HILBERT-DIRAC OPERATORS IN CLIFFORD ANALYSIS
F.BRACKX; H.DE SCHEPPER
2005-01-01
Around the central theme of "square root" of the Laplace operator it is shown that the classical Riesz potentials of the first and of the second kind allow for an explicit expression of so-called Hilbert-Dirac convolution operators involving natural and complex powers of the Dirac operator.
The Dirac Operator over Abelian Finite Groups
Vaz, Jr., Jayme
1997-01-01
In this paper we show how to construct a Dirac operator on a lattice in complete analogy with the continuum. In fact we consider a more general problem, that is, the Dirac operator over an abelian finite group (for which a lattice is a particular example). Our results appear to be in direct connexion with the so called fermion doubling problem. In order to find this Dirac operator we need to introduce an algebraic structure (that generalizes the Clifford algebras) where we have quantities tha...
Dirac operators on noncommutative curved spacetimes
Schenkel, Alexander
2013-01-01
We study Dirac operators in the framework of twist-deformed noncommutative geometry. The definition of noncommutative Dirac operators is not unique and we focus on three different ones, each generalizing the commutative Dirac operator in a natural way. We show that the three definitions are mutually inequivalent, and that demanding formal self-adjointness with respect to a suitable inner product singles out a preferred choice. A detailed analysis shows that, if the Drinfeld twist contains sufficiently many Killing vector fields, the three operators coincide, which can simplify explicit calculations considerably. We then turn to the construction of quantized Dirac fields on noncommutative curved spacetimes. We show that there exist unique retarded and advanced Green's operators and construct a canonical anti-commutation relation algebra. In the last part we study noncommutative Minkowski and AdS spacetimes as explicit examples.
Distributions of Dirac Operator Eigenvalues
Akemann, G
2004-01-01
The distribution of individual Dirac eigenvalues is derived by relating them to the density and higher eigenvalue correlation functions. The relations are general and hold for any gauge theory coupled to fermions under certain conditions which are stated. As a special case, we give examples of the lowest-lying eigenvalue distributions for QCD-like gauge theories without making use of earlier results based on the relation to Random Matrix Theory.
Extended Supersymmetries and the Dirac Operator
Kirchberg, A; Wipf, A
2004-01-01
We consider supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems in arbitrary dimensions on curved spaces with nontrivial gauge fields. The square of the Dirac operator serves as Hamiltonian. We derive a relation between the number of supercharges that exist and restrictions on the geometry of the underlying spaces as well as the admissible gauge field configurations. From the superalgebra with two or more real supercharges we infer the existence of integrability conditions and obtain a corresponding superpotential. This potential can be used to deform the supercharges and to determine zero modes of the Dirac operator. The general results are applied to the Kahler spaces CP^n.
The Dirac operator and gamma matrices for quantum Minkowski spaces
1997-01-01
Gamma matrices for quantum Minkowski spaces are found. The invariance of the corresponding Dirac operator is proven. We introduce momenta for spin 1/2 particles and get (in certain cases) formal solutions of the Dirac equation.
On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields
CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.
Locality properties of Neuberger's lattice Dirac operator
Hernández, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lüscher, Martin
1999-07-01
The gauge covariant lattice Dirac operator D which has recently been proposed by Neuberger satisfies the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and thus preserves chiral symmetry. The operator also avoids a doubling of fermion species, but its locality properties are not obvious. We now prove that D is local (with exponentially decaying tails) if the gauge field is sufficiently smooth at the scale of the cutoff. Further analytic and numerical studies moreover suggest that the locality of the operator is in fact guaranteed under far more general conditions.
Dirac oscillators and quasi-exactly solvable operators
Brihaye, Y
2005-01-01
The Dirac equation is considered in the background of potentials of several types, namely scalar and vector-potentials as well as "Dirac-oscillator" potential or some of its generalisations. We investigate the radial Dirac equation within a quite general spherically symmetric form for these potentials and we analyse some exactly and quasi exactly solvable properties of the underlying matricial linear operators.
Dirac operator normality and chiral properties
Kerler, W.
Normality and γ5-hermiticity are what gives rise to chiral properties and rules. The Ginsparg-Wilson (GW) relation is only one of the possible spectral constraints. The sum rule for chiral differences of real modes has important consequences. The alternative transformation of Lüscher gives the same Ward identity as the usual chiral one (if zero modes are properly treated). Imposing normality on a general function of the hermitean Wilson-Dirac operator H leads at same time to the GW relation and to the Neuberger operator.
Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator at finite lattice spacings
Akemann, G.; Damgaard, Poul Henrik; Splittorff, Kim;
2011-01-01
We consider the effect of discretization errors on the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator using both chiral Perturbation Theory and chiral Random Matrix Theory. A graded chiral Lagrangian is used to evaluate the microscopic spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator...... as well as the distribution of the chirality over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator. It is shown that a chiral Random Matrix Theory for the Wilson Dirac operator reproduces the leading zero-momentum terms of Wilson chiral Perturbation Theory. All results are obtained for fixed index...... of the Wilson Dirac operator. The low-energy constants of Wilson chiral Perturbation theory are shown to be constrained by the Hermiticity properties of the Wilson Dirac operator....
The squares of the dirac and spin-dirac operators on a riemann-cartan space(time)
Notte-Cuello, E. A.; Rodrigues, W. A.; Souza, Q. A. G.
2007-08-01
In this paper we introduce the Dirac and spin-Dirac operators associated to a connection on Riemann-Cartan space(time) and standard Dirac and spin-Dirac operators associated with a Levi-Civita connection on a Riemannian (Lorentzian) space(time) and calculate the squares of these operators, which play an important role in several topics of modern mathematics, in particular in the study of the geometry of moduli spaces of a class of black holes, the geometry of NS-5 brane solutions of type II supergravity theories and BPS solitons in some string theories. We obtain a generalized Lichnerowicz formula, decompositions of the Dirac and spin-Dirac operators and their squares in terms of the standard Dirac and spin-Dirac operators and using the fact that spinor fields (sections of a spin-Clifford bundle) have representatives in the Clifford bundle we present also a noticeable relation involving the spin-Dirac and the Dirac operators.
Simple Evaluation of Chiral Jacobian with Overlap Dirac Operator
Suzuki, H
1999-01-01
The chiral Jacobian, which is defined with Neuberger's overlap Dirac operator of lattice fermion, is explicitly evaluated in the continuum limit without expanding it in the gauge coupling constant. Our calculational scheme is simple and straightforward. We determine a coefficient of the chiral anomaly for general value of the bare mass parameter and the Wilson parameter of the overlap Dirac operator.
The asymptotic limits of zero modes of massless Dirac operators
Saito, Yoshimi
2007-01-01
Asymptotic behaviors of zero modes of the massless Dirac operator $H=\\alpha\\cdot D + Q(x)$ are discussed, where $\\alpha= (\\alpha_1, \\alpha_2, \\alpha_3)$ is the triple of $4 \\times 4$ Dirac matrices, $ D=\\frac{1}{i} \
A super-twisted Dirac operator and Novikov inequalities
无
2000-01-01
A super-twisted Dirac operator is constructed and deformed suitably.Following Shubin's approach to Novikov inequalities associated to the deformed de Rham-Hodge operator,we give a formula for the index of the super-twisted Dirac operator,and Novikov type inequalities for the deformed operator.In particular,we obtain a purely analytic proof of the Hopf index theorem for general vector bundles.
A super-twisted Dirac operator and Novikov inequalities
冯惠涛; 郭恩力
2000-01-01
A s黳er-twisted Dirac operator is constructed and deformed suitably. Following Shubin’s approach to Novikov inequalities associated to the deformed de Rham-Hodge operator, we give a for-mula for the index of the super-twisted Dirac operator, and Novikov type inequalities for the deformed operator, In particular, we obtain a purely analytic proof of the Hopf index theorem for general vector bundles.
Overlap Dirac Operator, Eigenvalues and Random Matrix Theory
Edwards, Robert G.; Heller, Urs M.; Kiskis, Joe; Narayanan, Rajamani
1999-01-01
The properties of the spectrum of the overlap Dirac operator and their relation to random matrix theory are studied. In particular, the predictions from chiral random matrix theory in topologically non-trivial gauge field sectors are tested.
Zero-modes of the QED Neuberger Dirac operator
Berg, Bernd A.; Heller, Urs M.; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer; Sakuler, Wolfgang
2002-03-01
We consider 4 d compact lattice QED in the quenched approximation. First, we briefly summarize the spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator and its connection with random matrix theory. Afterwards we present results for the low-lying eigenmodes of the Neuberger overlap-Dirac operator. In the strong coupling phase we find exact zero-modes. Subsequently we discuss possibly related topological excitations of the U(1) lattice gauge theory.
Analyzing the spectrum of general, non-hermitian Dirac operators
Gattringer, C R; Gattringer, Christof; Hip, Ivan
1999-01-01
We discuss the computational problems when analyzing general, non-hermitian matrices and in particular the un-modified Wilson lattice Dirac operator. We report on our experiences with the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method. The eigenstates of the Wilson-Dirac operator which have real eigenvalues and correspond to zero modes in the continuum are analyzed by correlating the size of the eigenvalues with the chirality of the eigenstates.
The right inverse of Dirac operator in octonionic space
Wang, Haiyan; Bian, Xiaoli
2017-09-01
The octonion Dirac equation also called wave equation is an important equation which formulates the localization spaces for subluminal and superluminal particles. The purpose of this paper is to look for the right inverse operator of octonion Dirac operator in Hölder space. However, some difficulties will arise in noncommutative and nonassociative setting. We note that the associator is available to overcome the difficulties.
Dirac Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac Operator for QCD with Two Colors
Kieburg, Mario; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2015-01-01
We study the lattice artefacts of the Wilson Dirac operator for QCD with two colors and fermions in the fundamental representation from the viewpoint of chiral perturbation theory. These effects are studied with the help of the following spectral observables: the level density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator, the distribution of chirality over the real eigenvalues, and the chiral condensate for the quenched as well as for the unquenched theory. We provide analytical expressions for all these quantities. Moreover we derive constraints for the level density of the real eigenvalues of the non-Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator and the number of additional real modes. The latter is a good measure for the strength of lattice artefacts. All computations are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations of the corresponding random matrix theory which agrees with chiral perturbation theory of two color QCD with Wilson fermions.
The Asymptotic Limits of Zero Modes of Massless Dirac Operators
Saitō, Yoshimi; Umeda, Tomio
2008-01-01
Asymptotic behaviors of zero modes of the massless Dirac operator H = α · D + Q( x) are discussed, where α = (α1, α2, α3) is the triple of 4 × 4 Dirac matrices, D = 1/i nabla_x, and Q( x) = ( q jk ( x)) is a 4 × 4 Hermitian matrix-valued function with | q jk ( x) | ≤ C -ρ, ρ > 1. We shall show that for every zero mode f, the asymptotic limit of | x|2 f ( x) as | x| → + ∞ exists. The limit is expressed in terms of the Dirac matrices and an integral of Q( x) f ( x).
Spectral invariants of operators of Dirac type on partitioned manifolds
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Bleecker, D.
2004-01-01
We review the concepts of the index of a Fredholm operator, the spectral flow of a curve of self-adjoint Fredholm operators, the Maslov index of a curve of Lagrangian subspaces in symplectic Hilbert space, and the eta invariant of operators of Dirac type on closed manifolds and manifolds with bou...
A simple derivation of the Overlap Dirac Operator
Fosco, C D; Neuberger, H
2007-01-01
We derive the vector-like four dimensional overlap Dirac operator starting from a five dimensional Dirac action in the presence of a delta-function space-time defect. The effective operator is obtained by first integrating out all the fermionic modes in the fixed gauge background, and then identifying the contribution from the localized modes as the determinant of an operator in one dimension less. We define physically relevant degrees of freedom on the defect by introducing an auxiliary defect-bound fermion field and integrating out the original five dimensional bulk field.
Spectral Gaps of Dirac Operators Describing Graphene Quantum Dots
Benguria, Rafael D.; Fournais, Søren; Stockmeyer, Edgardo; Van Den Bosch, Hanne
2017-06-01
The two-dimensional Dirac operator describes low-energy excitations in graphene. Different choices for the boundary conditions give rise to qualitative differences in the spectrum of the resulting operator. For a family of boundary conditions, we find a lower bound to the spectral gap around zero, proportional to |Ω|-1/2, where {Ω } \\subset R2 is the bounded region where the Dirac operator acts. This family contains the so-called infinite mass and armchair cases used in the physics literature for the description of graphene quantum dots.
Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion
Becker-Bender, Julia
2012-12-17
On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.
Implementation of the Neuberger-Dirac operator on GPUs
Walk, Bjoern; Dranischnikow, Egor; Schömer, Elmar
2010-01-01
Recent developments have shown that a lot can be gained for QCD simulations from GPU hardware. This can be exploited especially in the case of Ginsparg-Wilson fermions when the com putational costs are particularly high. In this work, we use the Neuberger-Dirac operator as our realisation of Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, which greatly facilitate lattice investigations of decays like $K \\to \\pi\\pi$. We report on the ongoing study of our GPU implementation of the Neuberger-Dirac operator including the exact treatment of the low lying eigenmodes of the Wilson-Dirac operator. Our benchmarks show that we achieve speed-up factors of around 23 and 16 in single and double precision, respectively.
A Note on Dirac Operators on the Quantum Punctured Disk
Slawomir Klimek
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We study quantum analogs of the Dirac type operator −2z∂/∂z on the punctured disk, subject to the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer boundary conditions. We construct a parametrix of the quantum operator and show that it is bounded outside of the zero mode.
Random Dirac operators with time-reversal symmetry
Sadel, Christian
2009-01-01
Quasi-one-dimensional stochastic Dirac operators with an odd number of channels, time reversal symmetry but otherwise efficiently coupled randomness are shown to have one conducting channel and absolutely continuous spectrum of multiplicity two. This follows by adapting the criteria of Guivac-Raughi and Goldsheid-Margulis to the analysis of random products of matrices in the group SO$^*(2L)$, and then a version of Kotani theory for these operators. Absence of singular spectrum can be shown by adapting an argument of Jaksic-Last if the potential contains random Dirac peaks with absolutely continuous distribution.
Eigenvalues of the Dirac operator on manifolds with boundary
Hijazi, O. [Inst. Elie Cartan, Univ. Henri Poincare, Nancy (France); Montiel, S. [Dept. de Geometria y Topologia, Universidad de Granada (Spain); Zhang, X. [Inst. of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Sciences, Beijing (China)
2001-07-01
Under standard local boundary conditions or certain global APS boundary conditions, we get lower bounds for the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator on compact spin manifolds with boundary. For the local boundary conditions, limiting cases are characterized by the existence of real Killing spinors and the minimality of the boundary. (orig.)
Versal deformations of a Dirac type differential operator
1999-01-01
If we are given a smooth differential operator in the variable $x\\in {\\mathbb R}/2\\pi {\\mathbb Z},$ its normal form, as is well known, is the simplest form obtainable by means of the $\\mbox{Diff}(S^1)$-group action on the space of all such operators. A versal deformation of this operator is a normal form for some parametric infinitesimal family including the operator. Our study is devoted to analysis of versal deformations of a Dirac type differential operator using the theory of induced $\\mb...
Topological phases in the Neuberger-Dirac operator
Chiu, Ting-Wai
1999-12-01
The response of the Neuberger-Dirac fermion operator D=1+V in the topologically nontrivial background gauge field depends on the negative mass parameter m0 in the Wilson-Dirac fermion operator Dw, which enters D through the unitary operator V=Dw(D†wDw)-1/2. We classify the topological phases of D by comparing its index to the topological charge of the smooth background gauge field. An exact discrete symmetry in the topological phase diagram is proved for any gauge configurations. A formula for the index of D in each topological phase is derived by obtaining the total chiral charge of the zero modes in the exact solution of the free fermion propagator.
Abstract Wave Equations and Associated Dirac-Type Operators
Gesztesy, Fritz; Holden, Helge; Teschl, Gerald
2010-01-01
We discuss the unitary equivalence of generators $G_{A,R}$ associated with abstract damped wave equations of the type $\\ddot{u} + R \\dot{u} + A^*A u = 0$ in some Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}_1$ and certain non-self-adjoint Dirac-type operators $Q_{A,R}$ (away from the nullspace of the latter) in $\\mathcal{H}_1 \\oplus \\mathcal{H}_2$. The operator $Q_{A,R}$ represents a non-self-adjoint perturbation of a supersymmetric self-adjoint Dirac-type operator. Special emphasis is devoted to the case where 0 belongs to the continuous spectrum of $A^*A$. In addition to the unitary equivalence results concerning $G_{A,R}$ and $Q_{A,R}$, we provide a detailed study of the domain of the generator $G_{A,R}$, consider spectral properties of the underlying quadratic operator pencil $M(z) = |A|^2 - iz R - z^2 I_{\\mathcal{H}_1}$, $z\\in\\mathbb{C}$, derive a family of conserved quantities for abstract wave equations in the absence of damping, and prove equipartition of energy for supersymmetric self-adjoint Dirac-type operators. The...
Spectral Properties of the Wilson Dirac Operator and RMT
Kieburg, Mario; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2013-01-01
Random Matrix Theory has been successfully applied to lattice Quantum Chromodynamics. In particular, a great deal of progress has been made on the understanding, numerically as well as analytically, of the spectral properties of the Wilson Dirac operator. In this paper, we study the infra-red spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator via Random Matrix Theory including the three leading order $a^2$ correction terms that appear in the corresponding chiral Lagrangian. A derivation of the joint probability density of the eigenvalues is presented. This result is used to calculate the density of the complex eigenvalues, the density of the real eigenvalues and the distribution of the chiralities over the real eigenvalues. A detailed discussion of these quantities shows how each low energy constant affects the spectrum. Especially we consider the limit of small and large (which is almost the mean field limit) lattice spacing. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of the Random Matrix Theory show a perfect agreement wi...
The Index of Dirac Operators on Incomplete Edge Spaces
Albin, Pierre; Gell-Redman, Jesse
2016-09-01
We derive a formula for the index of a Dirac operator on a compact, even-dimensional incomplete edge space satisfying a ''geometric Witt condition''. We accomplish this by cutting off to a smooth manifold with boundary, applying the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem, and taking a limit. We deduce corollaries related to the existence of positive scalar curvature metrics on incomplete edge spaces.
Lower bounds for eigenvalues of the Dirac-Witten operator
无
2009-01-01
We get optimal lower bounds for the eigenvalues of the Dirac-Witten operator of compact(with or without boundary) spacelike hypersurfaces of Lorentian manifold satisfying certain conditions,just in terms of the mean curvature and the scalar curvature and the spinor energy-momentum tensor. In the limiting case,the spacelike hypersurface is either maximal and Einstein manifold with positive scalar curvature or Ricci-flat manifold with nonzero constant mean curvature.
Lower bounds for eigenvalues of the Dirac-Witten operator
CHEN YongFa
2009-01-01
We get optimal lower bounds for the eigenvalues of the Dirac-Witten operator of compact (with or without boundary) spacelike hypersuffaces of Lorentian manifold satisfying certain conditions, just in terms of the mean curvature and the scalar curvature and the spinor energy-momentum tensor. In the limiting case, the spacelike hypersurface is either maximal and Einstein manifold with positive scalar curvature or Ricci-flat manifold with nonzero constant mean curvature.
Comparing lattice Dirac operators with Random Matrix Theory
Farchioni, F; Lang, C B
2000-01-01
We study the eigenvalue spectrum of different lattice Dirac operators (staggered, fixed point, overlap) and discuss their dependence on the topological sectors. Although the model is 2D (the Schwinger model with massless fermions) our observations indicate possible problems in 4D applications. In particular misidentification of the smallest eigenvalues due to non-identification of the topological sector may hinder successful comparison with Random Matrix Theory (RMT).
Moduli spaces of Dirac operators for finite spectral triples
Ćaćić, Branimir
2009-01-01
The structure theory of finite real spectral triples developed by Krajewski and by Paschke and Sitarz is generalised to allow for arbitrary KO-dimension and the failure of orientability and Poincare duality, and moduli spaces of Dirac operators for such spectral triples are defined and studied. This theory is then applied to recent work by Chamseddine and Connes towards deriving the finite spectral triple of the noncommutative-geometric Standard Model.
Dirac structures and boundary control systems associated with skew-symmetric differential operators
Le Gorrec, Y.; Zwart, H.J.; Maschke, B.
2005-01-01
Associated with a skew-symmetric linear operator on the spatial domain $[a,b]$ we define a Dirac structure which includes the port variables on the boundary of this spatial domain. This Dirac structure is a subspace of a Hilbert space. Naturally, associated with this Dirac structure is an infinite-d
Dirac structures and boundary control systems associated with skew-symmetric differential operators
Le Gorrec, Y.; Zwart, H.J.; Maschke, B.
2004-01-01
Associated with a skew-symmetric linear operator on the spatial domain $[a,b]$ we define a Dirac structure which includes the port variables on the boundary of this spatial domain. This Dirac structure is a subspace of a Hilbert space. Naturally, associated to this Dirac structure is infinite dimen
An index formula for perturbed Dirac operators on Lie manifolds
Carvalho, Catarina
2011-01-01
We give an index formula for a class of Dirac operators coupled with unbounded potentials. More precisely, we study operators of the form P := D+ V, where D is a Dirac operators and V is an unbounded potential at infinity on a possibly non-compact manifold M_0. We assume that M_0 is a Lie manifold with compactification denoted M. Examples of Lie manifolds are provided by asymptotically Euclidean or asymptotically hyperbolic spaces. The potential V is required to be invertible outside a compact set K and V^{-1} extends to a smooth function on M\\K that vanishes on all faces of M in a controlled way. Using tools from analysis on non-compact Riemannian manifolds, we show that the computation of the index of P reduces to the computation of the index of an elliptic pseudodifferential operator of order zero on M_0 that is a multiplication operator at infinity. The index formula for P can then be obtained from earlier results. The proof also yields similar index formulas for Callias-type pseudodifferential operators ...
Chiral condensate from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum
Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl
2013-01-01
We present the results of our computation of the chiral condensate with $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions. The condensate is determined from the Dirac operator spectrum, applying the spectral projector method proposed by Giusti and Luscher. We use 3 lattice spacings and several quark masses at each lattice spacing to reliably perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. We study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavours.
Spectral statistics for the Dirac operator on graphs
Bolte, Jens; Harrison, Jonathan [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2003-03-21
We determine conditions for the quantization of graphs using the Dirac operator for both two- and four-component spinors. According to the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture for such systems with time-reversal symmetry the energy level statistics are expected, in the semiclassical limit, to correspond to those of random matrices from the Gaussian symplectic ensemble. This is confirmed by numerical investigation. The scattering matrix used to formulate the quantization condition is found to be independent of the type of spinor. We derive an exact trace formula for the spectrum and use this to investigate the form factor in the diagonal approximation.
Anomalies of Dirac Type Operators on Euclidean Space
Carey, Alan; Grosse, Harald; Kaad, Jens
2015-04-01
We develop by example a type of index theory for non-Fredholm operators. A general framework using cyclic homology for this notion of index was introduced in a separate article (Carev and Kaad, Topological invariance of the homological index. arXiv:1402.0475 [math.KT], 2014) where it may be seen to generalise earlier ideas of Carey-Pincus and Gesztesy-Simon on this problem. Motivated by an example in two dimensions in Bollé et al. (J Math Phys 28:1512-1525, 1987) we introduce in this paper a class of examples of Dirac type operators on that provide non-trivial examples of our homological approach. Our examples may be seen as extending old ideas about the notion of anomaly introduced by physicists to handle topological terms in quantum action principles, with an important difference, namely, we are dealing with purely geometric data that can be seen to arise from the continuous spectrum of our Dirac type operators.
Spectral analysis of the Dirac operator on a 3-sphere
Fang, Yan-Long; Vassiliev, Dmitri
2016-01-01
We study the (massless) Dirac operator on a 3-sphere equipped with Riemannian metric. For the standard metric the spectrum is known. In particular, the eigenvalues closest to zero are the two double eigenvalues +3/2 and -3/2. Our aim is to analyse the behaviour of eigenvalues when the metric is perturbed in an arbitrary smooth fashion from the standard one. We derive explicit asymptotic formulae for the two eigenvalues closest to zero. Note that these eigenvalues remain double eigenvalues under perturbations of the metric: they cannot split because of a particular symmetry of the Dirac operator in dimension three (it commutes with the antilinear operator of charge conjugation). Our asymptotic formulae show that in the first approximation our two eigenvalues maintain symmetry about zero and are completely determined by the increment of Riemannian volume. Spectral asymmetry is observed only in the second approximation of the perturbation process. As an example we consider a special family of metrics, the so-cal...
Dirac operator on the sphere with attached wires
E, N. Grishanov; D, A. Eremin; D, A. Ivanov; I, Yu Popov
2016-04-01
An explicitly solvable model for tunnelling of relativistic spinless particles through a sphere is suggested. The model operator is constructed by an operator extensions theory method from the orthogonal sum of the Dirac operators on a semi-axis and on the sphere. The transmission coefficient is obtained. The dependence of the transmission coefficient on the particle energy has a resonant character. One observes pairs of the Breit-Wigner and the Fano resonances. It correlates with the corresponding results for a non-relativistic particle. Project partially financially supported by the Funds from the Government of the Russian Federation (Grant No. 074-U01), the Funds from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (GOSZADANIE 2014/190) (Grant Nos. 14.Z50.31.0031 and 1.754.2014/K), and the President Foundation of the Russian Federation (Grant No. MK-5001.2015.1).
Edge states for the Dirac operator on manifolds with boundary
Govindarajan, T R
2015-01-01
We investigate the properties of the Dirac operator on manifolds with boundaries in presence of the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer boundary condition. An exact counting of the number of edge states for boundaries with isometry of a sphere is given. We show that the problem with the above boundary condition can be mapped to one where the manifold is extended beyond the boundary and the boundary condition is replaced by a delta function potential of suitable strength. We also briefly highlight how the problem of the self-adjointness of the operators in the presence of moving boundaries can be simplified by suitable transformations which render the boundary fixed and modify the Hamiltonian and the boundary condition to reflect the effect of moving boundary.
New Calculations in Dirac Gaugino Models: Operators, Expansions, and Effects
Carpenter, Linda M
2015-01-01
In this work we calculate important one loop SUSY-breaking parameters in models with Dirac gauginos, which are implied by the existence of heavy messenger fields. We find that these SUSY-breaking effects are all related by a small number of parameters, thus the general theory is tightly predictive. In order to make the most accurate analyses of one loop effects, we introduce calculations using an expansion in SUSY breaking messenger mass, rather than relying on postulating the forms of effective operators. We use this expansion to calculate one loop contributions to gaugino masses, non-holomorphic SM adjoint masses, new A-like and B-like terms, and linear terms. We also test the Higgs potential in such models, and calculate one loop contributions to the Higgs mass in certain limits of R-symmetric models, finding a very large contribution in many regions of the $\\mu$-less MSSM, where Higgs fields couple to standard model adjoint fields.
Unquenched QCD Dirac operator spectra at nonzero baryon chemical potential
Akemann, G. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Brunel University West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Osborn, J.C. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Splittorff, K. [Nordita, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark)]. E-mail: split@alf.nbi.dk; Verbaarschot, J.J.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)
2005-04-18
The microscopic spectral density of the QCD Dirac operator at nonzero baryon chemical potential for an arbitrary number of quark flavors was derived recently from a random matrix model with the global symmetries of QCD. In this paper we show that these results and extensions thereof can be obtained from the replica limit of a Toda lattice equation. This naturally leads to a factorized form into bosonic and fermionic QCD-like partition functions. In the microscopic limit these partition functions are given by the static limit of a chiral Lagrangian that follows from the symmetry breaking pattern. In particular, we elucidate the role of the singularity of the bosonic partition function in the orthogonal polynomials approach. A detailed discussion of the spectral density for one and two flavors is given.
Wilson, fixed point and Neuberger's lattice Dirac operator for the Schwinger model
Farchioni, F.; Hip, I.; Lang, C. B.
1998-12-01
We perform a comparison between different lattice regularizations of the Dirac operator for massless fermions in the framework of the single and two flavor Schwinger model. We consider a) the Wilson-Dirac operator at the critical value of the hopping parameter; b) Neuberger's overlap operator; c) the fixed point operator. We test chiral properties of the spectrum, dispersion relations and rotational invariance of the mesonic bound state propagators.
Decomposition of the polynomial kernel of arbitrary higher spin Dirac operators
Eelbode, D., E-mail: David.Eelbode@ua.ac.be [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Antwerp, Campus Middelheim, G-Building, Middelheimlaan 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Raeymaekers, T., E-mail: Tim.Raeymaekers@UGent.be [Clifford Research Group, Department of Mathematical Analysis, Ghent University, Galglaan 2, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van der Jeugt, J., E-mail: Joris.VanderJeugt@UGent.be [Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)
2015-10-15
In a series of recent papers, we have introduced higher spin Dirac operators, which are generalisations of the classical Dirac operator. Whereas the latter acts on spinor-valued functions, the former acts on functions taking values in arbitrary irreducible half-integer highest weight representations for the spin group. In this paper, we describe how the polynomial kernel spaces of such operators decompose in irreducible representations of the spin group. We will hereby make use of results from representation theory.
New calculations in Dirac gaugino models: operators, expansions, and effects
Carpenter, Linda M.; Goodman, Jessica
2015-07-01
In this work we calculate important one loop SUSY-breaking parameters in models with Dirac gauginos, which are implied by the existence of heavy messenger fields. We find that these SUSY-breaking effects are all related by a small number of parameters, thus the general theory is tightly predictive. In order to make the most accurate analyses of one loop effects, we introduce calculations using an expansion in SUSY breaking messenger mass, rather than relying on postulating the forms of effective operators. We use this expansion to calculate one loop contributions to gaugino masses, non-holomorphic SM adjoint masses, new A-like and B-like terms, and linear terms. We also test the Higgs potential in such models, and calculate one loop contributions to the Higgs mass in certain limits of R-symmetric models, finding a very large contribution in many regions of the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.], where Higgs fields couple to standard model adjoint fields.
Generalized ladder operators for the Dirac-Coulomb problem via SUSY QM
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Centro de Formacao de Professores. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; E-mail: rafaelr@cbpf.br
2003-12-15
The supersymmetry in quantum mechanics and shape invariance condition are applied as an algebraic method to solving the Dirac-Coulomb problem. The ground state and the excited states are investigated via new generalized ladder operators. (author)
Spectrum of the Hermitian Wilson-Dirac Operator for a Uniform Magnetic Field in Two Dimensions
Kurokawa, H
2003-01-01
It is shown that the eigenvalue problem for the hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator of for a uniform magnetic field in two dimensions can be reduced to one-dimensional problem described by a relativistic analog of the Harper equation. An explicit formula for the secular equations is given in term of a set of polynomials. The spectrum exhibits a fractal structure in the infinite volume limit. An exact result concerning the index theorem for the overlap Dirac operator is obtained.
Hua operator on vector bundle: Application to AdS/CFT correspondence of Dirac fields
LU Qikeng
2005-01-01
Hua's theory of harmonic functions on classical domains is generalized to the theory on holomorphic vector bundles over classical domains and further on vector bundles over the real classical domains and quaternion classical domains. In case of the simplest quaternion classical domain there is a relation between Hua operator and Dirac operator,by which an AdS/CFT correspondence of Dirac fields is established.
One-loop renormalization of fermionic currents with the overlap-Dirac operator
Alexandrou, C; Panagopoulos, H; Vicari, E
2000-01-01
We compute the one-loop lattice renormalization of the two-quark operators$\\bar{\\psi} \\Gamma \\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes the generic Dirac matrix, forthe lattice formulation of QCD using the overlap-Dirac operator. We also study the renormalization of quark bilinears which are more extendedand have better chiral properties. Finally, we present improved estimates of these renormalization constants,coming from cactus resummation and from mean field perturbation theory.
EXTENSION OF TENSOR PRODUCT FOR OPERATORS ON THE DIRAC OPERATOR EXAMPLE
A. A. Boitsev
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with extension method for the operator which is a sum of tensor products. Boundary triplets approach is used. One of the operators is considered to be densely defined and symmetric with equal deficiency indices, the other one is considered to be bounded and self- adjoint. For self-adjoint extensions construction of the mentioned operator, its boundary triplet is constructed in terms of boundary triplet of symmetric operator. Gamma-field and the Weyl function are obtained using the boundary triplet of symmetric operator. Formulas, connecting gamma-field and the Weyl function of symmetric operator with gamma-field and the Weyl function of the studied operator make it possible to use generic resolvent Krein-type formula for all self-adjoint extensions in this case as well. Theoretical results are applied to the Dirac operator, interesting from the physical point of view. Boundary triplet, gamma-field and the Weyl function are constructed for the Dirac operator. The self-adjoint extensions are obtained by Krein formula. Received results can be useful for correct description of quantum systems interaction.
Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang
2001-07-01
One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as `natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices.
Pythagoras' Theorem on a 2D-Lattice from a "Natural" Dirac Operator and Connes' Distance Formula
Dai, J; Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang
2001-01-01
One of the key ingredients of A. Connes' noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric(Connes' distance) on the state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by A. Dimakis et al, whose Connes' distance recovers the linear distance on a 1D lattice, into 2D lattice. This Dirac operator being "naturally" defined has the so-called "local eigenvalue property" and induces Euclidean distance on this 2D lattice. This kind of Dirac operator can be generalized into any higher dimensional lattices.
Perturbative analysis of the Neuberger-Dirac operator in the Schr\\"odinger functional
Takeda, Shinji
2007-01-01
We investigate the spectrum of the free Neuberger-Dirac operator $\\Dov$ on the Schr\\"odinger functional (SF). We check that the lowest few eigen-values of the Hermitian operator $\\Dov^{\\dag}\\Dov$ in unit of $L^{-2}$ converge to the continuum limit properly. We also perform a one-loop calculation of the SF coupling, and then check the universality and investigate lattice artifacts of the step scaling function. It turns out that the lattice artifacts for the Neuberger-Dirac operator are comparable in those of the clover action.
Perturbative analysis of the Neuberger Dirac operator in the Schrödinger functional
Takeda, Shinji
2008-06-01
We investigate the spectrum of the free Neuberger-Dirac operator D on the Schrödinger functional (SF). We check that the lowest few eigen-values of the Hermitian operator DN†D in unit of L converge to the continuum limit properly. We also perform a one-loop calculation of the SF coupling, and then check the universality and investigate lattice artifacts of the step scaling function. It turns out that the lattice artifacts for the Neuberger-Dirac operator are comparable to those of the clover action.
Operator Representation of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Integral Functions with Applications
M. Aslam Chaudhry
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein functions arise as quantum statistical distributions. The Riemann zeta function and its extension, the polylogarithm function, arise in the theory of numbers. Though it might not have been expected, these two sets of functions belong to a wider class of functions whose members have operator representations. In particular, we show that the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integral functions are expressible as operator representations in terms of themselves. Simpler derivations of previously known results of these functions are obtained by their operator representations.
Low-lying Dirac operator eigenvalues, lattice effects and random matrix theory
Heller, Urs M
2011-01-01
Recently, random matrix theory predictions for the distribution of low-lying Dirac operator eigenvalues have been extended to include lattice effects for both staggered and Wilson fermions. We computed low-lying eigenvalues for the Hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator and for improved staggered fermions on several quenched ensembles with size $\\approx 1.5$ fm. Comparisons to the expectations from RMT with lattice effects included are made. Wilson RMT describes our Wilson data nicely. For improved staggered fermions we find strong indications that taste breaking effects on the low-lying spectrum disappear in the continuum limit, as expected from staggered RMT.
Topology, Random Matrix Theory and the spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator
Deuzeman, Albert; Wuilloud, Jaïr
2011-01-01
We study the spectrum of the hermitian Wilson Dirac operator in the epsilon-regime of QCD in the quenched approximation and compare it to predictions from Wilson Random Matrix Theory. Using the distributions of single eigenvalues in the microscopic limit and for specific topological charge sectors, we examine the possibility of extracting estimates of the low energy constants which parametrise the lattice artefacts in Wilson chiral perturbation theory. The topological charge of the field configurations is obtained from a field theoretical definition as well as from the flow of eigenvalues of the hermitian Wilson Dirac operator, and we determine the extent to which the two are correlated.
Microscopic correlations for non-Hermitian Dirac operators in three-dimensional QCD
Akemann, G.
2001-12-01
In the presence of a nonvanishing chemical potential the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator become complex. We calculate spectral correlation functions of complex eigenvalues using a random matrix model approach. Our results apply to non-Hermitian Dirac operators in three-dimensional QCD with broken flavor symmetry and in four-dimensional QCD in the bulk of the spectrum. The derivation follows earlier results of Fyodorov, Khoruzhenko, and Sommers for complex spectra exploiting the existence of orthogonal polynomials in the complex plane. Explicit analytic expressions are given for all microscopic k-point correlation functions in the presence of an arbitrary even number of massive quarks, both in the limit of strong and weak non-Hermiticity. In the latter case the parameter governing the non-Hermiticity of the Dirac matrices is identified with the influence of the chemical potential.
Microscopic correlations of non-Hermitian Dirac operators in three-dimensional QCD
Akemann, G
2001-01-01
In the presence of a non-vanishing chemical potential the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator become complex. We calculate spectral correlation functions of complex eigenvalues using a random matrix model approach. Our results apply to non-Hermitian Dirac operators in three-dimensional QCD with broken flavor symmetry and in four-dimensional QCD in the bulk of the spectrum. The derivation follows earlier results of Fyodorov, Khoruzhenko and Sommers for complex spectra exploiting the existence of orthogonal polynomials in the complex plane. Explicit analytic expressions are given for all microscopic k-point correlation functions in the presence of an arbitrary even number of massive quarks, both in the limit of strong and weak non-Hermiticity. In the latter case the parameter governing the non-Hermiticity of the Dirac matrices is identified with the influence of the chemical potential.
Akemann, G
2001-01-01
The microscopic spectral eigenvalue correlations of QCD Dirac operators in the presence of dynamical fermions are calculated within the framework of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). Our approach treats the low--energy correlation functions of all three chiral symmetry breaking patterns (labeled by the Dyson index $\\beta=1,2$ and 4) on the same footing, offering a unifying description of massive QCD Dirac spectra. RMT universality is explicitly proven for all three symmetry classes and the results are compared to the available lattice data for $\\beta=4$.
Spectrum of the fixed point Dirac operator in the Schwinger model
Farchioni, F; Lang, C B; Wohlgenannt, M
1999-01-01
Recently, properties of the fixed point action for fermion theories have been pointed out indicating realization of chiral symmetry on the lattice. We check these properties by numerical analysis of the spectrum of a parametrized fixed point Dirac operator investigating also microscopic fluctuations and fermion condensation.
Stochastic calculation of the QCD Dirac operator spectrum with Mobius domain-wall fermion
Cossu, G; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Noaki, J
2016-01-01
We calculate the spectral function of the QCD Dirac operator using the four-dimensional effective operator constructed from the Mobius domain-wall implementation. We utilize the eigenvalue filtering technique combined with the stochastic estimate of the mode number. The spectrum in the entire eigenvalue range is obtained with a single set of measurements. Results on 2+1-flavor ensembles with Mobius domain-wall sea quarks at lattice spacing ~ 0.08 fm are shown.
An iterative method to compute the overlap Dirac operator at nonzero chemical potential
Bloch, J; Lang, B; Wettig, T
2007-01-01
The overlap Dirac operator at nonzero quark chemical potential involves the computation of the sign function of a non-Hermitian matrix. In this talk we present an iterative method, first proposed by us in Ref. [1], which allows for an efficient computation of the operator, even on large lattices. The starting point is a Krylov subspace approximation, based on the Arnoldi algorithm, for the evaluation of a generic matrix function. The efficiency of this method is spoiled when the matrix has eigenvalues close to a function discontinuity. To cure this, a small number of critical eigenvectors are added to the Krylov subspace, and two different deflation schemes are proposed in this augmented subspace. The ensuing method is then applied to the sign function of the overlap Dirac operator, for two different lattice sizes. The sign function has a discontinuity along the imaginary axis, and the numerical results show how deflation dramatically improves the efficiency of the method.
On the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator on bent chain quantum graph
Belov Michail
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We study Dirac operators on an infinite quantum graph of a bent chain form which consists of identical rings connected at the touching points by δ-couplings with a parameter α ∈ ℝ. We are interested in the discrete spectrum of the corresponding Hamiltonian. It can be non-empty due to a local (geometrical perturbation of the corresponding infinite chain of rings. The quantum graph of analogous geometry with the Schrodinger operator on the edges was considered by Duclos, Exner and Turek in 2008. They showed that the absence of δ-couplings at vertices (i.e. the Kirchhoff condition at the vertices lead to the absence of eigenvalues. We consider the relativistic particle (the Dirac operator instead of the Schrodinger one but the result is analogous. Quantum graphs of such type are suitable for description of grapheme-based nanostructures. It is established that the negativity of α is the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of eigenvalues of the Dirac operator (i.e. the discrete spectrum of the Hamiltonian in this case is not empty. The continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian for bent chain graph coincides with that for the corresponding straight infinite chain. Conditions for appearance of more than one eigenvalue are obtained. It is related to the bending angle. The investigation is based on the transfer-matrix approach. It allows one to reduce the problem to an algebraic task. δ-couplings was introduced by the operator extensions theory method.
Daguang CHEN; Hejun SUN
2008-01-01
For a compact complex spin manifold M with a holomorphic isometric embed-ding into the complex projective space, the authors obtain the extrinsic estimates from above and below for eigenvalues of the Dirac operator, which depend on the data of an isometric embedding of M. Further, from the inequalities of eigenvalues, the gaps of the eigenvalues and the ratio of the eigenvalues are obtained.
A comparative study of numerical methods for the overlap Dirac operator--a status report
Van den Eshof, J; Lippert, T; Schilling, K; Van der Vorst, H A; Lippert, Th.
2002-01-01
Improvements of various methods to compute the sign function of the hermitian Wilson-Dirac matrix within the overlap operator are presented. An optimal partial fraction expansion (PFE) based on a theorem of Zolotarev is given. Benchmarks show that this PFE together with removal of converged systems within a multi-shift CG appears to approximate the sign function times a vector most efficiently. A posteriori error bounds are given.
Dirac operators and spectral triples for some fractal sets built on curves
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina; Lapidus, Michel L.
2008-01-01
A spectral triple is an object which is described using an algebra of operators on a Hilbert space and an unbounded self-adjoint operator, called a Dirac operator. This model may be applied to the study of classical geometrical objects .The article contains a construction of a spectral triple ass...... associated to some classical fractal subsets of the plane, and it is demonstrated that you can read of many classical geometrical structures, such as distance, measure and Hausdorff dimension from the spectral triple....
On Generalised Dolbeault Sequence for Four Dirac Operators in Dimension 6
Krump, Lukáš
2010-09-01
The Hartog's type phenomena in several complex variables are best understood in term of the Dolbeault sequence. A lot of attention was paid in the last decades to its analogue in the function theory of several Clifford variables. The first operator in this resolution is the Dirac operator in several variables. The complete description is known in the stable case in dimension 4. In the nonstable case, other tools like the Penrose transform must be used, which gives an algebraic description of the resolution. The next step is an explicite analytic construction of the operators in the resolution, which is to some extent shown here.
Overlap Dirac operator at nonzero chemical potential and random matrix theory.
Bloch, Jacques; Wettig, Tilo
2006-07-07
We show how to introduce a quark chemical potential in the overlap Dirac operator. The resulting operator satisfies a Ginsparg-Wilson relation and has exact zero modes. It is no longer gamma5 Hermitian, but its nonreal eigenvalues still occur in pairs. We compute the spectral density of the operator on the lattice and show that, for small eigenvalues, the data agree with analytical predictions of non-Hermitian chiral random matrix theory for both trivial and nontrivial topology. We also explain an observed change in the number of zero modes as a function of chemical potential.
Some conformally flat spin manifolds, Dirac operators and automorphic forms
Krau[Ss]Har, R. S.; Ryan, John
2007-01-01
In this paper we study Clifford and harmonic analysis on some examples of conformal flat manifolds that have a spinor structure, or more generally, at least a pin structure. The examples treated here are manifolds that can be parametrized by U/[Gamma] where U is a subdomain of either Sn or Rn and [Gamma] is a Kleinian group acting discontinuously on U. The examples studied here include RPn and the Hopf manifolds S1xSn-1. Also some hyperbolic manifolds will be treated. Special kinds of Clifford-analytic automorphic forms associated to the different choices of [Gamma] are used to construct explicit Cauchy kernels, Cauchy integral formulas, Green's kernels and formulas together with Hardy spaces and Plemelj projection operators for Lp spaces of hypersurfaces lying in these manifolds.
Distribution of the k-th smallest Dirac operator eigenvalue : an update
Nishigaki, Shinsuke M
2016-01-01
Based on the exact relationship to random matrix theory, we present an alternative method of evaluating the probability distribution of the k-th smallest Dirac eigenvalue in the epsilon-regime of QCD and QCD-like theories. By utilizing the Nystrom-type discretization of Fredholm determinants and Pfaffians, practical trouble of evaluating multiple integrations is circumvented and technical restrictions on the parities of the number of flavors and of the topological charge present in our previous treatment for beta=1 and 4 cases [Phys. Rev. D 63, 045012 (2001)] are partly lifted. This method is also applied to the distributions of spacings between k-th nearest-neighboring levels in the mobility edges of Anderson Hamiltonian and Dirac operator in high-temperature QCD.
A note on Zolotarev optimal rational approximation for the overlap Dirac operator
Chiu, T W; Huang, C H; Huang, T R; Chiu, Ting-Wai; Hsieh, Tung-Han; Huang, Chao-Hsi; Huang, Tsung-Ren
2002-01-01
We discuss the salient features of Zolotarev optimal rational approximation for the inverse square root function, in particular, for its applications in lattice QCD with overlap Dirac quark. The theoretical error bound for the matrix-vector multiplication $ H_w (H_w^2)^{-1/2}Y $ is derived. We check that the error bound is always satisfied amply, for any QCD gauge configurations we have tested. An empirical formula for the error bound is determined, together with its numerical values (by evaluating elliptic functions) listed in Table 2 as well as plotted in Figure 3. Our results suggest that with Zolotarev approximation to $ (H_w^2)^{-1/2} $, one can practically preserve the exact chiral symmetry of the overlap Dirac operator to very high precision, for any gauge configurations on a finite lattice.
Essential self-adjointness of n-dimensional Dirac operators with a variable mass term
Kalf, Hubert; Yamada, Osanobu
2001-06-01
We give some results about the essential self-adjointness of the Dirac operator H=∑j=1nαj pj+m(x) αn+1+V(x) IN (N=2 [(n+1)/2]), on [C0∞(Rn{0})]N, where the αj (j=1,2,…,n) are Dirac matrices and m(x) and V(x) are real-valued functions. We are mainly interested in a singularity of V(x) and m(x) near the origin which preserves the essential self-adjointness of H. As a result, if m=m(r) is spherically symmetric or m(x)≡V(x), then we can permit a singularity of m and V which is stronger than that of the Coulomb potential.
Violation of chirality of the M\\"obius domain-wall Dirac operator from the eigenmodes
Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tomiya, Akio
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of the violation of the Ginsparg-Wilson (GW) relation in the M\\"obius domain-wall fermion formulation on the lattice with finite fifth dimension. Using a decomposion in terms of the eigenmodes of its four-dimensional effective Dirac operator, we isolate the GW-violating terms for various physical quantities including the residual mass and the meson susceptibilities relevant for the effective restoration of the axial U(1) symmetry at finite temperature. Numerical result shows that the GW-violating effect is more significant, or even overwhelming, for the quantities that are dominated by the low-lying eigenmodes.
Dai Jian [Theory Group, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: jdai@mail.phy.pku.edu.cn; Song Xingchang [Theory Group, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: songxc@ibm320h.phy.pku.edu.cn
2001-07-13
One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as 'natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices. (author)
Optimizing the domain wall fermion Dirac operator using the R-Stream source-to-source compiler
Lin, Meifeng; Langston, M Harper; Meister, Benoit; Baskaran, Muthu; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo
2015-01-01
The application of the Dirac operator on a spinor field, the Dslash operation, is the most computation-intensive part of the lattice QCD simulations. It is often the key kernel to optimize to achieve maximum performance on various platforms. Here we report on a project to optimize the domain wall fermion Dirac operator in Columbia Physics System (CPS) using the R-Stream source-to-source compiler. Our initial target platform is the Intel PC clusters. We discuss the optimization strategies involved before and after the automatic code generation with R-Stream and present some preliminary benchmark results.
Lorentz-violating modification of Dirac theory based on spin-nondegenerate operators
Reis, J. A. A. S.; Schreck, M.
2017-04-01
The Standard Model extension (SME) parametrizes all possible Lorentz-violating contributions to the Standard Model and general relativity. It can be considered as an effective framework to describe possible quantum-gravity effects for energies much below the Planck energy. In the current paper, the spin-nondegenerate operators of the SME fermion sector are the focus. The propagators, energies, and solutions to the modified Dirac equation are obtained for several families of coefficients including nonminimal ones. The particle energies and spinors are computed at first order in Lorentz violation and, with the optical theorem, they are shown to be consistent with the propagators. The optical theorem is then also used to derive the matrices formed from a spinor and its Dirac conjugate at all orders in Lorentz violation. The results are the first explicit ones derived for the spin-nondegenerate operators. They will prove helpful for future phenomenological calculations in the SME that rely on the footing of quantum field theory.
Spectral properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator and random matrix theory
Kieburg, Mario; Verbaarschot, Jacobus J. M.; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2013-11-01
Random matrix theory has been successfully applied to lattice quantum chromodynamics. In particular, a great deal of progress has been made on the understanding, numerically as well as analytically, of the spectral properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator. In this paper, we study the infrared spectrum of the Wilson-Dirac operator via random matrix theory including the three leading order a2 correction terms that appear in the corresponding chiral Lagrangian. A derivation of the joint probability density of the eigenvalues is presented. This result is used to calculate the density of the complex eigenvalues, the density of the real eigenvalues, and the distribution of the chiralities over the real eigenvalues. A detailed discussion of these quantities shows how each low-energy constant affects the spectrum. Especially we consider the limit of small and large (which is almost the mean field limit) lattice spacing. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of the random matrix theory show a perfect agreement with the analytical predictions. Furthermore we present some quantities which can be easily used for comparison of lattice data and the analytical results.
Low-lying spectrum for lattice Dirac operators with twisted mass
Gattringer, C; Gattringer, Christof; Solbrig, Stefan
2005-01-01
We analyze the low-lying spectrum and eigenmodes of lattice Dirac operators with a twisted mass term. The twist term expels the eigenvalues from a strip in the complex plane and all eigenmodes obtain a non-vanishing matrix element with gamma-5. For a twisted Ginsparg-Wilson operator the spectrum is located on two arcs in the complex plane. Modes due to non-trivial topological charge of the underlying gauge field have their eigenvalues at the edges of these arcs and obey a remnant index theorem. For configurations in the confined phase we find that the twist mainly affects the zero modes, while the bulk of the spectrum is essentially unchanged.
Equiconvergence of spectral decompositions of 1D Dirac operators with regular boundary conditions
Djakov, Plamen
2011-01-01
One dimensional Dirac operators $$ L_{bc}(v) y = i 1 & 0 0 & -1 \\frac{dy}{dx} + v(x) y, \\quad y = y_1 y_2, \\quad x\\in[0,\\pi]$$, considered with $L^2$-potentials $ v(x) = 0 & P(x) Q(x) & 0$ and subject to regular boundary conditions ($bc$), have discrete spectrum. For strictly regular $bc,$ the spectrum of the free operator $ L_{bc}(0) $ is simple while the spectrum of $ L_{bc}(v) $ is eventually simple, and the corresponding normalized root function systems are Riesz bases. For expansions of functions of bounded variation about these Riesz bases, we prove the uniform equiconvergence property and point-wise convergence on the closed interval $[0,\\pi].$ Analogous results are obtained for regular but not strictly regular $bc.$
The Generalised Dolbeault Complex for Four Dirac Operators in the Stable Rank
Krump, Lukáš
2008-09-01
The Hartog's type phenomena in several complex variables are best understood in term of the Dolbeault sequence. A lot of attention was paid in the last decades to its analogue in the function theory of several Clifford variables. The first operator in this resolution is the Dirac operator in several variables. The complete description is known in dimension 4. Much less is known in higher dimensions. The case of three variables was described completely by F. Colombo, I. Sabadini, F. Sommen, D. C. Struppa. The full description of the complex for all dimensions is not known at present. Even the case of the stable range (i.e., when the number of variables is less or equal to the half of dimension) is still not fully understood. In the paper, we construct the resolution for the case of four variables in the stable range. The main tool used in the construction is the Penrose transform.
FFT-split-operator code for solving the Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions
Mocken, Guido R.; Keitel, Christoph H.
2008-06-01
The main part of the code presented in this work represents an implementation of the split-operator method [J.A. Fleck, J.R. Morris, M.D. Feit, Appl. Phys. 10 (1976) 129-160; R. Heather, Comput. Phys. Comm. 63 (1991) 446] for calculating the time-evolution of Dirac wave functions. It allows to study the dynamics of electronic Dirac wave packets under the influence of any number of laser pulses and its interaction with any number of charged ion potentials. The initial wave function can be either a free Gaussian wave packet or an arbitrary discretized spinor function that is loaded from a file provided by the user. The latter option includes Dirac bound state wave functions. The code itself contains the necessary tools for constructing such wave functions for a single-electron ion. With the help of self-adaptive numerical grids, we are able to study the electron dynamics for various problems in 2+1 dimensions at high spatial and temporal resolutions that are otherwise unachievable. Along with the position and momentum space probability density distributions, various physical observables, such as the expectation values of position and momentum, can be recorded in a time-dependent way. The electromagnetic spectrum that is emitted by the evolving particle can also be calculated with this code. Finally, for planning and comparison purposes, both the time-evolution and the emission spectrum can also be treated in an entirely classical relativistic way. Besides the implementation of the above-mentioned algorithms, the program also contains a large C++ class library to model the geometric algebra representation of spinors that we use for representing the Dirac wave function. This is why the code is called "Dirac++". Program summaryProgram title: Dirac++ or (abbreviated) d++ Catalogue identifier: AEAS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing
Feizi, H.; Shojaei, M. R.; Rajabi, A. A.
2012-04-01
In the case of spin symmetry and pseudospin symmetry, raising and lowering operators and the bound state solutions of the Dirac equation for the spherically Woods-Saxon potential are presented within the context of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. The energy equation and corresponding two-component spinors of the two Dirac particles are obtained in the closed form for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k by using the Pekeris approximation. The Hamiltonian hierarchy method and the shape invariance property are used in the calculations.
Dirac operators, shell interactions, and discontinuous gauge functions across the boundary
Mas, Albert
2017-02-01
Given a bounded smooth domain Ω ⊂ ℝ3, we explore the relation between couplings of the free Dirac operator -iα ṡ ∇ + mβ with pure electrostatic shell potentials λδ∂Ω (λ ∈ ℝ) and some perturbations of those potentials given by the normal vector field N on the shell ∂Ω, namely, {λe + λn(α ṡ N)}δ∂Ω (λe, λn ∈ ℝ). Under the appropriate change of parameters, the couplings with perturbed and unperturbed electrostatic shell potentials yield unitarily equivalent self-adjoint operators. The proof relies on the construction of an explicit family of unitary operators that is well adapted to the study of shell interactions and fits within the framework of gauge theory. A generalization of such unitary operators also allows us to deal with the self-adjointness of couplings of -iα ṡ ∇ + mβ with some shell potentials of magnetic type, namely, λ(α ṡ N) δ∂Ω with λ ∈ C 1 ( ∂ Ω ) .
The square root of the Dirac operator on the superspace and the Maxwell equations
Bzdak, A; Bzdak, Adam; Hadasz, Leszek
2003-01-01
We re-consider the procedure of ``taking a square root of the Dirac equation'' on the superspace and show that it leads to the well known superfield W_\\alpha and to the proper equations of motion for the components, i.e. the Maxwell equations and the massless Dirac equation.
The square root of the Dirac operator on superspace and the Maxwell equations
Bzdak, Adam; Hadasz, Leszek
2004-02-26
We re-consider the procedure of 'taking a square root of the Dirac equation' on superspace and show that it leads to the well-known superfield W{sub {alpha}} and to the proper equations of motion for the components, i.e., the Maxwell equations and the massless Dirac equation.
Non-Abelian 1-Form Gauge Theory With Dirac Fields: Supersymmetric Unitary Operator
Bhanja, T; Malik, R P
2015-01-01
Within the framework of augmented version of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we derive the supersymmetric (SUSY) unitary operator (and its hermitian conjugate) in the context of four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) interacting non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory with Dirac fields. The ordinary 4D non-Abelian theory, defined on the flat 4D Minkowski spacetime manifold, is generalized onto a (4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold which is parameterized by the spacetime bosonic coordinates x^\\mu (with \\mu = 0, 1, 2, 3) and a pair of Grassmannian variables (\\theta, \\bar\\theta) which satisfy the standard relationships: \\theta^2 = {\\bar\\theta}^2 = 0, \\theta\\,\\bar\\theta + \\bar\\theta\\,\\theta = 0. Various consequences of the application of the above SUSY unitary operator (and its hermitian conjugate) are discussed. In particular, we obtain the results of the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and gauge invariant restriction (GIR) in the language of the above SUSY operators. One of the no...
Exactness of the generalized Dolbeault complex for k Dirac operators in the stable rank
Krump, Lukáš; Salač, Tomáš
2012-09-01
The Hartog's type phenomena in several complex variables are best understood in terms of the Dolbeault sequence. A lot of attention was paid in the last decades to its analogue in the function theory of several Clifford variables, i.e. the Dirac operator in several variables. A so-called BGG resolution of this operator is then an analogue to the Dolbeault sequence. The complete description is known in dimension 4. Much less is known in higher dimensions. The case of three variables was described completely by F. Colombo, I. Sabadini, F. Sommen, D. C. Struppa. The full description of the complex for all dimensions is not known at present. In the case of the stable rank (i.e., when the number of variables is less or equal to the half of the even dimension), certain progress has been done. In the paper, we construct the resolution for the case of k variables in the stable range, we show the case of k = 4 in details, and we show the exactness of this sequence. The tools used in the construction are the Penrose transform, Čech cohomology and Leray theorem.
Botelho, Luiz C.L
1998-05-01
It is shown, in a relatively simple way and based on Seeley pseudo-differential operator theory, that the main result of Atiyah-Singer in which the trace of the evolution operator associated to a Dirac-like operator class defined in two-dimensional manifolds and coming out of Quantum Physics has a deep topological meaning 5 refs.
Lowest eigenvalues of the Dirac operator for two color QCD at finite density
Bittner, E; Markum, H; Pullirsch, R; Bittner, Elmar; Lombardo, Maria-Paola; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer
2001-01-01
We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in full QCD with two colors and finite chemical potential. Along the strong-coupling axis up to the temperature phase transition, the low-lying Dirac spectrum is well described by random matrix theory (RMT) and exhibits universal behavior. The situation is discussed in the chirally symmetric phase and no universality is seen for the microscopic spectral density.
Quark mass anomalous dimension from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum
Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics
2013-12-15
We investigate whether it is possible to extract the quark mass anomalous dimension and its scale dependence from the spectrum of the twisted mass Dirac operator in Lattice QCD. The answer to this question appears to be positive, provided that one goes to large enough eigenvalues, sufficiently above the non-perturbative regime. The obtained results are compared to continuum perturbation theory. By analyzing possible sources of systematic effects, we find the domain of applicability of the approach, extending from an energy scale of around 1.5 to 4 GeV. The lower limit is dictated by physics (non-perturbative effects at low energies), while the upper bound is set by the ultraviolet cut-off of present-day lattice simulations. We use gauge field configuration ensembles generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC) with 2 flavours of dynamical twisted mass quarks, at 4 lattice spacings in the range between around 0.04 and 0.08 fm.
Trace Formulas and Borg-Type Theorems for Matrix-Valued Jacobi and Dirac Finite Difference Operators
Clark, Steve; Gesztesy, Fritz; Renger, Walter
2004-01-01
Borg-type uniqueness theorems for matrix-valued Jacobi operators H and supersymmetric Dirac difference operators D are proved. More precisely, assuming reflectionless matrix coefficients A, B in the self-adjoint Jacobi operator H=AS^+ + A^-S^- + B (with S^\\pm the right/left shift operators on the lattice Z) and the spectrum of H to be a compact interval [E_-,E_+], E_- < E_+, we prove that A and B are certain multiples of the identity matrix. An analogous result which, however, displays a cert...
Alexandrou, C; Panagopoulos, H; Vicari, E
2000-01-01
We compute the ratio between the scale $\\Lambda_L$ associated with a lattice formulation of QCD using the overlap-Dirac operator, and $\\Lambda_{MS-bar}$. To this end, the one-loop relation between the lattice coupling $g_0$ and the coupling renormalized in the MS-bar scheme is calculated, using the lattice background field technique. We also compute the one-loop renormalization $Z_\\Gamma$ of the two-quark operators $\\bar{\\psi} \\Gamma \\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes a generic Dirac matrix. Furthermore, we study the renormalization of quark bilinears which are more extended and have better chiral properties. Finally, we present improved estimates of $Z_\\Gamma$, coming from cactus resummation and from mean field perturbation theory.
Dirac Induction for loop groups
Posthuma, H.
2011-01-01
Using a coset version of the cubic Dirac operators for affine Lie algebras, we give an algebraic construction of the Dirac induction homomorphism for loop group representations. With this, we prove a homogeneous generalization of the Weyl-Kac character formula and show compatibility with Dirac induc
Ibort, A
2012-01-01
In these three lectures we will discuss some fundamental aspects of the theory of self-adjoint extensions of the covariant Laplace-Beltrami and Dirac operators on compact Riemannian manifolds with smooth boundary emphasizing the relation with the theory of global boundary conditions. Self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators, specially of the Laplace-Beltrami and Dirac operators, are fundamental in Quantum Physics as they determine either the energy of quantum systems and/or their unitary evolution. The well-known von Neumann's theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is not always easily applicable to differential operators, while the description of extensions in terms of boundary conditions constitutes a more natural approach. Thus an effort is done in offering a description of self-adjoint extensions in terms of global boundary conditions showing how an important family of self-adjoint extensions for the Laplace-Beltrami and Dirac operators are easily describable in this way. Moreover ...
Adaptive Aggregation Based Domain Decomposition Multigrid for the Lattice Wilson Dirac Operator
Frommer, Andreas; Krieg, Stefan; Leder, Björn; Rottmann, Matthias
2013-01-01
In lattice QCD computations a substantial amount of work is spent in solving discretized versions of the Dirac equation. Conventional Krylov solvers show critical slowing down for large system sizes and physically interesting parameter regions. We present a domain decomposition adaptive algebraic multigrid method used as a precondtioner to solve the "clover improved" Wilson discretization of the Dirac equation. This approach combines and improves two approaches, namely domain decomposition and adaptive algebraic multigrid, that have been used seperately in lattice QCD before. We show in extensive numerical test conducted with a parallel production code implementation that considerable speed-up over conventional Krylov subspace methods, domain decomposition methods and other hierarchical approaches for realistic system sizes can be achieved.
Numerical analysis of the spectrum of the Dirac operator in four-dimensional SU(2) gauge fields
Kalkreuter, T
1995-01-01
Two numerical algorithms for the computation of eigenvalues of Dirac operators in lattice gauge theories are described: one is an accelerated conjugate gradient method, the other one a standard Lanczos method. Results obtained by Cullum's and Willoughby's variant of the Lanczos method (whose convergence behaviour is closely linked with the local spectral density) are presented for euclidean Wilson fermions in quenched and unquenched SU(2) gauge fields. Complete spectra are determined on lattices up to 8^3 \\cdot 12, and we derive numerical values for fermionic determinants and results for spectral densities.
Zero modes of the Dirac operator on a noncompact two-dimensional surface in a magnetic field
Sitenko, Y.A. (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR (UA))
1989-09-01
We investigate zero modes of the two-dimensional Dirac operator on a noncompact singly connected surface in an external magnetic field. The number of square-integrable zero modes is shown to be determined by global characteristics of the external field and surface: the flux of the magnetic field through the surface and the Gauss curvature integrated over the surface. The equivalence of the square integrability condition for the noncompact surface to the conditions of the index theorem for a closed compact surface is discussed.
Lewin, Mathieu
2008-01-01
This paper, devoted to the study of spectral pollution, contains both abstract results and applications to some self-adjoint operators with a gap in their essential spectrum occuring in Quantum Mechanics. First we consider Galerkin basis which respect the decomposition of the ambient Hilbert space into a direct sum $H=PH\\oplus(1-P)H$, given by a fixed orthogonal projector $P$, and we localize the polluted spectrum exactly. This is followed by applications to periodic Schr\\"odinger operators (pollution is absent in a Wannier-type basis), and to Dirac operator (several natural decompositions are considered). In the second part, we add the constraint that within the Galerkin basis there is a certain relation between vectors in $PH$ and vectors in $(1-P)H$. Abstract results are proved and applied to several practical methods like the famous "kinetic balance" of relativistic Quantum Mechanics.
Frommer, A; Krieg, S; Leder, B; Rottmann, M
2013-01-01
In lattice QCD computations a substantial amount of work is spent in solving linear systems arising in Wilson's discretization of the Dirac equations. We show first numerical results of the extension of the two-level DD-\\alpha AMG method to a true multilevel method based on our parallel MPI-C implementation. Using additional levels pays off, allowing to cut down the core minutes spent on one system solve by a factor of approximately 700 compared to standard Krylov subspace methods and yielding another speed-up of a factor of 1.7 over the two-level approach.
Solutions of the Dirac Equation in a Magnetic Field and Intertwining Operators
Alonso Contreras-Astorga
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The intertwining technique has been widely used to study the Schrödinger equation and to generate new Hamiltonians with known spectra. This technique can be adapted to find the bound states of certain Dirac Hamiltonians. In this paper the system to be solved is a relativistic particle placed in a magnetic field with cylindrical symmetry whose intensity decreases as the distance to the symmetry axis grows and its field lines are parallel to the x−y plane. It will be shown that the Hamiltonian under study turns out to be shape invariant.
An Index for the Dirac Operator on D3 Brane withBackground Fluxes
Bergshoeff, Eric; /Groningen U.; Kallosh, Renata; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto; Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Sorokin, Dmitri; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2005-08-03
We study the problem of instanton generated superpotentials in Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications directly in type IIB string theory. To this end, we derive the Dirac equation on a Euclidean D3 brane in the presence of background fluxes. We propose an index which governs whether the generation of a superpotential in the effective 4d theory by D3 brane instantons is possible. Applying the formalism to various classes of examples, including the K3 x T{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} orientifold, in the absence and presence of fluxes, we show that our results are consistent with conclusions attainable via duality from an M-theory analysis.
Sochichiu, Corneliu
2011-01-01
We study the emergence of Dirac fermionic field in the low energy description of non-relativistic dynamical network models. The Dirac fermionic field appears as the effective field describing the excitations above point-like Fermi levels. Together with the Dirac fermionic field an effective space-time metric is also emerging. We analyze the conditions for such Fermi points to appear in general, paying special attention to the case of two and three spacial dimensions.
Fujiwara, T
2000-01-01
We investigate the index of the Neuberger's Dirac operator in abelian gauge theories on finite lattices by numerically analyzing the spectrum of the hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator for a continuous family of gauge fields connecting different topological sectors. By clarifying the characteristic structure of the spectrum leading to the index theorem we show that the index coincides to the topological charge for a wide class of gauge field configurations. We also argue that the index can be found exactly for some special but nontrivial configurations in two dimensions by directly analyzing the spectrum.
Three dimensional Dirac semimetals
Zaheer, Saad
We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
2017-01-01
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
Perturbative analysis of the Neuberger-Dirac operator in the Schroedinger functional
Takeda, S
2008-01-01
I examine some properties of the overlap operator in the Schroedinger functional formulated by Luescher at perturbative level. By investigating spectra of the free operator and one-loop coefficient of the Schroedinger functional coupling, I confirm the universality at tree and one-loop level. Furthermore, I address cutoff effects of the step scaling function and it turns out that the lattice artifacts for the overlap operator are comparable with those of the clover actions.
Casajús Ramo, A
2006-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...
Ohno, H; Karsch, F; Mukherjee, S
2011-01-01
We report on the behavior of the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator in (2+1)-flavor QCD at finite temperature, using the HISQ action. We calculate the eigenvalue density at several values of the temperature close to the pseudocritical temperature. For this study we use gauge field configurations generated on lattices of size $32^3 \\times 8$ with two light quark masses corresponding to pion masses of about 160 and 115 MeV. We find that the eigenvalue density below $T_c$ receives large contributions from near-zero modes which become smaller as the temperature increases or the light quark mass decreases. Moreover we find no clear evidence for a gap in the eigenvalue density up to 1.1$T_c$. We also analyze the eigenvalue density near $T_c$ where it appears to show a power-law behavior consistent with what is expected in the critical region near the second order chiral symmetry restoring phase transition in the massless limit.
P. G. L. Leach
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Dirac devised his theory of Quantum Mechanics and recognised that his operators resembled the canonical coordinates of Hamiltonian Mechanics. This gave the latter a new lease of life. We look at what happens to Dirac’s Quantum Mechanics if one starts from Hamiltonian Mechanics.
Bulla, W. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Gesztesy, F. (Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Mathematics); Unterkofler, K. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Mathematics)
1992-02-01
We prove holomorphy of the scattering matrix at fixed energy with respect to c{sup -2} for abstract Dirac operators. Relativistic corrections of order c{sup -2} to the nonrelativistic limit scattering matrix (associated with an abstract Pauli Hamiltonian) are explicitly determined. As applications of our abstract approach we discuss concrete realizations of the Dirac operator in one and three dimensions and explicitly compute relativistic corrections of order c{sup -2} of the reflection and transmission coefficients in one dimension and of the scattering matrix in three dimensions. Moreover, we give a comparison between our approach and the first-order relativistic corrections according to Foldy-Wouthuysen scattering theory and show complete agreement of the two methods. (orig.).
量子与经典对应：Dirac方程中的速度算符%Quantum and classical correspondence for velocity operator in Dirac equation
张治国; 封文江; 郑伟; 陈皓; 崔崧
2016-01-01
Due to Bohr correspondence principle in the quantum mechanics,quantum mechanics go to classical mechanics in the case of large quantum number. Based upon Heisenberg correspondence principle, quantum matrix element of a Hermitian operator reduces to the coefficient of Fourier expansion of the corresponding classical quantity in the classical limit.Using Heisenberg correspondence principle, quantum-classical correspondence of the relativistic free particle and the 1/2 spin charged particles in a constant magnetic field are studied.Applying Heisenberg correspondence principle to Dirac equation in relativistic realm,the operator of free particle in the Dirac theory and quantum-classical correspondence are obtained,and 1/2 spin charged particle in a constant magnetic field in Dirac equation is also studied.For the relativistic free particle or the charged particle in a constant magnetic field,the velocity operator in the Dirac theory will reduce to the classical velocity.%由量子力学中的Bohr对应原理可知,在大量子数情形下,量子力学应过渡到经典力学。在经典极限下,由 Heisenberg 对应原理可知,厄密算符的量子矩阵元对应经典物理量的Fourier展开系数。利用 Heisenberg对应原理研究相对论效应的自由粒子和在匀磁场中的带电粒子的量子经典对应问题。将 Heisenberg对应原理应用到相对论领域的 Dirac 方程,计算出自由粒子的Dirac方程中的α算符及其经典近似,并且研究自旋1/2的带电粒子在匀磁场中的Dirac 方程情形。对于相对论效应的自由粒子和在匀磁场中的带电粒子,Dirac理论中的α算符将对应经典的速度。
The Howe duality for the Dunkl version of the Dirac operator
Ørsted, Bent; Somberg, Petr; Soucek, Vladimir
2009-01-01
The classical Fischer decomposition of polynomials on Euclidean space makes it possible to express any polynomial as a sum of harmonic polynomials multiplied by powers of |x|2. A deformation of the Laplace operator was recently introduced by Ch.F. Dunkl. It has the property that the symmetry...... with respect to the orthogonal group is broken to a finite subgroup generated by reflections (a Coxeter group). It was shown by B. Ørsted and S. Ben Said that there is a deformation of the Fischer decomposition for polynomials with respect to the Dunkl harmonic functions. In Clifford analysis, a Dunkl version...
Bloch, Jacques C R; Frommer, Andreas; Heybrock, Simon; Schaefer, Katrin; Wettig, Tilo
2009-01-01
The overlap operator in lattice QCD requires the computation of the sign function of a matrix, which is non-Hermitian in the presence of a quark chemical potential. In previous work we introduced an Arnoldi-based Krylov subspace approximation, which uses long recurrences. Even after the deflation of critical eigenvalues, the low efficiency of the method restricts its application to small lattices. Here we propose new short-recurrence methods which strongly enhance the efficiency of the computational method. Using rational approximations to the sign function we introduce two variants, based on the restarted Arnoldi process and on the two-sided Lanczos method, respectively, which become very efficient when combined with multishift solvers. Alternatively, in the variant based on the two-sided Lanczos method the sign function can be evaluated directly. We present numerical results which compare the efficiencies of a restarted Arnoldi-based method and the direct two-sided Lanczos approximation for various lattice ...
Gómez, F; Afanasev, L; Benayoun, M; Brekhovskikh, V; Caragheorgheopol, G; Cechák, T; Chiba, M; Constantinescu, S; Doudarev, A; Dreossi, D; Drijard, Daniel; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Gallas, M V; Gerndt, J; Giacomich, R; Gianotti, P; Goldin, D; Gorin, A; Gortchakov, O; Guaraldo, C; Hansroul, M; Hosek, R; Iliescu, M; Jabitski, M; Kalinina, N; Karpoukhine, V; Kluson, J; Kobayshi, M; Kokkas, P; Komarov, V; Koulikov, A; Kouptsov, A; Krouglov, V; Krouglova, L; Kuroda, K I; Lanaro, A; Lapshine, B; Lednicky, R; Leruste, P; Levisandri, P; López-Aguera, A; Lucherini, V; Mäki, T; Manuilov, I; Montanet, L; Narjoux, J L; Nemenov, L; Nikitin, M; Nunez Pardo, T; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Pazos, A; Pentia, M; Penzo, Aldo L; Perreau, J M; Petrascu, C; Pló, M; Ponta, T; Pop, D; Riazantsev, A; Rodríguez, J M; Rodriguez Fernandez, A; Rykaline, V; Santamarina, C; Saborido, J; Schacher, J; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Takeutchi, F; Tarasov, A; Tauscher, L; Tobar, M J; Trusov, S; Vasquez, P; Vlachos, S; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zrelov, P
2001-01-01
The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime tau of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ to pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/ due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/ for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of tau with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies. (19 refs).
Akemann, Gernot [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/DSM/SPhT Saclay, Unite associee CNRS/SPM/URA 2306, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Brunel University West London, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Bittner, Elmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Augustplatz 10/11, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Lombardo, Maria-Paola [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Markum, Harald [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pullirsch, Rainer [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
2005-03-15
We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis.
Kalkreuter, T; Kalkreuter, Thomas; Simma, Hubert
1995-01-01
The low-lying eigenvalues of a (sparse) hermitian matrix can be computed with controlled numerical errors by a conjugate gradient (CG) method. This CG algorithm is accelerated by alternating it with exact diagonalisations in the subspace spanned by the numerically computed eigenvectors. We study this combined algorithm in case of the Dirac operator with (dynamical) Wilson fermions in four-dimensional \\SUtwo gauge fields. The algorithm is numerically very stable and can be parallelized in an efficient way. On lattices of sizes 4^4-16^4 an acceleration of the pure CG method by a factor of~4-8 is found.
Data Management System of the DIRAC Project
Haen, Christophe; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei
2015-01-01
The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...
Puhr, Matthias; Buividovich, Pavel
2016-11-01
We present a method for the numerical calculation of derivatives of functions of general complex matrices. The method can be used in combination with any algorithm that evaluates or approximates the desired matrix function, in particular with implicit Krylov-Ritz-type approximations. An important use case for the method is the evaluation of the overlap Dirac operator in lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at finite chemical potential, which requires the application of the sign function of a non-Hermitian matrix to some source vector. While the sign function of non-Hermitian matrices in practice cannot be efficiently approximated with source-independent polynomials or rational functions, sufficiently good approximating polynomials can still be constructed for each particular source vector. Our method allows for an efficient calculation of the derivatives of such implicit approximations with respect to the gauge field or other external parameters, which is necessary for the calculation of conserved lattice currents or the fermionic force in Hybrid Monte-Carlo or Langevin simulations. We also give an explicit deflation prescription for the case when one knows several eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix being the argument of the differentiated function. We test the method for the two-sided Lanczos approximation of the finite-density overlap Dirac operator on realistic SU(3) gauge field configurations on lattices with sizes as large as 14 ×143 and 6 ×183.
Puhr, Matthias
2016-01-01
We present a method for the numerical calculation of derivatives of functions of general complex matrices. The method can be used in combination with any algorithm that evaluates or approximates the desired matrix function, in particular with implicit Krylov-Ritz-type approximations. An important use case for the method is the evaluation of the overlap Dirac operator in lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at finite chemical potential, which requires the application of the sign function of a non-Hermitian matrix to some source vector. While the sign function of non-Hermitian matrices in practice can not be efficiently approximated with source-independent polynomials or rational functions, sufficiently good approximating polynomials can still be constructed for each particular source vector. Our method allows for an efficient calculation of the derivatives of such implicit approximations with respect to the gauge field or other external parameters, which is necessary for the calculation of conserved lattice cu...
DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb
Tsaregorodtsev, A
2004-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the ARDA project proposal, allowing for the possibility of interchanging the EGEE/ARDA and DIRAC components in the future. Some components developed outside the DIRAC project are already in use as services, for example the File Catalog developed by the AliEn project. An overview of the DIRAC architecture will be given, in particular the recent developments to support user analysis. The main design choices will be presented. One of the main design goals of DIRAC is the simplicity of installation, configuring and operation of various services. This allows all the DIRAC resources to be easily managed by a single Production Manager. The modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new tasks. The DIRAC system al...
CREUTZ, M.
2006-01-26
It is popular to discuss low energy physics in lattice gauge theory ill terms of the small eigenvalues of the lattice Dirac operator. I play with some ensuing pitfalls in the interpretation of these eigenvalue spectra. In short, thinking about the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in the presence of gauge fields can give some insight, for example the elegant Banks-Casher picture for chiral symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, care is necessary because the problem is highly non-linear. This manifests itself in the non-intuitive example of how adding flavors enhances rather than suppresses low eigenvalues. Issues involving zero mode suppression represent one facet of a set of connected unresolved issues. Are there non-perturbative ambiguities in quantities such as the topological susceptibility? How essential are rough gauge fields, i.e. gauge fields on which the winding number is ambiguous? How do these issues interplay with the quark masses? I hope the puzzles presented here will stimulate more thought along these lines.
DIRAC distributed secure framework
Casajus, A.; Graciani, R.; LHCb DIRAC Team
2010-04-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by users to a MyProxy service, and DIRAC retrieves new short delegated proxies when necessary. This contribution discusses the details of the implementation of this security infrastructure in DIRAC.
Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation
Nieto, L M; Samsonov, B F; Samsonov, Boris F.
2003-01-01
The technique of differential intertwining operators (or Darboux transformation operators) is systematically applied to the one-dimensional Dirac equation. The following aspects are investigated: factorization of a polynomial of Dirac Hamiltonians, quadratic supersymmetry, closed extension of transformation operators, chains of transformations, and finally particular cases of pseudoscalar and scalar potentials. The method is widely illustrated by numerous examples.
Photoconductivity in Dirac materials
J. M. Shao
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.
Photoconductivity in Dirac materials
Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W., E-mail: stsygw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Materials & Engineering, School of Physics & Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China)
2015-11-15
Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.
Bloch, J; Lang, B; Wettig, T
2007-01-01
The overlap Dirac operator in lattice QCD requires the computation of the sign function of a matrix. While this matrix is usually Hermitian, it becomes non-Hermitian in the presence of a quark chemical potential. We show how the action of the sign function of a non-Hermitian matrix on an arbitrary vector can be computed efficiently on large lattices by an iterative method. A Krylov subspace approximation based on the Arnoldi algorithm is described for the evaluation of a generic matrix function. The efficiency of the method is spoiled when the matrix has eigenvalues close to a function discontinuity. This is cured by adding a small number of critical eigenvectors to the Krylov subspace, for which we propose two different deflation schemes. The ensuing modified Arnoldi method is then applied to the sign function, which has a discontinuity along the imaginary axis. The numerical results clearly show the improved efficiency of the method. Our modification is particularly effective when the action of the sign fun...
Klein-Gordon and Dirac gyroscopes
SadurnI, E [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: sadurni@fis.unam.mx
2009-01-09
The formulation of a rigid body in relativistic quantum mechanics is studied. Departing from an alternate approach at the relativistic classical level, the corresponding Klein-Gordon and Dirac operators for the rigid body are obtained in covariant form. The resulting wave equations are shown to be consistent, by construction, with earlier definitions of a relativistic rigid body by Aldinger et al (1983 Phys. Rev. D 28 3020). Wavefunctions and spectra for both cases are obtained explicitly, including the Dirac gyroscope with asymmetries.
Superalgebraic representation of Dirac matrices
Monakhov, V. V.
2016-01-01
We consider a Clifford extension of the Grassmann algebra in which operators are constructed from products of Grassmann variables and derivatives with respect to them. We show that this algebra contains a subalgebra isomorphic to a matrix algebra and that it additionally contains operators of a generalized matrix algebra that mix states with different numbers of Grassmann variables. We show that these operators are extensions of spin-tensors to the case of superspace. We construct a representation of Dirac matrices in the form of operators of a generalized matrix algebra.
Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V., E-mail: k.vasilevskiy@ncl.ac.uk; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O' Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-10-21
Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27 nm thick Al₂O₃ gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100 °C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100 °C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100 °C.
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Cuite, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Unidade Academica de Educacao]. E-mail: rafael@df.ufcg.edu.br; rafaelr@cbpf.br
2007-07-01
In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)
Canonical conjugated Dirac equation in a curved space
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir
2012-01-01
It is shown that the calculation of Dirac operator for the spherical coordinate system with spherical Dirac matrices and using the spin connection formalism is in the contradiction with the definition of standard Dirac operator in the spherical Minkowski coordinate system. It is shown that such contradiction one can avoid by introducing a canonical conjugated covariant derivative for the spinor field. The Dirac equation solution on the Reissner - Nordstr\\"om background is obtained. The solution describes a bound state of a charged particle.
Two Qubits in the Dirac Representation
Rajagopal, A K
2000-01-01
A general two qubit system expressed in terms of the complete set of unit and fifteen traceless, Hermitian Dirac matrices, is shown to exhibit novel features of this system. The well-known physical interpretations associated with the relativistic Dirac equation involving the symmetry operations of time-reversal T, charge conjugation C, parity P, and their products are reinterpreted here by examining their action on the basic Bell states. The transformation properties of the Bell basis states under these symmetry operations also reveal that C is the only operator that does not mix the Bell states whereas all others do. In a similar fashion, expressing the various logic gates introduced in the subject of quantum computers in terms of the Dirac matrices shows for example, that the NOT gate is related to the product of time-reversal and parity operators.
Monti, Dalida
1996-01-01
Relativamente poco noto al gran pubblico, il premio Nobel Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac appartiene a quel gruppo di uomini di ingegno che nei primi decenni del secolo contribuirono a dare alla nostra concezione del mondo fisico la sua impronta attuale. Assolutamente cruciali, per una valutazione dell'opera di Dirac, sono gli anni compresi tra il 1925 e il 1931: un periodo in cui il fisico fornisce la prima spiegazione chiara e coerente delle proprietà di spin dell'elettrone (equazione di Dirac) e perviene, in forza della pura deduzione matematica, alla scoperta dell'esistenza dell'elettrone positivo o positrone.
Self-Adjoint domain of Dirac operator with classical method%一维正则Dirac算式自伴域的古典刻画
王平心; 黄振友
2006-01-01
Dirac 方程是量子力学的基本方程,讨论Dirac算式的自伴域在数学物理中有很广泛的应用,本文利用自伴延拓的Calkin描述刻画了一维Dirac算式在区间[a,b]上的自伴域.
Deconstructing non-dissipative non-Dirac-hermitian relativistic quantum systems
Ghosh, Pijush K
2011-01-01
A method to construct non-dissipative non-Dirac-hermitian relativistic quantum system that is isospectral with a Dirac-hermitian Hamiltonian is presented. The general technique involves a realization of the basic canonical (anti-)commutation relations involving the Dirac matrices and the bosonic degrees of freedom in terms of non-Dirac-hermitian operators, which are hermitian in a Hilbert space that is endowed with a pre-determined positive-definite metric. Several examples of exactly solvable non-dissipative non-Dirac-hermitian relativistic quantum systems are presented by establishing/employing a connection between Dirac equation and supersymmetry
Deconstructing non-dissipative non-Dirac-Hermitian relativistic quantum systems
Ghosh, Pijush K.
2011-08-01
A method to construct non-dissipative non-Dirac-Hermitian relativistic quantum system that is isospectral with a Dirac-Hermitian Hamiltonian is presented. The general technique involves a realization of the basic canonical (anti-)commutation relations involving the Dirac matrices and the bosonic degrees of freedom in terms of non-Dirac-Hermitian operators, which are Hermitian in a Hilbert space that is endowed with a pre-determined positive-definite metric. Several examples of exactly solvable non-dissipative non-Dirac-Hermitian relativistic quantum systems are presented by establishing/employing a connection between Dirac equation and supersymmetry.
DIRAC Workload Management System
Paterson, S
2007-01-01
DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) is the Workload and Data Management system (WMS) for the LHCb experiment. The DIRAC WMS offers a transparent way for LHCb users to submit jobs to the EGEE Grid as well as local clusters and individual PCs. This paper will describe workload management optimizations, which ensure high job efficiency and minimized job start times. The computing requirements of the LHCb experiment can only be fulfilled through the use of many distributed compute resources. DIRAC provides a robust platform to run data productions on all the resources available to LHCb including the EGEE Grid. More recently, user support was added to DIRAC that greatly simplifies the procedure of submitting, monitoring and retrieving output of Grid jobs for the LHCb user community. DIRAC submits Pilot Agents to the EGEE Grid via the gLite WMS as normal jobs. Pilot Agents then request jobs from the DIRAC Workload Management System after the local environment has been checked. Therefore DIR...
Algebraic and analytic Dirac induction for graded affine Hecke algebras
Ciubotaru, D.; Opdam, E.M.; Trapa, P.E.
2014-01-01
We define the algebraic Dirac induction map IndD for graded affine Hecke algebras. The map IndD is a Hecke algebra analog of the explicit realization of the Baum-Connes assembly map in the K-theory of the reduced C∗-algebra of a real reductive group using Dirac operators. The definition of IndD is
Relativistic Spinning Particle without Grassmann Variables and the Dirac Equation
A. A. Deriglazov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present the relativistic particle model without Grassmann variables which, being canonically quantized, leads to the Dirac equation. Classical dynamics of the model is in correspondence with the dynamics of mean values of the corresponding operators in the Dirac theory. Classical equations for the spin tensor are the same as those of the Barut-Zanghi model of spinning particle.
On Dirac Zero Modes in Hyperdiamond Model
Drissi, Lalla Btissam
2011-01-01
Using the SU(5) symmetry of the 4D hyperdiamond and results on 4D graphene, we engineer a class of 4D lattice QCD fermions whose Dirac operators have two zero modes. We show that generally the zero modes of the Dirac operator in hyperdiamond fermions are captured by a tensor {\\Omega}_{{\\mu}}^{l} with 4\\times5 complex components linking the Euclidean SO(4) vector {\\mu}; and the 5-dimensional representation of SU(5). The Bori\\c{c}i-Creutz (BC) and the Karsten-Wilzeck (KW) models as well as their Dirac zero modes are rederived as particular realizations of {\\Omega}_{{\\mu}}^{l}. Other features are also given. Keywords: Lattice QCD, Bori\\c{c}i-Creutz and Karsten-Wilzeck models, 4D hyperdiamond, 4D graphene, SU(5) Symmetry.
Deconstructing non-dissipative non-Dirac-hermitian relativistic quantum systems
2011-01-01
A method to construct non-dissipative non-Dirac-hermitian relativistic quantum system that is isospectral with a Dirac-hermitian Hamiltonian is presented. The general technique involves a realization of the basic canonical (anti-)commutation relations involving the Dirac matrices and the bosonic degrees of freedom in terms of non-Dirac-hermitian operators, which are hermitian in a Hilbert space that is endowed with a pre-determined positive-definite metric. Several examples of exactly solvabl...
The Clifford algebra of physical space and Dirac theory
Vaz, Jayme, Jr.
2016-09-01
The claim found in many textbooks that the Dirac equation cannot be written solely in terms of Pauli matrices is shown to not be completely true. It is only true as long as the term β \\psi in the usual Dirac factorization of the Klein-Gordon equation is assumed to be the product of a square matrix β and a column matrix ψ. In this paper we show that there is another possibility besides this matrix product, in fact a possibility involving a matrix operation, and show that it leads to another possible expression for the Dirac equation. We show that, behind this other possible factorization is the formalism of the Clifford algebra of physical space. We exploit this fact, and discuss several different aspects of Dirac theory using this formalism. In particular, we show that there are four different possible sets of definitions for the parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation operations for the Dirac equation.
Structure of Dirac matrices and invariants for nonlinear Dirac equations
2004-01-01
We present invariants for nonlinear Dirac equations in space-time ${\\mathbb R}^{n+1}$, by which we prove that a special choice of the Cauchy data yields free solutions. Our argument works for Klein-Gordon-Dirac equations with Yukawa coupling as well. Related problems on the structure of Dirac matrices are studied.
LI Zi-Ping; LI Ai-Min; JIANG Jin-Huan; WANG Yong-Long
2005-01-01
The extended canonical Noether identities and canonical first Noether theorem derived from an extended action in phase space for a system with a singular Lagrangian are formulated. Using these canonical Noether identities,it can be shown that the constraint multipliers connected with the first-class constraints may not be independent, so a query to a conjecture of Dirac is presented. Based on the symmetry properties of the constrained Hamiltonian system in phase space, a counterexample to a conjecture of Dirac is given to show that Dirac's conjecture fails in such a system.We present here a different way rather than Cawley's examples and other's ones in that there is no linearization of constraints in the problem. This example has a feature that neither the primary first-class constraints nor secondary first-class constraints are generators of the gauge transformation.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
LHCb: Monitoring the DIRAC Distribution System
Nandakumar, R; Santinelli, R
2009-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb gateway to any computing grid infrastructure (currently supporting WLCG) and is intended to reliably run large data mining activities. The DIRAC system consists of various services (which wait to be contacted to perform actions) and agents (which carry out periodic activities) to direct jobs as required. An important part of ensuring the reliability of the infrastructure is the monitoring and logging of these DIRAC distributed systems. The monitoring is done collecting information from two sources - one is from pinging the services or by keeping track of the regular heartbeats of the agents, and the other from the analysis of the error messages generated by both agents and services and collected by the logging system. This allows us to ensure that he components are running properly and to collect useful information regarding their operations. The process status monitoring is displayed using the SLS sensor mechanism which also automatically allows one to plot various quantities and also keep ...
Abel, Steven [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-02-15
A simple and natural model is presented that gives Dirac gauginos. The configuration is related to ''deconstructed gaugino mediation''. A high energy completion is provided based on existing ISS-like models of deconstructed gaugino mediation. This provides a complete picture of Dirac gauginos that includes the necessary extra adjoint fermions (generated as magnetic quarks of the ISS theory) and supersymmetry breaking (via the ISS mechanism). Moreover the screening of the scalar masses means that they can similar to or less than the gaugino masses, even though the supersymmetry breaking is driven by F-terms. (orig.)
Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2011-01-01
In c=1 units the product (mass x radius) for the neutron and the proton is about 4.7\\hbar assuming their radii equal to 1fm. We show that the corresponding products for the Dirac neutral and charged membrane coincide and are equal 1.6\\hbar.
Guignard, G
2005-01-01
The DIRAC project aims to the design and development of one of the key aspects of the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) planned for construction at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany: the broad implementation and optimization of ion storage/cooler rings and of in-ring experimentation with internal targets and secondary beams.
Filling-Enforced Magnetic Dirac Semimetals in Two Dimensions
Young, Steve M.; Wieder, Benjamin J.
2017-05-01
Filling-enforced Dirac semimetals, or those required at specific fillings by the combination of crystalline and time-reversal symmetries, have been proposed in numerous materials. However, Dirac points in these materials are not generally robust against breaking or modifying time-reversal symmetry. We present a new class of two-dimensional Dirac semimetal protected by the combination of crystal symmetries and a special, antiferromagnetic time-reversal symmetry. Systems in this class of magnetic layer groups, while having broken time-reversal symmetry, still respect the operation of time-reversal followed by a half-lattice translation. In contrast to 2D time-reversal-symmetric Dirac semimetal phases, this magnetic Dirac phase is capable of hosting just a single isolated Dirac point at the Fermi level, one that can be stabilized solely by symmorphic crystal symmetries. We find that this Dirac point represents a new quantum critical point, existing at the boundary between Chern insulating, antiferromagnetic topological crystalline insulating, and trivial insulating phases, and we discuss its relationship with condensed matter fermion doubling theorems. We present density functional theoretic calculations which demonstrate the presence of these 2D magnetic Dirac points in FeSe monolayers and discuss the implications for engineering quantum phase transitions in these materials.
Wei Khim Ng
2009-02-01
Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.
DIRAC Workload Management System
Garonne, V; Stokes-Rees, I
2005-01-01
The Workload Management System is the core component of the DIRAC distributed MC production and analysis grid environment of the CERN LHCb experiment. This paper discusses the architecture, implementation and performance of this system. The WMS is a community scheduler, realizing a pull paradigm, particulary for the high troughput computing context. It has recently been used for an intensive physics simulation production involving more than 60 sites, 65 TB of data, and over 1000-GHz processor-years.
Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2016-11-01
Starting with a Nambu-Goto action, a Dirac-like equation can be constructed by taking the square-root of the momentum constraint. The eigenvalues of the resulting Hamiltonian are real and correspond to masses of the excited string. In particular there are no tachyons. A special case of radial oscillations of a closed string in Minkowski space-time admits exact solutions in terms of wave functions of the harmonic oscillator.
The connection between Dirac dynamic and parity symmetry
Villalobos, C H Coronado
2016-01-01
Dirac spinors are important objects in the current literature, the algebraic structure presented in the text-books is a general method to write it, however, not unique. The purpose of the present work is to show an alternative approach to construct Dirac spinors, considering the interchange between the Lorentz representation space (1/2,0) and (0,1/2) made by the "Magic of Pauli matrices" and not by parity, as commonly it was thought. As it is well known, parity operator is related with the Dirac dynamics. The major focus is to establish the relation between Dirac dynamics with parity operator, the reverse path shown in L. D. Speran\\c{c}a (2014).
The connection between Dirac dynamic and parity symmetry
Coronado Villalobos, C. H.; Bueno Rogerio, R. J.
2016-12-01
Dirac spinors are important objects in the current literature, the algebraic structure presented in the text-books is a general method to write it, however, not unique. The purpose of the present work is to show an alternative approach to construct Dirac spinors, considering the interchange between the Lorentz representation space (1/2, 0) and (0, 1/2) made by the magic of Pauli matrices and not by parity, as was commonly thought. As is well known, the parity operator is related with the Dirac dynamics, as can be seen in Sperança L. D., Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, 2 (2014) 1444003. The major focus is to establish the relation between the Dirac dynamics with the parity operator, i.e., the reverse path shown in the paper by Sperança.
Aloisi, A.M.; Nali, P. F.
2016-01-01
In 1931, Dirac advanced a startling prediction about the existence of a new elementary particle, characterized by a magnetic charge of a single polarity: the magnetic monopole. This prediction, that was not based on experimental reasons but on mathematical consistency considerations and the generalization of the formalism of quantum mechanics, illustrates emblematically the Dirac conception of the relationship between physics and mathematics. ----- Nel 1931 Dirac avanz\\`o una sorprendente pre...
Dirac particles in a gravitational field
Gosselin, Pierre [UFR de Mathematiques, Universite Grenoble I, BP74, Institut Fourier, UMR 5582 CNRS-UJF, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Mohrbach, Herve [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Groupe BioPhysStat, ICPMB-FR CNRS 2843, Metz Cedex 3 (France)
2011-09-15
The semiclassical approximation for the Hamiltonian of Dirac particles interacting with an arbitrary gravitational field is investigated. The time dependence of the metric leads to new contributions to the in-band energy operator in comparison to previous works in the static case. In particular we find a new coupling term between the linear momentum and the spin, as well as couplings that contribute to the breaking of the particle-antiparticle symmetry. (orig.)
LHCb: DIRAC Secure Distributed Platform
Casajus, A
2009-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by us...
Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones
Zhen, Bo; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin
2015-01-01
The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformations of the Dirac cone often reveal intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. These two fields of research are in fact connected: here we discover the ability of a Dirac cone to evolve into a ring of exceptional points, which we call an "exceptio...
'Parabolic' trapped modes and steered Dirac cones in platonic crystals.
McPhedran, R C; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Brun, M; Smith, M J A
2015-05-08
This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves governed by the biharmonic operator, and propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the design of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates for a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that these Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters.
The DIRAC Data Management System and the Gaudi dataset federation
Haen, Christophe; Frank, Markus; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei
2015-01-01
The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks.In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. This paper also focuses on the DIRAC File Catalog, for which a lot of new developments have been carried out, so that LH...
Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking
Demir, D.A. [Izmir Institute of Technology, IZTECH, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Physics]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Everett, L.L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States), Dept. of Physics; Langacker, P. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences
2007-12-15
We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1){sup '}), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)
Dirac Geometry of the Holonomy Fibration
Cabrera, Alejandro; Meinrenken, Eckhard
2015-01-01
In this paper, we solve the problem of giving a gauge-theoretic description of the natural Dirac structure on a Lie Group which plays a prominent role in the theory of D- branes for the Wess-Zumino-Witten model as well as the theory of quasi-Hamiltonian spaces. We describe the structure as an infinite-dimensional reduction of the space of connections over the circle. Our insight is that the formal Poisson structure on the space of connections is not an actual Poisson structure, but is itself a Dirac structure, due to the fact that it is defined by an unbounded operator. We also develop general tools for reducing Courant algebroids and morphisms between them, allowing us to give a precise correspondence between Hamiltonian loop group spaces and quasi- Hamiltonian spaces.
Quantum critical point of Dirac fermion mass generation without spontaneous symmetry breaking
He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi
2016-12-01
We study a lattice model of interacting Dirac fermions in (2 +1 ) dimensions space-time with an SU(4) symmetry. While increasing the interaction strength, this model undergoes a continuous quantum phase transition from a weakly interacting Dirac semimetal to a fully gapped and nondegenerate phase without condensing any Dirac fermion bilinear mass operator. This unusual mechanism for mass generation is consistent with recent studies of interacting topological insulators/superconductors, and also consistent with recent progress in the lattice QCD community.
The q-deformed Dirac oscillator in 2 + 1 dimensions
Hatami, N.; Setare, M. R.
2016-10-01
In this paper we obtain the Hamiltonian of Dirac oscillator in an external magnetic field in terms of q-deformed creation and annihilation operators in 2 + 1 dimensions. For this system, we find coordinate representations of q-deformed creation and annihilation operators, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. We also construct the lowest Landau levels exactly by applying the q-deformed Dirac annihilation operator to the vacuum state. This system may be considered for the study of graphene in the q-deformed version.
Blanchet, Steve
2007-01-01
I present here a concise summary of the preprint arXiv:0707.3024, written in collaboration with A. Anisimov and P. Di Bari. There we discuss leptogenesis when {\\em CP} violation stems exlusively from the Dirac phase in the PMNS mixing matrix. Under this assumption it turns out that the situation is very constrained when a hierarchical heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum is considered: the allowed regions are small and the final asymmetry depends on the initial conditions. On the other hand, for a quasi-degenerate spectrum of RH neutrinos, the {\\em CP} asymmetry can be enhanced and the situation becomes much more favorable, with no dependence on the initial conditions. Interestingly, in the extreme case of resonant leptogenesis, in order to match the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, we obtain a lower bound on \\sin \\q_{13} which depends on the lightest active neutrino mass m_1.
A non-uniqueness problem of the Dirac theory in a curved spacetime
Arminjon, Mayeul
2009-01-01
The Dirac equation in a curved spacetime depends on a field of coefficients (essentially the Dirac matrices), for which a continuum of different choices are possible. We study the conditions under which a change of the coefficient fields leads to an equivalent Hamiltonian operator H, or to an equivalent energy operator E. We do that for the standard version of the gravitational Dirac equation, and for two alternative equations based on the tensor representation of the Dirac fields. We find that, for each among the three versions of the equation, the changes that lead to an equivalent operator H are determined by initial data. Thus, the vast majority of the possible coefficient changes do not lead to an equivalent operator H, whence a lack of uniqueness. In particular, the Dirac energy spectrum is not unique.
Yang-Mills gauge fields conserving symmetry algebra of Dirac equation in homogeneous space
Breev, A I
2014-01-01
We consider the Dirac equation with external Yang-Mills gauge field in a homogeneous space with invariant metric. The Yang-Mills fields for which the motion group of the space serves as symmetry group of the Dirac equation are found by comparison of the Dirac equation with a invariant matrix differential operator of the first order. General constructions are illustrated by the example of de Sitter space. The basis of eigenfunctions and corresponding spectrum are obtained for the Dirac equation in the space $\\mathbb{R}^2 \\times \\mathbb{S}^2$ in the framework of the noncommutative integration method.
Quantum logic gates from Dirac quasiparticles
Marino, E. C.; Brozeguini, J. C.
2015-03-01
We show that one of the fundamental operations of topological quantum computation, namely the non-Abelian braiding of identical particles, can be physically realized in a general system of Dirac quasiparticles in 1 + 1D. Our method is based on the study of the analytic structure of the different Euclidean correlation functions of Dirac fields, which are conveniently expressed as functions of a complex variable. When the Dirac field is an (Abelian) anyon with statistics parameter s (2s not an integer), we show that the associated Majorana states of such a field present non-Abelian statistics. The explicit form of the unitary, non-commuting (monodromy) matrices generated upon braiding is derived as a function of s and is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra. For the special case of s = 1/4, we show that the braiding matrices become the logic gates NOT, CNOT,… required in the algorithms of universal quantum computation. We suggest that maybe polyacetylene, alternately doped with alkali and halogen atoms, is a potential candidate for a physical material realization of the system studied here.
Aloisi, A M
2016-01-01
In 1931, Dirac advanced a startling prediction about the existence of a new elementary particle, characterized by a magnetic charge of a single polarity: the magnetic monopole. This prediction, that was not based on experimental reasons but on mathematical consistency considerations and the generalization of the formalism of quantum mechanics, illustrates emblematically the Dirac conception of the relationship between physics and mathematics. ----- Nel 1931 Dirac avanz\\`o una sorprendente previsione circa l'esistenza di una nuova particella elementare, caratterizzata da una carica magnetica di un'unica polarit\\`a: il monopolo magnetico. Questa previsione, che non era fondata su ragioni sperimentali ma su considerazioni di consistenza matematica e sulla generalizzazione del formalismo della meccanica quantistica, illustra emblematicamente la concezione di Dirac del rapporto tra fisica e matematica.
Decoherence in the Dirac equation
Meyer, D A
1998-01-01
A Dirac particle is represented by a unitarily evolving state vector in a Hilbert space which factors as $H_{spin} \\otimes H_{position}$. Motivated by the similarity to simple models of decoherence consisting of a two state system coupled to an environment, we investigate the occurence of decoherence in the Dirac equation upon tracing over position. We conclude that the physics of this mathematically exact model for decoherence is closely related to Zitterbewegung.
Time Delay for the Dirac Equation
Naumkin, Ivan; Weder, Ricardo
2016-10-01
We consider time delay for the Dirac equation. A new method to calculate the asymptotics of the expectation values of the operator {intlimits0 ^{∞}e^{iH0t}ζ(\\vert x\\vert /R) e^{-iH0t}dt}, as {R → ∞}, is presented. Here, H 0 is the free Dirac operator and {ζ(t)} is such that {ζ(t) = 1} for {0 ≤ t ≤ 1} and {ζ(t) = 0} for {t > 1}. This approach allows us to obtain the time delay operator {δ {T}(f)} for initial states f in {{H} 2^{3/2+ɛ}({R}3;{C}4)}, {ɛ > 0}, the Sobolev space of order {3/2+ɛ} and weight 2. The relation between the time delay operator {δ{T}(f)} and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is given. In addition, the relation between the averaged time delay and the spectral shift function is presented.
CERN Bulletin
2010-01-01
When a group of physicists entered the Main Auditorium, during the evening of 29 June, they felt they had opened a time portal. Paul Dirac in front of a blackboard showing his formula. ©Sandra Hoogeboom An attentive audience, dressed in early 1900 costumes, were watching a lecture by the elusive Paul Dirac, presenting for the first time his famous formula on the blackboard. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984) was a British mathematical physicist at Cambridge, and one of the "fathers" of quantum mechanics. When he first wrote it, in 1928, Dirac was not sure what his formula really meant. As demonstrated by Andersson four year later, what Dirac had written on the blackboard was the first definition of a positron, hence he is credited with having anticipated the existence of antimatter. The actor John Kohl performs as Paul Dirac. ©Sandra Hoogeboom What the group of puzzled physicists were really observing when they entered the CERN Auditorium was the shoo...
Adjunctation and Scalar Product in the Dirac Equation - II
Dima, M.
2017-02-01
Part-I Dima (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 949, 2016) of this paper showed in a representation independent way that γ 0 is the Bergmann-Pauli adjunctator of the Dirac { γ μ } set. The distiction was made between similarity (MATH) transformations and PHYS transformations - related to the (covariant) transformations of physical quantities. Covariance is due solely to the gauging of scalar products between systems of reference and not to the particular action of γ 0 on Lorentz boosts - a matter that in the past led inadvertently to the definition of a second scalar product (the Dirac-bar product). Part-II shows how two scalar products lead to contradictions and eliminates this un-natural duality in favour of the canonical scalar product and its gauge between systems of reference. What constitutes a proper observable is analysed and for instance spin is revealed not to embody one (except as projection on the boost direction - helicity). A thorough investigation into finding a proper-observable current for the theory shows that the Dirac equation does not possess one in operator form. A number of problems with the Dirac current operator are revealed - its Klein-Gordon counterpart being significantly more physical. The alternative suggested is finding a current for the Dirac theory in scalar form j^{μ } = < ρ rangle _{_{ψ }}v^{μ }_{ψ }.
Mapping curved spacetimes into Dirac spinors
Sabín, Carlos
2016-01-01
We show how to transform a Dirac equation in curved spacetime into a Dirac equation in flat spacetime. In particular, we show that any solution of the free massless Dirac equation in a 1+1 dimensional flat spacetime can be transformed via a local phase transformation into a solution of the corresponding Dirac equation in a curved background, where the spacetime metric is encoded into the phase. In this way, the existing quantum simulators of the Dirac equation can naturally incorporate curved spacetimes. As a first example we use our technique to obtain solutions of the Dirac equation in a particular family of interesting spacetimes in 1+1 dimensions.
LHCb: LHCbDirac is a DIRAC extension to support LHCb specific workflows
Stagni, Federico
2012-01-01
We present LHCbDIRAC, an extension of the DIRAC community Grid solution to handle the LHCb specificities. The DIRAC software has been developed for many years within LHCb only. Nowadays it is a generic software, used by many scientific communities worldwide. Each community wanting to take advantage of DIRAC has to develop an extension, containing all the necessary code for handling their specific cases. LHCbDIRAC is an actively developed extension, implementing the LHCb computing model and workflows. LHCbDIRAC extends DIRAC to handle all the distributed computing activities of LHCb. Such activities include real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. Other activities are groups and user analysis, data management, resources management and monitoring, data provenance, accounting for user and production jobs. LHCbDIRAC also provides extensions of the DIRAC interfaces, including a secure web client, python APIs and CLIs. While DIRAC and LHCbDIRAC f...
Non-uniqueness of the Dirac theory in a curved spacetime
Arminjon, Mayeul
2010-01-01
We summarize a recent work on the subject title. The Dirac equation in a curved spacetime depends on a field of coefficients (essentially the Dirac matrices), for which a continuum of different choices are possible. We study the conditions under which a change of the coefficient fields leads to an equivalent Hamiltonian operator H, or to an equivalent energy operator E. In this paper, we focus on the standard version of the gravitational Dirac equation, but the non-uniqueness applies also to our alternative versions. We find that the changes which lead to an equivalent operator H, or respectively to an equivalent operator E, are determined by initial data, or respectively have to make some point-dependent antihermitian matrix vanish. Thus, the vast majority of the possible coefficient changes lead neither to an equivalent operator H, nor to an equivalent operator E, whence a lack of uniqueness. We show that even the Dirac energy spectrum is not unique.
Non-uniqueness of the Dirac theory in a curved spacetime
Arminjon, Mayeul; Reifler, Frank
2010-04-01
We summarize a recent work on the subject title. The Dirac equation in a curved spacetime depends on a field of coefficients (essentially the Dirac matrices), for which a continuum of different choices are possible. We study the conditions under which a change of the coefficient fields leads to an equivalent Hamiltonian operator H, or to an equivalent energy operator E. In this paper, we focus on the standard version of the gravitational Dirac equation, but the non-uniqueness applies also to our alternative versions. We find that the changes which lead to an equivalent operator H, or respectively to an equivalent operator E, are determined by initial data, or respectively have to make some point-dependent antihermitian matrix vanish. Thus, the vast majority of the possible coefficient changes lead neither to an equivalent operator H, nor to an equivalent operator E, whence a lack of uniqueness. We show that even the Dirac energy spectrum is not unique.
DIRAC: a community grid solution
Tsaregorodtsev, A [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Av de Luminy Case 902 13288 Marseille (France); Bargiotti, M; Castellani, G; Charpentier, P; Closier, J; Paterson, S; Santinelli, R [CERN CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Brook, N [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Royal Fort, Tyndal Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Ramo, A C; Diaz, R G [University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cioffi, C [University of Oxford, 1, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Kuznetsov, G; Nandakumar, R [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot Oxon. OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Li, Y Y [University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom); Miguelez, M S [University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario Sur, ES-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Jimenez, S G [University Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda dels Paisos Catalans, 26 Tarragona (Spain); Smith, A C, E-mail: atsareg@in2p3.fr
2008-07-15
The DIRAC system was developed in order to provide a complete solution for using the distributed computing resources of the LHCb experiment at CERN for data production and analysis. It allows a concurrent use of over 10K CPUs and 10M file replicas distributed over many tens of sites. The sites can be part of a Computing Grid such as WLCG or standalone computing clusters all integrated in a single management structure. DIRAC is a generic system with the LHCb specific functionality incorporated through a number of plug-in modules. It can be easily adapted to the needs of other communities. Special attention is paid to the resilience of the DIRAC components to allow an efficient use of non-reliable resources. The DIRAC production management components provide a framework for building highly automated data production systems including data distribution and data driven workload scheduling. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC system architecture and design choices. We show how different components are put together to compose an integrated data processing system including all the aspects of the LHCb experiment - from the MC production and raw data reconstruction to the final user analysis.
DIRAC: a community grid solution
Tsaregorodtsev, A; Brook, N; Ramo, A C; Castellani, G; Charpentier, P; Cioffi, C; Closier, J; Díaz, R G; Kuznetsov, G; Li, Y Y; Nandakumar, R; Paterson, S; Santinelli, R; Smith, A C; Miguelez, M S; Jimenez, S G
2008-01-01
The DIRAC system was developed in order to provide a complete solution for using the distributed computing resources of the LHCb experiment at CERN for data production and analysis. It allows a concurrent use of over 10K CPUs and 10M file replicas distributed over many tens of sites. The sites can be part of a Computing Grid such as WLCG or standalone computing clusters all integrated in a single management structure. DIRAC is a generic system with the LHCb specific functionality incorporated through a number of plug-in modules. It can be easily adapted to the needs of other communities. Special attention is paid to the resilience of the DIRAC components to allow an efficient use of non-reliable resources. The DIRAC production management components provide a framework for building highly automated data production systems including data distribution and data driven workload scheduling. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC system architecture and design choices. We show how different components are pu...
Debergh, N M; Samsonov, B F; Van den Bossche, B
2002-01-01
A matricial Darboux operator intertwining two one-dimensional stationary Dirac Hamiltonians is constructed. This operator is such that the potential of the second Dirac Hamiltonian as well as the corresponding eigenfunctions are determined through the knowledge of only two eigenfunctions of the first Dirac Hamiltonian. Moreover this operator together with its adjoint and the two Hamiltonians generate a quadratic deformation of the superalgebra subtending the usual supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Our developments are illustrated on the free particle case and the generalized Coulomb interaction. In the latter case, a relativistic counterpart of shape-invariance is observed.
Stability problem for singular Dirac equation system on finite interval
Ercan, Ahu; Panakhov, Etibar
2017-01-01
In this study, we show the stability problem for the singular Dirac equation system respect to two spectra on finite interval. The meaning of the stability problem of differential operators is to estimate difference of the spectral functions which considered problems when a finite number of eigenvalues of these problems coincide. The method is based on work by Ryabushko in [12]. The author in [12] studied to what extent only finitely many eigenvalues in one or both spectra determine the potential. We obtain a bound on variation of difference of the spectral functions for singular Dirac equation system.
The connection between Dirac dynamic and parity symmetry
2016-01-01
Dirac spinors are important objects in the current literature, the algebraic structure presented in the text-books is a general method to write it, however, not unique. The purpose of the present work is to show an alternative approach to construct Dirac spinors, considering the interchange between the Lorentz representation space (1/2,0) and (0,1/2) made by the "Magic of Pauli matrices" and not by parity, as commonly it was thought. As it is well known, parity operator is related with the Di...
Dirac equations in n + 1 dimensions
Jiang Yu [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2005-02-04
The Dirac equation in n + 1 dimensions is derived by a simple algebraic approach. The similarity in the structure of the arbitrary n-dimensional Dirac equations in a central field and their solutions is discussed.
Spurious Modes in Dirac Calculations and How to Avoid Them
Lewin, Mathieu
2013-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of the occurrence of spurious modes when computing the eigenvalues of Dirac operators, with the motivation to describe relativistic electrons in an atom or a molecule. We present recent mathematical results which we illustrate by simple numerical experiments. We also discuss open problems.
Renormalization and asymptotic expansion of Dirac's polarized vacuum
Gravejat, Philippe; Séré, Eric
2010-01-01
We perform rigorously the charge renormalization of the so-called reduced Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (rBDF) model. This nonlinear theory, based on the Dirac operator, describes atoms and molecules while taking into account vacuum polarization effects. We consider the total physical density including both the external density of a nucleus and the self-consistent polarization of the Dirac sea, but no `real' electron. We show that it admits an asymptotic expansion to any order in powers of the physical coupling constant $\\alphaph$, provided that the ultraviolet cut-off behaves as $\\Lambda\\sim e^{3\\pi(1-Z_3)/2\\alphaph}\\gg1$. The renormalization parameter $0
Moduli Space of Integrable Dirac Structures
Milani, Vida
2009-01-01
In this paper we introduce the notion of integrable Dirac structures on Hermitian modules. The moduli space of the space of integrable Dirac structures is studied. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for the integrability of a Dirac structure is obtained as the solution of a certain partial differential equation.
Qualitative Properties of the Dirac Equation in a Central Potential
Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Santorelli, Pietro
1999-01-01
The Dirac equation for a massive spin-1/2 field in a central potential V in three dimensions is studied without fixing a priori the functional form of V. The second-order equations for the radial parts of the spinor wave function are shown to involve a squared Dirac operator for the free case, whose essential self-adjointness is proved by using the Weyl limit point-limit circle criterion, and a perturbation resulting from the potential. One then finds that a potential of Coulomb type in the Dirac equation leads to a potential term in the above second-order equations which is not even infinitesimally form-bounded with respect to the free operator. Moreover, the conditions ensuring essential self-adjointness of the squared Dirac operators in the interacting case are changed with respect to the free case, i.e. they are expressed by a majorization involving the parameter in the Coulomb potential and the angular momentum quantum number. The underlying motivation for this qualitative analysis is given by the possib...
Time reversal, fermion doubling, and the masses of lattice Dirac fermions in three dimensions
Herbut, Igor F.
2011-06-01
Motivated by recent examples of three-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians with massless Dirac fermions in their (bulk) spectrum, I revisit the problem of fermion doubling on bipartite lattices. The number of components of the Dirac fermion in a time-reversal and parity-invariant d-dimensional lattice system is determined by the minimal representation of the Clifford algebra of d+1 Hermitian Dirac matrices that allows a construction of the time-reversal operator with the square of unity, and it equals 2d for d=2 and 3. Possible mass terms for (spinless) Dirac fermions are listed and discussed. In three dimensions, there are altogether eight independent masses, out of which four are even and four are odd under time reversal. A specific violation of time-reversal symmetry that leads to (minimal) four-component massless Dirac fermion in three dimensions at low energies is constructed.
Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals
Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi
2016-07-01
We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.
Universal Behavior in Dirac Spectra
Verbaarschot, J J M
1997-01-01
In these lectures we review recent results on universal fluctuations of QCD Dirac spectra and applications of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) to QCD. We review general properties of Dirac spectra and discuss the relation between chiral symmetry breaking and correlations of Dirac eigenvalues. In particular, we will focus on the microscopic spectral density density, i.e. the spectral density near zero virtuality on the scale of a typical level spacing. The relation with Leutwyler-Smilga sum-rules will be discussed. The success of applications of RMT to spectra of 'complex' systems leads us to the introduction of a chiral Random Matrix Theory (chRMT) with the global symmetries of the QCD partition function. Our central conjecture is that it decribes correlations of QCD Dirac spectra. We will review recent universality proofs supporting this conjecture. Lattice QCD results for the microscopic spectral density and for correlations in the bulk of the spectrum are shown to be in perfect agreement with chRMT. We close wit...
M. Ko(c)ak; B. G(o)nül
2007-01-01
The solutions, in terms of orthogonal polynomials, of Dirac equation with analytically solvable potentials are investigated within a novel formalism by transforming the relativistic equation into a Schr(o)dinger-like one. Earlier results are discussed in a unified framework, and some solutions of a large class of potentials are given.
Patrice Loïez
2002-01-01
Photo 01: The DIRAC upstream vacuum channel placed between the target and the upstream detector region. Both the non-intracting primary proton beam and the seconday particle channel travel inside the shown vacuum channel. Photo 02: The DIRAC upstream detector region consisting of 4 planes of GEM/MSGC; 3 planes of Scintillating Fibres; 4 planes of Ionisation hodospope. The photo shows the cabling of GEM/MSGC (right end) and Scintillating Fibres (left end) detectors. Photo 03: Detailed view of the 4 GEM/MSGC planes. The secondary particle channel and the detectors are tilted by 5.7 degrees with respect to the primary proton beam channel visible on the bottom. Photo 04: View of the downstream part of the double arm DIRAC spectrometer, facing the direction of incoming particles. The Drift Chamber system, the scintillation hodoscopes and the threshold Cherenkov counters are shown in the picture. Photo 05: The DIRAC vacuum region between upstream detectors and the dipole magnet. The shielding around the primary pro...
Torsion Gravity for Dirac Fields
Fabbri, Luca
2016-01-01
In this article we will take into account the most complete back-ground with torsion and curvature, providing the most exhaustive coupling for the Dirac field: we will discuss the integrability of the interaction of the matter field and the reduction of the matter field equations.
Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware
Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo
2014-06-01
Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several
A mathematical introduction to Dirac's formalism
van Eijndhoven, SJL
1986-01-01
This monograph contains a functional analytic introduction to Dirac''s formalism. The first part presents some new mathematical notions in the setting of triples of Hilbert spaces, mentioning the concept of Dirac basis. The second part introduces a conceptually new theory of generalized functions, integrating the notions of the first part.The last part of the book is devoted to a mathematical interpretation of the main features of Dirac''s formalism. It involves a pairing between distributional bras and kets, continuum expansions and continuum matrices.
Exact decoupling of the Dirac Hamiltonian. III. Molecular properties.
Wolf, Alexander; Reiher, Markus
2006-02-14
Recent advances in the theory of the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian require a fresh and unified view on the calculation of atomic and molecular properties. It is carefully investigated how the four-component Dirac Hamiltonian in the presence of arbitrary electric and magnetic potentials is decoupled to two-component form. In order to cover the whole range of electromagnetic properties on the same footing, a consistent description within the DKH theory is presented. Subtle distinctions are needed between errors arising from any finite-order DKH scheme and effects due to oversimplified and thus approximate decoupling strategies for the Dirac operator, which will, though being numerically negligible in most cases, still be visible in the infinite-order limit of the two-component treatment. Special focus is given to the issue, whether the unitary DKH transformations to be applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian should depend on the property under investigation or not. It is explicitly shown that up to third order in the external potential the transformed property operator is independent of the chosen parametrization of the unitary transformations of the generalized DKH scheme. Since the standard DKH protocol covers the transformation of one-electron integrals only, the presentation is developed for one-electron properties for the sake of brevity. Nevertheless, all findings for the calculation of one-electron properties within a two-component framework presented here also hold for two-electron properties as well.
DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System
Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; LHCb DIRAC Team
2010-04-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.
On Charge Conjugation, Chirality and Helicity of the Dirac and Majorana Equation for Massive Leptons
Eckart Marsch
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We revisit the charge-conjugation operation for the Dirac equation in its chiral representation. A new decomposition of the Dirac spinor field is suggested and achieved by means of projection operators based on charge conjugation, which is discussed here in a non-standard way. Thus, two separate two-component Majorana-type field equations for the eigenfields of the charge-conjugation operator are obtained. The corresponding free fields are entirely separated without a gauge field, but remain mixed and coupled together through an electromagnetic field term. For fermions that are charged and, thus, subjected to the gauge field of electrodynamics, these two Majorana fields can be reassembled into a doublet, which is equivalent to a standard four-component Dirac spinor field. In this way, the Dirac equation is retained in a new guise, which is fully equivalent to that equation in its chiral form.
Gravitational Repulsion and Dirac Antimatter
Kowitt, Mark E.
1996-03-01
Based on an analogy with electron and hole dynamics in semiconductors, Dirac's relativistic electron equation is generalized to include a gravitational interaction using an electromagnetic-type approximation of the gravitational potential. With gravitational and inertial masses decoupled, the equation serves to extend Dirac's deduction of antimatter parameters to include the possibility of gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter. Consequences for general relativity and related “antigravity” issues are considered, including the nature and gravitational behavior of virtual photons, virtual pairs, and negative-energy particles. Basic cosmological implications of antigravity are explored—in particular, potential contributions to inflation, expansion, and the general absence of detectable antimatter. Experimental and observational tests are noted, and new ones suggested.
Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum
Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Warchoł, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.warchol@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30348 Krakow (Poland); Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)
2016-02-10
We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.
Dirac neutrinos from flavor symmetry
Aranda, Alfredo; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F
2013-01-01
We present a model where Majorana neutrino mass terms are forbidden by the flavor symmetry group Delta(27). Neutrinos are Dirac fermions and their masses arise in the same way as that of the charged fermions, due to very small Yukawa couplings. The model fits current neutrino oscillation data and correlates the octant of the atmospheric angle with the magnitude of the lightest neutrino mass, with maximal mixing excluded for any neutrino mass
Parabolic metamaterials and Dirac bridges
Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.
2016-10-01
A new class of multi-scale structures, referred to as `parabolic metamaterials' is introduced and studied in this paper. For an elastic two-dimensional triangular lattice, we identify dynamic regimes, which corresponds to so-called `Dirac Bridges' on the dispersion surfaces. Such regimes lead to a highly localised and focussed unidirectional beam when the lattice is excited. We also show that the flexural rigidities of elastic ligaments are essential in establishing the `parabolic metamaterial' regimes.
Renormalization of Dirac's Polarized Vacuum
Lewin, Mathieu
2010-01-01
We review recent results on a mean-field model for relativistic electrons in atoms and molecules, which allows to describe at the same time the self-consistent behavior of the polarized Dirac sea. We quickly derive this model from Quantum Electrodynamics and state the existence of solutions, imposing an ultraviolet cut-off $\\Lambda$. We then discuss the limit $\\Lambda\\to\\infty$ in detail, by resorting to charge renormalization.
DIRAC: Secure web user interface
Casajus Ramo, A [University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sapunov, M, E-mail: sapunov@in2p3.f [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Av de Luminy Case 902 13288 Marseille (France)
2010-04-01
Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-01
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-09
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals
Li, Yan
2014-07-07
A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.
Effects of near-zero Dirac eigenmodes on axial U(1) symmetry at finite temperature
Tomiya, Akio; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Noaki, Junichi
2014-01-01
We study the axial U(1)A symmetry of Nf = 2 QCD at finite temperature using the Dirac eigenvalue spectrum. The gauge configurations are generated employing the Mobius domain-wall fermion action on 16^3x8 and 32^3x8 lattices. The physical spatial size of these lattices is around 2 fm and 4 fm, respectively, and the simulated temperature is around 200 MeV, which is slightly above the critical temperature of the chiral phase transition. Although the Mobius domain-wall Dirac operator is expected to have a good chiral symmetry and our data actually show small values of the residual mass, we observe significant violation of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation for the low- lying eigenmodes of the Mobius domain-wall Dirac operator. Using the reweighting technique, we compute the overlap-Dirac operator spectrum on the same set of configurations and find a significant difference of the spectrum between the two Dirac operators for the low-lying eigenvalues. The overlap-Dirac spectrum shows a gap from zero, which is insensitive...
Dirac structures on generalized Riemannian manifolds
Vaisman, Izu
2011-01-01
We characterize the Dirac structures that are parallel with respect to Gualtieri's canonical connection of a generalized Riemannian metric. On the other hand, we discuss Dirac structures that are images of generalized tangent structures. These structures turn out to be Dirac structures that, if seen as Lie algebroids, have a symplectic structure. Particularly, if compatibility with a generalized Riemannian metric is required, the symplectic structure is of the Kaehler type.
A Short Biography of Paul A. M. Dirac and Historical Development of Dirac Delta Function
Debnath, Lokenath
2013-01-01
This paper deals with a short biography of Paul Dirac, his first celebrated work on quantum mechanics, his first formal systematic use of the Dirac delta function and his famous work on quantum electrodynamics and quantum statistics. Included are his first discovery of the Dirac relativistic wave equation, existence of positron and the intrinsic…
LI Chang-Hui; DING Hao-Gang; DAI Jian; SONG Xing-Chang
2001-01-01
Several models in noncommutative geometry (NCG) with mild changes to the standard model are introduced to discuss the neutrino mass problem. We use two constraints, Poincaré duality and gauge anomaly free, to discuss the possibility of containing right-handed neutrinos in them. Our work shows that no model in this paper, with each generation containing a right-handed neutrino, can satisfy these two constraints at the same time. So, to consist with neutrino oscillation experiment results, maybe fundamental changes to the present version of NCG are usually needed to include Dirac massive neutrinos.
Dirac tensor with heavy photon
Bytev, V.V.; Kuraev, E.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Scherbakova, E.S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2012-01-15
For the large-angles hard photon emission by initial leptons in process of high energy annihilation of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} to hadrons the Dirac tensor is obtained, taking into account the lowest order radiative corrections. The case of large-angles emission of two hard photons by initial leptons is considered. This result is being completed by the kinematics case of collinear hard photons emission as well as soft virtual and real photons and can be used for construction of Monte-Carlo generators. (orig.)
Phenomenology of Pseudo Dirac Neutrinos
Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.
2000-01-01
We formulate general conditions on $3\\times 3$ neutrino mass matrices under which a degenerate pair of neutrinos at a high scale would split at low scale by radiative corrections involving only the standard model fields. This generalizes the original observations of Wolfenstein on pseudo Dirac neutrinos to three generations. A specific model involving partially broken discrete symmetry and solving the solar and atmospheric anomalies is proposed. The symmetry pattern of the model naturally generates two large angles one of which can account for the large angle MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem.
Qualitative properties of the Dirac equation in a central potential
Esposito, Giampiero; Santorelli, Pietro
1999-07-01
The Dirac equation for a massive spin-1/2 field in a central potential V in three dimensions is studied without fixing a priori the functional form of V. The second-order equations for the radial parts of the spinor wavefunction are shown to involve a squared Dirac operator for the free case, whose essential self-adjointness is proved by using the Weyl limit point-limit circle criterion, and a `perturbation' resulting from the potential. One then finds that a potential of Coulomb type in the Dirac equation leads to a potential term in the above second-order equations which is not even infinitesimally form-bounded with respect to the free operator. Moreover, the conditions ensuring essential self-adjointness of the second-order operators in the interacting case are changed with respect to the free case, i.e. they are expressed by a majorization involving the parameter in the Coulomb potential and the angular momentum quantum number. The same methods are applied to the analysis of coupled eigenvalue equations when the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is not neglected.
Noncommutative Integration and Symmetry Algebra of the Dirac Equation on the Lie Groups
Breev, A. I.; Mosman, E. A.
2016-12-01
The algebra of first-order symmetry operators of the Dirac equation on four-dimensional Lie groups with right-invariant metric is investigated. It is shown that the algebra of symmetry operators is in general not a Lie algebra. Noncommutative reduction mediated by spin symmetry operators is investigated. For the Dirac equation on the Lie group SO(2,1) a parametric family of particular solutions obtained by the method of noncommutative integration over a subalgebra containing a spin symmetry operator is constructed.
Dirac-Kahler Theory and Massless Fields
Pletyukhov, V A
2010-01-01
Three massless limits of the Dirac-Kahler theory are considered. It is shown that the Dirac-Kahler equation for massive particles can be represented as a result of the gauge-invariant mixture (topological interaction) of the above massless fields.
On localization of Dirac fermions by disorder
Medvedyeva, Mariya Vyacheslavivna
2011-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the effects of disorder on two-dimensional systems of Dirac fermions. Disorder localizes the usual electron system governed by the Schroedinger equation. The influence of disorder on Dirac fermions is qualitevely different. We concentrate on a random mass term in the Dira
Representation-independent manipulations with Dirac spinors
Pal, P B
2007-01-01
Dirac matrices, also known as gamma matrices, are defined only up to a similarity transformation. Usually, some explicit representation of these matrices is assumed in order to deal with them. In this article, we show how it is possible to proceed without any such assumption. Various important identities involving Dirac matrices and spinors have been derived without assuming any representation at any stage.
Contemplations on Dirac's equation in quaternionic coordinates
Schuricht, Dirk; Greiter, Martin
2004-11-01
A formulation of Dirac's equation using complex-quaternionic coordinates appears to yield an enormous gain in formal elegance, as there is no longer any need to invoke Dirac matrices. This formulation, however, entails several peculiarities, which we investigate and attempt to interpret.
Dirac and Weyl semimetals with holographic interactions
Jacobs, V.P.J.
2015-01-01
Dirac and Weyl semimetals are states of matter exhibiting the relativistic physics of, respectively, the Dirac and Weyl equation in a three-dimensional bulk material. These three-dimensional semimetals have recently been realized experimentally in various crystals. Theoretically, especially the noni
Solution of the Dirac equation in a curved space with static metric
Alhaidari, A D
2015-01-01
Compatibility of symmetric quantization of the Dirac equation in a curved space with general covariance gives a special representation of the spin connections in which their dot product with the Dirac gamma matrices becomes equal to the "covariant divergence" of the latter. Requiring that the square of the equation gives the conventional Klein-Gordon equation in a curved space results in an operator algebra for the Dirac gamma matrices that involves the "covariant derivative" connections and the Riemann-Christoffel connections. In 1+1 space-time with static metric, we obtain exact solutions of this Dirac equation model for some examples. We also formulate the interacting theory of the model with various coupling modes and solve it in the same space for a given potential configuration.
LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices
Couturier, Ben
2016-01-01
The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and ran on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased load of work, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called "framework". The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an arc...
Dirac particle in gravitational quantum mechanics
Pedram, Pouria
2011-08-01
In this Letter, we consider the effects of the Generalized (Gravitational) Uncertainty Principle (GUP) on the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the Dirac equation. This form of GUP is consistent with various candidates of quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, doubly special relativity and black hole physics and predicts both a minimum measurable length and a maximum measurable momentum. The modified Hamiltonian contains two additional terms proportional to a( and a( where αi are Dirac matrices and a∼1/MPlc is the GUP parameter. For the case of the Dirac free particle and the Dirac particle in a box, we solve the generalized Dirac equation and find the modified energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions.
Neutrinos Are Nearly Dirac Fermions
Cahill, K E
1999-01-01
Neutrino masses and mixings are analyzed in terms of left-handed fields and a 6x6 complex symmetric mass matrix whose singular values are the neutrino masses. An angle theta_nu characterizes the kind of the neutrinos, with theta_nu = 0 for Dirac neutrinos and theta_nu = pi/2 for Majorana neutrinos. If theta_nu = 0, then baryon-minus-lepton number is conserved. When theta_nu is approximately zero, the six neutrino masses coalesce into three nearly degenerate pairs. Thus the smallness of the differences in neutrino masses exhibited in the solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments and the stringent limits on neutrinoless double-beta decay are naturally explained if B-L is approximately conserved and neutrinos are nearly Dirac fermions. If one sets theta_nu = 0.0005, suppresses inter-generational mixing, and imposes a quark-like mass hierarchy, then one may fit the essential features of the solar, reactor, and atmospheric neutrino experiments with otherwise random mass matrices in the eV range. This B-L model le...
Solving Dirac equation using the tridiagonal matrix representation approach
Alhaidari, A.D. [Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 32741, Jeddah 21438 (Saudi Arabia); Bahlouli, H., E-mail: bahlouli@kfupm.edu.sa [Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 32741, Jeddah 21438 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Assi, I.A. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-04-22
The aim of this work is to find exact solutions of the one dimensional Dirac equation using the tridiagonal matrix representation. We write the spinor wavefunction as a bounded infinite sum in a complete basis set, which is chosen such that the matrix representation of the Dirac wave operator becomes tridiagonal and symmetric. This makes the wave equation equivalent to a symmetric three-term recursion relation for the expansion coefficients of the wavefunction. We solve the recursion relation and obtain the relativistic energy spectrum and corresponding state functions. We are honored to dedicate this work to Prof. Hashim A. Yamani on the occasion of his 70th birthday. - Highlights: • We choose L2 basis such that the Dirac wave operator is tridiagonal matrix. • We use the tridiagonal-matrix-representation approach. • The wave equation becomes a symmetric three-term recursion relation. • We solve the associated three-term recursion relation exactly. • The energy spectrum formula is obtained.
Equivalence of Matrix Models for Complex QCD Dirac Spectra
Akemann, G
2003-01-01
Two different matrix models for QCD with a non-vanishing quark chemical potential are shown to be equivalent by mapping the corresponding partition functions. The equivalence holds in the phase with broken chiral symmetry. It is exact in the limit of weak non-Hermiticity, where the chemical potential squared is rescaled with the volume. At strong non-Hermiticity it holds only for small chemical potential. The first model proposed by Stephanov is directly related to QCD and allows to analyze the QCD phase diagram. In the second model suggested by the author all microscopic spectral correlation functions of complex Dirac operators can be calculated in the broken phase. We briefly compare those predictions to complex Dirac eigenvalues from quenched QCD lattice simulations.
Conformal defects in supergravity - backreacted Dirac delta sources
Janik, Romuald A; Witkowski, Piotr
2015-01-01
We construct numerically gravitational duals of theories deformed by localized Dirac delta sources for scalar operators both at zero and at finite temperature. We find that requiring that the backreacted geometry preserves the original scale invariance of the source uniquely determines the potential for the scalar field to be the one found in a certain Kaluza-Klein compactification of $11D$ supergravity. This result is obtained using an efficient perturbative expansion of the backreacted background at zero temperature and is confirmed by a direct numerical computation. Numerical solutions at finite temperatures are obtained and a detailed discussion of the numerical approach to the treatment of the Dirac delta sources is presented. The physics of defect configurations is illustrated with a calculation of entanglement entropy.
Magnetotransport properties near the Dirac point of Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 nanowires
Wang, Li-Xian; Wang, Shuo; Li, Jin-Guang; Li, Cai-Zhen; Xu, Jun; Yu, Dapeng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2017-02-01
Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals are featured by 3D linear energy-momentum dispersion relation, which have been proposed to be a desirable system to study Dirac fermions in 3D space and Weyl fermions in solid-state materials. Significantly, to reveal exotic transport properties of Dirac semimetals, the Fermi level should be close to the Dirac point, around which the linear dispersion is retained. Here we report the magnetotransport properties near the Dirac point in Cd3As2 nanowires, manifesting the evolution of band structure under magnetic field. Ambipolar field effect is observed with the Dirac point at V g = 3.9 V. Under high magnetic field, there is a resistivity dip in transfer curve at the Dirac point, which is caused by the Zeeman splitting enhanced density of state around the Dirac point. Furthermore, the low carrier density in the nanowires makes it feasible to enter into the quantum limit regime, resulting in the quantum linear magnetoresistance being observed even at room temperature. Besides, the dramatic reduction of bulk conductivity due to the low carrier density, together with a large surface to volume ratio of the nanowire, collectively help to reveal the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations from the surface states. Our studies on transport properties around the Dirac point therefore provide deep insights into the emerging exotic physics of Dirac and Weyl fermions.
Karbstein, Felix
2009-07-08
We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)
Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel
2014-05-01
We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.
Batic, D
2005-01-01
In this paper we compute the square root of the generalized squared total angular momentum operator $J$ for a Dirac particle in the Kerr-Newman metric. The separation constant $\\lambda$ arising from the Chandrasekahr separation ansatz turns out to be the eigenvalue of $J$. After proving that $J$ is a symmetry operator, we show the completeness of Chandrasekhar Ansatz for the Dirac equation in oblate spheroidal coordinates and derive an explicit formula for the propagator $e^{-itH}$.
Krylov subspace methods for the Dirac equation
Beerwerth, Randolf; Bauke, Heiko
2015-03-01
The Lanczos algorithm is evaluated for solving the time-independent as well as the time-dependent Dirac equation with arbitrary electromagnetic fields. We demonstrate that the Lanczos algorithm can yield very precise eigenenergies and allows very precise time propagation of relativistic wave packets. The unboundedness of the Dirac Hamiltonian does not hinder the applicability of the Lanczos algorithm. As the Lanczos algorithm requires only matrix-vector products and inner products, which both can be efficiently parallelized, it is an ideal method for large-scale calculations. The excellent parallelization capabilities are demonstrated by a parallel implementation of the Dirac Lanczos propagator utilizing the Message Passing Interface standard.
Krylov subspace methods for the Dirac equation
Beerwerth, Randolf
2014-01-01
The Lanczos algorithm is evaluated for solving the time-independent as well as the time-dependent Dirac equation with arbitrary electromagnetic fields. We demonstrate that the Lanczos algorithm can yield very precise eigenenergies and allows very precise time propagation of relativistic wave packets. The Dirac Hamiltonian's property of not being bounded does not hinder the applicability of the Lanczos algorithm. As the Lanczos algorithm requires only matrix-vector and inner products, which both can be efficiently parallelized, it is an ideal method for large-scale calculations. The excellent parallelization capabilities are demonstrated by a parallel implementation of the Dirac Lanczos propagator utilizing the Message Passing Interface standard.
Quasi-Dirac neutrinos at the LHC
Anamiati, G; Nardi, E
2016-01-01
Lepton number violation is searched for at the LHC using same-sign leptons plus jets. The standard lore is that the ratio of same-sign lepton to opposite-sign lepton events, $R_{ll}$, is equal to $R_{ll}=1$ ($R_{ll}=0$) for Majorana (Dirac) neutrinos. We argue that for "quasi-Dirac" neutrinos, $R_{ll}$ can have any value between 0 and 1, the precise value being controlled by the mass splitting versus the width of the quasi-Dirac resonances. A measurement of $R_{ll}\
Basic quantum mechanics for three Dirac equations in a curved spacetime
Arminjon, Mayeul
2008-01-01
We consider three versions of the Dirac equation in a curved spacetime: the standard (Dirac-Fock-Weyl or DFW) equation, and two alternative versions, both of which are based on the recently proposed tensor representation of the Dirac field (TRD). These three equations differ in the covariant derivative D_mu. A common tool is the hermitizing matrix A. Having the current conservation for any solution of the Dirac equation is equivalent to D_mu (A gamma^mu)=0, where gamma^mu is the field of Dirac matrices. This condition is always verified for DFW with its restricted choice for the field gamma^mu. It similarly restricts the choice of the field gamma^mu for TRD. However, this restriction can be achieved. The frame dependence of a general Hamiltonian operator is studied. For the Dirac Hamiltonian, a positive definite scalar product is defined for all reference frames, and a hermiticity condition is derived in a general curved spacetime with minor restrictions on the coordinate system. For DFW, the hermiticity of t...
On the Neuberger overlap operator
Boriçi, Artan
1999-04-01
We compute Neuberger's overlap operator by the Lanczos algorithm applied to the Wilson-Dirac operator. Locality of the operator for quenched QCD data and its eigenvalue spectrum in an instanton background are studied.
Fermi-Bose duality of the Dirac equation and extended real Clifford-Dirac algebra
I.Yu. Krivsky
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We have proved on the basis of the symmetry analysis of the standard Dirac equation with nonzero mass that this equation may describe not only fermions of spin 1/2 but also bosons of spin 1. The new bosonic symmetries of the Dirac equation in both the Foldy-Wouthuysen and the Pauli-Dirac representations are found. Among these symmetries (together with the 32-dimensional pure matrix algebra of invariance the new, physically meaningful, spin 1 Poincare symmetry of equation under consideration is proved. In order to provide the corresponding proofs, a 64-dimensional extended real Clifford-Dirac algebra is put into consideration.
Dirac field in topologically massive gravity
Sert, Özcan; Adak, Muzaffer
2013-01-01
We consider a Dirac field coupled minimally to the Mielke-Baekler model of gravity and investigate cosmological solutions in three dimensions. We arrive at a family of solutions which exists even in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant.
Dirac and Maxwell equations in Split Octonions
Beradze, Revaz
2016-01-01
The split octonionic form of Dirac and Maxwell equations are found. In contrast with the previous attempts these equations are derived from the octonionic analyticity condition and also we use different basis of the 8-dimensional space of split octonions.
Dirac equation on a curved surface
Brandt, F. T.; Sánchez-Monroy, J. A.
2016-09-01
The dynamics of Dirac particles confined to a curved surface is examined employing the thin-layer method. We perform a perturbative expansion to first-order and split the Dirac field into normal and tangential components to the surface. In contrast to the known behavior of second order equations like Schrödinger, Maxwell and Klein-Gordon, we find that there is no geometric potential for the Dirac equation on a surface. This implies that the non-relativistic limit does not commute with the thin-layer method. Although this problem can be overcome when second-order terms are retained in the perturbative expansion, this would preclude the decoupling of the normal and tangential degrees of freedom. Therefore, we propose to introduce a first-order term which rescues the non-relativistic limit and also clarifies the effect of the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures on the dynamics of the Dirac particles.
Quantum game interpretation of Dirac spinor field
Zhi, Haizhao
2011-01-01
This paper introduced the classical prisoner dilemma with the character and structure of quantum prisoner dilemma's strategy space. Associate with the Dirac spinor field, apply the basic quantum game strategy to the translation of the dynamics of Dirac equation. Decompose the real space and time to lattice we found that the basic interaction of spinor could be translated into quantum game theory. At the same time, we gained the new dynamics of quantized spacial evolutionary game.
On the Dirac Monopole Mass Scale
Caruso, Francisco
2013-01-01
It is shown, by a semi-classical argument, that the Dirac charge quantization is still valid in the (classical) Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory. Then it is possible to calculate Dirac's monopole mass in the framework of this theory, which is not possible in Maxwell's theory. The existence of an upper limit for the field intensities in this theory plays an important role in this proof.
Superpersistent Currents in Dirac Fermion Systems
2017-03-06
TITLE AND SUBTITLE Superpersistent Currents in Dirac Fermion Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0151 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...currents in 2D Dirac material systems and pertinent phenomena in the emerging field of relativistic quantum nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Systematic...anomalous optical transitions, and spin control in topological insulator quantum dots, (4) the discovery of nonlinear dynamics induced anomalous Hall
On the Dirac equation for a quark
Pestov, I B
2003-01-01
It is argued from geometrical, group-theoretical and physical points of view that in the framework of QCD it is not only necessary but also possible to modify the Dirac equation so that correspondence principle holds valid. The Dirac wave equation for a quark is proposed and some consequences are considered. In particular, it is shown that interquark potential expresses the Coulomb law for the quarks and, in fact, coincides with the known Cornell potential.
Plexciton dirac points and topological modes
Onbaşlı, Mehmet Cengiz; Yuen-Zhou, Joel; K. Saikin, Semion; Zhu, Tony; Ross, Caroline A.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Baldo, Marc A.
2016-01-01
Plexcitons are polaritonic modes that result from the strong coupling between excitons and plasmons. Here, we consider plexcitons emerging from the interaction of excitons in an organic molecular layer with surface plasmons in a metallic film. We predict the emergence of Dirac cones in the two-dimensional band-structure of plexcitons due to the inherent alignment of the excitonic transitions in the organic layer. An external magnetic field opens a gap between the Dirac cones if the plexciton ...
Pathways to Naturally Small Dirac Neutrino Masses
Ma, Ernest
2016-01-01
If neutrinos are truly Dirac fermions, the smallness of their masses may still be natural if certain symmetries exist beyond those of the standard model of quarks and leptons. We perform a systematic study of how this may occur at tree level and in one loop. We also propose a scotogenic version of the left-right gauge model with naturally small Dirac neutrino masses in one loop.
Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter
Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason
2013-09-01
In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.
Mathe, Z.; Casajus Ramo, A.; Lazovsky, N.; Stagni, F.
2015-12-01
For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact, robust and responsive web interface that enables users to have better control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The web framework provides a large set of “applications”, each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing ones with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state provider, instead of using cookies. The owner of a view can share it with other users or within a user community. Compatibility between different browsers is assured, as well as with mobile versions. In this paper, we present the new DIRAC Web framework as well as the LHCb extension of the DIRAC Web portal.
Gauge-Invariant Formalism with Dirac-mode Expansion for Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Gongyo, Shinya; Suganuma, Hideo
2012-01-01
We develop a manifestly gauge-covariant expansion of the QCD operator such as the Wilson loop, using the eigen-mode of the QCD Dirac operator $\\Slash D=\\gamma^\\mu D^\\mu$. With this method, we perform a direct analysis of the correlation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QCD Monte Carlo calculation on $6^4$ at $\\beta$=5.6. As a remarkable fact, the confinement force is almost unchanged even after removing the low-lying Dirac modes, which are responsible to chiral symmetry breaking. This indicates that one-to-one correspondence does not hold for between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this analysis, we carefully amputate only the "essence of chiral symmetry breaking" by cutting off the low-lying Dirac modes, and can artificially realize the "confined but chiral restored situation" in QCD.
First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals
Mei, Jun
2012-07-24
By using the k•p method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Generic Friedberg-Lee symmetry of Dirac neutrinos
Luo, Shu; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Li, Xin
2008-12-01
We write out the generic Dirac neutrino mass operator which possesses the Friedberg-Lee symmetry and find that its corresponding neutrino mass matrix is asymmetric. Following a simple way to break the Friedberg-Lee symmetry, we calculate the neutrino mass eigenvalues and show that the resultant neutrino mixing pattern is nearly tri-bimaximal. Imposing the Hermitian condition on the neutrino mass matrix, we also show that the simplified ansatz is consistent with current experimental data and favors the normal neutrino mass hierarchy.
Equivalent of a Thouless energy in lattice QCD Dirac spectra
Berbenni-Bitsch, M E; Ma, J Z; Meyer, S; Wilke, T
2000-01-01
Random matrix theory (RMT) is a powerful statistical tool to model spectral fluctuations. In addition, RMT provides efficient means to separate different scales in spectra. Recently RMT has found application in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In mesoscopic physics, the Thouless energy sets the universal scale for which RMT applies. We try to identify the equivalent of a Thouless energy in complete spectra of the QCD Dirac operator with staggered fermions and $SU_c(2)$ lattice gauge fields. Comparing lattice data with RMT predictions we find deviations which allow us to give an estimate for this scale.
Generic Friedberg-Lee Symmetry of Dirac Neutrinos
Luo, Shu; Li, Xin
2008-01-01
We write out the generic Dirac neutrino mass operator which possesses the Friedberg-Lee (FL) symmetry and find that its corresponding neutrino mass matrix is asymmetric. Following a simple way to break the FL symmetry, we calculate the neutrino mass eigenvalues and show that the resultant neutrino mixing pattern is nearly tri-bimaximal. Imposing the Hermitian condition on the neutrino mass matrix, we also show that the simplified ansatz is consistent with current experimental data and favors the normal neutrino mass hierarchy.
P A M Dirac meets M G Krein: matrix orthogonal polynomials and Dirac's equation
Duran, Antonio J [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo (PO BOX) 1160, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Gruenbaum, F Alberto [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2006-04-07
The solution of several instances of the Schroedinger equation (1926) is made possible by using the well-known orthogonal polynomials associated with the names of Hermite, Legendre and Laguerre. A relativistic alternative to this equation was proposed by Dirac (1928) involving differential operators with matrix coefficients. In 1949 Krein developed a theory of matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials without any reference to differential equations. In Duran A J (1997 Matrix inner product having a matrix symmetric second order differential operator Rocky Mt. J. Math. 27 585-600), one of us raised the question of determining instances of these matrix-valued polynomials going along with second order differential operators with matrix coefficients. In Duran A J and Gruenbaum F A (2004 Orthogonal matrix polynomials satisfying second order differential equations Int. Math. Res. Not. 10 461-84), we developed a method to produce such examples and observed that in certain cases there is a connection with the instance of Dirac's equation with a central potential. We observe that the case of the central Coulomb potential discussed in the physics literature in Darwin C G (1928 Proc. R. Soc. A 118 654), Nikiforov A F and Uvarov V B (1988 Special Functions of Mathematical Physics (Basle: Birkhauser) and Rose M E 1961 Relativistic Electron Theory (New York: Wiley)), and its solution, gives rise to a matrix weight function whose orthogonal polynomials solve a second order differential equation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first instance of a connection between the solution of the first order matrix equation of Dirac and the theory of matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials initiated by M G Krein.
Volfson, Boris
2013-09-01
The hypothesis of transition from a chaotic Dirac Sea, via highly unstable positronium, into a Simhony Model of stable face-centered cubic lattice structure of electrons and positrons securely bound in vacuum space, is considered. 13.75 Billion years ago, the new lattice, which, unlike a Dirac Sea, is permeable by photons and phonons, made the Universe detectable. Many electrons and positrons ended up annihilating each other producing energy quanta and neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The weak force of the electron-positron crystal lattice, bombarded by the chirality-changing neutrinos, may have started capturing these neutrinos thus transforming from cubic crystals into a quasicrystal lattice. Unlike cubic crystal lattice, clusters of quasicrystals are "slippery" allowing the formation of centers of local torsion, where gravity condenses matter into galaxies, stars and planets. In the presence of quanta, in a quasicrystal lattice, the Majorana neutrinos' rotation flips to the opposite direction causing natural transformations in a category comprised of three components; two others being positron and electron. In other words, each particle-antiparticle pair "e-" and "e+", in an individual crystal unit, could become either a quasi- component "e- ve e+", or a quasi- component "e+ - ve e-". Five-to-six six billion years ago, a continuous stimulation of the quasicrystal aetherial lattice by the same, similar, or different, astronomical events, could have triggered Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning processes. The Universe may have started writing script into its own aether in a code most appropriate for the quasicrystal aether "hardware": Eight three-dimensional "alphabet" characters, each corresponding to the individual quasi-crystal unit shape. They could be expressed as quantum Turing machine qubits, or, alternatively, in a binary code. The code numerals could contain terminal and nonterminal symbols of the Chomsky's hierarchy, wherein, the showers of quanta, forming the
DiracQ: A Package for Algebraic Manipulation of Non-Commuting Quantum Variables
John G. Wright
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In several problems of quantum many body physics, one is required to handle complex expressions originating in the non-commutative nature of quantum operators. Their manipulation requires precise ordering and application of simplification rules. This can be cumbersome, tedious and error prone, and often a challenge to the most expert researcher. In this paper we present a software package DiracQ to facilitate such manipulations. The package DiracQ consists of functions based upon and extending considerably the symbolic capabilities of 'Mathematica'. With DiracQ, one can proceed with large scale algebraic manipulations of expressions containing combinations of ordinary numbers or symbols (the c-numbers and arbitrary sets of non-commuting variables (the q-numbers with user defined properties. The DiracQ package is user extendable and comes encoded with the algebraic properties of several standard operators in popular usage. These include Fermionic and Bosonic creation and annihilation operators, spin operators, and canonical position and momentum operators. An example book is provided with some suggestive calculations of large-scale algebraic manipulations.
Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals
Zhang, Xiujuan
2014-01-01
A semi-Dirac cone refers to a peculiar type of dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. It was originally discovered in electron systems, in which the associated quasi-particles are massless along one direction, like those in graphene, but effective-mass-like along the other. It was reported that a semi-Dirac point is associated with the topological phase transition between a semi-metallic phase and a band insulator. Very recently, the classical analogy of a semi-Dirac cone has been reported in an electromagnetic system. Here, we demonstrate that, by accidental degeneracy, two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of square arrays of elliptical cylinders embedded in water are also able to produce the particular dispersion relation of a semi-Dirac cone in the center of the Brillouin zone. A perturbation method is used to evaluate the linear slope and to affirm that the dispersion relation is a semi-Dirac type. If the scatterers are made of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso-frequency surface of the phononic crystal, in which an open hyperbola is changed into a closed ellipse. This topological transition results in drastic change in wave manipulation. On the other hand, the theory also reveals that the phononic crystal is a double-zero-index material along the x-direction and photonic-band-edge material along the perpendicular direction (y-direction). If the scatterers are made of steel, in which the acoustic wave velocity is higher than that in water, the effective medium description fails, even though the semi-Dirac dispersion relation looks similar to that in the previous case. Therefore different wave transport behavior is expected. The semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals described in
Pairing instabilities of Dirac composite fermions
Milovanović, M. V.; Ćirić, M. Dimitrijević; Juričić, V.
2016-09-01
Recently, a Dirac (particle-hole symmetric) description of composite fermions in the half-filled Landau level (LL) was proposed [D. T. Son, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031027 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031027], and we study its possible consequences on BCS (Cooper) pairing of composite fermions (CFs). One of the main consequences is the existence of anisotropic states in single-layer and bilayer systems, which was previously suggested in Jeong and Park [J. S. Jeong and K. Park, Phys. Rev. B 91, 195119 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195119]. We argue that in the half-filled LL in the single-layer case the gapped states may sustain anisotropy, because isotropic pairings may coexist with anisotropic ones. Furthermore, anisotropic pairings with the addition of a particle-hole symmetry-breaking mass term may evolve into rotationally symmetric states, i.e., Pfaffian states of Halperin-Lee-Read (HLR) ordinary CFs. On the basis of the Dirac formalism, we argue that in the quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor 1, with decreasing distance between the layers, weak pairing of p -wave paired CFs is gradually transformed from Dirac to ordinary, HLR-like, with a concomitant decrease in the CF number. Global characterization of low-energy spectra based on the Dirac CFs agrees well with previous calculations performed by exact diagonalization on a torus. Finally, we discuss features of the Dirac formalism when applied in this context.
Gravitationally Coupled Dirac Equation for Antimatter
Jentschura, U D
2013-01-01
The coupling of antimatter to gravity is of general interest because of conceivable cosmological consequences ("surprises") related to dark energy and the cosmological constant. Here, we revisit the derivation of the gravitationally coupled Dirac equation and find that the prefactor of a result given previously in [D.R. Brill and J.A. Wheeler, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 29, p. 465 (1957)] for the affine connection matrix is in need of a correction. We also discuss the conversion the curved-space Dirac equation from East-Coast to West-Coast conventions, in order to bring the gravitationally coupled Dirac equation to a form where it can easily be unified with the electromagnetic coupling as it is commonly used in modern particle physics calculations. The Dirac equation describes anti-particles as negative-energy states. We find a symmetry of the gravitationally coupled Dirac equation, which connects particle and antiparticle solutions for a general space-time metric of the Schwarzschild type and implies that particl...
The LHCb Experience on the Grid from the DIRAC Accounting Data
Puig, A; Graciani, R; Casajús, A
2011-01-01
DIRAC is the software framework developed by LHCb to manage all its computing operations on the Grid. Since 2003 it has been used for large scale Monte Carlo simulation productions and for user analysis of these data. Since the end of 2009, with the start-up of LHC, DIRAC also takes care of the distribution, reconstruction, selection and analysis of the physics data taken by the detector apparatus. During 2009, DIRAC executed almost 5 million jobs for LHCb. In order to execute this workload slightly over 6 million of pilot jobs were submitted, out of which approximately one third were aborted by the Grid infrastructure. In 2010, thanks to their improved efficiency, DIRAC pilots are able, on average, to match and execute between 2 and 3 LHCb jobs during their lifetime, largely reducing the load on the Grid infrastructure. Given the large amount of submitted jobs and used resources, it becomes essential to store detailed information about their execution to track the behaviour of the system. The DIRAC Accountin...
The LHCb Experience on the Grid from the DIRAC Accounting Data
Casajús, A; Puig, A; Vázquez, R
2011-01-01
DIRAC is the software framework developed by LHCb to manage all its computing operations on the Grid. Since 2003 it has been used for large scale Monte Carlo simulation productions and for user analysis of these data. Since the end of 2009, with the start-up of LHC, DIRAC also takes care of the distribution, reconstruction, selection and analysis of the physics data taken by the detector apparatus. During 2009, DIRAC executed almost 5 million jobs for LHCb. In order to execute this workload slightly over 6 million of pilot jobs were submitted, out of which approximately one third were aborted by the Grid infrastructure. In 2010, thanks to their improved efficiency, DIRAC pilots are able, on average, to match and execute between 2 and 3 LHCb jobs during their lifetime, largely reducing the load on the Grid infrastructure.\\\\ Given the large amount of submitted jobs and used resources, it becomes essential to store detailed information about their execution to track the behaviour of the system. The DIRAC Account...
Supersymmetry in 6d Dirac Action
Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tatsumi, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We investigate a 6d Dirac fermion on a rectangle. It is found that the 4d spectrum is governed by $N = 2$ supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Then we demonstrate that the supersymmetry is very useful to classify all allowed boundary conditions and to expand the 6d Dirac field in Kaluza-Klein modes. A striking feature of the model is that even though the 6d Dirac fermion has non-vanishing bulk mass, the 4d mass spectrum can contain degenerate massless chiral fermions, which may provide a hint to solve the generation problem of the quarks and leptons. It is pointed out that zero energy solutions are not affected by the presence of the boundaries, while the boundary conditions work well for determining the positive energy solutions.
Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function
Wilcox, Bethany R
2014-01-01
The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool used in multiple topical areas in the undergraduate physics curriculum. While Dirac delta functions are usually introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students often struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To better understand student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined responses to traditional exam questions and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, constructing two- and three-dimensional delta functions, integrating novel delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units.
Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation
Gerritsma, Rene; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Zaehringer, Florian; Blatt, Rainer; Roos, Christian [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Solano, Enrique [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco - Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain)
2010-07-01
The Dirac equation is a cornerstone in the history of physics, merging successfully quantum mechanics with special relativity, providing a natural description of the electron spin and predicting the existence of anti-matter. However, the Dirac equation also predicts some peculiar effects such as Klein's paradox and Zitterbewegung, an unexpected quivering motion of a free relativistic quantum particle first examined by Schroedinger. In this talk, we report on a proof-of-principle quantum simulation of the one-dimensional Dirac equation using a single trapped ion, which is set to behave as a free relativistic quantum particle. We measure as a function of time the particle position and study Zitterbewegung for different initial superpositions of positive and negative energy spinor states, as well as the cross-over from relativistic to nonrelativistic dynamics.
Existence of Majorana fermion mode and Dirac equation in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Sarkar, Sujit, E-mail: sujit.tifr@gmail.com
2015-10-15
We present the results of low lying collective mode of coupled optical cavity arrays. We derive the Dirac equation for this system and explain the existence of Majorana fermion mode in the system. We present quite a few analytical relations between the Rabi frequency oscillation and the atom–photon coupling strength to explain the different physical situation of our study and also the condition for massless collective mode in the system. We present several analytical relations between the Dirac spinor field, order and disorder operators for our systems. We also show that the Luttinger liquid physics is one of the intrinsic concepts in our system.
Global Solutions of Einstein—Dirac Equation on the Conformal Space
LUQi－Keng; WANGShi－Kun; 等
2001-01-01
The difference between the Riemann and Lorentz spinor manifolds of four dimensions is that the Dirac operator of the former is elliptic and that of the latter is hyperbolic.Moreover the spinor group of the former is a compact group and that of the latter is a noncompact group,which is isomorphic to SL(2,C).Hence the results and their interpretation coming from the two theories would be different.In this short note we study only the Lorentz spinor manifold and,especially,the solutions of Einstein-Dirac equations on the conformal space,which is closely related to the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Global Solutions of Einstein-Dirac Equation on the Conformal Space
LU Qi-Keng; WANG Shi-Kun; WU Ke
2001-01-01
The difference between the Riemann and Lorentz spinor manifolds of four dimensions is that the Dirac operator of the former is elliptic and that of the latter is hyperbolic. Moreover the spinor group of the former is a compact group and that of the latter is a noncompact group, which is isomorphic to SL(2, ). Hence the results and their interpretation coming from the two theories would be different. In this short note we study only the Lorentz spinor manifold and, especially, the solutions of Einstein-Dirac equations on the conformal space, which is closely related to the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems and Dirac brackets
Leon, Manuel de [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Marrero, Juan C. [Departamento de Matematica Fundamental, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Martin de Diego, David [Departamento de Economia Aplicada Cuantitativa, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UNED, Madrid (Spain)
1996-11-07
In this paper the canonical Dirac formalism for time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems is globalized. A time-dependent Dirac bracket which reduces to the usual one for time-independent systems is introduced. (author)
Dirac-Kaehler fermion with noncommutative differential forms on a lattice
Kanamori, I
2003-01-01
Noncommutativity between a differential form and a function allows us to define differential operator satisfying Leibniz's rule on a lattice. We propose a new associative Clifford product defined on the lattice by introducing the noncommutative differential forms. We show that this Clifford product naturally leads to the Dirac-K\\"ahler fermion on the lattice.
Exact Solution to the One-Dimensional Dirac Equation with Time Varying Mass
YANG Jin; XIANG An-Ping; YU Wan-Lun
2003-01-01
We directly use the quantum-invariant operator method to obtain the closed-form solution to the one-dimensional Dirac equation with a time-changing mass with a little manipulation. The solution got is also applicable forthe case with time-independence mass.
Exact Solution to the One-Dimensional Dirac Equation with Time Varying Mass
YANGJin; XIANGAn-Ping; YUWan-Lun
2003-01-01
We directly use the quantum-invariant operator method to obtain the closed-form solution to the one-dimensional Dirac equation with a time-changing mass with a little manipulation. The solution got is also applicable for the case with time-independence mass.
Supersymmetry and Solution of Dirac Equation with Vector and Scalar Potentials
ZHANG Xiao-Long; JU Guo-Xing; FENG Mang; REN Zhong-Zhou; GAO Ke-Lin
2008-01-01
The Dirac equations with vector and scalar potentials of the Coulomb types in two and three dimensions are solved using the supersymmetric quantum mechanics method. For the system of such potentials, the analytical expressions of the matrix dements for both position and momentum operators are obtained.
Single-cone real-space finite difference schemes for the Dirac von Neumann equation
Schreilechner, Magdalena
2015-01-01
Two finite difference schemes for the numerical treatment of the von Neumann equation for the (2+1)D Dirac Hamiltonian are presented. Both utilize a single-cone staggered space-time grid which ensures a single-cone energy dispersion to formulate a numerical treatment of the mixed-state dynamics within the von Neumann equation. The first scheme executes the time-derivative according to the product rule for "bra" and "ket" indices of the density operator. It therefore directly inherits all the favorable properties of the difference scheme for the pure-state Dirac equation and conserves positivity. The second scheme proposed here performs the time-derivative in one sweep. This direct scheme is investigated regarding stability and convergence. Both schemes are tested numerically for elementary simulations using parameters which pertain to topological insulator surface states. Application of the schemes to a Dirac Lindblad equation and real-space-time Green's function formulations are discussed.
Spin eigen-states of Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons
Eremko, Alexander, E-mail: eremko@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Brizhik, Larissa, E-mail: brizhik@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Loktev, Vadim, E-mail: vloktev@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Peremohy av., 37, Kyiv, 03056 (Ukraine)
2015-10-15
Dirac equation for electrons in a potential created by quantum well is solved and the three sets of the eigen-functions are obtained. In each set the wavefunction is at the same time the eigen-function of one of the three spin operators, which do not commute with each other, but do commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian. This means that the eigen-functions of Dirac equation describe three independent spin eigen-states. The energy spectrum of electrons confined by the rectangular quantum well is calculated for each of these spin states at the values of energies relevant for solid state physics. It is shown that the standard Rashba spin splitting takes place in one of such states only. In another one, 2D electron subbands remain spin degenerate, and for the third one the spin splitting is anisotropic for different directions of 2D wave vector.
On Dirac theory in the space with deformed Heisenberg algebra. Exact solutions
Vakarchuk, I O
2005-01-01
The Dirac equation has been studied in which the Dirac matrices $\\hat{\\boldmath$\\alpha$}, \\hat\\beta$ have space factors, respectively $f$ and $f_1$, dependent on the particle's space coordinates. The $f$ function deforms Heisenberg algebra for the coordinates and momenta operators, the function $f_1$ being treated as a dependence of the particle mass on its position. The properties of these functions in the transition to the Schr\\"odinger equation are discussed. The exact solution of the Dirac equation for the particle motion in the Coulomnb field with a linear dependence of the $f$ function on the distance $r$ to the force centre and the inverse dependence on $r$ for the $f_1$ function has been found.
On Dirac theory in the space with deformed Heisenberg algebra: exact solutions
Vakarchuk, I. O.
2005-08-01
The Dirac equation has been studied in which the Dirac matrices \\hat{{\\bm \\alpha}}, \\skew4\\hat{\\beta} have space factors, respectively f and f1, dependent on the particle's space coordinates. The function f deforms Heisenberg algebra for the coordinates and momenta operators, the function f1 being treated as a dependence of the particle mass on its position. The properties of these functions in the transition to the Schrödinger equation are discussed. The exact solution of the Dirac equation for the particle motion in the Coulomb field with a linear dependence of the function f on the distance r to the force centre and the inverse dependence on r for the function f1 has been found.
Maxwell and Dirac theories as an already unified theory
1995-01-01
In this paper we formulate Maxwell and Dirac theories as an already unified theory (in the sense of Misner and Wheeler). We introduce Dirac spinors as "Dirac square root" of the Faraday bivector, and use this in order to find a spinorial representation of Maxwell equations. Then we show that under certain circunstances this spinor equation reduces to an equation formally identical to Dirac equation. Finally we discuss certain conditions under which this equation can be really interpreted as D...
PERSAMAAN MEDAN DIRAC DALAM PENGARUH MEDAN MAGNETIK YANG SERAGAM
Andrias Widiantoro, Erika Rani
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Telah dilakukan perlakuan khusus terhadap persamaan gerak partikel elementer yaitu Persamaan Dirac dengan dipengaruhi oleh medan magnet eksternal yang seragam untuk mendapat solusi Persamaan Dirac dalam pengaruh medan magnetic. Penambahan pengaruh potensial magnetik terhadap momentum dan energi total suatu partikel bermuatan dalam kajian teoritis terhadap persamaan gerak yaitu persamaan Dirac telah memberikan solusi persamaan medan Dirac yang baru, dan kuantisasi kedua yang terdapat konstanta tambahan serta propagasi fermioniknya terdapat suku pengali baru.
Dirac eigenmodes at the QCD Anderson transition
Giordano, Matteo; Pittler, Ferenc; Ujfalusi, Laszlo; Varga, Imre
2014-01-01
Recently we found an Anderson-type localization-delocalization transition in the QCD Dirac spectrum at high temperature. Using spectral statistics we obtained a critical exponent compatible with that of the corresponding Anderson model. Here we study the spatial structure of the eigenmodes both in the localized and the transition region. Based on previous studies in the Anderson model, at the critical point, the eigenmodes are expected to have a scale invariant multifractal structure. We verify the scale invariance of Dirac eigenmodes at the critical point.
Search for Heavy Pointlike Dirac Monopoles
Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.
1998-07-01
We have searched for central production of a pair of photons with high transverse energies in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using 70 pb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron in 1994-1996. If they exist, virtual heavy pointlike Dirac monopoles could rescatter pairs of nearly real photons into this final state via a box diagram. We observe no excess of events above background, and set lower 95% C.L. limits of 610, 870, or 1580 GeV/c2 on the mass of a spin 0, 1/2, or 1 Dirac monopole.
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Dirac Field
WU Ning
2004-01-01
Gravitational interactions of Dirac field are studied in this paper. Based on gauge principle, quantum gauge theory of gravity, which is perturbatively renormalizable, is formulated in the Minkowski space-time. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, gravity is treated as a kind of fundamental interactions, which is transmitted by gravitational gauge tield, and Dirac field couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Based on this theory, we can easily explain gravitational phase effect, which has already been detected by COW experiment.
Two qubits in the Dirac representation
Rajagopal, A. K.; Rendell, R. W.
2001-08-01
The Dirac-matrix representation of a general two-qubit system is shown to exhibit quite interesting features. The relativistic symmetries of time reversal T, charge conjugation C, parity P, and their products are reinterpreted here by examining their action on the Bell states. It is shown that only C does not mix the Bell states whereas all others do. The various logic gates of quantum information theory are also expressed in terms of the Dirac matrices. For example, the NOT gate is related to the product of T and P. A two-qubit density matrix is found to be entangled if it is invariant under C.
Effects of Dirac's Negative Energy Sea on Quantum Numbers
Jackiw, R.
1999-01-01
One route towards understanding both fractional charges and chiral anomalies delves into Dirac's negative energy sea. Usually we think of Dirac's negative energy sea as an unphysical construct, invented to render quantum field theory physically acceptable by hiding the negative energy solutions. I suggest that in fact physical consequences can be drawn from Dirac's construction.
Interconnection of Dirac structures via kernel/image representation
Iftime, Orest V.; Sandovici, Adrian
2011-01-01
Dirac structures are used to mathematically formalize the power-conserving interconnection structure of physical systems. For finite-dimensional systems several representations are available and it is known that the composition (or interconnection) of two Dirac structures is again a Dirac structure.
Lu, Wei; Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Hong; Li, Caizhen; Lai, Jiawei; Zhao, Chuan; Tian, Ye; Liao, Zhimin; Jia, Shuang; Sun, Dong
2016-01-01
Three dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal exhibiting ultrahigh mobility has recently attracted enormous research interests as 3D analogues of graphene. From the prospects of future application toward electronic/optoelectronic devices with extreme performance, it is crucial to understand the relaxation dynamics of photo-excited carriers and their coupling with lattice. In this work, we report ultrafast transient reflection measurements of photo-excited carrier dynamics in cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2), which is among the most stable Dirac semimetals that have been confirmed experimentally. With low energy probe photon of 0.3 eV, photo-excited Dirac Fermions dynamics closing to Dirac point are probed. Through transient reflection measurements on bulk and nanoplate samples that have different doping intensities, and systematic probe wavelength, pump power and lattice temperature dependent measurements, the dynamical evolution of carrier distributions can be retrieved qualitatively using a two-temperature model. The pho...
LHCb: DIRAC A community grid solution
Tsaregorodtsev, A
2007-01-01
The DIRAC project began as a solution for the LHCb experiment at CERN to carry out massive Monte Carlo simulation and data processing on various distributed computing resources. Now it is evolving to a complete Grid solution for community of users such as LHCb.
The Dirac-Electron Vacuum Wave
Daywitt W. C.
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper argues that the Dirac equation can be interpreted as an interaction between the electron core and the Planck vacuum state, where the positive and negative solutions represent respectively the dynamics of the electron core and a vacuum wave propagating within the vacuum state. Results show that the nonrelativistic positive solution reduces to the Schrödinger wave equation
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation.
Gerritsma, R; Kirchmair, G; Zähringer, F; Solano, E; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2010-01-07
The Dirac equation successfully merges quantum mechanics with special relativity. It provides a natural description of the electron spin, predicts the existence of antimatter and is able to reproduce accurately the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. The realm of the Dirac equation-relativistic quantum mechanics-is considered to be the natural transition to quantum field theory. However, the Dirac equation also predicts some peculiar effects, such as Klein's paradox and 'Zitterbewegung', an unexpected quivering motion of a free relativistic quantum particle. These and other predicted phenomena are key fundamental examples for understanding relativistic quantum effects, but are difficult to observe in real particles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in simulations of relativistic quantum effects using different physical set-ups, in which parameter tunability allows access to different physical regimes. Here we perform a proof-of-principle quantum simulation of the one-dimensional Dirac equation using a single trapped ion set to behave as a free relativistic quantum particle. We measure the particle position as a function of time and study Zitterbewegung for different initial superpositions of positive- and negative-energy spinor states, as well as the crossover from relativistic to non-relativistic dynamics. The high level of control of trapped-ion experimental parameters makes it possible to simulate textbook examples of relativistic quantum physics.
Scarring of Dirac fermions in chaotic billiards.
Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2012-07-01
Scarring in quantum systems with classical chaotic dynamics is one of the most remarkable phenomena in modern physics. Previous works were concerned mostly with nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. The question remains outstanding of whether truly relativistic quantum particles that obey the Dirac equation can scar. A significant challenge is the lack of a general method for solving the Dirac equation in closed domains of arbitrary shape. In this paper, we develop a numerical framework for obtaining complete eigensolutions of massless fermions in general two-dimensional confining geometries. The key ingredients of our method are the proper handling of the boundary conditions and an efficient discretization scheme that casts the original equation in a matrix representation. The method is validated by (1) comparing the numerical solutions to analytic results for a geometrically simple confinement and (2) verifying that the calculated energy level-spacing statistics of integrable and chaotic geometries agree with the known results. Solutions of the Dirac equation in a number of representative chaotic geometries establish firmly the existence of scarring of Dirac fermions.
Consequences of Dirac Theory of the Positron
Heisenberg, W K
1936-01-01
According to Dirac's theory of the positron, an electromagnetic field tends to create pairs of particles which leads to a change of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum. These changes are calculated in the special case that no real electrons or positrons are present and the field varies little over a Compton wavelength.
Building Atomic Nuclei with the Dirac Equation
Serot, Brian D.
2003-01-01
The relevance of the Dirac equation for computations of nuclear structure is motivated and discussed. Quantitatively successful results for medium- and heavy-mass nuclei are described, and modern ideas of effective field theory and density functional theory are used to justify them.
Poisson Geometry from a Dirac perspective
Meinrenken, Eckhard
2016-01-01
We present proofs of classical results in Poisson geometry using techniques from Dirac geometry. This article is based on mini-courses at the Poisson summer school in Geneva, June 2016, and at the workshop "Quantum Groups and Gravity" at the University of Waterloo, April 2016.
The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities
Bauer, D; Currie, R; Fayer, S; Huffman, A; Martyniak, J; Rand, D; Richards, A
2015-01-01
The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communiti...
The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities
Bauer, D.; Colling, D.; Currie, R.; Fayer, S.; Huffman, A.; Martyniak, J.; Rand, D.; Richards, A.
2015-12-01
The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communities.
The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones
Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong
2014-01-01
Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...
Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space
MA Kai; WANG Jian-Hua; YUAN Yi
2011-01-01
The Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space is studied in this paper.Firstly,since the Dirac equation is described as a matrix equation in phase space,it is necessary to define the Wigner function as a matrix function in spinor space.Secondly,the matrix form of the Wigner function is proven to support the Dirac equation.Thirdly,by solving the Dirac equation,energy levels and the Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space are obtained.
Dirac dynamical resonance states around Schwarzschild black holes
Zhou, Xiang-Nan; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2013-01-01
Recently, a novel kind of scalar wigs around Schwarzschild black holes---scalar dynamical resonance states were introduced in [Phys. Rev. D 84, 083008 (2011)] and [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 081102 (2012)]. In this paper, we investigate the existence and evolution of Dirac dynamical resonance states. First we look for stationary resonance states of a Dirac field around a Schwarzchild black hole by using the Schrodinger-like equations reduced from the Dirac equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. Then Dirac pseudo-stationary configurations are constructed from the stationary resonance states. We use these configurations as initial data and investigate their numerical evolutions and energy decay. These dynamical solutions are the so-called "Dirac dynamical resonance states". It is found that the energy of the Dirac dynamical resonance states shows an exponential decay. The decay rate of energy is affected by the resonant frequency, the mass of Dirac field, the total angular momentum, and the spin-orbit interaction. In ...
Dirac Quantum Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk
Mallick, Arindam
2015-01-01
Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implications in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum systems and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using different set of conditions which are not uniquely defined. The form of the operators in these model are not always in implementable configuration on an other system. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) which are uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the Dirac quantum cellular automaton (DQCA). This will bridge the connection between Dirac equation(DE)-DQCA-DTQW and eliminate the explicit use of invariance, symmetries and limiting range of parameter to establish the connections. For a combination of par...
a New Formalism for Dirac-Like Theories with Curved Space-Time
Halliday, David Wayne
This paper develops a formalism for Dirac-like equations (linear complex differential equations, linear in all derivatives), allowing for general coordinate and "spin-space" (internal space) transformations. A correspondence principle is also developed by requiring solutions to the Dirac-like equations to be solutions to a Klein-Gordon equation, that is likewise generally invariant. Through this treatment, previous generalizations of the Dirac equation are incorporated, and various aspects of these methods are analyzed. Furthermore, the Yang-Mills-like gauge fields allowed, or required, by the formalism are expressed, and found to be associated with much larger symmetries than most would desire, suggesting either there has been much greater symmetry breaking than expected, or else few of the particles we accept as fundamental really are. It is also found that unless the space-time is "parallelizable" (so there exist fields that are everywhere parallel transported into themselves, which is not generally the case), or some of the wave function components (and separately some of the Yang-Mills fields) are interdependent, we cannot have the Dirac gamma operators commuting with the momentum operators, while simultaneously having a spin-space metric that is compatible with the Yang-Mills fields.
Anderson's absolute objects and constant timelike vector hidden in Dirac matrices
2001-01-01
Anderson's theorem asserting, that symmetry of dynamic equations written in the relativisitically covariant form is determined by symmetry of its absolute objects, is applied to the free Dirac equation. Dirac matrices are the only absolute objects of the Dirac equation. There are two ways of the Dirac matrices transformation: (1) Dirac matrices form a 4-vector and wave function is a scalar, (2) Dirac matrices are scalars and the wave function is a spinor. In the first case the Dirac equation ...
SARAH 3.2: Dirac gauginos, UFO output, and more
Staub, Florian
2013-07-01
SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/O'Mega. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files has seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of the implementation of new models have been created. Program summaryProgram title:SARAH Catalogue identifier: AEIB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 22 411 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 629 206 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: All for which Mathematica is available. Operating system: All for which Mathematica is available. Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEIB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182 (2011) 808 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes, the new version includes all known features of the previous version but also provides the new features mentioned below
Hietanen, A.; Narayanan, R.
2012-01-01
operator to set a scale. We do not observe perturbative scaling in the region studied in this paper. Instead, we observe that the scale changes very slowly with the bare coupling. The lowest eigenvalue of the overlap Dirac operator is another scale that shows similar behavior as a function of the lattice...
Floquet-Engineered Valleytronics in Dirac Systems.
Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, H A; Seradjeh, Babak
2016-01-08
Valley degrees of freedom offer a potential resource for quantum information processing if they can be effectively controlled. We discuss an optical approach to this problem in which intense light breaks electronic symmetries of a two-dimensional Dirac material. The resulting quasienergy structures may then differ for different valleys, so that the Floquet physics of the system can be exploited to produce highly polarized valley currents. This physics can be utilized to realize a valley valve whose behavior is determined optically. We propose a concrete way to achieve such valleytronics in graphene as well as in a simple model of an inversion-symmetry broken Dirac material. We study the effect numerically and demonstrate its robustness against moderate disorder and small deviations in optical parameters.
Dirac Gauginos in Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking
Goodsell, Mark D
2014-01-01
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy -- with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking
Goodsell, Mark D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Tziveloglou, Pantelis, E-mail: pantelis.tziveloglou@vub.ac.be [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium)
2014-12-15
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Chiral scars in chaotic Dirac fermion systems.
Xu, Hongya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2013-02-08
Do relativistic quantum scars in classically chaotic systems possess unique features that are not shared by nonrelativistic quantum scars? We report a class of relativistic quantum scars in massless Dirac fermion systems whose phases return to the original values or acquire a 2π change only after circulating twice about some classical unstable periodic orbits. We name such scars chiral scars, the successful identification of which has been facilitated tremendously by our development of an analytic, conformal-mapping-based method to calculate an unprecedentedly large number of eigenstates with high accuracy. Our semiclassical theory indicates that the physical origin of chiral scars can be attributed to a combined effect of chirality intrinsic to massless Dirac fermions and the geometry of the underlying classical orbit.
BINARY NONLINEARIZATION FOR THE DIRAC SYSTEMS
MAWENXIU
1997-01-01
A Bargmann symmetry constraint is proposed for the Lax pairs and the adjoint Lax pairs of the Dirac systems. It is shown that the spatial part of the nonlinearized Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs is a finite dimensional Linuville integrable Hamiltonian system and that under the control of the spatial part, the time parts of the nonlinearized Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs are interpreted as a hierarchy of commutative, finite dimensional Linuville integrable Hamiltoian systems whose Hamiltonian functions consist of a series of integrals of motion for the spatial part. Moreover an invaiutive representation of solutions of the Dirac systems exhibits their integrability by quadratures. This kind of symmetry constraint procedure involving thespectral problem and the adjoint spectral problem is referred to as a binary nonlinearization technique like a binary Darhoux transformation.
Plexciton Dirac points and topological modes
Yuen-Zhou, Joel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Saikin, Semion K. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Kazan Federal Univ. (Russia); Zhu, Tony [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Onbasli, Mehmet C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ross, Caroline A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bulovic, Vladimir [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baldo, Marc A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2016-06-09
Plexcitons are polaritonic modes that result from the strong coupling between excitons and plasmons. Here, we consider plexcitons emerging from the interaction of excitons in an organic molecular layer with surface plasmons in a metallic film. We predict the emergence of Dirac cones in the two-dimensional band-structure of plexcitons due to the inherent alignment of the excitonic transitions in the organic layer. An external magnetic field opens a gap between the Dirac cones if the plexciton system is interfaced with a magneto-optical layer. The resulting energy gap becomes populated with topologically protected one-way modes, which travel at the interface of this plexcitonic system. Our theoretical proposal suggests that plexcitons are a convenient and simple platform for the exploration of exotic phases of matter and for the control of energy flow at the nanoscale.
LHCb: Pilot Framework and the DIRAC WMS
Graciani, R; Casajus, A
2009-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, pilot jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach. Details of the implementation and the security aspects of this framework will be discussed.
Thermometry for Dirac fermions in graphene
Liu, Fan-Hung; Hsu, Chang-Shun; Lo, Shun-Tsung [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); and others
2015-01-15
We use both the zero-magnetic-field resistivity and the phase coherence time determined by weak localization as independent thermometers for Dirac fermions (DF) in multilayer graphene. In the high current (I) region, there exists a simple power law T{sub DF} ∼ I{sup ∼0.5}, where T{sub DF} is the effective Dirac fermion temperature for epitaxial graphene on SiC. In contrast, T{sub DF} ∼ I{sup ∼1} in exfoliated multilayer graphene. We discuss possible reasons for the different power laws observed in these multilayer graphene systems. Our experimental results on DF-phonon scattering may find applications in graphene-based nanoelectronics.
Classical behaviour of the Dirac bispinor
Bell, S B M; Díaz, B M; Bell, Sarah B. M.; Cullerne, John P.; Diaz, Bernard M.
2000-01-01
It is usually supposed that the Dirac and radiation equations predict that the phase of a fermion will rotate through half the angle through which the fermion is rotated, which means, via the measured dynamical and geometrical phase factors, that the fermion must have a half-integral spin. We demonstrate that this is not the case and that the identical relativistic quantum mechanics can also be derived with the phase of the fermion rotating through the same angle as does the fermion itself. Under spatial rotation and Lorentz transformation the bispinor transforms as a four-vector like the potential and Dirac current. Previous attempts to provide this form of transformational behaviour have foundered because a satisfactory current could not be derived.(14)
Octonion generalization of Pauli and Dirac matrices
Chanyal, B. C.
2015-10-01
Starting with octonion algebra and its 4 × 4 matrix representation, we have made an attempt to write the extension of Pauli's matrices in terms of division algebra (octonion). The octonion generalization of Pauli's matrices shows the counterpart of Pauli's spin and isospin matrices. In this paper, we also have obtained the relationship between Clifford algebras and the division algebras, i.e. a relation between octonion basis elements with Dirac (gamma), Weyl and Majorana representations. The division algebra structure leads to nice representations of the corresponding Clifford algebras. We have made an attempt to investigate the octonion formulation of Dirac wave equations, conserved current and weak isospin in simple, compact, consistent and manifestly covariant manner.
Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation
Gerritsma, R; Zähringer, F; Solano, E; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2009-01-01
The Dirac equation is a cornerstone in the history of physics, merging successfully quantum mechanics with special relativity, providing a natural description of the electron spin and predicting the existence of anti-matter. Furthermore, it is able to reproduce accurately the spectrum of the hydrogen atom and its realm, relativistic quantum mechanics, is considered as the natural transition to quantum field theory. However, the Dirac equation also predicts some peculiar effects such as Klein's paradox and Zitterbewegung, an unexpected quivering motion of a free relativistic quantum particle first examined by Schr\\"odinger. These and other predictions would be difficult to observe in real particles, while constituting key fundamental examples to understand relativistic quantum effects. Recent years have seen an increased interest in simulations of relativistic quantum effects in different physical setups, where parameter tunability allows accessibility to different physical regimes. Here, we perform a proof-of...
Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron
Lanyi, G.
1973-01-01
A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.
Dirac particle in a pseudoscalar potential
Moreno, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico), D.F.; Zentella-Dehesa, A. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Intituto de Quimica, UNAM Ap. Postal 70-213, 04510 (Mexico), D.F.
1996-02-01
We study the problem of a Dirac particle with a pseudoscalar interaction in the potential approximation. It is shown how nonperturbative relativistic solutions arise. The case of the central pseudoscalar potential is explicitly worked out also in a closed form. The angular functions are worked out in general for this central case. Finally for the special case of the spherical well the radial solutions are shown to behave like Bessel-type functions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Gauge Identities and the Dirac Conjecture
Rothe, Heinz J.; Rothe, Klaus D.
2004-01-01
The gauge symmetries of a general dynamical system can be systematically obtained following either a Hamiltonean or a Lagrangean approach. In the former case, these symmetries are generated, according to Dirac's conjecture, by the first class constraints. In the latter approach such local symmetries are reflected in the existence of so called gauge identities. The connection between the two becomes apparent, if one works with a first order Lagrangean formulation. Our analysis applies to purel...
Dynamical seesaw mechanism for Dirac neutrinos
José W.F. Valle
2016-04-01
Full Text Available So far we have not been able to establish that, as theoretically expected, neutrinos are their own anti-particles. Here we propose a dynamical way to account for the Dirac nature of neutrinos and the smallness of their mass in terms of a new variant of the seesaw paradigm in which the energy scale of neutrino mass generation could be accessible to the current LHC experiments.
Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials
Salehi, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, S.A., E-mail: jafari@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Complex Systems and Condensed Matter (CSCM), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-08-15
Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.
Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene
Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro
2015-12-01
Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases.
Pseudospin symmetry in the Dirac phenomenology
Marcos, S.; Niembro, R. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Santander (Spain); Lopez-Quelle, M. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Santander (Spain); Savushkin, L.N. [St. Petersburg University for Telecommunications, Department of Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2007-12-15
In the phenomenological relativistic framework of the Dirac equation for spherical nuclei, we use different kinds of single-particle central potentials ({sigma}{sub S}+{sigma}{sub 0}) to investigate certain aspects of the spin and pseudospin (PS) symmetries. Neither the splitting of PS doublets (PSDs) nor the similarity of the radial parts of the small components (F/r) of the corresponding Dirac spinors have been found related with the magnitude of {sigma}{sub S}+{sigma}{sub 0}, in the sense predicted by several authors in the last decade. This conclusion is shown to be valid, in particular, for a potential of Coulomb type. We give a simple explanation for the strong correlation established in the relativistic calculations between the similarity of the radial parts of the big (small) components of the Dirac spinors of two spin (pseudospin) partners and the number of their nodes. The direct effects of the so-called PS symmetry-breaking term (and its singularity point) on the F functions of the PSDs are also analysed. (orig.)
QED2+1 in Graphene: Symmetries of Dirac Equation in 2+1 Dimensions
Kosiński, P.; Maślanka, P.; S´nska, J.; Zasada, I.
2012-10-01
It is well-known that the tight-binding Hamiltonian of graphene describes the low-energy excitations that appear to be massless chiral Dirac fermions. Thus, in the continuum limit one can analyze the crystal properties using the formalism of quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions (QED_{2+1}) which provides the opportunity to verify the high energy physics phenomena in the condensed matter system. We study the symmetry properties of 2+1-dimensional Dirac equation, both in the noninteracting case and in the case with constant uniform magnetic field included in the model. The maximal symmetry group of the massless Dirac equation is considered by putting it in the Jordan block form and determining the algebra of operators leaving invariant the subspace of solutions. It is shown that the resulting symmetry operators expressed in terms of Dirac matrices cannot be described exclusively in terms of γ matrices (and their products) entering the corresponding Dirac equation. It is a consequence of the reducibility of the considered representation in contrast to the 3+1-dimensional case. Symmetry algebra is demonstrated to be a direct sum of two gL(2,C) algebras plus an eight-dimensional abelian ideal. Since the matrix structure which determines the rotational symmetry has all required properties of the spin algebra, the pseudospin related to the sublattices (M. Mecklenburg and B. C. Regan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011), 116803) gains the character of the real angular momentum, although the degrees of freedom connected with the electron's spin are not included in the model. This seems to be graphene's analogue of the phenomenon called ``spin from isospin'' in high energy physics.
The Integration of CloudStack and OCCI/OpenNebula with DIRAC
Méndez Muñoz, Víctor; Fernández Albor, Víctor; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Casajús Ramo, Adriàn; Fernández Pena, Tomás; Merino Arévalo, Gonzalo; José Saborido Silva, Juan
2012-12-01
The increasing availability of Cloud resources is arising as a realistic alternative to the Grid as a paradigm for enabling scientific communities to access large distributed computing resources. The DIRAC framework for distributed computing is an easy way to efficiently access to resources from both systems. This paper explains the integration of DIRAC with two open-source Cloud Managers: OpenNebula (taking advantage of the OCCI standard) and CloudStack. These are computing tools to manage the complexity and heterogeneity of distributed data center infrastructures, allowing to create virtual clusters on demand, including public, private and hybrid clouds. This approach has required to develop an extension to the previous DIRAC Virtual Machine engine, which was developed for Amazon EC2, allowing the connection with these new cloud managers. In the OpenNebula case, the development has been based on the CernVM Virtual Software Appliance with appropriate contextualization, while in the case of CloudStack, the infrastructure has been kept more general, which permits other Virtual Machine sources and operating systems being used. In both cases, CernVM File System has been used to facilitate software distribution to the computing nodes. With the resulting infrastructure, the cloud resources are transparent to the users through a friendly interface, like the DIRAC Web Portal. The main purpose of this integration is to get a system that can manage cloud and grid resources at the same time. This particular feature pushes DIRAC to a new conceptual denomination as interware, integrating different middleware. Users from different communities do not need to care about the installation of the standard software that is available at the nodes, nor the operating system of the host machine which is transparent to the user. This paper presents an analysis of the overhead of the virtual layer, doing some tests to compare the proposed approach with the existing Grid solution. License
Dirac Branes and Anomalies/Chern-Simons terms in any D
Hill, Christopher T
2009-01-01
The Dirac quantization procedure of a magnetic monopole can be used to derive the coefficient of the D=3 Chern-Simons term through a self-consistency argument, and generalized to any odd D. This yields consistent and covariant axial anomaly coefficients on a D-1 boundary, and Chern-Simons term coefficients. In D=3 magnetic monopoles cannot exist if the Chern-Simons AdA term is present, but the Dirac solenoid becomes a physical closed string carrying electric current. The charge carriers on the string must be consistent with the charge used to quantize the Dirac solenoidal flux, yielding the Chern-Simons term coefficient. In higher odd D the intersection of (D-1)/2 Dirac branes yields a charged world-line permitting the consistency argument. The covariant anomaly coefficients follow readily from generalizing the counterterm. This purely bosonic derivation of anomalies is simple, involving semiclassical evaluation of operators like dAdA...dA in a coherent state representing the brane intersection, and determine...
Tunable multiple layered Dirac cones in optical lattices.
Lan, Z; Celi, A; Lu, W; Öhberg, P; Lewenstein, M
2011-12-16
We show that multiple layered Dirac cones can emerge in the band structure of properly addressed multicomponent cold fermionic gases in optical lattices. The layered Dirac cones contain multiple copies of massless spin-1/2 Dirac fermions at the same location in momentum space, whose different Fermi velocity can be tuned at will. On-site microwave Raman transitions can further be used to mix the different Dirac species, resulting in either splitting of or preserving the Dirac point (depending on the symmetry of the on-site term). The tunability of the multiple layered Dirac cones allows us to simulate a number of fundamental phenomena in modern physics, such as neutrino oscillations and exotic particle dispersions with E~p(N) for arbitrary integer N.
Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals
Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid
2017-07-01
The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, M A3 (M =V , Nb, Ta; A =Al , Ga, In). We show that the VAl3 family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl3 is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.
Pseudo-Dirac dark matter leaves a trace.
De Simone, Andrea; Sanz, Veronica; Sato, Hiromitsu Phil
2010-09-17
Pseudo-Dirac dark matter is a viable type of dark matter which originates from a new Dirac fermion whose two Weyl states get slightly split in mass by a small Majorana term. The decay of the heavier to the lighter state naturally occurs over a detectable length scale. Thus, whenever pseudo-Dirac dark matter is produced in a collider, it leaves a clear trace: a visible displaced vertex in association with missing energy. Moreover, pseudo-Dirac dark matter behaves Dirac-like for relic abundance and Majorana-like in direct detection experiments. We provide a general effective field theory treatment, specializing to a pseudo-Dirac bino. The dark matter mass and the mass splitting can be extracted from measurements of the decay length and the invariant mass of the products, even in the presence of missing energy.
DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb
Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Garonne, V; Witek, M; Romanovski, V; Egede, U; Vagnoni, V; Korolko, I; Blouw, J; Kuznetsov, G; Patrick, G; Gandelman, M; Graciani-Diaz, R; Bernet, R; Brook, N; Pickford, A; Tobin, M; Saroka, A; Stokes-Rees, I; Saborido-Silva, J; Sanchez-Garcia, M
2004-09-30
DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for Monte Carlo (MC) production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the CERN/ARDA-RTAG proposal, which should allow for the interchange of the EGEE/gLite and DIRAC components. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC architecture, as well as the main design choices in its implementation. The light nature and modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new types of tasks. The DIRAC system already uses different types of computing resources - from single PC's to a variety of batch systems and to the Grid environment. In particular, the DIRAC interface to the LCG2 grid will be presented.
DIRAC The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb
Bernet, R; Brook, N; Charpentier, P; Closier, J; Egede, U; Frank, M; Gandelman, M; Garonne, V; Graciani-Díaz, R; Korolko, I; Kuznetsov, G; Patrick, G; Pickford, A; Romanovski, V G; Saborido-Silva, J J; Sánchez-García, M; Saroka, A; Stokes-Rees, I; Tobin, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Vagnoni, V; Witek, M
2005-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the CERN/ARDA-RTAG proposal, which can eventually make possible the interchange of the EGEE/gLite and DIRAC components. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC architecture, as well as the main design choices in its implementation. The light nature and modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new types of tasks. The DIRAC system already uses different types of computing resources - from single PC's to a variety of batch systems and to the Grid environment. In particular, the DIRAC interface to the LCG2 grid will be presented.
Höllwieser, Roman; Heller, Urs M
2011-01-01
Intersections of thick, plane vortices are characterized by the topological charge $|Q|=1/2$. We compare such intersections with the distribution of zeromodes of the Dirac operator in the fundamental and adjoint representation using both the overlap and asqtad staggered fermion formulations in SU(2)-lattice gauge theory. We analyze configurations with four intersections and find that the probability density distribution of fundamental zeromodes in the intersection plane differs significantly from the one obtained analytically in [Phys.\\ Rev.\\ D 66, 85004 (2002)]. The Dirac eigenmodes are clearly sensitive to the traces of the Polyakov (Wilson) lines and do not exactly locate topological charge contributions. Although, the adjoint Dirac operator is able to produce zeromodes for configurations with topological charge $|Q|=1/2$, they do not locate single vortex intersections, as we prove by forming arbitrary linear combinations of these zeromodes - their scalar density peaks at least at two intersection points. ...
Dirac Neutrinos and Dark Matter Stability from Lepton Quarticity
Chuliá, Salvador Centelles; Srivastava, Rahul; Valle, José W F
2016-01-01
We propose to relate dark matter stability to the possible Dirac nature of neutrinos. The idea is illustrated in a simple scheme where small Dirac neutrino masses arise from a type--I seesaw mechanism as a result of a $Z_4$ discrete lepton number symmetry. The latter implies the existence of a viable WIMP dark matter candidate, whose stability arises from the same symmetry which ensures the Diracness of neutrinos.
Integrated optical Dirac physics via inversion symmetry breaking
Collins, Matthew J.; Zhang, Fan; Bojko, Richard; Chrostowski, Lukas; Rechtsman, Mikael C.
2016-12-01
Graphene and boron nitride are two-dimensional materials whose atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice. Their unique properties arise because their electrons behave like relativistic particles (without and with mass, respectively)—namely, they obey the Dirac equation. Here, we use a photonic analog of boron nitride to observe Dirac physics in a silicon integrated optical platform. This will allow for photonic applications of Dirac dispersions (gapped and ungapped) to be realized in an on-chip, integrated nanophotonic platform.
Topological aspects of generalized Harper operators
De Nittis, Giuseppe
2012-01-01
A generalized version of the TKNN-equations computing Hall conductances for generalized Dirac-like Harper operators is derived. Geometrically these equations relate Chern numbers of suitable (dual) bundles naturally associated to spectral projections of the operators.
The GridPP DIRAC project: Implementation of a multi-VO DIRAC service
Bauer, D.; Colling, D.; Currie, R.; Fayer, S.; Huffman, A.; Martyniak, J.; Rand, D.; Richards, A.
2015-12-01
The GridPP consortium provides computing support to many high energy physics projects in the UK. As part of this GridPP offers access to a large amount of highly distributed resources across the UK for multiple collaborations. The userbase supported by GridPP includes hundreds of users spanning multiple virtual organisations with many different computing requirements. In order to provide a common interface to these distributed a centralised DIRAC instance has been setup at Imperial College London. This paper describes the experiences learnt from deploying this DIRAC instance and the modifications that have made to support the GridPP use case.
Unpaired Dirac cones in photonic lattices and networks (Conference Presentation)
Chong, Yidong; Leykam, Daniel; Rechtsman, Mikael C.
2016-09-01
Unpaired Dirac cones are bandstructures with two bands crossing at a single point in the Brillouin zone. It is known that photonic bandstructures can exhibit pairs of Dirac cones, similar to graphene; unpaired cones, however, have not observed in photonics, and have been observed in condensed-matter systems only among topological insulator surface states. We show that unpaired Dirac cones occur in a 2D photonic lattice that is not the surface of a 3D system. These modes have unusual properties, including conical diffraction and antilocalization immune to short-range disorder, due to the absence of "intervalley" scattering between Dirac cones.
Orbital magnetization of interacting Dirac fermions in graphene
Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ting, C. S.
2017-09-01
We present a formalism to calculate the orbital magnetization of interacting Dirac fermions under a magnetic field. In this approach, the divergence difficulty is overcome with a special limit of the derivative of the thermodynamic potential with respect to the magnetic field. The formalism satisfies the particle-hole symmetry of the Dirac fermions system. We apply the formalism to the interacting Dirac fermions in graphene. The charge and spin orderings and the exchange interactions between all the Landau levels are taken into account by the mean-field theory. The results for the orbital magnetization of interacting Dirac fermions are compared with that of noninteracting cases.
Consistency of multi-time Dirac equations with general interaction potentials
Deckert, Dirk-André; Nickel, Lukas
2016-07-01
In 1932, Dirac proposed a formulation in terms of multi-time wave functions as candidate for relativistic many-particle quantum mechanics. A well-known consistency condition that is necessary for existence of solutions strongly restricts the possible interaction types between the particles. It was conjectured by Petrat and Tumulka that interactions described by multiplication operators are generally excluded by this condition, and they gave a proof of this claim for potentials without spin-coupling. Under suitable assumptions on the differentiability of possible solutions, we show that there are potentials which are admissible, give an explicit example, however, show that none of them fulfills the physically desirable Poincaré invariance. We conclude that in this sense, Dirac's multi-time formalism does not allow to model interaction by multiplication operators, and briefly point out several promising approaches to interacting models one can instead pursue.
THE DOUBLE COUPLING OF THE ASHTEKAR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD TO THE DIRAC SPINORAL FIELDS*
吴亚波; 桂元星
2001-01-01
By introducing the double spacetime manifold, the double gamma matrices and Dirac spinors, the action of theDirac spinoral fields is doubled. Furthermore, the double coupling of the Dirac fields to the Ashtekar gravitational fields is studied.
The Hamiltonian structure of Dirac's equation in tensor form and its Fermi quantization
Reifler, Frank; Morris, Randall
1992-01-01
Currently, there is some interest in studying the tensor forms of the Dirac equation to elucidate the possibility of the constrained tensor fields admitting Fermi quantization. We demonstrate that the bispinor and tensor Hamiltonian systems have equivalent Fermi quantizations. Although the tensor Hamiltonian system is noncanonical, representing the tensor Poisson brackets as commutators for the Heisenberg operators directly leads to Fermi quantization without the use of bispinors.
Local moment formation in Dirac electrons
Mashkoori, M.; Mahyaeh, I.; Jafari, S. A.
2015-04-01
Elemental bismuth and its compounds host strong spin-orbit interaction which is at the heart of topologically non-trivial alloys based on bismuth. These class of materials are described in terms of 4x4 matrices at each v point where spin and orbital labels of the underlying electrons are mixed. In this work we investigate the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) within a mean field approximation to address the nature of local magnetic moment formation in a generic Dirac Hamiltonian. Despite the spin-mixing in the Hamiltonian, within the Hartree approximation it turns out that the impuritys Green function is diagonal in spin label. In the three dimensional Dirac materials defined over a bandwidth D and spin-orbit parameter γ, that hybridizes with impurity through V, a natural dimensionless parameter V2D/2πγ3 emerges. So neither the hybridization strength, V, nor the spin-orbit coupling γ, but a combination thereof governs the phase diagram. By tuning chemical potential and the impurity level, we present phase diagram for various values of Hubbard U. Numerical results suggest that strong spin-orbit coupling enhances the local moment formation both in terms of its strength and the area of the local moment region. In the case that we tune the chemical potential in a similar way as normal metal we find that magnetic region is confined to μ ≥ ε0, in sharp contrast to 2D Dirac fermions. If one fixes the chemical potential and tunes the impurity level, phase diagram has two magnetic regions which corresponds to hybridization of impurity level with lower and upper bands.
Dirac Phenomenology and Hyperon-Nucleus Interactions
J., MARES; B. K., JENNINGS; E. D., COOPER; Triumf, 4004 Wesbrook Mall; Department of Physics, University College of the Fraser Valley
1995-01-01
We discuss various aspects of hyperon-nucleus interactions in the relativistic mean field theory. First, characteristics of Λ, Σ and Ξ hypernuclei, as well as multi-strange baryonic objects, are investigated. The spin-orbit splittings and magnetic moments are shown to be very sensitive to the value of the tensor coupling f_. Second, optical potentials for Λ and Σ scattering off nuclei are developed based on a global nucleon-nucleus Dirac optical potential and SU(3) symmetry. The tensor coupli...
Dirac oscillator interacting with a topological defect
Carvalho, J.; Furtado, C.; Moraes, F. [Unidade Academica de Tecnologia de Alimentos, CCTA, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Pereiros, 58840-000, Pombal, Paraiba (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Cidade Universitaria, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2011-09-15
In this work we study the interaction problem of a Dirac oscillator with gravitational fields produced by topological defects. The energy levels of the relativistic oscillator in the cosmic string and in the cosmic dislocation space-times are sensible to curvature and torsion associated to these defects and are important evidence of the influence of the topology on this system. In the presence of a localized magnetic field the energy levels acquire a term associated with the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues and see that in the nonrelativistic limit some results known in standard quantum mechanics are reached.
Dirac equation and the Melvin metric
Santos, L.C.N.; Barros, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Depto de Fisica-CFM, CP. 476, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)
2016-10-15
A relativistic wave equation for spin 1/2 particles in the Melvin space-time, a space-time where the metric is determined by a magnetic field, is obtained. The energy levels for these particles are obtained as functions of the magnetic field and compared with the ones calculated with the Dirac equation in the flat Minkowski space-time. The numeric values for some magnetic fields of interest are shown. With these results, the effects of very intense magnetic fields on the energy levels, as intense as the ones expected to be produced in magnetars or in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, are investigated. (orig.)
Third level trigger of the DIRAC experiment
Gallas-Torreira, M V
2002-01-01
A fast and complete programmable high level trigger processor for the DIRAC experiment at CERN was designed and arranged based on state-of- art field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. The implemented logic was created from Monte Carlo simulation results and further checked with real experimental data. Correspondence between desired and implemented logic was proved previously by use of a complete digital pattern generator built also with FPGA technology. The resulting trigger processor provides a selection of charged particle pairs with a small relative momentum. (9 refs).
Dirac gauginos in general gauge mediation
Benakli, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boite 126, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: kbenakli@lpthe.jussieu.fr; Goodsell, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boite 126, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr
2009-07-21
We extend the formulation by Meade, Seiberg and Shih of general gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking to include Dirac masses for the gauginos. These appear through mixing of the visible sector gauginos with additional states in adjoint representations. We illustrate the method by reproducing the existing results in the literature for the gaugino and sfermion masses when preserving R-symmetry. We then explain how the generation of same sign masses for the two propagating degrees of freedom in the adjoint scalars can be achieved. We end by commenting on the use of the formalism for describing U(1) mixing.
Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification
Benakli, K., E-mail: kbenakli@lpthe.jussieu.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Boite 126, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Goodsell, M.D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)
2010-11-21
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.
Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification
Benakli, K. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS; Goodsell, M.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-03-15
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)
Natural Dirac Neutrinos from Warped Extra Dimension
Wu, Jackson M S
2010-01-01
Dirac neutrinos arising from gauged discrete symmetry \\`a la Krauss-Wilczek are implemented in the minimal custodial Randall-Sundrum model. In the case of a normal hierarchy, all lepton masses and mixing pattern can be naturally reproduced at the TeV scale set by the electroweak constraints, while simultanously satisfy bounds from lepton flavour violation. A nonzero neutrino mixing angle, $\\theta_{13}$, is generic in the scenario, as well as the existence of sub-TeV right-handed Kaluza-Klein neutrinos, which may be searched for at the LHC.
New approach to the Dirac spectral density in lattice gauge theory applications
Fodor, Zoltan; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him
2016-01-01
We report tests and results from a new approach to the spectral density and the mode number distribution of the Dirac operator in lattice gauge theories. The algorithm generates the spectral density of the lattice Dirac operator as a continuous function over all scales of the complete eigenvalue spectrum. This is distinct from an earlier method where the integrated spectral density (mode number) was calculated efficiently for some preselected fixed range of the integration. The new algorithm allows global studies like the chiral condensate from the Dirac spectrum at any scale including the cutoff-dependent IR and UV range of the spectrum. Physics applications include the scale-dependent mass anomalous dimension, spectral representation of composite fermion operators, and the crossover transition from the $\\epsilon$-regime of Random Matrix Theory to the p-regime in chiral perturbation theory. We present thorough tests of the algorithm in the 2-flavor sextet SU(3) gauge theory that we continue to pursue for its...
Dirac spinor in a nonstationary Godel-type cosmological Universe
Villalba, Victor M
2015-01-01
In the present article we solve, via separation of variables, the massless Dirac equation in a nonstationary rotating, causal G\\"odel-type cosmological universe, having a constant rotational speed in all the points of the space. We compute the frequency spectrum. We show that the spectrum of massless Dirac particles is discrete and unbounded.
Light scattering by photonic crystals with a dirac spectrum
Sepkhanov, Ruslan
2009-01-01
In this thesis we consider several effects of a Dirac spectrum in photonic crystals on the scattering and propagation of light. We calculate the effect of a Dirac point (a conical singularity in the band structure) on the transmission of radiation through a photonic crystal. We find that the transmi
NEW KINDS OF DIRAC ENERGY LEVELS AND THEIR CROSSING REGIONS
杨树政; 林理彬
2001-01-01
In the space-time of a non-Kerr-Newman black hole, the Dirac energy levels and their crossing regions are inves-tigated. Near the event horizon of the black hole there are crossing Dirac energy levels, which lead to the occurrence of non-thermal radiation.
Tools for analysis of Dirac structures on banach spaces
Iftime, Orest V.; Sandovici, Adrian; Golo, Goran
2005-01-01
Power-conserving and Dirac structures are known as an approach to mathematical modeling of physical engineering systems. In this paper connections between Dirac structures and well known tools from standard functional analysis are presented. The analysis can be seen as a possible starting framework
Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space
马凯; 王剑华; 袁毅
2011-01-01
The Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space is studied in this paper. Firstly, since the Dirac equation is described as a matrix equation in phase space, it is necessary to define the Wigner function as a matrix function in spinor space.
Lorentz-Dirac equation and circularly moving charges
Comay, E.
1987-09-01
The Lorentz-Dirac equation of radiation reaction is tested in a system of circularly moving changes. It is shown that this equation together with the Lienard-Wiechert retarded fields is consistent with energy conservation. Therefore, in this particular experiment, any alternative expression of radiation reaction must agree with the Lorentz-Dirac equation.
Tunneling of Dirac Particles from Kaluza-Klein Black Hole
ZENG Xiao-Xiong; LI Qiang
2009-01-01
Applying the fermions tunneling method, proposed by Kerner and Mann recently, we discuss the tunneling characteristics of Dirac particles from the stationary Kaluza-Klein black hole. To choose Gamma matrix conveniently and avoid the ergosphere dragging effect, we perform it in the dragging coordinate frame. The result shows that Hawking temperature in this case also can be reproduced by the general Dirac equation.
Pole-Based Approximation of the Fermi-Dirac Function
Lin LIN; Jianfeng LU; Lexing YING; Weinan E
2009-01-01
Two approaches for the efficient rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac function are discussed: one uses the contour integral representation and conformal map-ping, and the other is based on a version of the multipole representation of the Fermi-Dirac function that uses only simple poles. Both representations have logarithmic computational complexity. They are of great interest for electronic structure calculations.
Light scattering by photonic crystals with a dirac spectrum
Sepkhanov, Ruslan
2009-01-01
In this thesis we consider several effects of a Dirac spectrum in photonic crystals on the scattering and propagation of light. We calculate the effect of a Dirac point (a conical singularity in the band structure) on the transmission of radiation through a photonic crystal. We find that the
The Dirac oscillator in a rotating frame of reference
Strange, P.; Ryder, L. H.
2016-10-01
The Dirac equation in a rotating frame of reference is derived from first principles within a linear approximation. This equation is employed to exhibit an equivalence between a particle in a Dirac oscillator potential and a free particle in a rotating frame of reference. A zero-point contribution to the energy of the particle, resulting from its spin, is also noted.
Tools for analysis of Dirac structures on Hilbert spaces
Golo, G.; Iftime, O.V.; Zwart, Heiko J.; van der Schaft, Arjan
2004-01-01
In this paper tools for the analysis of Dirac structures on Hilbert spaces are developed. Some properties are pointed out and two natural representations of Dirac structures on Hilbert spaces are presented. The theory is illustrated on the example of the ideal transmission line.
Representation-independent manipulations with Dirac matrices and spinors
2007-01-01
Dirac matrices, also known as gamma matrices, are defined only up to a similarity transformation. Usually, some explicit representation of these matrices is assumed in order to deal with them. In this article, we show how it is possible to proceed without any such assumption. Various important identities involving Dirac matrices and spinors have been derived without assuming any representation at any stage.
New exactly solvable periodic potentials for the Dirac equation
Samsonov, B F; Pozdeeva, E O; Glasser, M L
2003-01-01
A new exactly solvable relativistic periodic potential is obtained by the periodic extension of a well-known transparent scalar potential. It is found that the energy band edges are determined by a transcendental equation which is very similar to the corresponding equation for the Dirac Kronig-Penney model. The solutions of the Dirac equation are expressed in terms of elementary functions.
Dirac oscillator and nonrelativistic Snyder-de Sitter algebra
Stetsko, M. M., E-mail: mstetsko@gmail.com, E-mail: mykola@ktf.franko.lviv.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 12 Drahomanov Str., Lviv, UA-79005 (Ukraine)
2015-01-15
Three dimensional Dirac oscillator was considered in space with deformed commutation relations known as Snyder-de Sitter algebra. Snyder-de Sitter commutation relations give rise to appearance of minimal uncertainties in position as well as in momentum. To derive energy spectrum and wavefunctions of the Dirac oscillator, supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance technique were applied.
Liu, Jian; Kriegner, D.; Horak, L.; Puggioni, D.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Chen, R.; Yi, D.; Frontera, C.; Holy, V.; Vishwanath, A.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Marti, X.; Ramesh, R.
2016-02-01
By using a combination of heteroepitaxial growth, structure refinement based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and first-principles calculations, we show that the symmetry-protected Dirac line nodes in the topological semimetallic perovskite SrIrO3 can be lifted simply by applying epitaxial constraints. In particular, the Dirac gap opens without breaking the P b n m mirror symmetry. In virtue of a symmetry-breaking analysis, we demonstrate that the original symmetry protection is related to the n -glide operation, which can be selectively broken by different heteroepitaxial structures. This symmetry protection renders the nodal line a nonsymmorphic Dirac semimetallic state. The results highlight the vital role of crystal symmetry in spin-orbit-coupled correlated oxides and provide a foundation for experimental realization of topological insulators in iridate-based heterostructures.
Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays
Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2014-01-15
We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.
Abnormal Dirac point shift in graphene field-effect transistors
Wang, Shaoqing; Jin, Zhi; Huang, Xinnan; Peng, Songang; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan
2016-09-01
The shift of Dirac point in graphene devices is of great importance, influencing the reliability and stability. Previous studies show the Dirac point shifts slightly to be more positive when the drain bias increases. Here, an abnormal shift of Dirac point is observed in monolayer graphene field effect transistors by investigating the transfer curves under various drain biases. The voltage of Dirac point shifts positively at first and then decreases rapidly when the channel electric field exceeds some threshold. The negative Dirac point shift is attributed to holes injection into oxide layer and captured by the oxide traps under high channel electric field. This can also be demonstrated through a simple probability model and the graphene Raman spectra before and after the DC measurement.
Plasmon modes of a massive Dirac plasma, and their superlattices
Sachdeva, Rashi; Thakur, Anmol; Vignale, Giovanni; Agarwal, Amit
2015-05-01
We explore the collective density oscillations of a collection of charged massive Dirac particles, in one, two, and three dimensions, and their one-dimensional (1D) superlattice. We calculate the long-wavelength limit of the dynamical polarization function analytically, and use the random phase approximation to obtain the plasmon dispersion. The density dependence of the long-wavelength plasmon frequency in massive Dirac systems is found to be different compared to systems with parabolic and gapless Dirac dispersion. We also calculate the long-wavelength plasmon dispersion of a 1D metamaterial made from 1D and 2D massive Dirac plasma. Our analytical results will be useful for exploring the use of massive Dirac materials as electrostatically tunable plasmonic metamaterials and can be experimentally verified by infrared spectroscopy, as in the case of graphene [L. Ju et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.146].
Discrete Dirac equation on a finite half-integer lattice
Smalley, L. L.
1986-01-01
The formulation of the Dirac equation on a discrete lattice with half-integer spacing and periodic boundary conditions is investigated analytically. The importance of lattice formulations for problems in field theory and quantum mechanics is explained; the concept of half-integer Fourier representation is introduced; the discrete Dirac equation for the two-dimensional case is derived; dispersion relations for the four-dimensional case are developed; and the spinor formulation for the Dirac fields on the half-integer lattice and the discrete time variable for the four-dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation are obtained. It is argued that the half-integer lattice, because it takes the Dirac Lagrangian into account, is more than a mere relabeling of the integer lattice and may have fundamental physical meaning (e.g., for the statistics of fermions). It is noted that the present formulation does not lead to species doubling, except in the continuum limit.
On the spring and mass of the Dirac oscillator
Crawford, James P.
1993-01-01
The Dirac oscillator is a relativistic generalization of the quantum harmonic oscillator. In particular, the square of the Hamiltonian for the Dirac oscillator yields the Klein-Gordon equation with a potential of the form: (ar(sub 2) + b(L x S)), where a and b are constants. To obtain the Dirac oscillator, a 'minimal substitution' is made in the Dirac equation, where the ordinary derivative is replaced with a covariant derivative. However, an unusual feature of the covariant derivative in this case is that the potential is a non-trivial element of the Clifford algebra. A theory which naturally gives rise to gage potentials which are non-trivial elements of the Clifford algebra is that based on local automorphism invariance. An exact solution of the automorphism gage field equations which reproduces both the potential term and the mass term of the Dirac oscillator is presented.
Berry phase jumps and giant nonreciprocity in Dirac quantum dots
Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F.; Levitov, Leonid S.
2016-12-01
We predict that a strong nonreciprocity in the resonance spectra of Dirac quantum dots can be induced by the Berry phase. The nonreciprocity arises in relatively weak magnetic fields and is manifest in anomalously large field-induced splittings of quantum dot resonances which are degenerate at B =0 due to time-reversal symmetry. This exotic behavior, which is governed by field-induced jumps in the Berry phase of confined electronic states, is unique to quantum dots in Dirac materials and is absent in conventional quantum dots. The effect is strong for gapless Dirac particles and can overwhelm the B -induced orbital and Zeeman splittings. A finite Dirac mass suppresses the effect. The nonreciprocity, predicted for generic two-dimensional Dirac materials, is accessible through Faraday and Kerr optical rotation measurements and scanning tunneling spectroscopy.
On Equivariant Dirac Operators for $SU_q(2)$
Partha Sarathi Chakraborty; Arupkumar Pal
2006-11-01
We explain the notion of minimality for an equivariant spectral triple and show that the triple for the quantum (2) group constructed by Chakraborty and Pal in [2] is minimal. We also give a decomposition of the spectral triple constructed by Dabrowski et al [8] in terms of the minimal triple constructed in [2].
Determinant of twisted chiral Dirac Operator on the Lattice
Fosco, C. D.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.
1995-01-01
Using the overlap formulation, we calculate the fermionic determinant on the lattice for chiral fermions with twisted boundary conditions in two dimensions. When the lattice spacing tends to zero we recover the results of the usual string-theory continuum calculations.
Topological susceptibility from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum
Cichy, Krzysztof [NIC, DESY,Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics,Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Garcia-Ramos, Elena [NIC, DESY,Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin,Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [NIC, DESY,Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Cyprus,P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Collaboration: The ETM Collaboration
2014-02-26
We present results of our computation of the topological susceptibility with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions, using the method of spectral projectors. We perform a detailed study of the quark mass dependence and discretization effects. We make an attempt to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract the chiral condensate from the quark mass dependence of the topological susceptibility. We compare the value with the results of our direct computation from the slope of the mode number. We emphasize the role of autocorrelations and the necessity of long Monte Carlo runs to obtain results with good precision. We also show our results for the spectral projector computation of the ratio of renormalization constants Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}.
Topological susceptibility from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum
Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration
2013-12-15
We present results of our computation of the topological susceptibility with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}= +1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions, using the method of spectral projectors. We perform a detailed study of the quark mass dependence and discretization effects. We make an attempt to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract the chiral condensate from the quark mass dependence of the topological susceptibility. We compare the value with the results of our direct computation from the slope of the mode number. We emphasize the role of autocorrelations and the necessity of long Monte Carlo runs to obtain results with good precision. We also show our results for the spectral projector computation of the ratio of renormalization constants Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}.
Optimised Dirac operators on the lattice. Construction, properties and applications
Bietenholz, W. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2006-11-15
We review a number of topics related to block variable renormalisation group transformations of quantum fields on the lattice, and to the emerging perfect lattice actions. We first illustrate this procedure by considering scalar fields. Then we proceed to lattice fermions, where we discuss perfect actions for free fields, for the Gross-Neveu model and for a supersymmetric spin model. We also consider the extension to perfect lattice perturbation theory, in particular regarding the axial anomaly and the quark gluon vertex function. Next we deal with properties and applications of truncated perfect fermions, and their chiral correction by means of the overlap formula. This yields a formulation of lattice fermions, which combines exact chiral symmetry with an optimisation of further essential properties. We summarise simulation results for these so-called overlap-hypercube fermions in the two-flavour Schwinger model and in quenched QCD. In the latter framework we establish a link to Chiral Perturbation Theory, both, in the p-regime and in the epsilon-regime. In particular we present an evaluation of the leading Low Energy Constants of the chiral Lagrangian - the chiral condensate and the pion decay constant - from QCD simulations with extremely light quarks. (orig.)
Optimised Dirac operators on the lattice: construction, properties and applications
Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Humbolt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing (NIC)
2006-12-15
We review a number of topics related to block variable renormalisation group transformations of quantum fields on the lattice, and to the emerging perfect lattice actions. We first illustrate this procedure by considering scalar fields. Then we proceed to lattice fermions, where we discuss perfect actions for free fields, for the Gross-Neveu model and for a supersymmetric spin model. We also consider the extension to perfect lattice perturbation theory, in particular regarding the axial anomaly and the quark gluon vertex function. Next we deal with properties and applications of truncated perfect fermions, and their chiral correction by means of the overlap formula. This yields a formulation of lattice fermions, which combines exact chiral symmetry with an optimisation of further essential properties. We summarise simulation results for these so-called overlap-hypercube fermions in the two-flavour Schwinger model and in quenched QCD. In the latter framework we establish a link to Chiral Perturbation Theory, both, in the p-regime and in the e-regime. In particular we present an evaluation of the leading Low Energy Constants of the chiral Lagrangian - the chiral condensate and the pion decay constant - from QCD simulations with extremely light quarks. (author)
Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization
Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M
2016-01-01
We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize ...
Unconventional spin Hall effect and axial current generation in a Dirac semimetal
Okuma, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Masao
2016-04-01
We investigate electrical transport in a three-dimensional massless Dirac fermion model that describes a Dirac semimetal state realized in topological materials. We derive a set of interdependent diffusion equations with eight local degrees of freedom, including the electric charge density and the spin density, that respond to an external electric field. By solving the diffusion equations for a system with a boundary, we demonstrate that a spin Hall effect with spin accumulation occurs even though the conventional spin current operator is zero. The Noether current associated with chiral symmetry, known as the axial current, is also discussed. We demonstrate that the axial current flows near the boundary and that it is perpendicular to the electric current.
Erdoğan, M. Burak; Green, William R.
2017-06-01
We investigate dispersive estimates for the two dimensional Dirac equation with a potential. In particular, we show that the Dirac evolution satisfies a t -1 decay rate as an operator from the Hardy space H 1 to BMO, the space of functions of bounded mean oscillation. This estimate, along with the L 2 conservation law allows one to deduce a family of Strichartz estimates. We classify the structure of threshold obstructions as being composed of s-wave resonances, p-wave resonances and eigenfunctions. We show that, as in the case of the Schrödinger evolution, the presence of a threshold s-wave resonance does not destroy the t -1 decay rate. As a consequence of our analysis we obtain a limiting absorption principle in the neighborhood of the threshold, and show that there are only finitely many eigenvalues in the spectral gap.
Exact Solutions of the Dirac Hamiltonian on the Sphere under Hyperbolic Magnetic Fields
Özlem Yeşiltaş
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional massless Dirac Hamiltonian under the influence of hyperbolic magnetic fields is mentioned in curved space. Using a spherical surface parameterization, the Dirac operator on the sphere is presented and the system is given as two supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians which coincides with the position dependent mass Hamiltonians. We introduce two ansatzes for the component of the vector potential to acquire effective solvable models, which are Rosen-Morse II potential and the model given Midya and Roy, whose bound states are Jacobi X1 type polynomials, and we adapt our work to these special models under some parameter restrictions. The energy spectrum and the eigenvectors are found for Rosen-Morse II potential. On the other hand, complete solutions are given for the second system. The vector and the effective potentials with their eigenvalues are sketched for each system.
Three-Dimensional Dirac Oscillator with Minimal Length: Novel Phenomena for Quantized Energy
Malika Betrouche
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study quantum features of the Dirac oscillator under the condition that the position and the momentum operators obey generalized commutationrelations that lead to the appearance of minimal length with the order of the Planck length, ∆xmin=ℏ3β+β′, where β and β′ are two positive small parameters. Wave functions of the system and the corresponding energy spectrum are derived rigorously. The presence of the minimal length accompanies a quadratic dependence of the energy spectrum on quantum number n, implying the property of hard confinement of the system. It is shown that the infinite degeneracy of energy levels appearing in the usual Dirac oscillator is vanished by the presence of the minimal length so long as β≠0. Not only in the nonrelativistic limit but also in the limit of the standard case (β=β′=0, our results reduce to well known usual ones.
Dynamic zero modes of Dirac fermions and competing singlet phases of antiferromagnetic order
Goswami, Pallab
2016-01-01
In quantum spin systems, singlet phases often develop in the vicinity of an antiferromagnetic order. Typical settings for such problems arise when itinerant fermions are also present. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for addressing such competing orders in an itinerant system, described by Dirac fermions strongly coupled to an O(3) nonlinear sigma model. We focus on two spatial dimensions, where upon disordering the antiferromagnetic order by quantum fluctuations the singular tunneling events also known as (anti)hedgehogs can nucleate competing singlet orders in the paramagnetic phase. In the presence of an isolated hedgehog configuration of the nonlinear sigma model field, we show that the fermion determinant vanishes as the dynamic Euclidean Dirac operator supports fermion zero modes of definite chirality. This provides a topological mechanism for suppressing the tunneling events. Using the methodology of quantum chromodynamics, we evaluate the fermion determinant in the close proximity of m...
On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random gauge potential
H Milani Moghaddam
2010-04-01
In the last decade, it was shown that the Liouville field theory is an effective theory of Dirac fermions in the random gauge potential (FRGP). We show that the Dirac wave functions in FRGP can be written in terms of descendents of the Liouville vertex operator. In the quasiclassical approximation of the Liouville theory, our model predicts 22.2 that the localization length scales with the energy as $ ∼ E^{−b^{2}(1+b^{2})^{2}}$, where is the strength of the disorder. The self-duality of the theory under the transformation → 1/ is discussed. We also calculate the distribution functions of 0 = |0 ()|2, (i.e. (0); 0 () is the ground state wave function), which behaves as the log-normal distribution function. It is also shown that in small 0, (0) behaves as a chi-square distribution.
Chaos, Dirac observables and constraint quantization
Dittrich, Bianca; Koslowski, Tim A; Nelson, Mike I
2015-01-01
There is good evidence that full general relativity is non-integrable or even chaotic. We point out the severe repercussions: differentiable Dirac observables and a reduced phase space do not exist in non-integrable constrained systems and are thus unlikely to occur in a generic general relativistic context. Instead, gauge invariant quantities generally become discontinuous, thus not admitting Poisson-algebraic structures and posing serious challenges to a quantization. Non-integrability also renders the paradigm of relational dynamics cumbersome, thereby straining common interpretations of the dynamics. We illustrate these conceptual and technical challenges with simple toy models. In particular, we exhibit reparametrization invariant models which fail to be integrable and, as a consequence, can either not be quantized with standard methods or lead to sick quantum theories without a semiclassical limit. These troubles are qualitatively distinct from semiclassical subtleties in unconstrained quantum chaos and...
Hydrodynamics of the Chiral Dirac Spectrum
Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail
2016-01-01
We derive a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the chiral Dirac spectrum in the vacuum and in the large $N$ (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The stochastic relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical instanton configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of localized eigenvalues and unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of de-localized eigenvalues and broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound. We show that the time is $\\Delta \\tau=\\pi\\rho(0)/2\\beta N$ with $\\rho(0)$ the spectral density at zero virtuality and $\\beta=1,2,4$ for the three Dyson ensembles that characterize QCD with different quark representations in the ergodic regime.
Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters
Shen, Shun-Qing
2012-01-01
Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...
Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter
Shen, Shun-Qing
2017-01-01
This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...
From "Dirac combs" to Fourier-positivity
Giraud, Bertrand G
2015-01-01
Motivated by various problems in physics and applied mathematics, we look for constraints and properties of real Fourier-positive functions, i.e. with positive Fourier transforms. Properties of the "Dirac comb" distribution and of its tensor products in higher dimensions lead to Poisson resummation, allowing for a useful approximation formula of a Fourier transform in terms of a limited number of terms. A connection with the Bochner theorem on positive definiteness of Fourier-positive functions is discussed. As a practical application, we find simple and rapid analytic algorithms for checking Fourier-positivity in 1- and (radial) 2-dimensions among a large variety of real positive functions. This may provide a step towards a classification of positive positive-definite functions.
On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution
Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.
2016-01-01
In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.
DIRAC reliable data management for LHCb
Smith, A C
2008-01-01
DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites ...
Quantum Einstein-Dirac Bianchi Universes
Damour, Thibault
2011-01-01
We study the mini--superspace quantization of spatially homogeneous (Bianchi) cosmological universes sourced by a Dirac spinor field. The quantization of the homogeneous spinor leads to a finite-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space and thereby to a multi-component Wheeler-DeWitt equation whose main features are: (i) the presence of spin-dependent Morse-type potentials, and (ii) the appearance of a q-number squared-mass term, which is of order ${\\cal O}(\\hbar^2)$, and which is affected by ordering ambiguities. We give the exact quantum solution of the Bianchi type-II system (which contains both scattering states and bound states), and discuss the main qualitative features of the quantum dynamics of the (classically chaotic) Bianchi type-IX system. We compare the exact quantum dynamics of fermionic cosmological billiards to previous works that described the spinor field as being either classical or Grassmann-valued.
Pseudo dirac neutrinos in seesaw model
Dutta, G; Gautam Dutta; Anjan S Joshipura
1995-01-01
Specific class of textures for the Dirac and Majorana mass matrices in the seesaw model leading to a pair of almost degenerate neutrinos is discussed. These textures can be obtained by imposing a horizontal U(1) symmetry. A specific model is discussed in which: (1) All three neutrino masses are similar in magnitude and could lie around eV providing hot component of the dark matter in the universe. (2) Two of these are highly degenerate and their {\\hbox{(mass)}}^2 difference could solve the solar neutrino problem through large angle MSW solution. (3) The electron neutrino mass may be observable through Kurie plot as well as through search of the neutrinoless double beta decay.
Pseudo Dirac neutrinos in the seesaw model
Dutta, G.; Joshipura, A.S. (Theory Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India))
1995-04-01
A specific class of textures for the Dirac and Majorana mass matrices in the seesaw model leading to a pair of almost degenerate neutrinos is discussed. These textures can be obtained by imposing a horizontal U(1) symmetry. A specific model is discussed in which (1) all three neutrino masses are similar in magnitude and could lie around 1 eV providing the hot component of the dark matter in the Universe, (2) two of these are highly degenerate and their (mass)[sup 2] difference could solve the solar neutrino problem through the large angle MSW solution, and (3) the electron neutrino mass may be observable through a Kurie plot as well as through a search of the neutrinoless double [beta] decay.
Bosonic Analogue of Dirac Composite Fermi Liquid.
Mross, David F; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei I
2016-09-23
We introduce a particle-hole-symmetric metallic state of bosons in a magnetic field at odd-integer filling. This state hosts composite fermions whose energy dispersion features a quadratic band touching and corresponding 2π Berry flux protected by particle-hole and discrete rotation symmetries. We also construct an alternative particle-hole symmetric state-distinct in the presence of inversion symmetry-without Berry flux. As in the Dirac composite Fermi liquid introduced by Son [Phys. Rev. X 5, 031027 (2015)], breaking particle-hole symmetry recovers the familiar Chern-Simons theory. We discuss realizations of this phase both in 2D and on bosonic topological insulator surfaces, as well as signatures in experiments and simulations.
The Dirac Experiments - Results and Challenges
Clark, R.G.; O' Brien, J.L.; Dzurak, A.S.; Kane, B.E.; Lumpkin, N.E.; Reilley, D.J.; Starrett, R.P.; Rickel, D.G.; Goettee, J.D.; Campbell, L.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Mielke, C.; Harrison, N.; Zerwekh, W.D.; Clark, D.; Bartram, B.D.; King, J.C.; Parkin, D.; Nakagawa, H.; Miura, N.
1998-10-24
The 1997 international Dirac II Series held at Los Alamos National Laboratory involved low temperature electrical transport and optical experiments in magnetic fields exceeding 800%, produced by explosive flux compression using Russian MC-1 generators. An overview of the scientific and technical advances achieved in this Series is given, together with a strategy for future work in this challenging experimental environment. A significant outcome was achieved in transport studies of microfabricated thin-film YBCO structures with the magnetic field in the CuO plane. Using a GHz transmission line technique at an ambient temperature of 1.6 K, an onset of dissipation was observed at 150 T (a new upper bound for superconductivity in any material), with a saturation of resistivity at 240 T. Comparison with the Pauli limit expected at B=155 T in this material suggests that the critical field in this geometry is limited by spin paramagnetism. In preparation for a Diract III series, a systematic temperature-dependent transport study of YBCO using in-plane magnetic fields of 150 T generated by single-turn coils, at temperatures over the range 10-100 K, has been undertaken in collaboration with the Japanese Megagauss Laboratory. The objective is to map out the phase diagram for this geometry, which is expected to be significantly different than the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg model, due to the presence of paramagnetic limiting. Nanofabricated magnetometers have also been developed in a UNSW-LANL collaboration for use in Dirac III for Fermi surface measurements of YBCO in megagauss fields, which are described.
Characteristic Dirac Signature in Elastic Proton Scattering at Intermediate Energies
Hynes, M. V.; Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.
1984-03-01
Nonrelativistic nucleon-nucleus first-order multiple-scattering calculations are extended to include virtual (Dirac) negative energy states of just the projectile. This effect may be thought of as virtual NN¯ pair production and annihilation in the field of the nucleus. This extension leads to a parameter-free Dirac description of the projectile in elastic proton scattering which produces a characteristic effect in spin observables over a wide range of energies which is in agreement with experiment. This Dirac signature is extremely stable with respect to uncertainties in the microscopic input.
Dirac and Weyl Materials: Fundamental Aspects and Some Spintronics Applications
Yang, Shengyuan A.
2016-09-01
Dirac and Weyl materials refer to a class of solid materials which host low-energy quasiparticle excitations that can be described by the Dirac and Weyl equations in relativistic quantum mechanics. Starting with the advent of graphene as the first prominent example, these materials have been attracting tremendous interest owing to their novel fundamental properties as well as the great potential for applications. Here we introduce the basic concepts and notions related to Dirac and Weyl materials and briefly review some recent works in this field, particularly on the conceptual development and the possible spintronics/pseudospintronics applications.
Noncommutative Dirac-Born-Infeld Action for D-brane
Lee, T
2000-01-01
We derive the noncommutative Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the $D$-brane, which governs dynamics of $D$-brane with a NS-NS $B$-field in the low energy regime. Depending on some details of the path integral prescriptions, both ordinary Dirac-Born-Infeld action and noncommutative one can be obtained by evaluating the same Polyakov string path integral for the open string ending on the $D$-brane. Thus, it establishes the equivalence of the noncommutative Dirac-Born-Infeld action and the ordinary one.
Thermal and thermoelectric response from Keldysh formalism with application to gapped Dirac fermions
朱国宝; 杨慧敏; 杨声远
2015-01-01
Based on the Keldysh Green’s functions theory, we present a general formula of the thermal and thermoelectric transport. In the clean limit, our formula recovers the previous results obtained from the semiclassical transport theory. In our approach, we propose an appropriate energy current operator and electric current operator, and the unphysical divergence from the direct application of the Kubo formula is eliminated. As an application, we study the thermal and the thermoelectric Hall conductivities of a gapped Dirac fermion model in the presence of impurity scattering.
Red'kov, V M
2011-01-01
Tetrad based equation for Dirac-K\\"{a}hler particle is solved in spherical coordinates in the flat Minkocski space-time. Spherical solutions of boson type (J =0,1,2,...) are constructed. After performing a special transformation over spherical boson solutions of the Dirac-K\\"{a}hler equation, 4 \\times 4-matrices U(x) \\Longrightarrow V(x), simple linear expansions of the four rows of new representativeof the Dirac--K\\"{a}hler field V(x) in terms of spherical fermion solutions \\Psi_{i}(x) of the four ordinary Dirac equations have been derived. However, this fact cannot be interpreted as the possibility not to distinguish between the Dirac-K\\"{a}hler field and the system four Dirac fermions. The main formal argument is that the special transformation (I \\otimes S(x)) involved does not belong to the group of tetrad local gauge transformation for Dirac-K\\"{a}hler field, 2-rank bispinor under the Lorentz group. Therefore, the linear expansions between boson and fermion functions are not gauge invariant under the gr...
Mixed-state form factors of U(1) twist fields in the Dirac theory
Chen, Yixiong
2016-08-01
Using the ‘Liouville space’ (the space of operators) of the massive Dirac theory, we define mixed-state form factors of U(1) twist fields. We consider mixed states with density matrices diagonal in the asymptotic particle basis. This includes the thermal Gibbs state as well as all generalized Gibbs ensembles of the Dirac theory. When the mixed state is specialized to a thermal Gibbs state, using a Riemann-Hilbert problem and low-temperature expansion, we obtain finite-temperature form factors of U(1) twist fields. We then propose the expression for form factors of U(1) twist fields in general diagonal mixed states. We verify that these form factors satisfy a system of nonlinear functional differential equations, which is derived from the trace definition of mixed-state form factors. At last, under weak analytic conditions on the eigenvalues of the density matrix, we write down the large distance form factor expansions of two-point correlation functions of these twist fields. Using the relation between the Dirac and Ising models, this provides the large-distance expansion of the Rényi entropy (for integer Rényi parameter) in the Ising model in diagonal mixed states.
Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization
Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz.elizaga@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001, Covilhã (Portugal)
2017-01-15
We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize the part of the dynamics governed by the Dirac equation that is unitarily implementable. The uniqueness of the Fock vacuum is attained then once a physically motivated convention for the concepts of particles and antiparticles is fixed.
A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions
Zhu, Chunhui; Wang, Fengqiu; Meng, Yafei; Yuan, Xiang; Xiu, Faxian; Luo, Hongyu; Wang, Yazhou; Li, Jianfeng; Lv, Xinjie; He, Liang; Xu, Yongbing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Shining
2017-01-01
Pulsed lasers operating in the mid-infrared (3-20 μm) are important for a wide range of applications in sensing, spectroscopy, imaging and communications. Despite recent advances with mid-infrared gain platforms, the lack of a capable pulse generation mechanism remains a significant technological challenge. Here we show that bulk Dirac fermions in molecular beam epitaxy grown crystalline Cd3As2, a three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetal, constitutes an exceptional ultrafast optical switching mechanism for the mid-infrared. Significantly, we show robust and effective tuning of the scattering channels of Dirac fermions via an element doping approach, where photocarrier relaxation times are found flexibly controlled over an order of magnitude (from 8 ps to 800 fs at 4.5 μm). Our findings reveal the strong impact of Cr doping on ultrafast optical properties in Cd3As2 and open up the long sought parameter space crucial for the development of compact and high-performance mid-infrared ultrafast sources.
Digital quantum simulation of Dirac equation with a trapped ion
Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Junhua; Casanova, Jorge; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Yung, Man-Hong; Zhang, Jingning; Kim, Kihwan; Department Of Physical Chemistry Collaboration
2014-05-01
Recently there has been growing interest in simulating relativistic effects in controllable physical system. We digitally simulate the Dirac equation in 3 +1 dimensions with a single trapped ion. We map four internal levels of 171Yb+ ion to the Dirac bispinor. The time evolution of the Dirac equation is implemented by trotter expansion. In the 3 +1 dimension, we can observe a helicoidal motion of a free Dirac particle which reduces to Zitterbewegung in 1 +1 dimension. This work was supported in part by the National Basic Research Program of China Grant 2011CBA00300, 2011CBA00301, the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 61033001, 61061130540. KK acknowledge the support from the recruitment program of global youth experts.
Common Origin of Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Dirac Leptogenesis
Borah, Debasish
2016-01-01
We study the possibility of generating tiny Dirac neutrino masses at one loop level through the \\textit{scotogenic} mechanism such that one of the particles going inside the loop can be a stable cold dark matter (DM) candidate. Majorana mass terms of singlet fermions as well as tree level Dirac neutrino masses are prevented by incorporating the presence of additional discrete symmetries in a minimal fashion, which also guarantee the stability of the dark matter candidate. Due to the absence of total lepton number violation, the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated through the mechanism of Dirac leptogenesis where an equal and opposite amount of leptonic asymmetry is generated in the left and right handed sectors which are prevented from equilibration due to tiny Dirac Yukawa couplings. Dark matter relic abundance is generated through its usual freeze-out at a temperature much below the scale of leptogenesis. We constrain the relevant parameter space from neutrino mass, baryon asymmetry, Plan...
LHCb: Analysing DIRAC's Behavior using Model Checking with Process Algebra
Remenska, Daniela
2012-01-01
DIRAC is the Grid solution designed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. Based on a service-oriented architecture, DIRAC consists of many cooperating distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the Grid resources. Services accept requests from agents and running jobs, while agents run as light-weight components, fulfilling specific goals. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check for changes in the service states, and react to these accordingly. A characteristic of DIRAC's architecture is the relatively low complexity in the logic of each agent; the main source of complexity lies in their cooperation. These agents run concurrently, and communicate using the services' databases as a shared memory for synchronizing the state transitions. Although much effort is invested in making DIRAC reliable, entities occasionally get into inconsistent states, leadi...
Dirac-Point Solitons in Nonlinear Optical Lattices
Xie, Kang; Boardman, Allan D; Guo, Qi; Shi, Zhiwei; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Zhang, Wei; Mao, Qiuping; Hu, Lei; Yang, Tianyu; Wen, Fei; Wang, Erlei
2015-01-01
The discovery of a new type of solitons occuring in periodic systems without photonic bandgaps is reported. Solitons are nonlinear self-trapped wave packets. They have been extensively studied in many branches of physics. Solitons in periodic systems, which have become the mainstream of soliton research in the past decade, are localized states supported by photonic bandgaps. In this Letter, we report the discovery of a new type of solitons located at the Dirac point beyond photonic bandgaps. The Dirac point is a conical singularity of a photonic band structure where wave motion obeys the famous Dirac equation. These new solitons are sustained by the Dirac point rather than photonic bandgaps, thus provides a sort of advance in conceptual understanding over the traditional gap solitons. Apart from their theoretical impact within soliton theory, they have many potential uses because such solitons have dramatic stability characteristics and are possible in both Kerr material and photorefractive crystals that poss...
Monte-Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram
Braguta, V V; Kotov, A Yu; Nikolaev, A A
2016-01-01
In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within lattice Monte-Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in semimetal/insulator transition. Using numerical simulation we determined the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal/insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allowed us to draw tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na$_3$Bi and Cd$_3$As$_2$ known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals would lie deeply in the insulating region of the phase diagram. It probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.
Position space formulation for Dirac fermions on honeycomb lattice
Hirotsu, Masaki; Shintani, Eigo
2014-01-01
We study how to construct Dirac fermion defined on the honeycomb lattice in position space. Starting from the nearest neighbor interaction in tight binding model, we show that the Hamiltonian is constructed by kinetic term and second derivative term of three flavor Dirac fermions in which one flavor has a mass of cutoff order and the other flavors are massless. In this formulation the structure of the Dirac point is simplified so that its uniqueness can be easily shown even if we consider the next-nearest neighbor interaction. We also explicitly show that there exists an exact chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing, which protects the masslessness of the Dirac fermion, and discuss the analogy with the staggered fermion formulation.
Using OSG Computing Resources with (iLC)Dirac
Sailer, Andre
2017-01-01
CPU cycles for small experiments and projects can be scarce, thus making use of all available resources, whether dedicated or opportunistic, is mandatory. While enabling uniform access to the LCG computing elements (ARC, CREAM), the DIRAC grid interware was not able to use OSG computing elements (GlobusCE, HTCondor-CE) without dedicated support at the grid site through so called 'SiteDirectors', which directly submit to the local batch system. This in turn requires additional dedicated effort for small experiments on the grid site. Adding interfaces to the OSG CEs through the respective grid middleware is therefore allowing accessing them within the DIRAC software without additional sitespecific infrastructure. This enables greater use of opportunistic resources for experiments and projects without dedicated clusters or an established computing infrastructure with the DIRAC software. To allow sending jobs to HTCondor-CE and legacy Globus computing elements inside DIRAC the required wrapper classes were develo...
Dirac Mass Dynamics in Multidimensional Nonlocal Parabolic Equations
Lorz, Alexander
2011-01-17
Nonlocal Lotka-Volterra models have the property that solutions concentrate as Dirac masses in the limit of small diffusion. Is it possible to describe the dynamics of the limiting concentration points and of the weights of the Dirac masses? What is the long time asymptotics of these Dirac masses? Can several Dirac masses coexist? We will explain how these questions relate to the so-called "constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation" and how a form of canonical equation can be established. This equation has been established assuming smoothness. Here we build a framework where smooth solutions exist and thus the full theory can be developed rigorously. We also show that our form of canonical equation comes with a kind of Lyapunov functional. Numerical simulations show that the trajectories can exhibit unexpected dynamics well explained by this equation. Our motivation comes from population adaptive evolution a branch of mathematical ecology which models Darwinian evolution. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Monte Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram
Braguta, V. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. A.
2016-11-01
In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within a lattice Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in a semimetal-insulator transition. Using numerical simulation, we determine the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal-insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allows us to draw a tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na3Bi and Cd3As2 , known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals, would lie deep in the insulating region of the phase diagram. This result probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.
Geometric Structures and Field Equations of Dirac-Lu Space
REN Xin-An; ZHANG Li-You
2008-01-01
In this paper, a -invariant Lorentz metric on the Dirac-Lu space is given, and then the geodesic equation is investigated. Finally, we discuss the field equations and find their solutions by the method of separating variables.
P T -Symmetric Real Dirac Fermions and Semimetals
Zhao, Y. X.; Lu, Y.
2017-02-01
Recently, Weyl fermions have attracted increasing interest in condensed matter physics due to their rich phenomenology originated from their nontrivial monopole charges. Here, we present a theory of real Dirac points that can be understood as real monopoles in momentum space, serving as a real generalization of Weyl fermions with the reality being endowed by the P T symmetry. The real counterparts of topological features of Weyl semimetals, such as Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem, 2D subtopological insulators, and Fermi arcs, are studied in the P T symmetric Dirac semimetals and the underlying reality-dependent topological structures are discussed. In particular, we construct a minimal model of the real Dirac semimetals based on recently proposed cold atom experiments and quantum materials about P T symmetric Dirac nodal line semimetals.
Dirac cohomology of unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups
2007-01-01
In this paper, we consider the unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups of type E with a regular lambda-lowest K-type and classify those unitary representations with the nonzero Dirac cohomology.
ON GROUND STATE SOLUTIONS FOR SUPERLINEAR DIRAC EQUATION
张建; 唐先华; 张文
2014-01-01
This article is concerned with the nonlinear Dirac equations Under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, we establish the existence of ground state solutions by the generalized Nehari manifold method developed recently by Szulkin and Weth.
Dirac equation in gauge and affine-metric gravitation theories
Giachetta, G
1995-01-01
We show that the covariant derivative of Dirac fermion fields in the presence of a general linear connection on a world manifold is universal for Einstein's, gauge and affine-metric gravitation theories.
RKKY interaction of magnetic impurities in Dirac and Weyl semimetals
Chang, Hao-Ran; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shi-Xiong; Shan, Wen-Yu; Xiao, Di
2015-12-01
We theoretically study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between magnetic impurities in both Dirac and Weyl semimetals (SMs). We find that the internode process, as well as the unique three-dimensional spin-momentum locking, has significant influences on the RKKY interaction, resulting in both a Heisenberg and an Ising term, and an additional Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya term if the inversion symmetry is absent. These interactions can lead to rich spin textures and possible ferromagnetism in Dirac and time-reversal symmetry-invariant Weyl SMs. The effect of anisotropic Dirac and Weyl nodes on the RKKY interaction is also discussed. Our results provide an alternative scheme to engineer topological SMs and shed new light on the application of Dirac and Weyl SMs in spintronics.
Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method
Sánchez-Monroy, J. A.; Quimbay, C. J.
2014-11-01
We present a general approach to solve the (1 + 1) and (2 + 1) -dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein-Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials.
The Lorentz-Dirac equation and the structure of spacetime
De Souza, M M
1995-01-01
A new interpretation of the causality implementation in the Lienard-Wiechert solution raises new doubts against the validity of the Lorentz-Dirac equation and the limits of validity of the Minkowski structure of spacetime.
Dirac mass dynamics in a multidimensional nonlocal parabolic equation
Lorz, Alexander; Perthame, Benoit
2010-01-01
Nonlocal Lotka-Volterra models have the property that solutions concentrate as Dirac masses in the limit of small diffusion. Is it possible to describe the dynamics of the limiting concentration points and of the weights of the Dirac masses? What is the long time asymptotics of these Dirac masses? Can several Dirac masses co-exist? We will explain how these questions relate to the so-called "constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation" and how a form of canonical equation can be established. This equation has been established assuming smoothness. Here we build a framework where smooth solutions exist and thus the full theory can be developed rigorously. We also show that our form of canonical equation comes with a structure of gradient flow. Numerical simulations show that the trajectories can exhibit unexpected dynamics well explained by this equation. Our motivation comes from population adaptive evolution a branch of mathematical ecology which models darwinian evolution.
The confluent supersymmetry algorithm for Dirac equations with pseudoscalar potentials
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu; Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu, E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)
2014-10-15
We introduce the confluent version of the quantum-mechanical supersymmetry formalism for the Dirac equation with a pseudoscalar potential. Application of the formalism to spectral problems is discussed, regularity conditions for the transformed potentials are derived, and normalizability of the transformed solutions is established. Our findings extend and complement former results [L. M. Nieto, A. A. Pecheritsin, and B. F. Samsonov, “Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation,” Ann. Phys. 305, 151–189 (2003)].
Weyl, Majorana and Dirac fields from a unified perspective
Aste, Andreas
2016-01-01
A self-contained derivation of the formalism describing Weyl, Majorana and Dirac fields from a unified perspective is given based on a concise description of the representation theory of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group. Lagrangian methods play no role in the present exposition, which covers several fundamental aspects of relativistic field theory which are commonly not included in introductory courses treating fermionic fields via the Dirac equation in the first place.
Weyl, Majorana and Dirac Fields from a Unified Perspective
Andreas Aste
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A self-contained derivation of the formalism describing Weyl, Majorana and Dirac fields from a unified perspective is given based on a concise description of the representation theory of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group. Lagrangian methods play no role in the present exposition, which covers several fundamental aspects of relativistic field theory, which are commonly not included in introductory courses when treating fermionic fields via the Dirac equation in the first place.
Letter: On the Solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac Equation
Vogt, D.; Letelier, P. S.
2003-12-01
We discuss the unstable character of the solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac equation and stress the need of methods like order reduction to derive a physically acceptable equation of motion. The discussion is illustrated with the paradigmatic example of the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator with radiation reaction. We also illustrate the removal of the noncausal pre-acceleration with the introduction of a small correction in the Lorentz-Dirac equation.
Moving potential for Dirac and Klein–Gordon equations
Hamil B; Chetouani L
2016-04-01
Using the Lorentz transformation, the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations with moving potentials are reduced to one standard where the potential is time-independent. As application, the reflection and transmission coefficients are determined by considering the moving step with a constant velocity $v$. It has been found that $R \\pm T = 1$ only at $x = vt$. The problem of massless (2+1) Dirac particle is also considerered.
Highly covariant quantum lattice gas model of the Dirac equation
Yepez, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
We revisit the quantum lattice gas model of a spinor quantum field theory-the smallest scale particle dynamics is partitioned into unitary collide and stream operations. The construction is covariant (on all scales down to a small length {\\ell} and small time {\\tau} = c {\\ell}) with respect to Lorentz transformations. The mass m and momentum p of the modeled Dirac particle depend on {\\ell} according to newfound relations m = mo cos (2{\\pi}{\\ell}/{\\lambda}) and p = (h/2{\\pi}{\\ell}) sin(2{\\pi}{\\ell}/{\\lambda}), respectively, where {\\lambda} is the Compton wavelength of the modeled particle. These relations represent departures from a relativistically invariant mass and the de Broglie relation-when taken as quantifying numerical errors the model is physically accurate when {\\ell} {\\ll} {\\lambda}. Calculating the vacuum energy in the special case of a massless spinor field, we find that it vanishes (or can have a small positive value) for a sufficiently large wave number cutoff. This is a marked departure from th...
Lattice Dirac Fermions on a Simplicial Riemannian Manifold
Brower, Richard C; Gasbarro, Andrew D; Raben, Timothy G; Tan, Chung-I; Weinberg, Evan S
2016-01-01
The lattice Dirac equation is formulated on a simplicial complex which approximates a smooth Riemann manifold by introducing a lattice vierbein on each site and a lattice spin connection on each link. Care is taken so the construction applies to any smooth D-dimensional Riemannian manifold that permits a spin connection. It is tested numerically in 2D for the projective sphere ${\\mathbb S}^2$ in the limit of an increasingly refined sequence of triangles. The eigenspectrum and eigenvectors are shown to converge rapidly to the exact result in the continuum limit. In addition comparison is made with the continuum Ising conformal field theory on ${\\mathbb S}^2$. Convergence is tested for the two point, $\\langle \\epsilon(x_1) \\epsilon(x_2) \\rangle$, and the four point, $\\langle \\sigma(x_1) \\epsilon(x_2) \\epsilon(x_3 )\\sigma(x_4) \\rangle $, correlators for the energy, $\\epsilon(x) = i \\bar \\psi(x)\\psi(x)$, and twist operators, $\\sigma(x)$, respectively.
Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter
Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.
2014-10-07
Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.
Conjugated Molecules Described by a One-Dimensional Dirac Equation.
Ernzerhof, Matthias; Goyer, Francois
2010-06-08
Starting from the Hückel Hamiltonian of conjugated hydrocarbon chains (ethylene, allyl radical, butadiene, pentadienyl radical, hexatriene, etc.), we perform a simple unitary transformation and obtain a Dirac matrix Hamiltonian. Thus already small molecules are described exactly in terms of a discrete Dirac equation, the continuum limit of which yields a one-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian. Augmenting this Hamiltonian with specially adapted boundary conditions, we find that all the orbitals of the unsaturated hydrocarbon chains are reproduced by the continuous Dirac equation. However, only orbital energies close to the highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy are accurately predicted by the Dirac equation. Since it is known that a continuous Dirac equation describes the electronic structure of graphene around the Fermi energy, our findings answer the question to what extent this peculiar electronic structure is already developed in small molecules containing a delocalized π-electron system. We illustrate how the electronic structure of small polyenes carries over to a certain class of rectangular graphene sheets and eventually to graphene itself. Thus the peculiar electronic structure of graphene extends to a large degree to the smallest unsaturated molecule (ethylene).
Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method
Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quimbay, C.J., E-mail: cjquimbayh@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C. (Colombia); CIF, Bogotá (Colombia)
2014-11-15
We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein–Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: • The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. • The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.
Dirac Born Infeld (DBI) Cosmic Strings
Babichev, Eugeny; Caprini, Chiara; Martin, Jerome; Steer, Daniele A
2009-01-01
Motivated by brane physics, we consider the non-linear Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) extension of the Abelian-Higgs model and study the corresponding cosmic string configurations. The model is defined by a potential term, assumed to be of the mexican hat form, and a DBI action for the kinetic terms. We show that it is a continuous deformation of the Abelian-Higgs model, with a single deformation parameter depending on a dimensionless combination of the scalar coupling constant, the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field at infinity, and the brane tension. By means of numerical calculations, we investigate the profiles of the corresponding DBI-cosmic strings and prove that they have a core which is narrower than that of Abelian-Higgs strings. We also show that the corresponding action is smaller than in the standard case suggesting that their formation could be favoured in brane models. Moreover we show that the DBI-cosmic string solutions are non-pathological everywhere in parameter space. Finally, in the lim...
Dirac Hamiltonian with superstrong Coulomb field
Voronov, B L; Tyutin, I V
2006-01-01
We consider the quantum-mechanical problem of a relativistic Dirac particle moving in the Coulomb field of a point charge $Ze$. In the literature, it is often declared that a quantum-mechanical description of such a system does not exist for charge values exceeding the so-called critical charge with Z=137 based on the fact that the standard expression for energy eigenvalues yields complex values at overcritical charges. We show that from the mathematical standpoint, there is no problem in defining a self-adjoint Hamiltonian for any value of charge. What is more, the transition through the critical charge does not lead to any qualitative changes in the mathematical description of the system. A specific feature of overcritical charges is the nonuniqueness of the self-adjoint Hamiltonian, but this nonuniqueness is also characteristic for charge values less than the critical one (and larger than the subcritical charge with Z=118). We present the spectra and (generalized) eigenfunctions for all self-adjoint Hamilt...
DIRAC: reliable data management for LHCb
Smith, A. C.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.
2008-07-01
DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites to prevent data loss. This paper presents several examples of mechanisms implemented in the DMS to increase reliability, availability and integrity, highlighting successful design choices and limitations discovered.
Anderson's absolute objects and constant timelike vector hidden in Dirac matrices
Rylov, Yu A
2001-01-01
Anderson's theorem asserting, that symmetry of dynamic equations written in the relativisitically covariant form is determined by symmetry of its absolute objects, is applied to the free Dirac equation. Dirac matrices are the only absolute objects of the Dirac equation. There are two ways of the Dirac matrices transformation: (1) Dirac matrices form a 4-vector and wave function is a scalar, (2) Dirac matrices are scalars and the wave function is a spinor. In the first case the Dirac equation is nonrelativistic, in the second one it is relativistic. Transforming Dirac equation to another scalar-vector variables, one shows that the first way of transformation is valid, and the Dirac equation is not relativistic
The Teodorescu Operator in Clifford Analysis
F.BRACKX; H.De SCHEPPER; M.E.LUNA-ELIZARRAR(A)S; M.SHAPIRO
2012-01-01
Euclidean Clifford analysis is a higher dimensional function theory centred around monogenic functions,i.e.,null solutions to a first order vector valued rotation invariant differential operator (θ) called the Dirac operator.More recently,Hermitian Clifford analysis has emerged as a new branch,offering yet a refinement of the Euclidean case; it focuses on the simultaneous null solutions,called Hermitian monogenic functions,to two Hermitian Dirac operators (θ)z_ and (θ)z_(+) which are invariant under the action of the unitary group.In Euclidean Clifford analysis,the Teodorescu operator is the right inverse of the Dirac operator (θ).In this paper,Teodorescu operators for the Hermitian Dirac operators (θ)z_ and (θ)z(+) are constructed.Moreover,the structure of the Euclidean and Hermitian Teodorescu operators is revealed by analyzing the more subtle behaviour of their components.Finally,the obtained inversion relations are still refined for the differential operators issuing from the Euclidean and Hermitian Dirac operators by splitting the Clifford algebra product into its dot and wedge parts.Their relationship with several complex variables theory is discussed.
Volume scaling of Dirac eigenvalues in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with color sextet fermions
DeGrand, Thomas
2009-01-01
I observe a rough volume-dependent scaling of the low eigenvalues of a chiral Dirac operator in lattice studies of SU(3) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of color sextet fermions, in its weak-coupling phase. The mean value of the ith eigenvalue scales with the simulation volume V=L^4 as L^p ~zeta_i, where zeta_i is a volume-independent constant. The exponent p is about 1.4. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that p is the leading relevant exponent associated with the fermion mass dependence of correlation functions in a theory whose zero-mass limit is conformal.
Dirac spectrum of one-flavor QCD at \\theta=0 and continuity of the chiral condensate
Verbaarschot, J J M
2014-01-01
We derive exact analytical expressions for the spectral density of the Dirac operator at fixed \\theta-angle in the microscopic domain of one-flavor QCD. These results are obtained by performing the sum over topological sectors using novel identities involving sums of products of Bessel functions. Because the fermion determinant is not positive definite for negative quark mass, the usual Banks-Casher relation is not valid and has to be replaced by a different mechanism first observed for QCD at nonzero chemical potential. Using the exact results for the spectral density we explain how this mechanism results in a chiral condensate that remains constant when the quark mass changes sign.
Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac systems from the discretized Kaluza-Klein theory
Nguyen, Ai Viet; Nguyen, Suan Han; Wali, Kameshwar C
2016-01-01
A unified theory of the non-Abelian gauge interactions with gravity in the framework of a discretized Kaluaza-Kleine theory is constructed with a modified Dirac operator and wedge product. All the couplings of chiral spinors to the non-Abelian gauge fields emerge naturally as components of the couplings of the chiral spinors to the generalized gravity together with some new interactions. In particular, the currently prevalent gravity-QCD-quark and gravity-electroweak-quark-lepton models are shown to follow as special cases of the general framework.
Chandrashekar, C M
2013-10-03
From the unitary operator used for implementing two-state discrete-time quantum walk on one-, two- and three- dimensional lattice we obtain a two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian. In particular, using different pairs of Pauli basis as position translation states we obtain three different form of Hamiltonians for evolution on one-dimensional lattice. We extend this to two- and three-dimensional lattices using different Pauli basis states as position translation states for each dimension and show that the external coin operation, which is necessary for one-dimensional walk is not a necessary requirement for a walk on higher dimensions but can serve as an additional resource to control the dynamics. The two-component Hamiltonian we present here for quantum walk on different lattices can serve as a general framework to simulate, control, and study the dynamics of quantum systems governed by Dirac-like Hamiltonian.
Multigrid Preconditioning for the Overlap Operator in Lattice QCD
Brannick, James; Kahl, Karsten; Leder, Björn; Rottmann, Matthias; Strebel, Artur
2014-01-01
The overlap operator is a lattice discretization of the Dirac operator of quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental physical theory of the strong interaction between the quarks. As opposed to other discretizations it preserves the important physical property of chiral symmetry, at the expense of requiring much more effort when solving systems with this operator. We present a preconditioning technique based on another lattice discretization, the Wilson-Dirac operator. The mathematical analysis precisely describes the effect of this preconditioning in the case that the Wilson-Dirac operator is normal. Although this is not exactly the case in realistic settings, we show that current smearing techniques indeed drive the Wilson-Dirac operator towards normality, thus providing a motivation why our preconditioner works well in computational practice. Results of numerical experiments in physically relevant settings show that our preconditioning yields accelerations of up to one order of magnitude.
Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity
Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramírez, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Eduardo
2012-10-01
A genuine gauge theory for the Poincaré, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n - 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices Γab in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices Γab can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient αs. We then give a general algorithm that computes the α-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors Bab with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, "minimal" algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.
Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity
Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramirez, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)
2012-10-06
A genuine gauge theory for the Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n- 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient {alpha}{sub s}. We then give a general algorithm that computes the {alpha}-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors B{sup ab} with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, 'minimal' algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.
Relativistic Dirac Representation of Dynamically-Generated Elementary-Particle Mass
Chew, Geoffrey F
2008-01-01
Special-relativistic dynamically-generated elementary-particle mass is represented by a self-adjoint energy operator acting on a rigged Hilbert space (RHS) of functions over the 6-dimensional Euclidean-group manifold. Even though this operator's eigenvalues correspond to total energy, it is not the generator of infinitesimal wave-function evolution in classical time. Extending formalism which Dirac invented and applied non-relativistically, unitary Poincar\\'e-group representation is provided by the wave functions of a spacelike entity that we call "preon". Six continuous Feynman-path-contacting preon coordinates specify spatial location (3 coordinates), lightlike-velocity-direction (2 coordinates) and transverse polarization (1 coordinate). [Utility of the the term "preon observable" is dubious.] Velocity and spatial location collaborate to define a preon time operator conjugate to the energy operator. In RHS bases alternative to functions over the group manifold, the wave function depends on a preon "velocit...
Isometry generators in momentum representation of the Dirac theory on the de Sitter spacetime
Cotăescu, Ion I.; Băltăţeanu, Doru-Marcel
2015-11-01
In this paper, it is shown that the covariant representation (CR) transforming the Dirac field under de Sitter isometries is equivalent to a direct sum of two unitary irreducible representations (UIRs) of the Sp(2, 2) group transforming alike the particle and antiparticle field operators in momentum representation. Their basis generators and Casimir operators are written down for the first time finding that these representations are equivalent to an UIR from the principal series whose canonical labels are determined by the fermion mass and spin. The properties of the conserved observables (i.e. one-particle operators) associated to the de Sitter isometries via Noether theorem and of the corresponding Pauli-Lubanski type operator are also pointed out.
Analytic Representation of Relativistic Wave Equations I The Dirac Case
Tepper, L; Zachary, W W
2003-01-01
In this paper we construct an analytical separation (diagonalization) of the full (minimal coupling) Dirac equation into particle and antiparticle components. The diagonalization is analytic in that it is achieved without transforming the wave functions, as is done by the Foldy-Wouthuysen method, and reveals the nonlocal time behavior of the particle-antiparticle relationship. It is well known that the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation leads to a diagonalization that is nonlocal in space. We interpret the zitterbewegung, and the result that a velocity measurement (of a Dirac particle) at any instant in time is +(-)c, as reflections of the fact that the Dirac equation makes a spatially extended particle appear as a point in the present by forcing it to oscillate between the past and future at speed c. This suggests that although the Dirac Hamiltonian and the square-root Hamiltonian, are mathematically, they are not physically, equivalent. Furthermore, we see that alt! ho! ugh the form of the Dirac equation serve...
Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures
Buettner, Bastian
2012-08-06
nanomagnet with a cross-section of (100.20) nm{sup 2} confirms the expected resolution ability, extracted from the noise of the sensor. The observed high signal-to-noise ratio validates the detection limit of this sensor in terms of geometry. This would be reached for a magnet (same material) with quadratic crosssection for an edge length of 3.3 nm. Moreover, the feasibility of this sensor for operation in a wide temperature range (T=mK..>200 K) and high magnetic fields has been confirmed. The second micromagnetic sensor is the micro-SQUID (micro-Superconducting-QUantum-Interference-Device) based on niobium. The typical sensor area of the devices built in this work was (1.0.1.0) {mu}m{sup 2}, with constrictions of about 20 nm. The characterization of this device demonstrates an amazing field sensitivity (regarding its size) of {delta}B<1 {mu}T. Even though the sensor was 25 times larger than the best micro-Hall sensor, it provided an excellent flux resolution in the order of {delta}{Phi}{approx}5.10{sup -4} {Phi}{sub 0} and a similar magnetic moment resolution of {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}. Furthermore, the introduction of an ellipsoidal permalloy magnet (axes: 200 nm and 400 nm, thickness 30 nm) substantiates the suitability for the detection of minuscule, localized magnetic fields. The second part of the thesis deals with the peculiar transport properties of HgTe quantum wells. These rely on the linear contribution to the band structure inherent to the heterostructure. Therefore the system can be described by an effective Dirac Hamiltonian, whose Dirac mass is tunable by the variation of the quantum well thickness. By fabrication and characterization of a systematical series of substrates, a system with vanishing Dirac mass (zero energy gap) has been confirmed. This heterostructure therefore resembles graphene (a monolayer of graphite), with the difference of exhibiting only one valley in the energy dispersion of the Brillouin zone. Thus parasitical intervalley
Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures
Buettner, Bastian
2012-08-06
nanomagnet with a cross-section of (100.20) nm{sup 2} confirms the expected resolution ability, extracted from the noise of the sensor. The observed high signal-to-noise ratio validates the detection limit of this sensor in terms of geometry. This would be reached for a magnet (same material) with quadratic crosssection for an edge length of 3.3 nm. Moreover, the feasibility of this sensor for operation in a wide temperature range (T=mK..>200 K) and high magnetic fields has been confirmed. The second micromagnetic sensor is the micro-SQUID (micro-Superconducting-QUantum-Interference-Device) based on niobium. The typical sensor area of the devices built in this work was (1.0.1.0) {mu}m{sup 2}, with constrictions of about 20 nm. The characterization of this device demonstrates an amazing field sensitivity (regarding its size) of {delta}B<1 {mu}T. Even though the sensor was 25 times larger than the best micro-Hall sensor, it provided an excellent flux resolution in the order of {delta}{Phi}{approx}5.10{sup -4} {Phi}{sub 0} and a similar magnetic moment resolution of {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}. Furthermore, the introduction of an ellipsoidal permalloy magnet (axes: 200 nm and 400 nm, thickness 30 nm) substantiates the suitability for the detection of minuscule, localized magnetic fields. The second part of the thesis deals with the peculiar transport properties of HgTe quantum wells. These rely on the linear contribution to the band structure inherent to the heterostructure. Therefore the system can be described by an effective Dirac Hamiltonian, whose Dirac mass is tunable by the variation of the quantum well thickness. By fabrication and characterization of a systematical series of substrates, a system with vanishing Dirac mass (zero energy gap) has been confirmed. This heterostructure therefore resembles graphene (a monolayer of graphite), with the difference of exhibiting only one valley in the energy dispersion of the Brillouin zone. Thus parasitical intervalley
Sarkar, Sujit
2014-01-01
Quantum simulation aims to simulate a quantum system using a controble laboratory system that underline the same mathematical model. Cavity QED lattice system is that prescribe system to simulate the relativistic quantum effect. We quantum simulate the Dirac fermion mode, Majorana fermion mode and Majorana-Weyl fermion mode and a crossover between them in cavity QED lattice. We also present the different analytical relations between the field operators for different mode excitations.
Cichy, Krzysztof; Splittorff, K; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2015-01-01
We present the comparison of the analytical microscopic spectral density for lattice QCD with $N_{\\rm f}=2$ twisted mass fermions with the one obtained on the lattice utilizing configurations produced by the ETM collaboration. We extract estimates for the chiral condensate as well as the low-energy constant $W_8$ of Wilson $\\chi$-PT by employing spectral information of the Wilson Dirac operator with fixed index at finite volume.
McConnell, Sean; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey
2010-03-01
During recent years, the DIRAC package has proved to be an efficient tool for studying the structural properties and dynamic behavior of hydrogen-like ions. Originally designed as a set of MAPLE procedures, this package provides interactive access to the wave and Green's functions in the non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks and supports analytical evaluation of a large number of radial integrals that are required for the construction of transition amplitudes and interaction cross sections. We provide here a new version of the DIRAC program which is developed within the framework of MATHEMATICA (version 6.0). This new version aims to cater to a wider community of researchers that use the MATHEMATICA platform and to take advantage of the generally faster processing times therein. Moreover, the addition of new procedures, a more convenient and detailed help system, as well as source code revisions to overcome identified shortcomings should ensure expanded use of the new DIRAC program over its predecessor. New version program summaryProgram title: DIRAC Catalogue identifier: ADUQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 073 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 285 828 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 6.0 or higher Computer: All computers with a license for the computer algebra package Mathematica (version 6.0 or higher) Operating system: Mathematica is O/S independent Classification: 2.1 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADUQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 165 (2005) 139 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Since the early days of quantum mechanics, the
Daudé, Thierry
2017-01-01
In this paper, the authors study the direct and inverse scattering theory at fixed energy for massless charged Dirac fields evolving in the exterior region of a Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black hole. In the first part, they establish the existence and asymptotic completeness of time-dependent wave operators associated to our Dirac fields. This leads to the definition of the time-dependent scattering operator that encodes the far-field behavior (with respect to a stationary observer) in the asymptotic regions of the black hole: the event and cosmological horizons. The authors also use the miraculous property (quoting Chandrasekhar)-that the Dirac equation can be separated into radial and angular ordinary differential equations-to make the link between the time-dependent scattering operator and its stationary counterpart. This leads to a nice expression of the scattering matrix at fixed energy in terms of stationary solutions of the system of separated equations. In a second part, the authors use this expression of ...
Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function
Wilcox, Bethany R
2015-01-01
The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students' responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a c...
Time-dependent massless Dirac fermions in graphene
Khantoul, Boubakeur, E-mail: bobphys@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Fring, Andreas, E-mail: a.fring@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)
2015-10-30
Using the Lewis–Riesenfeld method of invariants we construct explicit analytical solutions for the massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions describing quasi-particles in graphene. The Hamiltonian of the system considered contains some explicit time-dependence in addition to one resulting from being minimally coupled to a time-dependent vector potential. The eigenvalue equations for the two spinor components of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant are found to decouple into a pair of supersymmetric invariants in a similar fashion as the known decoupling for the time-independent Dirac Hamiltonians. - Highlights: • An explicit analytical solution for a massless 2+1 dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation is found. • All steps of the Lewis–Riesenfeld method have been carried out.
Nowadays cosmology with the Weyl-Dirac approach
Israelit, Mark
2012-01-01
Some problems of cosmology: the big bang singularity, the origin of conventional matter, of dark matter and of dark energy may be successfully described and treated in the framework of the Weyl-Dirac theory. This theory, being a minimal expansion of Einstein's GRT, contains in addition to the metric tensor\\g, the Weyl connection vector \\w and the Dirac gauge function\\beta. From these geometrically based quantities one obtains the behavior of our universe. The Weyl connection vector \\w existing in microcells creates dark matter particles, weylons. In the very early universe \\beta creates matter, whereas in the present dust period \\beta forms dark energy, the latter causing cosmic acceleration. Around a massive body the - dark energy form a ball-like concentration having negative mass and negative pressure. These \\beta-balls cause an additional acceleration of the expanding universe. The Weyl-Dirac theory is a classical geometrically based framework appropriate for describing and searching cosmology.
Generalized de Broglie Relations for Dirac Equations in Curved Spacetimes
Arminjon, Mayeul
2011-01-01
One may ask whether the special relativistic relations between energy and frequency and between momentum and wave vector, introduced for matter waves by de Broglie, are rigorously valid in the presence of gravity. In this paper, we show this to be true for Dirac equations in a background of gravitational and electromagnetic fields. We do this by applying Whitham's Lagrangian method to derive covariant equations describing wave packet motion which preserve the symmetries of the Dirac Lagrangian, and in particular, conserve the probability current. We show that generalized de Broglie relations emerge from the Whitham equations after transforming each Dirac equation into a canonical form via a local similarity transformation of the type first introduced by Pauli. This gives the de Broglie relations a universal character for spin-half particles in a curved spacetime. We show that COW and Sagnac type terms also appear in the Whitham equations. We further discuss the classical-quantum correspondence in a curved spa...
Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal
Chen, Ze-Guo
2014-04-09
Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.
Luciano Maiani and Jean Iliopoulos awarded the Dirac Medal
2007-01-01
Luciano Maiani, when he was Director-General of CERN. Jean Iliopoulos in 1999. (©CNRS Photothèque - Julien Quideau)On 8 August, the 2007 Dirac Medal, one of the most prestigious prizes in the fields of theoretical physics and mathematics, was awarded to Luciano Maiani, professor at Rome’s La Sapienza University and former Director-General of CERN, and to Jean Iliopoulos, emeritus Director of Research at the CNRS Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. The medal was awarded to both physicists for their joint "work on the physics of the charm quark, a major contribution to the birth of the Standard Model, the modern theory of Elementary Particles." Founded by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in 1985, the Dirac Medal is awarded annually on 8 August, the birthday of the famous physicist Paul Dirac, winner of the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics. It is awarded to ...
Electronic structure of a graphene superlattice with massive Dirac fermions
Lima, Jonas R. F., E-mail: jonas.iasd@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) - Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)
2015-02-28
We study the electronic and transport properties of a graphene-based superlattice theoretically by using an effective Dirac equation. The superlattice consists of a periodic potential applied on a single-layer graphene deposited on a substrate that opens an energy gap of 2Δ in its electronic structure. We find that extra Dirac points appear in the electronic band structure under certain conditions, so it is possible to close the gap between the conduction and valence minibands. We show that the energy gap E{sub g} can be tuned in the range 0 ≤ E{sub g} ≤ 2Δ by changing the periodic potential. We analyze the low energy electronic structure around the contact points and find that the effective Fermi velocity in very anisotropic and depends on the energy gap. We show that the extra Dirac points obtained here behave differently compared to previously studied systems.
Spin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions protected by bipartite symmetry
Lin, Zeren [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Zhirong, E-mail: LiuZhiRong@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2015-12-07
We propose that bipartite symmetry allows spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points, a generalization of the spin-1/2 Dirac points in graphene, to appear as topologically protected at the Fermi level. In this spirit, we provide methodology to construct spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points of this kind in a given 2D space group and get the classification of the known spin-1 systems in the literature. We also apply the workflow to predict two new systems, P3m1-9 and P31m-15, to possess spin-1 at K/K′ in the Brillouin zone of hexagonal lattice. Their stability under various strains is investigated and compared with that of T{sub 3}, an extensively studied model of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattice with spin-1 also at K/K′.
Spin precession of Dirac particles in Kerr geometry
Farooqui, Anusar
2017-01-01
We isolate and study the transformation of the intrinsic spin of Dirac particles as they propagate along timelike geodesics in Kerr geometry. Reference frames play a crucial role in the definition and measurement of the intrinsic spin of test particles. We show how observers located in the outer geometry of Kerr black holes may exploit the symmetries of the geometry to set up reference frames using purely geometric, locally-available information. Armed with these geometrically-defined reference frames, we obtain a closed-form expression for the geometrically-induced spin precession of Dirac particles in the outer geometry of Kerr black holes. We show that the spin of Dirac particles does not precess on the equatorial place of Kerr geometry; and hence, in Schwarzschild geometry.
Novel TeV-scale seesaw mechanism with Dirac mediators
Picek, Ivica, E-mail: picek@phy.h [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O.B. 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Radovcic, Branimir, E-mail: bradov@phy.h [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O.B. 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)
2010-04-19
We propose novel tree level seesaw mechanism with TeV-scale vectorlike Dirac mediators that produce Majorana masses of the known neutrinos. The gauge quantum number assignment to the Dirac mediators allows them to belong to a weak triplet and a five-plet of non-zero hypercharge. The latter leads to new seesaw formula m{sub n}uapproxv{sup 6}/M{sup 5}, so that the empirical masses m{sub n}uapprox10{sup -1} eV can be achieved by MapproxTeV new states. There is a limited range of the parameter space with M<=a few100 GeV where the tree level contribution dominates over the respective loop contributions and the proposed mechanism is testable at the LHC. We discuss specific signatures for Dirac type heavy leptons produced by Drell-Yan fusion at the LHC.
Production of Dirac particle in twisted Minkowsky space-time
Samary, Dine Ousmane; Kanfon, Antonin
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the Dirac equation interacting with external gravitation field. This curve background, which correspond to the deformation of Minkowsky space-time is described with the tetrad of the form $e_b^\\mu(x)=\\varepsilon(\\delta_b^\\mu+\\omega_{ba}^\\mu x^a)$, where $\\varepsilon=1$ for $\\mu=0$ and $\\varepsilon=i$ for $\\mu=1,2,3.$ Using separation of variables the corresponding Dirac equation is solved. The probability density of the vacuum-vacuum pair creation is given. In particular case of vanishing electromagnetic fields, we point out that, this external gravitation field modify weakly the well know probability of pair production of the Dirac particle given in ordinary space-time.
Suparmi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The bound state solution of the Dirac equation for generalized PöschlTeller and trigonometric Pöschl-Teller non-central potentials was obtained using SUSY quantum mechanics and the idea of shape invariance potential. The approximate relativistic energy spectrum was expressed in the closed form. The radial and polar wave functions were obtained using raising and lowering of radial and polar operators. The orbital quantum numbers were found from the polar Dirac equation, which was solved using SUSY quantum mechanics and the idea of shape invariance.
Fillion-Gourdeau, F; Herrmann, H J; Mendoza, M; Palpacelli, S; Succi, S
2013-10-18
We point out a formal analogy between the Dirac equation in Majorana form and the discrete-velocity version of the Boltzmann kinetic equation. By a systematic analysis based on the theory of operator splitting, this analogy is shown to turn into a concrete and efficient computational method, providing a unified treatment of relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. This might have potentially far-reaching implications for both classical and quantum computing, because it shows that, by splitting time along the three spatial directions, quantum information (Dirac-Majorana wave function) propagates in space-time as a classical statistical process (Boltzmann distribution).
Steen-Ermakov-Pinney equation and integrable nonlinear deformation of one-dimensional Dirac equation
Prykarpatskyy, Yarema
2017-01-01
The paper deals with nonlinear one-dimensional Dirac equation. We describe its invariants set by means of the deformed linear Dirac equation, using the fact that two ordinary differential equations are equivalent if their sets of invariants coincide.
On Quasi-Jacobi Bialgebroid and Its Dirac-Jacobi Structure
LIU Ling; SU Nong
2014-01-01
Notions of quasi-Jacobi bialgebroid and its Dirac-Jacobi structure are introduced. The necessary and sufficient conditions for a maximal isotropic subbundle L to be a Dirac-Jacobi structure are proved. Meanwhile several special examples are presented.
舒维星; 吴普训; 余洪伟
2003-01-01
Negative energy density and the quantum inequality are examined for the Dirac field. A proof is given of the quantum inequality for negative energy densities in the massive Dirac field produced by the superposition of two single particle electron states.
Chemistry at the dirac point of graphene
Sarkar, Santanu
device mobility. To this end, we find that the organometallic hexahapto metal complexation chemistry of graphene, in which the graphene pi-band constructively hybridizes with the vacant d-orbitals of transition metals, allows the fabrication of field effect devices which retain a high degree of the mobility with enhanced on-off ratio. In summary, we find that the singular electronic structure of graphene at the Dirac point governs the chemical reactivity of graphene and this chemistry will play a vital role in propelling graphene to assume its role as the next generation electronic material beyond silicon.
On radiation reaction and the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation
de Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes
2013-01-01
It is underlined that the Lienard-Wiechert solutions indicate that after the external force is instantly removed from a small charged particle, the field in its close neighborhood becomes a Lorentz boosted Coulomb field. It suggests that the force of the self-field on the particle should instantaneously vanish after a sudden removal of the external force. A minimal modification of Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation is searched seeking to implement this property. A term assuring this behavior is added to the equation by maintaining Lorentz covariance and vanishing scalar product with the four-velocity. The simple Dirac constant force example does not show runaway acceleration.
Dirac quantization of a three-dimensional gauge theory
Burnel, A.; Van Der Rest-Jaspers, M.
1985-12-01
A model recently proposed by Hagen is examined from the point of view of Dirac quantization of constrained systems. This model exhibits interesting particular features for the Dirac method itself. Among them are the odd number of second-class constraints and the fact that, when a gauge is fixed, constraints result from compatibility conditions between Lagrange multipliers. From the point of view of the model itself, the invalidity of the axial gauge in the non-Abelian case is obtained by comparing the effective Hamiltonians for two different values of the arbitrary spacelike vector.
Three-dimensional gauge theory in Dirac formalism
Kamimura, Kiyoshi
1986-08-01
The Hagen model [C. R. Hagen, Ann. Phys. (NY) 157, 342 (1984); Phys. Rev. D 31, 331 (1985)] is studied using the method of constrained Hamiltonian formalism developed by Dirac [P. A. M. Dirac, Can. J. Math. 2, 129 (1950); Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (Yeshiva U. P., New York, 1964)]. The results recently obtained by Burnel and Van Der Rest-Jaspers [A. Burnel and M. Van Der Rest-Jaspers, J. Math. Phys. 26, 3155 (1985)] are reexamined and modified. There appear two second-class constraints and their choice is not crucial. The equivalence of different gauges is proved without referring to the current conservation law.
Anisotropic magnetotransport in Dirac-Weyl magnetic junctions
Ominato, Yuya; Kobayashi, Koji; Nomura, Kentaro
2017-02-01
We theoretically study the anisotropic magnetotransport in Dirac-Weyl magnetic junctions where a doped ferromagnetic Weyl semimetal is sandwiched between doped Dirac semimetals. We calculate the conductance using the Landauer formula and find that the system exhibits extraordinarily large anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The AMR depends on the ratio of the Fermi energy to the strength of the exchange interaction. The origin of the AMR is the shift of the Fermi surface in the Weyl semimetal, and the mechanism is completely different from the conventional AMR originating from the spin dependent scattering and the spin-orbit interaction.
Dirac particles tunneling from black holes with topological defects
Jusufi, Kimet
2015-01-01
We study Hawking radiation of Dirac particles with spin-$1/2$ as a tunneling process from Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-de Sitter black holes in background spacetimes with a spinning cosmic string and a global monopole. Solving Dirac's equation by employing the Hamilton-Jacobi method and WKB approximation we find the corresponding tunneling probabilities and the Hawking temperature. Furthermore, we show that the Hawking temperature of black holes remains unchanged in presence of topological defects in both cases.
Relativistic Lagrangians for the Lorentz–Dirac equation
Deguchi, Shinichi, E-mail: deguchi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Institute of Quantum Science, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Nakano, Kunihiko [Institute of Quantum Science, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Suzuki, Takafumi [Junior College Funabashi Campus, Nihon University, Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)
2015-09-15
We present two types of relativistic Lagrangians for the Lorentz–Dirac equation written in terms of an arbitrary world-line parameter. One of the Lagrangians contains an exponential damping function of the proper time and explicitly depends on the world-line parameter. Another Lagrangian includes additional cross-terms consisting of auxiliary dynamical variables and does not depend explicitly on the world-line parameter. We demonstrate that both the Lagrangians actually yield the Lorentz–Dirac equation with a source-like term.
Twisting dirac fermions: circular dichroism in bilayer graphene
Suárez Morell, E.; Chico, Leonor; Brey, Luis
2017-09-01
Twisted bilayer graphene is a chiral system which has been recently shown to present circular dichroism. In this work we show that the origin of this optical activity is the rotation of the Dirac fermions’ helicities in the top and bottom layer. Starting from the Kubo formula, we obtain a compact expression for the Hall conductivity that takes into account the dephasing of the electromagnetic field between the top and bottom layers and gathers all the symmetries of the system. Our results are based in both a continuum and a tight-binding model, and they can be generalized to any two-dimensional Dirac material with a chiral stacking between layers.
Job monitoring on DIRAC for Belle II distributed computing
Kato, Yuji; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hara, Takanori; Miyake, Hideki; Ueda, Ikuo
2015-12-01
We developed a monitoring system for Belle II distributed computing, which consists of active and passive methods. In this paper we describe the passive monitoring system, where information stored in the DIRAC database is processed and visualized. We divide the DIRAC workload management flow into steps and store characteristic variables which indicate issues. These variables are chosen carefully based on our experiences, then visualized. As a result, we are able to effectively detect issues. Finally, we discuss the future development for automating log analysis, notification of issues, and disabling problematic sites.
Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equations with Thermodynamic Quantities
Arda, Altuğ; Tezcan, Cevdet; Sever, Ramazan
2016-03-01
We study the thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz free energy, the mean energy and the specific heat for both the Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. Our analyze includes two main subsections: (1) statistical functions for the Klein-Gordon equation with a linear potential having Lorentz vector, and Lorentz scalar parts (2) thermodynamic functions for the Dirac equation with a Lorentz scalar, inverse-linear potential by assuming that the scalar potential field is strong ( A ≫ 1). We restrict ourselves to the case where only the positive part of the spectrum gives a contribution to the sum in partition function. We give the analytical results for high temperatures.
Dirac equation on coordinate dependent noncommutative space–time
Kupriyanov, V.G., E-mail: vladislav.kupriyanov@gmail.com
2014-05-01
In this paper we discuss classical aspects of spinor field theory on the coordinate dependent noncommutative space–time. The noncommutative Dirac equation describing spinning particle in an external vector field and the corresponding action principle are proposed. The specific choice of a star product allows us to derive a conserved noncommutative probability current and to obtain the energy–momentum tensor for free noncommutative spinor field. Finally, we consider a free noncommutative Dirac fermion and show that if the Poisson structure is Lorentz-covariant, the standard energy–momentum dispersion relation remains valid.
Noncommutative Dirac quantization condition using the Seiberg-Witten map
Maceda, Marco; Martínez-Carbajal, Daniel
2016-11-01
The Dirac quantization condition (DQC) for magnetic monopoles in noncommutative space-time is analyzed. For this a noncommutative generalization of the method introduced by Wu and Yang is considered; the effects of noncommutativity are analyzed using the Seiberg-Witten map and the corresponding deformed Maxwell's equations are discussed. By using a perturbation expansion in the noncommutativity parameter θ , we show first that the DQC remains unmodified up to the first and second order. This result is then generalized to all orders in the expansion parameter for a class of noncommutative electric currents induced by the Seiberg-Witten map; these currents reduce to the Dirac delta function in the commutative limit.
Dirac equation on coordinate dependent noncommutative space-time
Kupriyanov, V. G.
2014-05-01
In this paper we discuss classical aspects of spinor field theory on the coordinate dependent noncommutative space-time. The noncommutative Dirac equation describing spinning particle in an external vector field and the corresponding action principle are proposed. The specific choice of a star product allows us to derive a conserved noncommutative probability current and to obtain the energy-momentum tensor for free noncommutative spinor field. Finally, we consider a free noncommutative Dirac fermion and show that if the Poisson structure is Lorentz-covariant, the standard energy-momentum dispersion relation remains valid.
The Dirac Conjecture and the Non-uniqueness of Lagrangian
Wang, Yong-Long; Jiang, Hua; Lu, Wei-Tao; Pan, Hong-Zhe
2013-01-01
We prove the validity of the Dirac conjecture generally by adding the total time derivatives of all constraints to the Lagrangian step by step. It is worthy to state that the total time derivatives added to the original Lagrangian can turn up some constraints, and discover the symmetries hidden in the original Lagrangian. For a constrained system, the extended Hamiltonian $H_E$ contains more constraints, and shows more symmetries. We discuss the Cawley's counterexample, and prove it not a real one to the Dirac conjecture. And we offer an example, its extended Hamiltonian is better that its total Hamiltonian for its Lagrangian.
Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain
Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.
2013-03-11
The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.
One real function instead of the Dirac spinor function
Akhmeteli, Andrey
2010-01-01
Schr\\"{o}dinger (Nature, v.169, p.538(1952)) noted that for each solution of the equations of scalar electrodynamics (the Klein-Gordon-Maxwell electrodynamics) there is a physically equivalent (i.e. coinciding with it up to a gauge transform) solution with a real matter field, despite the widespread belief about charged fields requiring complex representation. Surprisingly, the same result is true for spinor electrodynamics (the Dirac-Maxwell electrodynamics): the Dirac equation for the four complex components of the spinor function can be replaced by a fourth-order equation for one of those components, and this component can be made real by a gauge transform.
Goncalves, Bruno; Pereira, Dante Donizeti; Junior, Mario Marcio Dias
2015-01-01
In this work we focus our attention in the inconsistency that appears when the Semi-Exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for the Dirac field interacting with space-time torsion field is performed. In order to solve this problem, we present a new involution operator that makes possible to perform the exact transformation when torsion field is present. Such operator has a structure, well known in the literature, composed of the product of an operator that acts in the matrices space and another one that acts in the function space. We also present the bound state of this theory and discuss the possible experimental analysis.
Some remarks on quantum mechanics in a curved spacetime, especially for a Dirac particle
Arminjon, Mayeul
2016-01-01
Some precisions are given about the definition of the Hamiltonian operator H and its transformation properties, for a linear wave equation in a general spacetime. In the presence of time-dependent unitary gauge transformations, H as an operator depends on the gauge choice. The other observables of QM and their rates also become gauge-dependent unless a proper account for the gauge choice is done in their definition. We show the explicit effect of these non-uniqueness issues in the case of the Dirac equation in a general spacetime with the Schwinger gauge. We show also in detail why, the meaning of the energy in QM being inherited from classical Hamiltonian mechanics, the energy operator and its mean values ought to be well defined in a general spacetime.
Konkowski, Deborah A.; Arndt, Valerie; Helliwell, Thomas M.
2002-04-01
Klein-Gordon, Maxwell and Dirac fields are studied in quasiregular spacetimes, spacetimes with a classical quasiregular singularity, the mildest true classical singularity [G.F.R. Ellis and B.G. Schmidt, Gen. Rel. Grav.8, 915 (1977)]. A class of static quasiregular spacetimes possessing disclinations and dislocations [R.A. Puntigam and H.H. Soleng, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1129 (1997)] is shown to have field operators which are not essentially self-adjoint. This class of spacetimes includes an idealized cosmic string, i.e., a four-dimensional spacetime with a conical singularity [L.H. Ford and A. Vilenkin, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 14, 2353 (1981)], and a Galtsov/Letelier/Tod spacetime featuring a screw dislocation [K.P. Tod, Class. Quantum Grav. 11, 1331 (1994); D.V. Galtsov and P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. D47, 4273 (1993)]. The definition of G. T. Horowitz and D. Marolf [Phys. Rev. D52, 5670 (1995)] for a quantum-mechanically singular spacetime as one in which the spatial-derivative operator in the Klein-Gordon equation for a massive scalar field is not essentially self-adjoint is extended in the case of quasiregular spacetimes to include Maxwell and Dirac fields. Therefore, the class of static quasiregular spacetimes under consideration is quantum-mechanically singular independent of the type of test field.
Composition of Dirac structures and control of port-Hamiltonian systems
Schaft, van der A.J.; Cervera, J.
2002-01-01
Key feature of Dirac structures (as opposed to Poisson or symplectic structures) is the fact that the standard composition of two Dirac structures is again a Dirac structure. In particular this implies that any power-conserving interconnection of port-Hamiltonian systems is a port-Hamiltonian system
Dirac-Coulomb scattering with plane wave energy eigenspinors on de Sitter expanding universe
Cotaescu, Ion I
2007-01-01
The lowest order contribution of the amplitude of Dirac-Coulomb scattering in de Sitter spacetime is calculated assuming that the initial and final states of the Dirac field are described by exact solutions of the free Dirac equation on de Sitter spacetime with a given energy and helicity. We find that the total energy is conserved in the scattering process.
New quantum number for the many-electron Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian
Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Bučinský, Lukáš
2016-11-01
By breaking the spin symmetry in the relativistic domain, a powerful tool in physical sciences was lost. In this work, we examine an alternative of spin symmetry for systems described by the many-electron Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. We show that the square of many-electron operator K+, defined as a sum of individual single-electron time-reversal (TR) operators, is a linear Hermitian operator which commutes with the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian in a finite Fock subspace. In contrast to the square of a standard unitary many-electron TR operator K , the K+2 has a rich eigenspectrum having potential to substitute spin symmetry in the relativistic domain. We demonstrate that K+ is connected to K through an exponential mapping, in the same way as spin operators are mapped to the spin rotational group. Consequently, we call K+ the generator of the many-electron TR symmetry. By diagonalizing the operator K+2 in the basis of Kramers-restricted Slater determinants, we introduce the relativistic variant of configuration state functions (CSF), denoted as Kramers CSF. A new quantum number associated with K+2 has potential to be used in many areas, for instance, (a) to design effective spin Hamiltonians for electron spin resonance spectroscopy of heavy-element containing systems; (b) to increase efficiency of methods for the solution of many-electron problems in relativistic computational chemistry and physics; (c) to define Kramers contamination in unrestricted density functional and Hartree-Fock theory as a relativistic analog of the spin contamination in the nonrelativistic domain.