commercial markets. The programs must take advantage of RD and A results in other agencies - and in other nations.

  12. Semi-quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme Based on Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Lvzhou; Situ, Haozhen; He, Jianhao

    2018-06-01

    Recently, the idea of semi-quantumness has been often used in designing quantum cryptographic schemes, which allows some of the participants of a quantum cryptographic scheme to remain classical. One of the reasons why this idea is popular is that it allows a quantum information processing task to be accomplished by using quantum resources as few as possible. In this paper, we extend the idea to quantum secure direct communication(QSDC) by proposing a semi-quantum secure direct communication scheme. In the scheme, the message sender, Alice, encodes each bit into a Bell state |φ+> = 1/{√2}(|00> +|11> ) or |{Ψ }+> = 1/{√ 2}(|01> +|10> ), and the message receiver, Bob, who is classical in the sense that he can either let the qubit he received reflect undisturbed, or measure the qubit in the computational basis |0>, |1> and then resend it in the state he found. Moreover, the security analysis of our scheme is also given.

  13. Quantum secure direct communication network with superdense coding and decoy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Li Chunyan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hongyu

    2007-01-01

    A quantum secure direct communication network scheme is proposed with quantum superdense coding and decoy photons. The servers on a passive optical network prepare and measure the quantum signal, i.e. a sequence of the d-dimensional Bell states. After confirming the security of the photons received from the receiver, the sender codes his secret message on them directly. For preventing a dishonest server from eavesdropping, some decoy photons prepared by measuring one photon in the Bell states are used to replace some original photons. One of the users on the network can communicate to any other one. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity, and it is more convenient than others as only a sequence of photons is transmitted in quantum line

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aojula, Anuriti; Botfield, Hannah; McAllister, James Patterson; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Abdullah, Osama; Logan, Ann; Sinclair, Alexandra

    2016-05-31

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculomegaly; however decorin's ability to prevent cerebral cytopathology in communicating hydrocephalus has not been fully examined. Furthermore, the capacity for diffusion tensor imaging to act as a proxy measure of cerebral pathology in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury has recently been demonstrated. However, the use of diffusion tensor imaging to investigate cytopathological changes in communicating hydrocephalus is yet to occur. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether decorin treatment influences alterations in diffusion tensor imaging parameters and cytopathology in experimental communicating hydrocephalus. Moreover, the study also explored whether diffusion tensor imaging parameters correlate with cellular pathology in communicating hydrocephalus. Accordingly, communicating hydrocephalus was induced by injecting kaolin into the basal cisterns in 3-week old rats followed immediately by 14 days of continuous intraventricular delivery of either human recombinant decorin (n = 5) or vehicle (n = 6). Four rats remained as intact controls and a further four rats served as kaolin only controls. At 14-days post-kaolin, just prior to sacrifice, routine magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was conducted and the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial and axial diffusivity of seven cerebral regions were assessed by voxel-based analysis in the corpus callosum, periventricular white matter, caudal internal capsule, CA1 hippocampus, and outer and inner parietal cortex. Myelin integrity, gliosis and aquaporin-4 levels were evaluated by post-mortem immunohistochemistry in the CA3 hippocampus and in the caudal brain of the same cerebral structures analysed by diffusion tensor imaging. Decorin significantly

  15. Cryptanalysis of Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Scheme via Bell States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Qin Su-Juan; Guo Fen-Zhuo; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    The security of the quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and authentication protocol based on Bell states is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can invalidate the authentication function, and implement a successful man-in-the-middle attack, where he/she can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented. (general)

  16. Establishing rational networking using the DL04 quantum secure direct communication protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huawang; Tang, Wallace K. S.; Tso, Raylin

    2018-06-01

    The first rational quantum secure direct communication scheme is proposed, in which we use the game theory with incomplete information to model the rational behavior of the participant, and give the strategy space and utility function. The rational participant can get his maximal utility when he performs the protocol faithfully, and then the Nash equilibrium of the protocol can be achieved. Compared to the traditional schemes, our scheme will be more practical in the presence of rational participant.

  17. Robust Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.

    2011-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables direct communication from the brain to devices, bypassing the traditional pathway of peripheral nerves and muscles. Current BCIs aimed at patients require that the user invests weeks, or even months, to learn the skill to intentionally modify their brain

  18. Experiences from a communication training programme of paid carers in a residential rehabilitation centre for people with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Nicholas; Togher, Leanne; Power, Emma

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of a communication training programme by exploring the experiences of paid carers who attended the programme in a residential rehabilitation centre for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Five paid carers attended a communication training programme which comprised 17 hours (across 8 weeks). Semi-structured interviews were conducted pre- and post-training. Analysis used a generic procedure with constant comparative analysis to identify categories across and within interview transcripts. Paid carers described improved knowledge and use of strategies, improved communication, positive emotional experiences and barriers and facilitators to consider for future communication training programmes. Training communication skills of paid carers in a residential rehabilitation centre had a positive impact on their conversations with people with TBI. These positive changes support quantitative findings for the effectiveness of communication training.

  19. High performance communication by people with paralysis using an intracortical brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarinath, Chethan; Nuyujukian, Paul; Blabe, Christine H; Sorice, Brittany L; Saab, Jad; Willett, Francis R; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2017-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to restore communication for people with tetraplegia and anarthria by translating neural activity into control signals for assistive communication devices. While previous pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated promising proofs-of-concept (Serruya et al., 2002; Simeral et al., 2011; Bacher et al., 2015; Nuyujukian et al., 2015; Aflalo et al., 2015; Gilja et al., 2015; Jarosiewicz et al., 2015; Wolpaw et al., 1998; Hwang et al., 2012; Spüler et al., 2012; Leuthardt et al., 2004; Taylor et al., 2002; Schalk et al., 2008; Moran, 2010; Brunner et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2013; Townsend and Platsko, 2016; Vansteensel et al., 2016; Nuyujukian et al., 2016; Carmena et al., 2003; Musallam et al., 2004; Santhanam et al., 2006; Hochberg et al., 2006; Ganguly et al., 2011; O’Doherty et al., 2011; Gilja et al., 2012), the performance of human clinical BCI systems is not yet high enough to support widespread adoption by people with physical limitations of speech. Here we report a high-performance intracortical BCI (iBCI) for communication, which was tested by three clinical trial participants with paralysis. The system leveraged advances in decoder design developed in prior pre-clinical and clinical studies (Gilja et al., 2015; Kao et al., 2016; Gilja et al., 2012). For all three participants, performance exceeded previous iBCIs (Bacher et al., 2015; Jarosiewicz et al., 2015) as measured by typing rate (by a factor of 1.4–4.2) and information throughput (by a factor of 2.2–4.0). This high level of performance demonstrates the potential utility of iBCIs as powerful assistive communication devices for people with limited motor function. Clinical Trial No: NCT00912041 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18554.001 PMID:28220753

  20. An online brain-machine interface using decoding of movement direction from the human electrocorticogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milekovic, Tomislav; Fischer, Jörg; Pistohl, Tobias; Ruescher, Johanna; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Rickert, Jörn; Ball, Tonio; Mehring, Carsten

    2012-08-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control movements of an artificial effector, e.g. movements of an arm prosthesis, by motor cortical signals that control the equivalent movements of the corresponding body part, e.g. arm movements. This approach has been successfully applied in monkeys and humans by accurately extracting parameters of movements from the spiking activity of multiple single neurons. We show that the same approach can be realized using brain activity measured directly from the surface of the human cortex using electrocorticography (ECoG). Five subjects, implanted with ECoG implants for the purpose of epilepsy assessment, took part in our study. Subjects used directionally dependent ECoG signals, recorded during active movements of a single arm, to control a computer cursor in one out of two directions. Significant BMI control was achieved in four out of five subjects with correct directional decoding in 69%-86% of the trials (75% on average). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an online BMI using decoding of movement direction from human ECoG signals. Thus, to achieve such BMIs, ECoG signals might be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to intracortical neural signals.

  1. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standards of care, current clinical trials, and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwein, Joel W.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the course are to evaluate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. Areas where the role is evolving will be identified, and the results of clinical trials which been mounted to clarify radiotherapy's role will be reviewed. Brain tumors are the second most common malignancy of childhood after leukemias and lymphomas. However, they remain the most common group of childhood tumors to require radiation therapy. Therefore, a thorough understanding of these tumors, and the appropriate role of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is critical. Issues surrounding the management of sequelae are no less important. The role of radiotherapy for the treatment of these tumors is far different from that for adults. These differences relate to the profound potential for sequelae from therapy, the higher overall cure rates, and the utility of multimodality therapies. In addition, the rarity of childhood brain tumors compared with adults' makes them more difficult to study. In this session, the following issues will be reviewed; 1. Incidence of pediatric brain tumors, 2. General issues regarding symptoms, diagnosis, diagnostic tests and evaluation, 3. Importance of a team approach, 4. General issues regarding treatment sequelae, 5. Specific tumor types/entities; a. Cerebellar Astrocytomas b. Benign and malignant Gliomas including brainstem and chiasmatic lesions c. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET) and Medulloblastoma d. Ependymomas e. Craniopharyngiomas f. Germ cell tumors g. Miscellaneous and rare pediatric brain tumors 6. Management of sequelae 7. New and future directions a. Treatment of infants b. The expanding role of chemotherapy c. Advances in radiotherapy. The attendees will complete the course with a better understanding of the role that radiation therapy plays in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. They will be knowledgeable in the foundation for that role, and the changes which are likely to take place in the

  2. Artificial brains. A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Paul A; Arthur, John V; Alvarez-Icaza, Rodrigo; Cassidy, Andrew S; Sawada, Jun; Akopyan, Filipp; Jackson, Bryan L; Imam, Nabil; Guo, Chen; Nakamura, Yutaka; Brezzo, Bernard; Vo, Ivan; Esser, Steven K; Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Taba, Brian; Amir, Arnon; Flickner, Myron D; Risk, William P; Manohar, Rajit; Modha, Dharmendra S

    2014-08-08

    Inspired by the brain's structure, we have developed an efficient, scalable, and flexible non-von Neumann architecture that leverages contemporary silicon technology. To demonstrate, we built a 5.4-billion-transistor chip with 4096 neurosynaptic cores interconnected via an intrachip network that integrates 1 million programmable spiking neurons and 256 million configurable synapses. Chips can be tiled in two dimensions via an interchip communication interface, seamlessly scaling the architecture to a cortexlike sheet of arbitrary size. The architecture is well suited to many applications that use complex neural networks in real time, for example, multiobject detection and classification. With 400-pixel-by-240-pixel video input at 30 frames per second, the chip consumes 63 milliwatts. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Direct electrical stimulation as an input gate into brain functional networks: principles, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Winkler, Peter A; Duffau, Hugues

    2010-02-01

    While the fundamental and clinical contribution of direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain is now well acknowledged, its advantages and limitations have not been re-evaluated for a long time. Here, we critically review exactly what DES can tell us about cerebral function. First, we show that DES is highly sensitive for detecting the cortical and axonal eloquent structures. Moreover, DES also provides a unique opportunity to study brain connectivity, since each area responsive to stimulation is in fact an input gate into a large-scale network rather than an isolated discrete functional site. DES, however, also has a limitation: its specificity is suboptimal. Indeed, DES may lead to interpretations that a structure is crucial because of the induction of a transient functional response when stimulated, whereas (1) this effect is caused by the backward spreading of the electro-stimulation along the network to an essential area and/or (2) the stimulated region can be functionally compensated owing to long-term brain plasticity mechanisms. In brief, although DES is still the gold standard for brain mapping, its combination with new methods such as perioperative neurofunctional imaging and biomathematical modeling is now mandatory, in order to clearly differentiate those networks that are actually indispensable to function from those that can be compensated.

  4. Modulation of electric brain responses evoked by pitch deviants through transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Desjardins, Marie-Ève; Robitaille, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle

    2018-01-31

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by a difficulty detecting pitch deviation that is related to abnormal electrical brain responses. Abnormalities found along the right fronto-temporal pathway between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the auditory cortex (AC) are the likely neural mechanism responsible for amusia. To investigate the causal role of these regions during the detection of pitch deviants, we applied cathodal (inhibitory) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over right frontal and right temporal regions during separate testing sessions. We recorded participants' electrical brain activity (EEG) before and after tDCS stimulation while they performed a pitch change detection task. Relative to a sham condition, there was a decrease in P3 amplitude after cathodal stimulation over both frontal and temporal regions compared to pre-stimulation baseline. This decrease was associated with small pitch deviations (6.25 cents), but not large pitch deviations (200 cents). Overall, this demonstrates that using tDCS to disrupt regions around the IFG and AC can induce temporary changes in evoked brain activity when processing pitch deviants. These electrophysiological changes are similar to those observed in amusia and provide causal support for the connection between P3 and fronto-temporal brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. East-West differences in perception of brain death. Review of history, current understandings, and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    The concept of brain death as equivalent to cardiopulmonary death was initially conceived following developments in neuroscience, critical care, and transplant technology. It is now a routine part of medicine in Western countries, including the United States. In contrast, Eastern countries have been reluctant to incorporate brain death into legislation and medical practice. Several countries, most notably China, still lack laws recognizing brain death and national medical standards for making the diagnosis. The perception is that Asians are less likely to approve of brain death or organ transplant from brain dead donors. Cultural and religious traditions have been referenced to explain this apparent difference. In the West, the status of the brain as home to the soul in Enlightenment philosophy, combined with pragmatism and utilitarianism, supports the concept of brain death. In the East, the integration of body with spirit and nature in Buddhist and folk beliefs, along with the Confucian social structure that builds upon interpersonal relationships, argues against brain death. However, it is unclear whether these reasoning strategies are explicitly used when families and medical providers are faced with acknowledging brain death. Their decisions are more likely to involve a prioritization of values and a rationalization of intuitive responses. Why and whether there might be differences between East and West in the acceptance of the brain death concept requires further empirical testing, which would help inform policy-making and facilitate communication between providers and patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

  6. Brain activation during direct and indirect processing of positive and negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Thomas; Sauer, Andreas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-09-12

    The effects of task conditions on brain activation to emotional stimuli are poorly understood. In this event-related fMRI study, brain activation to negative and positive words (matched for arousal) and neutral words was investigated under two task conditions. Subjects either had to attend to the emotional meaning (direct task) or to non-emotional features of the words (indirect task). Regardless of task, positive vs. negative words led to increased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, while negative vs. positive words induced increased activation of the insula. Compared to neutral words, all emotional words were associated with increased activation of the amygdala. Finally, the direct condition, as compared to the indirect condition, led to enhanced activation to emotional vs. neutral words in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest valence and arousal dependent brain activation patterns that are partially modulated by participants' processing mode of the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the direct effects of deep brain stimulation using embedded axon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.; Steinmetz, Peter N.

    2007-06-01

    To better understand the spatial extent of the direct effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on neurons, we implemented a geometrically realistic finite element electrical model incorporating anisotropic and inhomogenous conductivities. The model included the subthalamic nucleus (STN), substantia nigra (SN), zona incerta (ZI), fields of Forel H2 (FF), internal capsule (IC) and Medtronic 3387/3389 electrode. To quantify the effects of stimulation, we extended previous studies by using multi-compartment axon models with geometry and orientation consistent with anatomical features of the brain regions of interest. Simulation of axonal firing produced a map of relative changes in axonal activation. Voltage-controlled stimulation, with clinically typical parameters at the dorso-lateral STN, caused axon activation up to 4 mm from the target. This activation occurred within the FF, IC, SN and ZI with current intensities close to the average injected during DBS (3 mA). A sensitivity analysis of model parameters (fiber size, fiber orientation, degree of inhomogeneity, degree of anisotropy, electrode configuration) revealed that the FF and IC were consistently activated. Direct activation of axons outside the STN suggests that other brain regions may be involved in the beneficial effects of DBS when treating Parkinsonian symptoms.

  8. [The Support System for Diabetic Patients at Home with Bi-Directional IT Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Eguchi, Kyoko; Nishijima, Yuki; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2010-12-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of bi-directional IT communication on the purpose of preventing diabetes progression and to reduce a caregiver burden. Diabetic patients were informed of the nature and purpose of the study before giving their voluntary consents to participate in the study. For the period of 12 weeks, a diabetic patient and his caregiver were communicated with a nurse through the TV telephone for 30 minutes once a week. Medical staff checked the list of weight change, compliance check, exercise habit, and attached pictures of the plate with a diabetic patient through the TV telephone in real time. We encouraged a diabetic patient to eat properly based on the diet record. The 12-week TV telephone communication resulted in the body weight decrease and HbA1c. There was a consciousness change about their daily eating habit. In the present study, the 12-week TV telephone communication once a week might be useful as an auxiliary therapy for changing a bad daily habit to a good daily habit for a diabetic patient at home.

  9. Direct-to-Earth Communications with Mars Science Laboratory During Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Fort, David; Schratz, Brian; Ilott, Peter; Mukai, Ryan; Estabrook, Polly; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kahan, Daniel; Satorius, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) undergoes extreme heating and acceleration during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) on Mars. Unknown dynamics lead to large Doppler shifts, making communication challenging. During EDL, a special form of Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) communication is used for Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication. The X-band signal is received by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at the Canberra Deep Space Communication complex, then down-converted, digitized, and recorded by open-loop Radio Science Receivers (RSR), and decoded in real-time by the EDL Data Analysis (EDA) System. The EDA uses lock states with configurable Fast Fourier Transforms to acquire and track the signal. RSR configuration and channel allocation is shown. Testing prior to EDL is discussed including software simulations, test bed runs with MSL flight hardware, and the in-flight end-to-end test. EDA configuration parameters and signal dynamics during pre-entry, entry, and parachute deployment are analyzed. RSR and EDA performance during MSL EDL is evaluated, including performance using a single 70-meter DSN antenna and an array of two 34-meter DSN antennas as a back up to the 70-meter antenna.

  10. Event-Triggered Distributed Average Consensus Over Directed Digital Networks With Limited Communication Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Chen, Guo; Huang, Tingwen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Lan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the event-triggered distributed average-consensus of discrete-time first-order multiagent systems with limited communication data rate and general directed network topology. In the framework of digital communication network, each agent has a real-valued state but can only exchange finite-bit binary symbolic data sequence with its neighborhood agents at each time step due to the digital communication channels with energy constraints. Novel event-triggered dynamic encoder and decoder for each agent are designed, based on which a distributed control algorithm is proposed. A scheme that selects the number of channel quantization level (number of bits) at each time step is developed, under which all the quantizers in the network are never saturated. The convergence rate of consensus is explicitly characterized, which is related to the scale of network, the maximum degree of nodes, the network structure, the scaling function, the quantization interval, the initial states of agents, the control gain and the event gain. It is also found that under the designed event-triggered protocol, by selecting suitable parameters, for any directed digital network containing a spanning tree, the distributed average consensus can be always achieved with an exponential convergence rate based on merely one bit information exchange between each pair of adjacent agents at each time step. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility of presented protocol and the correctness of the theoretical results.

  11. Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain: Body odor communicating aggression modulates limbic system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Smiljana; Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Although the sense of smell is involved in numerous survival functions, the processing of body odor emitted by dangerous individuals is far from understood. The aim of the study was to explore how human fight chemosignals communicating aggression can alter brain activation related to an attentional bias and danger detection. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was seen involved in processing threat-related emotional information, danger detection and error evaluation, it still remains unknown whether human chemosignals communicating aggression can potentially modulate this activation. In the fMRI experiment, healthy male and female normosmic odor recipients (n=18) completed a higher-order processing task (emotional Stroop task with the word categories anger, anxiety, happiness and neutral) while exposed to aggression and exercise chemosignals (collected from a different group of healthy male donors; n=16). Our results provide first evidence that aggression chemosignals induce a time-sensitive attentional bias in chemosensory danger detection and modulate limbic system activation. During exposure to aggression chemosignals compared to exercise chemosignals, functional imaging data indicates an enhancement of thalamus, hypothalamus and insula activation (pbody odor signals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Presentation of the project MobiKids Communication technologies, environmental exposures and risk of brain tumors in young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Alguacil, J.; Aragones, N.; Morales, M.; Carretero, G.; Ferreras, E.; Kinci, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollan, M.; Solis, R.; Vriheid, M.; Zumel, A.

    2011-01-01

    MOBI-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL, Barcelona, aims to assess the possible relationship between exposure in children and adolescents to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from communication technologies (RF - and extremely low frequency - ELF) and the risk of developing a brain tumor. It also investigated the effects of other risk factors, including environmental exposures in childhood and in utero.

  13. Brain mechanisms associated with internally directed attention and self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Beaty, Roger E; Fink, Andreas; Koschutnig, Karl; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2016-03-10

    Internal cognition like imagination and prospection require sustained internally directed attention and involve self-generated thought. This fMRI study aimed to disentangle the brain mechanisms associated with attention-specific and task-specific processes during internally directed cognition. The direction of attention was manipulated by either keeping a relevant stimulus visible throughout the task, or by masking it, so that the task had to be performed "in the mind's eye". The level of self-directed thought was additionally varied between a convergent and a divergent thinking task. Internally directed attention was associated with increased activation in the right anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL), bilateral lingual gyrus and the cuneus, as well as with extended deactivations of superior parietal and occipital regions representing parts of the dorsal attention network. The right aIPL further showed increased connectivity with occipital regions suggesting an active top-down mechanism for shielding ongoing internal processes from potentially distracting sensory stimulation in terms of perceptual decoupling. Activation of the default network was not related to internally directed attention per se, but rather to a higher level of self-generated thought. The findings hence shed further light on the roles of inferior and superior parietal cortex for internally directed cognition.

  14. The Use of Social Media Communications in Brain Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Mixed-Method Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Naif M; Samuel, Nardin; Wang, Justin; Ahuja, Christopher S; Guha, Daipayan; Ibrahim, George M; Schweizer, Tom A; Saposnik, Gustavo; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-02-01

    The diagnosis of a ruptured or unruptured brain aneurysm has a significant impact on patients' quality of life and their psychosocial well-being. As a result, patients and caregivers may resort to social media platforms for support and education. The aim of this report is to evaluate the use of social media and the online communications regarding brain aneurysms. Three social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) were assessed for public content pertaining to brain aneurysms in March 2016. We conducted a mixed-method analysis that includes a descriptive examination of cross-sectional data and a qualitative evaluation of online communications for thematic analysis. We assessed categorized data using nonparametric tests for statistical significance. Our analyses showed that Facebook was the most highly used social media platform, with 11 relevant pages and 83 groups. Facebook accounts were all nonprofit foundations or patient support groups. Most users in Facebook groups were joining private support groups as opposed to public (P motivation (27.7%), providing and sharing information (26.3%), requesting information (14.4%), seeking emotional support (12.1%), admiration (8.3%), and loss and grief (8.3%). This study is the first to provide insight into characteristics and patterns of social media communications regarding brain aneurysms. These findings should serve to inform the treating physicians of the needs and expectations of individuals affected by brain aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A two-step quantum secure direct communication protocol with hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Zhang Cheng-Yi; Huang Yu-Gai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a two-step quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol with hyperentanglement in both the spatial-mode and the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. This QSDC protocol has a higher capacity than the original two-step QSDC protocol as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Compared with the QSDC protocol based on hyperdense coding, this QSDC protocol has the immunity to Trojan horse attack strategies with the process for determining the number of the photons in each quantum signal as it is a one-way quantum communication protocol. (general)

  16. Analysis and Improvement of Large Payload Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Without Information Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu

    2018-02-01

    As we know, the information leakage problem should be avoided in a secure quantum communication protocol. Unfortunately, it is found that this problem does exist in the large payload bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (BQSDC) protocol (Ye Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 11(5), 1350051 2013) which is based on entanglement swapping between any two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. To be specific, one half of the information interchanged in this protocol is leaked out unconsciously without any active attack from an eavesdropper. Afterward, this BQSDC protocol is revised to the one without information leakage. It is shown that the improved BQSDC protocol is secure against the general individual attack and has some obvious features compared with the original one.

  17. Communication and control by listening: towards optimal design of a two-class auditory streaming brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jeremy Hill

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most brain-computer interface (BCI systems require users to modulate brain signals in response to visual stimuli. Thus, they may not be useful to people with limited vision, such as those with severe paralysis. One important approach for overcoming this issue is auditory streaming, an approach whereby a BCI system is driven by shifts of attention between two dichotically presented auditory stimulus streams. Motivated by the long-term goal of translating such a system into a reliable, simple yes-no interface for clinical usage, we aim to answer two main questions. First, we asked which of two previously-published variants provides superior performance: a fixed-phase (FP design in which the streams have equal period and opposite phase, or a drifting-phase (DP design where the periods are unequal. We found FP to be superior to DP (p = 0.002: average performance levels were 80% and 72% correct, respectively. We were also able to show, in a pilot with one subject, that auditory streaming can support continuous control and neurofeedback applications: by shifting attention between ongoing left and right auditory streams, the subject was able to control the position of a paddle in a computer game. Second, we examined whether the system is dependent on eye movements, since it is known that eye movements and auditory attention may influence each other, and any dependence on the ability to move one’s eyes would be a barrier to translation to paralyzed users. We discovered that, despite instructions, some subjects did make eye movements that were indicative of the direction of attention. However, there was no correlation, across subjects, between the reliability of the eye movement signal and the reliability of the BCI system, indicating that our system was configured to work independently of eye movement. Together, these findings are an encouraging step forward toward BCIs that provide practical communication and control options for the most severely

  18. Communication and control by listening: toward optimal design of a two-class auditory streaming brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N Jeremy; Moinuddin, Aisha; Häuser, Ann-Katrin; Kienzle, Stephan; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Most brain-computer interface (BCI) systems require users to modulate brain signals in response to visual stimuli. Thus, they may not be useful to people with limited vision, such as those with severe paralysis. One important approach for overcoming this issue is auditory streaming, an approach whereby a BCI system is driven by shifts of attention between two simultaneously presented auditory stimulus streams. Motivated by the long-term goal of translating such a system into a reliable, simple yes-no interface for clinical usage, we aim to answer two main questions. First, we asked which of two previously published variants provides superior performance: a fixed-phase (FP) design in which the streams have equal period and opposite phase, or a drifting-phase (DP) design where the periods are unequal. We found FP to be superior to DP (p = 0.002): average performance levels were 80 and 72% correct, respectively. We were also able to show, in a pilot with one subject, that auditory streaming can support continuous control and neurofeedback applications: by shifting attention between ongoing left and right auditory streams, the subject was able to control the position of a paddle in a computer game. Second, we examined whether the system is dependent on eye movements, since it is known that eye movements and auditory attention may influence each other, and any dependence on the ability to move one's eyes would be a barrier to translation to paralyzed users. We discovered that, despite instructions, some subjects did make eye movements that were indicative of the direction of attention. However, there was no correlation, across subjects, between the reliability of the eye movement signal and the reliability of the BCI system, indicating that our system was configured to work independently of eye movement. Together, these findings are an encouraging step forward toward BCIs that provide practical communication and control options for the most severely paralyzed users.

  19. Towards a new analytical approach to the challenges of communication difficulties and aquired brain damage in everyday practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    part of where the participants mainly are persons with acquired brain damage and occupational therapists. I will discuss how a new approach to sense-making practice may be designed in order to study more closely a participants’ perspective in unique situations as they arise. I am interested......The approach of language psychology is grounded in the persons communicating; where as the approach of discursive psychology is grounded in social interaction. There is a lack of scientific knowledge on the social/communicative/interactional challenges of communication difficulties and brain injury...... in everyday life. A sense-making-in-practice approach may help form a new discourse. How may a new analytical approach be designed? May ‘communication’ be described as ‘participation abilities’, using the framework from language psychology combined with discursive psychology and the conventions...

  20. PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2007-04-02

    The possibility of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using a simple channel estimation technique and low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is demonstrated. It is shown that even for differential group delay (DGD) of 4/BW (BW is the OFDM signal bandwidth), the degradation due to the first-order PMD can be completely compensated for. Two classes of LDPC codes designed based on two different combinatorial objects (difference systems and product of combinatorial designs) suitable for use in PMD compensation are introduced.

  1. Fault-tolerant controlled quantum secure direct communication over a collective quantum noise channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih; Tsai, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) over an ideal channel. Based on the proposed CQSDC, two fault-tolerant CQSDC protocols that are robust under two kinds of collective noises, collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively, are constructed. Due to the use of quantum entanglement of the Bell state (or logical Bell state) as well as dense coding, the proposed protocols provide easier implementation as well as better qubit efficiency than other CQSDC protocols. Furthermore, the proposed protocols are also free from correlation-elicitation attack and other well-known attacks. (paper)

  2. Improvement on Quantum Secure Direct Communication with W State in Noisy Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Chi Feng

    2009-01-01

    An improvement (Y-protocol) [Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 103] on the quantum secure direct communication with W state (C-protocol) [Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 290] is proposed by Yuan et al. The quantum bit error rate induced by eavesdropper is 4.17% in C-protocol and 6.25% in Y-protocol. In this paper, another improvement on C-protocol is given. The quantum bit error rate of the eavesdropping will increase to 8.75%, which is 1.1 times larger than that in C-protocol and 0.4 times larger than that in Y-protocol.

  3. An adaptive digital suppression filter for direct-sequence spread-spectrum communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, G. J.; Das, P. K.; Milstein, L. B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes the structure of a digital implementation of the Widrow-Hoff LMS algorithm which uses a burst processing technique to obtain some hardware simplification. This adaptive system is used to suppress narrow-band interference in a direct-sequence spread-spectrum communication system. Several different narrow-band interferers are considered, and probability of error results are presented for all cases. While, in general, the results show significant improvement in performance when the LMS algorithm is used, certain disadvantages are also present and are discussed in this paper.

  4. Poverty, Stress, and Brain Development: New Directions for Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children’s neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children’s lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. PMID:27044699

  5. Poverty, Stress, and Brain Development: New Directions for Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2016-04-01

    We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimized programming algorithm for cylindrical and directional deep brain stimulation electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daria Nesterovich; Osting, Braxton; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dorval, Alan D; Butson, Christopher R

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a growing treatment option for movement and psychiatric disorders. As DBS technology moves toward directional leads with increased numbers of smaller electrode contacts, trial-and-error methods of manual DBS programming are becoming too time-consuming for clinical feasibility. We propose an algorithm to automate DBS programming in near real-time for a wide range of DBS lead designs. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are used to build finite element models that include anisotropic conductivity. The algorithm maximizes activation of target tissue and utilizes the Hessian matrix of the electric potential to approximate activation of neurons in all directions. We demonstrate our algorithm's ability in an example programming case that targets the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease for three lead designs: the Medtronic 3389 (four cylindrical contacts), the direct STNAcute (two cylindrical contacts, six directional contacts), and the Medtronic-Sapiens lead (40 directional contacts). The optimization algorithm returns patient-specific contact configurations in near real-time-less than 10 s for even the most complex leads. When the lead was placed centrally in the target STN, the directional leads were able to activate over 50% of the region, whereas the Medtronic 3389 could activate only 40%. When the lead was placed 2 mm lateral to the target, the directional leads performed as well as they did in the central position, but the Medtronic 3389 activated only 2.9% of the STN. This DBS programming algorithm can be applied to cylindrical electrodes as well as novel directional leads that are too complex with modern technology to be manually programmed. This algorithm may reduce clinical programming time and encourage the use of directional leads, since they activate a larger volume of the target area than cylindrical electrodes in central and off-target lead placements.

  7. The morphological and molecular changes of brain cells exposed to direct current electric field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Simon J; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-12-07

    The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  8. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications: a survey conducted in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Straus, Sabine M. J. M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences and their preferences for improvement of risk communication, comparing views of general practitioners (GPs), internists...

  9. Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel P van Schaik

    Full Text Available The ability to plan for the future beyond immediate needs would be adaptive to many animal species, but is widely thought to be uniquely human. Although studies in captivity have shown that great apes are capable of planning for future needs, it is unknown whether and how they use this ability in the wild. Flanged male Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii emit long calls, which females use to maintain earshot associations with them. We tested whether long calls serve to communicate a male's ever-changing predominant travel direction to facilitate maintaining these associations. We found that the direction in which a flanged male emits his long calls predicts his subsequent travel direction for many hours, and that a new call indicates a change in his main travel direction. Long calls given at or near the night nest indicate travel direction better than random until late afternoon on the next day. These results show that male orangutans make their travel plans well in advance and announce them to conspecifics. We suggest that such a planning ability is likely to be adaptive for great apes, as well as in other taxa.

  10. High-capacity quantum secure direct communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, FangZhou; Yang, GuoJian; Wang, HaiBo; Xiong, Jun; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes the first high-capacity quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) with two-photon six-qubit hyper-entangled Bell states in two longitudinal momentum and polarization degrees of freedom (DOFs) of photon pairs, which can be generated using two 0.5 mm-thick type-I β barium borate crystal slabs aligned one behind the other and an eight-hole screen. The secret message can be independently encoded on the photon pairs with 64 unitary operations in all three DOFs. This protocol has a higher capacity than previous QSDC protocols because each photon pair can carry 6 bits of information, not just 2 or 4 bits. Our QSDC protocol decreases the influence of decoherence from environment noise by exploiting the decoy photons to check the security of the transmission of the first photon sequence. Compared with two-way QSDC protocols, our QSDC protocol is immune to an attack by an eavesdropper using Trojan horse attack strategies because it is a one-way quantum communication. The QSDC protocol has good applications in the future quantum communication because of all these features.

  11. A Comparison of Assessment Tools: Is Direct Observation an Improvement Over Objective Structured Clinical Examinations for Communications Skills Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goch, Abraham M; Karia, Raj; Taormina, David; Kalet, Adina; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth A; Phillips, Donna

    2018-04-01

    Evaluation of resident physicians' communications skills is a challenging task and is increasingly accomplished with standardized examinations. There exists a need to identify the effective, efficient methods for assessment of communications skills. We compared objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and direct observation as approaches for assessing resident communications skills. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of orthopaedic surgery resident physicians at a single tertiary care academic institution, using the Institute for Healthcare Communication "4 Es" model for effective communication. Data were collected between 2011 and 2015. A total of 28 residents, each with OSCE and complete direct observation assessment checklists, were included in the analysis. Residents were included if they had 1 OSCE assessment and 2 or more complete direct observation assessments. There were 28 of a possible 59 residents (47%) included. A total of 89% (25 of 28) of residents passed the communications skills OSCE; only 54% (15 of 28) of residents passed the direct observation communications assessment. There was a positive, moderate correlation between OSCE and direct observation scores overall ( r  = 0.415, P  = .028). There was no agreement between OSCE and direct observation in categorizing residents into passing and failing scores (κ = 0.205, P  = .16), after adjusting for chance agreement. Our results suggest that OSCE and direct observation tools provide different insights into resident communications skills (simulation of rare and challenging situations versus real-life daily encounters), and may provide useful perspectives on resident communications skills in different contexts.

  12. A Chaos-Based Secure Direct-Sequence/Spread-Spectrum Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a chaos-based secure direct-sequence/spread-spectrum (DS/SS communication system which is based on a novel combination of the conventional DS/SS and chaos techniques. In the proposed system, bit duration is varied according to a chaotic behavior but is always equal to a multiple of the fixed chip duration in the communication process. Data bits with variable duration are spectrum-spread by multiplying directly with a pseudonoise (PN sequence and then modulated onto a sinusoidal carrier by means of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK. To recover exactly the data bits, the receiver needs an identical regeneration of not only the PN sequence but also the chaotic behavior, and hence data security is improved significantly. Structure and operation of the proposed system are analyzed in detail. Theoretical evaluation of bit-error rate (BER performance in presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN is provided. Parameter choice for different cases of simulation is also considered. Simulation and theoretical results are shown to verify the reliability and feasibility of the proposed system. Security of the proposed system is also discussed.

  13. Dispersion compensation of fiber optic communication system with direct detection using artificial neural networks (ANNs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Mahmoud M. T.; Kumar, Shiva; Bakr, Mohamed H.

    2018-02-01

    This work introduces a powerful digital nonlinear feed-forward equalizer (NFFE), exploiting multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). It mitigates impairments of optical communication systems arising due to the nonlinearity introduced by direct photo-detection. In a direct detection system, the detection process is nonlinear due to the fact that the photo-current is proportional to the absolute square of the electric field intensity. The proposed equalizer provides the most efficient computational cost with high equalization performance. Its performance is comparable to the benchmark compensation performance achieved by maximum-likelihood sequence estimator. The equalizer trains an ANN to act as a nonlinear filter whose impulse response removes the intersymbol interference (ISI) distortions of the optical channel. Owing to the proposed extensive training of the equalizer, it achieves the ultimate performance limit of any feed-forward equalizer (FFE). The performance and efficiency of the equalizer is investigated by applying it to various practical short-reach fiber optic communication system scenarios. These scenarios are extracted from practical metro/media access networks and data center applications. The obtained results show that the ANN-NFFE compensates for the received BER degradation and significantly increases the tolerance to the chromatic dispersion distortion.

  14. Analysis of direct costs of decompressive craniectomy in victims of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Guilherme Lellis; Araujo, João Luiz Vitorino; Miura, Flávio Key; Guirado, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula; Saade, Nelson; Paiva, Aline Lariessy Campos; Avelar, Tiago Marques; Pedrozo, Charles Alfred Grander; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves

    2018-04-01

    Decompressive craniectomy is a procedure required in some cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This manuscript evaluates the direct costs and outcomes of decompressive craniectomy for TBI in a developing country and describes the epidemiological profile. A retrospective study was performed using a five-year neurosurgical database, taking a sample of patients with TBI who underwent decompressive craniectomy. Several variables were considered and a formula was developed for calculating the total cost. Most patients had multiple brain lesions and the majority (69.0%) developed an infectious complication. The general mortality index was 68.8%. The total cost was R$ 2,116,960.22 (US$ 661,550.06) and the mean patient cost was R$ 66,155.00 (US$ 20,673.44). Decompressive craniectomy for TBI is an expensive procedure that is also associated with high morbidity and mortality. This was the first study performed in a developing country that aimed to evaluate the direct costs. Prevention measures should be a priority.

  15. Habit strength is predicted by activity dynamics in goal-directed brain systems during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwosta, Katharina; Ruge, Hannes; Goschke, Thomas; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2018-01-15

    Previous neuroscientific research revealed insights into the brain networks supporting goal-directed and habitual behavior, respectively. However, it remains unclear how these contribute to inter-individual differences in habit strength which is relevant for understanding not only normal behavior but also more severe dysregulations between these types of action control, such as in addiction. In the present fMRI study, we trained subjects on approach and avoidance behavior for an extended period of time before testing the habit strength of the acquired stimulus-response associations. We found that stronger habits were associated with a stronger decrease in inferior parietal lobule activity for approach and avoidance behavior and weaker vmPFC activity at the end of training for avoidance behavior, areas associated with the anticipation of outcome identity and value. VmPFC in particular showed markedly different activity dynamics during the training of approach and avoidance behavior. Furthermore, while ongoing training was accompanied by increasing functional connectivity between posterior putamen and premotor cortex, consistent with previous assumptions about the neural basis of increasing habitualization, this was not predictive of later habit strength. Together, our findings suggest that inter-individual differences in habitual behavior are driven by differences in the persistent involvement of brain areas supporting goal-directed behavior during training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A Novel Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Secure Direct Communication Based on Bell States and Bell Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Run-Hua; Huang Liu-Sheng; Yang Wei; Zhong Hong

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication and analyze its security. This scheme takes Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) pairs in Bell states as quantum resources. In order to obtain the direct communication message, all agents only need to perform Bell measurements, not to perform any local unitary operation. The total efficiency in this scheme approaches 100% as the classical information exchanged is unnecessary except for the eavesdropping checks. (general)

  17. Transport of thyroxine across the blood-brain barrier is directed primarily from brain to blood in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.A.; Kastin, A.J.; Michals, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the transport of thyroxine was examined in mice. Radioiodinated (hot thyroxine (hT 4 ) administered icv had a half-time disappearance from the brain of 30 min. This increased to 60 min (p 4 ). The Km for this inhibition of hT 4 transport out of the brain by cT 4 was 9.66 pmole/brain. Unlabeled 3,3',5 triiodothyronine (cT 3 ) was unable to inhibit transport of hT 4 out of the brain, although both cT 3 (p 4 (p 3 ) to a small degree. Entry of hT 4 into the brain after peripheral administration was negligible and was not affected by either cT 4 nor cT 3 . By contrast, the entry of hT 3 into the brain after peripheral administration was inhibited by cT 3 (p 4 (p < 0.01). The levels of the unlabeled thyroid hormones administered centrally in these studies did not affect bulk flow, as assessed by labeled red blood cells (/sup 99m/Tc-RBC), or the carrier mediated transport of iodide out of the brain. Likewise, the vascular space of the brain and body, as assessed by /sup 99m/Tc-RBC, was unchanged by the levels of peripherally administered unlabeled thyroid hormones. Therefore, the results of these studies are not due to generalized effects of thyroid hormones on BBB transport. The results indicate that in the mouse the major carrier-mediated system for thyroxine in the BBB transports thyroxine out of the brain, while the major system for triiodothyronine transports hormone into the brain. 14 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  18. Developmental memory capacity resources of typical children retrieving picture communication symbols using direct selection and visual linear scanning with fixed communication displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Barry T; Jackson, Heather M

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the cognitive demands of 2 selection techniques in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), direct selection, and visual linear scanning, by determining the memory retrieval abilities of typically developing children when presented with fixed communication displays. One hundred twenty typical children from kindergarten, 1st, and 3rd grades were randomly assigned to either a direct selection or visual linear scanning group. Memory retrieval was assessed through word span using Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs). Participants were presented various numbers and arrays of PCSs and asked to retrieve them by placing identical graphic symbols on fixed communication displays with grid layouts. The results revealed that participants were able to retrieve more PCSs during direct selection than scanning. Additionally, 3rd-grade children retrieved more PCSs than kindergarten and 1st-grade children. An analysis on the type of errors during retrieval indicated that children were more successful at retrieving the correct PCSs than the designated location of those symbols on fixed communication displays. AAC practitioners should consider using direct selection over scanning whenever possible and account for anticipatory monitoring and pulses when scanning is used in the service delivery of children with little or no functional speech. Also, researchers should continue to investigate AAC selection techniques in relationship to working memory resources.

  19. Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Alter the Gut-Brain Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ballsmider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the anatomical integrity of vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB operations. The retrograde tracer fast blue (FB was injected into the stomach to label vagal neurons originating from nodose ganglion (NG and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Microglia activation was determined by quantifying changes in the fluorescent staining of hindbrain sections against an ionizing calcium adapter binding molecule 1 (Iba1. Reorganization of vagal afferents in the hindbrain was studied by fluorescent staining against isolectin 4 (IB4. The density of Iba1- and IB4-immunoreactivity was analyzed using Nikon Elements software. There was no difference in the number of FB-labeled neurons located in NG and DMV between VSG and VSG-sham rats. RYGB, but not RYGB-sham rats, showed a dramatic reduction in number of FB-labeled neurons located in the NG and DMV. VSG increased, while the RYGB operation decreased, the density of vagal afferents in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. The RYGB operation, but not the VSG procedure, significantly activated microglia in the NTS and DMV. Results of this study show that the RYGB, but not the VSG procedure, triggers microglia activation in vagal structures and remodels gut-brain communication.

  20. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  1. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  2. The Use of Post-Purchase Communication to Reduce Dissonance and Improve Direct Marketing Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, Ronald E.; Decker, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates the use and potentially positive effects of postpurchase communication on order refund requests and reorder rates. Finds that dissonance was effectively reduced through postpurchase communication. (MG)

  3. Optimal control of directional deep brain stimulation in the parkinsonian neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qingyun

    2016-07-01

    The effect of conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) on debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be limited because it can only yield the spherical field. And, some side effects are clearly induced with influencing their adjacent ganglia. Recent experimental evidence for patients with Parkinson's disease has shown that a novel DBS electrode with 32 independent stimulation source contacts can effectively optimize the clinical therapy by enlarging the therapeutic windows, when it is applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This is due to the selective activation in clusters of various stimulation contacts which can be steered directionally and accurately on the targeted regions of interest. In addition, because of the serious damage to the neural tissues, the charge-unbalanced stimulation is not typically indicated and the real DBS utilizes charge-balanced bi-phasic (CBBP) pulses. Inspired by this, we computationally investigate the optimal control of directional CBBP-DBS from the proposed parkinsonian neuronal network of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. By appropriately tuning stimulation for different neuronal populations, it can be found that directional steering CBBP-DBS paradigms are superior to the spherical case in improving parkinsonian dynamical properties including the synchronization of neuronal populations and the reliability of thalamus relaying the information from cortex, which is in a good agreement with the physiological experiments. Furthermore, it can be found that directional steering stimulations can increase the optimal stimulation intensity of desynchronization by more than 1 mA compared to the spherical case. This is consistent with the experimental result with showing that there exists at least one steering direction that can allow increasing the threshold of side effects by 1 mA. In addition, we also simulate the local field potential (LFP) and dominant frequency (DF) of the STN neuronal population induced by the activation

  4. Different alterations in brain functional networks according to direct and indirect topological connections in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Seungyup; Kim, Taewon; Won, Wang Yeon; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia displays connectivity deficits in the brain, but the literature has shown inconsistent findings about alterations in global efficiency of brain functional networks. We supposed that such inconsistency at the whole brain level may be due to a mixture of different portions of global efficiency at sub-brain levels. Accordingly, we considered measuring portions of global efficiency in two aspects: spatial portions by considering sub-brain networks and topological portions by considering contributions to global efficiency according to direct and indirect topological connections. We proposed adjacency and indirect adjacency as new network parameters attributable to direct and indirect topological connections, respectively, and applied them to graph-theoretical analysis of brain functional networks constructed from resting state fMRI data of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls. Group differences in the network parameters were observed not for whole brain and hemispheric networks, but for regional networks. Alterations in adjacency and indirect adjacency were in opposite directions, such that adjacency increased, but indirect adjacency decreased in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, over connections in frontal and parietal regions, increased adjacency was associated with more severe negative symptoms, while decreased adjacency was associated with more severe positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This finding indicates that connectivity deficits associated with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia may involve topologically different paths in the brain. In patients with schizophrenia, although changes in global efficiency may not be clearly shown, different alterations in brain functional networks according to direct and indirect topological connections could be revealed at the regional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Volume transmission and receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes: understanding the role of new concepts for brain communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Fuxe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the central monoamine neurons not only demonstrated novel types of brain stem neurons forming global terminal networks all over the brain and the spinal cord, but also to a novel type of communication called volume transmission. It is a major mode of communication in the central nervous system that takes places in the extracellular fluid and the cerebral spinal fluid through diffusion and flow of molecules, like neurotransmitters and extracellular vesicles. The integration of synaptic and volume transmission takes place through allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes. These heterocomplexes represent major integrator centres in the plasma membrane and their protomers act as moonlighting proteins undergoing dynamic changes and their structure and function. In fact, we propose that the molecular bases of learning and memory can be based on the reorganization of multiples homo and heteroreceptor complexes into novel assembles in the post-junctional membranes of synapses.

  6. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  7. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah

    2018-04-02

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  8. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice.

  9. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  10. Whole-brain analytic measures of network communication reveal increased structure-function correlation in right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Perry, Alistair; Ridley, Ben; Proix, Timothée; Golos, Mathieu; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Breakspear, Michael; Jirsa, Viktor; Guye, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo structure-function relationship is key to understanding brain network reorganization due to pathologies. This relationship is likely to be particularly complex in brain network diseases such as temporal lobe epilepsy, in which disturbed large-scale systems are involved in both transient electrical events and long-lasting functional and structural impairments. Herein, we estimated this relationship by analyzing the correlation between structural connectivity and functional connectivity in terms of analytical network communication parameters. As such, we targeted the gradual topological structure-function reorganization caused by the pathology not only at the whole brain scale but also both in core and peripheral regions of the brain. We acquired diffusion (dMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data in seven right-lateralized TLE (rTLE) patients and fourteen healthy controls and analyzed the structure-function relationship by using analytical network communication metrics derived from the structural connectome. In rTLE patients, we found a widespread hypercorrelated functional network. Network communication analysis revealed greater unspecific branching of the shortest path (search information) in the structural connectome and a higher global correlation between the structural and functional connectivity for the patient group. We also found evidence for a preserved structural rich-club in the patient group. In sum, global augmentation of structure-function correlation might be linked to a smaller functional repertoire in rTLE patients, while sparing the central core of the brain which may represent a pathway that facilitates the spread of seizures.

  11. Monetary reward magnitude effects on behavior and brain function during goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, P; Bustamante, J C; Fuentes-Claramonte, P; Costumero, V; Benabarre, S; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2017-08-01

    Reward may modulate the cognitive processes required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality may affect reward modulation. Our aim was to test how different monetary reward magnitudes modulate brain activation and performance during goal-directed behavior, and whether individual differences in reward sensitivity affect this modulation. For this purpose, we scanned 37 subjects with a parametric design in which we varied the magnitude of monetary rewards (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5) in a blocked fashion while participants performed an interference counting-Stroop condition. The results showed that the brain activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum were modulated by increasing and decreasing reward magnitudes, respectively. Behavioral performance improved as the magnitude of monetary reward increased while comparing the non reward (€0) condition to any other reward condition, or the lower €0.01 to any other reward condition, and this improvement was related with individual differences in reward sensitivity. In conclusion, the locus of influence of monetary incentives overlaps the activity of the regions commonly involved in cognitive control.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  13. Deterministic Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Dense Coding and Continuous Variable Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lianfang; Chen Yueming; Yuan Hao

    2009-01-01

    We propose a deterministic quantum secure direct communication protocol by using dense coding. The two check photon sequences are used to check the securities of the channels between the message sender and the receiver. The continuous variable operations instead of the usual discrete unitary operations are performed on the travel photons so that the security of the present protocol can be enhanced. Therefore some specific attacks such as denial-of-service attack, intercept-measure-resend attack and invisible photon attack can be prevented in ideal quantum channel. In addition, the scheme is still secure in noise channel. Furthermore, this protocol has the advantage of high capacity and can be realized in the experiment. (general)

  14. Impersonation attack on a quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol with improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerimehr, Ali; Hadain Dehkordi, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the security of a quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol based on single photons. We first give an impersonation attack on the protocol. The cryptanalysis shows that there is a gap in the authentication procedure of the protocol so that an opponent can reveal the secret information by an undetectable attempt. We then propose an improvement for the protocol and show it closes the gap by applying a mutual authentication procedure. In the improved protocol single photons are transmitted once in a session, so it is easy to implement as the primary protocol. Furthermore, we use a novel technique for secret order rearrangement of photons by which not only quantum storage is eliminated also a secret key can be reused securely. So the new protocol is applicable in practical approaches like embedded system devices.

  15. Quantum direct communication protocol strengthening against Pavičić’s attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei-Xu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2015-12-01

    A quantum circuit providing an undetectable eavesdropping of information in message mode, which compromises all two-state ψ-ϕ quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols, has been recently proposed by Pavičić [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 042326]. A modification of the protocol’s control mode is proposed, which improves users’ 25% detection probability of Eve to 50% at best, as that in ping-pong protocol. The modification also improves the detection probability of Wójcik’s attack [Phys. Rev. Lett 90 (2003) 157901] to 75% at best. The resistance against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack as well as the discussion of security for four Bell state protocols is presented. As a result, the protocol security is strengthened both theoretically and practically, and quantum advantage of superdense coding is restored.

  16. A Remote Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications Lab Utilising the Emona DATEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmas Mwikirize

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote labs have become popular learning aids due to their versatility and considerable ease of utilisation as compared to their physical counterparts. At Makerere University, the remote labs are based on the standard Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT iLabs Shared Architecture (ISA - a scalable and generic platform. Presented in this paper is such a lab, addressing the key practical aspects of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS communication. The lab is built on the National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS with the Emona Digital and Analog Telecommunications Experimenter (DATEx add-on board. It also incorporates switching hardware. The lab facilitates real-time control of the equipment, with users able to set, manipulate and observe signal parameters in both the frequency and the time domains. Simulation and data Acquisition modes of the experiment are supported to provide a richer learning experience.

  17. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed optical DTE (direct to earth) and lunar relay satellite link analyses, greater than 200 Mbps downlink to 1-m Earth receiver and greater than 1 Mbps uplink achieved with mobile 5-cm lunar transceiver, greater than 1Gbps downlink and greater than 10 Mpbs uplink achieved with 10-cm stationary lunar transceiver, MITLL (MIT Lincoln Laboratory) 2013 LLCD (Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration) plans to demonstrate 622 Mbps downlink with 20 Mbps uplink between lunar orbiter and ground station; Identified top five technology challenges to deploying lunar optical network, Performed preliminary experiments on two of challenges: (i) lunar dust removal and (ii)DTN over optical carrier, Exploring opportunities to evaluate DTN (delay-tolerant networking) over optical link in a multi-node network e.g. Desert RATS.

  18. Linear Narratives, Arbitrary Relationships: Arbitrary Relationships: Mimesis and Direct Communication for Effectively Representing Engineering Realities Multimodally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Engineers communicate multimodally using written and visual communication, but there is not much theorizing on why they do so and how. This essay, therefore, examines why engineers communicate multimodally, what, in the context of representing engineering realities, are the strengths and weaknesses of written and visual communication, and how,…

  19. Direct Parametric Reconstruction With Joint Motion Estimation/Correction for Dynamic Brain PET Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jieqing; Bousse, Alexandre; Thielemans, Kris; Burgos, Ninon; Weston, Philip S J; Schott, Jonathan M; Atkinson, David; Arridge, Simon R; Hutton, Brian F; Markiewicz, Pawel; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Direct reconstruction of parametric images from raw photon counts has been shown to improve the quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data. However it suffers from subject motion which is inevitable during the typical acquisition time of 1-2 hours. In this work we propose a framework to jointly estimate subject head motion and reconstruct the motion-corrected parametric images directly from raw PET data, so that the effects of distorted tissue-to-voxel mapping due to subject motion can be reduced in reconstructing the parametric images with motion-compensated attenuation correction and spatially aligned temporal PET data. The proposed approach is formulated within the maximum likelihood framework, and efficient solutions are derived for estimating subject motion and kinetic parameters from raw PET photon count data. Results from evaluations on simulated [ 11 C]raclopride data using the Zubal brain phantom and real clinical [ 18 F]florbetapir data of a patient with Alzheimer's disease show that the proposed joint direct parametric reconstruction motion correction approach can improve the accuracy of quantifying dynamic PET data with large subject motion.

  20. Wireless image-data transmission from an implanted image sensor through a living mouse brain by intra body communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hajime; Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Intra body communication technology allows the fabrication of compact implantable biomedical sensors compared with RF wireless technology. In this paper, we report the fabrication of an implantable image sensor of 625 µm width and 830 µm length and the demonstration of wireless image-data transmission through a brain tissue of a living mouse. The sensor was designed to transmit output signals of pixel values by pulse width modulation (PWM). The PWM signals from the sensor transmitted through a brain tissue were detected by a receiver electrode. Wireless data transmission of a two-dimensional image was successfully demonstrated in a living mouse brain. The technique reported here is expected to provide useful methods of data transmission using micro sized implantable biomedical sensors.

  1. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonian rats directly influences motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ke, Ya; Chan, Danny C W; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Yung, Ken K L; Ko, Ho; Arbuthnott, Gordon W; Yung, Wing-Ho

    2012-12-06

    Much recent discussion about the origin of Parkinsonian symptoms has centered around the idea that they arise with the increase of beta frequency waves in the EEG. This activity may be closely related to an oscillation between subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus. Since STN is the target of deep brain stimulation, it had been assumed that its action is on the nucleus itself. By means of simultaneous recordings of the firing activities from populations of neurons and the local field potentials in the motor cortex of freely moving Parkinsonian rats, this study casts doubt on this assumption. Instead, we found evidence that the corrective action is upon the cortex, where stochastic antidromic spikes originating from the STN directly modify the firing probability of the corticofugal projection neurons, destroy the dominance of beta rhythm, and thus restore motor control to the subjects, be they patients or rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using the combination refraction-reflection solid to design omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jionghui; Yao, Wenming; Wen, Linqiang

    2015-10-01

    Underwater wireless optical communication is a communication technology which uses laser as an information carrier and transmits data through water. Underwater wireless optical communication has some good features such as broader bandwidth, high transmission rate, better security, anti—interference performance. Therefore, it is promising to be widely used in the civil and military communication domains. It is also suitable for high-speed, short-range communication between underwater mobile vehicles. This paper presents a design approach of omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication, using TRACEPRO simulation tool to help design a combination solid composed of the lens, conical reflector and parabolic reflector, and using the modulated DPSS green laser in the transmitter module to output the laser beam in small divergence angles, after expanded by the combination refraction-reflection solid, the angle turns into a space divergence angle of 2π, achieving the omni-directional light source of hemisphere space, and test in the air and underwater, the result shows that the effect is fine. This paper analyzes the experimental test in the air and water, in order to make further improvement of the uniformity of light distribution, we optimize the reflector surface parameters of combination refraction-reflection solid and test in the air and water. The result shows that omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication optimized could achieve the uniformity of light distribution of underwater space divergence angle of 2π. Omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication designed in this paper has the characteristics of small size and uniformity of light distribution, it is suitable for application between UUVs, AUVs, Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (SDVs) and other underwater vehicle fleet, it realizes point-to-multipoint communications.

  3. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standard of care, current clinical trials and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To review the clinical characteristics of childhood brain tumors, including neurologic signs, neuroimaging and neuropathology. To critically assess indications for therapy relevant to presenting characteristics, age, and disease status. To discuss current management strategies including neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To analyze current clinical trials and future directions of clinical research. Brain tumors account for 20% of neoplastic diseases in children. The most common tumors include astrocytoma and malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET's, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma, and intracranial germ cell tumors. The clinical characteristics and disease extent largely determine the relative merits of available 'standard' and investigational therapeutic approaches. Treatment outcome, including disease control and functional integrity, is dependent upon tumor type and site, age at presentation, and disease extent. An understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and histologic characteristics as they relate to decisions regarding therapy is critical to the radiation oncologist. Appropriate radiation therapy is central to curative therapy for a majority of pediatric brain tumor presentations. Technical advances in neurosurgery provide greater safety for 'gross total resection' in a majority of hemispheric astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The relative roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy for centrally located astrocytomas (e.g., diencephalic, optic pathway) need to be analyzed in the context of initial and overall disease control, neurotoxicities, and potential modifications in the risk:benefit ratio apparent in the introduction of 3-dimensional radiation techniques. Modifications in radiation delivery are important components of current investigations in medulloblastoma; the rationale for contemporary cooperative group trials will be presented as well as the background data re surgical, radiotherapeutic, and

  4. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standard of care, current clinical trials, and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: To review the clinical characteristics of childhood brain tumors, including neurologic signs, neuroimaging and neuropathology. To critically assess indications for therapy relevant to presenting characteristics, age, and disease status. To discuss current management strategies including neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To analyze current clinical trials and future directions of clinical research. Brain tumors account for 20% of neoplastic diseases in children. The most common tumors include astrocytoma and malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET's, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma, and intracranial germ cell tumors. Tumor type and clinical course are often correlated with age at presentation and anatomic site. The clinical characteristics and disease extent largely determine the relative merits of available 'standard' and investigational therapeutic approaches. Treatment outcome, including disease control and functional integrity, is dependent upon age at presentation, tumor type, and disease extent. An understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and histologic characteristics as they relate to decisions regarding therapy is critical to the radiation oncologist. Appropriate radiation therapy is central to curative therapy for a majority of pediatric brain tumor presentations. Technical advances in neurosurgery provide greater safety for 'gross total resection' in a majority of hemispheric astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The relative roles of 'standard' radiation therapy and evolving chemotherapy for centrally located astrocytomas (e.g., diencephalic, optic pathway) need to be analyzed in the context of initial and overall disease control, neurotoxicities, and potential modifications in the risk:benefit ratio apparent in the introduction of precision radiation techniques. Modifications in radiation delivery are fundamental to current investigations in medulloblastoma; the rationale for contemporary and projected

  5. Behavioral and physiological responses to child-directed speech as predictors of communication outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R; Baranek, Grace T; Roberts, Jane E; David, Fabian J; Perryman, Twyla Y

    2010-08-01

    To determine the extent to which behavioral and physiological responses during child-directed speech (CDS) correlate concurrently and predictively with communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-two boys with ASD (initial mean age: 35 months) participated in a longitudinal study. At entry, behavioral (i.e., percentage looking) and physiological (i.e., vagal activity) measures were collected during the presentation of CDS stimuli. A battery of standardized communication measures was administered at entry and readministered 12 months later. Percentage looking during CDS was strongly correlated with all entry and follow-up communication scores; vagal activity during CDS was moderately to strongly correlated with entry receptive language, follow-up expressive language, and social-communicative adaptive skills. After controlling for entry communication skills, vagal activity during CDS accounted for significant variance in follow-up communication skills, but percentage looking during CDS did not. Behavioral and physiological responses to CDS are significantly related to concurrent and later communication skills of children with ASD. Furthermore, higher vagal activity during CDS predicts better communication outcomes 12 months later, after initial communication skills are accounted for. Further research is needed to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying variable responses to CDS among children with ASD.

  6. Probiotics Improve Inflammation-Associated Sickness Behavior by Altering Communication between the Peripheral Immune System and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Charlotte; Ronaghan, Natalie; Zaheer, Raza; Dicay, Michael; Le, Tai; MacNaughton, Wallace K; Surrette, Michael G; Swain, Mark G

    2015-07-29

    Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease) commonly develop debilitating symptoms (i.e., sickness behaviors) that arise from changes in brain function. The microbiota-gut-brain axis alters brain function and probiotic ingestion can influence behavior. However, how probiotics do this remains unclear. We have previously described a novel periphery-to-brain communication pathway in the setting of peripheral organ inflammation whereby monocytes are recruited to the brain in response to systemic TNF-α signaling, leading to microglial activation and subsequently driving sickness behavior development. Therefore, we investigated whether probiotic ingestion (i.e., probiotic mixture VSL#3) alters this periphery-to-brain communication pathway, thereby reducing subsequent sickness behavior development. Using a well characterized mouse model of liver inflammation, we now show that probiotic (VSL#3) treatment attenuates sickness behavior development in mice with liver inflammation without affecting disease severity, gut microbiota composition, or gut permeability. Attenuation of sickness behavior development was associated with reductions in microglial activation and cerebral monocyte infiltration. These events were paralleled by changes in markers of systemic immune activation, including decreased circulating TNF-α levels. Our observations highlight a novel pathway through which probiotics mediate cerebral changes and alter behavior. These findings allow for the potential development of novel therapeutic interventions targeted at the gut microbiome to treat inflammation-associated sickness behaviors in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases. This research shows that probiotics, when eaten, can improve the abnormal behaviors (including social withdrawal and immobility) that are commonly associated with inflammation. Probiotics are able to cause this effect within the body by changing how

  7. Intertextuality and Directionality in the Communication Discourse of a Translation Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study based on a corpus of written professional discourses. Both e-mails and doumails (a specific sort of e-mail used at the website of douban between a translator and several editors from a publishing house during a translation activity on book publication are collected as data for the analysis. The purpose of compiling the corpus is to describe professional literacy by means of identifying the different types of intertextuality found as well as the directionality of intertextuality in discourse flows. Intertextuality is signaled, and some frequent-occurred phraseologies are found within the corpus. The study also quantifies the types and the directionality of intertextuality by distinguishing prior, current, and predicting intertextual references. The prevalence of intertextuality could thus be identified. It is expected that this study could shed some light on researches in professional discourses and the training of novice professionals with communication skills. In addition, this study also reveals the power relationship between the translator and editors, and would be helpful to the description of translation activities.

  8. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. Objective The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Methods Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. Results The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The

  9. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-08-02

    The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The directive approach, in contrast, involves

  10. Direct Modulation Of Aberrant Brain Network Connectivity Through Real-Time NeuroFeedback

    OpenAIRE

    White, Emily; Popal, Haroon; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Kimmich, Sara; Ramot, Michal; Martin Ph.D., Alex; Gotts, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest Even when we are at rest, our brains are always active. For example, areas of the brain involved in vision remain active in complete darkness. Different brain regions that connect together to perform a given task often show coordinated activity at rest. Past studies have shown that these resting connections are different in people with conditions such as autism. Some brain regions are more weakly connected while others are more strongly connected in people with autism spectrum di...

  11. Directed cortical information flow during human object recognition: analyzing induced EEG gamma-band responses in brain's source space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot G Supp

    Full Text Available The increase of induced gamma-band responses (iGBRs; oscillations >30 Hz elicited by familiar (meaningful objects is well established in electroencephalogram (EEG research. This frequency-specific change at distinct locations is thought to indicate the dynamic formation of local neuronal assemblies during the activation of cortical object representations. As analytically power increase is just a property of a single location, phase-synchrony was introduced to investigate the formation of large-scale networks between spatially distant brain sites. However, classical phase-synchrony reveals symmetric, pair-wise correlations and is not suited to uncover the directionality of interactions. Here, we investigated the neural mechanism of visual object processing by means of directional coupling analysis going beyond recording sites, but rather assessing the directionality of oscillatory interactions between brain areas directly. This study is the first to identify the directionality of oscillatory brain interactions in source space during human object recognition and suggests that familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects engage widespread reciprocal information flow. Directionality of cortical information-flow was calculated based upon an established Granger-Causality coupling-measure (partial-directed coherence; PDC using autoregressive modeling. To enable comparison with previous coupling studies lacking directional information, phase-locking analysis was applied, using wavelet-based signal decompositions. Both, autoregressive modeling and wavelet analysis, revealed an augmentation of iGBRs during the presentation of familiar objects relative to unfamiliar controls, which was localized to inferior-temporal, superior-parietal and frontal brain areas by means of distributed source reconstruction. The multivariate analysis of PDC evaluated each possible direction of brain interaction and revealed widespread reciprocal information-transfer during familiar

  12. Improved security detection strategy in quantum secure direct communication protocol based on four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Nie, Jin-Rui; Li, Rui-Fan [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Jing, Bo [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Beijing Institute of Applied Meteorology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Computer Science

    2012-06-15

    To enhance the efficiency of eavesdropping detection in the quantum secure direct communication protocol, an improved quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is presented. In the protocol, the four-particle GHZ state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and quantum dense coding is used to encode the message. In the security analysis, the method of entropy theory is introduced, and two detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference that has been introduced. If the eavesdropper wants to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the quantum secure direct communication using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair block will be 50% and the detection rate of the presented protocol will be 87%. At last, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. The analysis results indicate that the protocol proposed is more secure than the others. (orig.)

  13. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response : Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for

  14. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC method namely direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT. A total number of 119 brain samples were achieved from Bukittinggi Veterinary Laboratory, West Sumatra. Standardisation and validation of the method were compared to Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT as a golden standard for rabies diagnosis. Results show that dRIT was a very good method, it can be performed within two hours without the need of fluorescent microscope. The samples were tested using FAT and from 119 samples tested, 80 (67.23% samples were positive for rabies and 39 (32.77% samples were negative for rabies whereas using dRIT showed that 78 (65.54% samples were positive for rabies and 41 (34.45% samples were negative for rabies. The dRIT results were validated by comparing them with FAT results as a golden standard for rabies. The relative sensitivity of dRIT to FAT was 97.5% and the relative specificity to FAT was 100% (with Kappa value of 0.976, stated as excellent. The achievement showed that dRIT is very potential diagnostic tool and is highly recommended to be used widely as a rapid diagnosis tool for rabies.

  15. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Obesity-related differences between women and men in brain structure and goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eHorstmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the regulation of body weight are well documented. Here, we assessed obesity-related influences of gender on brain structure as well as performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires evaluation of both immediate rewards and long-term outcomes and thus mirrors the trade-off between immediate reward from eating and the long-term effect of overeating on body weight. In women, but not in men, we show that the preference for salient immediate rewards in the face of negative long-term consequences is higher in obese than in lean subjects. In addition, we report structural differences in the left dorsal striatum (i.e. putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for women only. Functionally, both regions are known to play complimentary roles in habitual and goal-directed control of behavior in motivational contexts. For women as well as men, gray matter volume correlates positively with measures of obesity in regions coding the value and saliency of food (i.e. nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the hypothalamus (i.e. the brain's central homeostatic centre. These differences between lean and obese subjects in hedonic and homeostatic control systems may reflect a bias in eating behavior towards energy intake exceeding the actual homeostatic demand. Although we cannot infer from our results the etiology of the observed structural differences, our results resemble neural and behavioral differences well known from other forms of addiction, however, with marked differences between women and men. These findings are important for designing gender-appropriate treatments of obesity and possibly its recognition as a form of addiction.

  17. Sources of variation influencing concordance between functional MRI and direct cortical stimulation in brain tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Morrison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Object: Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI remains a promising method to aid in the surgical management of patients diagnosed with brain tumors. For patients that are candidates for awake craniotomies, surgical decisions can potentially be improved by fMRI but this depends on the level of concordance between preoperative brain maps and the maps provided by the gold standard intraoperative method, direct cortical stimulation (DCS. There have been numerous studies of the concordance between fMRI and DCS using sensitivity and specificity measures, however the results are variable across studies and the key factors influencing variability are not well understood. Thus, the present work addresses the influence of technical factors on fMRI and DCS concordance. Methods: Motor and language mapping data were collected for a group of glioma patients (n = 14 who underwent both preoperative fMRI and intraoperative DCS in an awake craniotomy procedure for tumor removal. Normative fMRI data were also acquired in a healthy control group (n = 12. The fMRI and DCS mapping data were co-registered; true positive (TP, true negative (TN, false positive (FP and false negative (FN occurrences were tabulated over the exposed brain surface. Sensitivity and specificity were measured for the total group, and the motor and language sub-groups. The influence of grid placement, fMRI statistical thresholding, and task standardization were assessed. Correlations between proportions of agreement and error were carefully scrutinized to evaluate concordance more in-depth. Results: Concordance was significantly better for motor versus language mapping. There was an inverse relationship between TP and TN with increasing statistical threshold, and FP dominated the total error. Sensitivity and specificity were reduced when tasks were not standardized across fMRI and DCS. Conclusions: Although the agreement between fMRI and DCS is good, variability is introduced

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  19. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Dentato-Rubro-Thalamic Tract: Outcomes of Direct Targeting for Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoy, Albert J; Schiess, Mya C

    2017-07-01

    Targeting the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTt) has been suggested to be efficacious in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for tremor suppression, both in case reports and post-hoc analyses. This prospective observational study sought to analyze outcomes after directly targeting the DRTt in tremor patients. 20 consecutively enrolled intention tremor patients obtained pre-operative MRI with diffusion tensor (dTi) sequences. Mean baseline tremor amplitude based on The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale was recorded. The DRTt was drawn for each individual on StealthViz software (Medtronic) using the dentate nucleus as the seed region and the ipsilateral pre-central gyrus as the end region and then directly targeted during surgery. Intraoperative testing confirmed successful tremor control. Post-operative analysis of electrode position relative to the DRTt was performed, as was post-operative assessment of tremor improvement. The mean age of patients was 66.8 years; mean duration of tremor was 16 years. Mean voltage for the L electrode = 3.4 V; R = 2.6 V. Mean distance from the center of the active electrode contact to the DRTt was 0.9 mm on the L, and 0.8 mm on the R. Improvement in arm tremor amplitude from baseline after DBS was significant (P tremor suppression. Accounting for hardware, software, and model limitations, depiction of the DRTt allows for placement of electrode contacts directly within the fiber tract for modulation despite any anatomical variation, which reproducibly resulted in good tremor control. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  20. Communication is the key. : Part 2 : Direct to consumer genetics in our future daily life ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    The considerable advances of genome sequencing over the past decades have had a profound impact on our daily life and opened up new avenues for the public to have access to their genetic information and learn more about their ancestry, genealogy and other traits that make each of us unique individuals. A very large number of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated to diseases whereas others have no known phenotype. For example, among the SNPs mapped within ccn1(cyr61), ccn2(ctgf), ccn3(nov), ccn4(wisp-1), ccn5(wisp-2) and ccn6 (wisp-3), only mutations within ccn4 were associated to PPD (the autosomal recessive skeletal disorder Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Dysplasia). On the occasion of this JCCS special issue on the roles of hormetic responses in adaptation, and response of living species to the modifications of their environment, it appeared that it was a good time to briefly review a topic that has been the subject of passionate discussions for the past few years, that is Direct to Consumer genetic tests (DTC GT). Based on the use of DNA analysis and identification of polymorphisms, DTC GT have been developed by several companies in the USA and in countries where there was no legal obstacle for customers to have direct access to their genetic information and manage their healthcare. Problems that arose and decisions that have been taken by regulatory agencies are presented and discussed in this editorial. The « freeze » of health-oriented DTC GT in the USA neither implies the end of DNA analysis nor « fun » applications, which are not aimed at providing risks estimates for particular illnesses. As shown in the example which is discussed in this editorial, DTC GT for cosmetic applications might be considered a fun application of great interest for companies such as L'Oréal, who recently developed the Makeup Genius mobile application. Other fun applications of DTC GT are discussed but there is no doubt that nothing will stop

  1. Endocasts-the direct evidence and recent advances in the study of human brain evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Brain evolution is one of the most important aspects of human evolution, usually studied through endocasts. Analysis of fossil hominid endocasts allows inferences on functional anatomy, physiology, and phylogeny. In this paper, we describe the general features of endocast studies and review some of the major topics in paleoneurology. These are: absolute and relative brain size evolution; brain shape variation; brain asymmetry and lateralization; middle meningeal vessels and venous sinuses; application of computed tomography and virtual imaging; the history of Chinese brain endocast studies. In particular, this review emphasizes endocast studies on Chinese hominin fossils.

  2. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response: Recent Developments and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for different phases of the sexual response, especially with regard to the wanting phase, and changes in these patterns can be linked to sexual response variations, including sexual dysfunctions. From this solid basis, connectivity studies of the human sexual response have begun to add a deeper understanding of the brain network function and structure involved. The study of "sexual" brain connectivity is still very young. Yet, by approaching the brain as a connected organ, the essence of brain function is captured much more accurately, increasing the likelihood of finding useful biomarkers and targets for intervention in sexual dysfunction.

  3. Internet Communication Disorder and the structure of the human brain: initial insights on WeChat addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Zhao, Zhiying; Sindermann, Cornelia; Xu, Lei; Fu, Meina; Li, Jialin; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Li, Keshuang; Kendrick, Keith M; Dai, Jing; Becker, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    WeChat represents one of the most popular smartphone-based applications for communication. Although the application provides several useful features that simplify daily life, a growing number of users spend excessive amounts of time on the application. This may lead to interferences with everyday life and even to addictive patterns of use. In the context of the ongoing discussion on Internet Communication Disorder (ICD), the present study aimed to better characterize the addictive potential of communication applications, using WeChat as an example, by examining associations between individual variations in tendencies towards WeChat addiction and brain structural variations in fronto-striatal-limbic brain regions. To this end levels of addictive tendencies, frequency of use and structural MRI data were assessed in n = 61 healthy participants. Higher tendencies towards WeChat addiction were associated with smaller gray matter volumes of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a key region for monitoring and regulatory control in neural networks underlying addictive behaviors. Moreover, a higher frequency of the paying function was associated with smaller nucleus accumbens volumes. Findings were robust after controlling for levels of anxiety and depression. The present results are in line with previous findings in substance and behavioral addictions, and suggest a similar neurobiological basis in ICD.

  4. Change in brain activity through virtual reality-based brain-machine communication in a chronic tetraplegic subject with muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasunari; Ushiba, Junichi; Kimura, Akio; Liu, Meigen; Tomita, Yutaka

    2010-09-16

    For severely paralyzed people, a brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a way of re-establishing communication. Although subjects with muscular dystrophy (MD) appear to be potential BCI users, the actual long-term effects of BCI use on brain activities in MD subjects have yet to be clarified. To investigate these effects, we followed BCI use by a chronic tetraplegic subject with MD over 5 months. The topographic changes in an electroencephalogram (EEG) after long-term use of the virtual reality (VR)-based BCI were also assessed. Our originally developed BCI system was used to classify an EEG recorded over the sensorimotor cortex in real time and estimate the user's motor intention (MI) in 3 different limb movements: feet, left hand, and right hand. An avatar in the internet-based VR was controlled in accordance with the results of the EEG classification by the BCI. The subject was trained to control his avatar via the BCI by strolling in the VR for 1 hour a day and then continued the same training twice a month at his home. After the training, the error rate of the EEG classification decreased from 40% to 28%. The subject successfully walked around in the VR using only his MI and chatted with other users through a voice-chat function embedded in the internet-based VR. With this improvement in BCI control, event-related desynchronization (ERD) following MI was significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) for feet MI (from -29% to -55%), left-hand MI (from -23% to -42%), and right-hand MI (from -22% to -51%). These results show that our subject with severe MD was able to learn to control his EEG signal and communicate with other users through use of VR navigation and suggest that an internet-based VR has the potential to provide paralyzed people with the opportunity for easy communication.

  5. Change in brain activity through virtual reality-based brain-machine communication in a chronic tetraplegic subject with muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Meigen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For severely paralyzed people, a brain-computer interface (BCI provides a way of re-establishing communication. Although subjects with muscular dystrophy (MD appear to be potential BCI users, the actual long-term effects of BCI use on brain activities in MD subjects have yet to be clarified. To investigate these effects, we followed BCI use by a chronic tetraplegic subject with MD over 5 months. The topographic changes in an electroencephalogram (EEG after long-term use of the virtual reality (VR-based BCI were also assessed. Our originally developed BCI system was used to classify an EEG recorded over the sensorimotor cortex in real time and estimate the user's motor intention (MI in 3 different limb movements: feet, left hand, and right hand. An avatar in the internet-based VR was controlled in accordance with the results of the EEG classification by the BCI. The subject was trained to control his avatar via the BCI by strolling in the VR for 1 hour a day and then continued the same training twice a month at his home. Results After the training, the error rate of the EEG classification decreased from 40% to 28%. The subject successfully walked around in the VR using only his MI and chatted with other users through a voice-chat function embedded in the internet-based VR. With this improvement in BCI control, event-related desynchronization (ERD following MI was significantly enhanced (p Conclusions These results show that our subject with severe MD was able to learn to control his EEG signal and communicate with other users through use of VR navigation and suggest that an internet-based VR has the potential to provide paralyzed people with the opportunity for easy communication.

  6. Communicating Risk Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Television Ads: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W; Aikin, Kathryn J; Poehlman, Jon

    2017-11-10

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) television ads for prescription drugs are required to disclose the product's major risks in the audio or audio and visual parts of the presentation (sometimes referred to as the "major statement"). The objective of this content analysis was to determine how the major statement of risks is presented in DTC television ads, including what risk information is presented, how easy or difficult it is to understand the risk information, and the audio and visual characteristics of the major statement. We identified 68 DTC television ads for branded prescription drugs, which included a unique major statement and that aired between July 2012 and August 2014. We used subjective and objective measures to code 50 ads randomly selected from the main sample. Major statements often presented numerous risks, usually in order of severity, with no quantitative information about the risks' severity or prevalence. The major statements required a high school reading level, and many included long and complex sentences. The major statements were often accompanied by competing non-risk information in the visual images, presented with moderately fast-paced music, and read at a faster pace than benefit information. Overall, we discovered several ways in which the communication of risk information could be improved.

  7. Dynamic (2, 3) Threshold Quantum Secret Sharing of Secure Direct Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Hong; Xiao Jing-Hua; Mehmet, Orgun A.; Josef, Pieprzyk; Xue Li-Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a (2, 3) discrete variable threshold quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication can be achieved based on recurrence using the same devices as in BB84. The scheme is devised by first placing the shares of smaller secret pieces into the shares of the largest secret piece, converting the shares of the largest secret piece into corresponding quantum state sequences, inserting nonorthogonal state particles into the quantum state sequences with the purpose of detecting eavesdropping, and finally sending the new quantum state sequences to the three participants respectively. Consequently, every particle can on average carry up to 1.5-bit messages due to the use of recurrence. The control codes are randomly prepared using the way to generate fountain codes with pre-shared source codes between Alice and Bob, making three participants can detect eavesdropping by themselves without sending classical messages to Alice. Due to the flexible encoding, our scheme is also dynamic, which means that it allows the participants to join and leave freely. (paper)

  8. Deviations in CBERS-4 Satellite Direction Components From The Electromagnetic Disturbance of Communication Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, A.; Fernandes, C.

    2017-10-01

    The CBERS-4 is a low Earth orbit satellite, with a set of antennas S-band/UHF for communication almost omni-direcional. For the electromagnetic radiation from transmission antennas, was developed a model of electromagnetic disturbance considering the antennas theory and the laws of the conservation energy-momentum. Was propagated the orbit of the CBERS-4 satellite considering your state vector from the March 14, 2016, at 11h 14m 15.23s using the equation of motion in the form of cartesian components. From the state vector of the CBERS-4 satellite was possible to propagate the orbit for different periods, without disturbance (considering just the problem of two bodies) and with a disturbance of electromagnetic origin. The model of reaction of electromagnetic acceleration on the satellite depends on only the type of antenna. Quadrifilar and parabolic propeller antennas were considered in this paper. Using the equation of motion of the satellite based on the method of Runge-Kutta of fourth and fifth degree, the effect disturber this modeling was applied on the CBERS-4 considering the mass of satellite, characteristics of antenna, power irradiated and gain maximum of antenna. The final analysis discusses the values of components in the direction (radial, cross and normal) and the coordinates X-Y-Z considering the case disturbed to both antennas.

  9. Rate adaptive multilevel coded modulation with high coding gain in intensity modulation direct detection optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yongjun; Rao, Lan; Ullah, Rahat; Zhao, Feng; Li, Deng'ao

    2018-02-01

    A rate-adaptive multilevel coded modulation (RA-MLC) scheme based on fixed code length and a corresponding decoding scheme is proposed. RA-MLC scheme combines the multilevel coded and modulation technology with the binary linear block code at the transmitter. Bits division, coding, optional interleaving, and modulation are carried out by the preset rule, then transmitted through standard single mode fiber span equal to 100 km. The receiver improves the accuracy of decoding by means of soft information passing through different layers, which enhances the performance. Simulations are carried out in an intensity modulation-direct detection optical communication system using MATLAB®. Results show that the RA-MLC scheme can achieve bit error rate of 1E-5 when optical signal-to-noise ratio is 20.7 dB. It also reduced the number of decoders by 72% and realized 22 rate adaptation without significantly increasing the computing time. The coding gain is increased by 7.3 dB at BER=1E-3.

  10. Directionality of large-scale resting-state brain networks during eyes open and eyes closed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Delong; Liang, Bishan; Wu, Xia; Wang, Zengjian; Xu, Pengfei; Chang, Song; Liu, Bo; Liu, Ming; Huang, Ruiwang

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined directional connections in the brain among resting-state networks (RSNs) when the participant had their eyes open (E0) or had their eyes closed (EC). The resting state fMRI data were collected from 20 healthy participants (9 males, 20.17 +/- 2.74 years) under the EO and EC

  11. Checkpoints to the Brain: Directing Myeloid Cell Migration to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Harrison-Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are a unique subset of leukocytes with a diverse array of functions within the central nervous system during health and disease. Advances in understanding of the unique properties of these cells have inspired interest in their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes, proteins, and drugs, or as “assistants” in the clean-up of aggregated proteins and other molecules when existing drainage systems are no longer adequate. The trafficking of myeloid cells from the periphery to the central nervous system is subject to complex cellular and molecular controls with several ‘checkpoints’ from the blood to their destination in the brain parenchyma. As important components of the neurovascular unit, the functional state changes associated with lineage heterogeneity of myeloid cells are increasingly recognized as important for disease progression. In this review, we discuss some of the cellular elements associated with formation and function of the neurovascular unit, and present an update on the impact of myeloid cells on central nervous system (CNS diseases in the laboratory and the clinic. We then discuss emerging strategies for harnessing the potential of site-directed myeloid cell homing to the CNS, and identify promising avenues for future research, with particular emphasis on the importance of untangling the functional heterogeneity within existing myeloid subsets.

  12. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Provokes Neuroplasticity in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jeong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI provokes behavioral and cognitive changes. But the study about electrophysiologic findings and managements of rmTBI is limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on rmTBI. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham, rmTBI, and rmTBI treated by tDCS. Animals received closed head mTBI three consecutive times a day. Anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor cortex. We evaluated the motor-evoked potential (MEP and the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed 12 days after rmTBI. After rmTBI, the latency of MEP was prolonged and the amplitude in the right hind limb was reduced in the rmTBI group. The latency of SEP was delayed and the amplitude was decreased after rmTBI in the rmTBI group. In the tDCS group, the amplitude in both hind limbs was increased after tDCS in comparison with the values before rmTBI. Anodal tDCS after rmTBI seems to be a useful tool for promoting transient motor recovery through increasing the synchronicity of cortical firing, and it induces early recovery of consciousness. It can contribute to management of concussion in humans if further study is performed.

  13. Paternal retrieval behavior regulated by brain estrogen synthetase (aromatase in mouse sires that engage in communicative interactions with pairmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eAkther

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase (cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19, which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of five days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. These results suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR mice.

  14. Organizational Communication: An Analysis of the Main Perspectives, Main Concepts and Future Directions of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yüksel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a scholarly debate since the 1980s regarding the content, theory, methodology and applications that define the scope of organizational communication and separate it from other related disciplines. This debate is critical in the sense that it enables to identity organizational communication in a rich manner and helps us define the scope of the field and its unique characteristics. Based on this main assumption, this study addressed the major theoretical/methodological dimensions of the field (functional, interpretive, and critical, conceptualization of the most critical concepts (organization, communication, culture, voice/control in these dimensions, and current gaps and future directions of the field. This study revealed that the field of organizational communication has made great improvements since the field emerged in the last three decade with its own content, methodology, and applications and generated an adequate body of research within these different perspectives. It is shown that representation of the field by different perspectives provides richness to the field compared with the time when organizational communication was solely dominated by functional, positivist research. Key words: Functional/interpretive/critical perspectives, communication, organization, culture, control, effectiveness. Örgütsel İletişim: Alanın Ana Yaklaşımları, Ana Kavramları ve Gelecek Yönelimlerinin AnaliziÖzÖrgütsel iletişim alanının kapsamı ve bu alanı ilgili displinlerden ayıracak içerik, teori, yöntem, ve uygulamalar üzerine akademik tartışmalar 1980’li yıllardan beri devam etmektedir. Bu tartışmalar, örgütsel iletişim alanının derinlemesine anlaşılması, sınırlarının belirlenmesi ve diğer disiplinlerden ayrılan özelliklerinin anlaşılması noktasında hayati öneme sahiptir. Bu temel varsayımdan hareketle, bu çalışma alandaki temel teorik/yöntemsel yaklaşımları (işlevsel, yorumlayıcı, ele

  15. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response: Recent Developments and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for different phases of the sexual response, especially with regard to the wanting phase, and changes in these patterns can be linked to sexual response variations, including sexual dysfunctions. From ...

  16. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kane

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

  17. Visual and tactile interfaces for bi-directional human robot communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel; Lackey, Stephanie; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Hudson, Irwin

    2013-05-01

    Seamless integration of unmanned and systems and Soldiers in the operational environment requires robust communication capabilities. Multi-Modal Communication (MMC) facilitates achieving this goal due to redundancy and levels of communication superior to single mode interaction using auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. Visual signaling using arm and hand gestures is a natural method of communication between people. Visual signals standardized within the U.S. Army Field Manual and in use by Soldiers provide a foundation for developing gestures for human to robot communication. Emerging technologies using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) enable classification of arm and hand gestures for communication with a robot without the requirement of line-of-sight needed by computer vision techniques. These devices improve the robustness of interpreting gestures in noisy environments and are capable of classifying signals relevant to operational tasks. Closing the communication loop between Soldiers and robots necessitates them having the ability to return equivalent messages. Existing visual signals from robots to humans typically require highly anthropomorphic features not present on military vehicles. Tactile displays tap into an unused modality for robot to human communication. Typically used for hands-free navigation and cueing, existing tactile display technologies are used to deliver equivalent visual signals from the U.S. Army Field Manual. This paper describes ongoing research to collaboratively develop tactile communication methods with Soldiers, measure classification accuracy of visual signal interfaces, and provides an integration example including two robotic platforms.

  18. Whole-brain analytic measures of network communication reveal increased structure-function correlation in right temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wirsich

    2016-01-01

    In rTLE patients, we found a widespread hypercorrelated functional network. Network communication analysis revealed greater unspecific branching of the shortest path (search information in the structural connectome and a higher global correlation between the structural and functional connectivity for the patient group. We also found evidence for a preserved structural rich-club in the patient group. In sum, global augmentation of structure-function correlation might be linked to a smaller functional repertoire in rTLE patients, while sparing the central core of the brain which may represent a pathway that facilitates the spread of seizures.

  19. Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

  20. Teaching Children with Autism to Engage in Peer-Directed Mands Using a Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Gawley-Bullington, Elizabeth M.; Bouxsein, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) plus prompting to increase peer-directed mands for preferred items using a picture exchange communication system (PECS). Two nonvocal individuals with autism participated. Independent mands with a peer increased with the implementation of DRA plus prompting for both…

  1. Reliability of Videoconferencing Administration of a Communication Questionnaire to People With Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Close Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdijk, Rachael; Power, Emma; Brunner, Melissa; Togher, Leanne

    To compare in-person with videoconferencing administration of a communication questionnaire for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their close others. Repeated-measures design with randomized order of administration. Twenty adults with severe TBI and their close others. Both participants with TBI and their close others completed the La Trobe Communication Questionnaire (LCQ) via interview with a clinician, once via Skype and once during a home visit. Total LCQ score and time taken for completion. There were no significant differences between videoconferencing and in-person conditions in the total scores or time taken to complete the questionnaire. Videoconferencing-based administration of the LCQ is as reliable and efficient as in-person administration.

  2. Individual differences in learning correlate with modulation of brain activity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Brian; Wada, Atsushi; Parasuraman, Raja

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability. In accomplishing this goal, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) concurrently with tDCS stimulation (1 mA, 30 minutes duration) using a visual search task simulating real world conditions. The experiment consisted of three fMRI sessions: pre-training (no performance feedback), training (performance feedback which included response accuracy and target location and either real tDCS or sham stimulation given), and post-training (no performance feedback). The right posterior parietal cortex was selected as the site of anodal tDCS based on its known role in visual search and spatial attention processing. Our results identified a region in the right precentral gyrus, known to be involved with visual spatial attention and orienting, that showed tDCS induced task related changes in cortical excitability that were associated with individual differences in improved performance. This same region showed greater activity during the training session for target feedback of incorrect (target-error feedback) over correct trials for the tDCS stim over sham group indicating greater attention to target features during training feedback when trials were incorrect. These results give important insight into the nature of neural excitability induced by tDCS as it relates to variability in

  3. Follow up CT of the patients who developed mental symptoms after direct operation of ruptured anterior communicating aneurysma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Yoku; Abe, Hiroshi; Satoh, Masaharu; Miyasaka, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    The following conclusions were obtained from the analysis of CT findings of 26 cases with ruptured anterior communicating aneurysm showed postoperative mental symptoms. 1) Many cases with diffuse and symmetrical high density in subarachnoid spaces on CT in the acute stage, showed severe mental symptoms in the chronic stage. In particular, serious mental symptoms of the chronic stage were recognized in cases with high density in not only subarachnoid space but also in brain tissues and ventricles. 2) Mental symptoms of the chronic stage were severe in cases showed relatively large low density area and with low density in frontal lobe. (author)

  4. CURRENT DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH IN INFORMATION- COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE FIELD OF PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Spirin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the publication modern research areas of information-communication technologies in pedagogical science are identified. The basic requirements of the new passport for the specialty 13.00.10 - Information and Communication Technologies in Education are described. On this specialty the defence of the degree of doctor and candidate of pedagogical science may be carried out.

  5. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  6. GABAergic interneuron to astrocyte signalling: a neglected form of cell communication in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losi, Gabriele; Mariotti, Letizia; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2014-10-19

    GABAergic interneurons represent a minority of all cortical neurons and yet they efficiently control neural network activities in all brain areas. In parallel, glial cell astrocytes exert a broad control of brain tissue homeostasis and metabolism, modulate synaptic transmission and contribute to brain information processing in a dynamic interaction with neurons that is finely regulated in time and space. As most studies have focused on glutamatergic neurons and excitatory transmission, our knowledge of functional interactions between GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes is largely defective. Here, we critically discuss the currently available literature that hints at a potential relevance of this specific signalling in brain function. Astrocytes can respond to GABA through different mechanisms that include GABA receptors and transporters. GABA-activated astrocytes can, in turn, modulate local neuronal activity by releasing gliotransmitters including glutamate and ATP. In addition, astrocyte activation by different signals can modulate GABAergic neurotransmission. Full clarification of the reciprocal signalling between different GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes will improve our understanding of brain network complexity and has the potential to unveil novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. TC-PTP directly interacts with connexin43 to regulate gap junction intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanjun; Spagnol, Gaelle; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein kinases have long been reported to regulate connexins; however, little is known about the involvement of phosphatases in the modulation of intercellular communication through gap junctions and the subsequent downstream effects on cellular processes. Here, we identify an interaction between the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP, officially known as PTPN2) and the carboxyl terminus of connexin43 (Cx43, officially known as GJA1). Two cell lines, normal rat kidney (NRK) cells endogenously expressing Cx43 and an NRK-derived cell line expressing v-Src with temperature-sensitive activity, were used to demonstrate that EGF and v-Src stimulation, respectively, induced TC-PTP to colocalize with Cx43 at the plasma membrane. Cell biology experiments using phospho-specific antibodies and biophysical assays demonstrated that the interaction is direct and that TC-PTP dephosphorylates Cx43 residues Y247 and Y265, but does not affect v-Src. Transfection of TC-PTP also indirectly led to the dephosphorylation of Cx43 S368, by inactivating PKCα and PKCδ, with no effect on the phosphorylation of S279 and S282 (MAPK-dependent phosphorylation sites). Dephosphorylation maintained Cx43 gap junctions at the plaque and partially reversed the channel closure caused by v-Src-mediated phosphorylation of Cx43. Understanding dephosphorylation, along with the well-documented roles of Cx43 phosphorylation, might eventually lead to methods to modulate the regulation of gap junction channels, with potential benefits for human health. PMID:24849651

  8. Allosteric communication in myosin V: from small conformational changes to large directed movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecchini

    Full Text Available The rigor to post-rigor transition in myosin, a consequence of ATP binding, plays an essential role in the Lymn-Taylor functional cycle because it results in the dissociation of the actomyosin complex after the powerstroke. On the basis of the X-ray structures of myosin V, we have developed a new normal mode superposition model for the transition path between the two states. Rigid-body motions of the various subdomains and specific residues at the subdomain interfaces are key elements in the transition. The allosteric communication between the nucleotide binding site and the U50/L50 cleft is shown to result from local changes due to ATP binding, which induce large amplitude motions that are encoded in the structure of the protein. The triggering event is the change in the interaction of switch I and the P-loop, which is stabilized by ATP binding. The motion of switch I, which is a relatively rigid element of the U50 subdomain, leads directly to a partial opening of the U50/L50 cleft; the latter is expected to weaken the binding of myosin to actin. The calculated transition path demonstrates the nature of the subdomain coupling and offers an explanation for the mutual exclusion of ATP and actin binding. The mechanism of the uncoupling of the converter from the motor head, an essential part of the transition, is elucidated. The origin of the partial untwisting of the central beta-sheet in the rigor to post-rigor transition is described.

  9. An Enzyme Switch Employing Direct Electrochemical Communication between Horseradish Peroxidase and a Poly(aniline) Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, P N; Birkin, P R; Wang, J H; Palmisano, F; De Benedetto, G

    1998-09-01

    An enzyme switch, or microelectrochemical enzyme transistor, responsive to hydrogen peroxide was made by connecting two carbon band electrodes (∼10 μm wide, 4.5 mm long separated by a 20-μm gap) with an anodically grown film of poly(aniline). Horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was either adsorbed onto the poly(aniline) film or immobilized in an insulating poly(1,2-diaminobenzene) polymer grown electrochemically on top of the poly(aniline) film to complete the device. In the completed device, the conductivity of the poly(aniline) film changes from conducting (between - 0.05 and + 0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) to insulating (>+0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) on addition of hydrogen peroxide. The change in conductivity is brought about by oxidation of the poly(aniline) film by direct electrochemical communication between the enzyme and the conducting polymer. This was confirmed by measuring the potential of the poly(aniline) film during switching of the conductivity in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The devices can be reused by rereducing the poly(aniline) electrochemically to a potential below +0.3 V vs SCE. A blind test showed that the device can be used to determine unknown concentrations of H(2)O(2) in solution and that, when used with hydrogen peroxide concentrations below 0.5 mmol dm(-)(3), the same device maybe reused several times. The possible development of devices of this type for use in applications requiring the measurement of low levels of hydrogen peroxide or horseradish peroxidase is discussed.

  10. Deep Learning for Brain MRI Segmentation: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Galimzianova, Alfiia; Hoogi, Assaf; Rubin, Daniel L; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI is routine for many neurological diseases and conditions and relies on accurate segmentation of structures of interest. Deep learning-based segmentation approaches for brain MRI are gaining interest due to their self-learning and generalization ability over large amounts of data. As the deep learning architectures are becoming more mature, they gradually outperform previous state-of-the-art classical machine learning algorithms. This review aims to provide an overview of current deep learning-based segmentation approaches for quantitative brain MRI. First we review the current deep learning architectures used for segmentation of anatomical brain structures and brain lesions. Next, the performance, speed, and properties of deep learning approaches are summarized and discussed. Finally, we provide a critical assessment of the current state and identify likely future developments and trends.

  11. Paternal Retrieval Behavior Regulated by Brain Estrogen Synthetase (Aromatase) in Mouse Sires that Engage in Communicative Interactions with Pairmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akther, Shirin; Huang, Zhiqi; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Yuhi, Teruko; Lopatina, Olga; Salmina, Alla B; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Matsuo, Mie; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups) when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase [cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19)], which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. Interestingly, the number of nuclei with aromatase immunoreactivity in sires left together with maternal mates in the home cage after pup-removing was significantly larger than that in sires housed with a whole family. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of 5 days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. The results demonstrate that the dam significantly stimulates aromatase in the male brain and that the presence of the pups has an inhibitory effect on this increase. These results also suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR male mice.

  12. Automated segmentation of ventricles from serial brain MRI for the quantification of volumetric changes associated with communicating hydrocephalus in patients with brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura, John A.; Hamilton, Allison M.; Vargish, Geoffrey A.; Butman, John A.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2011-03-01

    Accurate ventricle volume estimates could improve the understanding and diagnosis of postoperative communicating hydrocephalus. For this category of patients, associated changes in ventricle volume can be difficult to identify, particularly over short time intervals. We present an automated segmentation algorithm that evaluates ventricle size from serial brain MRI examination. The technique combines serial T1- weighted images to increase SNR and segments the means image to generate a ventricle template. After pre-processing, the segmentation is initiated by a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to find the seeds used in a combination of fast marching methods and geodesic active contours. Finally, the ventricle template is propagated onto the serial data via non-linear registration. Serial volume estimates were obtained in an automated robust and accurate manner from difficult data.

  13. Moving Beyond the Brain: Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, major advances in cognitive neuroscience have clearly shown that the language function is not restricted into the classical language areas but it involves brain regions, which had never previously considered. Indeed, recent lines of evidence have suggested that the processing of words associated to motor schemata, such as action verbs, modulates the activity of the sensorimotor cortex, which, in turn, facilitates its retrieval. To date, no studies have investigated whether the spinal cord, which is functionally connected to the sensorimotor system, might also work as an auxiliary support for language processing. We explored the combined effect of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS and language treatment in a randomized double-blind design for the recovery of verbs and nouns in 14 chronic aphasics. During each treatment, each subject received tsDCS (20 min, 2 mA over the thoracic vertebrae (10th vertebra in three different conditions: (1 anodic, (2 cathodic and (3 sham, while performing a verb and noun naming tasks. Each experimental condition was run in five consecutive daily sessions over 3 weeks. Overall, a significant greater improvement in verb naming was found during the anodic condition with respect to the other two conditions, which persisted at 1 week after the end of the treatment. No significant differences were present for noun naming among the three conditions. The hypothesis is advanced that anodic tsDCS might have influenced activity along the ascending somatosensory pathways, ultimately eliciting neurophysiological changes into the sensorimotor areas which, in turn, supported the retrieval of verbs. These results further support the evidence that action words, due to their sensorimotor semantic properties, are partly represented into the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, they also document, for the first time, that tsDCS enhances verb recovery in chronic aphasia and it may

  14. Moving Beyond the Brain: Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Shofany, Jacob; Gili, Tommaso; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cucuzza, Gabriella; Priori, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, major advances in cognitive neuroscience have clearly shown that the language function is not restricted into the classical language areas but it involves brain regions, which had never previously considered. Indeed, recent lines of evidence have suggested that the processing of words associated to motor schemata, such as action verbs, modulates the activity of the sensorimotor cortex, which, in turn, facilitates its retrieval. To date, no studies have investigated whether the spinal cord, which is functionally connected to the sensorimotor system, might also work as an auxiliary support for language processing. We explored the combined effect of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) and language treatment in a randomized double-blind design for the recovery of verbs and nouns in 14 chronic aphasics. During each treatment, each subject received tsDCS (20 min, 2 mA) over the thoracic vertebrae (10th vertebra) in three different conditions: (1) anodic, (2) cathodic and (3) sham, while performing a verb and noun naming tasks. Each experimental condition was run in five consecutive daily sessions over 3 weeks. Overall, a significant greater improvement in verb naming was found during the anodic condition with respect to the other two conditions, which persisted at 1 week after the end of the treatment. No significant differences were present for noun naming among the three conditions. The hypothesis is advanced that anodic tsDCS might have influenced activity along the ascending somatosensory pathways, ultimately eliciting neurophysiological changes into the sensorimotor areas which, in turn, supported the retrieval of verbs. These results further support the evidence that action words, due to their sensorimotor semantic properties, are partly represented into the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, they also document, for the first time, that tsDCS enhances verb recovery in chronic aphasia and it may represent a

  15. Improved spatial targeting with directionally segmented deep brain stimulation leads for treating essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Maureen; Deyo, Steve; Abosch, Aviva; Bajwa, Jawad A.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2012-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus (Vim) is known to exert a therapeutic effect on postural and kinetic tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET). For DBS leads implanted near the caudal border of Vim, however, there is an increased likelihood that one will also induce paresthesia side-effects by stimulating neurons within the sensory pathway of the ventral caudal (Vc) nucleus of thalamus. The aim of this computational study was to (1) investigate the neuronal pathways modulated by therapeutic, sub-therapeutic and paresthesia-inducing DBS settings in three patients with ET and (2) determine how much better an outcome could have been achieved had these patients been implanted with a DBS lead containing directionally segmented electrodes (dDBS). Multi-compartment neuron models of the thalamocortical, cerebellothalamic and medial lemniscal pathways were first simulated in the context of patient-specific anatomies, lead placements and programming parameters from three ET patients who had been implanted with Medtronic 3389 DBS leads. The models showed that in these patients, complete suppression of tremor was associated most closely with activating an average of 62% of the cerebellothalamic afferent input into Vim (n = 10), while persistent paresthesias were associated with activating 35% of the medial lemniscal tract input into Vc thalamus (n = 12). The dDBS lead design demonstrated superior targeting of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway, especially in cases of misaligned DBS leads. Given the close proximity of Vim to Vc thalamus, the models suggest that dDBS will enable clinicians to more effectively sculpt current through and around thalamus in order to achieve a more consistent therapeutic effect without inducing side-effects.

  16. Pilot Evaluation of a Palliative and End-of-Life Communication Intervention for Parents of Children With a Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Shih, Chie-Schin; Gauvain, Karen M; Kane, Javier R; Liu, Jingxia; Haase, Joan E

    Providing timely palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL) information to parents of children with a serious illness is a national health care priority. The goals of this study were to determine feasibility, acceptability, and parent responses related to a PC/EOL communication intervention, titled "Communication Plan: Early through End of Life (COMPLETE)" to parents of children with a brain tumor. The study was a 2-site prospective, single-group pilot study targeting parents' stress and coping outcomes. The sample included 13 parents of 11 children (ie, 11 families). During the first 6 months postdiagnosis, we evaluated parent outcomes at 4 time points (baseline and 3 post-sessions). Our findings included significant decline in decision regret ( P = .0089); strong, significantly increased hope ( P ≤ .0001); and significantly decreased uncertainty ( P = .04). Over time, more than half of the parents (61.5%) preferred to receive information about their child's current condition and PC/EOL options. Our findings provide evidence to suggest that the COMPLETE intervention is feasible and acceptable and produces promising effects on 3 parent outcomes (ie, decision regret, hope, and uncertainty) in parents of children with a brain tumor. Further research is indicated to evaluate COMPLETE with a larger sample of parents of children with cancer and with a control group.

  17. Chronic stress-induced effects of corticosterone on brain: direct and indirect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallman, M. F.; Akana, S. F.; Strack, A. M.; Scribner, K. S.; Pecoraro, N.; La Fleur, S. E.; Houshyar, H.; Gomez, F.

    2004-01-01

    Acutely, glucocorticoids act to inhibit stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion through their actions in brain and anterior pituitary (canonical feedback). With chronic stress, glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of ACTH secretion changes

  18. Direct Measurement of Free Radical Levels in the Brain After Cortical Ischemia Induced by Photothrombosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, J.; Nohejlová, K.; Stopka, Pavel; Rokyta, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 853-860 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Free radicals * EPR * Focal ischemia * Brain * Photothrombosis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  19. The difference between electrical microstimulation and direct electrical stimulation - towards new opportunities for innovative functional brain mapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marion; Rossel, Olivier; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues; Guiraud, David; Bonnetblanc, François

    2016-04-01

    Both electrical microstimulation (EMS) and direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain are used to perform functional brain mapping. EMS is applied to animal fundamental neuroscience experiments, whereas DES is performed in the operating theatre on neurosurgery patients. The objective of the present review was to shed new light on electrical stimulation techniques in brain mapping by comparing EMS and DES. There is much controversy as to whether the use of DES during wide-awake surgery is the 'gold standard' for studying the brain function. As part of this debate, it is sometimes wrongly assumed that EMS and DES induce similar effects in the nervous tissues and have comparable behavioural consequences. In fact, the respective stimulation parameters in EMS and DES are clearly different. More surprisingly, there is no solid biophysical rationale for setting the stimulation parameters in EMS and DES; this may be due to historical, methodological and technical constraints that have limited the experimental protocols and prompted the use of empirical methods. In contrast, the gap between EMS and DES highlights the potential for new experimental paradigms in electrical stimulation for functional brain mapping. In view of this gap and recent technical developments in stimulator design, it may now be time to move towards alternative, innovative protocols based on the functional stimulation of peripheral nerves (for which a more solid theoretical grounding exists).

  20. Combination of brain-computer interface training and goal-directed physical therapy in chronic stroke: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broetz, Doris; Braun, Christoph; Weber, Cornelia; Soekadar, Surjo R; Caria, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-09-01

    There is no accepted and efficient rehabilitation strategy to reduce focal impairments for patients with chronic stroke who lack residual movements. A 67-year-old hemiplegic patient with no active finger extension was trained with a brain-computer interface (BCI) combined with a specific daily life-oriented physiotherapy. The BCI used electrical brain activity (EEG) and magnetic brain activity (MEG) to drive an orthosis and a robot affixed to the patient's affected upper extremity, which enabled him to move the paralyzed arm and hand driven by voluntary modulation of micro-rhythm activity. In addition, the patient practiced goal-directed physiotherapy training. Over 1 year, he completed 3 training blocks. Arm motor function, gait capacities (using Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, Modified Ashworth Scale, 10-m walk speed, and goal attainment score), and brain reorganization (functional MRI, MEG) were repeatedly assessed. The ability of hand and arm movements as well as speed and safety of gait improved significantly (mean 46.6%). Improvement of motor function was associated with increased micro-oscillations in the ipsilesional motor cortex. This proof-of-principle study suggests that the combination of BCI training with goal-directed, active physical therapy may improve the motor abilities of chronic stroke patients despite apparent initial paralysis.

  1. Does Direct Radiologist-Patient Verbal Communication Affect Follow-Up Compliance of Probably Benign Assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Melissa S; Neal, Colleen H; Klein, Katherine A; Noroozian, Mitra; Patterson, Stephanie K; Helvie, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether direct verbal communication of results by a radiologist affected follow-up compliance rates for probably benign breast imaging findings. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. A retrospective search identified all patients from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 who had breast findings newly assessed as probably benign (BI-RADS category 3). Patients were categorized by whether the radiologist or the technologist verbally communicated the result and follow-up recommendation. Patient adherence to 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up imaging recommendations was recorded. Compliance data were available for 770 of 819 patients in the study. Overall compliance was 83.0% (639 of 770) for 6-month examinations, 68.1% (524 of 770) for 6- and 12-month examinations, and 57.4% (442 of 770) for 6-, 12-, and 24-month examinations. For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone, there was no significant difference in compliance between those who had and those who did not have radiologist-patient communication (6 months, 81.9% vs 80.8% [P = .83]; 6 and 12 months, 70.8% vs 67.3% [P = .58]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 54.2% vs 58.4% [P = .53]). For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone versus ultrasound with or without diagnostic mammography, there was no significant difference in compliance (6 months, 81.1% vs 84.3% [P = .24]; 6 and 12 months, 68.1% vs 68.0% [P = .96]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 57.4% vs 57.4% [P = .00]). High initial compliance was achieved by radiologist or technologist verbal communication of findings and recommendations. Direct communication by the radiologist did not increase compliance compared with communication by a technologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. c-Fos expression in the paternal mouse brain induced by communicative interaction with maternal mates

    OpenAIRE

    鍾, 静; Zhong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    博士論文要旨Abstract 以下に掲載:Molecular Brain 7(66) pp.1-11 2014. BioMed Central. 共著者:Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Shirin Akther, Chiharu Higashida, Takahiro Tsuji, Haruhiro Higashida

  3. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  4. Myths on Bi-direction Communication of Web 2.0 Based Social Networks: Is Social Network Truly Interactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    more and more social interactions are happening on the on-line. Especially recent uptake of the social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook (http...Smart phones • Live updates within social networks • Facebook & Twitters Solution: WebMon for Risk Management Need for New WebMon for Social Networks ...Title: Myths on bi-direction communication of Web 2.0 based social networks : Is social network truly interactive

  5. Double C-NOT attack and counterattack on `Three-step semi-quantum secure direct communication protocol'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Lin, Po-hua; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-07-01

    Recently, Zou and Qiu (Sci China Phys Mech Astron 57:1696-1702, 2014) proposed a three-step semi-quantum secure direct communication protocol allowing a classical participant who does not have a quantum register to securely send his/her secret message to a quantum participant. However, this study points out that an eavesdropper can use the double C-NOT attack to obtain the secret message. To solve this problem, a modification is proposed.

  6. Three-party quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication based on χ-type entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Guang, Yang; Wei-Feng, Cao; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Based on χ-type entangled states and the two-step protocol [Deng F G, Long G L and Liu X S 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 042317], a quantum secret sharing protocol of secure direct communication based on χ-type entangled states |χ 00 ) 3214 is proposed. Using some interesting entanglement properties of this state, the agent entirety can directly obtain the secret message from the message sender only if they collaborate together. The security of the scheme is also discussed. (general)

  7. Social communication with virtual agents: The effects of body and gaze direction on attention and emotional responding in human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes; Graupner, Sven-Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction have been changed as a whole, resulting in only congruent gaze and body directions (averted or directed) of another person. Here, we aimed to disentangle these effects by using short animated sequences of virtual agents posing with either direct or averted body or gaze. Attention allocation by means of eye movements, facial muscle response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e., a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards the observer. This suggests that direct interaction as well as incongruous signals increase the demands of attentional resources in the observer. For the facial muscle response, only the reaction of muscle zygomaticus major revealed an effect of body direction, expressed by stronger activity in response to happy expressions for direct compared to averted gaze when the virtual character's body was directed towards the observer. Finally, body direction also influenced the emotional experience ratings towards happy expressions. While earlier findings suggested that mutual eye contact is the main source for increased emotional responding and attentional allocation, the present results indicate that direction of the virtual agent's body and head also plays a minor but significant role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system to use arbitrary Windows applications by directly controlling mouse and keyboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer.

  9. A Case for Leveraging 802.11p for Direct Phone-to-Phone Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Pilsoon; Gao, Jason Hao; Ramanathan, Nadesh; Mao, Mengda; Xu, Shipeng; Boon, Chirn-Chye; Fahmy, Suhaib A.; Peh, Li-Shiuan

    2014-01-01

    WiFi cannot effectively handle the demands of device-to-device communication between phones, due to insufficient range and poor reliability. We make the case for using IEEE 802.11p DSRC instead, which has been adopted for vehicle-to-vehicle communications, providing lower latency and longer range. We demonstrate a prototype motivated by a novel fabrication process that deposits both III-V and CMOS devices on the same die. In our system prototype, the designed RF front-end is interfaced with a...

  10. Individualized model predicts brain current flow during transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment in responsive stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhishek; Baker, Julie M; Bikson, Marom; Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-07-01

    Although numerous published reports have demonstrated the beneficial effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) on task performance, fundamental questions remain regarding the optimal electrode configuration on the scalp. Moreover, it is expected that lesioned brain tissue will influence current flow and should therefore be considered (and perhaps leveraged) in the design of individualized tDCS therapies for stroke. The current report demonstrates how different electrode configurations influence the flow of electrical current through brain tissue in a patient who responded positively to a tDCS treatment targeting aphasia. The patient, a 60-year-old man, sustained a left hemisphere ischemic stroke (lesion size = 87.42 mL) 64 months before his participation. In this study, we present results from the first high-resolution (1 mm(3)) model of tDCS in a brain with considerable stroke-related damage; the model was individualized for the patient who received anodal tDCS to his left frontal cortex with the reference cathode electrode placed on his right shoulder. We modeled the resulting brain current flow and also considered three additional reference electrode positions: right mastoid, right orbitofrontal cortex, and a "mirror" configuration with the anode over the undamaged right cortex. Our results demonstrate the profound effect of lesioned tissue on resulting current flow and the ability to modulate current pattern through the brain, including perilesional regions, through electrode montage design. The complexity of brain current flow modulation by detailed normal and pathologic anatomy suggest: (1) That computational models are critical for the rational interpretation and design of individualized tDCS stroke-therapy; and (2) These models must accurately reproduce head anatomy as shown here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Progress Beyond Communication and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Acqualagna, Laura; Dähne, Sven; Haufe, Stefan; Schultze-Kraft, Matthias; Sturm, Irene; Ušćumlic, Marija; Wenzel, Markus A; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of fundamental results about neurocognitive processes and advancements in decoding mental states from ongoing brain signals has brought forth a whole range of potential neurotechnological applications. In this article, we review our developments in this area and put them into perspective. These examples cover a wide range of maturity levels with respect to their applicability. While we assume we are still a long way away from integrating Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology in general interaction with computers, or from implementing neurotechnological measures in safety-critical workplaces, results have already now been obtained involving a BCI as research tool. In this article, we discuss the reasons why, in some of the prospective application domains, considerable effort is still required to make the systems ready to deal with the full complexity of the real world.

  12. The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Progress Beyond Communication and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blankertz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of fundamental results about neurocognitive processes and advancements in decoding mental states from ongoing brain signals has brought forth a whole range of potential neurotechnological applications. In this article, we review our developments in this area and put them into perspective. These examples cover a wide range of maturity levels with respect to their applicability. While we assume we are still a long way away from integrating Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technology in general interaction with computers, or from implementing neurotechnological measures in safety-critical workplaces, results have already now been obtained involving a BCI as research tool. In this article, we discuss the reasons why, in some of the prospective application domains, considerable effort is still required to make the systems ready to deal with the full complexity of the real world.

  13. Changing Direction: Assessing Student Thoughts and Feelings about a New Program in Strategic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.; Reber, Bryan H.; Cameron, Glen T.

    A number of recent studies have examined integration of advertising and public relations, but none reports what students think. Over three semesters, students in an introduction to strategic communication course were asked to assess an integrated public relations and advertising curriculum. Students supported integration and viewed a focus on new…

  14. A method exploiting direct communication between phasor measurement units for power system wide-area protection and control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib; Vanfretti, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Synchrophasor measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are the primary sensors used to deploy Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems. PMUs stream out synchrophasor measurements through the IEEE C37.118.2 protocol using TCP/IP or UDP/IP. The proposed method establishes a direct communication between two PMUs, thus eliminating the requirement of an intermediate phasor data concentrator, data mediator and/or protocol parser and thereby ensuring minimum communication latency without considering communication link delays. This method allows utilizing synchrophasor measurements internally in a PMU to deploy custom protection and control algorithms. These algorithms are deployed using protection logic equations which are supported by all the PMU vendors. Moreover, this method reduces overall equipment cost as the algorithms execute internally in a PMU and therefore does not require any additional controller for their deployment. The proposed method can be utilized for fast prototyping of wide-area measurements based protection and control applications. The proposed method is tested by coupling commercial PMUs as Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) with Opal-RT's eMEGAsim Real-Time Simulator (RTS). As illustrative example, anti-islanding protection application is deployed using proposed method and its performance is assessed. The essential points in the method are: •Bypassing intermediate phasor data concentrator or protocol parsers as the synchrophasors are communicated directly between the PMUs (minimizes communication delays).•Wide Area Protection and Control Algorithm is deployed using logic equations in the client PMU, therefore eliminating the requirement for an external hardware controller (cost curtailment)•Effortless means to exploit PMU measurements in an environment familiar to protection engineers.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation generates a transient increase of small-world in brain connectivity: an EEG graph theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Riccardo; Miraglia, Francesca; Granata, Giuseppe; Romanello, Roberto; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2018-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique able to modulate cortical excitability in a polarity-dependent way. At present, only few studies investigated the effects of tDCS on the modulation of functional connectivity between remote cortical areas. The aim of this study was to investigate-through graph theory analysis-how bipolar tDCS modulate cortical networks high-density EEG recordings were acquired before and after bipolar cathodal, anodal and sham tDCS involving the primary motor and pre-motor cortices of the dominant hemispherein 14 healthy subjects. Results showed that, after bipolar anodal tDCS stimulation, brain networks presented a less evident "small world" organization with a global tendency to be more random in its functional connections with respect to prestimulus condition in both hemispheres. Results suggest that tDCS globally modulates the cortical connectivity of the brain, modifying the underlying functional organization of the stimulated networks, which might be related to changes in synaptic efficiency of the motor network and related brain areas. This study demonstrated that graph analysis approach to EEG recordings is able to intercept changes in cortical functions mediated by bipolar anodal tDCS mainly involving the dominant M1 and related motor areas. Concluding, tDCS could be an useful technique to help understanding brain rhythms and their topographic functional organization and specificity.

  16. The effect on emotions and brain activity by the direct/indirect lighting in the residential environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Bin; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jinseong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore how direct/indirect lighting affects emotions and brain oscillations compared to the direct lighting when brightness and color temperature are controlled. Twenty-eight subjects (12 females; mean age 22.5) participated. The experimental conditions consisted of two lighting environments: direct/indirect lighting (400 lx downlight, 300 lx uplight) and direct lighting (700 lx downlight). On each trial, a luminance environment was presented for 4 min, followed by participants rated their emotional feelings of the lighting environment. EEG data were recorded during the experiment. Spectral analysis was performed for the range of delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma ranges. The participants felt cooler and more pleasant and theta oscillations on the F4, F8, T4, and TP7 electrodes were more enhanced in the direct/indirect lighting environment compared to the direct lighting environment. There was significant correlation between the "cool" rating and the theta power of the F8 electrode. The participants felt more pleasant in the direct/indirect lighting environment, indicating that space with direct/indirect lighting modulated subjective perception. Additionally, our results suggest that theta oscillatory activity can be used as a biological marker that reflects emotional status in different lighting environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications: a survey conducted in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; de Graeff, Pieter A; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mol, Peter G M

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences and their preferences for improvement of risk communication, comparing views of general practitioners (GPs), internists, community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists. A questionnaire was developed and pilot tested to assess experiences and preferences of Dutch healthcare professionals with DHPCs. The questionnaire and two reminders were sent to a random sample of 3488 GPs, internists and community and hospital pharmacists in the Netherlands. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic characteristics of the respondents. Chi squares, ANOVAs and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used, when appropriate, to compare healthcare professional groups. The overall response rate was 34% (N = 1141, ranging from 24% for internists to 46% for community pharmacists). Healthcare providers trusted safety information more when provided by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) than by the pharmaceutical industry. This was more the case for GPs than for the other healthcare professionals. Respondents preferred safety information to be issued by the MEB, the Dutch Pharmacovigilance Center or their own professional associations. The preferred alternative channels of drug safety information were e-mail, medical journals and electronic prescribing systems. Safety information of drugs does not always reach healthcare professionals through DHPCs. To improve current risk communication of drug safety issues, alternative and/or additional methods of risk communication should be developed using electronic methods and medical journals. Moreover, (additional) risk communication coming from an independent source such as the

  18. Perceptual elements in brain mechanisms of acoustic communication in humans and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reser, David H; Rosa, Marcello

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. outline a model for elaboration of subcortical motor outputs as a driving force for the development of the apparently unique behaviour of language in humans. They emphasize circuits in the striatum and midbrain, and acknowledge, but do not explore, the importance of the auditory perceptual pathway for evolution of verbal communication. We suggest that understanding the evolution of language will also require understanding of vocalization perception, especially in the auditory cortex.

  19. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  20. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  1. A putative model of overeating and obesity based on brain-derived neurotrophic factor: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cara L; Kennedy, James L; Levitan, Robert D

    2012-08-01

    Increased food intake is a major contributor to the obesity epidemic in all age groups. Elucidating brain systems that drive overeating and that might serve as targets for novel prevention and treatment interventions is thus a high priority for obesity research. The authors consider 2 major pathways by which decreased activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may confer vulnerability to overeating and weight gain in an obesogenic environment. The first "direct" pathway focuses on the specific role of BDNF as a mediator of food intake control at brain areas rich in BDNF receptors, including the hypothalamus and hindbrain. It is proposed that low BDNF activity limited to this direct pathway may best explain overeating and obesity outside the context of major neuropsychiatric disturbance. A second "indirect" pathway considers the broad neurotrophic effects of BDNF on key monoamine systems that mediate mood dysregulation, impulsivity, and executive dysfunction as well as feeding behavior per se. Disruption in this pathway may best explain overeating and obesity in the context of various neuropsychiatric disturbances including mood disorders, attention-deficit disorder, and/or binge eating disorders. An integrative model that considers these potential roles of BDNF in promoting obesity is presented. The implications of this model for the early prevention and treatment of obesity are also considered.

  2. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  3. Real time analysis of brain tissue by direct combination of ultrasonic surgical aspiration and sonic spray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Karl-Christian; Balog, Júlia; Szaniszló, Tamás; Szalay, Dániel; Mezey, Géza; Dénes, Júlia; Bognár, László; Oertel, Matthias; Takáts, Zoltán

    2011-10-15

    Direct combination of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry is presented. A commercially available ultrasonic surgical device was coupled to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) source by directly introducing liquified tissue debris into the Venturi air jet pump. The Venturi air jet pump was found to efficiently nebulize the suspended tissue material for gas phase ion production. The ionization mechanism involving solely pneumatic spraying was associated with that of sonic spray ionization. Positive and negative ionization spectra were obtained from brain and liver samples reflecting the primary application areas of the surgical device. Mass spectra were found to feature predominantly complex lipid-type constituents of tissues in both ion polarity modes. Multiply charged peptide anions were also detected. The influence of instrumental settings was characterized in detail. Venturi pump geometry and flow parameters were found to be critically important in ionization efficiency. Standard solutions of phospholipids and peptides were analyzed in order to test the dynamic range, sensitivity, and suppression effects. The spectra of the intact tissue specimens were found to be highly specific to the histological tissue type. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based data analysis method was developed for real-time tissue identification in a surgical environment. The method has been successfully tested on post-mortem and ex vivo human samples including astrocytomas, meningeomas, metastatic brain tumors, and healthy brain tissue. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Exploring bi-directional and SMS messaging for communications between Public Health Agencies and their stakeholders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Debra; Calhoun, Rebecca; Baseman, Janet; Oberle, Mark

    2015-07-08

    Communication technologies that enable bi-directional/two-way communications and cell phone texting (SMS) between public health agencies and their stakeholders may improve public health surveillance, ensure targeted distribution of alerts to hard-to-reach populations, reduce mortality and morbidity in an emergency, and enable a crucial feedback loop between public health agencies and the communities they serve. Building on prior work regarding health care provider preferences for receiving one-way public health communications by email, fax or SMS, we conducted a formative, exploratory study to understand how a bi-directional system and the incorporation of SMS in that system might be used as a strategy to send and receive messages between public health agencies and community-based organizations which serve vulnerable populations, health care providers, and public health workers. Our research question: Under what conditions and/or situations might public health agencies utilize bi-directional and/or SMS messaging for disseminating time-sensitive public health information (alerts, advisories, updates, etc.) to their stakeholders? A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) study was conducted between April and July 2014. Data collection included a survey distributed to health care providers and semi-structured interviews with providers, community- and government-based organization leaders and directors, and public health agency internal workforce staff. Survey respondents and interviewees were asked about their exposure to public health messages, how these messages are received and how the information in these messages are handled, and in what situations (for example, a local vs. a national event, a pandemic or emergency vs. a health update) a bi-directional and/or SMS messaging system might improve communications between public health agencies and their stakeholder group. Interview and survey data were qualitatively analyzed. Thematic codes were quantitized into

  5. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  6. Prospective directions of information and communication systems and technologies development in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pustynnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time the high trade turnover is typical of the Russian economy, which in turn, activates a sufficient intensity of goods movement. Logistics, as a goods movement path in the context of a variety of delivery methods: road, air, water, pipeline, railroad transport, including across the customs border, is acutely affected by all kinds of economic transformation. Therefore, the creation of stable conditions for movement of goods under the terms of mutually beneficial cooperation is a priority for logistics. Trends of economic development are characterized by growth of integration processes which have expressed themselves positively and proven their economic suitability. Such transformations denote the necessity of the control mechanisms improvement, including logistics. The actual issue of business processes information support in circumstances of logistical integration is considered in this article. The basis of the information system consists of information and communication resources, tools and technologies, the use of which is aimed at solving specific problems for the shaping of information infrastructure, business process reengineering, supporting economic security of business. In process of this issue studying are becoming obvious undeniable advantages of information and communication technologies use in logistics operations, the gaining of which is possible as a result of an integrated system’s interests harmonization. The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information and communication systems and technologies for complex carrying out logistical operations, which, in turn, optimizes the duration of the movement of goods and related with this process costs, thereby determines the improvement of logistic conditions in terms of business growth and competitiveness development The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information

  7. The Directed Megaphone: A Theater Commander’s Means to Communicate His Vision and Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    commander must have oratory skills--both logos and pathos , as described by Aristotle . He must have a flair for the dramatic to embellish his message...went on to say that persuasion depends on three elements: logos -- The truth and logical validity of what is being argued. ethos -- The speakers...presents the message ( pathos ), and who the speaker is (ethoas). Many experts in the field of communications identify ethos as the most important persuasive

  8. Cooperative Convex Optimization in Networked Systems: Augmented Lagrangian Algorithms With Directed Gossip Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovetic, Dusan; Xavier, João; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-08-01

    We study distributed optimization in networked systems, where nodes cooperate to find the optimal quantity of common interest, x=x^\\star. The objective function of the corresponding optimization problem is the sum of private (known only by a node,) convex, nodes' objectives and each node imposes a private convex constraint on the allowed values of x. We solve this problem for generic connected network topologies with asymmetric random link failures with a novel distributed, decentralized algorithm. We refer to this algorithm as AL-G (augmented Lagrangian gossiping,) and to its variants as AL-MG (augmented Lagrangian multi neighbor gossiping) and AL-BG (augmented Lagrangian broadcast gossiping.) The AL-G algorithm is based on the augmented Lagrangian dual function. Dual variables are updated by the standard method of multipliers, at a slow time scale. To update the primal variables, we propose a novel, Gauss-Seidel type, randomized algorithm, at a fast time scale. AL-G uses unidirectional gossip communication, only between immediate neighbors in the network and is resilient to random link failures. For networks with reliable communication (i.e., no failures,) the simplified, AL-BG (augmented Lagrangian broadcast gossiping) algorithm reduces communication, computation and data storage cost. We prove convergence for all proposed algorithms and demonstrate by simulations the effectiveness on two applications: l_1-regularized logistic regression for classification and cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks.

  9. Mapping directionality specific volume changes using tensor based morphometry: an application to the study of gyrogenesis and lateralization of the human fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods do not completely capture all direction specific volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We also extend the methodology to provide a new approach to mapping directional asymmetry in deformation tensors associated with the emergence of structural asymmetry in the developing brain. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying developmental patterns in the human fetal brain, in vivo. Results show that fetal brain development exhibits a distinct spatial pattern of anisotropic growth. The most significant changes in the directionality of growth occur in the cortical plate at major sulci. Our analysis also detected directional growth asymmetry in the peri-Sylvian region and the medial frontal lobe of the fetal brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the Right Angular Gyrus on Brain Activity during Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site. PMID:24760013

  11. Influence of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right angular gyrus on brain activity during rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site.

  12. A case study of rabies diagnosis from formalin-fixed brain material : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coertse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is caused by several Lyssavirus species, a group of negative sense RNA viruses. Although rabies is preventable, it is often neglected particularly in developing countries in the face of many competing public and veterinary health priorities. Epidemiological information based on laboratory-based surveillance data is critical to adequately strategise control and prevention plans. In this regard the fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus antigen in brain tissues is still considered the basic requirement for laboratory confirmation of animal cases. Occasionally brain tissues from suspected rabid animals are still submitted in formalin, although this has been discouraged for a number of years. Immunohistochemical testing or a modified fluorescent antibody technique can be performed on such samples. However, this method is cumbersome and cannot distinguish between different Lyssavirus species. Owing to RNA degradation in formalin-fixed tissues, conventional RT-PCR methodologies have also been proven to be unreliable. This report is concerned with a rabies case in a domestic dog from an area in South Africa where rabies is not common. Typing of the virus involved was therefore important, but the only available sample was submitted as a formalin-fixed specimen. A real-time RT-PCR method was therefore applied and it was possible to confirmrabies and obtain phylogenetic information that indicated a close relationship between this virus and the canid rabies virus variants from another province (KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa.

  13. Effect of increasing diffusion gradient direction number on diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xu Fang; Liang, Bie Bei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qin Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin; Yu, Tong Gang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (> or = 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time.

  14. Effect of increasing diffusion gradient direction number on diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xu Fang; Liang, Bie Bei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qin Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin [School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shanghai Medical Instrument College, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yu, Tong Gang [Dept. of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (> or = 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time.

  15. Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-statetheory. The spectral shape of the dyna...

  16. Conceptual representations in mind and brain: theoretical developments, current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-07-01

    Conceptual representations in long-term memory crucially contribute to perception and action, language and thought. However, the precise nature of these conceptual memory traces is discussed controversially. In particular, the grounding of concepts in the sensory and motor brain systems is the focus of a current debate. Here, we review theoretical accounts of the structure and neural basis of conceptual memory and evaluate them in light of recent empirical evidence. Models of conceptual processing can be distinguished along four dimensions: (i) amodal versus modality-specific, (ii) localist versus distributed, (iii) innate versus experience-dependent, and (iv) stable versus flexible. A systematic review of behavioral and neuroimaging studies in healthy participants along with brain-damaged patients will then be used to evaluate the competing theoretical approaches to conceptual representations. These findings indicate that concepts are flexible, distributed representations comprised of modality-specific conceptual features. Conceptual features are stored in distinct sensory and motor brain areas depending on specific sensory and motor experiences during concept acquisition. Three important controversial issues are highlighted, which require further clarification in future research: the existence of an amodal conceptual representation in the anterior temporal lobe, the causal role of sensory and motor activation for conceptual processing and the grounding of abstract concepts in perception and action. We argue that an embodiment view of conceptual representations realized as distributed sensory and motor cell assemblies that are complemented by supramodal integration brain circuits may serve as a theoretical framework to guide future research on concrete and abstract concepts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  17. Communication Strategies in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising (DTCA): Application of the Six Segment Message Strategy Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ilwoo; Park, Jin Seong

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses a void in the literature on direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) with a theory-based content analysis. The findings indicate that Taylor's communication strategy wheel provides insight into what and how pharmaceutical marketers communicate with consumers by means of DTCA. Major findings are summarized as follows: (a) In most DTC ads, informational and transformational message themes and creative approaches were simultaneously used, indicating a combination strategy; (b) DTCA message themes were associated with creative strategies in alignment with Taylor's framework; and (c) message themes and creative strategies varied across therapeutic categories and DTCA categories with different levels of ad spending. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Brain tumor chemo-radiotherapy: a study of direct intratumoral perfusion with antineoplastic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, J.

    2007-10-01

    High grade gliomas are aggressive tumors for which current treatments remain palliative. Radiotherapy efficacy is restricted by the surrounding brain tissue tolerance. One method based on the concomitant use of chemotherapeutic drugs and external photon irradiation has been proposed to improve the treatment outcome. The systemic administration of drugs is not effective in achieving the therapeutic level of drug needed for brain tumor treatment. This is due to the blood brain barrier (BBB) that prevents molecules passing through the vascular endothelium. Recent methods have been developed to circumvent the BBB. Among them, convection-enhanced delivery (CED) relies on the continuous infusion of a fluid containing a therapeutic agent, under a pressure gradient. It permits a homogeneous and controlled drug distribution. The aims of this study were to characterise the CED method, and then to utilize it for glioma treatment in preclinical studies. Several drugs were tested: cisplatin, carbo-platin, oxaliplatin, and iodo-deoxyuridine. Two radiation modalities were evaluated: synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (monochromatic beam < 100 keV) and high energy irradiation (6 MV) obtained with a conventional medical linear accelerator. The results obtained reveal that the effectiveness of the combined treatment (platinated drug plus photon irradiation) is highly related to that of the chemotherapy. The data, obtained with the platinated chemotherapy, also show that high-energy X-ray irradiation (6 MV) is as effective as synchrotron X-ray irradiation. The results broaden the applicability of this chemotherapeutic approach to clinical trials. (author)

  20. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Benjamin; Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G V Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-07-08

    Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.

  1. Technology-Based Rehabilitation to Improve Communication after Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Des Roches

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of technology has allowed for several advances in aphasia rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury. Thirty-one previous studies that provide technology-based language or language and cognitive rehabilitation are examined in terms of the domains addressed, the types of treatments that were provided, details about the methods and the results, including which types of outcomes are reported. From this, we address questions about how different aspects of the delivery of treatment can influence rehabilitation outcomes, such as whether the treatment was standardized or tailored, whether the participants were prescribed homework or not, and whether intensity was varied. Results differed by these aspects of treatment delivery but ultimately the studies demonstrated consistent improvement on various outcome measures. With these aspects of technology-based treatment in mind, the ultimate goal of personalized rehabilitation is discussed.

  2. Technology-Based Rehabilitation to Improve Communication after Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, Carrie A; Kiran, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of technology has allowed for several advances in aphasia rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury. Thirty-one previous studies that provide technology-based language or language and cognitive rehabilitation are examined in terms of the domains addressed, the types of treatments that were provided, details about the methods and the results, including which types of outcomes are reported. From this, we address questions about how different aspects of the delivery of treatment can influence rehabilitation outcomes, such as whether the treatment was standardized or tailored, whether the participants were prescribed homework or not, and whether intensity was varied. Results differed by these aspects of treatment delivery but ultimately the studies demonstrated consistent improvement on various outcome measures. With these aspects of technology-based treatment in mind, the ultimate goal of personalized rehabilitation is discussed.

  3. Delusional jealousy and person directed hostility: 5-year follow-up of a patient after anoxic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajendra; Faruqui, Rafey A

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a case report on the emergence of delusional jealousy and person-directed hostility in a patient following anoxic brain injury. The patient did not have a pre-injury history of mental illness, nor a family history of a psychotic disorder. This patient was followed-up over a 5-year period and his history of treatment response, violence risk management and successful rehabilitation are presented. This study also highlights issues in relation to continuation of treatment with antipsychotic medication, use of compulsory admission under the Mental Health Act and principles of risk assessment and risk management.

  4. Direct hits to the head during amateur boxing is associated with a rise in serum biomarkers for brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M R; Myers, T; Evans, P; Davies, B; Cooper, S M; Bhattacharya, K; Grace, F M; Baker, J S

    2011-01-01

    Boxing exposes participants to the physiological response to high intensity exercise and also to direct body and brain trauma. Amateur boxing is increasing and females have also been included in the Olympics. The aim of this study is to assess the stress response and possible brain injury incurred during a match by measuring serum biomarkers associated with stress and cellular brain injury before and after combat. Sixteen male amateur boxers were studied retrospectively. The study population was divided into two groups: (a) a group that received predominantly punches to the head (PTH) and (b) a group that received predominantly punches to the body (PTB). Blood samples were taken before and five minutes after each contest. They were analysed for S-100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol. The PTH group received direct contacts to the head (not blocked, parried or avoided) and to the body (n=8, age: 17.6 ± 5.3, years; height: 1.68 ± 0.13, meters; mass: 65.4 ± 20.3, kg). The PTB group received punches to the body including blocked and parried punches, but received no direct punches to the head, (n=8, mean ± SD, age: 19.1 ± 3.2 years; height: 1.70 ± 0.75, meters; mass: 68.5 ± 15 kg). Significant increases (P<0.05) were observed between pre- and post-combat serum concentrations in serum concentrations in PTH of S-100B (0.35 ± 0.61 vs. 0.54 ± 0.73, μg.L-1) NSE (19.7 ± 14 vs.31.1 ± 26.6, ng.ml-1) and cortisol (373 ± 202 vs. 756 ± 93, nmol.L-1). Significant increases (P<0.05) of creatine kinase were recorded in both groups. This study demonstrates significant elevations in neurochemical biomarkers in boxers who received direct blows to the head. However, further work is required to quantify this volumetric brain damage and long term clinical sequelae.

  5. Digital Game Playing and Direct and Indirect Aggression in Early Adolescence: The Roles of Age, Social Intelligence, and Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Rimpela, Arja

    2007-01-01

    The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression,…

  6. Variations and anomalies of the posterior communicating artery in Northwest Indian brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Daisy; Jit, Indar; Lal, Vivek

    2007-10-01

    The PCoA is a major branch of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy and awareness of the variations and anomalies are of clinical importance. The PCoA was studied in 200 male and 80 female adults and in 20 male and 25 female children. These were medicolegal cases that died of an accident or poisoning after staying in a hospital for a few days. In addition to autopsy specimens, PCoA was also examined in 45 fetuses obtained from the department of obstetrics and gynecology of this institute. In fetal brains, at 61 to 70 mm CR stage, the average diameter of PCoA was more than that of the proximal part of the PCA; at 91 to 100 mm CR stage, the diameters of both vessels were equal and remained so until 130 mm CR stage; thereafter, the diameter of the proximal part of PCA became larger than PCoA. Incidence of tortuosity was more on the left than on the right side in children, and the reverse was the case in adults. Tortuosity was not found in fetal brains. The incidence of hypoplasticity and absence of PCoA in children and adults in both sexes were noted. The embryonic type (where the diameter of PCoA is more than the diameter of proximal part of PCA) was observed in 3 children and 20 adults. The incidence of aneurysms involving PCoA was 0.92% in adults. They were not seen in fetuses, newborns, and children. Because of hemodynamic factors in fetuses of more than 130 mm CR stage, the diameter of PCA becomes larger than that of the PCoA. An aneurysm was seen in only 1 male adult (0.5%), other anomalies present were absence, hypoplasticity, and duplication of PCoA. Present observations were different from the findings of 2 groups of the Indian workers (J Neurosurg 1984;60:572-576; J Anat Soc India 1970;19:71-79). Case history of the patients with anomalies of PCoA did not show any mental aberration.

  7. Temporal coding of brain patterns for direct limb control in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Mueller-Putz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For individuals with a high spinal cord injury (SCI not only the lower limbs, but also the upper extremities are paralyzed. A neuroprosthesis can be used to restore the lost hand and arm function in those tetraplegics. The main problem for this group of individuals, however, is the reduced ability to voluntarily operate device controllers. A Brain-Computer Interface provides a non-manual alternative to conventional input devices by translating brain activity patterns into control commands. We show that the temporal coding of individual mental imagery pattern can be used to control two independent degrees of freedom – grasp and elbow function - of an artificial robotic arm by utilizing a minimum number of EEG scalp electrodes. We describe the procedure from the initial screening to the final application. From eight naïve subjects participating on-line feedback experiments, four were able to voluntarily control an artificial arm by inducing one motor imagery pattern derived from one EEG derivation only.

  8. Communication About Advance Directives and End-of-Life Care Options Among Internal Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ramona L.; Tindall, Kate; Xuan, Lei; Paulk, M. Elizabeth; Halm, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite increasing awareness about the importance of discussing end-of-life (EOL) care options with terminally ill patients and families, many physicians remain uncomfortable with these discussions. Objective The objective of the study was to examine perceptions of and comfort with EOL care discussions among a group of internal medicine residents and the extent to which comfort with these discussions has improved over time. Methods In 2013, internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were asked to participate in an on-line survey that assessed their attitudes and experiences with discussing EOL care with terminally-ill patients. These results were compared to data from a similar survey residents in the same program completed in 2006. Results Eighty-three (50%) residents completed the 2013 survey. About half (52%) felt strongly that they were able to have open, honest discussions with patients and families, while 71% felt conflicted about whether CPR was in the patient’s best interest. About half (53%) felt strongly that it was okay for them to tell a patient/family member whether or not CPR was a good idea for them. Compared to 2006 respondents, the 2013 cohort felt they had more lectures about EOL communication, and had watched an attending have an EOL discussion more often. Conclusions Modest improvements were made over time in trainees’ exposure to EOL discussions; however, many residents remain uncomfortable and conflicted with having EOL care discussions with their patients. More effective training approaches in EOL communication are needed to train the next generation of internists. PMID:24418692

  9. Communication About Advance Directives and End-of-Life Care Options Among Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ramona L; Tindall, Kate; Xuan, Lei; Paulk, M Elizabeth; Halm, Ethan A

    2015-05-01

    Despite increasing awareness about the importance of discussing end-of-life (EOL) care options with terminally ill patients and families, many physicians remain uncomfortable with these discussions. The objective of the study was to examine perceptions of and comfort with EOL care discussions among a group of internal medicine residents and the extent to which comfort with these discussions has improved over time. In 2013, internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were asked to participate in an on-line survey that assessed their attitudes and experiences with discussing EOL care with terminally-ill patients. These results were compared to data from a similar survey residents in the same program completed in 2006. Eighty-three (50%) residents completed the 2013 survey. About half (52%) felt strongly that they were able to have open, honest discussions with patients and families, while 71% felt conflicted about whether CPR was in the patient's best interest. About half (53%) felt strongly that it was okay for them to tell a patient/family member whether or not CPR was a good idea for them. Compared to 2006 respondents, the 2013 cohort felt they had more lectures about EOL communication, and had watched an attending have an EOL discussion more often. Modest improvements were made over time in trainees' exposure to EOL discussions; however, many residents remain uncomfortable and conflicted with having EOL care discussions with their patients. More effective training approaches in EOL communication are needed to train the next generation of internists. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  11. When direct health-care professional communications have an impact on inappropriate and unsafe use of medicines : A retrospective analysis of determinants of impact of safety warnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reber, K.C.; Piening, S.; Wieringa, J.E.; Straus, S.M.J.M.; Raine, J.M.; de Graeff, Pauline; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    Serious safety issues relating to drugs are communicated to health-care professionals via Direct Health-Care Professional Communications (DHPCs). We explored which characteristics determined the impact of DHPCs issued in the Netherlands for ambulatory-care drugs (2001-2008). With multiple linear

  12. Infilling Direction and Fluid Communication in the E2.0 Reservoir of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals a close similarity in percentage contents of the saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes in all the oils. The maturity gradient clearly shows a maturation trend in the Southwest-Northeast direction which indicates that subsequent charge from the oil kitchen were more mature than the initial charges.

  13. Introducing graph theory to track for neuroplastic alterations in the resting human brain: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, Rafael; Paulus, Walter; Antal, Andrea; Nitsche, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability and activity in a polarity-dependent way. Stimulation for a few minutes has been shown to induce plastic alterations of cortical excitability and to improve cognitive performance. These effects might be related to stimulation-induced alterations of functional cortical network connectivity. We aimed to investigate the impact of tDCS on cortical network function by functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis of the BOLD fMRI spontaneous activity. fMRI resting-state datasets were acquired immediately before and after 10-min bipolar tDCS during rest, with the anode placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the cathode over the contralateral frontopolar cortex. For each dataset, grey matter voxel-based synchronization matrices were calculated and thresholded to construct undirected graphs. Nodal connectivity degree and minimum path length maps were calculated and compared before and after tDCS. Nodal minimum path lengths significantly increased in the left somatomotor (SM1) cortex after anodal tDCS, which means that the number of direct functional connections from the left SM1 to topologically distant grey matter voxels significantly decreased. In contrast, functional coupling between premotor and superior parietal areas with the left SM1 significantly increased. Additionally, the nodal connectivity degree in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) area as well as in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right DLPFC) significantly increased. In summary, we provide initial support that tDCS-induced neuroplastic alterations might be related to functional connectivity changes in the human brain. Additionally, we propose our approach as a powerful method to track for neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of a parent-directed intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Shelley E; Cross, Donna S; Shaw, Thérèse M

    2008-11-01

    Given the likelihood of engaging in the hazardous use of tobacco and alcohol increases during teenage years, pre-adolescence is a critical time to implement prevention programmes. While social factors other than those associated with parenting play a role in determining a child's risk for initiation of tobacco and alcohol use, parents can have a significant influence on their children's decisions about these issues. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an in-home parent-directed drug education intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol. A group randomised intervention trial was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. Schools were selected using stratified random sampling and randomised to three study conditions. A total of 1201 parents of 10- 11-year-old children were recruited from 20 schools. The impact of a self-help intervention, comprised of five communication sheets containing information and activities designed to encourage parents to talk with their 10- 11-year-old child about issues related to smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, was assessed. Intervention-group parents were more likely to have spoken with their children, to have spoken more recently, to have engaged the child during the discussion and to have addressed the topics identified as being protective of children's involvement in tobacco and alcohol. In addition, the duration of talks about alcohol was longer than for parents in the comparison group. Parents of 10- 11-year-old children appear to be receptive to participating in a home-based drug-related educational intervention and the parent-directed intervention seems to have enhanced parent-child tobacco- and alcohol-related communication.

  15. Getting the message out about cognitive health: a cross-cultural comparison of older adults' media awareness and communication needs on how to maintain a healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Laditka, James N; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan L; Wu, Bei; Laditka, Sarah B; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J; Liu, Rui; Mathews, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity and healthy diets may help to maintain cognitive function, reducing risks of developing Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Using a cross-cultural focus, we describe older adults' awareness about cognitive health, and their ideas about how to inform and motivate others to engage in activities that may maintain brain health. Nineteen focus groups were conducted in 3 states (California, North Carolina, South Carolina) with 177 adults aged 50 years and older. Six groups were with African Americans (AAs), 4 with Chinese, 3 with Vietnamese, 4 with non-Hispanic Whites, and 2 with American Indians (AIs). A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Many participants did not recall reading or hearing about brain health in the media. Participants recommended a multimedia approach to inform others about brain health. Both interpersonal and social/group motivational strategies were suggested. Word of mouth and testimonials were recommended most often by Chinese and Vietnamese. AAs and AIs suggested brain health education at church; AAs, Chinese, and Vietnamese said brain health slogans should be spiritual. Participants' perceived barriers to seeking brain health information included watching too much TV and confusing media information. Findings on communication strategies for reaching racial/ethnic groups with brain health information will help guide message and intervention development for diverse older adults.

  16. Communication calls produced by electrical stimulation of four structures in the guinea pig brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David B.; Shackleton, Trevor M.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Zobay, Oliver; Palmer, Alan R.

    2018-01-01

    One of the main central processes affecting the cortical representation of conspecific vocalizations is the collateral output from the extended motor system for call generation. Before starting to study this interaction we sought to compare the characteristics of calls produced by stimulating four different parts of the brain in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). By using anaesthetised animals we were able to reposition electrodes without distressing the animals. Trains of 100 electrical pulses were used to stimulate the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG), hypothalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Each structure produced a similar range of calls, but in significantly different proportions. Two of the spontaneous calls (chirrup and purr) were never produced by electrical stimulation and although we identified versions of chutter, durr and tooth chatter, they differed significantly from our natural call templates. However, we were routinely able to elicit seven other identifiable calls. All seven calls were produced both during the 1.6 s period of stimulation and subsequently in a period which could last for more than a minute. A single stimulation site could produce four or five different calls, but the amygdala was much less likely to produce a scream, whistle or rising whistle than any of the other structures. These three high-frequency calls were more likely to be produced by females than males. There were also differences in the timing of the call production with the amygdala primarily producing calls during the electrical stimulation and the hypothalamus mainly producing calls after the electrical stimulation. For all four structures a significantly higher stimulation current was required in males than females. We conclude that all four structures can be stimulated to produce fictive vocalizations that should be useful in studying the relationship between the vocal motor system and cortical sensory representation. PMID:29584746

  17. The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut-brain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, P; Park, A J; Sinclair, D; Khoshdel, A; Lu, J; Huang, X; Deng, Y; Blennerhassett, P A; Fahnestock, M; Moine, D; Berger, B; Huizinga, J D; Kunze, W; McLean, P G; Bergonzelli, G E; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F

    2011-12-01

    The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 normalizes anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice with infectious colitis. Using a model of chemical colitis we test whether the anxiolytic effect of B. longum involves vagal integrity, and changes in neural cell function. Methods  Mice received dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%) in drinking water during three 1-week cycles. Bifidobacterium longum or placebo were gavaged daily during the last cycle. Some mice underwent subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Behavior was assessed by step-down test, inflammation by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histology. BDNF mRNA was measured in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after incubation with sera from B. longum- or placebo-treated mice. The effect of B. longum on myenteric neuron excitability was measured using intracellular microelectrodes. Chronic colitis was associated with anxiety-like behavior, which was absent in previously vagotomized mice. B. longum normalized behavior but had no effect on MPO activity or histological scores. Its anxiolytic effect was absent in mice with established anxiety that were vagotomized before the third DSS cycle. B. longum metabolites did not affect BDNF mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells but decreased excitability of enteric neurons. In this colitis model, anxiety-like behavior is vagally mediated. The anxiolytic effect of B. longum requires vagal integrity but does not involve gut immuno-modulation or production of BDNF by neuronal cells. As B. longum decreases excitability of enteric neurons, it may signal to the central nervous system by activating vagal pathways at the level of the enteric nervous system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Communication calls produced by electrical stimulation of four structures in the guinea pig brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Green

    Full Text Available One of the main central processes affecting the cortical representation of conspecific vocalizations is the collateral output from the extended motor system for call generation. Before starting to study this interaction we sought to compare the characteristics of calls produced by stimulating four different parts of the brain in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus. By using anaesthetised animals we were able to reposition electrodes without distressing the animals. Trains of 100 electrical pulses were used to stimulate the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG, hypothalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Each structure produced a similar range of calls, but in significantly different proportions. Two of the spontaneous calls (chirrup and purr were never produced by electrical stimulation and although we identified versions of chutter, durr and tooth chatter, they differed significantly from our natural call templates. However, we were routinely able to elicit seven other identifiable calls. All seven calls were produced both during the 1.6 s period of stimulation and subsequently in a period which could last for more than a minute. A single stimulation site could produce four or five different calls, but the amygdala was much less likely to produce a scream, whistle or rising whistle than any of the other structures. These three high-frequency calls were more likely to be produced by females than males. There were also differences in the timing of the call production with the amygdala primarily producing calls during the electrical stimulation and the hypothalamus mainly producing calls after the electrical stimulation. For all four structures a significantly higher stimulation current was required in males than females. We conclude that all four structures can be stimulated to produce fictive vocalizations that should be useful in studying the relationship between the vocal motor system and cortical sensory representation.

  19. Communication calls produced by electrical stimulation of four structures in the guinea pig brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David B; Shackleton, Trevor M; Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Zobay, Oliver; Palmer, Alan R; Wallace, Mark N

    2018-01-01

    One of the main central processes affecting the cortical representation of conspecific vocalizations is the collateral output from the extended motor system for call generation. Before starting to study this interaction we sought to compare the characteristics of calls produced by stimulating four different parts of the brain in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). By using anaesthetised animals we were able to reposition electrodes without distressing the animals. Trains of 100 electrical pulses were used to stimulate the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG), hypothalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Each structure produced a similar range of calls, but in significantly different proportions. Two of the spontaneous calls (chirrup and purr) were never produced by electrical stimulation and although we identified versions of chutter, durr and tooth chatter, they differed significantly from our natural call templates. However, we were routinely able to elicit seven other identifiable calls. All seven calls were produced both during the 1.6 s period of stimulation and subsequently in a period which could last for more than a minute. A single stimulation site could produce four or five different calls, but the amygdala was much less likely to produce a scream, whistle or rising whistle than any of the other structures. These three high-frequency calls were more likely to be produced by females than males. There were also differences in the timing of the call production with the amygdala primarily producing calls during the electrical stimulation and the hypothalamus mainly producing calls after the electrical stimulation. For all four structures a significantly higher stimulation current was required in males than females. We conclude that all four structures can be stimulated to produce fictive vocalizations that should be useful in studying the relationship between the vocal motor system and cortical sensory representation.

  20. Communication patterns in a psychotherapy following traumatic brain injury: A quantitative case study based on symbolic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Adele MK

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of traumatic brain injury is receiving increased attention. The evaluation of psychotherapy with these patients has been conducted largely in the absence of quantitative data concerning the therapy itself. Quantitative methods for characterizing the sequence-sensitive structure of patient-therapist communication are now being developed with the objective of improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy following traumatic brain injury. Methods The content of three therapy session transcripts (sessions were separated by four months obtained from a patient with a history of several motor vehicle accidents who was receiving dialectical behavior therapy was scored and analyzed using methods derived from the mathematical theory of symbolic dynamics. Results The analysis of symbol frequencies was largely uninformative. When repeated triples were examined a marked pattern of change in content was observed over the three sessions. The context free grammar complexity and the Lempel-Ziv complexity were calculated for each therapy session. For both measures, the rate of complexity generation, expressed as bits per minute, increased longitudinally during the course of therapy. The between-session increases in complexity generation rates are consistent with calculations of mutual information. Taken together these results indicate that there was a quantifiable increase in the variability of patient-therapist verbal behavior during the course of therapy. Comparison of complexity values against values obtained from equiprobable random surrogates established the presence of a nonrandom structure in patient-therapist dialog (P = .002. Conclusions While recognizing that only limited conclusions can be based on a case history, it can be noted that these quantitative observations are consistent with qualitative clinical observations of increases in the flexibility of discourse during therapy. These

  1. The Risk Factors of Symptomatic Communicating Hydrocephalus After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: The Implication of Brain Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jung Ho [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chae-Yong [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung-Sik [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Song, Sang Woo; Kim, In Kyung; Jung, Hee-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To identify the effect of brain atrophy on the development of symptomatic communicating hydrocephalus (SCHCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Methods and Materials: A total of 444 patients with VS were treated with SRS as a primary treatment. One hundred eighty-one patients (40.8%) were male, and the mean age of the patients was 53 {+-} 13 years (range, 11-81 years). The mean follow-up duration was 56.8 {+-} 35.8 months (range, 12-160 months). The mean tumor volume was 2.78 {+-} 3.33 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.03-23.30 cm{sup 3}). The cross-sectional area of the lateral ventricles (CALV), defined as the combined area of the lateral ventricles at the level of the mammillary body, was measured on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images as an indicator of brain atrophy. Results: At distant follow-up, a total of 25 (5.6%) patients had SCHCP. The median time to symptom development was 7 months (range, 1-48 months). The mean CALV was 334.0 {+-} 194.0 mm{sup 2} (range, 44.70-1170 mm{sup 2}). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.976-0.994; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CALV had a significant relationship with the development of SCHCP (p < 0.001; odds ration [OR] = 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002-1.007). Tumor volume and female sex also had a significant association (p < 0.001; OR = 1.246; 95% CI, 1.103-1.409; p < 0.009; OR = 7.256; 95% CI, 1.656-31.797, respectively). However, age failed to show any relationship with the development of SCHCP (p = 0.364). Conclusion: Brain atrophy may be related to de novo SCHCP after SRS, especially in female patients with a large VS. Follow-up surveillance should be individualized, considering the risk factors involved for each patient, for prompt diagnosis of SCHCP.

  2. The Risk Factors of Symptomatic Communicating Hydrocephalus After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: The Implication of Brain Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Song, Sang Woo; Kim, In Kyung; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the effect of brain atrophy on the development of symptomatic communicating hydrocephalus (SCHCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Methods and Materials: A total of 444 patients with VS were treated with SRS as a primary treatment. One hundred eighty-one patients (40.8%) were male, and the mean age of the patients was 53 ± 13 years (range, 11–81 years). The mean follow-up duration was 56.8 ± 35.8 months (range, 12–160 months). The mean tumor volume was 2.78 ± 3.33 cm 3 (range, 0.03–23.30 cm 3 ). The cross-sectional area of the lateral ventricles (CALV), defined as the combined area of the lateral ventricles at the level of the mammillary body, was measured on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images as an indicator of brain atrophy. Results: At distant follow-up, a total of 25 (5.6%) patients had SCHCP. The median time to symptom development was 7 months (range, 1–48 months). The mean CALV was 334.0 ± 194.0 mm 2 (range, 44.70–1170 mm 2 ). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.976–0.994; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CALV had a significant relationship with the development of SCHCP (p < 0.001; odds ration [OR] = 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002–1.007). Tumor volume and female sex also had a significant association (p < 0.001; OR = 1.246; 95% CI, 1.103–1.409; p < 0.009; OR = 7.256; 95% CI, 1.656–31.797, respectively). However, age failed to show any relationship with the development of SCHCP (p = 0.364). Conclusion: Brain atrophy may be related to de novo SCHCP after SRS, especially in female patients with a large VS. Follow-up surveillance should be individualized, considering the risk factors involved for each patient, for prompt diagnosis of SCHCP.

  3. Gender on the brain: a case study of science communication in the new media environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliodhna O'Connor

    Full Text Available Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a 'neurosexism' that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers' comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes' unique abilities as equal and 'complementary'. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women's social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society.

  4. Gender on the brain: a case study of science communication in the new media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a 'neurosexism' that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers' comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes' unique abilities as equal and 'complementary'. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women's social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society.

  5. Introducing the tactile speller: an ERP-based brain-computer interface for communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Marjolein; Severens, Marianne; Geuze, Jeroen; Desain, Peter

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a tactile speller was developed and compared with existing visual speller paradigms in terms of classification performance and elicited event-related potentials (ERPs). The fingertips of healthy participants were stimulated with short mechanical taps while electroencephalographic activity was measured. The letters of the alphabet were allocated to different fingers and subjects could select one of the fingers by silently counting the number of taps on that finger. The offline and online performance of the tactile speller was compared to the overt and covert attention visual matrix speller and the covert attention Hex-o-Spell speller. For the tactile speller, binary target versus non-target classification accuracy was 67% on average. Classification and decoding accuracies of the tactile speller were lower than the overt matrix speller, but higher than the covert matrix speller, and similar to Hex-o-Spell. The average maximum information transfer rate of the tactile speller was 7.8 bits min-1 (1.51 char min-1), with the best subject reaching a bit-rate of 27 bits min-1 (5.22 char min-1). An increased amplitude of the P300 ERP component was found in response to attended stimuli versus unattended stimuli in all speller types. In addition, the tactile and overt matrix spellers also used the N2 component for discriminating between targets and non-targets. Overall, this study shows that it is possible to use a tactile speller for communication. The tactile speller provides a useful alternative to the visual speller, especially for people whose eye gaze is impaired.

  6. Gender on the Brain: A Case Study of Science Communication in the New Media Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience research on sex difference is currently a controversial field, frequently accused of purveying a ‘neurosexism’ that functions to naturalise gender inequalities. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society. This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain. A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: the original scientific article, a press release, the traditional news media, online reader comments and blog entries. Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers an opportunity to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender. In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, which was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. Though strains of misogyny were evident within the readers’ comments, most discussion of the study took pains to portray the sexes’ unique abilities as equal and ‘complementary’. However, this content often resembled a form of benevolent sexism, in which praise of women’s social-emotional skills compensated for their relegation from more esteemed trait-domains, such as rationality and productivity. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science. It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society. PMID:25354280

  7. What will this do to me and my brain? Ethical issues in brain-to-brain interfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eHildt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For several years now, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs in which brain signals are used to navigate a computer, a prostheses or a technical device, have been developed in various experimental contexts (Wolpaw & Wolpaw 2012; Grübler & Hildt 2014. Researchers have recently taken the next step and run experiments based on connections between two brains. These so-called brain-to-brain interfaces (abbreviation: BBIs or BTBIs involve not only a BCI component deriving information from a brain and sending it to a computer, but also a computer-brain interface (CBI component delivering information to another brain. What results is technology-mediated brain-to-brain communication (B2B communication, i.e. direct communication between two brains that does not involve any activity of the peripheral nervous system. In what follows, ethical issues that arise in neural interfacing will be discussed after a short introduction to recent BBI experiments. In this, the focus will be on the implications BBIs may have on the individual at the CBI side of the BBI, i.e. on the recipient.

  8. NIRS-Based Hyperscanning Reveals Inter-brain Neural Synchronization during Cooperative Jenga Game with Face-to-Face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Mok, Charis; Witt, Emily E; Pradhan, Anjali H; Chen, Jingyuan E; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly popular technology for studying social cognition. In particular, fNIRS permits simultaneous measurement of hemodynamic activity in two or more individuals interacting in a naturalistic setting. Here, we used fNIRS hyperscanning to study social cognition and communication in human dyads engaged in cooperative and obstructive interaction while they played the game of Jenga™. Novel methods were developed to identify synchronized channels for each dyad and a structural node-based spatial registration approach was utilized for inter-dyad analyses. Strong inter-brain neural synchrony (INS) was observed in the posterior region of the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, in particular Brodmann area 8 (BA8), during cooperative and obstructive interaction. This synchrony was not observed during the parallel game play condition and the dialog section, suggesting that BA8 was involved in goal-oriented social interaction such as complex interactive movements and social decision-making. INS was also observed in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), in particular Brodmann 9, during cooperative interaction only. These additional findings suggest that BA9 may be particularly engaged when theory-of-mind (ToM) is required for cooperative social interaction. The new methods described here have the potential to significantly extend fNIRS applications to social cognitive research.

  9. Assessment and Treatment of Cognition and Communication Skills in Adults With Acquired Brain Injury via Telepractice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jaumeiko J; Frymark, Tobi; Franceschini, Nicole M; Theodoros, Deborah G

    2015-05-01

    This is a systematic review of assessment and treatment of cognitive and communicative abilities of individuals with acquired brain injury via telepractice versus in person. The a priori clinical questions were informed by previous research that highlights the importance of considering any functional implications of outcomes, determining disorder- and setting-specific concerns, and measuring the potential impact of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data on interpretation of findings. A literature search of multiple databases (e.g., PubMed) was conducted using key words and study inclusion criteria associated with the clinical questions. Ten group studies were accepted that addressed assessment of motor speech, language, and cognitive impairments; assessment of motor speech and language activity limitations/participation restrictions; and treatment of cognitive impairments and activity limitations/participation restrictions. In most cases, equivalence of outcomes was noted across service delivery methods. Limited findings, lack of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data, and heterogeneity of assessments and interventions precluded robust evaluation of clinical implications for telepractice equivalence and the broader area of telepractice efficacy. Future research is needed that will build upon current knowledge through replication. In addition, further evaluation at the impairment and activity limitation/participation restriction levels is needed.

  10. Direct Thy-1/alphaVbeta3 integrin interaction mediates neuron to astrocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Muñoz, Daniel; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Valdivia, Alejandra; Muñoz, Nicolás; Nham, Sang-Uk; Schneider, Pascal; Burridge, Keith; Quest, Andrew F G; Leyton, Lisette

    2008-06-01

    Thy-1 is an abundant neuronal glycoprotein of poorly defined function. We recently provided evidence indicating that Thy-1 clusters a beta3-containing integrin in astrocytes to induce tyrosine phosphorylation, RhoA activation and the formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers. To date, the alpha subunit partner of beta3 integrin in DI TNC1 astrocytes is unknown. Similarly, the ability of neuronal, membrane-bound Thy-1 to trigger astrocyte signaling via integrin engagement remains speculation. Here, evidence that alphav forms an alphavbeta3 heterodimer in DI TNC1 astrocytes was obtained. In neuron-astrocyte association assays, the presence of either anti-alphav or anti-beta3 integrin antibodies reduced cell-cell interaction demonstrating the requirement of both integrin subunits for this association. Moreover, anti-Thy-1 antibodies blocked stimulation of astrocytes by neurons but not the binding of these two cell types. Thus, neuron-astrocyte association involved binding between molecular components in addition to the Thy-1-integrin; however, the signaling events leading to focal adhesion formation in astrocytes depended exclusively on the latter interaction. Additionally, wild-type (RLD) but not mutated (RLE) Thy-1 was shown to directly interact with alphavbeta3 integrin by Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis. This interaction was promoted by divalent cations and was species-independent. Together, these results demonstrate that the alphavbeta3 integrin heterodimer interacts directly with Thy-1 present on neuronal cells to stimulate astrocytes.

  11. Neuropeptide delivery to the brain: a von Willebrand factor signal peptide to direct neuropeptide secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Backer Marijke WA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple neuropeptides, sometimes with opposing functions, can be produced from one precursor gene. To study the roles of the different neuropeptides encoded by one large precursor we developed a method to overexpress minigenes and establish local secretion. Results We fused the signal peptide from the Von Willebrand Factor (VWF to a furin site followed by a processed form of the Agouti related protein (AgRP, AgRP83-132 or α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. In vitro, these minigenes were secreted and biologically active. Additionally, the proteins of the minigenes were not transported into projections of primary neurons, thereby ensuring local release. In vivo administration of VWF-AgRP83-132 , using an adeno-associated viral vector as a delivery vehicle, into the paraventricular hypothalamus increased body weight and food intake of these rats compared to rats which received a control vector. Conclusions This study demonstrated that removal of the N-terminal part of full length AgRP and addition of a VWF signal peptide is a successful strategy to deliver neuropeptide minigenes to the brain and establish local neuropeptide secretion.

  12. What Picture Descriptions Can Reveal about Disordered Communication and the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of descriptions of the “Cookie Theft” picture from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination have been shown to (1 distinguish between controls, and chronic mild, moderate, and severe aphasia(Craig et al., 1993; Yorkston & Beukelman, 1980; and (2 distinguish distinct profiles of deficits in chronic right hemisphere (RH stroke (Myers, 1978; Trupe & Hillis, 1985. We hypothesized that analysis of the “Cookie Theft” picture descriptions in acute stroke would also: (1 provide quantitative measures of severity of communication impairment that correlate with volume of infarct or volume of lesion in key regions of interest; and (2 provide quantitative measures of hemispatial attention that distinguish RH from left hemisphere (LH stroke and from controls. Methods: We analyzed picture descriptions of patients with acute ischemic LH (n=28, RH (n=25 stroke, and healthy controls (n=25 for total content units (CU produced by previously studied healthy controls during picture descriptions (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1980, syllables/CU, and ratio of left page:right page CU (LCU:RCU. CUs defined as nouns, adjective, and verbs relevant to the picture. Diffusion-weighted images were registered to a common atlas, to measure volume of infarct and percent damage to regions of interest without knowledge of behavioral analysis. We evaluated differences across groups with ANOVA and across pairs of groups with t-tests. We evaluated correlations between each measure and volume of infarct and percent damage to 6 cortical and 3 white matter regions of interest in each hemisphere (inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus; superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and sagittal stratum with Pearson correlations. Results: There were no differences between groups in age, education, or sex distribution. LH and RH patients produced fewer CU (p<0.0001 and

  13. Communication and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Communication and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print ... stage Communication in the late stage Changes in communication In addition to changes in the brain caused ...

  14. Direct Visualization of Neurotransmitters in Rat Brain Slices by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI - MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anna Maria A. P.; Vendramini, Pedro H.; Galaverna, Renan; Schwab, Nicolas V.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Augusti, Rodinei; Castilho, Roger F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2016-12-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials. The amino acids γ-aminobutyric (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, serine, as well as acetylcholine, dopamine, and choline were successfully imaged using a commercial DESI source coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The spatial distribution of the analyzed compounds in different brain regions was determined. We conclude that the ambient matrix-free DESI-MSI is suitable for neurotransmitter imaging and could be applied in studies that involve evaluation of imbalances in neurotransmitters levels.

  15. Communicating efficacy information based on composite scores in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela A; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Squire, Claudia; Parvanta, Sarah; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-04-01

    Drug efficacy can be measured by composite scores, which consist of two or more symptoms or other clinical components of a disease. We evaluated how individuals interpret composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising. We conducted an experimental study of seasonal allergy sufferers (n=1967) who viewed a fictitious print DTC ad that varied by the type of information featured (general indication, list of symptoms, or definition of composite scores) and the presence or absence of an educational intervention about composite scores. We measured composite score recognition and comprehension, and perceived drug efficacy and risk. Ads that featured either (1) the composite score definition alone or (2) the list of symptoms or general indication information along with the educational intervention improved composite score comprehension. Ads that included the composite score definition or the educational intervention led to lower confidence in the drug's benefits. The composite score definition improved composite score recognition and lowered drug risk perceptions. Adding composite score information to DTC print ads may improve individuals' comprehension of composite scores and affect their perceptions of the drug. Providing composite score information may lead to more informed patient-provider prescription drug decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurophysiological correlates of emotional directed-forgetting in persons with Schizophrenia: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Regan E; Kiang, Michael; Christensen, Bruce K

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit reduced directed forgetting (DF) for negative words, suggesting impaired ability to instantiate goal-directed inhibition in order to suppress a competing, emotion-driven responses (i.e., emotional memory enhancement). However, disrupted inhibition is not the only possible mechanism by which patients could manifest reduced emotional DF. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study was to use event-related brain potential (ERP) recordings to investigate alternative hypotheses. ERPs were recorded while patients and controls completed an item-method DF paradigm using negative and neutral words. The N2 indexed goal-directed inhibition of to-be-forgotten items. The late positive potential (LPP) indexed emotional memory enhancement for negative study items. The P300 indexed selective rehearsal of to-be-remembered items. The SCZ group exhibited a reduced DF effect overall, but this was not modulated by emotion. N2 amplitude at anterior sites was larger for forget versus remember cues in the control group only, but this effect was not modulated by emotion. LPP amplitude was greater for negative versus neutral words in both groups, independent of region. P300 amplitude at posterior sites was greater for remember versus forget cues in the control group only. These data suggest that reduced DF in SCZ may be due, in part, to both diminished goal-directed inhibition of to-be-forgotten items and reduced selective rehearsal of to-be-remembered items. However, these data do not support the hypothesis that goal-directed, inhibitory processes are disrupted by competing, emotion-driven processes in SCZ. Patients' ERP data also suggested that they did not exhibit disproportionately heightened encoding of emotional stimuli, nor did they have deficient selective rehearsal of to-be-remembered emotional items. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  18. Brain-Computer Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Gerwin

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical groundwork of the 1930’s and 1940’s and the technical advance of computers in the following decades provided the basis for dramatic increases in human efficiency. While computers continue to evolve, and we can still expect increasing benefits from their use, the interface between humans and computers has begun to present a serious impediment to full realization of the potential payoff. This article is about the theoretical and practical possibility that direct communication between the brain and the computer can be used to overcome this impediment by improving or augmenting conventional forms of human communication. It is about the opportunity that the limitations of our body’s input and output capacities can be overcome using direct interaction with the brain, and it discusses the assumptions, possible limitations, and implications of a technology that I anticipate will be a major source of pervasive changes in the coming decades. PMID:18310804

  19. Evidence of transcranial direct current stimulation-generated electric fields at subthalamic level in human brain in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Kautz, Steven A; Takacs, Istvan; Rowland, Nathan C; Revuelta, Gonzalo J; George, Mark S; Bikson, Marom; Feng, Wuwei

    2018-03-13

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising brain modulation technique for several disease conditions. With this technique, some portion of the current penetrates through the scalp to the cortex and modulates cortical excitability, but a recent human cadaver study questions the amount. This insufficient intracerebral penetration of currents may partially explain the inconsistent and mixed results in tDCS studies to date. Experimental validation of a transcranial alternating current stimulation-generated electric field (EF) in vivo has been performed on the cortical (using electrocorticography, ECoG, electrodes), subcortical (using stereo electroencephalography, SEEG, electrodes) and deeper thalamic/subthalamic levels (using DBS electrodes). However, tDCS-generated EF measurements have never been attempted. We aimed to demonstrate that tDCS generates biologically relevant EF as deep as the subthalamic level in vivo. Patients with movement disorders who have implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes serve as a natural experimental model for thalamic/subthalamic recordings of tDCS-generated EF. We measured voltage changes from DBS electrodes and body resistance from tDCS electrodes in three subjects while applying direct current to the scalp at 2 mA and 4 mA over two tDCS montages. Voltage changes at the level of deep nuclei changed proportionally with the level of applied current and varied with different tDCS montages. Our findings suggest that scalp-applied tDCS generates biologically relevant EF. Incorporation of these experimental results may improve finite element analysis (FEA)-based models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using external lumbar CSF drainage to treat communicating external hydrocephalus in adult patients after acute traumatic or non-traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manet, Romain; Payen, Jean-François; Guerin, Romain; Martinez, Orianne; Hautefeuille, Serge; Francony, Gilles; Gergelé, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Despite various treatments to control intracranial pressure (ICP) after brain injury, patients may present a late onset of high ICP or a poor response to medications. External lumbar drainage (ELD) can be considered a therapeutic option if high ICP is due to communicating external hydrocephalus. We aimed at describing the efficacy and safety of ELD used in a cohort of traumatic or non-traumatic brain-injured patients. In this multicentre retrospective analysis, patients had a delayed onset of high ICP after the initial injury and/or a poor response to ICP treatments. ELD was considered in the presence of radiological signs of communicating external hydrocephalus. Changes in ICP values and side effects following the ELD procedure were reported. Thirty-three patients with a median age of 51 years (25-75th percentile: 34-61 years) were admitted after traumatic (n = 22) or non-traumatic (n = 11) brain injuries. Their initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 (4-11). Eight patients underwent external ventricular drainage prior to ELD. Median time to ELD insertion was 5 days (4-8) after brain insult. In all patients, ELD was dramatically effective in lowering ICP: 25 mmHg (20-31) before versus 7 mmHg (3-10) after (p hydrocephalus has been made.

  1. Monocyte Trafficking to the Brain with Stress and Inflammation: A Novel Axis of Immune-to-Brain Communication that Influences Mood and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Wohleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stressors cause physiological, immunological, and behavioral alterations in humans and rodents that can be maladaptive and negatively affect quality of life. Several lines of evidence indicate that psychological stress disrupts key functional interactions between the immune system and brain that ultimately affects mood and behavior. For example, activation of microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the brain, has been implicated as a key regulator of mood and behavior in the context of prolonged exposure to psychological stress. Emerging evidence implicates a novel neuroimmune circuit involving microglia activation and sympathetic outflow to the peripheral immune system that further reinforces stress-related behaviors by facilitating the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the brain. Evidence from various rodent models, including repeated social defeat (RSD, revealed that trafficking of monocytes to the brain promoted the establishment of anxiety-like behaviors following prolonged stress exposure. In addition, new evidence implicates monocyte trafficking from the spleen to the brain as key regulator of recurring anxiety following exposure to prolonged stress. The purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms that cause stress-induced monocyte re-distribution in the brain and how dynamic interactions between microglia, endothelial cells, and brain macrophages lead to maladaptive behavioral responses.

  2. Brain-computer interface training combined with transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic severe hemiparesis: Proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima-Shindo, Yuko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Ushiba, Junichi; Matsushika, Yayoi; Kamatani, Daiki; Oto, Misa; Ono, Takashi; Nishimoto, Atsuko; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Liu, Meigen

    2015-04-01

    Brain-computer interface technology has been applied to stroke patients to improve their motor function. Event-related desynchronization during motor imagery, which is used as a brain-computer interface trigger, is sometimes difficult to detect in stroke patients. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is known to increase event-related desynchronization. This study investigated the adjunctive effect of anodal tDCS for brain-computer interface training in patients with severe hemiparesis. Eighteen patients with chronic stroke. A non-randomized controlled study. Subjects were divided between a brain-computer interface group and a tDCS- brain-computer interface group and participated in a 10-day brain-computer interface training. Event-related desynchronization was detected in the affected hemisphere during motor imagery of the affected fingers. The tDCS-brain-computer interface group received anodal tDCS before brain-computer interface training. Event-related desynchronization was evaluated before and after the intervention. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment upper extremity motor score (FM-U) was assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months after, the intervention. Event-related desynchronization was significantly increased in the tDCS- brain-computer interface group. The FM-U was significantly increased in both groups. The FM-U improvement was maintained at 3 months in the tDCS-brain-computer interface group. Anodal tDCS can be a conditioning tool for brain-computer interface training in patients with severe hemiparetic stroke.

  3. Teach It, Don’t Preach It: The Differential Effects of Directly-communicated and Self-generated Utility Value Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Elizabeth A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Social-psychological interventions in education have used a variety of “self-persuasion” or “saying-is-believing” techniques to encourage students to articulate key intervention messages. These techniques are used in combination with more overt strategies, such as the direct communication of messages in order to promote attitude change. However, these different strategies have rarely been systematically compared, particularly in controlled laboratory settings. We focus on one intervention based in expectancy-value theory designed to promote perceptions of utility value in the classroom and test different intervention techniques to promote interest and performance. Across three laboratory studies, we used a mental math learning paradigm in which we varied whether students wrote about utility value for themselves or received different forms of directly-communicated information about the utility value of a novel mental math technique. In Study 1, we examined the difference between directly-communicated and self-generated utility-value information and found that directly-communicated utility-value information undermined performance and interest for individuals who lacked confidence, but that self-generated utility had positive effects. However, Study 2 suggests that these negative effects of directly-communicated utility value can be ameliorated when participants are also given the chance to generate their own examples of utility value, revealing a synergistic effect of directly-communicated and self-generated utility value. In Study 3, we found that individuals who lacked confidence benefited more when everyday examples of utility value were communicated, rather than career and school examples. PMID:26495326

  4. Teach It, Don't Preach It: The Differential Effects of Directly-communicated and Self-generated Utility Value Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Elizabeth A; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2015-03-01

    Social-psychological interventions in education have used a variety of "self-persuasion" or "saying-is-believing" techniques to encourage students to articulate key intervention messages. These techniques are used in combination with more overt strategies, such as the direct communication of messages in order to promote attitude change. However, these different strategies have rarely been systematically compared, particularly in controlled laboratory settings. We focus on one intervention based in expectancy-value theory designed to promote perceptions of utility value in the classroom and test different intervention techniques to promote interest and performance. Across three laboratory studies, we used a mental math learning paradigm in which we varied whether students wrote about utility value for themselves or received different forms of directly-communicated information about the utility value of a novel mental math technique. In Study 1, we examined the difference between directly-communicated and self-generated utility-value information and found that directly-communicated utility-value information undermined performance and interest for individuals who lacked confidence, but that self-generated utility had positive effects. However, Study 2 suggests that these negative effects of directly-communicated utility value can be ameliorated when participants are also given the chance to generate their own examples of utility value, revealing a synergistic effect of directly-communicated and self-generated utility value. In Study 3, we found that individuals who lacked confidence benefited more when everyday examples of utility value were communicated, rather than career and school examples.

  5. Cocaine Directly Impairs Memory Extinction and Alters Brain DNA Methylation Dynamics in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Eirik; Berthier, Pauline; Klare, William P; Helliwell, Paul; Buckle, Edwina L S; Plath, Jenny A; Barron, Andrew B; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience. Using the proboscis extension reflex training paradigm we found that cocaine strongly impairs consolidation of extinction memory. Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by directly altering DNA methylation dynamics. Our findings emphasize the impact of cocaine on memory systems, with relevance for understanding how cocaine can have such an enduring impact on behavior.

  6. Cocaine Directly Impairs Memory Extinction and Alters Brain DNA Methylation Dynamics in Honey Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience. Using the proboscis extension reflex training paradigm we found that cocaine strongly impairs consolidation of extinction memory. Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by directly altering DNA methylation dynamics. Our findings emphasize the impact of cocaine on memory systems, with relevance for understanding how cocaine can have such an enduring impact on behavior.

  7. Decoding face information in time, frequency and space from direct intracranial recordings of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotsugu Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Faces are processed by a neural system with distributed anatomical components, but the roles of these components remain unclear. A dominant theory of face perception postulates independent representations of invariant aspects of faces (e.g., identity in ventral temporal cortex including the fusiform gyrus, and changeable aspects of faces (e.g., emotion in lateral temporal cortex including the superior temporal sulcus. Here we recorded neuronal activity directly from the cortical surface in 9 neurosurgical subjects undergoing epilepsy monitoring while they viewed static and dynamic facial expressions. Applying novel decoding analyses to the power spectrogram of electrocorticograms (ECoG from over 100 contacts in ventral and lateral temporal cortex, we found better representation of both invariant and changeable aspects of faces in ventral than lateral temporal cortex. Critical information for discriminating faces from geometric patterns was carried by power modulations between 50 to 150 Hz. For both static and dynamic face stimuli, we obtained a higher decoding performance in ventral than lateral temporal cortex. For discriminating fearful from happy expressions, critical information was carried by power modulation between 60-150 Hz and below 30 Hz, and again better decoded in ventral than lateral temporal cortex. Task-relevant attention improved decoding accuracy more than 10% across a wide frequency range in ventral but not at all in lateral temporal cortex. Spatial searchlight decoding showed that decoding performance was highest around the middle fusiform gyrus. Finally, we found that the right hemisphere, in general, showed superior decoding to the left hemisphere. Taken together, our results challenge the dominant model for independent face representation of invariant and changeable aspects: information about both face attributes was better decoded from a single region in the middle fusiform gyrus.

  8. Direct or Directed: Orchestrating a More Harmonious Approach to Teaching Technology within an Art & Design Higher Education Curriculum with Special Reference to Visual Communications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lindsey; Meachem, Lester

    2007-01-01

    In this scoping study we have investigated the integration of subject-specific software into the structure of visual communications courses. There is a view that the response within visual communications courses to the rapid developments in technology has been linked to necessity rather than by design. Through perceptions of staff with day-to-day…

  9. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia.

  10. In-silico oncology: an approximate model of brain tumor mass effect based on directly manipulated free form deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Stefan; Mang, Andreas; Toma, Alina; Buzug, Thorsten M. [University of Luebeck (Germany). Institute of Medical Engineering

    2010-12-15

    The present work introduces a novel method for approximating mass effect of primary brain tumors. The spatio-temporal dynamics of cancerous cells are modeled by means of a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Diffusion tensor information obtained from a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging atlas is incorporated into the model to simulate anisotropic diffusion of cancerous cells. To account for the expansive nature of the tumor, the computed net cell density of malignant cells is linked to a parametric deformation model. This mass effect model is based on the so-called directly manipulated free form deformation. Spatial correspondence between two successive simulation steps is established by tracking landmarks, which are attached to the boundary of the gross tumor volume. The movement of these landmarks is used to compute the new configuration of the control points and, hence, determines the resulting deformation. To prevent a deformation of rigid structures (i.e. the skull), fixed shielding landmarks are introduced. In a refinement step, an adaptive landmark scheme ensures a dense sampling of the tumor isosurface, which in turn allows for an appropriate representation of the tumor shape. The influence of different parameters on the model is demonstrated by a set of simulations. Additionally, simulation results are qualitatively compared to an exemplary set of clinical magnetic resonance images of patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Careful visual inspection of the results demonstrates the potential of the implemented model and provides first evidence that the computed approximation of tumor mass effect is sensible. The shape of diffusive brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) can be recovered and approximately matches the observations in real clinical data. (orig.)

  11. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (TMS/tDCS)-From insights into human memory to therapy of its dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparing, Roland; Mottaghy, Felix M

    2008-04-01

    Noninvasive stimulation of the brain by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has driven important discoveries in the field of human memory functions. Stand-alone or in combination with other brain mapping techniques noninvasive brain stimulation can assess issues such as location and timing of brain activity, connectivity and plasticity of neural circuits and functional relevance of a circumscribed brain area to a given cognitive task. In this emerging field, major advances in technology have been made in a relatively short period. New stimulation protocols and, especially, the progress in the application of tDCS have made it possible to obtain longer and much clearer inhibitory or facilitatory effects even after the stimulation has ceased. In this introductory review, we outline the basic principles, discuss technical limitations and describe how noninvasive brain stimulation can be used to study human memory functions in vivo. Though improvement of cognitive functions through noninvasive brain stimulation is promising, it still remains an exciting challenge to extend the use of TMS and tDCS from research tools in neuroscience to the treatment of neurological and psychiatric patients.

  13. Combined effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic brain stroke: A pilot, single blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Chemello, Elena; Castellazzi, Paola; Filippetti, Mirko; Brugnera, Annalisa; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Waldner, Andreas; Saltuari, Leopold; Smania, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Preliminary evidence showed additional effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere combined with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation during robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients. This is consistent with the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. The cerebellum is crucial for locomotor control, in particular for avoidance of obstacles, and adaptation to novel conditions during walking. Despite its key role in gait control, to date the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum have not been investigated on brain stroke patients treated with robot-assisted gait training. To evaluate the effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation combined with transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic brain stroke. After balanced randomization, 20 chronic stroke patients received ten, 20-minute robot-assisted gait training sessions (five days a week, for two consecutive weeks) combined with central nervous system stimulation. Group 1 underwent on-line cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the contralesional cerebellar hemisphere + cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. Group 2 received on-line anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere + cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. The primary outcome was the 6-minute walk test performed before, after, and at follow-up at 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment. The significant differences in the 6-minute walk test noted between groups at the first post-treatment evaluation (p = 0.041) were not maintained at either the 2-week (P = 0.650) or the 4-week (P = 0.545) follow-up evaluations. Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the contralesional

  14. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  15. Implementing communication and decision-making interventions directed at goals of care: a theory-led scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Amanda; Lund, Susi; Campling, Natasha; May, Carl R; Richardson, Alison; Myall, Michelle

    2017-10-06

    To identify the factors that promote and inhibit the implementation of interventions that improve communication and decision-making directed at goals of care in the event of acute clinical deterioration. A scoping review was undertaken based on the methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley for conducting this type of review. Searches were carried out in Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to identify peer-reviewed papers and in Google to identify grey literature. Searches were limited to those published in the English language from 2000 onwards. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and only papers that had a specific focus on implementation in practice were selected. Data extracted were treated as qualitative and subjected to directed content analysis. A theory-informed coding framework using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was applied to characterise and explain implementation processes. Searches identified 2619 citations, 43 of which met the inclusion criteria. Analysis generated six themes fundamental to successful implementation of goals of care interventions: (1) input into development; (2) key clinical proponents; (3) training and education; (4) intervention workability and functionality; (5) setting and context; and (6) perceived value and appraisal. A broad and diverse literature focusing on implementation of goals of care interventions was identified. Our review recognised these interventions as both complex and contentious in nature, making their incorporation into routine clinical practice dependent on a number of factors. Implementing such interventions presents challenges at individual, organisational and systems levels, which make them difficult to introduce and embed. We have identified a series of factors that influence successful implementation and our analysis has distilled key learning points, conceptualised as a set of propositions, we consider relevant to implementing other complex

  16. Enhancement of couples' communication and dyadic coping by a self-directed approach: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Hilpert, Peter; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2014-08-01

    Although prevention of relationship distress and dissolution has potential to strengthen the well-being of partners and any children they are raising, dissemination of prevention programs can be limited because couples face many barriers to in-person participation. An alternative strategy, providing couples with an instructional DVD, is tested in the present study, in which 330 Caucasian couples (N = 660 participants; mean age: men 41.4 years, women 40.0 years) were randomly assigned to a DVD group without any further support, a DVD group with technical telephone coaching, or a wait-list control group. Couples completed questionnaires at pretest, posttest, and 3 and 6 months after completion of the intervention. Self-report measures of dyadic coping, communication quality, ineffective arguing, and relationship satisfaction were used to test whether the intervention groups improved in comparison with the control group. Women in both intervention groups increased in dyadic coping, reduced conflict behavior, and were more satisfied with their relationship 6 months after the intervention. Effects for men were mixed. Participants with poorer skills reported stronger improvement. Intimate relationships can, within limits, be positively influenced by a self-directed approach. Effective dissemination of principles underlying successful relationships can be facilitated through the use of emerging low-cost tools and technologies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Stability of formation control using a consensus protocol under directed communications with two time delays and delay scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Gomez, Rudy; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    We consider a linear algorithm to achieve formation control in a group of agents which are driven by second-order dynamics and affected by two rationally independent delays. One of the delays is in the position and the other in the velocity information channels. These delays are taken as constant and uniform throughout the system. The communication topology is assumed to be directed and fixed. The formation is attained by adding a supplementary control term to the stabilising consensus protocol. In preparation for the formation control logic, we first study the stability of the consensus, using the recent cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR) paradigm. This effort results in a unique depiction of the non-conservative stability boundaries in the domain of the delays. However, CTCR requires the knowledge of the potential stability switching loci exhaustively within this domain. The creation of these loci is done in a new surrogate coordinate system, called the 'spectral delay space (SDS)'. The relative stability is also investigated, which has to do with the speed of reaching consensus. This step leads to a paradoxical control design concept, called the 'delay scheduling', which highlights the fact that the group behaviour may be enhanced by increasing the delays. These steps lead to a control strategy to establish a desired group formation that guarantees spacing among the agents. Example case studies are presented to validate the underlying analytical derivations.

  18. The Security Analysis of Two-Step Quantum Direct Communication Protocol in Collective-Rotation Noise Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Sun Feng-Qi; Pan Ze-Shi; Nie Jin-Rui; Chen Yan-Hua; Yuan Kai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the security of two-step quantum direct communication protocol (QDCP) by using Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair proposed by Deng et al. [Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 042317] in collective-rotation noise channel, an excellent model of noise analysis is proposed. In the security analysis, the method of the entropy theory is introduced, and is compared with QDCP, an error rate point Q 0 (M : (Q 0 , 1.0)) is given. In different noise levels, if Eve wants to obtain the same amount of information, the error rate Q is distinguishable. The larger the noise level ϵ is, the larger the error rate Q is. When the noise level ϵ is lower than 11%, the high error rate is 0.153 without eavesdropping. Lastly, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. It turns out that the quantum channel will be safe when Q < 0.153. Similarly, if error rate Q > 0.153 = Q 0 , eavesdropping information I > 1, which means that there exist eavesdroppers in the quantum channel, and the quantum channel will not be safe anymore. (paper)

  19. Influence of transmission bit rate on performance of optical fibre communication systems with direct modulation of laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Moustafa F

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of the transmission bit rate on the performance of optical fibre communication systems employing laser diodes subjected to high-speed direct modulation. The performance is evaluated in terms of the bit error rate (BER) and power penalty associated with increasing the transmission bit rate while keeping the transmission distance. The study is based on numerical analysis of the stochastic rate equations of the laser diode and takes into account noise mechanisms in the receiver. Correlation between BER and the Q-parameter of the received signal is presented. The relative contributions of the transmitter noise and the circuit and shot noises of the receiver to BER are quantified as functions of the transmission bit rate. The results show that the power penalty at BER = 10 -9 required to keep the transmission distance increases moderately with the increase in the bit rate near 1 Gbps and at high bias currents. In this regime, the shot noise is the main contributor to BER. At higher bit rates and lower bias currents, the power penalty increases remarkably, which comes mainly from laser noise induced by the pseudorandom bit-pattern effect.

  20. A comparative study of clinical signs, computed tomography, and electroencephalography after direct operation of ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Kenichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoku; Imai, Tomohiro; Satoh, Masaharu.

    1987-01-01

    Eight cases with ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms, who developed mental signs of mild degree lasting more than two weeks following direct operation, were subjected to our study. The following results were obtained. 1) The mental signs of mild degree in 8 cases consisted of memory and emotional disturbances. The main findings of CT scan was low density area in the subcortical and cortical areas of the frontal lobe. There was no close correlation on CT findings between memory and emotional disturbances. 2) Abnormal density areas were detected on CT scan, but EEG showed no localized abnormalities of slow waves. Abnormal density areas were not clearly shown on CT, but EEG showed localized abnormalities. Background activities on EEG were favorable despite lesions detected on CT. Either local or diffuse abnormalities were observed in EEG background activities while no abnormal mental signs were recognized. 3) In cases with no apparent abnormal findings on CT and with favorable background activities on EEG, EEG showed marked build up during hyperventilation. 4) As indicated by the above data, comparative studies of CT and EEG findings revealed differences in sites of abnormalities and degree of abnormalities. This is considered caused by a possible increase in cerebral blood flow and metabolism at initiation of chronic stage following subarachnoid hemorrhage-resulting in the disappearance of abnormalities on EEG. (author)

  1. In quantum direct communication an undetectable eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ Bell states in the message mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavičić, Mladen

    2013-04-01

    We show that in any quantum direct communication protocol that is based on Ψ and Φ Bell states, an eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ states without altering the transmission in any way in the message mode. This renders all protocols that make use of only one Ψ state and one Φ state completely insecure in the message mode. All four-Bell-state protocols require a revision and this might be of importance for new implementations of entanglement-based cryptographic protocols. The detection rate of an eavesdropper is 25% per control transmission, i.e., a half of the rate in the two-state (ping-pong) protocol. An eavesdropper can detect control probes with certainty in the standard control transmission without a photon in the Alice-to-Bob's travel mode and with near certainty in a transmission with a fake photon in the travel mode. Resending of measured control photons via the travel mode would make an eavesdropper completely invisible.

  2. Robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol against decoherence noise based on six-qubit DF state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Zhang Shi-Bin; Yan Li-Li; Han Gui-Hua

    2015-01-01

    By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0′〉 state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0′〉. By using the |0′〉 state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping–pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. (paper)

  3. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Song Danjie; Guo Xiaojing; Jing Bo

    2012-01-01

    In order to transmit secure messages, a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented. The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. In the security analysis, the entropy theory method is introduced, and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50%; the second protocol, using two particles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair as detection particles, is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 89%. Finally, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed, and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two. (authors)

  5. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards.

  6. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user’s loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards. PMID:27907134

  7. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rosell-Negre

    Full Text Available The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC, underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5. Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1 performance facilitation in both groups; (2 left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3 left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4 dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards.

  8. Digital tumor fluoroscopy (DTF)--a new direct imaging system in the therapy planning for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, M; Fröder, M

    1990-01-01

    Digital Tumor Fluoroscopy is an expanded x-ray video chain optimized to iodine contrast with an extended Gy scale up to 64000 Gy values. Series of pictures are taken before and after injection of contrast medium. With the most recent unit, up to ten images can be taken and stored. The microprogrammable processor allows the subtraction of images recorded at any moment of the examination. Dynamic views of the distribution of contrast medium in the intravasal and extravasal spaces of brain and tumor tissue are gained by the subtraction of stored images. Tumors can be differentiated by studying the storage and drainage behavior of the contrast medium during the period of examination. Meningiomas store contrast medium very intensively during the whole time of investigation, whereas astrocytomas grade 2-3 pick it up less strongly at the beginning and release it within 2 min. Glioblastomas show a massive but delayed accumulation of contrast medium and a decreased flow-off-rate. In comparison with radiography and MR-imaging the most important advantage of Digital Tumor Fluoroscopy is that direct information on tumor localization is gained in relation to the skull-cap. This enables the radiotherapist to mark the treatment field directly on the skull. Therefore it is no longer necessary to calculate the tumor volume from several CT scans for localization. In radiotherapy Digital Tumor Fluoroscopy a unit combined with a simulator can replace CT planning. This would help overcome the disadvantages arising from the lack of a collimating system, and the inaccuracies which result from completely different geometric relationships between a CT unit and a therapy machine.

  9. Ultra-low-cost 3D gaze estimation: an intuitive high information throughput compliment to direct brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W. W.; Faisal, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements are highly correlated with motor intentions and are often retained by patients with serious motor deficiencies. Despite this, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for movement in impaired patients due to poor signal interpretation and lack of control flexibility. We propose that tracking the gaze position in 3D rather than 2D provides a considerably richer signal for human machine interfaces by allowing direct interaction with the environment rather than via computer displays. We demonstrate here that by using mass-produced video-game hardware, it is possible to produce an ultra-low-cost binocular eye-tracker with comparable performance to commercial systems, yet 800 times cheaper. Our head-mounted system has 30 USD material costs and operates at over 120 Hz sampling rate with a 0.5-1 degree of visual angle resolution. We perform 2D and 3D gaze estimation, controlling a real-time volumetric cursor essential for driving complex user interfaces. Our approach yields an information throughput of 43 bits s-1, more than ten times that of invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are vastly more expensive. Unlike many BMIs our system yields effective real-time closed loop control of devices (10 ms latency), after just ten minutes of training, which we demonstrate through a novel BMI benchmark—the control of the video arcade game ‘Pong’.

  10. Resveratrol Directly Binds to Mitochondrial Complex I and Increases Oxidative Stress in Brain Mitochondria of Aged Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïg Gueguen

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is often described as a promising therapeutic molecule for numerous diseases, especially in metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. While the mechanism of action is still debated, an increasing literature reports that resveratrol regulates the mitochondrial respiratory chain function. In a recent study we have identified mitochondrial complex I as a direct target of this molecule. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and consequences of such an interaction still require further investigation. In this study, we identified in silico by docking study a binding site for resveratrol at the nucleotide pocket of complex I. In vitro, using solubilized complex I, we demonstrated a competition between NAD+ and resveratrol. At low doses (<5μM, resveratrol stimulated complex I activity, whereas at high dose (50 μM it rather decreased it. In vivo, in brain mitochondria from resveratrol treated young mice, we showed that complex I activity was increased, whereas the respiration rate was not improved. Moreover, in old mice with low antioxidant defenses, we demonstrated that complex I activation by resveratrol led to oxidative stress. These results bring new insights into the mechanism of action of resveratrol on mitochondria and highlight the importance of the balance between pro- and antioxidant effects of resveratrol depending on its dose and age. These parameters should be taken into account when clinical trials using resveratrol or analogues have to be designed.

  11. ТYPES OF BRAIN INTERHEMISPHERIC ORGANIZATION PROFILE AND INDEX OF DEMAND OF COMMUNICATION, DEMAND OF ACHIEVEMENT, ANXIETY AND APPREHENSION OF STUDENTS-PHYSICIANS I-III COURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Evgen’evna Kononez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Definition of percentage of profile versions of lateral brain organization; index of demand of communication, demand of achievement, anxiety and apprehension of students – physicians. Materials and methods: Method of E.D. Homskaya, 1997 [19]; scheme «hand-leg-ear-eye»; methodic on J. Teilor, (N.M. Peisahov, 1977 [12]. Results: Studied profile versions of lateral brain organization (LBO on the scheme «hand-leg-ear-eye» and index of demand of communication (DC, demand of achievement (DA, level of anxiety and apprehension (AA of 320 students-physicians of I–III courses of faculty «General medicine» of the Kyrgyz State Medical Academy in the age from 18 to 22. Revealed that to the third year of study increased versions with left signs of LBO with testees. Level of anxiety-apprehension (AA with the first grade students is truly higher in compare with students of II-III courses, at that index of girls AA truly increases index than boys. Index of DS is higher with only right-handers in compare with mixed types of LBO, and index of DC are more higher than mixed types of LBO, only right-handers are more anxiety than mixed types. Results of research can render assistance in development of practical recommendations for optimization of educational process. Conclusion: 1. To the third year of study increased versions with left signs of profile of lateral brain organization with testees. 2. Index of anxiety-apprehension on the 1 grade are truly higher in compare with students of II–III cources. 3. Index of demand of communication with only right-handers increase index with persons with mixed types of profiles of lateral organization, and demand of achievement is higher than mixed types of LBO. Only right-handers are more anxiety than mixed types.

  12. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives A mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijmen, M.P.S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Methods: Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n= 5768). A purposive sample of people

  13. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  14. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors show different anti-brain metastases efficacy in NSCLC: A direct comparative analysis of icotinib, gefitinib, and erlotinib in a nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianlong; Li, Min; Zhong, Wen; Hu, Chengping; Gu, Qihua; Xie, Yali

    2017-11-17

    Brain metastasis is an increasing problem in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib, are reported to be effective in patients with brain metastases. However, direct comparative studies of the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of these three drugs in treating brain metastases are lacking. In the present investigation, we found that gefitinib penetrated the blood-tumor barrier and was distributed to brain metastases more effectively than erlotinib or icotinib in a nude mouse model. The 1-h ratio of brain metastases to plasma concentration for gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib was 9.82±1.03%, 4.83±0.25%, and 2.62±0.21%, respectively. The 2-h ratio of brain metastases to plasma concentration for gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib was 15.11±2.00%, 5.73±1.31%, and 2.69±0.31%, respectively. Gefitinib exhibited the strongest antitumor activity ( p gefitinib vs. erlotinib =0.005; p gefitinib vs. icotinib =0.002). Notably, erlotinib exhibited a better treatment efficacy than icotinib ( p =0.037). Consistently, immunohistochemical data showed that TKIs differentially inhibit the proliferation of metastatical tumor cells. Gefitinib and erlotinib markedly inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells, while there were more ki-67-positive tumor cells in the icotinib group. Additionally, gefitinib inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR better than the other drugs, whereas pEGFR expression levels in erlotinib groups were lower than levels in the icotinib group ( p gefitinib vs. erlotinib =0.995; p gefitinib vs. icotinib =0.028; p erlotinib vs. icotinib =0.042).Altogether, our findings suggest that gefitinib and erlotinib can inhibit the growth of PC-9-luc brain tumors. Gefitinib demonstrated better antitumor activity and penetration rate in brain metastases than erlotinib or icotinib.

  15. Combined brain Fe, Cu, Zn and neurometabolite analysis - a new methodology for unraveling the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziomber, Agata; Surowka, Artur Dawid; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Romanska, Irena; Wrobel, Pawel; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic, multifactorial origin disease that has recently become one of the most frequent lifestyle disorders. Unfortunately, current obesity treatments seem to be ineffective. At present, transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS) represents a promising novel treatment methodology that seems to be efficient, well-tolerated and safe for a patient. Unfortunately, the biochemical action of tDCS remains unknown, which prevents its widespread use in the clinical arena, although neurobiochemical changes in brain signaling and metal metabolism are frequently reported. Therefore, our research aimed at exploring the biochemical response to tDCS in situ, in the brain areas triggering feeding behavior in obese animals. The objective was to propose a novel neurochemical (serotoninergic and dopaminergic signaling) and trace metal analysis of Fe, Cu and Zn. In doing so, we used energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Anodal-type stimulation (atDCS) of the right frontal cortex was utilized to down-regulate food intake and body weight gain in obese rats. EDXRF was coupled with the external standard method in order to quantify the chemical elements within appetite-triggering brain areas. Major dopamine metabolites were assessed in the brains, based on the HPLC assay utilizing the external standard assay. Our study confirms that elemental analysis by EDXRF and brain metabolite assay by HPLC can be considered as a useful tool for the in situ investigation of the interplay between neurochemical and Fe/Cu/Zn metabolism in the brain upon atDCS. With this methodology, an increase in both Cu and Zn in the satiety center of the stimulated group could be reported. In turn, the most significant neurochemical changes involved dopaminergic and serotoninergic signaling in the brain reward system.

  16. The signatures of conscious access and its phenomenology are consistent with large-scale brain communication at criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagliazucchi, E.

    Conscious awareness refers to information processing in the brain that is accompanied by subjective, reportable experiences. Current models of conscious access propose that sufficiently strong sensory stimuli ignite a global network of regions allowing further processing. The immense number of

  17. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; Reus, M.A. de; Collin, G; Snijders, T.M.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Stam, C.J.; Heuvel, M.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions

  18. 2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Li, Changping; Park, Kihong; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a record high-speed underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) over 7 m distance using on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) modulation scheme. The communication link uses a commercial TO-9 packaged pigtailed

  19. Multi-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS elicits inflammatory and regenerative processes in the rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adele Rueger

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is increasingly being used in human studies as an adjuvant tool to promote recovery of function after stroke. However, its neurobiological effects are still largely unknown. Electric fields are known to influence the migration of various cell types in vitro, but effects in vivo remain to be shown. Hypothesizing that tDCS might elicit the recruitment of cells to the cortex, we here studied the effects of tDCS in the rat brain in vivo. Adult Wistar rats (n = 16 were randomized to either anodal or cathodal stimulation for either 5 or 10 consecutive days (500 µA, 15 min. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU was given systemically to label dividing cells throughout the experiment. Immunohistochemical analyses ex vivo included stainings for activated microglia and endogenous neural stem cells (NSC. Multi-session tDCS with the chosen parameters did not cause a cortical lesion. An innate immune response with early upregulation of Iba1-positive activated microglia occurred after both cathodal and anodal tDCS. The involvement of adaptive immunity as assessed by ICAM1-immunoreactivity was less pronounced. Most interestingly, only cathodal tDCS increased the number of endogenous NSC in the stimulated cortex. After 10 days of cathodal stimulation, proliferating NSC increased by ∼60%, with a significant effect of both polarity and number of tDCS sessions on the recruitment of NSC. We demonstrate a pro-inflammatory effect of both cathodal and anodal tDCS, and a polarity-specific migratory effect on endogenous NSC in vivo. Our data suggest that tDCS in human stroke patients might also elicit NSC activation and modulate neuroinflammation.

  20. Brain spontaneous fluctuations in sensorimotor regions were directly related to eyes open and eyes closed: evidences from a machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan eLiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference between resting-state brain activations depends on whether the subject was eyes open (EO or eyes closed (EC. However, whether the spontaneous fluctuations are directly related to these two different resting states are still largely unclear. In the present study, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 24 healthy subjects (11 males, 20.17 ± 2.74 years under the EO and EC states. The amplitude of the spontaneous brain activity in low-frequency band was subsequently investigated by using the metric of fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF for each subject under each state. A support vector machine (SVM analysis was then applied to evaluate whether the category of resting states could be determined from the brain spontaneous fluctuations. We demonstrated that these two resting states could be decoded from the identified pattern of brain spontaneous fluctuations, predominantly based on fALFF in the sensorimotor module. Specifically, we observed prominent relationships between increased fALFF for EC and decreased fALFF for EO in sensorimotor regions. Overall, the present results indicate that a SVM performs well in the discrimination between the brain spontaneous fluctuations of distinct resting states and provide new insight into the neural substrate of the resting states during EC and EO.

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...

  2. Direct-to-consumer communication on prescription only medicines via the internet in the Netherlands, a pilot study. Opinion of the pharmaceutical industry, patient associations and support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabius, A Mariette; Cheung, Ka-Chun; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Talsma, Herre

    2004-06-01

    Investigation of the current application of direct-to-consumer (DTC) communication on prescription only medicines via the Intemet in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 43 Dutch innovative pharmaceutical industries and 130 Patient Association and Support Groups (PASGs). In this pilot study, the response of the pharmaceutical industry was rather low but the impression is that they were willing to invest in DTC communication. The majority of the websites of PASGs did not link to websites of pharmaceutical companies. The PASGs had no opinion whether patients can make a good distinction between DTC advertising and information on websites of the pharmaceutical industry nor about the quality. PASGs did not think unambiguously about the impact on the patient-doctor relationship. The impact of DTC communication on prescription only medicines via the internet is not yet clear in the Netherlands.

  3. Towards real-time communication between in vivo neurophysiological data sources and simulator-based brain biomimetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Giljae; Matsunaga, Andréa; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhang, Wenjie; Lytton, William W; Francis, Joseph T; Fortes, José Ab

    2014-11-01

    Development of more sophisticated implantable brain-machine interface (BMI) will require both interpretation of the neurophysiological data being measured and subsequent determination of signals to be delivered back to the brain. Computational models are the heart of the machine of BMI and therefore an essential tool in both of these processes. One approach is to utilize brain biomimetic models (BMMs) to develop and instantiate these algorithms. These then must be connected as hybrid systems in order to interface the BMM with in vivo data acquisition devices and prosthetic devices. The combined system then provides a test bed for neuroprosthetic rehabilitative solutions and medical devices for the repair and enhancement of damaged brain. We propose here a computer network-based design for this purpose, detailing its internal modules and data flows. We describe a prototype implementation of the design, enabling interaction between the Plexon Multichannel Acquisition Processor (MAP) server, a commercial tool to collect signals from microelectrodes implanted in a live subject and a BMM, a NEURON-based model of sensorimotor cortex capable of controlling a virtual arm. The prototype implementation supports an online mode for real-time simulations, as well as an offline mode for data analysis and simulations without real-time constraints, and provides binning operations to discretize continuous input to the BMM and filtering operations for dealing with noise. Evaluation demonstrated that the implementation successfully delivered monkey spiking activity to the BMM through LAN environments, respecting real-time constraints.

  4. Increasing Left and Right Brain Communication to Improve Learning for Tenth Grade Students in a Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory correlation research study was to determine if students who engaged in exercises designed to increase left and right brain hemisphere connections would score higher on identical tests than those who did not perform the exercises. Because the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act requires students to reach benchmarks of…

  5. Comparison of (/sup 125/I)beta-endorphin binding to rat brain and NG108-15 cells using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidlack, J.M.; O' Malley, W.E.; Schulz, R.

    1988-02-01

    The properties of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin-binding sites from rat brain membranes and membranes from the NG108-15 cell line were compared using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor and opioid peptides as probes. The binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to both rat brain and NG108-15 membranes yielded linear Scatchard plots with Kd values of 1.2 nM and 1.5 nM, respectively, and Bmax values of 865 fmol/mg rat brain membrane protein and 1077 fmol/mg NG108-15 membrane protein. A monoclonal antibody, OR-689.2.4, capable of inhibiting mu and delta binding but not kappa binding to rat brain membranes, noncompetitively inhibited the binding of 1 nM (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to rat brain and NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 405 nM for rat brain membranes and 543 nM for NG108-15 membranes. The monoclonal antibody also inhibited the binding of 3 nM (/sup 3/H) (D-penicillamine2, D-penicillamine5) enkephalin to NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 370 nM. In addition to blocking the binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to brain membranes, the antibody also displaced (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin from membranes. Site-specific opioid peptides had large variations in their IC50 values depending on whether they were inhibiting (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to rat brain or the NG108-15 membranes. When the peptides were tested with the monoclonal antibody for their combined ability to inhibit (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to both membrane preparations, the peptides and antibody blocked binding as though they were acting at allosterically coupled sites, not two totally independent sites. These studies suggest that mu-, delta-, and beta-endorphin-binding sites share some sequence homology with the 35,000-dalton protein that the antibody is directed against.

  6. FY1995 study of evaluating satisfaction of communication devices and brain computer interface for severely disabled people; 1995 nendo judo shogaisha no communication eido sosa shudan to tekisetsusa ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Until now, the prescription of communication devices for disabled people has been dependent on the experience of technical experts who are working for them. To improve this situation, the aim of present study is to develop the objective methods for evaluating satisfaction of communication devices. Further aim of this study is to get the basic data for using electroencephalogram for thinking switch of communication devices. 1) Under imaging real communication devices, the menu of two experimental subjects were designed with three tasks which have different difficulty. Five physiological indexes (heart rate, coefficient of variation of R-R intervals, respiration rate, skin temperature and plethysmograph), which are known to closely correlated with mental stress, were studied during three different tasks in each experimental subject. In addition, psychological test were also performed before and after each tasks. In the first subject a significant difference was detected only in psychological test among three tasks. This result may come from the small difference of difficulty in each tasks of the first subject. In the second subject, significant differences were observed in the coefficient of variation of R-R intervals, the respiration rate and psychological test. Other physiological indexces, skin temperature, heart rate and plethysmograph, may be useful. However, the reconsideration will be needed to find the usefulness of these indexes for evaluating mental stress. 2) Biofeedback control of mu rhysm, an electrical brain wave, was investigated for the possibility of thinking switch in three graduate students. In one of three students, changes of amplitude were observed bilaterally although we had expected the unilateral change. Further studies will be needed to clarify the best method of biofeedback experiment. (NEDO)

  7. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  8. Portable Brain-Computer Interface for the Intensive Care Unit Patient Communication Using Subject-Dependent SSVEP Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehzangi, Omid; Farooq, Muhamed

    2018-01-01

    A major predicament for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients is inconsistent and ineffective communication means. Patients rated most communication sessions as difficult and unsuccessful. This, in turn, can cause distress, unrecognized pain, anxiety, and fear. As such, we designed a portable BCI system for ICU communications (BCI4ICU) optimized to operate effectively in an ICU environment. The system utilizes a wearable EEG cap coupled with an Android app designed on a mobile device that serves as visual stimuli and data processing module. Furthermore, to overcome the challenges that BCI systems face today in real-world scenarios, we propose a novel subject-specific Gaussian Mixture Model- (GMM-) based training and adaptation algorithm. First, we incorporate subject-specific information in the training phase of the SSVEP identification model using GMM-based training and adaptation. We evaluate subject-specific models against other subjects. Subsequently, from the GMM discriminative scores, we generate the transformed vectors, which are passed to our predictive model. Finally, the adapted mixture mean scores of the subject-specific GMMs are utilized to generate the high-dimensional supervectors. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieved 98.7% average identification accuracy, which is promising in order to provide effective and consistent communication for patients in the intensive care.

  9. Assessing Brain–Muscle Connectivity in Human Locomotion through Mobile Brain/Body Imaging: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Gennaro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the cortical role during bipedalism has been a methodological challenge. While surface electroencephalography (EEG is capable of non-invasively measuring cortical activity during human locomotion, it is associated with movement artifacts obscuring cerebral sources of activity. Recently, statistical methods based on blind source separation revealed potential for resolving this issue, by segregating non-cerebral/artifactual from cerebral sources of activity. This step marked a new opportunity for the investigation of the brains’ role while moving and was tagged mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI. This methodology involves simultaneous mobile recording of brain activity with several other body behavioral variables (e.g., muscle activity and kinematics, through wireless recording wearable devices/sensors. Notably, several MoBI studies using EEG–EMG approaches recently showed that the brain is functionally connected to the muscles and active throughout the whole gait cycle and, thus, rejecting the long-lasting idea of a solely spinal-driven bipedalism. However, MoBI and brain/muscle connectivity assessments during human locomotion are still in their fledgling state of investigation. Mobile brain/body imaging approaches hint toward promising opportunities; however, there are some remaining pitfalls that need to be resolved before considering their routine clinical use. This article discusses several of these pitfalls and proposes research to address them. Examples relate to the validity, reliability, and reproducibility of this method in ecologically valid scenarios and in different populations. Furthermore, whether brain/muscle connectivity within the MoBI framework represents a potential biomarker in neuromuscular syndromes where gait disturbances are evident (e.g., age-related sarcopenia remains to be determined.

  10. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Physiological high frequency activities (HFA are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections, or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response and N80 (late response of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20 and HFA(SEP(N80 and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA(CCEP(N2. HFA(SEP(N20 showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1 had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.

  11. Two-Person Neuroscience and Naturalistic Social Communication: The Role of Language and Linguistic Variables in Brain-Coupling Research

    OpenAIRE

    García, Adolfo M.; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience (SCN) seeks to understand the brain mechanisms through which we comprehend others’ emotions and intentions in order to react accordingly. For decades, SCN has explored relevant domains by exposing individual participants to predesigned stimuli and asking them to judge their social (e.g., emotional) content. Subjects are thus reduced to detached observers of situations that they play no active role in. However, the core of our social experience is construed throug...

  12. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E; DenBaars, Steven P

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  13. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin

    2015-06-10

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  14. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M.; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E.; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free

  15. Teaching a Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays to Reject: Direct and Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian A.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Brucker, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    We used functional communication training to teach Bob, a 10-year-old student with autism and severe language delays, to reject items by touching an icon. Our initial assessment revealed that Bob's behaviours serving a rejecting function consisted of pushing away, yelling, bear hugging-grabbing, and leaving. We used prompting, differential…

  16. Stimulating the addicted brain : The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation and cognitive bias modification in alcohol users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    In this PhD project we investigated a new intervention in which we combined brain stimulation with cognitive training. We used a form of training called cognitive bias modification (CBM) aimed at retraining dysfunctional automatic reactions towards alcohol. We investigated whether transcranial

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of [/sup 125/I]iodothienoperidol as a potential receptor site directed brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.N.; Franke, L.A.; Astik, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to design and evaluate radioligands for the noninvasive quantification of dopamine receptors in the brain. The approach involved the preparation of the iodothienyl analog I of haloperidol II, a well characterized dopamine antagonist which has been labeled with F-18 and C-11. The synthesis involved the addition of 5-trimethylstannyl-2-thienyllithium so the piperidone intermediate. The product was characterized by spectroscopic and analytic methods and radioiodinated via electrophilic iododestannylation to yield the product in 75-85% isolated yield. The tissue distribution of the radiochemical was evaluated in rats as a function of time, 0.25-2 hrs, and in the presence or absence of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) to measure receptor binding. The results indicated that the 0.25 h uptake in the brain was high (2.2% ID) and that the washout of the activity was relatively slow, 1.3% ID present at 2 hr. The Br/B1 values remained relatively constant over that time interval (9.3-12.1:1). Coadministration of 1 mg/kg haloperidol markedly reduced the uptake in the brain at 0.25 and 2 hr (55% and 62%) with much less of an effect on the nontarget tissues. The study indicates that the authors have prepared a radiotracer, labeled with iodine, that demonstrates both good brain uptake and selectivity as well as a specific binding site component

  18. Brain Machine Interfaces : technology status, applications and the way to the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Duistermaat, M.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable direct communication between the brain or nervous system and a machine without involving the sensory-motor system. BMIs are an embryonic technology and remarkable accomplishments have recently been reported. BMIs have a high potential and possibly an enormous

  19. 2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2015-07-30

    We experimentally demonstrate a record high-speed underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) over 7 m distance using on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) modulation scheme. The communication link uses a commercial TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the receiver. At 2.3 Gbit/s transmission, the measured bit error rate of the received data is 2.23×10−4, well below the forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 2×10−3 required for error-free operation. The high bandwidth of the LD coupled with high sensitivity APD and optimized operating conditions is the key enabling factor in obtaining high bit rate transmission in our proposed system. To the best of our knowledge, this result presents the highest data rate ever achieved in UWOC systems thus far.

  20. Understanding consumer preferences for communication channels to create consumer-directed health promotion efforts in psychiatric rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Evelina; Bressi, Sara K; Salzer, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    People with serious mental illnesses experience increased rates of physical illnesses. Drop-in centers and psychosocial rehabilitation programs can serve as important settings for health promotion efforts, but such efforts should utilize communication strategies that are used by consumers and are perceived to be reliable. Focus groups involving 23 consumers at drop-in centers in Philadelphia were conducted to assess the perceived usefulness of health information from a variety of sources. Consumers especially liked getting information from other people, including health care professionals, friends, and family, and found the information to be reliable and useful. Print literature, the Internet, and a library had various limitations. Respondents were generally unfamiliar with community health fairs and related events. Consumers considered trustworthiness, proximity and availability, and the specificity and depth of information provided by a communication source when getting health information. Implications for health promotion efforts are discussed.

  1. CDMA à séquence directe appliqué aux systèmes de communications optiques

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdiane , Mounia

    2005-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, le besoin de systèmes de communications plus rapides et plus sures se fait sentir. Le partage entre utilisateurs de la très grande bande passante des fibres optiques nécessite des techniques d'accès adaptées. Afin de répondre à ces besoins, un certain nombre de techniques de multiplexage, dont le CDMA, ont été développées. Cette technique d'accès multiple est déjà largement utilisée dans les systèmes de communications radio-mobiles, que ce soit dans les normes américai...

  2. Then and Now: Examining How Consumer Communication and Attitudes of Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising Have Changed in the Last Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kelly S; Cronley, Maria L

    2014-09-01

    This study examines changes over a 10-year period in consumer reports of communication with health care providers about direct-to-consumer advertised (DTCA) medications. Two rounds of survey data were collected in 2003 and 2012 using repeated cross-sectional procedures to examine consumer willingness to discuss DTCA medications, content and tone of those conversations, and attitudes about the advertisements. In total, 472 surveys were analyzed. Generally, we found physician-patient conversations, attitudes, and behaviors regarding DTCA have changed. Consumers in 2012 reported talking significantly less about the names of the advertised drug, comparing the advertised drug with their current medication, and sharing general information than consumers in 2003. Attitudes toward the advertisements were significantly more negative in 2012 compared to 2003. Of those who specifically asked for a prescription, the proportion of patients who received the prescription was significantly lower in 2012, despite research suggesting increased rates of prescriptions. These results are interpreted in light of previous research about the lack of research examining the actual communication between physicians and patients on this topic. Limitations of the study are provided along with directions for future research about DTCA and physician-patient communication.

  3. In vitro large-scale experimental and theoretical studies for the realization of bi-directional brain-prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Paolo; Difato, Francesco; Massobrio, Paolo; Breschi, Gian L; Pasquale, Valentina; Levi, Timothée; Goldin, Miri; Bornat, Yannick; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Bisio, Marta; Kanner, Sivan; Galron, Ronit; Tessadori, Jacopo; Taverna, Stefano; Chiappalone, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) were born to control "actions from thoughts" in order to recover motor capability of patients with impaired functional connectivity between the central and peripheral nervous system. The final goal of our studies is the development of a new proof-of-concept BMI-a neuromorphic chip for brain repair-to reproduce the functional organization of a damaged part of the central nervous system. To reach this ambitious goal, we implemented a multidisciplinary "bottom-up" approach in which in vitro networks are the paradigm for the development of an in silico model to be incorporated into a neuromorphic device. In this paper we present the overall strategy and focus on the different building blocks of our studies: (i) the experimental characterization and modeling of "finite size networks" which represent the smallest and most general self-organized circuits capable of generating spontaneous collective dynamics; (ii) the induction of lesions in neuronal networks and the whole brain preparation with special attention on the impact on the functional organization of the circuits; (iii) the first production of a neuromorphic chip able to implement a real-time model of neuronal networks. A dynamical characterization of the finite size circuits with single cell resolution is provided. A neural network model based on Izhikevich neurons was able to replicate the experimental observations. Changes in the dynamics of the neuronal circuits induced by optical and ischemic lesions are presented respectively for in vitro neuronal networks and for a whole brain preparation. Finally the implementation of a neuromorphic chip reproducing the network dynamics in quasi-real time (10 ns precision) is presented.

  4. In vitro large-scale experimental and theoretical studies for the realization of bi-directional brain-prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBonifazi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMI were born to control ‘actions from thoughts’ in order to recover motor capability of patients with impaired functional connectivity between the central and peripheral nervous system. The final goal of our studies is the development of a new proof-of-concept BMI - a neuromorphic chip for brain repair - to reproduce the functional organization of a damaged part of the central nervous system. To reach this ambitious goal, we implemented a multidisciplinary ‘bottom-up’ approach in which in vitro networks are the paradigm for the development of an in silico model to be incorporated into a neuromorphic device. In this paper we present the overall strategy and focus on the different building blocks of our studies: (i the experimental characterization and modeling of ‘finite size networks’ which represent the smallest and most general self-organized circuits capable of generating spontaneous collective dynamics; (ii the induction of lesions in neuronal networks and the whole brain preparation with special attention on the impact on the functional organization of the circuits; (iii the first production of a neuromorphic chip able to implement a real-time model of neuronal networks. A dynamical characterization of the finite size circuits with single cell resolution is provided. A neural network model based on Izhikevich neurons was able to replicate the experimental observations. Changes in the dynamics of the neuronal circuits induced by optical and ischemic lesions are presented respectively for in vitro neuronal networks and for a whole brain preparation. Finally the implementation of a neuromorphic chip reproducing the network dynamics in quasi-real time (10 ns precision is presented.

  5. Presentation of the project MobiKids Communication technologies, environmental exposures and risk of brain tumors in young people; Presentacion del proyecto MobiKids: Tecnologias de la comunicacion, exposiciones ambientales y riesgo de tumores cerebrales en gente joven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E.; Alguacil, J.; Aragones, N.; Morales, M.; Carretero, G.; Ferreras, E.; Kinci, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollan, M.; Solis, R.; Vriheid, M.; Zumel, A.

    2011-07-01

    MOBI-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL, Barcelona, aims to assess the possible relationship between exposure in children and adolescents to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from communication technologies (RF - and extremely low frequency - ELF) and the risk of developing a brain tumor. It also investigated the effects of other risk factors, including environmental exposures in childhood and in utero.

  6. Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Nadine; Jeffries, Jayne K; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Kharmats, Anna; McDermott, Ann Yelmokas; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-12-01

    Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors. Factorial design randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA. Stores were randomized to pricing intervention, communications intervention, combined pricing and communications intervention, or control. Stores that received the pricing intervention were given a 10-30 % price discount by wholesalers on selected healthier food items during the 6-month trial. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests and refrigerators. All interventions showed significantly increased stock of promoted foods v. There was a significant treatment effect for daily unit sales of healthy snacks (β=6·4, 95 % CI 0·9, 11·9) and prices of healthy staple foods (β=-0·49, 95 % CI -0·90, -0·03) for the combined group v. control, but not for other intervention groups. There were no significant intervention effects on storeowner psychosocial factors. All interventions led to increased stock of healthier foods. The combined intervention was effective in increasing sales of healthier snacks, even though discounts on snacks were not passed to the consumer. Experimental research in small stores is needed to understand the mechanisms by which store-directed price promotions can increase healthy food supply and demand.

  7. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives: a mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijmen, Matthijs P S; Pasman, H Roeline W; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-06-01

    What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n=5768). A purposive sample of people suffering from an illness was selected from the cohort for an in-depth interview (n=29). About half of our population had no direct motivation to draft their AD. Most mentioned motivation for the other half was an illness of a family member or friend. Many different and specific aims for drafting an AD were mentioned. An often mentioned more general aim in people with different ADs was to prevent unnecessary lengthening of life or treatment (14-16%). Most respondents communicated about having an AD with close-ones (63-88%) and with their GP (65-79%). In the interviews people gave vivid examples of experiences of what they hoped to prevent at the end of life. Some mentioned difficulties foreseeing the future and gave examples of response shift. ADs can give directions to caregivers about what people want at the end of life. ADs have to be discussed in detail by their owners and caregivers, since owners often have specific aims with their AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. COMMUNICATION: Toward closed-loop optimization of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: concepts and lessons from a computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-jiang; Greenwald, Brian; Rabitz, Herschel; Shea-Brown, Eric; Kosut, Robert

    2007-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus with periodic, high-frequency pulse trains is an increasingly standard therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease. Here, we propose that a closed-loop global optimization algorithm may identify novel DBS waveforms that could be more effective than their high-frequency counterparts. We use results from a computational model of the Parkinsonian basal ganglia to illustrate general issues relevant to eventual clinical or experimental tests of such an algorithm. Specifically, while the relationship between DBS characteristics and performance is highly complex, global search methods appear able to identify novel and effective waveforms with convergence rates that are acceptably fast to merit further investigation in laboratory or clinical settings.

  9. Health-related quality of life in parents of pediatric brain tumor survivors at the end of tumor-directed therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Lauren F; Turner, Elise M; McCurdy, Mark D; Hocking, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    This study examines theoretical covariates of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in parents of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) following completion of tumor-directed therapy. Fifty PBTS (ages 6-16) completed measures of neurocognitive functioning and their parents completed measures of family, survivor, and parent functioning. Caregiving demand, caregiver competence, and coping/supportive factors were associated with parental physical and psychosocial HRQL, when controlling for significant background and child characteristics. Study findings can inform interventions to strengthen caregiver competence and family functioning following the completion of treatment, which may improve both parent and survivor outcomes.

  10. Direct reconstruction of parametric images for brain PET with event-by-event motion correction: evaluation in two tracers across count levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Mary; Gallezot, Jean-Dominque; Yan, Jianhua; Carson, Richard E.

    2017-07-01

    Parametric images for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) are typically generated by an indirect method, i.e. reconstructing a time series of emission images, then fitting a kinetic model to each voxel time activity curve. Alternatively, ‘direct reconstruction’, incorporates the kinetic model into the reconstruction algorithm itself, directly producing parametric images from projection data. Direct reconstruction has been shown to achieve parametric images with lower standard error than the indirect method. Here, we present direct reconstruction for brain PET using event-by-event motion correction of list-mode data, applied to two tracers. Event-by-event motion correction was implemented for direct reconstruction in the Parametric Motion-compensation OSEM List-mode Algorithm for Resolution-recovery reconstruction. The direct implementation was tested on simulated and human datasets with tracers [11C]AFM (serotonin transporter) and [11C]UCB-J (synaptic density), which follow the 1-tissue compartment model. Rigid head motion was tracked with the Vicra system. Parametric images of K 1 and distribution volume (V T  =  K 1/k 2) were compared to those generated by the indirect method by regional coefficient of variation (CoV). Performance across count levels was assessed using sub-sampled datasets. For simulated and real datasets at high counts, the two methods estimated K 1 and V T with comparable accuracy. At lower count levels, the direct method was substantially more robust to outliers than the indirect method. Compared to the indirect method, direct reconstruction reduced regional K 1 CoV by 35-48% (simulated dataset), 39-43% ([11C]AFM dataset) and 30-36% ([11C]UCB-J dataset) across count levels (averaged over regions at matched iteration); V T CoV was reduced by 51-58%, 54-60% and 30-46%, respectively. Motion correction played an important role in the dataset with larger motion: correction increased regional V T by 51% on average in the [11C

  11. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Rhythms and Entropy during Self-Paced Finger Movement using the Epoc Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U. Manto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the cerebellum is emerging as a novel non-invasive tool to modulate the activity of the cerebellar circuitry. In a single blinded study, we applied anodal tDCS (atDCS of the cerebellum to assess its effects on brain entropy and brain rhythms during self-paced sequential finger movements in a group of healthy volunteers. Although wearable electroencephalogram (EEG systems cannot compete with traditional clinical/laboratory set-ups in terms of accuracy and channel density, they have now reached a sufficient maturity to envision daily life applications. Therefore, the EEG was recorded with a comfortable and easy to wear 14 channels wireless helmet (Epoc headset; electrode location was based on the 10–20 system. Cerebellar neurostimulation modified brain rhythmicity with a decrease in the delta band (electrode F3 and T8, p < 0.05. By contrast, our study did not show any significant change in entropy ratios and laterality coefficients (LC after atDCS of the cerebellum in the 14 channels. The cerebellum is heavily connected with the cerebral cortex including the frontal lobes and parietal lobes via the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway. We propose that the effects of anodal stimulation of the cerebellar cortex upon cerebral cortical rhythms are mediated by this key-pathway. Additional studies using high-density EEG recordings and behavioral correlates are now required to confirm our findings, especially given the limited coverage of Epoc headset.

  12. Bidirectional interactions between neuronal and hemodynamic responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS: challenges for brain-state dependent tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban eDutta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been shown to modulate cortical neural activity. During neural activity, the electric currents from excitable membranes of brain tissue superimpose in the extracellular medium and generate a potential at scalp, which is referred as the electroencephalogram (EEG. Respective neural activity (energy demand has been shown to be closely related, spatially and temporally, to cerebral blood flow (CBF that supplies glucose (energy supply via neurovascular coupling. The hemodynamic response can be captured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, which enables continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and blood volume. This neurovascular coupling phenomenon led to the concept of neurovascular unit (NVU that consists of the endothelium, glia, neurons, pericytes, and the basal lamina. Here, recent works suggest NVU as an integrated system working in concert using feedback mechanisms to enable proper brain homeostasis and function where the challenge remains in capturing these mostly nonlinear spatiotemporal interactions within NVU during tDCS. Therefore, we propose EEG-NIRS-based whole-head monitoring of tDCS-induced neuronal and hemodynamic alterations for brain-state dependent tDCS.

  13. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitry-Yamate, C.; Gianoncelli, A.; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B.; Lepore, M.; Gruetter, R.; Kiskinova, M.

    2013-10-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19F in 19FDG, trapped as intracellular 19F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (19FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19F provides a link to in vivo 18FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal.

  14. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitry-Yamate, C; Lepore, M; Gruetter, R; Gianoncelli, A; Kourousias, G; Kiskinova, M; Kaulich, B

    2013-01-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19 F in 19 FDG, trapped as intracellular 19 F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate ( 19 FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19 FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19 FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19 F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18 F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19 F provides a link to in vivo 18 FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18 FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal

  15. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advance directives from haematology departments: the patient's freedom of choice and communication with families. A qualitative analysis of 35 written documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trarieux-Signol, S; Bordessoule, D; Ceccaldi, J; Malak, S; Polomeni, A; Fargeas, J B; Signol, N; Pauliat, H; Moreau, S

    2018-01-02

    In France, advance directives are favourably perceived by most of the population, although the drafting rate is low. This ambivalence is challenging because advance directives are meant to promote the autonomy and freedom of choice of patients. The purpose of this study was to analyse the content of advance directives written by patients suffering from malignant haemopathies to better understand how patients put them into practice. These could be relevant as early as the initial diagnosis of haematological malignancies because of the uncertain course of the disease. This was a multicentre, qualitative, descriptive study. The advance directives written by patients with malignant haemopathies treated in one of the six French hospital departments were included in the study from 01/06/2008 to 15/04/2016. A thematic analysis of the advance directives was performed by two researchers: a senior haematologist and a research assistant. The median age of the patients was 69. Most were women (sex ratio: 0.59), living as a couple (57%), with lymphoid pathologies (66%), who were still alive two years after the instructions were written (63%) and had nominated a health care proxy (88.6%). Free texts (62.9%) were richer in content than pre-defined forms. The advance directives were used in three ways: for a purely legal purpose, to focus on medical treatments or actions, or to communicate a message to the family. Three main themes emerged: (1) refusal of medical treatment (100%), in which patients express refusal of life-sustaining care (97.1%). The actual treatments or the moment when they should be limited or stopped were not always mentioned in detail. (2) A desire for effective pain relief to avoid suffering (57.1%) and (3) messages for their family (34.3%), such as funeral arrangements (17.1%) and messages of love or trust (14.3%). Patients who write advance directives are not necessarily at the end of their lives. Their content mainly conveys treatment wishes, although

  17. Feasibility and safety of cavity-directed stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases at a high-volume medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rava, MD PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Excellent local control is achievable with cavity-directed SRS in well-selected patients, particularly for lesions with diameter <3 cm and resection cavity volumes <14 mL. Long-term survival is possible for select patients.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Effects of distortion correction with correspondence to numbers of encoding directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Aoki, Shigeki; Abe, Osamu; Hayashi, Naoto; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Mori, Harushi; Satake, Yoshiroh; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of distortion correction with correspondence to numbers of encoding directions to acquire diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of improved quality. Ten volunteers underwent DTI of the head using echo planar imaging with 6, 13, 27, and 55 encoding directions. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were created before and after distortion correction. Regions of interest were placed in the corpus callosum on each map, and standard deviations of FA and ADC were calculated. FA maps were also evaluated visually by experienced neuroradiologists. Dispersion of standard deviations tended to be reduced after distortion correction, with significant differences found in FA maps with 6 encoding directions, ADC maps with 6 directions, and ADC maps with 13 directions (P<0.001, P<0.005, and P<0.05, respectively). Visual image quality was improved after distortion correction (P<0.01 for all of the visual comparisons). Distortion correction is effective in providing DTI of enhanced quality, notwithstanding the number of encoding directions. (author)

  19. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  20. Intuitive Development: Communication in the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pamela R.; Daumer, Claudia Rawlins

    1993-01-01

    Communication is both cognitive and intuitive, although schooling stresses left-brain skills. Ways to develop intuitive (right-brain) skills include mandalas, Jung's technique for concentrating the right brain; writing with the nondominant hand; and positive affirmations. (SK)

  1. The Sprint/1 language for the dynamic evaluation of the mathematic formulas by direct communication with a computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavadia, I.C.

    1968-06-01

    The Sprint/1 system is indented for real-time production of present day computers and can be used by persons without a special preparation in the programming field. All input operations (instructions, comments, data) and corresponding output operations (printing of results and diagnostics) are done by a type-writer. It assures a bidirectional communication between the user and his program during its execution, the user indicating to the computer each step that must be performed to resolve the problem. At the same time the machine immediately flags the detection of a syntax or semantic error which allows him to correct or to improve his program immediately. It should be emphasized that the language is an evolutive one. Each introduced instruction enriches the language, the user having the possibility to easily build complex structures from very simple expressions. Thus he can make a general study of the behaviour of a dynamic learning process of the machine which constitutes one of the characteristics of artificial intelligence. (author) [fr

  2. A Right Brain/Left Brain Model of Acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlen, Clark

    Using current right brain/left brain research, this paper develops a model that explains acting's underlying quality--the actor is both himself and the character. Part 1 presents (1) the background of the right brain/left brain theory, (2) studies showing that propositional communication is a left hemisphere function while affective communication…

  3. A direct gene transfer strategy via brain internal capsule reverses the biochemical defect in Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, S; Marconi, P; Tancini, B; Dolcetta, D; De Angelis, M G Cusella; Montanucci, P; Bregola, G; Sandhoff, K; Bordignon, C; Emiliani, C; Manservigi, R; Orlacchio, A

    2005-08-01

    Therapy for neurodegenerative lysosomal Tay-Sachs (TS) disease requires active hexosaminidase (Hex) A production in the central nervous system and an efficient therapeutic approach that can act faster than human disease progression. We combined the efficacy of a non-replicating Herpes simplex vector encoding for the Hex A alpha-subunit (HSV-T0alphaHex) and the anatomic structure of the brain internal capsule to distribute the missing enzyme optimally. With this gene transfer strategy, for the first time, we re-established the Hex A activity and totally removed the GM2 ganglioside storage in both injected and controlateral hemispheres, in the cerebellum and spinal cord of TS animal model in the span of one month's treatment. In our studies, no adverse effects were observed due to the viral vector, injection site or gene expression and on the basis of these results, we feel confident that the same approach could be applied to similar diseases involving an enzyme defect.

  4. Amygdaloid projections to the ventral striatum in mice: direct and indirect chemosensory inputs to the brain reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novejarque, Amparo; Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Rodents constitute good models for studying the neural basis of sociosexual behavior. Recent findings in mice have revealed the molecular identity of the some pheromonal molecules triggering intersexual attraction. However, the neural pathways mediating this basic sociosexual behavior remain elusive. Since previous work indicates that the dopaminergic tegmento-striatal pathway is not involved in pheromone reward, the present report explores alternative pathways linking the vomeronasal system with the tegmento-striatal system (the limbic basal ganglia) by means of tract-tracing experiments studying direct and indirect projections from the chemosensory amygdala to the ventral striato-pallidum. Amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and adjoining structures are studied by analyzing the retrograde transport in the amygdala from dextran amine and fluorogold injections in the ventral striatum, as well as the anterograde labeling found in the ventral striato-pallidum after dextran amine injections in the amygdala. This combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments reveals direct projections from the vomeronasal cortex to the ventral striato-pallidum, as well as indirect projections through different nuclei of the basolateral amygdala. Direct projections innervate mainly the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja, whereas indirect projections are more widespread and reach the same structures and the shell and core of nucleus accumbens. These pathways are likely to mediate innate responses to pheromones (direct projections) and conditioned responses to associated chemosensory and non-chemosensory stimuli (indirect projections). Comparative studies indicate that similar connections are present in all the studied amniote vertebrates and might constitute the basic circuitry for emotional responses to conspecifics in most vertebrates, including humans.

  5. Modulation of Brain Activity with Noninvasive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Clinical Applications and Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haichao; Qiao, Lei; Fan, Dongqiong; Zhang, Shuyue; Turel, Ofir; Li, Yonghui; Li, Jun; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao; He, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely-used tool to induce neuroplasticity and modulate cortical function by applying weak direct current over the scalp. In this review, we first introduce the underlying mechanism of action, the brief history from discovery to clinical scientific research, electrode positioning and montages, and parameter setup of tDCS. Then, we review tDCS application in clinical samples including people with drug addiction, major depression disorder, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in children. This review covers the typical characteristics and the underlying neural mechanisms of tDCS treatment in such studies. This is followed by a discussion of safety, especially when the current intensity is increased or the stimulation duration is prolonged. Given such concerns, we provide detailed suggestions regarding safety procedures for tDCS operation. Lastly, future research directions are discussed. They include foci on the development of multi-tech combination with tDCS such as with TMS and fMRI; long-term behavioral and morphological changes; possible applications in other research domains, and more animal research to deepen the understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms of tDCS stimulation. PMID:28539894

  6. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in the Management of Patients With Brain Metastases of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Indications, Decision Tools and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Hartgerink

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases (BM frequently occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Most patients with BM have a limited life expectancy, measured in months. Selected patients may experience a very long progression-free survival, for example, patients with a targetable driver mutation. Traditionally, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT has been the cornerstone of the treatment, but its indication is a matter of debate. A randomized trial has shown that for patients with a poor prognosis, WBRT does not add quality of life (QoL nor survival over the best supportive care. In recent decades, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS has become an attractive non-invasive treatment for patients with BM. Only the BM is irradiated to an ablative dose, sparing healthy brain tissue. Intracranial recurrence rates decrease when WBRT is administered following SRS or resection but does not improve overall survival and comes at the expense of neurocognitive function and QoL. The downside of SRS compared with WBRT is a risk of radionecrosis (RN and a higher risk of developing new BM during follow-up. Currently, SRS is an established treatment for patients with a maximum of four BM. Several promising strategies are currently being investigated to further improve the indication and outcome of SRS for patients with BM: the effectivity and safety of SRS in patients with more than four BM, combining SRS with systemic therapy such as targeted agents or immunotherapy, shared decision-making with SRS as a treatment option, and individualized isotoxic dose prescription to mitigate the risk of RN and further enhance local control probability of SRS. This review discusses the current indications of SRS and future directions of treatment for patients with BM of NSCLC with focus on the value of SRS.

  7. Controlling feeding behavior by chemical or gene-directed targeting in the brain: What’s so spatial about our methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad M Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial chemical injection (ICI methods have been used to identify the locations in the brain where feeding behavior can be controlled acutely. Scientists conducting ICI studies often document their injection site locations, thereby leaving kernels of valuable location data for others to use to further characterize feeding control circuits. Unfortunately, this rich dataset has not yet been formally contextualized with other published neuroanatomical data. In particular, axonal tracing studies have delineated several neural circuits originating in the same areas where ICI injection feeding-control sites have been documented, but it remains unclear whether these circuits participate in feeding control. However, comparing injection sites with other types of location data requires careful anatomical registration between the datasets. Here, a conceptual framework is presented for how such anatomical registration efforts can be performed. For example, by using a simple atlas alignment tool, a hypothalamic locus sensitive to the orexigenic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY can be aligned accurately with the locations of neurons labeled by anterograde tracers or those known to express NPY receptors or feeding-related peptides. This approach can also be applied to those intracranial gene-directed injection (IGI methods (e.g., site-specific recombinase methods, RNA expression or interference, optogenetics and pharmacosynthetics that involve viral injections to targeted neuronal populations. Spatial alignment efforts can be accelerated if location data from ICI/IGI methods are mapped to stereotaxic brain atlases to allow powerful neuroinformatics tools to overlay different types of data in the same reference space. Atlas-based mapping will be critical for community-based sharing of location data for feeding control circuits, and will accelerate our understanding of structure-function relationships in the brain for mammalian models of obesity and

  8. How to Direct the Edges of the Connectomes: Dynamics of the Consensus Connectomes and the Development of the Connections in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Szalkai, Balázs; Varga, Bálint; Grolmusz, Vince

    2016-01-01

    The human braingraph or the connectome is the object of an intensive research today. The advantage of the graph-approach to brain science is that the rich structures, algorithms and definitions of graph theory can be applied to the anatomical networks of the connections of the human brain. In these graphs, the vertices correspond to the small (1-1.5 cm2) areas of the gray matter, and two vertices are connected by an edge, if a diffusion-MRI based workflow finds fibers of axons, running between those small gray matter areas in the white matter of the brain. One main question of the field today is discovering the directions of the connections between the small gray matter areas. In a previous work we have reported the construction of the Budapest Reference Connectome Server http://connectome.pitgroup.org from the data recorded in the Human Connectome Project of the NIH. The server generates the consensus braingraph of 96 subjects in Version 2, and of 418 subjects in Version 3, according to selectable parameters. After the Budapest Reference Connectome Server had been published, we recognized a surprising and unforeseen property of the server. The server can generate the braingraph of connections that are present in at least k graphs out of the 418, for any value of k = 1, 2, …, 418. When the value of k is changed from k = 418 through 1 by moving a slider at the webserver from right to left, certainly more and more edges appear in the consensus graph. The astonishing observation is that the appearance of the new edges is not random: it is similar to a growing shrub. We refer to this phenomenon as the Consensus Connectome Dynamics. We hypothesize that this movement of the slider in the webserver may copy the development of the connections in the human brain in the following sense: the connections that are present in all subjects are the oldest ones, and those that are present only in a decreasing fraction of the subjects are gradually the newer connections in the

  9. How to Direct the Edges of the Connectomes: Dynamics of the Consensus Connectomes and the Development of the Connections in the Human Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Kerepesi

    Full Text Available The human braingraph or the connectome is the object of an intensive research today. The advantage of the graph-approach to brain science is that the rich structures, algorithms and definitions of graph theory can be applied to the anatomical networks of the connections of the human brain. In these graphs, the vertices correspond to the small (1-1.5 cm2 areas of the gray matter, and two vertices are connected by an edge, if a diffusion-MRI based workflow finds fibers of axons, running between those small gray matter areas in the white matter of the brain. One main question of the field today is discovering the directions of the connections between the small gray matter areas. In a previous work we have reported the construction of the Budapest Reference Connectome Server http://connectome.pitgroup.org from the data recorded in the Human Connectome Project of the NIH. The server generates the consensus braingraph of 96 subjects in Version 2, and of 418 subjects in Version 3, according to selectable parameters. After the Budapest Reference Connectome Server had been published, we recognized a surprising and unforeseen property of the server. The server can generate the braingraph of connections that are present in at least k graphs out of the 418, for any value of k = 1, 2, …, 418. When the value of k is changed from k = 418 through 1 by moving a slider at the webserver from right to left, certainly more and more edges appear in the consensus graph. The astonishing observation is that the appearance of the new edges is not random: it is similar to a growing shrub. We refer to this phenomenon as the Consensus Connectome Dynamics. We hypothesize that this movement of the slider in the webserver may copy the development of the connections in the human brain in the following sense: the connections that are present in all subjects are the oldest ones, and those that are present only in a decreasing fraction of the subjects are gradually the newer

  10. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behavioral and spatial memory during the early stage of traumatic brain injury in the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan; Park, Chae Ri; Kim, Dae Yul

    2016-03-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique to modulate the neural membrane potential. Its effects in the early stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have rarely been investigated. This study assessed the effects of anodal tDCS on behavioral and spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Thirty six rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n=12), five-day tDCS over peri-lesional cortex at one (1W, n=12), or two (2W, n=12) weeks post-injury. The Barnes maze (BM) and Rotarod (RR) tests were evaluated in a blind manner on day 1, week 3 and week 5 post-injury. After three weeks, both the 1W and 2W groups showed significant improvements in the BM ratio (PtDCS ameliorated behavioral and spatial memory function in the early phase after TBI when it is delivered two weeks post-injury. Earlier stimulation (one week post-injury) improves spatial memory only. However, the beneficial effects did not persist after cessation of the anodal stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid using interpolation. We propose Approach to Unified Diffusion Sensitive Slice Alignment and Reconstruction...... (AUDiSSAR) that explicitly formulates a process for diffusion direction sensitive DW-slice-to-DTI-volume alignment. This also incorporates image resolution modeling to iteratively deconvolve the effects of the imaging point spread function using the multiple views provided by thick slices acquired...

  12. Performance Analysis of Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access Communications with Asymmetric Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-W.; Stark, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers a quaternary direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication system with asymmetric quadrature phase-shift-keying (AQPSK) modulation for unequal error protection (UEP) capability. Both time synchronous and asynchronous cases are investigated. An expression for the probability distribution of the multiple-access interference is derived. The exact bit-error performance and the approximate performance using a Gaussian approximation and random signature sequences are evaluated by extending the techniques used for uniform quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) DS-CDMA systems. Finally, a general system model with unequal user power and the near-far problem is considered and analyzed. The results show that, for a system with UEP capability, the less protected data bits are more sensitive to the near-far effect that occurs in a multiple-access environment than are the more protected bits.

  13. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  14. PC communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-15

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  15. Habit learning and brain-machine interfaces (BMI): a tribute to Valentino Braitenberg's "Vehicles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbaumer, Niels; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-10-01

    Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) allow manipulation of external devices and computers directly with brain activity without involvement of overt motor actions. The neurophysiological principles of such robotic brain devices and BMIs follow Hebbian learning rules as described and realized by Valentino Braitenberg in his book "Vehicles," in the concept of a "thought pump" residing in subcortical basal ganglia structures. We describe here the application of BMIs for brain communication in totally locked-in patients and argue that the thought pump may extinguish-at least partially-in those people because of extinction of instrumentally learned cognitive responses and brain responses. We show that Pavlovian semantic conditioning may allow brain communication even in the completely paralyzed who does not show response-effect contingencies. Principles of skill learning and habit acquisition as formulated by Braitenberg are the building blocks of BMIs and neuroprostheses.

  16. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike; Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter; Minnerup, Jens; Dannlowski, Udo

    2017-01-01

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  17. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike [University of Muenster, Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Minnerup, Jens [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Dannlowski, Udo [University of Muenster, Department of Psychiatry, Muenster (Germany); University of Marburg, Department of Psychiatry, Marburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  18. Je pense donc je fais: transcranial direct current stimulation modulates brain oscillations associated with motor imagery and movement observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Morgan Lapenta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor system neural networks are activated during movement imagery, observation and execution, with a neural signature characterized by suppression of the Mu rhythm. In order to investigate the origin of this neurophysiological marker, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS modifies Mu rhythm oscillations during tasks involving observation and imagery of biological and non-biological movements. We applied tDCS (anodal, cathodal and sham in 21 male participants (mean age 23.8+3.06, over the left M1 with a current of 2mA for 20 minutes. Following this, we recorded the EEG at C3, C4 and Cz and surrounding C3 and C4 electrodes. Analyses of C3 and C4 showed significant effects for biological vs. non-biological movement (p=0.005, and differential hemisphere effects according to the type of stimulation (p=0.04 and type of movement (p=0.02. Analyses of surrounding electrodes revealed significant interaction effects considering type of stimulation and imagery or observation of biological or non-biological movement (p=0.03. The main findings of this study were (i Mu desynchronization during biological movement of the hand region in the contralateral hemisphere after sham tDCS; (ii polarity-dependent modulation effects of tDCS on the Mu rhythm, i.e. anodal tDCS led to Mu synchronization while cathodal tDCS led to Mu desynchronization during movement observation and imagery (iii specific focal and opposite inter-hemispheric effects, i.e. contrary effects for the surrounding electrodes during imagery condition and also for inter-hemispheric electrodes (C3 vs. C4. These findings provide insights into the cortical oscillations during movement observation and imagery. Furthermore it shows that tDCS can be highly focal when guided by a behavioral task.

  19. Je pense donc je fais: transcranial direct current stimulation modulates brain oscillations associated with motor imagery and movement observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Olivia M; Minati, Ludovico; Fregni, Felipe; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-01-01

    Motor system neural networks are activated during movement imagery, observation and execution, with a neural signature characterized by suppression of the Mu rhythm. In order to investigate the origin of this neurophysiological marker, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modifies Mu rhythm oscillations during tasks involving observation and imagery of biological and non-biological movements. We applied tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) in 21 male participants (mean age 23.8 ± 3.06), over the left M1 with a current of 2 mA for 20 min. Following this, we recorded the EEG at C3, C4, and Cz and surrounding C3 and C4 electrodes. Analyses of C3 and C4 showed significant effects for biological vs. non-biological movement (p = 0.005), and differential hemisphere effects according to the type of stimulation (p = 0.04) and type of movement (p = 0.02). Analyses of surrounding electrodes revealed significant interaction effects considering type of stimulation and imagery or observation of biological or non-biological movement (p = 0.03). The main findings of this study were (1) Mu desynchronization during biological movement of the hand region in the contralateral hemisphere after sham tDCS; (2) polarity-dependent modulation effects of tDCS on the Mu rhythm, i.e., anodal tDCS led to Mu synchronization while cathodal tDCS led to Mu desynchronization during movement observation and imagery (3) specific focal and opposite inter-hemispheric effects, i.e., contrary effects for the surrounding electrodes during imagery condition and also for inter-hemispheric electrodes (C3 vs. C4). These findings provide insights into the cortical oscillations during movement observation and imagery. Furthermore, it shows that tDCS can be highly focal when guided by a behavioral task.

  20. The processing of semantic relatedness in the brain: Evidence from associative and categorical false recognition effects following transcranial direct current stimulation of the left anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Emiliano; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Díez-Álamo, Antonio M; Alonso, María A; Fernandez, Angel

    2017-08-01

    A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing. To more precisely identify the specific process being involved, we conducted a DRM experiment in which transcranial direct current stimulation (anode/cathode/sham) was applied over the participants' left ATL during the study of lists of words that were associatively related to their non-presented critical words (e.g., rotten, worm, red, tree, liqueur, unripe, cake, food, eden, peel, for the critical item apple) or categorically related (e.g., pear, banana, peach, orange, cantaloupe, watermelon, strawberry, cherry, kiwi, plum, for the same critical item apple). The results showed that correct recognition was not affected by stimulation. However, an interaction between stimulation condition and type of relation for false memories was found, explained by a significant false recognition reduction effect in the anodal condition for associative lists that was not observed for categorical lists. Results are congruent with previous findings and, more importantly, they help to clarify the nature and locus of false memory reduction effects, suggesting a differential role of the left ATL, and providing critical evidence for understanding the creation of semantic relatedness-based memory illusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concomitant Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Computer-Assisted Training for the Rehabilitation of Attention in Traumatic Brain Injured Patients: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Katiuscia; Galetto, Valentina; Dimitri, Danilo; Geda, Elisabetta; Perotti, Francesca; Zettin, Marina; Geminiani, Giuliano C

    2016-01-01

    Divided attention (DA), the ability to distribute cognitive resources among two or more simultaneous tasks, may be severely compromised after traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in problems with numerous activities involved with daily living. So far, no research has investigated whether the use of non-invasive brain stimulation associated with neuropsychological rehabilitation might contribute to the recovery of such cognitive function. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 10 transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions combined with computer-assisted training; it also intended to explore the neural modifications induced by the treatment. Thirty-two patients with severe TBI participated in the study: 16 were part of the experimental group, and 16 part of the control group. The treatment included 20' of tDCS, administered twice a day for 5 days. The electrodes were placed on the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. Their location varied across patients and it depended on each participant's specific area of damage. The control group received sham tDCS. After each tDCS session, the patient received computer-assisted cognitive training on DA for 40'. The results showed that the experimental group significantly improved in DA performance between pre- and post-treatment, showing faster reaction times (RTs), and fewer omissions. No improvement was detected between the baseline assessment (i.e., 1 month before treatment) and the pre-training assessment, or within the control group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, obtained on the experimental group during a DA task, showed post-treatment lower cerebral activations in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 42), right and left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), right postcentral gyrus (BA 3) and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9). We interpreted such neural changes as normalization of previously abnormal hyperactivations.

  2. Right hemisphere dominance directly predicts both baseline V1 cortical excitability and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over low-level brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Q; Siddiqui, S; Ramachandran, S; Goga, U; Bonsu, A; Patel, M; Roberts, R E; Nigmatullina, Y; Malhotra, P; Bronstein, A M

    2015-12-17

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual's right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Interfaz cerebro computador basada en P300 para la comunicación alternativa: estudio de caso en dos adolescentes en situación de discapacidad motora [P300 based Brain Computer Interface for alternative communication: a case study with two teenagers with motor disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Cossio, E.; Fernandez, C.; Gaviria, M.E.; Palacio, C.; Alvaran, L.; Torres Villa, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain computer interface systems use brain signals to enable the control of external devices, such as: wheelchairs, communicators, neuro-prosthesis, among others; in people with severe motor disabilities. In this study two young men with motor disabilities were trained to learn how to control a

  4. Computed Tomography-Based Imaging of Voxel-Wise Lesion Water Uptake in Ischemic Brain: Relationship Between Density and Direct Volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broocks, Gabriel; Flottmann, Fabian; Ernst, Marielle; Faizy, Tobias Djamsched; Minnerup, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Kemmling, Andre

    2018-04-01

    Net water uptake per volume of brain tissue may be calculated by computed tomography (CT) density, and this imaging biomarker has recently been investigated as a predictor of lesion age in acute stroke. However, the hypothesis that measurements of CT density may be used to quantify net water uptake per volume of infarct lesion has not been validated by direct volumetric measurements so far. The purpose of this study was to (1) develop a theoretical relationship between CT density reduction and net water uptake per volume of ischemic lesions and (2) confirm this relationship by quantitative in vitro and in vivo CT image analysis using direct volumetric measurements. We developed a theoretical rationale for a linear relationship between net water uptake per volume of ischemic lesions and CT attenuation. The derived relationship between water uptake and CT density was tested in vitro in a set of increasingly diluted iodine solutions with successive CT measurements. Furthermore, the consistency of this relationship was evaluated using human in vivo CT images in a retrospective multicentric cohort. In 50 edematous infarct lesions, net water uptake was determined by direct measurement of the volumetric difference between the ischemic and normal hemisphere and was correlated with net water uptake calculated by ischemic density measurements. With regard to in vitro data, water uptake by density measurement was equivalent to direct volumetric measurement (r = 0.99, P volumetry was 44.7 ± 26.8 mL and the mean percent water uptake per lesion volume was 22.7% ± 7.4%. This was equivalent to percent water uptake obtained from density measurements: 21.4% ± 6.4%. The mean difference between percent water uptake by direct volumetry and percent water uptake by CT density was -1.79% ± 3.40%, which was not significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0001). Volume of water uptake in infarct lesions can be calculated quantitatively by relative CT density measurements. Voxel-wise imaging

  5. Left Brain to Right Brain: Notes from the Human Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumli, Francis

    1982-01-01

    Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)

  6. Effects of brain-directed nutrients on cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological testing: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Taylor, Derek V; Ojala, Kristine; Kaur, Jasleen; Willeumier, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    In a prior open trial of professional football players who displayed the effects of traumatic brain injury, the current reserach team reported significant improvements in clinical symptoms, neuropsychological testing and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) following the use of brain-directed nutrients (BDNs) and lifestyle interventions. The current study intended to determine whether supplementation with BDNs improved rCBF and neuropsychological function in healthy individuals. The current study was a randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, which was a more rigorous reseach design than the prior study and did not include lifestyle interventions. Participants underwent evaluation and testing at the Amen Clinics, Inc, a private medical facility in Newport Beach, CA. Thirty healthy adult (15 male and 15 female) participants were recruited from the community though local advertising and met the requirements for eligibility into the study. Twenty-five individuals completed the study, with dropout due to events unrelated to the study itself. The participants were randomly assigned to a treatment order for intervention, either placebo or brain supplements first. The BDNs treatment was comprised of three supplements: fish oil; a high-potency, multiple vitamin/mineral supplement; and a brainenhancement supplement. The placebo treatment was two supplements comprised of rice flour to replace the multiple vitamin/mineral complex and the brain-enhancement supplement and one supplement made of other oils to replace the fish-oil mixture. After 2 mo of this first intervention, a crossover intervention occurred for a final 2 mo, in which participants formerly receiving BDNs received a placebo treatment and participants formerly treated with placebo received the BDNs treatment. Primary outcome measures included (1) an analysis of the changes in rCBF using SPECT and (2) an assessment of the differences in cognitive and emotional function using the Micro

  7. Direct interactions of OCA-B and TFII-I regulate immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene transcription by facilitating enhancer-promoter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaodi; Siegel, Rachael; Kim, Unkyu; Roeder, Robert G

    2011-05-06

    B cell-specific coactivator OCA-B, together with Oct-1/2, binds to octamer sites in promoters and enhancers to activate transcription of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, although the mechanisms underlying their roles in enhancer-promoter communication are unknown. Here, we demonstrate a direct interaction of OCA-B with transcription factor TFII-I, which binds to DICE elements in Igh promoters, that affects transcription at two levels. First, OCA-B relieves HDAC3-mediated Igh promoter repression by competing with HDAC3 for binding to promoter-bound TFII-I. Second, and most importantly, Igh 3' enhancer-bound OCA-B and promoter-bound TFII-I mediate promoter-enhancer interactions, in both cis and trans, that are important for Igh transcription. These and other results reveal an important function for OCA-B in Igh 3' enhancer function in vivo and strongly favor an enhancer mechanism involving looping and facilitated factor recruitment rather than a tracking mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on brain connectivity in motor-related cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiaqing; Wei, Yun; Wang, Yinghua; Xu, Gang; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive, safe and convenient neuro-modulatory technique in neurological rehabilitation, treatment, and other aspects of brain disorders. However, evaluating the effects of tDCS is still difficult. We aimed to evaluate the effects of tDCS using hemodynamic changes using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Five healthy participants were employed and anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor-related cortex, with cathodes positioned on the right dorsolateral supraorbital area. fNIRS data were collected from the right motor-related area at the same time. Functional connectivity (FC) between intracortical regions was calculated between fNIRS channels using a minimum variance distortion-less response magnitude squared coherence (MVDR-MSC) method. The levels of Oxy-HbO change and the FC between channels during the prestimulation, stimulation, and poststimulation stages were compared. Results showed no significant level difference, but the FC measured by MVDR-MSC significantly decreased during tDCS compared with pre-tDCS and post-tDCS, although the FC difference between pre-tDCS and post-tDCS was not significant. We conclude that coherence calculated from resting state fNIRS may be a useful tool for evaluating the effects of anodal tDCS and optimizing parameters for tDCS application.

  9. Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Young, Jessica; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-01

    The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults. Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face. Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex. Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.

  10. Direct reperfusion of the right common carotid artery prior to cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with brain malperfusion complicated with acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Yutaka; Matsumori, Masamichi; Kano, Hiroya

    2016-04-01

    The cases of 3 patients with brain malperfusion secondary to acute aortic dissection who underwent preoperative perfusion of the right common carotid artery are presented. The patients were 64, 65 and 72 years old and 2 were female. All were in a comatose or semi-comatose state with left hemiplegia. The right common carotid artery was exposed and directly cannulated, using a 12-Fr paediatric arterial cannula. The right common femoral artery was chosen for arterial drainage, using a 14-Fr double-lumen cannula. The circuit contained a small roller pump and heat exchanger coil. Target flow was set at 90 ml/min and blood temperature at 30 °C. Durations of right carotid perfusion were 120, 100 and 45 min, respectively. All underwent partial arch replacement and survived. Postoperative neurological sequelae were minimal in all cases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-07

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  12. Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with potential MACI, specifically persons with perceived brain fatigue after brain injury, communicate through Facebook, to classify the content of the communication and to visualize the frequency and types of interactions. A social network analysis of the interactions between members' and a qualitative content analysis of a whole year's communication of a public Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain were performed. The results showed how members use social media technology and Facebook as a means for communication and support for their condition. Individual group members showed very different patterns of communication and interactions. However, for the group as a whole, the most frequent topics in their communication were related to informational support and banter in posts, and socialization in comments. The findings also showed that the majority of members only communicated with few other members and had few direct communications. The most used communication feature of Facebook was likes in form of "thumbs-up". This study indicated that social media and in this case Facebook is used for communication and social support by persons with potential MACI, and revealed that their communication behavior is similar to the healthy population. Further studies relating specific cognitive problems of the participants to the use of social media would provide more

  13. Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with potential MACI, specifically persons with perceived brain fatigue after brain injury, communicate through Facebook, to classify the content of the communication and to visualize the frequency and types of interactions. Methods and materials A social network analysis of the interactions between members’ and a qualitative content analysis of a whole year’s communication of a public Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain were performed. Results The results showed how members use social media technology and Facebook as a means for communication and support for their condition. Individual group members showed very different patterns of communication and interactions. However, for the group as a whole, the most frequent topics in their communication were related to informational support and banter in posts, and socialization in comments. The findings also showed that the majority of members only communicated with few other members and had few direct communications. The most used communication feature of Facebook was likes in form of “thumbs-up”. Conclusions This study indicated that social media and in this case Facebook is used for communication and social support by persons with potential MACI, and revealed that their communication behavior is similar to the healthy population. Further studies relating specific cognitive problems of the

  14. Comunicação instrumental, diretiva e afetiva em impressos hospitalares Instrumental, directive, and affective communication in hospital leaflets/[title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Vasconcellos-Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se ocupa dos típicos sistemas semânticos extraídos dos recursos comunicativos de equipes hospitalares, que tentam validar informações como um "objeto" a ser transferido aos pacientes. Descrevemos modelos de comunicação textual em 58 impressos de orientações aos pacientes de cinco unidades hospitalares, coletados de 1996 a 2002. Identificamos três categorias fundamentadas na teoria dos atos de fala (Austin, Searle e Habermas: (1 Proferimentos cognitivo-instrumentais - descrições por meio de termos técnicos validados por argumentação auto-referente, incompleta ou inacessível; função educativa implícita. (2 Proferimentos técnico-diretivos - auto-referentes (contexto dos setores de origem; deslocamento freqüente de atos cotidianos para o terreno técnic