Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel
2014-05-01
We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.
Dirac spinor in a nonstationary Godel-type cosmological Universe
Villalba, Victor M
2015-01-01
In the present article we solve, via separation of variables, the massless Dirac equation in a nonstationary rotating, causal G\\"odel-type cosmological universe, having a constant rotational speed in all the points of the space. We compute the frequency spectrum. We show that the spectrum of massless Dirac particles is discrete and unbounded.
Noether Symmetry Approach for Dirac-Born-Infeld Cosmology
Capozziello, Salvatore; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2014-01-01
We consider the Noether Symmetry Approach for a cosmological model derived from a tachyon scalar field $T$ with a Dirac-Born-Infeld Lagrangian and a potential $V(T)$. Furthermore, we assume a coupled canonical scalar field $\\phi$ with an arbitrary interaction potential $B(T,\\phi)$. Exact solutions are derived consistent with the accelerated behavior of cosmic fluid.
Dirac-like equations for barotropic FRW cosmologies
Rosu, H C; Reyes, M; Jimenez, D
2002-01-01
Simple Schroedinger-like equations have been written down for FRW cosmologies with barotropic fluids by Faraoni. His results have been extended by Rosu, who employed techniques belonging to nonrelativistic supersymmetry. Further extensions are presented herein using the known connection between Schroedinger-like equations and Dirac-like equations in the same supersymmetric context
Nowadays cosmology with the Weyl-Dirac approach
Israelit, Mark
2012-01-01
Some problems of cosmology: the big bang singularity, the origin of conventional matter, of dark matter and of dark energy may be successfully described and treated in the framework of the Weyl-Dirac theory. This theory, being a minimal expansion of Einstein's GRT, contains in addition to the metric tensor\\g, the Weyl connection vector \\w and the Dirac gauge function\\beta. From these geometrically based quantities one obtains the behavior of our universe. The Weyl connection vector \\w existing in microcells creates dark matter particles, weylons. In the very early universe \\beta creates matter, whereas in the present dust period \\beta forms dark energy, the latter causing cosmic acceleration. Around a massive body the - dark energy form a ball-like concentration having negative mass and negative pressure. These \\beta-balls cause an additional acceleration of the expanding universe. The Weyl-Dirac theory is a classical geometrically based framework appropriate for describing and searching cosmology.
A spatially homogeneous and isotropic Einstein-Dirac cosmology
Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian
2011-04-01
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model where Dirac spinors are coupled to classical gravity. For the Dirac spinors we choose a Hartree-Fock ansatz where all one-particle wave functions are coherent and have the same momentum. If the scale function is large, the universe behaves like the classical Friedmann dust solution. If however the scale function is small, quantum effects lead to oscillations of the energy-momentum tensor. It is shown numerically and proven analytically that these quantum oscillations can prevent the formation of a big bang or big crunch singularity. The energy conditions are analyzed. We prove the existence of time-periodic solutions which go through an infinite number of expansion and contraction cycles.
A Spatially Homogeneous and Isotropic Einstein-Dirac Cosmology
Finster, Felix
2011-01-01
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model where Dirac spinors are coupled to classical gravity. For the Dirac spinors we choose a Hartree-Fock ansatz where all one-particle wave functions are coherent and have the same momentum. If the scale function is large, the universe behaves like the classical Friedmann dust solution. If however the scale function is small, quantum effects lead to oscillations of the energy-momentum tensor. It is shown numerically and proven analytically that these quantum oscillations can prevent the formation of a big bang or big crunch singularity. The energy conditions are analyzed. We prove the existence of time-periodic solutions which go through an infinite number of expansion and contraction cycles.
Massless Dirac fields and Barbero-Immirzi parameter in Cosmology
Berredo-Peixoto, Guilherme de; Shapiro, Ilya Lvovich; Souza, Cleber Abrahao de [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (ICE/UFJF), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica
2011-07-01
We consider cosmological solution for Einstein gravity with massless fermions with a four-fermion coupling, which emerges from the Holst action and is related to the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter. The gravitational action of this sort is a popular object of investigation in a non-perturbative formalism of quantum gravity. After exploring the consistency conditions for Dirac field within the standard Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric, one can rule out some classes of simplest solutions, related to conformal transformation of the field. It can be shown that the Dirac spinor components should be distinct complex functions of time. Finally, the theory with BI parameter and minimally coupling massless Dirac field is equivalent to a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = wρ, with w = 1/7. It is remarkable that the equation of state of the self-interacting spinor matter does not depend on the BI parameter. As a result, the theory does not allow smooth transition to the usual GR without Holst term. (author)
Dark Energy as a Cosmological Consequence of Existence of the Dirac Scalar Field in Nature
O. V. Babourova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The solution of the field equations of the conformal theory of gravitation with Dirac scalar field in Cartan-Weyl spacetime at the very early Universe is obtained. In this theory dark energy (described by an effective cosmological constant is a function of the Dirac scalar field β. This solution describes the exponential decreasing of β at the inflation stage and has a limit to a constant value of the dark energy at large time. This can give a way to solving the fundamental cosmological constant problem as a consequence of the fields dynamics in the early Universe.
Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization
Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M
2016-01-01
We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize ...
Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization
Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz.elizaga@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001, Covilhã (Portugal)
2017-01-15
We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize the part of the dynamics governed by the Dirac equation that is unitarily implementable. The uniqueness of the Fock vacuum is attained then once a physically motivated convention for the concepts of particles and antiparticles is fixed.
De Martini, Francesco
2016-01-01
The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation, the "inflaton", is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. The Euler-Lagrange theory based on a scalar-tensor Weyl-Dirac Lagrangian leads straightforwardly to the Einstein equation admitting as a source the characteristic energy-momentum tensor of the inflaton field. Within the dynamics of the inflation, e.g. in the slow roll transition from a "false" toward a "true vacuum", the inflaton's geometry implies a temperature driven symmetry change between a highly symmetrical Weylan to a low symmetry Riemannian scenario. Since the dynamics of the Weyl curvature scalar, constructed over differentials of the inflaton field, has been found to account for the quantum phenomenology at the microscopic scale, the present work suggests interesting connections between the "micro" and the "macro" aspects of our Universe.
De Martini, Francesco; Santamato, Enrico
2017-07-01
The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation, the "inflaton", is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. The Euler-Lagrange theory based on a scalar-tensor Weyl-Dirac Lagrangian leads straightforwardly to the Einstein equation admitting as a source the characteristic energy-momentum tensor of the inflaton field. Within the dynamics of the inflation, e.g. in the slow roll transition from a "false" toward a "true vacuum", the inflaton's geometry implies a temperature driven symmetry change between a highly symmetrical "Weylan" to a low symmetry "Riemannian" scenario. Since the dynamics of the Weyl curvature scalar, constructed over differentials of the inflaton field, has been found to account for the quantum phenomenology at the microscopic scale, the present work suggests interesting connections between the "micro" and the "macro" aspects of our Universe.
Quantum Oscillations Can Prevent the Big Bang Singularity in an Einstein-Dirac Cosmology
Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian
2010-01-01
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic system of Dirac particles coupled to classical gravity. The dust and radiation dominated closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times are recovered as limiting cases. We find a mechanism where quantum oscillations of the Dirac wave functions can prevent the formation of the big bang or big crunch singularity. Thus before the big crunch, the collapse of the universe is stopped by quantum effects and reversed to an expansion, so that the universe opens up entering a new era of classical behavior. Numerical examples of such space-times are given, and the dependence on various parameters is discussed. Generically, one has a collapse after a finite number of cycles. By fine-tuning the parameters we construct an example of a space-time which satisfies the dominant energy condition and is time-periodic, thus running through an infinite number of contraction and expansion cycles.
Quantum Oscillations Prevent the Big Bang Singularity in an Einstein-Dirac Cosmology
Finster, Felix
2008-01-01
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic system of Dirac particles coupled to classical gravity. The dust and radiation dominated closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times are recovered as limiting cases. We find a mechanism where quantum oscillations of the Dirac wave functions prevent the formation of the big bang or big crunch singularity. Thus before the big crunch, the collapse of the universe is stopped by quantum effects and reversed to an expansion, so that the universe opens up entering a new era of classical behavior. Numerical examples of such space-times are given, and the dependence on various parameters is discussed. We finally give an example of a space-time which satisfies the dominant energy condition and is time-periodic, thus running through an infinite number of contraction and expansion cycles.
Rubakov, V A
2014-01-01
In these lectures we first concentrate on the cosmological problems which, hopefully, have to do with the new physics to be probed at the LHC: the nature and origin of dark matter and generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We give several examples showing the LHC cosmological potential. These are WIMPs as cold dark matter, gravitinos as warm dark matter, and electroweak baryogenesis as a mechanism for generating matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the remaining part of the lectures we discuss the cosmological perturbations as a tool for studying the epoch preceeding the conventional hot stage of the cosmological evolution.
Dirac field in topologically massive gravity
Sert, Özcan; Adak, Muzaffer
2013-01-01
We consider a Dirac field coupled minimally to the Mielke-Baekler model of gravity and investigate cosmological solutions in three dimensions. We arrive at a family of solutions which exists even in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant.
Vittorio, Nicola
2017-01-01
Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.
Coasting cosmologies with time dependent cosmological constant
Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.
1999-01-01
The effect of a time dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar tensor theories. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for vacumm and perfect fluid matter are found. They have a linear expansion factor, the so called coasting cosmology, the gravitational "constant" decreace inversely with time; this model satisfy the Dirac hipotesis. The cosmological "constant" decreace inversely with the square of time, therefore we can have a very small value for it at present time.
Sochichiu, Corneliu
2011-01-01
We study the emergence of Dirac fermionic field in the low energy description of non-relativistic dynamical network models. The Dirac fermionic field appears as the effective field describing the excitations above point-like Fermi levels. Together with the Dirac fermionic field an effective space-time metric is also emerging. We analyze the conditions for such Fermi points to appear in general, paying special attention to the case of two and three spacial dimensions.
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
2017-01-01
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
Minimally Coupled Dirac Field to the Mielke-Baekler Model of Gravity
Sert, Özcan
2013-01-01
We consider a Dirac field coupled minimally to the Mielke-Baekler model of gravity and investigate cosmological solutions in three dimensions. We arrive at a family of solution which is valid even the case of zero cosmological constant.
Casajús Ramo, A
2006-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...
Gómez, F; Afanasev, L; Benayoun, M; Brekhovskikh, V; Caragheorgheopol, G; Cechák, T; Chiba, M; Constantinescu, S; Doudarev, A; Dreossi, D; Drijard, Daniel; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Gallas, M V; Gerndt, J; Giacomich, R; Gianotti, P; Goldin, D; Gorin, A; Gortchakov, O; Guaraldo, C; Hansroul, M; Hosek, R; Iliescu, M; Jabitski, M; Kalinina, N; Karpoukhine, V; Kluson, J; Kobayshi, M; Kokkas, P; Komarov, V; Koulikov, A; Kouptsov, A; Krouglov, V; Krouglova, L; Kuroda, K I; Lanaro, A; Lapshine, B; Lednicky, R; Leruste, P; Levisandri, P; López-Aguera, A; Lucherini, V; Mäki, T; Manuilov, I; Montanet, L; Narjoux, J L; Nemenov, L; Nikitin, M; Nunez Pardo, T; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Pazos, A; Pentia, M; Penzo, Aldo L; Perreau, J M; Petrascu, C; Pló, M; Ponta, T; Pop, D; Riazantsev, A; Rodríguez, J M; Rodriguez Fernandez, A; Rykaline, V; Santamarina, C; Saborido, J; Schacher, J; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Takeutchi, F; Tarasov, A; Tauscher, L; Tobar, M J; Trusov, S; Vasquez, P; Vlachos, S; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zrelov, P
2001-01-01
The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime tau of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ to pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/ due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/ for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of tau with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies. (19 refs).
Gravitational Repulsion and Dirac Antimatter
Kowitt, Mark E.
1996-03-01
Based on an analogy with electron and hole dynamics in semiconductors, Dirac's relativistic electron equation is generalized to include a gravitational interaction using an electromagnetic-type approximation of the gravitational potential. With gravitational and inertial masses decoupled, the equation serves to extend Dirac's deduction of antimatter parameters to include the possibility of gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter. Consequences for general relativity and related “antigravity” issues are considered, including the nature and gravitational behavior of virtual photons, virtual pairs, and negative-energy particles. Basic cosmological implications of antigravity are explored—in particular, potential contributions to inflation, expansion, and the general absence of detectable antimatter. Experimental and observational tests are noted, and new ones suggested.
Gravitationally Coupled Dirac Equation for Antimatter
Jentschura, U D
2013-01-01
The coupling of antimatter to gravity is of general interest because of conceivable cosmological consequences ("surprises") related to dark energy and the cosmological constant. Here, we revisit the derivation of the gravitationally coupled Dirac equation and find that the prefactor of a result given previously in [D.R. Brill and J.A. Wheeler, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 29, p. 465 (1957)] for the affine connection matrix is in need of a correction. We also discuss the conversion the curved-space Dirac equation from East-Coast to West-Coast conventions, in order to bring the gravitationally coupled Dirac equation to a form where it can easily be unified with the electromagnetic coupling as it is commonly used in modern particle physics calculations. The Dirac equation describes anti-particles as negative-energy states. We find a symmetry of the gravitationally coupled Dirac equation, which connects particle and antiparticle solutions for a general space-time metric of the Schwarzschild type and implies that particl...
Chimento, L P; Forte, M [Physics Department, UBA, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L, E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: devecchi@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: chimento@df.uba.ar [Physics Department, UFPR, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)
2011-07-08
In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.
Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter
Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason
2013-09-01
In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.
DIRAC distributed secure framework
Casajus, A.; Graciani, R.; LHCb DIRAC Team
2010-04-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by users to a MyProxy service, and DIRAC retrieves new short delegated proxies when necessary. This contribution discusses the details of the implementation of this security infrastructure in DIRAC.
Note on the semiclassicality of cosmological perturbations
Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino
2016-12-01
Moving from the consideration that matter fields must be treated in terms of their fundamental quantum counterparts, we show straightforward arguments, within the framework of ordinary quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, in order to convince readers that cosmological perturbations must be addressed in term of the semiclassical limit of the expectation value of quantum fields. We first take into account cosmological perturbations originated by a quantum scalar field, and then extend our treatment in order to account for the expectation values of bilinears of Dirac fermion fields. The latter can indeed transform as scalar quantities under diffeomorphisms, as well as all the other bilinear of the Dirac fields that belong to the Clifford algebra. This is the first of a series of works that is intended to prove that cosmological quantum perturbations can actually be accounted for in terms of Dirac fermion fields, which must be treated as fundamental quantum objects, and their dynamics.
Photoconductivity in Dirac materials
J. M. Shao
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.
Photoconductivity in Dirac materials
Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W., E-mail: stsygw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Materials & Engineering, School of Physics & Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China)
2015-11-15
Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Cuite, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Unidade Academica de Educacao]. E-mail: rafael@df.ufcg.edu.br; rafaelr@cbpf.br
2007-07-01
In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)
Monti, Dalida
1996-01-01
Relativamente poco noto al gran pubblico, il premio Nobel Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac appartiene a quel gruppo di uomini di ingegno che nei primi decenni del secolo contribuirono a dare alla nostra concezione del mondo fisico la sua impronta attuale. Assolutamente cruciali, per una valutazione dell'opera di Dirac, sono gli anni compresi tra il 1925 e il 1931: un periodo in cui il fisico fornisce la prima spiegazione chiara e coerente delle proprietà di spin dell'elettrone (equazione di Dirac) e perviene, in forza della pura deduzione matematica, alla scoperta dell'esistenza dell'elettrone positivo o positrone.
Quantum Einstein-Dirac Bianchi Universes
Damour, Thibault
2011-01-01
We study the mini--superspace quantization of spatially homogeneous (Bianchi) cosmological universes sourced by a Dirac spinor field. The quantization of the homogeneous spinor leads to a finite-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space and thereby to a multi-component Wheeler-DeWitt equation whose main features are: (i) the presence of spin-dependent Morse-type potentials, and (ii) the appearance of a q-number squared-mass term, which is of order ${\\cal O}(\\hbar^2)$, and which is affected by ordering ambiguities. We give the exact quantum solution of the Bianchi type-II system (which contains both scattering states and bound states), and discuss the main qualitative features of the quantum dynamics of the (classically chaotic) Bianchi type-IX system. We compare the exact quantum dynamics of fermionic cosmological billiards to previous works that described the spinor field as being either classical or Grassmann-valued.
Three dimensional Dirac semimetals
Zaheer, Saad
We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent
DIRAC Workload Management System
Paterson, S
2007-01-01
DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) is the Workload and Data Management system (WMS) for the LHCb experiment. The DIRAC WMS offers a transparent way for LHCb users to submit jobs to the EGEE Grid as well as local clusters and individual PCs. This paper will describe workload management optimizations, which ensure high job efficiency and minimized job start times. The computing requirements of the LHCb experiment can only be fulfilled through the use of many distributed compute resources. DIRAC provides a robust platform to run data productions on all the resources available to LHCb including the EGEE Grid. More recently, user support was added to DIRAC that greatly simplifies the procedure of submitting, monitoring and retrieving output of Grid jobs for the LHCb user community. DIRAC submits Pilot Agents to the EGEE Grid via the gLite WMS as normal jobs. Pilot Agents then request jobs from the DIRAC Workload Management System after the local environment has been checked. Therefore DIR...
Macroscopically-Discrete Quantum Cosmology
Chew, Geoffrey F
2008-01-01
To Milne's Lorentz-group-based spacetime and Gelfand-Naimark unitary representations of this group we associate a Fock space of 'cosmological preons'-quantum-theoretic universe constituents. Milne's 'cosmological principle' relies on Lorentz invariance of 'age'--global time. We divide Milne's spacetime into 'slices' of fixed macroscopic width in age, with 'cosmological rays' defined on (hyperbolic) slice boundaries-Fock space attaching only to these exceptional universe ages. Each (fixed-age) preon locates within a 6-dimensional manifold, one of whose 3 'extra' dimensions associates in Dirac sense to a self-adjoint operator that represents preon (continuous) local time, the operator canonically-conjugate thereto representing preon (total) energy. Self-adjoint-operator expectations at any spacetime-slice boundary prescribe throughout the following slice a non-fluctuating 'mundane reality'- electromagnetic and gravitational potentials 'tethered' to current densities of locally-conserved electric charge and ener...
Structure of Dirac matrices and invariants for nonlinear Dirac equations
2004-01-01
We present invariants for nonlinear Dirac equations in space-time ${\\mathbb R}^{n+1}$, by which we prove that a special choice of the Cauchy data yields free solutions. Our argument works for Klein-Gordon-Dirac equations with Yukawa coupling as well. Related problems on the structure of Dirac matrices are studied.
LI Zi-Ping; LI Ai-Min; JIANG Jin-Huan; WANG Yong-Long
2005-01-01
The extended canonical Noether identities and canonical first Noether theorem derived from an extended action in phase space for a system with a singular Lagrangian are formulated. Using these canonical Noether identities,it can be shown that the constraint multipliers connected with the first-class constraints may not be independent, so a query to a conjecture of Dirac is presented. Based on the symmetry properties of the constrained Hamiltonian system in phase space, a counterexample to a conjecture of Dirac is given to show that Dirac's conjecture fails in such a system.We present here a different way rather than Cawley's examples and other's ones in that there is no linearization of constraints in the problem. This example has a feature that neither the primary first-class constraints nor secondary first-class constraints are generators of the gauge transformation.
Forte, Mónica
2016-01-01
We show the kinematic equivalence between cosmological models driven by Dirac-Born-Infeld fields $\\phi$ with constant proper velocity of the brane and exponential potential $V=V_0e^{-B\\phi}$ and interactive cosmological systems with Modified Holographic Ricci type fluids as dark energy in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies.
Abel, Steven [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-02-15
A simple and natural model is presented that gives Dirac gauginos. The configuration is related to ''deconstructed gaugino mediation''. A high energy completion is provided based on existing ISS-like models of deconstructed gaugino mediation. This provides a complete picture of Dirac gauginos that includes the necessary extra adjoint fermions (generated as magnetic quarks of the ISS theory) and supersymmetry breaking (via the ISS mechanism). Moreover the screening of the scalar masses means that they can similar to or less than the gaugino masses, even though the supersymmetry breaking is driven by F-terms. (orig.)
Dirac Induction for loop groups
Posthuma, H.
2011-01-01
Using a coset version of the cubic Dirac operators for affine Lie algebras, we give an algebraic construction of the Dirac induction homomorphism for loop group representations. With this, we prove a homogeneous generalization of the Weyl-Kac character formula and show compatibility with Dirac induc
Jones, Bernard J. T.
2017-04-01
Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson–Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.
P. G. L. Leach
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Dirac devised his theory of Quantum Mechanics and recognised that his operators resembled the canonical coordinates of Hamiltonian Mechanics. This gave the latter a new lease of life. We look at what happens to Dirac’s Quantum Mechanics if one starts from Hamiltonian Mechanics.
Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2011-01-01
In c=1 units the product (mass x radius) for the neutron and the proton is about 4.7\\hbar assuming their radii equal to 1fm. We show that the corresponding products for the Dirac neutral and charged membrane coincide and are equal 1.6\\hbar.
Guignard, G
2005-01-01
The DIRAC project aims to the design and development of one of the key aspects of the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) planned for construction at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany: the broad implementation and optimization of ion storage/cooler rings and of in-ring experimentation with internal targets and secondary beams.
A Unification of General Theory of Relativity with Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis
PENG Huan-Wu
2004-01-01
Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmologically combined conservation laws that work cosmologically long time. We thus modify Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to a theory for varying G, with a tensor term arising naturally from the derivatives or G in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. The modified theory, when applied to cosmology, is consistent with Dirac's large number hypothesis, and gives a theoretical Hubble's relation not contradicting the observational data.For phenomena of duration and distance being short compared with those of the universe, our theory reduces to Einstein's theory with G being constant outside the gravitating matter, and thus also passes the crucial tests of Einstein's theory.
BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations
Armendariz-Picon, Cristian [Physics Department, St. Lawrence University,Canton, NY 13617 (United States); Şengör, Gizem [Department of Physics, Syracuse University,Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)
2016-11-08
BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.
BRST Quantization of Cosmological Perturbations
Armendariz-Picon, Cristian
2016-01-01
BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to the perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas quantization in synchronous gauge, which amounts to Dirac quantization, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.
HUANG Zeng-Guang; FANG Wei; LU Hui-Qing
2011-01-01
@@ We discuss Bianchi type-Ⅶ0 cosmology with a Dirac field in the Einstein-Cartan(E-C) theory and obtain the equations of the Dirac and gravitational fields in the E-C theory.A Bianchi type-Ⅶ0 inflationary solution is found.When(3/16)S2-σ2＞0, the Universe may avoid singularity.
Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E
2005-01-01
I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic
Brandenberger, R H; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Magueijo, Joao
1999-01-01
We review a few off-the-beaten-track ideas in cosmology. They solve a variety of fundamental problems; also they are fun. We start with a description of non-singular dilaton cosmology. In these scenarios gravity is modified so that the Universe does not have a singular birth. We then present a variety of ideas mixing string theory and cosmology. These solve the cosmological problems usually solved by inflation, and furthermore shed light upon the issue of the number of dimensions of our Universe. We finally review several aspects of the varying speed of light theory. We show how the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems may be solved in this scenario. We finally present a possible experimental test for a realization of this theory: a test in which the Supernovae results are to be combined with recent evidence for redshift dependence in the fine structure constant.
Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies
Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-05-15
We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter. (orig.)
Wei Khim Ng
2009-02-01
Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.
DIRAC Workload Management System
Garonne, V; Stokes-Rees, I
2005-01-01
The Workload Management System is the core component of the DIRAC distributed MC production and analysis grid environment of the CERN LHCb experiment. This paper discusses the architecture, implementation and performance of this system. The WMS is a community scheduler, realizing a pull paradigm, particulary for the high troughput computing context. It has recently been used for an intensive physics simulation production involving more than 60 sites, 65 TB of data, and over 1000-GHz processor-years.
Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2016-11-01
Starting with a Nambu-Goto action, a Dirac-like equation can be constructed by taking the square-root of the momentum constraint. The eigenvalues of the resulting Hamiltonian are real and correspond to masses of the excited string. In particular there are no tachyons. A special case of radial oscillations of a closed string in Minkowski space-time admits exact solutions in terms of wave functions of the harmonic oscillator.
A SUSY n = 2 approach to closed string tachyon cosmology
Vázquez-Báez, V.; Ramírez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matemáticas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 165, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)
2013-07-23
We present calculations towards obtaining a wave functions of the universe for the supersymmetric closed string tachyon cosmology. Supersymmetrization, in the superfield formalism, is performed by taking advantage of the time reparametrization invariance of the cosmological action and generalizing the transformations to include grassmannian variables. We calculate the corresponding Hamiltonian, by means of the Dirac formalism, and make use of the superalgebra to find solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equations indirectly.
Ryan, M.
1972-01-01
The study of cosmological models by means of equations of motion in Hamiltonian form is considered. Hamiltonian methods applied to gravity seem to go back to Rosenfeld (1930), who constructed a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian for linearized general relativity theory. The first to notice that cosmologies provided a simple model in which to demonstrate features of Hamiltonian formulation was DeWitt (1967). Applications of the ADM formalism to homogeneous cosmologies are discussed together with applications of the Hamiltonian formulation, giving attention also to Bianchi-type universes. Problems involving the concept of superspace and techniques of quantization are investigated.
Aloisi, A.M.; Nali, P. F.
2016-01-01
In 1931, Dirac advanced a startling prediction about the existence of a new elementary particle, characterized by a magnetic charge of a single polarity: the magnetic monopole. This prediction, that was not based on experimental reasons but on mathematical consistency considerations and the generalization of the formalism of quantum mechanics, illustrates emblematically the Dirac conception of the relationship between physics and mathematics. ----- Nel 1931 Dirac avanz\\`o una sorprendente pre...
Belinski, V
2009-01-01
The talk at international conference in honor of Ya. B. Zeldovich 95th Anniversary, Minsk, Belarus, April 2009. The talk represents a review of the old results and contemporary development on the problem of cosmological singularity.
Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio
2013-01-01
The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.
Koivisto, Tomi [Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wills, Danielle [Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zavala, Ivonne, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@astro.uio.no, E-mail: d.e.wills@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: e.i.zavala@rug.nl [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2014-06-01
Disformally coupled cosmologies arise from Dirac-Born-Infeld actions in Type II string theories, when matter resides on a moving hidden sector D-brane. Since such matter interacts only very weakly with the standard model particles, this scenario can provide a natural origin for the dark sector of the universe with a clear geometrical interpretation: dark energy is identified with the scalar field associated to the D-brane's position as it moves in the internal space, acting as quintessence, while dark matter is identified with the matter living on the D-brane, which can be modelled by a perfect fluid. The coupling functions are determined by the (warped) extra-dimensional geometry, and are thus constrained by the theory. The resulting cosmologies are studied using both dynamical system analysis and numerics. From the dynamical system point of view, one free parameter controls the cosmological dynamics, given by the ratio of the warp factor and the potential energy scales. The disformal coupling allows for new scaling solutions that can describe accelerating cosmologies alleviating the coincidence problem of dark energy. In addition, this scenario may ameliorate the fine-tuning problem of dark energy, whose small value may be attained dynamically, without requiring the mass of the dark energy field to be unnaturally low.
LHCb: DIRAC Secure Distributed Platform
Casajus, A
2009-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by us...
CREUTZ, M.
2006-01-26
It is popular to discuss low energy physics in lattice gauge theory ill terms of the small eigenvalues of the lattice Dirac operator. I play with some ensuing pitfalls in the interpretation of these eigenvalue spectra. In short, thinking about the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in the presence of gauge fields can give some insight, for example the elegant Banks-Casher picture for chiral symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, care is necessary because the problem is highly non-linear. This manifests itself in the non-intuitive example of how adding flavors enhances rather than suppresses low eigenvalues. Issues involving zero mode suppression represent one facet of a set of connected unresolved issues. Are there non-perturbative ambiguities in quantities such as the topological susceptibility? How essential are rough gauge fields, i.e. gauge fields on which the winding number is ambiguous? How do these issues interplay with the quark masses? I hope the puzzles presented here will stimulate more thought along these lines.
Wesson, P.S.
1979-10-01
The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)
Non minimally coupled condensate cosmologies: a phase space analysis
Carloni, Sante; Cianci, Roberto
2014-01-01
We present an analysis of the phase space of cosmological models based on a non minimal coupling between the geometry and a fermionic condensate. We obtain that the strong constraint coming from the Dirac equations allows a detailed design of the cosmology of these models and at the same time guarantees an evolution towards a state indistinguishable from General Relativistic cosmological models. In this light, we show how the use of some specific potentials is able to reproduce naturally two de Sitter phases separated by a power law expansion which could be an interesting model for the unification of an inflationary phase and a dark energy era.
Sanders, Robert H
2016-01-01
The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...
Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas
2011-01-01
Although it is possible that some fundamental physical constants could vary in time, it is important to only consider dimensionless combinations, such as the fine structure constant or the equivalent coupling constant for gravity. Once all such dimensionless numbers have been given, then we can be sure that our cosmological picture is governed by the same physical laws as that of another civilization with an entirely different set of units. An additional feature of the standard model of cosmology raises an extra complication, namely that the epoch at which we live is a crucial part of the model. This can be defined by giving the value of any one of the evolving cosmological parameters. It takes some care to avoid inconsistent results for constraints on variable constants, which could be caused by effectively fixing more than one parameter today. We show examples of this effect by considering in some detail the physics of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recombination and microwave background anisotropies, being care...
Kiselev, V V
2012-01-01
A huge value of cosmological constant characteristic for the particle physics and the inflation of early Universe are inherently related to each other: one can construct a fine-tuned superpotential, which produces a flat potential of inflaton with a constant density of energy V=\\Lambda^4 after taking into account for leading effects due to the supergravity, so that an introduction of small quantum loop-corrections to parameters of this superpotential naturally results in the dynamical instability relaxing the primary cosmological constant by means of inflationary regime. The model phenomenologically agrees with observational data on the large scale structure of Universe at \\Lambda~10^{16} GeV.
Blanchet, Steve
2007-01-01
I present here a concise summary of the preprint arXiv:0707.3024, written in collaboration with A. Anisimov and P. Di Bari. There we discuss leptogenesis when {\\em CP} violation stems exlusively from the Dirac phase in the PMNS mixing matrix. Under this assumption it turns out that the situation is very constrained when a hierarchical heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum is considered: the allowed regions are small and the final asymmetry depends on the initial conditions. On the other hand, for a quasi-degenerate spectrum of RH neutrinos, the {\\em CP} asymmetry can be enhanced and the situation becomes much more favorable, with no dependence on the initial conditions. Interestingly, in the extreme case of resonant leptogenesis, in order to match the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, we obtain a lower bound on \\sin \\q_{13} which depends on the lightest active neutrino mass m_1.
Two-loop Dirac neutrino mass and WIMP dark matter
Bonilla, Cesar; Peinado, Eduardo; Valle, Jose W F
2016-01-01
We propose a "scotogenic" mechanism relating small neutrino mass and cosmological dark matter. Neutrinos are Dirac fermions with masses arising only in two--loop order through the sector responsible for dark matter. Two triality symmetries ensure both dark matter stability and strict lepton number conservation at higher orders. A global spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry leads to a physical $Diracon$ that induces invisible Higgs decays which add up to the Higgs to dark matter mode. This enhances sensitivities to spin-independent WIMP dark matter search below $m_h/2$.
Plionis, M.
2004-07-01
The recent scientific efforts in Astrophysics & Cosmology have brought a revolution to our understanding of the Cosmos. Amazing results is the outcome of amazing experiments! The huge scientific, technological & financial effort that has gone into building the 10-m class telescopes as well as many space and balloon observatories, essential to observe the multitude of cosmic phenomena in their manifestations at different wavelengths, from gamma-rays to the millimetre and the radio, has given and is still giving its fruits of knowledge. These recent scientific achievements in Observational and Theoretical Cosmology were presented in the "Multiwavelength Cosmology" conference that took place on beautiful Mykonos island in the Aegean between 17 and 20 June 2003. More than 180 Cosmologists from all over the world gathered for a four-day intense meeting in which recent results from large ground based surveys (AAT/2-df, SLOAN) and space missions (WMAP, Chandra, XMM, ISO, HST) were presented and debated, providing a huge impetus to our knowledge of the Cosmos. The future of the subject (experiments, and directions of research) was also discussed. The conference was devoted mostly on the constraints on Cosmological models and galaxy formation theories that arise from the study of the high redshift Universe, from clusters of galaxies, and their evolution, from the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure and star-formation history. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1971-8
Marsh, David J E
2015-01-01
Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also extraordinarily well-motivated within high energy physics, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via the CMB and structure formation up to the present-day Universe. I briefly review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. The primary focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a dark matter (DM) candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute l...
Bothun, Greg
2011-10-01
Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent
Aloisi, A M
2016-01-01
In 1931, Dirac advanced a startling prediction about the existence of a new elementary particle, characterized by a magnetic charge of a single polarity: the magnetic monopole. This prediction, that was not based on experimental reasons but on mathematical consistency considerations and the generalization of the formalism of quantum mechanics, illustrates emblematically the Dirac conception of the relationship between physics and mathematics. ----- Nel 1931 Dirac avanz\\`o una sorprendente previsione circa l'esistenza di una nuova particella elementare, caratterizzata da una carica magnetica di un'unica polarit\\`a: il monopolo magnetico. Questa previsione, che non era fondata su ragioni sperimentali ma su considerazioni di consistenza matematica e sulla generalizzazione del formalismo della meccanica quantistica, illustra emblematicamente la concezione di Dirac del rapporto tra fisica e matematica.
Decoherence in the Dirac equation
Meyer, D A
1998-01-01
A Dirac particle is represented by a unitarily evolving state vector in a Hilbert space which factors as $H_{spin} \\otimes H_{position}$. Motivated by the similarity to simple models of decoherence consisting of a two state system coupled to an environment, we investigate the occurence of decoherence in the Dirac equation upon tracing over position. We conclude that the physics of this mathematically exact model for decoherence is closely related to Zitterbewegung.
Marsh, David J. E.
2016-07-01
Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also well-motivated within high energy physics, appearing in theories related to CP-violation in the standard model, supersymmetric theories, and theories with extra-dimensions, including string theory, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. I then present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via BBN, the CMB, reionization and structure formation, up to the present-day Universe. Topics covered include: axion dark matter (DM); direct and indirect detection of axions, reviewing existing and future experiments; axions as dark radiation; axions and the cosmological constant problem; decays of heavy axions; axions and stellar astrophysics; black hole superradiance; axions and astrophysical magnetic fields; axion inflation, and axion DM as an indirect probe of inflation. A major focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a DM candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute lower bound on DM particle mass is established. It is ma > 10-24eV from linear observables, extending to ma ≳ 10-22eV from non-linear observables, and has the potential to reach ma ≳ 10-18eV in the future. These bounds are weaker if the axion is not all of the DM, giving rise to limits on the relic density at low mass. This leads to the exciting possibility that the effects of axion DM on structure formation could one day be detected
CERN Bulletin
2010-01-01
When a group of physicists entered the Main Auditorium, during the evening of 29 June, they felt they had opened a time portal. Paul Dirac in front of a blackboard showing his formula. ©Sandra Hoogeboom An attentive audience, dressed in early 1900 costumes, were watching a lecture by the elusive Paul Dirac, presenting for the first time his famous formula on the blackboard. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984) was a British mathematical physicist at Cambridge, and one of the "fathers" of quantum mechanics. When he first wrote it, in 1928, Dirac was not sure what his formula really meant. As demonstrated by Andersson four year later, what Dirac had written on the blackboard was the first definition of a positron, hence he is credited with having anticipated the existence of antimatter. The actor John Kohl performs as Paul Dirac. ©Sandra Hoogeboom What the group of puzzled physicists were really observing when they entered the CERN Auditorium was the shoo...
Neves, J C S
2015-01-01
In the Nietzschean philosophy, the concept of force from physics is important to build one of its main concepts: the will to power. The concept of force, which Nietzsche found out in the Classical Mechanics, almost disappears in the physics of the XX century with the Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. Is the Nietzschean world as contending forces, a Dionysian cosmology, possible in the current science?
Alvarez, Enrique
1985-01-01
Some cosmological consequences of the assumption that superstrings are more fundamental objects than ordinary local quantum fields are examined. We study, in particular, the dependence of both the string tension and the temperature of the primordial string soup on cosmic time. A particular scenario is proposed in which the universe undergoes a contracting ``string phase'' before the ordinary ``big bang,'' which according to this picture is nothing but the outcome of the transition from nonlocal to local fundamental physics.
Grant, E.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...
Brax, Philippe
2016-01-01
We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different f...
Mapping curved spacetimes into Dirac spinors
Sabín, Carlos
2016-01-01
We show how to transform a Dirac equation in curved spacetime into a Dirac equation in flat spacetime. In particular, we show that any solution of the free massless Dirac equation in a 1+1 dimensional flat spacetime can be transformed via a local phase transformation into a solution of the corresponding Dirac equation in a curved background, where the spacetime metric is encoded into the phase. In this way, the existing quantum simulators of the Dirac equation can naturally incorporate curved spacetimes. As a first example we use our technique to obtain solutions of the Dirac equation in a particular family of interesting spacetimes in 1+1 dimensions.
LHCb: LHCbDirac is a DIRAC extension to support LHCb specific workflows
Stagni, Federico
2012-01-01
We present LHCbDIRAC, an extension of the DIRAC community Grid solution to handle the LHCb specificities. The DIRAC software has been developed for many years within LHCb only. Nowadays it is a generic software, used by many scientific communities worldwide. Each community wanting to take advantage of DIRAC has to develop an extension, containing all the necessary code for handling their specific cases. LHCbDIRAC is an actively developed extension, implementing the LHCb computing model and workflows. LHCbDIRAC extends DIRAC to handle all the distributed computing activities of LHCb. Such activities include real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. Other activities are groups and user analysis, data management, resources management and monitoring, data provenance, accounting for user and production jobs. LHCbDIRAC also provides extensions of the DIRAC interfaces, including a secure web client, python APIs and CLIs. While DIRAC and LHCbDIRAC f...
DIRAC: a community grid solution
Tsaregorodtsev, A [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Av de Luminy Case 902 13288 Marseille (France); Bargiotti, M; Castellani, G; Charpentier, P; Closier, J; Paterson, S; Santinelli, R [CERN CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Brook, N [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Royal Fort, Tyndal Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Ramo, A C; Diaz, R G [University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cioffi, C [University of Oxford, 1, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Kuznetsov, G; Nandakumar, R [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot Oxon. OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Li, Y Y [University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom); Miguelez, M S [University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario Sur, ES-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Jimenez, S G [University Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda dels Paisos Catalans, 26 Tarragona (Spain); Smith, A C, E-mail: atsareg@in2p3.fr
2008-07-15
The DIRAC system was developed in order to provide a complete solution for using the distributed computing resources of the LHCb experiment at CERN for data production and analysis. It allows a concurrent use of over 10K CPUs and 10M file replicas distributed over many tens of sites. The sites can be part of a Computing Grid such as WLCG or standalone computing clusters all integrated in a single management structure. DIRAC is a generic system with the LHCb specific functionality incorporated through a number of plug-in modules. It can be easily adapted to the needs of other communities. Special attention is paid to the resilience of the DIRAC components to allow an efficient use of non-reliable resources. The DIRAC production management components provide a framework for building highly automated data production systems including data distribution and data driven workload scheduling. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC system architecture and design choices. We show how different components are put together to compose an integrated data processing system including all the aspects of the LHCb experiment - from the MC production and raw data reconstruction to the final user analysis.
DIRAC: a community grid solution
Tsaregorodtsev, A; Brook, N; Ramo, A C; Castellani, G; Charpentier, P; Cioffi, C; Closier, J; Díaz, R G; Kuznetsov, G; Li, Y Y; Nandakumar, R; Paterson, S; Santinelli, R; Smith, A C; Miguelez, M S; Jimenez, S G
2008-01-01
The DIRAC system was developed in order to provide a complete solution for using the distributed computing resources of the LHCb experiment at CERN for data production and analysis. It allows a concurrent use of over 10K CPUs and 10M file replicas distributed over many tens of sites. The sites can be part of a Computing Grid such as WLCG or standalone computing clusters all integrated in a single management structure. DIRAC is a generic system with the LHCb specific functionality incorporated through a number of plug-in modules. It can be easily adapted to the needs of other communities. Special attention is paid to the resilience of the DIRAC components to allow an efficient use of non-reliable resources. The DIRAC production management components provide a framework for building highly automated data production systems including data distribution and data driven workload scheduling. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC system architecture and design choices. We show how different components are pu...
Religion, theology and cosmology
John T. Fitzgerald
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.
Boeyens, Jan CA
2010-01-01
The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp
Bojowald, Martin
1999-01-01
A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...
Fabris, J C; Rodrigues, D C; Batista, C E M; Daouda, M H
2012-01-01
We review the difficulties of the generalized Chaplygin gas model to fit observational data, due to the tension between background and perturbative tests. We argue that such issues may be circumvented by means of a self-interacting scalar field representation of the model. However, this proposal seems to be successful only if the self-interacting scalar field has a non-canonical form. The latter can be implemented in Rastall's theory of gravity, which is based on a modification of the usual matter conservation law. We show that, besides its application to the generalized Chaplygin gas model, other cosmological models based on Rastall's theory have many interesting and unexpected new features.
Noether Gauge Symmetry of Dirac Field in (2 + 1-Dimensional Gravity
Ganim Gecim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a gravitational theory including a Dirac field that is nonminimally coupled to gravity in 2 + 1 dimensions. Noether gauge symmetry approach can be used to fix the form of coupling function F(Ψ and the potential V(Ψ of the Dirac field and to obtain a constant of motion for the dynamical equations. In the context of (2 + 1-dimensional gravity, we investigate cosmological solutions of the field equations using these forms obtained by the existence of Noether gauge symmetry. In this picture, it is shown that, for the nonminimal coupling case, the cosmological solutions indicate both an early-time inflation and late-time acceleration for the universe.
Dirac equations in n + 1 dimensions
Jiang Yu [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2005-02-04
The Dirac equation in n + 1 dimensions is derived by a simple algebraic approach. The similarity in the structure of the arbitrary n-dimensional Dirac equations in a central field and their solutions is discussed.
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Levy, Aaron; Matas, Andrew
2011-01-01
The symmetron is a scalar field associated with the dark sector whose coupling to matter depends on the ambient matter density. The symmetron is decoupled and screened in regions of high density, thereby satisfying local constraints from tests of gravity, but couples with gravitational strength in regions of low density, such as the cosmos. In this paper we derive the cosmological expansion history in the presence of a symmetron field, tracking the evolution through the inflationary, radiation- and matter-dominated epochs, using a combination of analytical approximations and numerical integration. For a broad range of initial conditions at the onset of inflation, the scalar field reaches its symmetry-breaking vacuum by the present epoch, as assumed in the local analysis of spherically-symmetric solutions and tests of gravity. For the simplest form of the potential, the energy scale is too small for the symmetron to act as dark energy, hence we must add a cosmological constant to drive late-time cosmic acceler...
Agarwal, Nishant; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark
2009-01-01
We develop a fully covariant, well-posed 5D effective action for the 6D cascading gravity brane-world model, and use this to study cosmological solutions. We obtain this effective action through the 6D decoupling limit, in which an additional scalar degree mode, \\pi, called the brane-bending mode, determines the bulk-brane gravitational interaction. The 5D action obtained this way inherits from the sixth dimension an extra \\pi self-interaction kinetic term. We compute appropriate boundary terms, to supplement the 5D action, and hence derive fully covariant junction conditions and the 5D Einstein field equations. Using these, we derive the cosmological evolution induced on a 3-brane moving in a static bulk. We study the strong- and weak-coupling regimes analytically in this static ansatz, and perform a complete numerical analysis of our solution. Although the cascading model can generate an accelerating solution in which the \\pi field comes to dominate at late times, the presence of a critical singularity prev...
Newtonian cosmology - Problems of cosmological didactics
Skarzynski, E.
1983-03-01
The article presents different methods of model construction in Newtonian cosmology. Newtonian cosmology is very convenient for discussion of local problems, so the problems presented are of great didactic importance. The constant k receives a new interpretation in relativistic cosmology as the curvature of the space in consequence of the greater informational capacity of Riemann space in comparison to Euclidean space. 11 references.
About non standard Lagrangians in cosmology
Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Milosevic, Milan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Nis, Visegradska 33, P.O. Box 224, 18000 Nis (Serbia)
2012-08-17
A review of non standard Lagrangians present in modern cosmological models will be considered. Well known example of non standard Lagrangian is Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type Lagrangian for tachyon field. Another type of non standard Lagrangian under consideration contains scalar field which describes open p-adic string tachyon and is called p-adic string theory Lagrangian. We will investigate homogenous cases of both DBI and p-adic fields and obtain Lagrangians of the standard type which have the same equations of motions as aforementioned non standard one.
Moduli Space of Integrable Dirac Structures
Milani, Vida
2009-01-01
In this paper we introduce the notion of integrable Dirac structures on Hermitian modules. The moduli space of the space of integrable Dirac structures is studied. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for the integrability of a Dirac structure is obtained as the solution of a certain partial differential equation.
Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu
2002-01-01
The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.
Negative Energy Cosmology and the Cosmological Constant
Prokopec, Tomislav
2011-01-01
It is well known that string theories naturally compactify on anti-de Sitter spaces, and yet cosmological observations show no evidence of a negative cosmological constant in the early Universe's evolution. In this letter we present two simple nonlocal modifications of the standard Friedmann cosmology that can lead to observationally viable cosmologies with an initial (negative) cosmological constant. The nonlocal operators we include are toy models for the quantum cosmological backreaction. In Model I an initial quasiperiodic oscillatory epoch is followed by inflation and a late time matter era, representing a dark matter candidate. The backreaction in Model II quickly compensates the negative cosmological term such that the Ricci curvature scalar rapidly approaches zero, and the Universe ends up in a late time radiation era.
Boguna, Marian; Krioukov, Dmitri
2013-01-01
Networks often represent systems that do not have a long history of studies in traditional fields of physics, albeit there are some notable exceptions such as energy landscapes and quantum gravity. Here we consider networks that naturally arise in cosmology. Nodes in these networks are stationary observers uniformly distributed in an expanding open FLRW universe with any scale factor, and two observers are connected if one can causally influence the other. We show that these networks are growing Lorentz-invariant graphs with power-law distributions of node degrees. New links in these networks not only connect new nodes to existing ones, but also appear at a certain rate between existing nodes, as they do in many complex networks.
Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals
Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi
2016-07-01
We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.
Universal Behavior in Dirac Spectra
Verbaarschot, J J M
1997-01-01
In these lectures we review recent results on universal fluctuations of QCD Dirac spectra and applications of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) to QCD. We review general properties of Dirac spectra and discuss the relation between chiral symmetry breaking and correlations of Dirac eigenvalues. In particular, we will focus on the microscopic spectral density density, i.e. the spectral density near zero virtuality on the scale of a typical level spacing. The relation with Leutwyler-Smilga sum-rules will be discussed. The success of applications of RMT to spectra of 'complex' systems leads us to the introduction of a chiral Random Matrix Theory (chRMT) with the global symmetries of the QCD partition function. Our central conjecture is that it decribes correlations of QCD Dirac spectra. We will review recent universality proofs supporting this conjecture. Lattice QCD results for the microscopic spectral density and for correlations in the bulk of the spectrum are shown to be in perfect agreement with chRMT. We close wit...
M. Ko(c)ak; B. G(o)nül
2007-01-01
The solutions, in terms of orthogonal polynomials, of Dirac equation with analytically solvable potentials are investigated within a novel formalism by transforming the relativistic equation into a Schr(o)dinger-like one. Earlier results are discussed in a unified framework, and some solutions of a large class of potentials are given.
Patrice Loïez
2002-01-01
Photo 01: The DIRAC upstream vacuum channel placed between the target and the upstream detector region. Both the non-intracting primary proton beam and the seconday particle channel travel inside the shown vacuum channel. Photo 02: The DIRAC upstream detector region consisting of 4 planes of GEM/MSGC; 3 planes of Scintillating Fibres; 4 planes of Ionisation hodospope. The photo shows the cabling of GEM/MSGC (right end) and Scintillating Fibres (left end) detectors. Photo 03: Detailed view of the 4 GEM/MSGC planes. The secondary particle channel and the detectors are tilted by 5.7 degrees with respect to the primary proton beam channel visible on the bottom. Photo 04: View of the downstream part of the double arm DIRAC spectrometer, facing the direction of incoming particles. The Drift Chamber system, the scintillation hodoscopes and the threshold Cherenkov counters are shown in the picture. Photo 05: The DIRAC vacuum region between upstream detectors and the dipole magnet. The shielding around the primary pro...
Torsion Gravity for Dirac Fields
Fabbri, Luca
2016-01-01
In this article we will take into account the most complete back-ground with torsion and curvature, providing the most exhaustive coupling for the Dirac field: we will discuss the integrability of the interaction of the matter field and the reduction of the matter field equations.
A mathematical introduction to Dirac's formalism
van Eijndhoven, SJL
1986-01-01
This monograph contains a functional analytic introduction to Dirac''s formalism. The first part presents some new mathematical notions in the setting of triples of Hilbert spaces, mentioning the concept of Dirac basis. The second part introduces a conceptually new theory of generalized functions, integrating the notions of the first part.The last part of the book is devoted to a mathematical interpretation of the main features of Dirac''s formalism. It involves a pairing between distributional bras and kets, continuum expansions and continuum matrices.
Vankov, A
1998-01-01
The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.
Origin of Structure in the Universe: Quantum Cosmology Reconsidered
Anderson, Edward
2015-01-01
Based on a more careful canonical analysis, we motivate a reduced quantization of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology in place of the Dirac quantization in the existing literature, and provide it in the vacuum case. This is attained via consideration of configuration space geometries at various levels of reduction. Some of these have the good fortunate of being flat. Geometrically natural coordinates thereupon are interpreted in terms of the original redundant formulation's well-known mode expansion coefficients.
DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System
Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; LHCb DIRAC Team
2010-04-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.
Weinstein, M
2003-11-19
This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, one can quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion; one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We then discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta}{rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest that one can put an experimental bound on how far away a universe with a scale factor very different from our own must be, by looking at its effects on our CMB radiation.
Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.
2011-08-01
Classical versions of the Big Bang cosmological models of the universe contain a singularity at the start of time, hence the time variable in the field equations should run over a half-line. Nonlocal string field theory equations with infinite number of derivatives are considered and an important difference between nonlocal operators on the whole real line and on a half-line is pointed out. We use the heat equation method and show that on the half-line in addition to the usual initial data a new arbitrary function (external source) occurs that we call the daemon function. The daemon function governs the evolution of the universe similar to Maxwell's demon in thermodynamics. The universe and multiverse are open systems interacting with the daemon environment. In the simplest case the nonlocal scalar field reduces to the usual local scalar field coupled with an external source which is discussed in the stochastic approach to inflation. The daemon source can help to get the chaotic inflation scenario with a small scalar field.
Tipler, Frank J.
1996-09-01
I show that if Newtonian gravity is formulated in geometrical language, then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as relativistic cosmology. In homogeneous and isotropic universes, the geodesic deviation equation in Newtonian cosmology is proven to be exactly the same as the geodesic deviation equation in relativistic Friedmann cosmologies. This equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: by generalizing the flat-space Newtonian gravity force law to Riemannian metrics, I show that ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any homogeneous and isotropic spatial geometry.
Distributions of Dirac Operator Eigenvalues
Akemann, G
2004-01-01
The distribution of individual Dirac eigenvalues is derived by relating them to the density and higher eigenvalue correlation functions. The relations are general and hold for any gauge theory coupled to fermions under certain conditions which are stated. As a special case, we give examples of the lowest-lying eigenvalue distributions for QCD-like gauge theories without making use of earlier results based on the relation to Random Matrix Theory.
Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum
Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Warchoł, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.warchol@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30348 Krakow (Poland); Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)
2016-02-10
We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.
Dirac neutrinos from flavor symmetry
Aranda, Alfredo; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F
2013-01-01
We present a model where Majorana neutrino mass terms are forbidden by the flavor symmetry group Delta(27). Neutrinos are Dirac fermions and their masses arise in the same way as that of the charged fermions, due to very small Yukawa couplings. The model fits current neutrino oscillation data and correlates the octant of the atmospheric angle with the magnitude of the lightest neutrino mass, with maximal mixing excluded for any neutrino mass
Parabolic metamaterials and Dirac bridges
Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.
2016-10-01
A new class of multi-scale structures, referred to as `parabolic metamaterials' is introduced and studied in this paper. For an elastic two-dimensional triangular lattice, we identify dynamic regimes, which corresponds to so-called `Dirac Bridges' on the dispersion surfaces. Such regimes lead to a highly localised and focussed unidirectional beam when the lattice is excited. We also show that the flexural rigidities of elastic ligaments are essential in establishing the `parabolic metamaterial' regimes.
Renormalization of Dirac's Polarized Vacuum
Lewin, Mathieu
2010-01-01
We review recent results on a mean-field model for relativistic electrons in atoms and molecules, which allows to describe at the same time the self-consistent behavior of the polarized Dirac sea. We quickly derive this model from Quantum Electrodynamics and state the existence of solutions, imposing an ultraviolet cut-off $\\Lambda$. We then discuss the limit $\\Lambda\\to\\infty$ in detail, by resorting to charge renormalization.
DIRAC: Secure web user interface
Casajus Ramo, A [University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sapunov, M, E-mail: sapunov@in2p3.f [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Av de Luminy Case 902 13288 Marseille (France)
2010-04-01
Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.
Some physical implications of the Weyl-Dirac theory
Agop, M.; Nica, P.
1999-10-01
The solution of a wave equation in the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi formalism of Weyl-Dirac theory is obtained in terms of the elliptic function. In particular, by degenerating the elliptic function, plane-wave, wavepacket, kink and soliton results. Each particular solution corresponds to certain values of the curvature scalar and of the cosmological constant, so that the entity manifests different wave-particle properties in different geometric situations. Associating a superconducting behaviour to matter, by means of the kink solution, we find the dependences on the reduced temperature of the superconducting parameters, in other words, we develop a thermodynamics of the isolated particle. Using the soliton solution we show that for any particle we can define a particular waveguide.
Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals
Li, Yan
2014-07-07
A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.
Data Management System of the DIRAC Project
Haen, Christophe; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei
2015-01-01
The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...
Nojiri, S; Oikonomou, V K
2016-01-01
We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to solve the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein-Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology, of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology, of the Type IV singular cosmology and of the $R^2$ inflation cosmology. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, the graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualita...
Kunze, Kerstin E
2016-01-01
Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.
Dirac structures on generalized Riemannian manifolds
Vaisman, Izu
2011-01-01
We characterize the Dirac structures that are parallel with respect to Gualtieri's canonical connection of a generalized Riemannian metric. On the other hand, we discuss Dirac structures that are images of generalized tangent structures. These structures turn out to be Dirac structures that, if seen as Lie algebroids, have a symplectic structure. Particularly, if compatibility with a generalized Riemannian metric is required, the symplectic structure is of the Kaehler type.
Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene.
Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Morozov, S V; Jiang, D; Katsnelson, M I; Grigorieva, I V; Dubonos, S V; Firsov, A A
2005-11-10
Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.
Roos, Matts
2015-01-01
The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.
Gasperini, Maurizio
2011-03-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Notation, units and conventions; 1. A short review of standard and inflationary cosmology; 2. The basic string cosmology equations; 3. Conformal invariance and string effective action; 4. Duality symmetries and cosmological solutions; 5. Inflationary kinematics; 6. The string phase; 7. The cosmic background of relic gravitational waves; 8. Scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the CMB radiation; 9. Dilaton phenomenology; 10. Elements of brane cosmology; Index.
Tarun Sandeep
2004-10-01
Cosmology is passing through a golden phase of rapid advance. The cosmology workshop at ICGC-2004 attracted a large number of research contributions to diverse topics of cosmology. I attempt to classify and summarize the research work and results of the oral and poster presentations made at the meeting.
Disney, M J
2000-01-01
It is argued that some of the recent claims for cosmology are grossly overblown. Cosmology rests on a very small database: it suffers from many fundamental difficulties as a science (if it is a science at all) whilst observations of distant phenomena are difficult to make and harder to interpret. It is suggested that cosmological inferences should be tentatively made and sceptically received.
A Short Biography of Paul A. M. Dirac and Historical Development of Dirac Delta Function
Debnath, Lokenath
2013-01-01
This paper deals with a short biography of Paul Dirac, his first celebrated work on quantum mechanics, his first formal systematic use of the Dirac delta function and his famous work on quantum electrodynamics and quantum statistics. Included are his first discovery of the Dirac relativistic wave equation, existence of positron and the intrinsic…
Intrinsic time in Geometrodynamics: introduction and application to Friedmann cosmology
Pavlov, Alexander
2016-01-01
An intrinsic local time in Geometrodynamics is obtained with using a scaled Dirac's mapping. By addition of a background metric, one can construct a scalar field. It is suitable to play a role of intrinsic time. Cauchy problem was successfully solved in conformal variables because they are physical ones. First, the intrinsic time as a logarithm of determinant of spatial metric, was applied to a cosmological problem by Misner. A global time is exist under condition of constant mean curvature slicing of spacetime. A volume of hypersurface and the so-called mean York's time are canonical conjugated pair. So, the volume is the intrinsic global time by its sense. The experimentally observed redshift in cosmology is the evidence of its existence. An intrinsic time of homogeneous models is global. The Friedmann equation by its sense ties time intervals. Exact solutions of the Friedmann equation in Standard cosmology with standard and conformal units are presented. Theoretical curves interpolated the Hubble diagram o...
Bojowald, Martin
The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996). gr-qc/0101003 4.Isham C.J.: In: DeWitt, B.S., Stora, R. (eds.) Relativity, Groups and Topology II. Lectures Given at the 1983 Les Houches Summer School on Relativity, Groups and Topology, Elsevier Science Publishing Company (1986) 5.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 12, 1769 (2003), gr-qc/0305067 6.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3, 81 (2006), gr-qc/0507113 7.DGiulini1995Phys. Rev. D5110563013381161995PhRvD..51.5630G10.1103/PhysRevD.51.5630Giulini, D.: Phys. Rev. D 51(10), 5630 (1995) 8.Kiefer, C., Zeh, H.D.: Phys. Rev. D 51, 4145 (1995), gr-qc/9402036 9.WFBlythCJIsham1975Phys. Rev. D117684086991975PhRvD..11..768B10.1103/PhysRevD.11.768Blyth, W
Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon
2017-04-01
Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? – comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O
Tseytlin, Arkady A
1992-01-01
Aspects of string cosmology for critical and non-critical strings are discussed emphasizing the necessity to account for the dilaton dynamics for a proper incorporation of ``large - small" duality. This drastically modifies the intuition one has with Einstein's gravity. For example winding modes, even though contribute to energy density, oppose expansion and if not annihilated will stop the expansion. Moreover we find that the radiation dominated era of the standard cosmology emerges quite naturally in string cosmology. Our analysis of non-critical string cosmology provides a reinterpretation of the (universal cover of the) recently studied two dimensional black hole solution as a conformal realization of cosmological solutions found previously by Mueller.
LI Chang-Hui; DING Hao-Gang; DAI Jian; SONG Xing-Chang
2001-01-01
Several models in noncommutative geometry (NCG) with mild changes to the standard model are introduced to discuss the neutrino mass problem. We use two constraints, Poincaré duality and gauge anomaly free, to discuss the possibility of containing right-handed neutrinos in them. Our work shows that no model in this paper, with each generation containing a right-handed neutrino, can satisfy these two constraints at the same time. So, to consist with neutrino oscillation experiment results, maybe fundamental changes to the present version of NCG are usually needed to include Dirac massive neutrinos.
Dirac tensor with heavy photon
Bytev, V.V.; Kuraev, E.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Scherbakova, E.S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2012-01-15
For the large-angles hard photon emission by initial leptons in process of high energy annihilation of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} to hadrons the Dirac tensor is obtained, taking into account the lowest order radiative corrections. The case of large-angles emission of two hard photons by initial leptons is considered. This result is being completed by the kinematics case of collinear hard photons emission as well as soft virtual and real photons and can be used for construction of Monte-Carlo generators. (orig.)
Superalgebraic representation of Dirac matrices
Monakhov, V. V.
2016-01-01
We consider a Clifford extension of the Grassmann algebra in which operators are constructed from products of Grassmann variables and derivatives with respect to them. We show that this algebra contains a subalgebra isomorphic to a matrix algebra and that it additionally contains operators of a generalized matrix algebra that mix states with different numbers of Grassmann variables. We show that these operators are extensions of spin-tensors to the case of superspace. We construct a representation of Dirac matrices in the form of operators of a generalized matrix algebra.
Phenomenology of Pseudo Dirac Neutrinos
Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.
2000-01-01
We formulate general conditions on $3\\times 3$ neutrino mass matrices under which a degenerate pair of neutrinos at a high scale would split at low scale by radiative corrections involving only the standard model fields. This generalizes the original observations of Wolfenstein on pseudo Dirac neutrinos to three generations. A specific model involving partially broken discrete symmetry and solving the solar and atmospheric anomalies is proposed. The symmetry pattern of the model naturally generates two large angles one of which can account for the large angle MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem.
Tipler, Frank J.
1996-10-01
It is generally believed that it is not possible to rigorously analyze a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model in Newtonian mechanics. I show on the contrary that if Newtonian gravity theory is rewritten in geometrical language in the manner outlined in 1923-1924 by Élie Cartan [Ann. Ecole Norm. Sup. 40, 325-412 (1923); 41, 1-25 (1924)], then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as Friedmann cosmology. In particular, I show that the equation of geodesic deviation in Newtonian cosmology is exactly the same as equation of geodesic deviation in the Friedmann universe, and that this equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: Ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any noncompact homogeneous and isotropic spatial topology. I shall give a brief history of attempts to do cosmology in the framework of Newtonian mechanics.
Debasish Majumdar
2008-01-01
The possibility to verify the pseudo-Dirac nature of neutrinos is investigated here via the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos from distant cosmological objects like -ray bursts (GRBs). The very long baseline and the energy range from ∼TeV to ∼EeV for such neutrinos invoke the likelihood to probe very small pseudo-Dirac splittings. The expected secondary muons from such neutrinos that can be detected by a kilometer scale detector such as ICECUBE is calculated and compared with the same in the case of mass-flavour oscillations and for no oscillation cases. The calculated muon yields indicate that to probe such small pseudo-Dirac splittings one needs to look for a nearby GRB (red shift ∼ 0:03 or less) whereas for a distant GRB ( ∼ 1) the flux will be much depleted and such phenomenon cannot be distinguished. Also calculated are the muon-to-shower ratios.
Dirac-Kahler Theory and Massless Fields
Pletyukhov, V A
2010-01-01
Three massless limits of the Dirac-Kahler theory are considered. It is shown that the Dirac-Kahler equation for massive particles can be represented as a result of the gauge-invariant mixture (topological interaction) of the above massless fields.
HILBERT-DIRAC OPERATORS IN CLIFFORD ANALYSIS
F.BRACKX; H.DE SCHEPPER
2005-01-01
Around the central theme of "square root" of the Laplace operator it is shown that the classical Riesz potentials of the first and of the second kind allow for an explicit expression of so-called Hilbert-Dirac convolution operators involving natural and complex powers of the Dirac operator.
On localization of Dirac fermions by disorder
Medvedyeva, Mariya Vyacheslavivna
2011-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the effects of disorder on two-dimensional systems of Dirac fermions. Disorder localizes the usual electron system governed by the Schroedinger equation. The influence of disorder on Dirac fermions is qualitevely different. We concentrate on a random mass term in the Dira
Representation-independent manipulations with Dirac spinors
Pal, P B
2007-01-01
Dirac matrices, also known as gamma matrices, are defined only up to a similarity transformation. Usually, some explicit representation of these matrices is assumed in order to deal with them. In this article, we show how it is possible to proceed without any such assumption. Various important identities involving Dirac matrices and spinors have been derived without assuming any representation at any stage.
Contemplations on Dirac's equation in quaternionic coordinates
Schuricht, Dirk; Greiter, Martin
2004-11-01
A formulation of Dirac's equation using complex-quaternionic coordinates appears to yield an enormous gain in formal elegance, as there is no longer any need to invoke Dirac matrices. This formulation, however, entails several peculiarities, which we investigate and attempt to interpret.
Dirac and Weyl semimetals with holographic interactions
Jacobs, V.P.J.
2015-01-01
Dirac and Weyl semimetals are states of matter exhibiting the relativistic physics of, respectively, the Dirac and Weyl equation in a three-dimensional bulk material. These three-dimensional semimetals have recently been realized experimentally in various crystals. Theoretically, especially the noni
LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices
Couturier, Ben
2016-01-01
The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and ran on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased load of work, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called "framework". The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an arc...
Dirac particle in gravitational quantum mechanics
Pedram, Pouria
2011-08-01
In this Letter, we consider the effects of the Generalized (Gravitational) Uncertainty Principle (GUP) on the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the Dirac equation. This form of GUP is consistent with various candidates of quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, doubly special relativity and black hole physics and predicts both a minimum measurable length and a maximum measurable momentum. The modified Hamiltonian contains two additional terms proportional to a( and a( where αi are Dirac matrices and a∼1/MPlc is the GUP parameter. For the case of the Dirac free particle and the Dirac particle in a box, we solve the generalized Dirac equation and find the modified energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions.
Neutrinos Are Nearly Dirac Fermions
Cahill, K E
1999-01-01
Neutrino masses and mixings are analyzed in terms of left-handed fields and a 6x6 complex symmetric mass matrix whose singular values are the neutrino masses. An angle theta_nu characterizes the kind of the neutrinos, with theta_nu = 0 for Dirac neutrinos and theta_nu = pi/2 for Majorana neutrinos. If theta_nu = 0, then baryon-minus-lepton number is conserved. When theta_nu is approximately zero, the six neutrino masses coalesce into three nearly degenerate pairs. Thus the smallness of the differences in neutrino masses exhibited in the solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments and the stringent limits on neutrinoless double-beta decay are naturally explained if B-L is approximately conserved and neutrinos are nearly Dirac fermions. If one sets theta_nu = 0.0005, suppresses inter-generational mixing, and imposes a quark-like mass hierarchy, then one may fit the essential features of the solar, reactor, and atmospheric neutrino experiments with otherwise random mass matrices in the eV range. This B-L model le...
Quantum Supersymmetric Bianchi IX Cosmology
Damour, Thibault
2014-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing to one timelike dimension the action of D=4 simple supergravity for a Bianchi IX cosmological model. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a spinor of Spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a quantum spinning particle reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the susy constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the maximally compact sub-algebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra AE3. The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: 1)it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; 2)it is a quad...
Magnetotransport properties near the Dirac point of Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 nanowires
Wang, Li-Xian; Wang, Shuo; Li, Jin-Guang; Li, Cai-Zhen; Xu, Jun; Yu, Dapeng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2017-02-01
Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals are featured by 3D linear energy-momentum dispersion relation, which have been proposed to be a desirable system to study Dirac fermions in 3D space and Weyl fermions in solid-state materials. Significantly, to reveal exotic transport properties of Dirac semimetals, the Fermi level should be close to the Dirac point, around which the linear dispersion is retained. Here we report the magnetotransport properties near the Dirac point in Cd3As2 nanowires, manifesting the evolution of band structure under magnetic field. Ambipolar field effect is observed with the Dirac point at V g = 3.9 V. Under high magnetic field, there is a resistivity dip in transfer curve at the Dirac point, which is caused by the Zeeman splitting enhanced density of state around the Dirac point. Furthermore, the low carrier density in the nanowires makes it feasible to enter into the quantum limit regime, resulting in the quantum linear magnetoresistance being observed even at room temperature. Besides, the dramatic reduction of bulk conductivity due to the low carrier density, together with a large surface to volume ratio of the nanowire, collectively help to reveal the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations from the surface states. Our studies on transport properties around the Dirac point therefore provide deep insights into the emerging exotic physics of Dirac and Weyl fermions.
Zentner, A R
2003-01-01
Improvements in observational techniques have transformed cosmology into a field inundated with ever-expanding, high-quality data sets and driven cosmology toward a standard model where the classic cosmological parameters are accurately measured. I briefly discuss some of the methods used to determine cosmological parameters, particularly primordial nucleosynthesis, the magnitude- redshift relation of supernovae, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. I demonstrate how cosmological data can be used to complement particle physics and constrain extensions to the Standard Model. Specifically, I present bounds on light particle species and the properties of unstable, weakly-interacting, massive particles. Despite the myriad successes of the emerging standard cosmological model, unanswered questions linger. Numerical simulations of structure formation predict galactic central densities that are considerably higher than observed. They also reveal hundreds of satellites orbiting Milky Way-like galaxies while th...
Karbstein, Felix
2009-07-08
We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)
PENG Huan-Wu
2005-01-01
Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun.Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004)703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h as well as Boltzmann's kB by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.
Balbi Amedeo
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.
López-Corredoira, M.
2009-08-01
Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.
Inhomogeneous Big Bang Cosmology
Wagh, S M
2002-01-01
In this letter, we outline an inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang cosmology. For the inhomogeneous spacetime used here, the universe originates in the infinite past as the one dominated by vacuum energy and ends in the infinite future as the one consisting of "hot and relativistic" matter. The spatial distribution of matter in the considered inhomogeneous spacetime is {\\em arbitrary}. Hence, observed structures can arise in this cosmology from suitable "initial" density contrast. Different problems of the standard model of Big Bang cosmology are also resolved in the present inhomogeneous model. This inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang Cosmology predicts "hot death" for the universe.
Dirac field as a source of the inflation in 2+1 dimensional Teleparallel gravity
Gecim, Ganim
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study early-time inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe in the presence of non-minimal coupling the Dirac field with torsion in the spatially flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model background by using the Noether symmetry approach. The results obtained by the Noether symmetry approach with and without a gauge term are compared. Additionally, we compare these results with the results obtained in the context of the 3+1 dimensional teleparallel gravity under Noether symmetry approach, and we see that the two models have similar physically results about the inflation of the universe.
Dirac Field as a Source of the Inflation in 2+1 Dimensional Teleparallel Gravity
Ganim Gecim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study early-time inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe by nonminimally coupling the Dirac field with torsion in the spatially flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW cosmological model background. The results obtained by the Noether symmetry approach with and without a gauge term are compared. Additionally, we compare these results with that of the 3+1 dimensional teleparallel gravity under Noether symmetry approach. And we see that the study explains early-time inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
Solution of Dirac equation in Reissner-Nordström de Sitter space
Lyu, Yan; Cui, Song
2009-02-01
The radial parts of the Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon are solved in Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) space numerically. An accurate approximation, the polynomial approximation, is used to approximate the modified tortoise coordinate \\hat r_* , which leads to the inverse function r = r(\\hat r_* ) and the potential V(\\hat r_* ). The potential V(\\hat r_* ) is replaced by a collection of step functions in sequence. Then the solution of the wave equation as well as the reflection and transmission coefficients is computed by a quantum mechanical method.
Quantum modified Regge-Teitelboim cosmology
Cordero, Rubén; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín
2013-01-01
The quantization of the modified geodetic brane gravity implemented from the Regge-Teitelboim model and the trace of the extrinsic curvature of the brane trajectory, K, is developed. As a second-order derivative model, on the grounds of the Ostrogradski Hamiltonian method and the Dirac's scheme for constrained systems we find suitable first- and second-class constraints which allow for a proper quantization. The first-class constraints obey a sort of truncated Virasoro algebra. The effective quantum potential emerging in our approach is exhaustively studied where it shows that an embryonic epoch is still present. The quantum nucleation is briefly discussed where we observe that it is driven by an effective cosmological constant.
Krylov subspace methods for the Dirac equation
Beerwerth, Randolf; Bauke, Heiko
2015-03-01
The Lanczos algorithm is evaluated for solving the time-independent as well as the time-dependent Dirac equation with arbitrary electromagnetic fields. We demonstrate that the Lanczos algorithm can yield very precise eigenenergies and allows very precise time propagation of relativistic wave packets. The unboundedness of the Dirac Hamiltonian does not hinder the applicability of the Lanczos algorithm. As the Lanczos algorithm requires only matrix-vector products and inner products, which both can be efficiently parallelized, it is an ideal method for large-scale calculations. The excellent parallelization capabilities are demonstrated by a parallel implementation of the Dirac Lanczos propagator utilizing the Message Passing Interface standard.
Krylov subspace methods for the Dirac equation
Beerwerth, Randolf
2014-01-01
The Lanczos algorithm is evaluated for solving the time-independent as well as the time-dependent Dirac equation with arbitrary electromagnetic fields. We demonstrate that the Lanczos algorithm can yield very precise eigenenergies and allows very precise time propagation of relativistic wave packets. The Dirac Hamiltonian's property of not being bounded does not hinder the applicability of the Lanczos algorithm. As the Lanczos algorithm requires only matrix-vector and inner products, which both can be efficiently parallelized, it is an ideal method for large-scale calculations. The excellent parallelization capabilities are demonstrated by a parallel implementation of the Dirac Lanczos propagator utilizing the Message Passing Interface standard.
Quasi-Dirac neutrinos at the LHC
Anamiati, G; Nardi, E
2016-01-01
Lepton number violation is searched for at the LHC using same-sign leptons plus jets. The standard lore is that the ratio of same-sign lepton to opposite-sign lepton events, $R_{ll}$, is equal to $R_{ll}=1$ ($R_{ll}=0$) for Majorana (Dirac) neutrinos. We argue that for "quasi-Dirac" neutrinos, $R_{ll}$ can have any value between 0 and 1, the precise value being controlled by the mass splitting versus the width of the quasi-Dirac resonances. A measurement of $R_{ll}\
The Dirac Operator over Abelian Finite Groups
Vaz, Jr., Jayme
1997-01-01
In this paper we show how to construct a Dirac operator on a lattice in complete analogy with the continuum. In fact we consider a more general problem, that is, the Dirac operator over an abelian finite group (for which a lattice is a particular example). Our results appear to be in direct connexion with the so called fermion doubling problem. In order to find this Dirac operator we need to introduce an algebraic structure (that generalizes the Clifford algebras) where we have quantities tha...
Fermi-Bose duality of the Dirac equation and extended real Clifford-Dirac algebra
I.Yu. Krivsky
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We have proved on the basis of the symmetry analysis of the standard Dirac equation with nonzero mass that this equation may describe not only fermions of spin 1/2 but also bosons of spin 1. The new bosonic symmetries of the Dirac equation in both the Foldy-Wouthuysen and the Pauli-Dirac representations are found. Among these symmetries (together with the 32-dimensional pure matrix algebra of invariance the new, physically meaningful, spin 1 Poincare symmetry of equation under consideration is proved. In order to provide the corresponding proofs, a 64-dimensional extended real Clifford-Dirac algebra is put into consideration.
The squares of the dirac and spin-dirac operators on a riemann-cartan space(time)
Notte-Cuello, E. A.; Rodrigues, W. A.; Souza, Q. A. G.
2007-08-01
In this paper we introduce the Dirac and spin-Dirac operators associated to a connection on Riemann-Cartan space(time) and standard Dirac and spin-Dirac operators associated with a Levi-Civita connection on a Riemannian (Lorentzian) space(time) and calculate the squares of these operators, which play an important role in several topics of modern mathematics, in particular in the study of the geometry of moduli spaces of a class of black holes, the geometry of NS-5 brane solutions of type II supergravity theories and BPS solitons in some string theories. We obtain a generalized Lichnerowicz formula, decompositions of the Dirac and spin-Dirac operators and their squares in terms of the standard Dirac and spin-Dirac operators and using the fact that spinor fields (sections of a spin-Clifford bundle) have representatives in the Clifford bundle we present also a noticeable relation involving the spin-Dirac and the Dirac operators.
Dirac and Maxwell equations in Split Octonions
Beradze, Revaz
2016-01-01
The split octonionic form of Dirac and Maxwell equations are found. In contrast with the previous attempts these equations are derived from the octonionic analyticity condition and also we use different basis of the 8-dimensional space of split octonions.
Dirac equation on a curved surface
Brandt, F. T.; Sánchez-Monroy, J. A.
2016-09-01
The dynamics of Dirac particles confined to a curved surface is examined employing the thin-layer method. We perform a perturbative expansion to first-order and split the Dirac field into normal and tangential components to the surface. In contrast to the known behavior of second order equations like Schrödinger, Maxwell and Klein-Gordon, we find that there is no geometric potential for the Dirac equation on a surface. This implies that the non-relativistic limit does not commute with the thin-layer method. Although this problem can be overcome when second-order terms are retained in the perturbative expansion, this would preclude the decoupling of the normal and tangential degrees of freedom. Therefore, we propose to introduce a first-order term which rescues the non-relativistic limit and also clarifies the effect of the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures on the dynamics of the Dirac particles.
Dirac operators on noncommutative curved spacetimes
Schenkel, Alexander
2013-01-01
We study Dirac operators in the framework of twist-deformed noncommutative geometry. The definition of noncommutative Dirac operators is not unique and we focus on three different ones, each generalizing the commutative Dirac operator in a natural way. We show that the three definitions are mutually inequivalent, and that demanding formal self-adjointness with respect to a suitable inner product singles out a preferred choice. A detailed analysis shows that, if the Drinfeld twist contains sufficiently many Killing vector fields, the three operators coincide, which can simplify explicit calculations considerably. We then turn to the construction of quantized Dirac fields on noncommutative curved spacetimes. We show that there exist unique retarded and advanced Green's operators and construct a canonical anti-commutation relation algebra. In the last part we study noncommutative Minkowski and AdS spacetimes as explicit examples.
Phantom cosmologies and fermions
Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Kremer, Gilberto M
2007-01-01
Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the "phantomization" process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes.
Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2010-01-01
The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.
McAllister, Liam P.; Silverstein, Eva
2007-10-22
We give an overview of the status of string cosmology. We explain the motivation for the subject, outline the main problems, and assess some of the proposed solutions. Our focus is on those aspects of cosmology that benefit from the structure of an ultraviolet-complete theory.
Cosmological implications of Geometrothermodynamics
Luongo, Orlando
2013-01-01
We use the formalism of Geometrothermodynamics to derive a series of fundamental equations for thermodynamic systems. It is shown that all these fundamental equations can be used in the context of relativistic cosmology to derive diverse scenarios which include the standard cosmological model, a unified model for dark energy and dark matter, and an effective inflationary model.
Cosmological Implications of Geometrothermodynamics
Luongo, O.; Quevedo, H.
2015-01-01
We use the formalism of Geometrothermodynamics to derive a series of fundamental equations for thermodynamic systems. It is shown that all these fundamental equations can be used in the context of relativistic cosmology to derive diverse scenarios which include the standard cosmological model, a unified model for dark energy and dark matter, and an effective inflationary model.
Neutrino properties from cosmology
Hannestad, S.
2013-01-01
In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non-s...
Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey
2010-01-01
Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.
Koivisto, Tomi S., E-mail: T.Koivisto@ThPhys.Uni-Heidelberg.d [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany); Nunes, Nelson J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)
2010-03-01
Cosmology of self-interacting three-forms is investigated. The minimally coupled canonical theory can naturally generate a variety of isotropic background dynamics, including scaling, possibly transient acceleration and phantom crossing. An intuitive picture of the cosmological dynamics is presented employing an effective potential. Numerical solutions and analytical approximations are provided for scenarios which are potentially important for inflation or dark energy.
Quantum game interpretation of Dirac spinor field
Zhi, Haizhao
2011-01-01
This paper introduced the classical prisoner dilemma with the character and structure of quantum prisoner dilemma's strategy space. Associate with the Dirac spinor field, apply the basic quantum game strategy to the translation of the dynamics of Dirac equation. Decompose the real space and time to lattice we found that the basic interaction of spinor could be translated into quantum game theory. At the same time, we gained the new dynamics of quantized spacial evolutionary game.
On the Dirac Monopole Mass Scale
Caruso, Francisco
2013-01-01
It is shown, by a semi-classical argument, that the Dirac charge quantization is still valid in the (classical) Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory. Then it is possible to calculate Dirac's monopole mass in the framework of this theory, which is not possible in Maxwell's theory. The existence of an upper limit for the field intensities in this theory plays an important role in this proof.
Superpersistent Currents in Dirac Fermion Systems
2017-03-06
TITLE AND SUBTITLE Superpersistent Currents in Dirac Fermion Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0151 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...currents in 2D Dirac material systems and pertinent phenomena in the emerging field of relativistic quantum nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Systematic...anomalous optical transitions, and spin control in topological insulator quantum dots, (4) the discovery of nonlinear dynamics induced anomalous Hall
On the Dirac equation for a quark
Pestov, I B
2003-01-01
It is argued from geometrical, group-theoretical and physical points of view that in the framework of QCD it is not only necessary but also possible to modify the Dirac equation so that correspondence principle holds valid. The Dirac wave equation for a quark is proposed and some consequences are considered. In particular, it is shown that interquark potential expresses the Coulomb law for the quarks and, in fact, coincides with the known Cornell potential.
Klein-Gordon and Dirac gyroscopes
SadurnI, E [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: sadurni@fis.unam.mx
2009-01-09
The formulation of a rigid body in relativistic quantum mechanics is studied. Departing from an alternate approach at the relativistic classical level, the corresponding Klein-Gordon and Dirac operators for the rigid body are obtained in covariant form. The resulting wave equations are shown to be consistent, by construction, with earlier definitions of a relativistic rigid body by Aldinger et al (1983 Phys. Rev. D 28 3020). Wavefunctions and spectra for both cases are obtained explicitly, including the Dirac gyroscope with asymmetries.
Plexciton dirac points and topological modes
Onbaşlı, Mehmet Cengiz; Yuen-Zhou, Joel; K. Saikin, Semion; Zhu, Tony; Ross, Caroline A.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Baldo, Marc A.
2016-01-01
Plexcitons are polaritonic modes that result from the strong coupling between excitons and plasmons. Here, we consider plexcitons emerging from the interaction of excitons in an organic molecular layer with surface plasmons in a metallic film. We predict the emergence of Dirac cones in the two-dimensional band-structure of plexcitons due to the inherent alignment of the excitonic transitions in the organic layer. An external magnetic field opens a gap between the Dirac cones if the plexciton ...
Pathways to Naturally Small Dirac Neutrino Masses
Ma, Ernest
2016-01-01
If neutrinos are truly Dirac fermions, the smallness of their masses may still be natural if certain symmetries exist beyond those of the standard model of quarks and leptons. We perform a systematic study of how this may occur at tree level and in one loop. We also propose a scotogenic version of the left-right gauge model with naturally small Dirac neutrino masses in one loop.
Kehagias, Alex
2016-01-01
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to both scalar and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic d...
Classical and quantum cosmology
Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-01-01
This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...
Cosmology and particle physics
Turner, Michael S.
1988-01-01
The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.
Testing loop quantum cosmology
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2017-03-01
Loop quantum cosmology predicts that quantum gravity effects resolve the big-bang singularity and replace it by a cosmic bounce. Furthermore, loop quantum cosmology can also modify the form of primordial cosmological perturbations, for example by reducing power at large scales in inflationary models or by suppressing the tensor-to-scalar ratio in the matter bounce scenario; these two effects are potential observational tests for loop quantum cosmology. In this article, I review these predictions and others, and also briefly discuss three open problems in loop quantum cosmology: its relation to loop quantum gravity, the trans-Planckian problem, and a possible transition from a Lorentzian to a Euclidean space-time around the bounce point.
Ryden, Barbara
2002-01-01
Introduction to Cosmology provides a rare combination of a solid foundation of the core physical concepts of cosmology and the most recent astronomical observations. The book is designed for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students and assumes no prior knowledge of general relativity. An emphasis is placed on developing the readers' physical insight rather than losing them with complex math. An approachable writing style and wealth of fresh and imaginative analogies from "everyday" physics are used to make the concepts of cosmology more accessible. The book is unique in that it not only includes recent major developments in cosmology, like the cosmological constant and accelerating universe, but also anticipates key developments expected in the next few years, such as detailed results on the cosmic microwave background.
Zhao, Wen
2016-01-01
The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...
Verde, L
2013-01-01
This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.
Mathe, Z.; Casajus Ramo, A.; Lazovsky, N.; Stagni, F.
2015-12-01
For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact, robust and responsive web interface that enables users to have better control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The web framework provides a large set of “applications”, each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing ones with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state provider, instead of using cookies. The owner of a view can share it with other users or within a user community. Compatibility between different browsers is assured, as well as with mobile versions. In this paper, we present the new DIRAC Web framework as well as the LHCb extension of the DIRAC Web portal.
Quantized cosmological constant in 1+1 dimensional quantum gravity with coupled scalar matter
Govaerts, Jan; Zonetti, Simone, E-mail: Jan.Govaerts@uclouvain.be, E-mail: Simone.Zonetti@uclouvain.be [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique (IRMP), Universite catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium)
2011-09-21
A two-dimensional matter-coupled model of quantum gravity is studied in the Dirac approach to constrained dynamics in the presence of a cosmological constant. It is shown that after partial fixing to the conformal gauge, the requirement of a quantum realization of the conformal algebra for physical quantum states of the fields naturally constrains the cosmological constant to take values in a well-determined and mostly discrete spectrum. Furthermore, the contribution of the quantum fluctuations of the single dynamical degree of freedom in the gravitational sector, namely the conformal mode, to the cosmological constant is negative, in contrast to the positive contributions of the quantum fluctuations of the matter fields, possibly opening an avenue towards addressing the cosmological constant problem in a more general context.
Quantum supersymmetric Bianchi IX cosmology
Damour, Thibault; Spindel, Philippe
2014-11-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing (to one timelike dimension) the action of D =4 simple supergravity for a S U (2 ) -homogeneous (Bianchi IX) cosmological model. The quantization of the homogeneous gravitino field leads to a 64-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a 64-component spinor of spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac-like, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a "quantum spinning particle" reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the supersymmetry constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the (infinite-dimensional) maximally compact subalgebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra A E3 . The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term μ^ 2 entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: (i) it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; (ii) it is a quadratic function of the fermion number NF; and (iii) it is negative in most of the Hilbert space. The latter property leads to a possible quantum avoidance of the singularity ("cosmological bounce"), and suggests imposing the boundary condition that the wave function of the Universe vanish when the volume of space tends to zero (a type of boundary condition which looks like a final-state condition when considering the big crunch inside a black hole). The space of solutions is a mixture of "discrete-spectrum states" (parametrized by a few constant parameters, and known in explicit form) and of continuous-spectrum states (parametrized by arbitrary functions entering some initial-value problem). The predominantly negative values of the squared-mass term lead to a "bottle
Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics,24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2016-05-25
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-06-01
We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to provide a suggestive proposal for a framework that may assist in the discussion and search for a solution to the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein-Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology and of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology. As we demonstrate, these cosmologies can be realized by vacuum mimetic unimodular gravity, without the existence of any matter fluid source. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, a graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualitative description of the mechanism that can potentially generate the graceful exit from inflation in these theories, by searching for the unstable de Sitter solutions in the context of unimodular mimetic theories of gravity.
Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.
2016-05-01
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
Rotation of the Universe at different cosmological epochs
Chechin, L. M.
2016-06-01
A step-by-step foundation for the differential character of the Universe's rotation is presented. First, invoking the concept of spacetime foam with spin, it is reasonable to assume that the very early Universe can be described by the Dirac equation. Second, it is shown using the Ehrenfest theorem that, from a classical point of view, the early Universe can be described by the Papapetrou equations. Third, it is stressed that our Universe can perform only rotational motion. It is shown based on the spin part of the Papapetrou equations that the Universe's rotation depends appreciably on the physical properties of a specific cosmological epoch. The rotational angular velocity is calculated for three basic cosmological epochs: the matter-dominated epoch, the transition period (from domination of matter to domination of vacuum), and the vacuum-dominated epoch.
First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals
Mei, Jun
2012-07-24
By using the k•p method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Magnetogenesis in bouncing cosmology
Qian, Peng; Easson, Damien A; Guo, Zong-Kuan
2016-01-01
We consider the process of magnetogenesis in the context of nonsingular bounce cosmology. We show that large primordial magnetic fields can be generated during contraction without encountering strong coupling and backreaction issues. The fields may seed large-scale magnetic fields with observationally interesting strengths. This result leads to a theoretical constraint on the relation of the energy scale of the bounce cosmology to the number of effective e-folding of the contracting phase in the case of scale invariance for the power spectrum of primordial magnetic fields. We show that this constraint can be satisfied in a sizable region of the parameter space for the nonsingular bounce cosmology.
Cosmology Theory and Observations
Dolgov, A D
1998-01-01
The comparison of the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM) with astronomical observations, i.e. theory versus experiment, and with the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) in particle physics, i.e. theory versus theory, is discussed. The main issue of this talk is whether cosmology indicates new physics beyond the standard $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ model with minimal particle content. The answer to this question is strongly and definitely "YES". New, yet unknown, physics exists and cosmology presents very weighty arguments in its favor.
Magnetogenesis in bouncing cosmology
Qian, Peng; Cai, Yi-Fu; Easson, Damien A.; Guo, Zong-Kuan
2016-10-01
We consider the process of magnetogenesis in the context of nonsingular bounce cosmology. We show that large primordial magnetic fields can be generated during contraction without encountering strong coupling and backreaction issues. The fields may seed large-scale magnetic fields with observationally interesting strengths. This result leads to a theoretical constraint on the relation of the energy scale of the bounce cosmology to the number of effective e -foldings of the contracting phase in the case of scale invariance for the power spectrum of primordial magnetic fields. We show that this constraint can be satisfied in a sizable region of the parameter space for the nonsingular bounce cosmology.
Cosmology, Epistemology and Chaos
Unno, Wasaburo
1992-03-01
We may consider the following three fundamental epistemological questions concerning cosmology. Can cosmology at last understand the origin of the universe? Can computers at last create? Can life be formed at last synthetically? These questions are in some sense related to the liar paradox containing the self-reference and, therefore, may not be answered by recursive processes in finite time. There are, however, various implications such that the chaos may break the trap of the self- reference paradox. In other words, Goedel's incompleteness theorem would not apply to chaos, even if the chaos can be generated by recursive processes. Internal relations among cosmology, epistemology and chaos must be investigated in greater detail
Volfson, Boris
2013-09-01
The hypothesis of transition from a chaotic Dirac Sea, via highly unstable positronium, into a Simhony Model of stable face-centered cubic lattice structure of electrons and positrons securely bound in vacuum space, is considered. 13.75 Billion years ago, the new lattice, which, unlike a Dirac Sea, is permeable by photons and phonons, made the Universe detectable. Many electrons and positrons ended up annihilating each other producing energy quanta and neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The weak force of the electron-positron crystal lattice, bombarded by the chirality-changing neutrinos, may have started capturing these neutrinos thus transforming from cubic crystals into a quasicrystal lattice. Unlike cubic crystal lattice, clusters of quasicrystals are "slippery" allowing the formation of centers of local torsion, where gravity condenses matter into galaxies, stars and planets. In the presence of quanta, in a quasicrystal lattice, the Majorana neutrinos' rotation flips to the opposite direction causing natural transformations in a category comprised of three components; two others being positron and electron. In other words, each particle-antiparticle pair "e-" and "e+", in an individual crystal unit, could become either a quasi- component "e- ve e+", or a quasi- component "e+ - ve e-". Five-to-six six billion years ago, a continuous stimulation of the quasicrystal aetherial lattice by the same, similar, or different, astronomical events, could have triggered Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning processes. The Universe may have started writing script into its own aether in a code most appropriate for the quasicrystal aether "hardware": Eight three-dimensional "alphabet" characters, each corresponding to the individual quasi-crystal unit shape. They could be expressed as quantum Turing machine qubits, or, alternatively, in a binary code. The code numerals could contain terminal and nonterminal symbols of the Chomsky's hierarchy, wherein, the showers of quanta, forming the
Bianchi type VI1 cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravitation
Mishra, B
2014-01-01
In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type VIh, II and III cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravity, where the matter field is in the form of perfect fluid and with a time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). A non-singular model for the universe filled with disorder radiation is constructed and some physical behaviors of the model are studied for the feasible VIh (h = 1) space-time.
Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals
Zhang, Xiujuan
2014-01-01
A semi-Dirac cone refers to a peculiar type of dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. It was originally discovered in electron systems, in which the associated quasi-particles are massless along one direction, like those in graphene, but effective-mass-like along the other. It was reported that a semi-Dirac point is associated with the topological phase transition between a semi-metallic phase and a band insulator. Very recently, the classical analogy of a semi-Dirac cone has been reported in an electromagnetic system. Here, we demonstrate that, by accidental degeneracy, two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of square arrays of elliptical cylinders embedded in water are also able to produce the particular dispersion relation of a semi-Dirac cone in the center of the Brillouin zone. A perturbation method is used to evaluate the linear slope and to affirm that the dispersion relation is a semi-Dirac type. If the scatterers are made of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso-frequency surface of the phononic crystal, in which an open hyperbola is changed into a closed ellipse. This topological transition results in drastic change in wave manipulation. On the other hand, the theory also reveals that the phononic crystal is a double-zero-index material along the x-direction and photonic-band-edge material along the perpendicular direction (y-direction). If the scatterers are made of steel, in which the acoustic wave velocity is higher than that in water, the effective medium description fails, even though the semi-Dirac dispersion relation looks similar to that in the previous case. Therefore different wave transport behavior is expected. The semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals described in
Building Cosmological Frozen Stars
Kastor, David
2016-01-01
Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) spacetimes generalize the Schwarzschild solution to include a massless scalar field. Although suffering from naked singularities, they share the `frozen star' features of Schwarzschild black holes. Cosmological versions of the JNW spacetimes were discovered some time ago by Husain, Martinez and Nunez and by Fonarev. Unlike Schwarzschild-deSitter black holes, these solutions are dynamical, and the scarcity of exact solutions for dynamical black holes in cosmological backgrounds motivates their further study. Here we show how the cosmological JNW spacetimes can be built, starting from simpler, static, higher dimensional, vacuum `JNW brane' solutions via two different generalized dimensional reduction schemes that together cover the full range of JNW parameter space. Cosmological versions of a BPS limit of charged dilaton black holes are also known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the charged, dilaton black hole family. We expect that understanding this second da...
Solomon, Adam R
2015-01-01
The accelerating expansion of the Universe poses a major challenge to our understanding of fundamental physics. One promising avenue is to modify general relativity and obtain a new description of the gravitational force. Because gravitation dominates the other forces mostly on large scales, cosmological probes provide an ideal testing ground for theories of gravity. In this thesis, we describe two complementary approaches to the problem of testing gravity using cosmology. In the first part, we discuss the cosmological solutions of massive gravity and its generalisation to a bimetric theory. These theories describe a graviton with a small mass, and can potentially explain the late-time acceleration in a technically-natural way. We describe these self-accelerating solutions and investigate the cosmological perturbations in depth, beginning with an investigation of their linear stability, followed by the construction of a method for solving these perturbations in the quasistatic limit. This allows the predictio...
Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry
Maxim Khlopov
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.
Cosmological Ontology and Epistemology
Page, Don N
2014-01-01
In cosmology, we would like to explain our observations and predict future observations from theories of the entire universe. Such cosmological theories make ontological assumptions of what entities exist and what their properties and relationships are. One must also make epistemological assumptions or metatheories of how one can test cosmological theories. Here I shall propose a Bayesian analysis in which the likelihood of a complete theory is given by the normalized measure it assigns to the observation used to test the theory. In this context, a discussion is given of the trade-off between prior probabilities and likelihoods, of the measure problem of cosmology, of the death of Born's rule, of the Boltzmann brain problem, of whether there is a better principle for prior probabilities than mathematical simplicity, and of an Optimal Argument for the Existence of God.
Holland, Jonathan
2014-01-01
A new approach to cosmology and space-time is developed, which emphasizes the description of the matter degrees of freedom of Einstein's theory of gravity by a family of K\\"ahler-Einstein Fano manifolds.
Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry
Khlopov, Maxim
2015-01-01
The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs) are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY) models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.
Tensors, relativity, and cosmology
Dalarsson, Mirjana
2015-01-01
Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...
Quantum Cosmology: Effective Theory
Bojowald, Martin
2012-01-01
Quantum cosmology has traditionally been studied at the level of symmetry-reduced minisuperspace models, analyzing the behavior of wave functions. However, in the absence of a complete full setting of quantum gravity and detailed knowledge of specific properties of quantum states, it remained difficult to make testable predictions. For quantum cosmology to be part of empirical science, it must allow for a systematic framework in which corrections to well-tested classical equations can be derived, with any ambiguities and ignorance sufficiently parameterized. As in particle and condensed-matter physics, a successful viewpoint is one of effective theories, adapted to specific issues one encounters in quantum cosmology. This review presents such an effective framework of quantum cosmology, taking into account, among other things, space-time structures, covariance, the problem of time and the anomaly issue.
Testing Fractional Action Cosmology
Shchigolev, V K
2015-01-01
The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.
Testing fractional action cosmology
Shchigolev, V. K.
2016-08-01
The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.
Cosmological diagrammatic rules
Giddings, Steven B
2010-01-01
A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.
Cosmological diagrammatic rules
Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2010-07-01
A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ''in-in'' correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.
Gibbons, Gary W
2013-01-01
In this paper we lay down the foundations for a purely Newtonian theory of cosmology, valid at scales small compared with the Hubble radius, using only Newtonian point particles acted on by gravity and a possible cosmological term. We describe the cosmological background which is given by an exact solution of the equations of motion in which the particles expand homothetically with their comoving positions constituting a central configuration. We point out, using previous work, that an important class of central configurations are homogeneous and isotropic, thus justifying the usual assumptions of elementary treatments. The scale factor is shown to satisfy the standard Raychaudhuri and Friedmann equations without making any fluid dynamic or continuum approximations. Since we make no commitment as to the identity of the point particles, our results are valid for cold dark matter, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. In future publications we plan to discuss perturbations of our cosmological background from the p...
Ryden, Barbara
2017-01-01
This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.
Townsend, Paul K [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2004-12-07
For gravity coupled to N scalar fields, with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N + 1)-dimensional 'augmented' target space of Lorentzian signature (1, N), timelike if V > 0, null if V = 0 and spacelike if V < 0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an 'acceleration subcone' of the 'lightcone'. Non-flat (k = {+-}1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N + 2, of signature (1, N + 1) for k = -1 and signature (2, N) for k = +1. This formalism is illustrated by cosmological solutions of models with an exponential potential, which are comprehensively analysed; the late-time behaviour for other potentials of current interest is deduced by comparison.
Pairing instabilities of Dirac composite fermions
Milovanović, M. V.; Ćirić, M. Dimitrijević; Juričić, V.
2016-09-01
Recently, a Dirac (particle-hole symmetric) description of composite fermions in the half-filled Landau level (LL) was proposed [D. T. Son, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031027 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031027], and we study its possible consequences on BCS (Cooper) pairing of composite fermions (CFs). One of the main consequences is the existence of anisotropic states in single-layer and bilayer systems, which was previously suggested in Jeong and Park [J. S. Jeong and K. Park, Phys. Rev. B 91, 195119 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195119]. We argue that in the half-filled LL in the single-layer case the gapped states may sustain anisotropy, because isotropic pairings may coexist with anisotropic ones. Furthermore, anisotropic pairings with the addition of a particle-hole symmetry-breaking mass term may evolve into rotationally symmetric states, i.e., Pfaffian states of Halperin-Lee-Read (HLR) ordinary CFs. On the basis of the Dirac formalism, we argue that in the quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor 1, with decreasing distance between the layers, weak pairing of p -wave paired CFs is gradually transformed from Dirac to ordinary, HLR-like, with a concomitant decrease in the CF number. Global characterization of low-energy spectra based on the Dirac CFs agrees well with previous calculations performed by exact diagonalization on a torus. Finally, we discuss features of the Dirac formalism when applied in this context.
Classification of cosmological milestones
Fernández-Jambrina, L
2006-01-01
In this paper causal geodesic completeness of FLRW cosmological models is analysed in terms of generalised power expansions of the scale factor in coordinate time. The strength of the found singularities is discussed following the usual definitions due to Tipler and Krolak. It is shown that while classical cosmological models are both timelike and lightlike geodesically incomplete, certain observationally alllowed models which have been proposed recently are lightlike geodesically complete.
Daywitt W. C.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.
Accelerating Cosmologies from Compactification
Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2003-01-01
A solution of the (4+n)-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations is found for which spacetime is compactified on a compact hyperbolic manifold of time-varying volume to a flat four-dimensional FLRW cosmology undergoing accelerated expansion in Einstein conformal frame. This shows that the `no-go' theorem forbidding acceleration in `standard' (time-independent) compactifications of string/M-theory does not apply to `cosmological' (time-dependent) hyperbolic compactifications.
Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics
Hwang, J
1997-01-01
We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.
Building cosmological frozen stars
Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie
2017-02-01
Janis–Newman–Winicour (JNW) solutions generalize Schwarzschild to include a massless scalar field. While they share the familiar infinite redshift feature of Schwarzschild, they suffer from the presence of naked singularities. Cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes were discovered some years ago, in the most general case, by Fonarev. Fonarev solutions are also plagued by naked singularities, but have the virtue, unlike e.g. Schwarzschild–deSitter, of being dynamical. Given that exact dynamical cosmological black hole solutions are scarce, Fonarev solutions merit further study. We show how Fonarev solutions can be obtained via generalized dimensional reduction from simpler static vacuum solutions. These results may lead towards constructions of actual dynamical cosmological black holes. In particular, we note that cosmological versions of extremal charged dilaton black holes are known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the family of charged dilaton black holes, which have been important in the context of string theory, and better understanding their cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes thus provides a second data point towards finding cosmological versions of the entire family.
Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Shtanov, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Unnikrishnan, Sanil, E-mail: satadru@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: sanil@lnmiit.ac.in [Department of Physics, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur 302031 (India)
2014-07-01
We explore the possibility of emergent cosmology using the effective potential formalism. We discover new models of emergent cosmology which satisfy the constraints posed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We demonstrate that, within the framework of modified gravity, the emergent scenario can arise in a universe which is spatially open/closed. By contrast, in general relativity (GR) emergent cosmology arises from a spatially closed past-eternal Einstein Static Universe (ESU). In GR the ESU is unstable, which creates fine tuning problems for emergent cosmology. However, modified gravity models including Braneworld models, Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Asymptotically Free Gravity result in a stable ESU. Consequently, in these models emergent cosmology arises from a larger class of initial conditions including those in which the universe eternally oscillates about the ESU fixed point. We demonstrate that such an oscillating universe is necessarily accompanied by graviton production. For a large region in parameter space graviton production is enhanced through a parametric resonance, casting serious doubts as to whether this emergent scenario can be past-eternal.
String cosmology versus standard and inflationary cosmology
Gasperini, M
2000-01-01
This paper presents a review of the basic, model-independent differences between the pre-big bang scenario, arising naturally in a string cosmology context, and the standard inflationary scenario. We use an unconventional approach in which the introduction of technical details is avoided as much as possible, trying to focus the reader's attention on the main conceptual aspects of both scenarios. The aim of the paper is not to conclude in favour either of one or of the other scenario, but to raise questions that are left to the reader's meditation. Warnings: the paper does not contain equations, and is not intended as a complete review of all aspects of string cosmology.
Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology
Haro, Jaime
2013-01-01
Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel $F(T)$ gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in $F(T)$ gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor pe...
Supersymmetry in 6d Dirac Action
Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tatsumi, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We investigate a 6d Dirac fermion on a rectangle. It is found that the 4d spectrum is governed by $N = 2$ supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Then we demonstrate that the supersymmetry is very useful to classify all allowed boundary conditions and to expand the 6d Dirac field in Kaluza-Klein modes. A striking feature of the model is that even though the 6d Dirac fermion has non-vanishing bulk mass, the 4d mass spectrum can contain degenerate massless chiral fermions, which may provide a hint to solve the generation problem of the quarks and leptons. It is pointed out that zero energy solutions are not affected by the presence of the boundaries, while the boundary conditions work well for determining the positive energy solutions.
LHCb: Monitoring the DIRAC Distribution System
Nandakumar, R; Santinelli, R
2009-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb gateway to any computing grid infrastructure (currently supporting WLCG) and is intended to reliably run large data mining activities. The DIRAC system consists of various services (which wait to be contacted to perform actions) and agents (which carry out periodic activities) to direct jobs as required. An important part of ensuring the reliability of the infrastructure is the monitoring and logging of these DIRAC distributed systems. The monitoring is done collecting information from two sources - one is from pinging the services or by keeping track of the regular heartbeats of the agents, and the other from the analysis of the error messages generated by both agents and services and collected by the logging system. This allows us to ensure that he components are running properly and to collect useful information regarding their operations. The process status monitoring is displayed using the SLS sensor mechanism which also automatically allows one to plot various quantities and also keep ...
Two Qubits in the Dirac Representation
Rajagopal, A K
2000-01-01
A general two qubit system expressed in terms of the complete set of unit and fifteen traceless, Hermitian Dirac matrices, is shown to exhibit novel features of this system. The well-known physical interpretations associated with the relativistic Dirac equation involving the symmetry operations of time-reversal T, charge conjugation C, parity P, and their products are reinterpreted here by examining their action on the basic Bell states. The transformation properties of the Bell basis states under these symmetry operations also reveal that C is the only operator that does not mix the Bell states whereas all others do. In a similar fashion, expressing the various logic gates introduced in the subject of quantum computers in terms of the Dirac matrices shows for example, that the NOT gate is related to the product of time-reversal and parity operators.
Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function
Wilcox, Bethany R
2014-01-01
The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool used in multiple topical areas in the undergraduate physics curriculum. While Dirac delta functions are usually introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students often struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To better understand student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined responses to traditional exam questions and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, constructing two- and three-dimensional delta functions, integrating novel delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units.
On Dirac Zero Modes in Hyperdiamond Model
Drissi, Lalla Btissam
2011-01-01
Using the SU(5) symmetry of the 4D hyperdiamond and results on 4D graphene, we engineer a class of 4D lattice QCD fermions whose Dirac operators have two zero modes. We show that generally the zero modes of the Dirac operator in hyperdiamond fermions are captured by a tensor {\\Omega}_{{\\mu}}^{l} with 4\\times5 complex components linking the Euclidean SO(4) vector {\\mu}; and the 5-dimensional representation of SU(5). The Bori\\c{c}i-Creutz (BC) and the Karsten-Wilzeck (KW) models as well as their Dirac zero modes are rederived as particular realizations of {\\Omega}_{{\\mu}}^{l}. Other features are also given. Keywords: Lattice QCD, Bori\\c{c}i-Creutz and Karsten-Wilzeck models, 4D hyperdiamond, 4D graphene, SU(5) Symmetry.
Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation
Gerritsma, Rene; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Zaehringer, Florian; Blatt, Rainer; Roos, Christian [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Solano, Enrique [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco - Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain)
2010-07-01
The Dirac equation is a cornerstone in the history of physics, merging successfully quantum mechanics with special relativity, providing a natural description of the electron spin and predicting the existence of anti-matter. However, the Dirac equation also predicts some peculiar effects such as Klein's paradox and Zitterbewegung, an unexpected quivering motion of a free relativistic quantum particle first examined by Schroedinger. In this talk, we report on a proof-of-principle quantum simulation of the one-dimensional Dirac equation using a single trapped ion, which is set to behave as a free relativistic quantum particle. We measure as a function of time the particle position and study Zitterbewegung for different initial superpositions of positive and negative energy spinor states, as well as the cross-over from relativistic to nonrelativistic dynamics.
DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb
Tsaregorodtsev, A
2004-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the ARDA project proposal, allowing for the possibility of interchanging the EGEE/ARDA and DIRAC components in the future. Some components developed outside the DIRAC project are already in use as services, for example the File Catalog developed by the AliEn project. An overview of the DIRAC architecture will be given, in particular the recent developments to support user analysis. The main design choices will be presented. One of the main design goals of DIRAC is the simplicity of installation, configuring and operation of various services. This allows all the DIRAC resources to be easily managed by a single Production Manager. The modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new tasks. The DIRAC system al...
Time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems and Dirac brackets
Leon, Manuel de [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Marrero, Juan C. [Departamento de Matematica Fundamental, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Martin de Diego, David [Departamento de Economia Aplicada Cuantitativa, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UNED, Madrid (Spain)
1996-11-07
In this paper the canonical Dirac formalism for time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems is globalized. A time-dependent Dirac bracket which reduces to the usual one for time-independent systems is introduced. (author)
The Dirac operator and gamma matrices for quantum Minkowski spaces
1997-01-01
Gamma matrices for quantum Minkowski spaces are found. The invariance of the corresponding Dirac operator is proven. We introduce momenta for spin 1/2 particles and get (in certain cases) formal solutions of the Dirac equation.
Exploring Bouncing Cosmologies with Cosmological Surveys
Cai, Yi-Fu
2014-01-01
In light of the recent observational data coming from the sky we have two significant directions in the field of theoretical cosmology recently. First, we are now able to make use of present observations, such as the Planck and BICEP2 data, to examine theoretical predictions from the standard inflationary $\\Lambda$CDM which were made decades of years ago. Second, we can search for new cosmological signatures as a way to explore physics beyond the standard cosmic paradigm. In particular, a subset of early universe models admit a nonsingular bouncing solution that attempts to address the issue of the big bang singularity. These models have achieved a series of considerable developments in recent years, in particular in their perturbative frameworks, which made brand-new predictions of cosmological signatures that could be visible in current and forthcoming observations. In this article we present two representative paradigms of very early universe physics. The first is the so-called new matter (or matter-ekpyro...
BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology
Howell, Dale Andrew
2013-04-01
Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations
Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware
Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo
2014-06-01
Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several
Spacetime Dynamics from Spin Dynamics: Cosmological Constant and Neutrino Mass
Crawford, James
2003-04-01
Two fundamental unresolved issues in gravitational physics are the origin of the cosmological constant (dark energy), whose existence is suggested by the observed acceleration of the universe, and the origin of the particle masses, which we now know includes the neutrinos. Since all matter particles are represented by spinor fields, it seems natural to inquire whether the gravitational interaction of the spinor fields can illuminate these issues. Therefore we consider the possibility that the spin curvature is fundamental, and show that by relaxing the Schrödinger condition (covariant constancy of the Dirac matrices) it is possible to obtain both spacetime curvature and torsion as parts of the spin curvature. We assume a scale invariant Lagrangian composed of the standard Yang-Mills Lagrangian for the spin curvature and the massless Dirac Lagrangian for the spinors. An exact vacuum cosmological solution to the associated field equations is found which exhibits exponential acceleration of the universe and gives a minimum mass for all spinors.
On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields
CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.
Maxwell and Dirac theories as an already unified theory
1995-01-01
In this paper we formulate Maxwell and Dirac theories as an already unified theory (in the sense of Misner and Wheeler). We introduce Dirac spinors as "Dirac square root" of the Faraday bivector, and use this in order to find a spinorial representation of Maxwell equations. Then we show that under certain circunstances this spinor equation reduces to an equation formally identical to Dirac equation. Finally we discuss certain conditions under which this equation can be really interpreted as D...
PERSAMAAN MEDAN DIRAC DALAM PENGARUH MEDAN MAGNETIK YANG SERAGAM
Andrias Widiantoro, Erika Rani
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Telah dilakukan perlakuan khusus terhadap persamaan gerak partikel elementer yaitu Persamaan Dirac dengan dipengaruhi oleh medan magnet eksternal yang seragam untuk mendapat solusi Persamaan Dirac dalam pengaruh medan magnetic. Penambahan pengaruh potensial magnetik terhadap momentum dan energi total suatu partikel bermuatan dalam kajian teoritis terhadap persamaan gerak yaitu persamaan Dirac telah memberikan solusi persamaan medan Dirac yang baru, dan kuantisasi kedua yang terdapat konstanta tambahan serta propagasi fermioniknya terdapat suku pengali baru.
Dirac eigenmodes at the QCD Anderson transition
Giordano, Matteo; Pittler, Ferenc; Ujfalusi, Laszlo; Varga, Imre
2014-01-01
Recently we found an Anderson-type localization-delocalization transition in the QCD Dirac spectrum at high temperature. Using spectral statistics we obtained a critical exponent compatible with that of the corresponding Anderson model. Here we study the spatial structure of the eigenmodes both in the localized and the transition region. Based on previous studies in the Anderson model, at the critical point, the eigenmodes are expected to have a scale invariant multifractal structure. We verify the scale invariance of Dirac eigenmodes at the critical point.
Search for Heavy Pointlike Dirac Monopoles
Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.
1998-07-01
We have searched for central production of a pair of photons with high transverse energies in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using 70 pb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron in 1994-1996. If they exist, virtual heavy pointlike Dirac monopoles could rescatter pairs of nearly real photons into this final state via a box diagram. We observe no excess of events above background, and set lower 95% C.L. limits of 610, 870, or 1580 GeV/c2 on the mass of a spin 0, 1/2, or 1 Dirac monopole.
Gravitational Gauge Interactions of Dirac Field
WU Ning
2004-01-01
Gravitational interactions of Dirac field are studied in this paper. Based on gauge principle, quantum gauge theory of gravity, which is perturbatively renormalizable, is formulated in the Minkowski space-time. In quantum gauge theory of gravity, gravity is treated as a kind of fundamental interactions, which is transmitted by gravitational gauge tield, and Dirac field couples to gravitational field through gravitational gauge covariant derivative. Based on this theory, we can easily explain gravitational phase effect, which has already been detected by COW experiment.
Two qubits in the Dirac representation
Rajagopal, A. K.; Rendell, R. W.
2001-08-01
The Dirac-matrix representation of a general two-qubit system is shown to exhibit quite interesting features. The relativistic symmetries of time reversal T, charge conjugation C, parity P, and their products are reinterpreted here by examining their action on the Bell states. It is shown that only C does not mix the Bell states whereas all others do. The various logic gates of quantum information theory are also expressed in terms of the Dirac matrices. For example, the NOT gate is related to the product of T and P. A two-qubit density matrix is found to be entangled if it is invariant under C.
Extended Supersymmetries and the Dirac Operator
Kirchberg, A; Wipf, A
2004-01-01
We consider supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems in arbitrary dimensions on curved spaces with nontrivial gauge fields. The square of the Dirac operator serves as Hamiltonian. We derive a relation between the number of supercharges that exist and restrictions on the geometry of the underlying spaces as well as the admissible gauge field configurations. From the superalgebra with two or more real supercharges we infer the existence of integrability conditions and obtain a corresponding superpotential. This potential can be used to deform the supercharges and to determine zero modes of the Dirac operator. The general results are applied to the Kahler spaces CP^n.
Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits
Hwang, Jai-Chan
2012-06-01
Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).
Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits
Hwang, Jai-chan
2012-01-01
Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, "philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies". (Whitehead 1925)
Dirac oscillators and quasi-exactly solvable operators
Brihaye, Y
2005-01-01
The Dirac equation is considered in the background of potentials of several types, namely scalar and vector-potentials as well as "Dirac-oscillator" potential or some of its generalisations. We investigate the radial Dirac equation within a quite general spherically symmetric form for these potentials and we analyse some exactly and quasi exactly solvable properties of the underlying matricial linear operators.
Effects of Dirac's Negative Energy Sea on Quantum Numbers
Jackiw, R.
1999-01-01
One route towards understanding both fractional charges and chiral anomalies delves into Dirac's negative energy sea. Usually we think of Dirac's negative energy sea as an unphysical construct, invented to render quantum field theory physically acceptable by hiding the negative energy solutions. I suggest that in fact physical consequences can be drawn from Dirac's construction.
Interconnection of Dirac structures via kernel/image representation
Iftime, Orest V.; Sandovici, Adrian
2011-01-01
Dirac structures are used to mathematically formalize the power-conserving interconnection structure of physical systems. For finite-dimensional systems several representations are available and it is known that the composition (or interconnection) of two Dirac structures is again a Dirac structure.
Dirac's æther in curved spacetime-II: the geometric amplification of the cosmic magnetic induction
Marcelo Carvalho
2004-03-01
Full Text Available We search for an amplification mechanism of the seed cosmic magnetic induction by studying a new version of the Dirac's æther in a curved cosmological background. We find that the variation of the scale factor R(t with cosmic time brings to the magnetic field the desired effect of amplification, that we call geometric amplification.Procuramos por um mecanismo de amplificação das sementes do campo de indução magnética cósmico através do estudo de uma nova versão do æ ther de Dirac em uma arena cosmológica curva. Encontramos uma amplificação que ocorre se o fator de escala R(t varia com o tempo cósmico, acarretando um efeito o qual chamamos de amplificação geométrica do campo magnético.
Silk, Joseph
2008-11-01
The field of cosmology has been transformed since the glorious decades of the 1920's and 1930's when theory and observation converged to develop the current model of the expanding universe. It was a triumph of the theory of general relativity and astronomy. The first revolution came when the nuclear physicists entered the fray. This marked the debut of the hot big bang, in which the light elements were synthesized in the first three minutes. It was soon realised that elements like carbon and iron were synthesized in exploding stars. However helium, as well as deuterium and lithium, remain as George Gamow envisaged, the detritus of the big bang. The climax arrived with one of the most remarkable discoveries of the twentieth century, the cosmic microwave background radiation, in 1964. The fossil glow turned out to have the spectrum of an ideal black body. One could not imagine a stronger confirmation of the hot and dense origin of the universe. This discovery set the scene for the next major advance. It was now the turn of the particle physicists, who realized that the energies attained near the beginning of the universe, and unachievable in any conceivable terrestrial accelerator, provided a unique testing ground for theories of grand unification of the fundamental forces. This led Alan Guth and Andrei Linde in 1980 to propose the theory of inflation, which solved outstanding puzzles of the big bang. One could now understand why the universe is so large and homogeneous, and the origin of the seed fluctuations that gave rise to large-scale structure. A key prediction was that the universe should have Euclidean geometry, now verified to a precision of a few percent. Modern cosmology is firmly embedded in particle physics. It merits a text written by a particle physicist who can however appreciate the contributions of astronomy that provide the foundation and infrastructure for the theory of the expanding universe. There are now several such texts available. The most
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology
Agarwal, Abhineet
2014-01-01
An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. non-renormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early universe is the Tachyacoustic (or Speedy Sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early universe, around the scale of Grand Unified Theories (GUT scale; $T\\sim 10^{15}$ GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by $25$ orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of ten...
Thermal tachyacoustic cosmology
Agarwal, Abhineet; Afshordi, Niayesh
2014-08-01
An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early Universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. nonrenormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early Universe is the tachyacoustic (or speedy sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study thermal tachyacoustic cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early Universe, around the scale of the grand unified theory (GUT scale; T ˜1015 GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by 25 orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of tensor modes (r≳10-3), that are detectable by CMBpol (and might have already been seen by the BICEP-Keck Collaboration).
Conceptual Problems in Cosmology
Vieira, F J Amaral
2011-01-01
In this essay a critical review of present conceptual problems in current cosmology is provided from a more philosophical point of view. In essence, a digression on how could philosophy help cosmologists in what is strictly their fundamental endeavor is presented. We start by recalling some examples of enduring confrontations among philosophers and physicists on what could be contributed by the formers to the day-time striving of the second ones. Then, a short review of the standard model Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walter (FLRW) of cosmology is given. It seems apparent that cosmology is living a golden age with the advent of observations of high precision. Nonetheless, a critical revisiting of the direction in which it should go on appears also needed, for misconcepts like "quantum backgrounds for cosmological classical settings" and "quantum gravity unification" have not been properly constructed up-to-date. Thus, knowledge-building in cosmology, more than in any other field, should begin with visions of...
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Lu, Wei; Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Hong; Li, Caizhen; Lai, Jiawei; Zhao, Chuan; Tian, Ye; Liao, Zhimin; Jia, Shuang; Sun, Dong
2016-01-01
Three dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal exhibiting ultrahigh mobility has recently attracted enormous research interests as 3D analogues of graphene. From the prospects of future application toward electronic/optoelectronic devices with extreme performance, it is crucial to understand the relaxation dynamics of photo-excited carriers and their coupling with lattice. In this work, we report ultrafast transient reflection measurements of photo-excited carrier dynamics in cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2), which is among the most stable Dirac semimetals that have been confirmed experimentally. With low energy probe photon of 0.3 eV, photo-excited Dirac Fermions dynamics closing to Dirac point are probed. Through transient reflection measurements on bulk and nanoplate samples that have different doping intensities, and systematic probe wavelength, pump power and lattice temperature dependent measurements, the dynamical evolution of carrier distributions can be retrieved qualitatively using a two-temperature model. The pho...
LHCb: DIRAC A community grid solution
Tsaregorodtsev, A
2007-01-01
The DIRAC project began as a solution for the LHCb experiment at CERN to carry out massive Monte Carlo simulation and data processing on various distributed computing resources. Now it is evolving to a complete Grid solution for community of users such as LHCb.
The Dirac-Electron Vacuum Wave
Daywitt W. C.
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper argues that the Dirac equation can be interpreted as an interaction between the electron core and the Planck vacuum state, where the positive and negative solutions represent respectively the dynamics of the electron core and a vacuum wave propagating within the vacuum state. Results show that the nonrelativistic positive solution reduces to the Schrödinger wave equation
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation.
Gerritsma, R; Kirchmair, G; Zähringer, F; Solano, E; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2010-01-07
The Dirac equation successfully merges quantum mechanics with special relativity. It provides a natural description of the electron spin, predicts the existence of antimatter and is able to reproduce accurately the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. The realm of the Dirac equation-relativistic quantum mechanics-is considered to be the natural transition to quantum field theory. However, the Dirac equation also predicts some peculiar effects, such as Klein's paradox and 'Zitterbewegung', an unexpected quivering motion of a free relativistic quantum particle. These and other predicted phenomena are key fundamental examples for understanding relativistic quantum effects, but are difficult to observe in real particles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in simulations of relativistic quantum effects using different physical set-ups, in which parameter tunability allows access to different physical regimes. Here we perform a proof-of-principle quantum simulation of the one-dimensional Dirac equation using a single trapped ion set to behave as a free relativistic quantum particle. We measure the particle position as a function of time and study Zitterbewegung for different initial superpositions of positive- and negative-energy spinor states, as well as the crossover from relativistic to non-relativistic dynamics. The high level of control of trapped-ion experimental parameters makes it possible to simulate textbook examples of relativistic quantum physics.
Scarring of Dirac fermions in chaotic billiards.
Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2012-07-01
Scarring in quantum systems with classical chaotic dynamics is one of the most remarkable phenomena in modern physics. Previous works were concerned mostly with nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. The question remains outstanding of whether truly relativistic quantum particles that obey the Dirac equation can scar. A significant challenge is the lack of a general method for solving the Dirac equation in closed domains of arbitrary shape. In this paper, we develop a numerical framework for obtaining complete eigensolutions of massless fermions in general two-dimensional confining geometries. The key ingredients of our method are the proper handling of the boundary conditions and an efficient discretization scheme that casts the original equation in a matrix representation. The method is validated by (1) comparing the numerical solutions to analytic results for a geometrically simple confinement and (2) verifying that the calculated energy level-spacing statistics of integrable and chaotic geometries agree with the known results. Solutions of the Dirac equation in a number of representative chaotic geometries establish firmly the existence of scarring of Dirac fermions.
Consequences of Dirac Theory of the Positron
Heisenberg, W K
1936-01-01
According to Dirac's theory of the positron, an electromagnetic field tends to create pairs of particles which leads to a change of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum. These changes are calculated in the special case that no real electrons or positrons are present and the field varies little over a Compton wavelength.
Building Atomic Nuclei with the Dirac Equation
Serot, Brian D.
2003-01-01
The relevance of the Dirac equation for computations of nuclear structure is motivated and discussed. Quantitatively successful results for medium- and heavy-mass nuclei are described, and modern ideas of effective field theory and density functional theory are used to justify them.
Poisson Geometry from a Dirac perspective
Meinrenken, Eckhard
2016-01-01
We present proofs of classical results in Poisson geometry using techniques from Dirac geometry. This article is based on mini-courses at the Poisson summer school in Geneva, June 2016, and at the workshop "Quantum Groups and Gravity" at the University of Waterloo, April 2016.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
Axions : Theory and Cosmological Role
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori
2013-01-01
We review recent developments on axion cosmology. Topics include : axion cold dark matter, axions from topological defects, axion isocurvature perturbation and its non-Gaussianity and axino/saxion cosmology in supersymmetric axion model.
The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities
Bauer, D; Currie, R; Fayer, S; Huffman, A; Martyniak, J; Rand, D; Richards, A
2015-01-01
The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communiti...
The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities
Bauer, D.; Colling, D.; Currie, R.; Fayer, S.; Huffman, A.; Martyniak, J.; Rand, D.; Richards, A.
2015-12-01
The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communities.
The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones
Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong
2014-01-01
Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...
Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space
MA Kai; WANG Jian-Hua; YUAN Yi
2011-01-01
The Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space is studied in this paper.Firstly,since the Dirac equation is described as a matrix equation in phase space,it is necessary to define the Wigner function as a matrix function in spinor space.Secondly,the matrix form of the Wigner function is proven to support the Dirac equation.Thirdly,by solving the Dirac equation,energy levels and the Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space are obtained.
Bonometto, S A; Musco, I; Mainini, R; Maccio', A V
2014-01-01
Models including an energy transfer from CDM to DE are widely considered in the literature, namely to allow DE a significant high-z density. Strongly Coupled cosmologies assume a much larger coupling between DE and CDM, together with the presence of an uncoupled warm DM component, as the role of CDM is mostly restricted to radiative eras. This allows us to preserve small scale fluctuations even if the warm particle, possibly a sterile neutrino, is quite light, O(100 eV). Linear theory and numerical simulations show that these cosmologies agree with LCDM on supergalactic scales; e.g., CMB spectra are substantially identical. Simultaneously, simulations show that they significantly ease problems related to the properties of MW satellites and cores in dwarfs. SC cosmologies also open new perspectives on early black hole formation, and possibly lead towards unificating DE and inflationary scalar fields.
Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon
2017-01-01
Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.
Evolving Horava Cosmological Horizons
Fathi, Mohsen
2016-01-01
Several sets of radially propagating null congruence generators are exploited in order to form 3-dimensional marginally trapped surfaces, referred to as black hole and cosmological apparent horizons in a Horava universe. Based on this method, we deal with the characteristics of the 2-dimensional space-like spheres of symmetry and the peculiarities of having trapping horizons. Moreover, we apply this method in standard expanding and contracting FLRW cosmological models of a Horava universe to investigate the conditions under which the extra parameters of the theory may lead to trapped/anti-trapped surfaces both in the future and in the past. We also include the cases of negative time, referred to as the finite past, and discuss the formation of anti-trapped surfaces inside the cosmological apparent horizons.
Stornaiolo, C
2002-01-01
In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.
Cosmological Perturbations in Antigravity
Oltean, Marius
2014-01-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely-signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the Standard Model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically-complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity", during each successive transition from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, its cosmological solutions are stable at the perturbative level.
Bojowald, Martin
2016-01-01
A cosmological model with two global internal times shows that time reparameterization invariance, and therefore covariance, is not guaranteed by deparameterization. In particular, it is impossible to derive proper-time effective equations from a single deparameterized model if quantum corrections from fluctuations and higher moments are included. The framework of effective constraints shows how proper-time evolution can consistently be defined in quantum cosmological systems, such that it is time reparameterization invariant when compared with other choices of coordinate time. At the same time, it allows transformations of moment corrections in different deparameterizations of the same model, indicating partial time reparameterization of internal-time evolution. However, in addition to corrections from moments such as quantum fluctuations, also factor ordering corrections may appear. The latter generically break covariance in internal-time formulations. Fluctuation effects in quantum cosmology are therefore ...
Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2004-01-01
For gravity coupled to N scalar fields with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N+1)-dimensional `extended target space' of Lorentzian signature (1,N), timelike if V>0 and spacelike if V<0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an `acceleration subcone' of the `lightcone'. Non-flat (k=-1,+1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N+2, of signature (1,N+1) for k=-1 and signature (2,N) for k=+1. We illustrate these results for various potentials of current interest, including exponential and inverse power potentials.
General relativity and cosmology
Bucher, Martin
2015-01-01
This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's 1915 landmark paper "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This contribution, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book "One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity," endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.
Tartaglia, Angelo
2015-01-01
Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behaviour of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativ- ity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time repro- duces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theor...
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Maxim Khlopov
2016-01-01
The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetr...
Brane cosmology in teleparallel gravity
Atazadeh, K
2014-01-01
We consider cosmology of brane-world scenario in the frame work of teleparallel gravity in that way matter is localized on the brane. We show that the cosmology of such branes is different from the standard cosmology in teleparallelism. In particular, we obtain a class of new solutions with a constant five-dimensional radius and cosmologically evolving brane in the context of constant torsion $f(T)$ gravity.
Relativistic Cosmology Revisited
Crothers S. J.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto. In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types, and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be inconsistent with General Relativity
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L
2014-01-01
We review the role of fluids in cosmology by first introducing them in General Relativity and then applied to a FRW Universe's model. We describe how relativistic and non-relativistic components evolve in the background dynamics. We also introduce scalar fields to show that they are able to yield an inflationary dynamics at very early times (inflation) and late times (quintessence). Then, we proceed to study the thermodynamical properties of the fluids and, lastly, its perturbed kinematics. We make emphasis in the constrictions of parameters by recent cosmological probes.
Silk, Joseph
2011-01-01
Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p
The Cosmological Mass Function
Monaco, P
1997-01-01
This thesis aims to review the cosmological mass function problem, both from the theoretical and the observational point of view, and to present a new mass function theory, based on realistic approximations for the dynamics of gravitational collapse. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction on gravitational dynamics in cosmological models. Chapter 2 gives a complete review of the mass function theory. Chapters 3 and 4 present the ``dynamical'' mass function theory, based on truncated Lagrangian dynamics and on the excursion set approach. Chapter 5 reviews the observational state-of-the-art and the main applications of the mass function theories described before. Finally, Chapter 6 gives conclusions and future prospects.
2011-01-01
The twentieth century elevated our understanding of the Universe from its early stages to what it is today and what is to become of it. Cosmology is the weapon that utilizes all the scientific tools that we have created to feel less lost in the immensity of our Universe. The standard model is the theory that explains the best what we observe. Even with all the successes that this theory had, two main questions are still to be answered: What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy? This book attempts to understand these questions while giving some of the most promising advances in modern cosmology.
2012-01-01
This volume tells of the quest for cosmology as seen by some of the finest cosmologists in the world. It starts with "Galaxy Formation from Start to Finish" and ends with "The First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe," exploring in between the grand themes of galaxies, the early universe, expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This up-to-date collection of review articles offers a general introduction to cosmology and is intended for all probing into the profound questions on where we came from and where we are going.
Dirac dynamical resonance states around Schwarzschild black holes
Zhou, Xiang-Nan; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2013-01-01
Recently, a novel kind of scalar wigs around Schwarzschild black holes---scalar dynamical resonance states were introduced in [Phys. Rev. D 84, 083008 (2011)] and [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 081102 (2012)]. In this paper, we investigate the existence and evolution of Dirac dynamical resonance states. First we look for stationary resonance states of a Dirac field around a Schwarzchild black hole by using the Schrodinger-like equations reduced from the Dirac equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. Then Dirac pseudo-stationary configurations are constructed from the stationary resonance states. We use these configurations as initial data and investigate their numerical evolutions and energy decay. These dynamical solutions are the so-called "Dirac dynamical resonance states". It is found that the energy of the Dirac dynamical resonance states shows an exponential decay. The decay rate of energy is affected by the resonant frequency, the mass of Dirac field, the total angular momentum, and the spin-orbit interaction. In ...
Anderson's absolute objects and constant timelike vector hidden in Dirac matrices
2001-01-01
Anderson's theorem asserting, that symmetry of dynamic equations written in the relativisitically covariant form is determined by symmetry of its absolute objects, is applied to the free Dirac equation. Dirac matrices are the only absolute objects of the Dirac equation. There are two ways of the Dirac matrices transformation: (1) Dirac matrices form a 4-vector and wave function is a scalar, (2) Dirac matrices are scalars and the wave function is a spinor. In the first case the Dirac equation ...
Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology
Lehners, Jean-Luc
2008-01-01
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/rho >> 1 (where P is the average pressure and rho the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, thei...
Quantum cosmological metroland model
Anderson, E.; Franzen, A.T.
2010-01-01
Relational particle mechanics is useful for modelling whole-universe issues such as quantum cosmology or the problem of time in quantum gravity, including some aspects outside the reach of comparably complex mini-superspace models. In this paper, we consider the mechanics of pure shape and not scale
Cosmological dynamical systems
Leon, Genly
2014-01-01
In this book are studied, from the perspective of the dynamical systems, several Universe models. In chapter 1 we give a bird's eye view on cosmology and cosmological problems. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief review on some results and useful tools from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. They provide the theoretical basis for the qualitative study of concrete cosmological models. Chapters 1 and 2 are a review of well-known results. Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to our main results. In these chapters are extended and settled in a substantially different, more strict mathematical language, several results obtained by one of us in arXiv:0812.1013 [gr-qc]; arXiv:1009.0689 [gr-qc]; arXiv:0904.1577[gr-qc]; and arXiv:0909.3571 [hep-th]. In chapter 6, we provide a different approach to the subject discussed in astro-ph/0503478. Additionally, we perform a Poincar\\'e compactification process allowing to construct a global phase space containing all the cosmological information in both finite and infinite...
Relativistic cosmology; Cosmologia Relativista
Bastero-Gil, M.
2015-07-01
Relativistic cosmology is nothing but the study of the evolution of our universe expanding from the General Theory of Relativity, which describes the gravitational interaction at any scale and given its character far-reaching is the force that dominate the evolution of the universe. (Author)
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology
Lehners, Jean-Luc [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: jlehners@princeton.edu
2008-09-15
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/({rho}) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and {rho} the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures.
Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York; Crocce, Martin; Pueblas, Sebastian; Scoccimarro, Roman; /CCPP, New York
2006-04-01
The present spatial distribution of galaxies in the Universe is non-Gaussian, with 40% skewness in 50 h{sup -1} Mpc spheres, and remarkably little is known about the information encoded in it about cosmological parameters beyond the power spectrum. In this work they present an attempt to bridge this gap by studying the bispectrum, paying particular attention to a joint analysis with the power spectrum and their combination with CMB data. They address the covariance properties of the power spectrum and bispectrum including the effects of beat coupling that lead to interesting cross-correlations, and discuss how baryon acoustic oscillations break degeneracies. They show that the bispectrum has significant information on cosmological parameters well beyond its power in constraining galaxy bias, and when combined with the power spectrum is more complementary than combining power spectra of different samples of galaxies, since non-Gaussianity provides a somewhat different direction in parameter space. In the framework of flat cosmological models they show that most of the improvement of adding bispectrum information corresponds to parameters related to the amplitude and effective spectral index of perturbations, which can be improved by almost a factor of two. Moreover, they demonstrate that the expected statistical uncertainties in {sigma}s of a few percent are robust to relaxing the dark energy beyond a cosmological constant.
Skaanes, Thea
2015-01-01
Abstract: This article concerns Hadza cosmology examined through objects, rituals and the Hadza concept of epeme. A brief background to the Hadza and the eldwork that informs this study is followed by a close analysis of three key objects that are central to the argument presented. The objects ar...
B B Bhowmik; A Rajput
2004-06-01
Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.
Some epistemic questions of cosmology
Grujic, Petar V
2007-01-01
We discuss a number of fundamental aspects of modern cosmological concepts, from the phenomenological, observational, theoretical and epistemic points of view. We argue that the modern cosmology, despite a great advent, in particular in the observational sector, is yet to solve important problems, posed already by the classical times. In particular the stress is put on discerning the scientific features of modern cosmological paradigms from the more speculative ones, with the latter immersed in some aspects deeply into mythological world picture. We finally discuss the principal paradigms, which are present in the modern cosmological studies and evaluate their epistemic merits. KEY WORDS: cosmology, epistemology, methodology, mythology, philosophy of science
Floquet-Engineered Valleytronics in Dirac Systems.
Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, H A; Seradjeh, Babak
2016-01-08
Valley degrees of freedom offer a potential resource for quantum information processing if they can be effectively controlled. We discuss an optical approach to this problem in which intense light breaks electronic symmetries of a two-dimensional Dirac material. The resulting quasienergy structures may then differ for different valleys, so that the Floquet physics of the system can be exploited to produce highly polarized valley currents. This physics can be utilized to realize a valley valve whose behavior is determined optically. We propose a concrete way to achieve such valleytronics in graphene as well as in a simple model of an inversion-symmetry broken Dirac material. We study the effect numerically and demonstrate its robustness against moderate disorder and small deviations in optical parameters.
Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking
Demir, D.A. [Izmir Institute of Technology, IZTECH, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Physics]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Everett, L.L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States), Dept. of Physics; Langacker, P. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences
2007-12-15
We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1){sup '}), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)
Dirac Gauginos in Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking
Goodsell, Mark D
2014-01-01
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy -- with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking
Goodsell, Mark D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Tziveloglou, Pantelis, E-mail: pantelis.tziveloglou@vub.ac.be [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium)
2014-12-15
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Chiral scars in chaotic Dirac fermion systems.
Xu, Hongya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2013-02-08
Do relativistic quantum scars in classically chaotic systems possess unique features that are not shared by nonrelativistic quantum scars? We report a class of relativistic quantum scars in massless Dirac fermion systems whose phases return to the original values or acquire a 2π change only after circulating twice about some classical unstable periodic orbits. We name such scars chiral scars, the successful identification of which has been facilitated tremendously by our development of an analytic, conformal-mapping-based method to calculate an unprecedentedly large number of eigenstates with high accuracy. Our semiclassical theory indicates that the physical origin of chiral scars can be attributed to a combined effect of chirality intrinsic to massless Dirac fermions and the geometry of the underlying classical orbit.
BINARY NONLINEARIZATION FOR THE DIRAC SYSTEMS
MAWENXIU
1997-01-01
A Bargmann symmetry constraint is proposed for the Lax pairs and the adjoint Lax pairs of the Dirac systems. It is shown that the spatial part of the nonlinearized Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs is a finite dimensional Linuville integrable Hamiltonian system and that under the control of the spatial part, the time parts of the nonlinearized Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs are interpreted as a hierarchy of commutative, finite dimensional Linuville integrable Hamiltoian systems whose Hamiltonian functions consist of a series of integrals of motion for the spatial part. Moreover an invaiutive representation of solutions of the Dirac systems exhibits their integrability by quadratures. This kind of symmetry constraint procedure involving thespectral problem and the adjoint spectral problem is referred to as a binary nonlinearization technique like a binary Darhoux transformation.
Plexciton Dirac points and topological modes
Yuen-Zhou, Joel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Saikin, Semion K. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Kazan Federal Univ. (Russia); Zhu, Tony [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Onbasli, Mehmet C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ross, Caroline A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bulovic, Vladimir [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baldo, Marc A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2016-06-09
Plexcitons are polaritonic modes that result from the strong coupling between excitons and plasmons. Here, we consider plexcitons emerging from the interaction of excitons in an organic molecular layer with surface plasmons in a metallic film. We predict the emergence of Dirac cones in the two-dimensional band-structure of plexcitons due to the inherent alignment of the excitonic transitions in the organic layer. An external magnetic field opens a gap between the Dirac cones if the plexciton system is interfaced with a magneto-optical layer. The resulting energy gap becomes populated with topologically protected one-way modes, which travel at the interface of this plexcitonic system. Our theoretical proposal suggests that plexcitons are a convenient and simple platform for the exploration of exotic phases of matter and for the control of energy flow at the nanoscale.
LHCb: Pilot Framework and the DIRAC WMS
Graciani, R; Casajus, A
2009-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, pilot jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach. Details of the implementation and the security aspects of this framework will be discussed.
Thermometry for Dirac fermions in graphene
Liu, Fan-Hung; Hsu, Chang-Shun; Lo, Shun-Tsung [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); and others
2015-01-15
We use both the zero-magnetic-field resistivity and the phase coherence time determined by weak localization as independent thermometers for Dirac fermions (DF) in multilayer graphene. In the high current (I) region, there exists a simple power law T{sub DF} ∼ I{sup ∼0.5}, where T{sub DF} is the effective Dirac fermion temperature for epitaxial graphene on SiC. In contrast, T{sub DF} ∼ I{sup ∼1} in exfoliated multilayer graphene. We discuss possible reasons for the different power laws observed in these multilayer graphene systems. Our experimental results on DF-phonon scattering may find applications in graphene-based nanoelectronics.
Dirac Geometry of the Holonomy Fibration
Cabrera, Alejandro; Meinrenken, Eckhard
2015-01-01
In this paper, we solve the problem of giving a gauge-theoretic description of the natural Dirac structure on a Lie Group which plays a prominent role in the theory of D- branes for the Wess-Zumino-Witten model as well as the theory of quasi-Hamiltonian spaces. We describe the structure as an infinite-dimensional reduction of the space of connections over the circle. Our insight is that the formal Poisson structure on the space of connections is not an actual Poisson structure, but is itself a Dirac structure, due to the fact that it is defined by an unbounded operator. We also develop general tools for reducing Courant algebroids and morphisms between them, allowing us to give a precise correspondence between Hamiltonian loop group spaces and quasi- Hamiltonian spaces.
Classical behaviour of the Dirac bispinor
Bell, S B M; Díaz, B M; Bell, Sarah B. M.; Cullerne, John P.; Diaz, Bernard M.
2000-01-01
It is usually supposed that the Dirac and radiation equations predict that the phase of a fermion will rotate through half the angle through which the fermion is rotated, which means, via the measured dynamical and geometrical phase factors, that the fermion must have a half-integral spin. We demonstrate that this is not the case and that the identical relativistic quantum mechanics can also be derived with the phase of the fermion rotating through the same angle as does the fermion itself. Under spatial rotation and Lorentz transformation the bispinor transforms as a four-vector like the potential and Dirac current. Previous attempts to provide this form of transformational behaviour have foundered because a satisfactory current could not be derived.(14)
Octonion generalization of Pauli and Dirac matrices
Chanyal, B. C.
2015-10-01
Starting with octonion algebra and its 4 × 4 matrix representation, we have made an attempt to write the extension of Pauli's matrices in terms of division algebra (octonion). The octonion generalization of Pauli's matrices shows the counterpart of Pauli's spin and isospin matrices. In this paper, we also have obtained the relationship between Clifford algebras and the division algebras, i.e. a relation between octonion basis elements with Dirac (gamma), Weyl and Majorana representations. The division algebra structure leads to nice representations of the corresponding Clifford algebras. We have made an attempt to investigate the octonion formulation of Dirac wave equations, conserved current and weak isospin in simple, compact, consistent and manifestly covariant manner.
Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation
Gerritsma, R; Zähringer, F; Solano, E; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2009-01-01
The Dirac equation is a cornerstone in the history of physics, merging successfully quantum mechanics with special relativity, providing a natural description of the electron spin and predicting the existence of anti-matter. Furthermore, it is able to reproduce accurately the spectrum of the hydrogen atom and its realm, relativistic quantum mechanics, is considered as the natural transition to quantum field theory. However, the Dirac equation also predicts some peculiar effects such as Klein's paradox and Zitterbewegung, an unexpected quivering motion of a free relativistic quantum particle first examined by Schr\\"odinger. These and other predictions would be difficult to observe in real particles, while constituting key fundamental examples to understand relativistic quantum effects. Recent years have seen an increased interest in simulations of relativistic quantum effects in different physical setups, where parameter tunability allows accessibility to different physical regimes. Here, we perform a proof-of...
Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron
Lanyi, G.
1973-01-01
A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.
Dirac particle in a pseudoscalar potential
Moreno, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico), D.F.; Zentella-Dehesa, A. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Intituto de Quimica, UNAM Ap. Postal 70-213, 04510 (Mexico), D.F.
1996-02-01
We study the problem of a Dirac particle with a pseudoscalar interaction in the potential approximation. It is shown how nonperturbative relativistic solutions arise. The case of the central pseudoscalar potential is explicitly worked out also in a closed form. The angular functions are worked out in general for this central case. Finally for the special case of the spherical well the radial solutions are shown to behave like Bessel-type functions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Gauge Identities and the Dirac Conjecture
Rothe, Heinz J.; Rothe, Klaus D.
2004-01-01
The gauge symmetries of a general dynamical system can be systematically obtained following either a Hamiltonean or a Lagrangean approach. In the former case, these symmetries are generated, according to Dirac's conjecture, by the first class constraints. In the latter approach such local symmetries are reflected in the existence of so called gauge identities. The connection between the two becomes apparent, if one works with a first order Lagrangean formulation. Our analysis applies to purel...
Dynamical seesaw mechanism for Dirac neutrinos
José W.F. Valle
2016-04-01
Full Text Available So far we have not been able to establish that, as theoretically expected, neutrinos are their own anti-particles. Here we propose a dynamical way to account for the Dirac nature of neutrinos and the smallness of their mass in terms of a new variant of the seesaw paradigm in which the energy scale of neutrino mass generation could be accessible to the current LHC experiments.
Dirac particles in a gravitational field
Gosselin, Pierre [UFR de Mathematiques, Universite Grenoble I, BP74, Institut Fourier, UMR 5582 CNRS-UJF, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Mohrbach, Herve [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Groupe BioPhysStat, ICPMB-FR CNRS 2843, Metz Cedex 3 (France)
2011-09-15
The semiclassical approximation for the Hamiltonian of Dirac particles interacting with an arbitrary gravitational field is investigated. The time dependence of the metric leads to new contributions to the in-band energy operator in comparison to previous works in the static case. In particular we find a new coupling term between the linear momentum and the spin, as well as couplings that contribute to the breaking of the particle-antiparticle symmetry. (orig.)
Quantum logic gates from Dirac quasiparticles
Marino, E. C.; Brozeguini, J. C.
2015-03-01
We show that one of the fundamental operations of topological quantum computation, namely the non-Abelian braiding of identical particles, can be physically realized in a general system of Dirac quasiparticles in 1 + 1D. Our method is based on the study of the analytic structure of the different Euclidean correlation functions of Dirac fields, which are conveniently expressed as functions of a complex variable. When the Dirac field is an (Abelian) anyon with statistics parameter s (2s not an integer), we show that the associated Majorana states of such a field present non-Abelian statistics. The explicit form of the unitary, non-commuting (monodromy) matrices generated upon braiding is derived as a function of s and is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra. For the special case of s = 1/4, we show that the braiding matrices become the logic gates NOT, CNOT,… required in the algorithms of universal quantum computation. We suggest that maybe polyacetylene, alternately doped with alkali and halogen atoms, is a potential candidate for a physical material realization of the system studied here.
Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials
Salehi, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, S.A., E-mail: jafari@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Complex Systems and Condensed Matter (CSCM), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-08-15
Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.
Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene
Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro
2015-12-01
Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases.
Pseudospin symmetry in the Dirac phenomenology
Marcos, S.; Niembro, R. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Santander (Spain); Lopez-Quelle, M. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Santander (Spain); Savushkin, L.N. [St. Petersburg University for Telecommunications, Department of Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2007-12-15
In the phenomenological relativistic framework of the Dirac equation for spherical nuclei, we use different kinds of single-particle central potentials ({sigma}{sub S}+{sigma}{sub 0}) to investigate certain aspects of the spin and pseudospin (PS) symmetries. Neither the splitting of PS doublets (PSDs) nor the similarity of the radial parts of the small components (F/r) of the corresponding Dirac spinors have been found related with the magnitude of {sigma}{sub S}+{sigma}{sub 0}, in the sense predicted by several authors in the last decade. This conclusion is shown to be valid, in particular, for a potential of Coulomb type. We give a simple explanation for the strong correlation established in the relativistic calculations between the similarity of the radial parts of the big (small) components of the Dirac spinors of two spin (pseudospin) partners and the number of their nodes. The direct effects of the so-called PS symmetry-breaking term (and its singularity point) on the F functions of the PSDs are also analysed. (orig.)
The Solution of Dirac Equation in Quasi-Extreme REISSNER-NORDSTRÖM de Sitter Space
Lyu, Yan; Cui, Song; Liu, Ling
The radial parts of Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon in quasi-extreme Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) geometry is solved numerically. We use an accurate polynomial approximation to mimic the modified tortoise coordinate hat r*(r), for obtaining the inverse function r=r(hat r*) and V=V(hat r*). We then use a quantum mechanical method to solve the wave equation and give the reflection and transmission coefficients. We concentrate on two limiting cases. The first case is when the two horizons are close to each other, and the second case is when the horizons are far apart.
Dirac Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac Operator for QCD with Two Colors
Kieburg, Mario; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2015-01-01
We study the lattice artefacts of the Wilson Dirac operator for QCD with two colors and fermions in the fundamental representation from the viewpoint of chiral perturbation theory. These effects are studied with the help of the following spectral observables: the level density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator, the distribution of chirality over the real eigenvalues, and the chiral condensate for the quenched as well as for the unquenched theory. We provide analytical expressions for all these quantities. Moreover we derive constraints for the level density of the real eigenvalues of the non-Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator and the number of additional real modes. The latter is a good measure for the strength of lattice artefacts. All computations are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations of the corresponding random matrix theory which agrees with chiral perturbation theory of two color QCD with Wilson fermions.
Tunable multiple layered Dirac cones in optical lattices.
Lan, Z; Celi, A; Lu, W; Öhberg, P; Lewenstein, M
2011-12-16
We show that multiple layered Dirac cones can emerge in the band structure of properly addressed multicomponent cold fermionic gases in optical lattices. The layered Dirac cones contain multiple copies of massless spin-1/2 Dirac fermions at the same location in momentum space, whose different Fermi velocity can be tuned at will. On-site microwave Raman transitions can further be used to mix the different Dirac species, resulting in either splitting of or preserving the Dirac point (depending on the symmetry of the on-site term). The tunability of the multiple layered Dirac cones allows us to simulate a number of fundamental phenomena in modern physics, such as neutrino oscillations and exotic particle dispersions with E~p(N) for arbitrary integer N.
Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals
Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid
2017-07-01
The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, M A3 (M =V , Nb, Ta; A =Al , Ga, In). We show that the VAl3 family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl3 is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.
Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator at finite lattice spacings
Akemann, G.; Damgaard, Poul Henrik; Splittorff, Kim;
2011-01-01
We consider the effect of discretization errors on the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator using both chiral Perturbation Theory and chiral Random Matrix Theory. A graded chiral Lagrangian is used to evaluate the microscopic spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator...... as well as the distribution of the chirality over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator. It is shown that a chiral Random Matrix Theory for the Wilson Dirac operator reproduces the leading zero-momentum terms of Wilson chiral Perturbation Theory. All results are obtained for fixed index...... of the Wilson Dirac operator. The low-energy constants of Wilson chiral Perturbation theory are shown to be constrained by the Hermiticity properties of the Wilson Dirac operator....
Pseudo-Dirac dark matter leaves a trace.
De Simone, Andrea; Sanz, Veronica; Sato, Hiromitsu Phil
2010-09-17
Pseudo-Dirac dark matter is a viable type of dark matter which originates from a new Dirac fermion whose two Weyl states get slightly split in mass by a small Majorana term. The decay of the heavier to the lighter state naturally occurs over a detectable length scale. Thus, whenever pseudo-Dirac dark matter is produced in a collider, it leaves a clear trace: a visible displaced vertex in association with missing energy. Moreover, pseudo-Dirac dark matter behaves Dirac-like for relic abundance and Majorana-like in direct detection experiments. We provide a general effective field theory treatment, specializing to a pseudo-Dirac bino. The dark matter mass and the mass splitting can be extracted from measurements of the decay length and the invariant mass of the products, even in the presence of missing energy.
DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb
Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Garonne, V; Witek, M; Romanovski, V; Egede, U; Vagnoni, V; Korolko, I; Blouw, J; Kuznetsov, G; Patrick, G; Gandelman, M; Graciani-Diaz, R; Bernet, R; Brook, N; Pickford, A; Tobin, M; Saroka, A; Stokes-Rees, I; Saborido-Silva, J; Sanchez-Garcia, M
2004-09-30
DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for Monte Carlo (MC) production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the CERN/ARDA-RTAG proposal, which should allow for the interchange of the EGEE/gLite and DIRAC components. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC architecture, as well as the main design choices in its implementation. The light nature and modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new types of tasks. The DIRAC system already uses different types of computing resources - from single PC's to a variety of batch systems and to the Grid environment. In particular, the DIRAC interface to the LCG2 grid will be presented.
DIRAC The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb
Bernet, R; Brook, N; Charpentier, P; Closier, J; Egede, U; Frank, M; Gandelman, M; Garonne, V; Graciani-Díaz, R; Korolko, I; Kuznetsov, G; Patrick, G; Pickford, A; Romanovski, V G; Saborido-Silva, J J; Sánchez-García, M; Saroka, A; Stokes-Rees, I; Tobin, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Vagnoni, V; Witek, M
2005-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the CERN/ARDA-RTAG proposal, which can eventually make possible the interchange of the EGEE/gLite and DIRAC components. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC architecture, as well as the main design choices in its implementation. The light nature and modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new types of tasks. The DIRAC system already uses different types of computing resources - from single PC's to a variety of batch systems and to the Grid environment. In particular, the DIRAC interface to the LCG2 grid will be presented.
Domènech, Guillem
2016-01-01
From higher dimensional theories, e.g. string theory, one expects the presence of non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We review the notion of conformal frames in cosmology and emphasize their physical equivalence, which holds at least at a classical level. Furthermore, if there is a field, or fields, which dominates the universe, as it is often the case in cosmology, we can use such notion of frames to treat our system, matter and gravity, as two different sectors. On one hand, the gravity sector which describes the dynamics of the geometry and on the other hand the matter sector which has such geometry as a playground. We use this interpretation to build a model where the fact that a curvaton couples to a particular frame metric could leave an imprint in the CMB.
Relativistic Fractal Cosmologies
Ribeiro, Marcelo B
2009-01-01
This article reviews an approach for constructing a simple relativistic fractal cosmology whose main aim is to model the observed inhomogeneities of the distribution of galaxies by means of the Lemaitre-Tolman solution of Einstein's field equations for spherically symmetric dust in comoving coordinates. This model is based on earlier works developed by L. Pietronero and J.R. Wertz on Newtonian cosmology, whose main points are discussed. Observational relations in this spacetime are presented, together with a strategy for finding numerical solutions which approximate an averaged and smoothed out single fractal structure in the past light cone. Such fractal solutions are shown, with one of them being in agreement with some basic observational constraints, including the decay of the average density with the distance as a power law (the de Vaucouleurs' density power law) and the fractal dimension in the range 1 <= D <= 2. The spatially homogeneous Friedmann model is discussed as a special case of the Lemait...
Wormholes in viscous cosmology
Wang, Deng
2016-01-01
We study the wormhole spacetime configurations in bulk viscosity cosmology. Considering three classes of viscous models, i.e., bulk viscosity as a function of Hubble parameter $H$, temperature $T$ and dark energy density $\\rho$, respectively, we obtain nine wormhole solutions. Through the analysis for the anisotropic solutions, we conclude that, to some extent, these three classes of viscous models have very high degeneracy with each other. Subsequently, without the loss of generality, to investigate the traversabilities, energy conditions and stability for the wormhole solution, we study the wormhole solution of the constant redshift function of the viscous $\\omega$CDM model with a constant bulk viscosity coefficient. We obtain the following conclusions: the value of traversal velocity decreases for decreasing bulk viscosity, and the traversal velocity for a traveler depends on not only the wormhole geometry but also the effects of cosmological background evolution; the null energy condition will be violated...
Rich, James
2009-01-01
The book is aimed at astrophysics students and professional physicists who wish to understand the basics of cosmology and general relativity as well as the observational foundations of the LambdaCDM model of the Universe. The book provides a self-contained introduction to general relativity that is based on the homogeneity and isotropy of the local universe. The simplicity of this space allows general relativity to be presented in a very elementary manner while laying the foundation for the treatment of more complicated problems. The new edition presents the most recent observations, including those of CMB anisotropies by WMAP and of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations by SDSS. Future observational and theoretical challenges for the understanding of dark energy and dark matter are discussed. From 1st edition reviews: "The book provides a comprehensive and thorough explication of current cosmology at a level appropriate for a beginning graduate student or an advanced and motivated undergraduate. ... This is an extrem...
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.
Integrable Cosmological Potentials
Sokolov, V V
2016-01-01
The problem of classification of the Einstein--Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians $H$ with a single scalar inflaton field $\\varphi$ that possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint $H=0$ is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of first, second, and third degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential $V(\\varphi)$. In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in a parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.
2016-08-01
The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).
The Cosmological Memory Effect
Tolish, Alexander
2016-01-01
The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of $(1 + z)$.
Holography from quantum cosmology
Rashki, M
2014-01-01
The Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of deformation quantization is applied to the closed Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological model. We show that the phase space average for the surface of the apparent horizon is quantized in units of the Planck's surface, and that the total entropy of the universe is also quantized. Taking into account these two concepts, it is shown that 't Hooft conjecture on the cosmological holographic principle (CHP) in radiation and dust dominated quantum universes is satisfied as a manifestation of quantization. This suggests that the entire universe (not only inside the apparent horizon) can be seen as a two-dimensional information structure encoded on the apparent horizon.
Steinhardt, Paul Joseph
1995-01-01
Observational tests during the next decade may determine if the evolution of the Universe can be understood from fundamental physical principles, or if special initial conditions, coincidences, and new, untestable physical laws must be invoked. The inflationary model of the Universe is an important example of a predictive cosmological theory based on physical principles. In this talk, we discuss the distinctive fingerprint that inflation leaves on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. We then suggest a series of five milestone experimental tests of the microwave background which could determine the validity of the inflationary hypothesis within the next decade. The paper is a Review based on a Plenary talk given at the Snowmass Workshop on Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 1995 It will appear in the Proceedings edited by E. Kolb and R.Peccei. Software package for computing filter functions and band power estimates available thru world-wide-web at http://dept.physics.upenn.edu/~www/as tro-cosmo/ .
Kadota, K; Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.
2003-01-01
We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.
Cosmological extrapolation of MOND
Kiselev, V V
2011-01-01
Regime of MOND, which is used in astronomy to describe the gravitating systems of island type without the need to postulate the existence of a hypothetical dark matter, is generalized to the case of homogeneous distribution of usual matter by introducing a linear dependence of the critical acceleration on the size of region under consideration. We show that such the extrapolation of MOND in cosmology is consistent with both the observed dependence of brightness on the redshift for type Ia supernovae and the parameters of large-scale structure of Universe in the evolution, that is determined by the presence of a cosmological constant, the ordinary matter of baryons and electrons as well as the photon and neutrino radiation without any dark matter.
An Improved Cosmological Model
Tsamis, N C
2016-01-01
We study a class of non-local, action-based, and purely gravitational models. These models seek to describe a cosmology in which inflation is driven by a large, bare cosmological constant that is screened by the self-gravitation between the soft gravitons that inflation rips from the vacuum. Inflation ends with the universe poised on the verge of gravitational collapse, in an oscillating phase of expansion and contraction that should lead to rapid reheating when matter is included. After the attainment of a hot, dense universe the nonlocal screening terms become constant as the universe evolves through a conventional phase of radiation domination. The onset of matter domination triggers a much smaller anti-screening effect that could explain the current phase of acceleration.
Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
2016-08-01
We study a class of nonlocal, action-based, and purely gravitational models. These models seek to describe a cosmology in which inflation is driven by a large, bare cosmological constant that is screened by the self-gravitation between the soft gravitons that inflation rips from the vacuum. Inflation ends with the Universe poised on the verge of gravitational collapse, in an oscillating phase of expansion and contraction that should lead to rapid reheating when matter is included. After the attainment of a hot, dense Universe the nonlocal screening terms become constant as the Universe evolves through a conventional phase of radiation domination. The onset of matter domination triggers a much smaller antiscreening effect that could explain the current phase of acceleration.
Merritt, David
2017-02-01
I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are "conventionalist" in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift' in the language of Imre Lakatos. I show that the 'concordance' argument, often put forward by cosmologists in support of the current paradigm, is weaker than the convergence arguments that were made in the past in support of the atomic theory of matter or the quantization of energy.
Integrable cosmological potentials
Sokolov, V. V.; Sorin, A. S.
2017-05-01
The problem of classification of the Einstein-Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians H with a single scalar inflaton field φ, which possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint H=0 , is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the first-, second- and third-degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential V(φ) . In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described, and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.
Dirac Neutrinos and Dark Matter Stability from Lepton Quarticity
Chuliá, Salvador Centelles; Srivastava, Rahul; Valle, José W F
2016-01-01
We propose to relate dark matter stability to the possible Dirac nature of neutrinos. The idea is illustrated in a simple scheme where small Dirac neutrino masses arise from a type--I seesaw mechanism as a result of a $Z_4$ discrete lepton number symmetry. The latter implies the existence of a viable WIMP dark matter candidate, whose stability arises from the same symmetry which ensures the Diracness of neutrinos.
Integrated optical Dirac physics via inversion symmetry breaking
Collins, Matthew J.; Zhang, Fan; Bojko, Richard; Chrostowski, Lukas; Rechtsman, Mikael C.
2016-12-01
Graphene and boron nitride are two-dimensional materials whose atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice. Their unique properties arise because their electrons behave like relativistic particles (without and with mass, respectively)—namely, they obey the Dirac equation. Here, we use a photonic analog of boron nitride to observe Dirac physics in a silicon integrated optical platform. This will allow for photonic applications of Dirac dispersions (gapped and ungapped) to be realized in an on-chip, integrated nanophotonic platform.
The GridPP DIRAC project: Implementation of a multi-VO DIRAC service
Bauer, D.; Colling, D.; Currie, R.; Fayer, S.; Huffman, A.; Martyniak, J.; Rand, D.; Richards, A.
2015-12-01
The GridPP consortium provides computing support to many high energy physics projects in the UK. As part of this GridPP offers access to a large amount of highly distributed resources across the UK for multiple collaborations. The userbase supported by GridPP includes hundreds of users spanning multiple virtual organisations with many different computing requirements. In order to provide a common interface to these distributed a centralised DIRAC instance has been setup at Imperial College London. This paper describes the experiences learnt from deploying this DIRAC instance and the modifications that have made to support the GridPP use case.
Noncommutative Quantum Cosmology
García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C
2001-01-01
We propose a model for noncommutative quantum cosmology by means of a deformation of minisuperspace. For the Kantowski-Sachs metric we are able to find the exact solution to the deformed Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We construct wave packets and show that noncommutativity could remarkably modify the quantum behavior of the universe. We discuss the relation with space-time noncommutativity and exhibit a program to search for the influence of noncommutativity at early times in the universe.
The Cosmological Memory Effect
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.
2016-01-01
The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to m...
Cosmology and astrophysics 1992
Krauss, L M
1992-01-01
I review recent developments in cosmology and astrophysics relevant to particle physics, focussing on the following questions: What's new in 1992? What have we learned since the last ICHEP meeting in 1990? and What are the prospects for the future? AMong the topics explicitly discussed are: COBE, Large Scale Structure, and Dark Matter; Bib Bang Nucleosynthesis; the Solar Neutrino Problem; and High Energy Gamma Ray PHysics.
Vidotto, Francesca
2015-01-01
The application of quantum theory to cosmology raises a number of conceptual questions, such as the role of the quantum-mechanical notion of "observer" or the absence of a time variable in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. I point out that a relational formulation of quantum mechanics, and more in general the observation that evolution is always relational, provides a coherent solution to this tangle of problems.
String Scale Cosmological Constant
Chalmers, Gordon
2006-01-01
The cosmological constant is an unexplained until now phenomena of nature that requires an explanation through string effects. The apparent discrepancy between theory and experiment is enourmous and has already been explained several times by the author including mechanisms. In this work the string theory theory of abolished string modes is documented and given perturbatively to all loop orders. The holographic underpinning is also exposed. The matching with the data of the LIGO and D0 experi...
Revisiting Cosmological parameter estimation
Prasad, Jayanti
2014-01-01
Constraining theoretical models with measuring the parameters of those from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data is one of the most active areas in cosmology. WMAP, Planck and other recent experiments have shown that the six parameters standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model still best fits the data. Bayesian methods based on Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling have been playing leading role in parameter estimation from CMB data. In one of the recent studies \\cite{2012PhRvD..85l3008P} we have shown that particle swarm optimization (PSO) which is a population based search procedure can also be effectively used to find the cosmological parameters which are best fit to the WMAP seven year data. In the present work we show that PSO not only can find the best-fit point, it can also sample the parameter space quite effectively, to the extent that we can use the same analysis pipeline to process PSO sampled points which is used to process the points sampled by Markov Chains, and get consistent res...
Gelmini, Graciela B
1996-01-01
Talks given at the V Taller de Particulas y Campos (V-TPyC) and V Taller Latinoam. de Fenomenologia de las Interac. Fundam. (V-TLFIF), Puebla, Mexico, 10/30 - 11/3 1995. These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighbourhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure format...
Einstein's cosmological considerations
Janzen, Daryl
2014-01-01
The objective of this paper is not simply to present an historical overview of Einstein's cosmological considerations, but to discuss the central role they played in shaping the paradigm of relativistic cosmology. This, we'll show, was a result of both his actions and, perhaps more importantly, his inactions. Accordingly, discussion won't simply be restricted to Einstein's considerations, as we'll analyse relevant contributions to the relativistic expansion paradigm during the approximately twenty years following Slipher's first redshift measurements in 1912. Our aim is to shed some light on why we think some of the things we do, with the idea that a better understanding of the reasoning that fundamentally influenced the common idea of our expanding universe might help to resolve some of the significant problems that modern cosmology now faces; and we eventually use this knowledge to probe the foundations of the standard model. Much of the information we present, including many of the historical details, we e...
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
Symmetries of homogeneous cosmologies
Cotsakis, S; Pantazi, H; Cotsakis, Spiros; Leach, Peter; Pantazi, Hara
1998-01-01
We reformulate the dynamics of homogeneous cosmologies with a scalar field matter source with an arbitrary self-interaction potential in the language of jet bundles and extensions of vector fields. In this framework, the Bianchi-scalar field equations become subsets of the second Bianchi jet bundle, $J^2$, and every Bianchi cosmology is naturally extended to live on a variety of $J^2$. We are interested in the existence and behaviour of extensions of arbitrary Bianchi-Lie and variational vector fields acting on the Bianchi variety and accordingly we classify all such vector fields corresponding to both Bianchi classes $A$ and $B$. We give examples of functions defined on Bianchi jet bundles which are constant along some Bianchi models (first integrals) and use these to find particular solutions in the Bianchi total space. We discuss how our approach could be used to shed new light to questions like isotropization and the nature of singularities of homogeneous cosmologies by examining the behaviour of the vari...
The screening Horndeski cosmologies
Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.
2016-06-01
We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing ``the emergence of time''. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.
Magueijo, Joao; Kibble, T W B
2013-01-01
Using the chiral representation for spinors we present a particularly transparent way to generate the most general spinor dynamics in a theory where gravity is ruled by the Einstein-Cartan-Holst action. In such theories torsion need not vanish, but it can be re-interpreted as a 4-fermion self-interaction within a torsion-free theory. The self-interaction may or may not break parity invariance, and may contribute positively or negatively to the energy density, depending on the couplings considered. We then examine cosmological models ruled by a spinorial field within this theory. We find that while there are cases for which no significant cosmological novelties emerge, the self-interaction can also turn a mass potential into an upside-down Mexican hat potential. Then, as a general rule, the model leads to cosmologies with a bounce, for which there is a maximal energy density, and where the cosmic singularity has been removed. These solutions are stable, and range from the very simple to the very complex.
Unpaired Dirac cones in photonic lattices and networks (Conference Presentation)
Chong, Yidong; Leykam, Daniel; Rechtsman, Mikael C.
2016-09-01
Unpaired Dirac cones are bandstructures with two bands crossing at a single point in the Brillouin zone. It is known that photonic bandstructures can exhibit pairs of Dirac cones, similar to graphene; unpaired cones, however, have not observed in photonics, and have been observed in condensed-matter systems only among topological insulator surface states. We show that unpaired Dirac cones occur in a 2D photonic lattice that is not the surface of a 3D system. These modes have unusual properties, including conical diffraction and antilocalization immune to short-range disorder, due to the absence of "intervalley" scattering between Dirac cones.
Orbital magnetization of interacting Dirac fermions in graphene
Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ting, C. S.
2017-09-01
We present a formalism to calculate the orbital magnetization of interacting Dirac fermions under a magnetic field. In this approach, the divergence difficulty is overcome with a special limit of the derivative of the thermodynamic potential with respect to the magnetic field. The formalism satisfies the particle-hole symmetry of the Dirac fermions system. We apply the formalism to the interacting Dirac fermions in graphene. The charge and spin orderings and the exchange interactions between all the Landau levels are taken into account by the mean-field theory. The results for the orbital magnetization of interacting Dirac fermions are compared with that of noninteracting cases.
Canonical conjugated Dirac equation in a curved space
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir
2012-01-01
It is shown that the calculation of Dirac operator for the spherical coordinate system with spherical Dirac matrices and using the spin connection formalism is in the contradiction with the definition of standard Dirac operator in the spherical Minkowski coordinate system. It is shown that such contradiction one can avoid by introducing a canonical conjugated covariant derivative for the spinor field. The Dirac equation solution on the Reissner - Nordstr\\"om background is obtained. The solution describes a bound state of a charged particle.
Scientific Realism and Primordial Cosmology
Azhar, Feraz
2016-01-01
We discuss scientific realism from the perspective of modern cosmology, especially primordial cosmology: i.e. the cosmological investigation of the very early universe. We first (Section 2) state our allegiance to scientific realism, and discuss what insights about it cosmology might yield, as against "just" supplying scientific claims that philosophers can then evaluate. In particular, we discuss: the idea of laws of cosmology, and limitations on ascertaining the global structure of spacetime. Then we review some of what is now known about the early universe (Section 3): meaning, roughly, from a thousandth of a second after the Big Bang onwards(!). The rest of the paper takes up two issues about primordial cosmology, i.e. the very early universe, where "very early" means, roughly, much earlier (logarithmically) than one second after the Big Bang: say, less than $10^{-11}$ seconds. Both issues illustrate that familiar philosophical threat to scientific realism, the under-determination of theory by data---on a...
Double Field Theory Inspired Cosmology
Wu, Houwen
2014-01-01
Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We find two sets of solutions in double field theory cosmology, respecting or violating the strong (weak) constraint. Both sets of solutions naturally contain the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. This novel feature opens a window for possible resolution of the cosmic amnesia. We also demonstrate that the scale factor duality in the standard string cosmology is nothing but the T-duality in double field theory. The scale dual dilatons in the standard string cosmology is simply the usual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\phi$ and dual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\tilde\\phi$ in double field theory. Furthermore, we identify the "sh...
Loop Quantum Cosmology Gravitational Baryogenesis
Odintsov, S D
2016-01-01
Loop Quantum Cosmology is an appealing quantum completion of classical cosmology, which brings along various theoretical features which in many cases offer remedy or modify various classical cosmology aspects. In this paper we address the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism in the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology. As we demonstrate, when Loop Quantum Cosmology effects are taken into account in the resulting Friedmann equations for a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, then even for a radiation dominated Universe, the predicted baryon-to-entropy ratio from the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism is non-zero, in contrast to the Einstein-Hilbert case, in which case the baryon-to-entropy ratio is zero. We also discuss various other cases apart from the radiation domination case, and we discuss how the baryon-to-entropy ratio is affected from the parameters of the quantum theory. In addition, we use illustrative exact solutions of Loop Quantum Cosmology and we investigate under which circumstances the bar...
Daudé, Thierry
2017-01-01
In this paper, the authors study the direct and inverse scattering theory at fixed energy for massless charged Dirac fields evolving in the exterior region of a Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black hole. In the first part, they establish the existence and asymptotic completeness of time-dependent wave operators associated to our Dirac fields. This leads to the definition of the time-dependent scattering operator that encodes the far-field behavior (with respect to a stationary observer) in the asymptotic regions of the black hole: the event and cosmological horizons. The authors also use the miraculous property (quoting Chandrasekhar)-that the Dirac equation can be separated into radial and angular ordinary differential equations-to make the link between the time-dependent scattering operator and its stationary counterpart. This leads to a nice expression of the scattering matrix at fixed energy in terms of stationary solutions of the system of separated equations. In a second part, the authors use this expression of ...
Inflation and the cosmological constant
FENG Chaojun
2014-08-01
Full Text Available By assuming the cosmological “constant” is no longer a constant during the inflation epoch,it is found that the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem is solved.In the meanwhile,inflation models could predict a large tensor-to-scalar ratio,correct power spectral index and a larger running of it.Furthermore,the e-folding number is large enough to overcome the horizon,flatness problems in the Big Bang cosmology.
Brane and Nonisotropic Bianchi Cosmology
Naboulsi, R
2003-01-01
In this letter, we use Einstein field equations in the presence of gravitino cosmological density derived in a previous paper [1] to study a spatially honogenous, nonisotropic cosmological model, in particular the Bianchi IV model. We find a axisymmetric Universe, free of singularity in the past, asymptotically flat as time grows, and admit the presence of gravitino mass as missing energy and positive cosmological constant as Lambda > 3m^2.
Cosmological Black Holes on Branes
Rogatko, Marek
2003-01-01
We examined analytically a cosmological black hole domain wall system. Using the C-metric construction we derived the metric for the spacetime describing an infinitely thin domain wall intersecting a cosmological black hole. We studied the behaviour of the scalar field describing a self-interacting cosmological domain wall and find the approximated solution valid for large distances. The thin wall approximation and the back raection problem were elaborated finding that the topological kink so...
Quintessential Maldacena-Maoz Cosmologies
McInnes, Brett
2004-01-01
Maldacena and Maoz have proposed a new approach to holographic cosmology based on Euclidean manifolds with disconnected boundaries. This approach appears, however, to be in conflict with the known geometric results [the Witten-Yau theorem and its extensions] on spaces with boundaries of non-negative scalar curvature. We show precisely how the Maldacena-Maoz approach evades these theorems. We also exhibit Maldacena-Maoz cosmologies with [cosmologically] more natural matter content, namely quin...
THE DOUBLE COUPLING OF THE ASHTEKAR GRAVITATIONAL FIELD TO THE DIRAC SPINORAL FIELDS*
吴亚波; 桂元星
2001-01-01
By introducing the double spacetime manifold, the double gamma matrices and Dirac spinors, the action of theDirac spinoral fields is doubled. Furthermore, the double coupling of the Dirac fields to the Ashtekar gravitational fields is studied.
Moving mesh cosmology: tracing cosmological gas accretion
Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Keres, Dusan; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; 10.1093/mnras/sts595
2013-01-01
We investigate the nature of gas accretion onto haloes and galaxies at z=2 using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations run with the moving mesh code AREPO. Implementing a Monte Carlo tracer particle scheme to determine the origin and thermodynamic history of accreting gas, we make quantitative comparisons to an otherwise identical simulation run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3. Contrasting these two numerical approaches, we find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas in haloes above 10^10.5 solar masses. In agreement with previous work, GADGET simulations show a cold fraction near unity for galaxies forming in massive haloes, implying that only a small percentage of accreted gas heats to an appreciable fraction of the virial temperature during accretion. The same galaxies in AREPO show a much lower cold fraction, <20% in haloes above 10^11 solar masses. This results from a hot gas accretion rate which, at this same halo mass, is an order o...
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Maxim Khlopov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.
An introduction to modern cosmology
Liddle, Andrew
2015-01-01
An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation
$\\Psi$-Epistemic Quantum Cosmology?
Evans, Peter W; Thébault, Karim P Y
2016-01-01
This paper provides a prospectus for a new way of thinking about the wavefunction of the universe: a $\\Psi$-epistemic quantum cosmology. We present a proposal that, if successfully implemented, would resolve the cosmological measurement problem and simultaneously allow us to think sensibly about probability and evolution in quantum cosmology. Our analysis draws upon recent work on the problem of time in quantum gravity, upon causally-symmetric local hidden variable theories, and upon a dynamical origin for the cosmological arrow of time. Our conclusion weighs the strengths and weaknesses of the approach and points towards paths for future development.
Ostrogradski approach for the Regge-Teitelboim type cosmology
Cordero, Ruben; Rojas, Efrain
2009-01-01
We present an alternative geometric inspired derivation of the quantum cosmology arising from a brane universe in the context of {\\it geodetic gravity}. We set up the Regge-Teitelboim model to describe our universe, and we recover its original dynamics by thinking of such field theory as a second-order derivative theory. We refer to an Ostrogradski Hamiltonian formalism to prepare the system to its quantization. Our analysis highlights the second-order derivative nature of the RT model and the inherited geometrical aspect of the theory. A canonical transformation brings us to the internal physical geometry of the theory and induces its quantization straightforwardly. By using the Dirac canonical quantization method our approach comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints where the counting of degrees of freedom follows accordingly. At the quantum level our Wheeler-De Witt Wheeler equation agrees with previous results recently found. On these lines, we also comment upon the compatibili...
Galileons Coupled to Massive Gravity: General Analysis and Cosmological Solutions
Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Mukohyama, Shinji; Trodden, Mark
2014-01-01
We further develop the framework for coupling galileons and Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) scalar fields to a massive graviton while retaining both the non-linear symmetries of the scalars and ghost-freedom of the theory. The general construction is recast in terms of vielbeins which simplifies calculations and allows for compact expressions. Expressions for the general form of the action are derived, with special emphasis on those models which descend from maximally symmetric spaces. We demonstrate the existence of maximally symmetric solutions to the fully non-linear theory and analyze their spectrum of quadratic fluctuations. Finally, we consider self-accelerating cosmological solutions and study their perturbations, showing that the vector and scalar modes have vanishing kinetic terms.
Local moment formation in Dirac electrons
Mashkoori, M.; Mahyaeh, I.; Jafari, S. A.
2015-04-01
Elemental bismuth and its compounds host strong spin-orbit interaction which is at the heart of topologically non-trivial alloys based on bismuth. These class of materials are described in terms of 4x4 matrices at each v point where spin and orbital labels of the underlying electrons are mixed. In this work we investigate the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) within a mean field approximation to address the nature of local magnetic moment formation in a generic Dirac Hamiltonian. Despite the spin-mixing in the Hamiltonian, within the Hartree approximation it turns out that the impuritys Green function is diagonal in spin label. In the three dimensional Dirac materials defined over a bandwidth D and spin-orbit parameter γ, that hybridizes with impurity through V, a natural dimensionless parameter V2D/2πγ3 emerges. So neither the hybridization strength, V, nor the spin-orbit coupling γ, but a combination thereof governs the phase diagram. By tuning chemical potential and the impurity level, we present phase diagram for various values of Hubbard U. Numerical results suggest that strong spin-orbit coupling enhances the local moment formation both in terms of its strength and the area of the local moment region. In the case that we tune the chemical potential in a similar way as normal metal we find that magnetic region is confined to μ ≥ ε0, in sharp contrast to 2D Dirac fermions. If one fixes the chemical potential and tunes the impurity level, phase diagram has two magnetic regions which corresponds to hybridization of impurity level with lower and upper bands.
Dirac Phenomenology and Hyperon-Nucleus Interactions
J., MARES; B. K., JENNINGS; E. D., COOPER; Triumf, 4004 Wesbrook Mall; Department of Physics, University College of the Fraser Valley
1995-01-01
We discuss various aspects of hyperon-nucleus interactions in the relativistic mean field theory. First, characteristics of Λ, Σ and Ξ hypernuclei, as well as multi-strange baryonic objects, are investigated. The spin-orbit splittings and magnetic moments are shown to be very sensitive to the value of the tensor coupling f_. Second, optical potentials for Λ and Σ scattering off nuclei are developed based on a global nucleon-nucleus Dirac optical potential and SU(3) symmetry. The tensor coupli...
Dirac oscillator interacting with a topological defect
Carvalho, J.; Furtado, C.; Moraes, F. [Unidade Academica de Tecnologia de Alimentos, CCTA, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Pereiros, 58840-000, Pombal, Paraiba (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Cidade Universitaria, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2011-09-15
In this work we study the interaction problem of a Dirac oscillator with gravitational fields produced by topological defects. The energy levels of the relativistic oscillator in the cosmic string and in the cosmic dislocation space-times are sensible to curvature and torsion associated to these defects and are important evidence of the influence of the topology on this system. In the presence of a localized magnetic field the energy levels acquire a term associated with the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues and see that in the nonrelativistic limit some results known in standard quantum mechanics are reached.
Dirac operator normality and chiral properties
Kerler, W.
Normality and γ5-hermiticity are what gives rise to chiral properties and rules. The Ginsparg-Wilson (GW) relation is only one of the possible spectral constraints. The sum rule for chiral differences of real modes has important consequences. The alternative transformation of Lüscher gives the same Ward identity as the usual chiral one (if zero modes are properly treated). Imposing normality on a general function of the hermitean Wilson-Dirac operator H leads at same time to the GW relation and to the Neuberger operator.
Locality properties of Neuberger's lattice Dirac operator
Hernández, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lüscher, Martin
1999-07-01
The gauge covariant lattice Dirac operator D which has recently been proposed by Neuberger satisfies the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and thus preserves chiral symmetry. The operator also avoids a doubling of fermion species, but its locality properties are not obvious. We now prove that D is local (with exponentially decaying tails) if the gauge field is sufficiently smooth at the scale of the cutoff. Further analytic and numerical studies moreover suggest that the locality of the operator is in fact guaranteed under far more general conditions.
Dirac equation and the Melvin metric
Santos, L.C.N.; Barros, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Depto de Fisica-CFM, CP. 476, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)
2016-10-15
A relativistic wave equation for spin 1/2 particles in the Melvin space-time, a space-time where the metric is determined by a magnetic field, is obtained. The energy levels for these particles are obtained as functions of the magnetic field and compared with the ones calculated with the Dirac equation in the flat Minkowski space-time. The numeric values for some magnetic fields of interest are shown. With these results, the effects of very intense magnetic fields on the energy levels, as intense as the ones expected to be produced in magnetars or in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, are investigated. (orig.)
Third level trigger of the DIRAC experiment
Gallas-Torreira, M V
2002-01-01
A fast and complete programmable high level trigger processor for the DIRAC experiment at CERN was designed and arranged based on state-of- art field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. The implemented logic was created from Monte Carlo simulation results and further checked with real experimental data. Correspondence between desired and implemented logic was proved previously by use of a complete digital pattern generator built also with FPGA technology. The resulting trigger processor provides a selection of charged particle pairs with a small relative momentum. (9 refs).
Dirac gauginos in general gauge mediation
Benakli, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boite 126, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: kbenakli@lpthe.jussieu.fr; Goodsell, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boite 126, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr
2009-07-21
We extend the formulation by Meade, Seiberg and Shih of general gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking to include Dirac masses for the gauginos. These appear through mixing of the visible sector gauginos with additional states in adjoint representations. We illustrate the method by reproducing the existing results in the literature for the gaugino and sfermion masses when preserving R-symmetry. We then explain how the generation of same sign masses for the two propagating degrees of freedom in the adjoint scalars can be achieved. We end by commenting on the use of the formalism for describing U(1) mixing.
Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification
Benakli, K., E-mail: kbenakli@lpthe.jussieu.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Boite 126, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Goodsell, M.D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)
2010-11-21
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.
Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification
Benakli, K. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS; Goodsell, M.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-03-15
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)
Natural Dirac Neutrinos from Warped Extra Dimension
Wu, Jackson M S
2010-01-01
Dirac neutrinos arising from gauged discrete symmetry \\`a la Krauss-Wilczek are implemented in the minimal custodial Randall-Sundrum model. In the case of a normal hierarchy, all lepton masses and mixing pattern can be naturally reproduced at the TeV scale set by the electroweak constraints, while simultanously satisfy bounds from lepton flavour violation. A nonzero neutrino mixing angle, $\\theta_{13}$, is generic in the scenario, as well as the existence of sub-TeV right-handed Kaluza-Klein neutrinos, which may be searched for at the LHC.
Bojowald Martin
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time.
Bojowald Martin
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time.
Nonlinear field space cosmology
Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz
2017-08-01
We consider the FRW cosmological model in which the matter content of the Universe (playing the role of an inflaton or quintessence) is given by a novel generalization of the massive scalar field. The latter is a scalar version of the recently introduced nonlinear field space theory, where the physical phase space of a given field is assumed to be compactified at large energies. For our analysis, we choose the simple case of a field with the spherical phase space and endow it with the generalized Hamiltonian analogous to the XXZ Heisenberg model, normally describing a system of spins in condensed matter physics. Subsequently, we study both the homogenous cosmological sector and linear perturbations of such a test field. In the homogenous sector, we find that nonlinearity of the field phase space is becoming relevant for large volumes of the Universe and can lead to a recollapse, and possibly also at very high energies, leading to the phase of a bounce. Quantization of the field is performed in the limit where the nontrivial nature of its phase space can be neglected, while there is a nonvanishing contribution from the Lorentz symmetry breaking term of the Hamiltonian. As a result, in the leading order of the XXZ anisotropy parameter, we find that the inflationary spectral index remains unmodified with respect to the standard case but the total amplitude of perturbations is subject to a correction. The Bunch-Davies vacuum state also becomes appropriately corrected. The proposed new approach is bringing cosmology and condensed matter physics closer together, which may turn out to be beneficial for both disciplines.
The screening Horndeski cosmologies
Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS,Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Volkov, Mikhail S. [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350,Université de Tours,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)
2016-06-06
We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing “the emergence of time”. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.
Simple Evaluation of Chiral Jacobian with Overlap Dirac Operator
Suzuki, H
1999-01-01
The chiral Jacobian, which is defined with Neuberger's overlap Dirac operator of lattice fermion, is explicitly evaluated in the continuum limit without expanding it in the gauge coupling constant. Our calculational scheme is simple and straightforward. We determine a coefficient of the chiral anomaly for general value of the bare mass parameter and the Wilson parameter of the overlap Dirac operator.
Light scattering by photonic crystals with a dirac spectrum
Sepkhanov, Ruslan
2009-01-01
In this thesis we consider several effects of a Dirac spectrum in photonic crystals on the scattering and propagation of light. We calculate the effect of a Dirac point (a conical singularity in the band structure) on the transmission of radiation through a photonic crystal. We find that the transmi
NEW KINDS OF DIRAC ENERGY LEVELS AND THEIR CROSSING REGIONS
杨树政; 林理彬
2001-01-01
In the space-time of a non-Kerr-Newman black hole, the Dirac energy levels and their crossing regions are inves-tigated. Near the event horizon of the black hole there are crossing Dirac energy levels, which lead to the occurrence of non-thermal radiation.
Tools for analysis of Dirac structures on banach spaces
Iftime, Orest V.; Sandovici, Adrian; Golo, Goran
2005-01-01
Power-conserving and Dirac structures are known as an approach to mathematical modeling of physical engineering systems. In this paper connections between Dirac structures and well known tools from standard functional analysis are presented. The analysis can be seen as a possible starting framework
Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space
马凯; 王剑华; 袁毅
2011-01-01
The Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space is studied in this paper. Firstly, since the Dirac equation is described as a matrix equation in phase space, it is necessary to define the Wigner function as a matrix function in spinor space.
Algebraic and analytic Dirac induction for graded affine Hecke algebras
Ciubotaru, D.; Opdam, E.M.; Trapa, P.E.
2014-01-01
We define the algebraic Dirac induction map IndD for graded affine Hecke algebras. The map IndD is a Hecke algebra analog of the explicit realization of the Baum-Connes assembly map in the K-theory of the reduced C∗-algebra of a real reductive group using Dirac operators. The definition of IndD is
Lorentz-Dirac equation and circularly moving charges
Comay, E.
1987-09-01
The Lorentz-Dirac equation of radiation reaction is tested in a system of circularly moving changes. It is shown that this equation together with the Lienard-Wiechert retarded fields is consistent with energy conservation. Therefore, in this particular experiment, any alternative expression of radiation reaction must agree with the Lorentz-Dirac equation.
Tunneling of Dirac Particles from Kaluza-Klein Black Hole
ZENG Xiao-Xiong; LI Qiang
2009-01-01
Applying the fermions tunneling method, proposed by Kerner and Mann recently, we discuss the tunneling characteristics of Dirac particles from the stationary Kaluza-Klein black hole. To choose Gamma matrix conveniently and avoid the ergosphere dragging effect, we perform it in the dragging coordinate frame. The result shows that Hawking temperature in this case also can be reproduced by the general Dirac equation.
Pole-Based Approximation of the Fermi-Dirac Function
Lin LIN; Jianfeng LU; Lexing YING; Weinan E
2009-01-01
Two approaches for the efficient rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac function are discussed: one uses the contour integral representation and conformal map-ping, and the other is based on a version of the multipole representation of the Fermi-Dirac function that uses only simple poles. Both representations have logarithmic computational complexity. They are of great interest for electronic structure calculations.
Relativistic Spinning Particle without Grassmann Variables and the Dirac Equation
A. A. Deriglazov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present the relativistic particle model without Grassmann variables which, being canonically quantized, leads to the Dirac equation. Classical dynamics of the model is in correspondence with the dynamics of mean values of the corresponding operators in the Dirac theory. Classical equations for the spin tensor are the same as those of the Barut-Zanghi model of spinning particle.
Light scattering by photonic crystals with a dirac spectrum
Sepkhanov, Ruslan
2009-01-01
In this thesis we consider several effects of a Dirac spectrum in photonic crystals on the scattering and propagation of light. We calculate the effect of a Dirac point (a conical singularity in the band structure) on the transmission of radiation through a photonic crystal. We find that the
The Dirac oscillator in a rotating frame of reference
Strange, P.; Ryder, L. H.
2016-10-01
The Dirac equation in a rotating frame of reference is derived from first principles within a linear approximation. This equation is employed to exhibit an equivalence between a particle in a Dirac oscillator potential and a free particle in a rotating frame of reference. A zero-point contribution to the energy of the particle, resulting from its spin, is also noted.
Tools for analysis of Dirac structures on Hilbert spaces
Golo, G.; Iftime, O.V.; Zwart, Heiko J.; van der Schaft, Arjan
2004-01-01
In this paper tools for the analysis of Dirac structures on Hilbert spaces are developed. Some properties are pointed out and two natural representations of Dirac structures on Hilbert spaces are presented. The theory is illustrated on the example of the ideal transmission line.
Representation-independent manipulations with Dirac matrices and spinors
2007-01-01
Dirac matrices, also known as gamma matrices, are defined only up to a similarity transformation. Usually, some explicit representation of these matrices is assumed in order to deal with them. In this article, we show how it is possible to proceed without any such assumption. Various important identities involving Dirac matrices and spinors have been derived without assuming any representation at any stage.
The asymptotic limits of zero modes of massless Dirac operators
Saito, Yoshimi
2007-01-01
Asymptotic behaviors of zero modes of the massless Dirac operator $H=\\alpha\\cdot D + Q(x)$ are discussed, where $\\alpha= (\\alpha_1, \\alpha_2, \\alpha_3)$ is the triple of $4 \\times 4$ Dirac matrices, $ D=\\frac{1}{i} \
New exactly solvable periodic potentials for the Dirac equation
Samsonov, B F; Pozdeeva, E O; Glasser, M L
2003-01-01
A new exactly solvable relativistic periodic potential is obtained by the periodic extension of a well-known transparent scalar potential. It is found that the energy band edges are determined by a transcendental equation which is very similar to the corresponding equation for the Dirac Kronig-Penney model. The solutions of the Dirac equation are expressed in terms of elementary functions.
Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation
Nieto, L M; Samsonov, B F; Samsonov, Boris F.
2003-01-01
The technique of differential intertwining operators (or Darboux transformation operators) is systematically applied to the one-dimensional Dirac equation. The following aspects are investigated: factorization of a polynomial of Dirac Hamiltonians, quadratic supersymmetry, closed extension of transformation operators, chains of transformations, and finally particular cases of pseudoscalar and scalar potentials. The method is widely illustrated by numerous examples.
Dirac oscillator and nonrelativistic Snyder-de Sitter algebra
Stetsko, M. M., E-mail: mstetsko@gmail.com, E-mail: mykola@ktf.franko.lviv.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 12 Drahomanov Str., Lviv, UA-79005 (Ukraine)
2015-01-15
Three dimensional Dirac oscillator was considered in space with deformed commutation relations known as Snyder-de Sitter algebra. Snyder-de Sitter commutation relations give rise to appearance of minimal uncertainties in position as well as in momentum. To derive energy spectrum and wavefunctions of the Dirac oscillator, supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance technique were applied.
Filling-Enforced Magnetic Dirac Semimetals in Two Dimensions
Young, Steve M.; Wieder, Benjamin J.
2017-05-01
Filling-enforced Dirac semimetals, or those required at specific fillings by the combination of crystalline and time-reversal symmetries, have been proposed in numerous materials. However, Dirac points in these materials are not generally robust against breaking or modifying time-reversal symmetry. We present a new class of two-dimensional Dirac semimetal protected by the combination of crystal symmetries and a special, antiferromagnetic time-reversal symmetry. Systems in this class of magnetic layer groups, while having broken time-reversal symmetry, still respect the operation of time-reversal followed by a half-lattice translation. In contrast to 2D time-reversal-symmetric Dirac semimetal phases, this magnetic Dirac phase is capable of hosting just a single isolated Dirac point at the Fermi level, one that can be stabilized solely by symmorphic crystal symmetries. We find that this Dirac point represents a new quantum critical point, existing at the boundary between Chern insulating, antiferromagnetic topological crystalline insulating, and trivial insulating phases, and we discuss its relationship with condensed matter fermion doubling theorems. We present density functional theoretic calculations which demonstrate the presence of these 2D magnetic Dirac points in FeSe monolayers and discuss the implications for engineering quantum phase transitions in these materials.
Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank
1991-01-01
If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10 to the -6th eV. This bound can be evaded if the universe underwent inflation after PQ-symmetry breaking and if the observable universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small. Consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative is shown.
Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza
1999-04-01
Global symmetries of the string effective action are employed to generate tilted, homogeneous Bianchi type VIh string cosmologies from a previously known stiff perfect fluid solution to Einstein gravity. The dilaton field is not constant on the surfaces of homogeneity. The future asymptotic state of the models is interpreted as a plane wave and is itself an exact solution to the string equations of motion to all orders in the inverse string tension. An inhomogeneous generalization of the Bianchi type III model is also found.
Wright, Rosemary
1995-01-01
The popularity of Stephen Hawking's work has put cosmology back in the public eye. The question of how the universe began, and why it hangs together, still puzzles scientists. Their puzzlement began two and a half thousand years ago when Greek philosophers first 'looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything.' Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh.The early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings; to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded; and to reconcil
Solar gravitation and cosmology
Ferrari, J.A. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, Montevideo (Uruguay))
1984-08-11
The objective of this paper is to discuss some implications of a scalar of gravitation developed in a previous paper. At the beginning we shall show that, on the basis of a scalar theory of gravitation, it is possible to predict a gravitational light drag. The remainder of this paper is devoted to cosmology. We shall prove that Hubble's red shift, the existence of an age and an ''effective radius'' of the Universe can be deduced from a model of the universe that is Euclidean, infinite and nonexpanding. Finally, we discuss briefly Olbers' paradox and the thermal evolution of the universe.
Cosmology from quantum potential
Farag Ali, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada)
2015-02-04
It was shown recently that replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories gives rise to a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). In this article we derive the second order Friedmann equations from the QRE, and show that this also contains a couple of quantum correction terms, the first of which can be interpreted as cosmological constant (and gives a correct estimate of its observed value), while the second as a radiation term in the early universe, which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and predicts an infinite age of our universe.
Gill, S P D; Gibson, B K; Flynn, C; Ibata, R A; Lewis, G F; Gill, Stuart P.D.; Knebe, Alexander; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Lewis, Geraint F.
2002-01-01
An adaptive multi grid approach to simulating the formation of structure from collisionless dark matter is described. MLAPM (Multi-Level Adaptive Particle Mesh) is one of the most efficient serial codes available on the cosmological 'market' today. As part of Swinburne University's role in the development of the Square Kilometer Array, we are implementing hydrodynamics, feedback, and radiative transfer within the MLAPM adaptive mesh, in order to simulate baryonic processes relevant to the interstellar and intergalactic media at high redshift. We will outline our progress to date in applying the existing MLAPM to a study of the decay of satellite galaxies within massive host potentials.
Wilczek, Frank; Turner, Michael S.
1990-09-01
If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10-6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, .1 . (ma/10-6eV)0.59. We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative.
Anistropic Invariant FRW Cosmology
Chagoya, J F
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the effects of including anisotropic scaling invariance in the minisuperspace Lagrangian for a universe modelled by the Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric, a massless scalar field and cosmological constant. We find that canonical quantization of this system leads to a Schroedinger type equation, thus avoiding the frozen time problem of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Furthermore, we find numerical solutions for the classical equations of motion, and we also find evidence that under some conditions the big bang singularity is avoided in this model.
Constraining entropic cosmology
Koivisto, Tomi S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Zumalacárregui, Miguel, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@uu.nl, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: miguelzuma@icc.ub.edu [Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICC-IEEC), University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2011-02-01
It has been recently proposed that the interpretation of gravity as an emergent, entropic phenomenon might have nontrivial implications to cosmology. Here several such approaches are investigated and the underlying assumptions that must be made in order to constrain them by the BBN, SneIa, BAO and CMB data are clarified. Present models of inflation or dark energy are ruled out by the data. Constraints are derived on phenomenological parameterizations of modified Friedmann equations and some features of entropic scenarios regarding the growth of perturbations, the no-go theorem for entropic inflation and the possible violation of the Bekenstein bound for the entropy of the Universe are discussed and clarified.
Turner, Michael S.
1997-03-01
The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.
Neutrino physics and precision cosmology
Hannestad, Steen
2016-01-01
I review the current status of structure formation bounds on neutrino properties such as mass and energy density. I also discuss future cosmological bounds as well as a variety of different scenarios for reconciling cosmology with the presence of light sterile neutrinos....
Phenomenology of loop quantum cosmology
Sakellariadou, Mairi
2010-01-01
After introducing the basic ingredients of Loop Quantum Cosmology, I will briefly discuss some of its phenomenological aspects. Those can give some useful insight about the full Loop Quantum Gravity theory and provide an answer to some long-standing questions in early universe cosmology.
Neutrino physics and precision cosmology
Hannestad, Steen
2016-01-01
I review the current status of structure formation bounds on neutrino properties such as mass and energy density. I also discuss future cosmological bounds as well as a variety of different scenarios for reconciling cosmology with the presence of light sterile neutrinos....
Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology
Sriramkumar, L
2012-01-01
This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.
Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics
Novello, M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goulart, E [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salim, J M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bergliaffa, S E Perez [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracana, CEP 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2007-06-07
It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology.
Cosmological solutions with massive gravitons
Chamseddine, Ali H. [Physics Department, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS-UMR 6083, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); LE STUDIUM, Loire Valley Institute for Advanced Studies, Tours and Orleans (France); I.H.E.S., F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Volkov, Mikhail S., E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS-UMR 6083, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)
2011-10-25
We present solutions describing spatially closed, open, or flat cosmologies in the massive gravity theory within the recently proposed tetrad formulation. We find that the effect of the graviton mass is equivalent to introducing to the Einstein equations a matter source that can consist of several different matter types - a cosmological term, quintessence, gas of cosmic strings, and non-relativistic cold matter.
Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays
Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2014-01-15
We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.
Abnormal Dirac point shift in graphene field-effect transistors
Wang, Shaoqing; Jin, Zhi; Huang, Xinnan; Peng, Songang; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan
2016-09-01
The shift of Dirac point in graphene devices is of great importance, influencing the reliability and stability. Previous studies show the Dirac point shifts slightly to be more positive when the drain bias increases. Here, an abnormal shift of Dirac point is observed in monolayer graphene field effect transistors by investigating the transfer curves under various drain biases. The voltage of Dirac point shifts positively at first and then decreases rapidly when the channel electric field exceeds some threshold. The negative Dirac point shift is attributed to holes injection into oxide layer and captured by the oxide traps under high channel electric field. This can also be demonstrated through a simple probability model and the graphene Raman spectra before and after the DC measurement.
Plasmon modes of a massive Dirac plasma, and their superlattices
Sachdeva, Rashi; Thakur, Anmol; Vignale, Giovanni; Agarwal, Amit
2015-05-01
We explore the collective density oscillations of a collection of charged massive Dirac particles, in one, two, and three dimensions, and their one-dimensional (1D) superlattice. We calculate the long-wavelength limit of the dynamical polarization function analytically, and use the random phase approximation to obtain the plasmon dispersion. The density dependence of the long-wavelength plasmon frequency in massive Dirac systems is found to be different compared to systems with parabolic and gapless Dirac dispersion. We also calculate the long-wavelength plasmon dispersion of a 1D metamaterial made from 1D and 2D massive Dirac plasma. Our analytical results will be useful for exploring the use of massive Dirac materials as electrostatically tunable plasmonic metamaterials and can be experimentally verified by infrared spectroscopy, as in the case of graphene [L. Ju et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.146].
Discrete Dirac equation on a finite half-integer lattice
Smalley, L. L.
1986-01-01
The formulation of the Dirac equation on a discrete lattice with half-integer spacing and periodic boundary conditions is investigated analytically. The importance of lattice formulations for problems in field theory and quantum mechanics is explained; the concept of half-integer Fourier representation is introduced; the discrete Dirac equation for the two-dimensional case is derived; dispersion relations for the four-dimensional case are developed; and the spinor formulation for the Dirac fields on the half-integer lattice and the discrete time variable for the four-dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation are obtained. It is argued that the half-integer lattice, because it takes the Dirac Lagrangian into account, is more than a mere relabeling of the integer lattice and may have fundamental physical meaning (e.g., for the statistics of fermions). It is noted that the present formulation does not lead to species doubling, except in the continuum limit.
On the spring and mass of the Dirac oscillator
Crawford, James P.
1993-01-01
The Dirac oscillator is a relativistic generalization of the quantum harmonic oscillator. In particular, the square of the Hamiltonian for the Dirac oscillator yields the Klein-Gordon equation with a potential of the form: (ar(sub 2) + b(L x S)), where a and b are constants. To obtain the Dirac oscillator, a 'minimal substitution' is made in the Dirac equation, where the ordinary derivative is replaced with a covariant derivative. However, an unusual feature of the covariant derivative in this case is that the potential is a non-trivial element of the Clifford algebra. A theory which naturally gives rise to gage potentials which are non-trivial elements of the Clifford algebra is that based on local automorphism invariance. An exact solution of the automorphism gage field equations which reproduces both the potential term and the mass term of the Dirac oscillator is presented.
Berry phase jumps and giant nonreciprocity in Dirac quantum dots
Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F.; Levitov, Leonid S.
2016-12-01
We predict that a strong nonreciprocity in the resonance spectra of Dirac quantum dots can be induced by the Berry phase. The nonreciprocity arises in relatively weak magnetic fields and is manifest in anomalously large field-induced splittings of quantum dot resonances which are degenerate at B =0 due to time-reversal symmetry. This exotic behavior, which is governed by field-induced jumps in the Berry phase of confined electronic states, is unique to quantum dots in Dirac materials and is absent in conventional quantum dots. The effect is strong for gapless Dirac particles and can overwhelm the B -induced orbital and Zeeman splittings. A finite Dirac mass suppresses the effect. The nonreciprocity, predicted for generic two-dimensional Dirac materials, is accessible through Faraday and Kerr optical rotation measurements and scanning tunneling spectroscopy.
The Clifford algebra of physical space and Dirac theory
Vaz, Jayme, Jr.
2016-09-01
The claim found in many textbooks that the Dirac equation cannot be written solely in terms of Pauli matrices is shown to not be completely true. It is only true as long as the term β \\psi in the usual Dirac factorization of the Klein-Gordon equation is assumed to be the product of a square matrix β and a column matrix ψ. In this paper we show that there is another possibility besides this matrix product, in fact a possibility involving a matrix operation, and show that it leads to another possible expression for the Dirac equation. We show that, behind this other possible factorization is the formalism of the Clifford algebra of physical space. We exploit this fact, and discuss several different aspects of Dirac theory using this formalism. In particular, we show that there are four different possible sets of definitions for the parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation operations for the Dirac equation.
Time Delay for the Dirac Equation
Naumkin, Ivan; Weder, Ricardo
2016-10-01
We consider time delay for the Dirac equation. A new method to calculate the asymptotics of the expectation values of the operator {intlimits0 ^{∞}e^{iH0t}ζ(\\vert x\\vert /R) e^{-iH0t}dt}, as {R → ∞}, is presented. Here, H 0 is the free Dirac operator and {ζ(t)} is such that {ζ(t) = 1} for {0 ≤ t ≤ 1} and {ζ(t) = 0} for {t > 1}. This approach allows us to obtain the time delay operator {δ {T}(f)} for initial states f in {{H} 2^{3/2+ɛ}({R}3;{C}4)}, {ɛ > 0}, the Sobolev space of order {3/2+ɛ} and weight 2. The relation between the time delay operator {δ{T}(f)} and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is given. In addition, the relation between the averaged time delay and the spectral shift function is presented.
More problems for Newtonian cosmology
Wallace, David
2016-01-01
I point out a radical indeterminism in potential-based formulations of Newtonian gravity once we drop the condition that the potential vanishes at infinity (as is necessary, and indeed celebrated, in cosmological applications). This indeterminism, which is well known in theoretical cosmology but has received little attention in foundational discussions, can be removed only by specifying boundary conditions at all instants of time, which undermines the theory's claim to be fully cosmological, i.e., to apply to the Universe as a whole. A recent alternative formulation of Newtonian gravity due to Saunders (Philosophy of Science 80 (2013) pp.22-48) provides a conceptually satisfactory cosmology but fails to reproduce the Newtonian limit of general relativity in homogenous but anisotropic universes. I conclude that Newtonian gravity lacks a fully satisfactory cosmological formulation.
MOND cosmology from holographic principle
Zhang, Hongsheng
2011-01-01
We derive the MOND cosmology which is uniquely corresponding to the original MOND in galaxies via holographic approach of gravity. It inherits the key merit of MOND, that is, it reduces the byronic matter and mysterious non-byronic dark matter (dark matter for short) in the standard cosmology into byronic matter only. For the first time we derive the critical parameter in MOND, i.e., the transition acceleration $a_c$ on cosmological scale. We thus solve the long-standing coincidence problem $a_c\\sim cH_{0}$. More interestingly, a term like age-graphic dark energy emerges naturally. In the frame of this MOND cosmology, we only need byronic matter to describe both dark matter and dark energy in standard cosmology.
Back Reaction of Cosmological Perturbations
Brandenberger, R H
2000-01-01
The presence of cosmological perturbations affects the background metric and matter configuration in which the perturbations propagate. This effect, studied a long time ago for gravitational waves, also is operational for scalar gravitational fluctuations, inhomogeneities which are believed to be more important in inflationary cosmology. The back-reaction of fluctuations can be described by an effective energy-momentum tensor. The issue of coordinate invariance makes the analysis more complicated for scalar fluctuations than for gravitational waves. We show that the back-reaction of fluctuations can be described in a diffeomorphism-invariant way. In an inflationary cosmology, the back-reaction is dominated by infrared modes. We show that these modes give a contribution to the effective energy-momentum tensor of the form of a negative cosmological constant whose absolute value grows in time. We speculate that this may lead to a self-regulating dynamical relaxation mechanism for the cosmological constant. This ...
Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology
Zhang, Xiangdong
2016-07-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.
On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies
K D Krori; S Dutta
2000-03-01
Novello et al [1,2] have shown that it is possible to ﬁnd a pair of canonically conjugate variables (written in terms of gauge-invariant variables) so as to obtain a Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of a cosmological system. This opens up the way to the usual technique of quantization. Elbaz et al [4] have applied this method to the Hamiltonian formulation of FRW cosmological equations. This note presents a generalization of this approach to a variety of cosmologies. A general Schrödinger wave equation has been derived and exact solutions have been worked out for the stiff matter era for some cosmological models. It is argued that these solutions appear to hint at their possible relevance in the early phase of cosmological evolution.
Particle physics and cosmology
Kolb, E.W.
1986-10-01
This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.
Mahootian, F.
2009-12-01
The rapid convergence of advancing sensor technology, computational power, and knowledge discovery techniques over the past decade has brought unprecedented volumes of astronomical data together with unprecedented capabilities of data assimilation and analysis. A key result is that a new, data-driven "observational-inductive'' framework for scientific inquiry is taking shape and proving viable. The anticipated rise in data flow and processing power will have profound effects, e.g., confirmations and disconfirmations of existing theoretical claims both for and against the big bang model. But beyond enabling new discoveries can new data-driven frameworks of scientific inquiry reshape the epistemic ideals of science? The history of physics offers a comparison. The Bohr-Einstein debate over the "completeness'' of quantum mechanics centered on a question of ideals: what counts as science? We briefly examine lessons from that episode and pose questions about their applicability to cosmology. If the history of 20th century physics is any indication, the abandonment of absolutes (e.g., space, time, simultaneity, continuity, determinacy) can produce fundamental changes in understanding. The classical ideal of science, operative in both physics and cosmology, descends from the European Enlightenment. This ideal has for over 200 years guided science to seek the ultimate order of nature, to pursue the absolute theory, the "theory of everything.'' But now that we have new models of scientific inquiry powered by new technologies and driven more by data than by theory, it is time, finally, to relinquish dreams of a "final'' theory.
Green, Dan
2016-01-01
This volume makes explicit use of the synergy between cosmology and high energy physics, for example, supersymmetry and dark matter, or nucleosynthesis and the baryon-to-photon ratio. In particular the exciting possible connection between the recently discovered Higgs scalar and the scalar field responsible for inflation is explored.The recent great advances in the accuracy of the basic cosmological parameters is exploited in that no free scale parameters such as h appear, rather the basic calculations are done numerically using all sources of energy density simultaneously. Scripts are provided that allow the reader to calculate exact results for the basic parameters. Throughout MATLAB tools such as symbolic math, numerical solutions, plots and 'movies' of the dynamical evolution of systems are used. The GUI package is also shown as an example of the real time manipulation of parameters which is available to the reader.All the MATLAB scripts are made available to the reader to explore examples of the uses of ...
Cosmology With Negative Potentials
Felder, G; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Frolov, Andrei; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei
2002-01-01
We investigate cosmological evolution in models where the effective potential V(\\phi) may become negative for some values of the field \\phi. Phase portraits of such theories in space of variables (\\phi,\\dot\\phi,H) have several qualitatively new features as compared with phase portraits in the theories with V(\\phi) > 0. Cosmological evolution in models with potentials with a "stable" minimum at V(\\phi)<0 is similar in some respects to the evolution in models with potentials unbounded from below. Instead of reaching an AdS regime dominated by the negative vacuum energy, the universe reaches a turning point where its energy density vanishes, and then it contracts to a singularity with properties that are practically independent of V(\\phi). We apply our methods to investigation of the recently proposed cyclic universe scenario. We show that in addition to the singularity problem there are other problems that need to be resolved in order to realize a cyclic regime in this scenario. We propose several modificati...
Cosmological Simulations using GCMHD+
Barnes, David J; Wu, Kinwah
2011-01-01
Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that the intra cluster medium is permeated by \\mu G magnetic fields. The origin and evolution of these cosmological magnetic fields is currently not well understood and so their impact on the dynamics of structure formation is not known. Numerical simulations are required to gain a greater understanding and produce predictions for the next generation of radio telescopes. We present the galactic chemodynamics smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) code (GCMHD+), which is an MHD implementation for the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamic code GCD+. The results of 1, 2 and 3 dimensional tests are presented and the performance of the code is shown relative to the ATHENA grid code. GCMHD+ shows good agreement with the reference solutions produced by ATHENA. The code is then used to simulate the formation of a galaxy cluster with a simple primordial magnetic field embedded in the gas. A homogeneous seed field of 10^-11 G is amplified by a factor of 10^3 durin...
Cosmological simulations using GCMHD+
Barnes, David J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Kinwah
2012-03-01
Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that the intracluster medium is permeated by ? magnetic fields. The origin and evolution of these cosmological magnetic fields is currently not well understood, and so their impact on the dynamics of structure formation is not known. Numerical simulations are required to gain a greater understanding and produce predictions for the next generation of radio telescopes. We present the galactic chemodynamics smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) code (GCMHD+), which is an MHD implementation for the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GCD+. The results of 1D, 2D and 3D tests are presented and the performance of the code is shown relative to the ATHENA grid code. GCMHD+ shows good agreement with the reference solutions produced by ATHENA. The code is then used to simulate the formation of a galaxy cluster with a simple primordial magnetic field embedded in the gas. A homogeneous seed field of 3.5 × 10-11 G is amplified by a factor of 103 during the formation of the cluster. The results show good agreement with the profiles found in other magnetic cluster simulations of similar resolution.
Szydlowski, Marek; Borowiec, Andrzej; Wojnar, Aneta
2015-01-01
We investigate modified gravity cosmological model $f(R)=R+\\gamma R^2$ in Palatini formalism. We consider the universe filled with the Chaplygin gas and baryonic matter. The dynamics is reduced to the 2D sewn dynamical system of a Newtonian type. For this aim we use dynamical system theory. We classify all evolutional paths in the model as well as trajectories in the phase space. We demonstrate that the presence of a degenerate freeze singularity (glued freeze type singularities) is a generic feature of early evolution of the universe. We point out that a degenerate type III of singularity can be considered as an endogenous model of inflation between the matter dominating epoch and the dark energy phase. We also investigate cosmological models with negative $\\gamma$. It is demonstrated that $\\gamma$ equal zero is a bifurcation parameter and dynamics qualitatively changes in comparison to positive $\\gamma$. Instead of the big bang the sudden singularity appears and there is a generic class of bouncing solution...
The screening Horndeski cosmologies
Starobinsky, Alexei A; Volkov, Mikhail S
2016-01-01
We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a $\\Lambda$-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the $\\Lambda$-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the $\\Lambda$-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing "the emergence of time". Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyze the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are...
Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies
Pajin Dušan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.
Cosmology with matter diffusion
Calogero, Simone
2013-01-01
We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field $\\phi$ which we identify with the dark energy component of the Universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter $\\sigma$. The standard $\\Lambda$CDM model can be recovered by setting $\\sigma=0$. If diffusion takes place ($\\sigma >0$) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the Universe can serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the Universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integr...
FLRW viscous cosmological models
Khadekar, G S; Meng, X -H
2016-01-01
In this paper we solve Friedmann equations by considering a universal media as a non-perfect fluid with bulk viscosity and is described by a general "gamma law" equation of state of the form $p= (\\gamma -1) \\rho + \\Lambda(t)$, where the adiabatic parameter $\\gamma$ varies with scale factor $R$ of the metric and $\\Lambda$ is the time dependent cosmological constant. A unified description of the early evolution of the universe is presented by assuming the bulk viscosity and cosmological parameter in a linear combination of two terms of the form: $\\Lambda(t)=\\Lambda_{0} + \\Lambda_{1}\\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$ and $\\zeta = \\zeta_{0} + \\zeta_{1} \\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$, where $\\Lambda_{0},\\;\\Lambda_{1},\\, \\zeta_{0}$ and $ \\zeta_{1}$ are constants, in which an inflationary phase is followed by the radiation dominated phase. For this general gamma law equation of state, an entirely integrable dynamical equation to the scale factor $R$ is obtained along with its exact solutions. In this framework we demonstrate that the model can...
Moffat, J W
2016-01-01
An alternative to the postulate of dark energy required to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe is to adopt an inhomogeneous cosmological model to explain the supernovae data without dark energy. We adopt a void cosmology model, based on the inhomogeneous Lema\\^{i}tre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's field equations. The model can resolve observational anomalies in the $\\Lambda CDM$ model, such as the discrepancy between the locally measured value of the Hubble constant, $H_0=73.24\\pm 1.74\\,{\\rm km}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, and the $H_0=66.93\\pm 0.62\\,{\\rm km}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ determined by the Planck satellite data and the $\\Lambda CDM$ model, and the lithium $^{7}{\\rm Li}$ problem, which is a $5\\sigma$ mismatch between the theoretical prediction for the $^{7}{\\rm Li}$ from big bang nucleosynthesis and the value that we observe locally today at $z=0$. The void model can also resolve the tension between the number of massive clusters derived from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich eff...
Spin 1/2 particle in the field of the Dirac string on the background of de Sitter space-time
Red'kov, V M; Veko, O V
2011-01-01
The Dirac monopole string is specified for de Sitter cosmological model. Dirac equation for spin 1/2 particle in presence of this monopole has been examined on the background of de Sitter space-time in static coordinates. Instead of spinor monopole harmonics, the technique of Wigner D-functions is used. After separation of the variables, detailed analysis of the radial equations is performed; four types of solutions, singular, regular, in- and out- running waves, are constructed in terms of hypergeometric functions. The complete set of spinor wave solutions \\Psi_{\\epsilon, j,m, \\lambda}(t,r, \\theta, \\phi) has been constructed, special attention is given to treating the states of minimal values of the total angular moment j_{\\min}.
Tunneling in $\\Lambda$ Decaying Cosmologies and the Cosmological Constant Problem
Jafarizadeh, M A; Rezaei-Aghdam, A; Rastegar, A R
1999-01-01
The tunneling rate, with exact prefactor, is calculated to first order in decaying cosmological constant \\Lambda \\sim R^{-m} (R is the scale factor and m is a parameter 0\\leq m \\leq 2). The calculations are performed by applying the dilute-instanton approximation on the corresponding Duru-Kleinert path integral. It is shown that the highest tunneling rate occurs for m \\to 2. Thus, the obtained most probable value of the cosmological constant, like one obtained by Strominger, accounts for a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem.
Cosmological Physics Ground Rules and How to Evaluate Cosmologies
Dilworth, D. J.
2009-12-01
This paper is a simple reminder for cosmology enthusiasts of the bright line separating the laws of physics from science fiction. It provides some tools: rules, guidelines and a definition of space useful for examining cosmology science claims and concepts. It explains the stringent thresholds for an idea before it can accurately be called a scientific theory or hypothesis; and who bears the burden of proof for a theory. These simple tools provide solid ground so you may more easily examine cosmology claims to help make up your own mind which side of the science/science fiction line a specific claim belongs on.
Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)
2007-02-07
These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference
Crossing the cosmological constant barrier with kinetically interacting double quintessence
Sur, Sourav
2009-01-01
We examine the plausibility of crossing the cosmological constant ($\\L$) barrier in a two-field quintessence model of dark energy, involving a kinetic interaction between the individual fields. Such a kinetic interaction may have its origin in the four dimensional effective two-field version of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action, that describes the motion of a D3-brane in a higher dimensional space-time. We show that this interaction term could indeed enable the dark energy equation of state parameter $\\wx$ to cross the $\\L$-barrier (i.e., $\\wx = -1$), keeping the Hamiltonian well behaved (bounded from below), as well as satisfying the condition of stability of cosmological density perturbations, i.e., the positivity of the squares of the sound speeds corresponding to the adiabatic and entropy modes. The model is found to fit well with the latest Supernova Union data and the WMAP results. The best fit curve for $\\wx$ crosses -1 at red-shift $z$ in the range $\\sim 0.215 - 0.245$, whereas the transition from decelera...
Zampeli, Adamantia; Terzis, Petros A; Christodoulakis, T
2015-01-01
In this paper, the classical and quantum solutions of some axisymmetric cosmologies coupled to a massless scalar field are studied in the context of minisuperspace approximation. In these models, the singular nature of the Lagrangians entails a search for possible conditional symmetries. These have been proven to be the simultaneous conformal symmetries of the supermetric and the superpotential. The quantization is performed by adopting the Dirac proposal for constrained systems, i.e. promoting the first-class constraints to operators annihilating the wave function. To further enrich the approach, we follow \\cite{Christodoulakis:2012eg} and impose the operators related to the classical conditional symmetries on the wave function. These additional equations select particular solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. In order to gain some physical insight from the quantization of these cosmological systems, we perform a semiclassical analysis following the Bohmian approach to quantum theory. The generic result ...
Cosmological constant and curved 5D geometry
Ito, M
2002-01-01
We study the value of cosmological constant in de Sitter brane embedded in five dimensions with positive, vanishing and negative bulk cosmological constant. In the case of negative bulk cosmological constant, we show that not zero but tiny four-dimensional cosmological constant can be realized by tiny deviation from bulk curvature of the Randall-Sundrum model.
Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion
Becker-Bender, Julia
2012-12-17
On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.
Kunze, Kerstin E
2013-01-01
Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the universe, from stars and galaxies upto galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of primordial, cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.
Peculiar Relations in Cosmology
Seshavatharam U.V.S.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Within the expanding cosmic Hubble volume, the Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. T he product of ‘Hubble volume’ and ‘cosmic critical density’ can be called the ‘Hubble mass ’. Based on this cosmic mass unit, the authors noticed three peculiar semi empirical applications. With these applications it is possible to say that in atomic and nuclear physics, there exists a cos- mological physical variable. By observing its rate of change, the future cosmic accel- eration can be verified, time to time Hubble’s constant can be estimated and finally a unified model of the four cosmological interactions can be developed.
Developments in inflationary cosmology
Arjun Berera
2009-01-01
This talk presents some recent work that has been done in inflationary cosmology. First a brief review is given of the inflation scenario and its basic models. After that, one of the main problems in developing inflationary models has been the requirement of a very flat inflation potential. In solving this problem, supersymmetry has played a major role, and the reasons will be discussed and a specific example of the SUSY hybrid model will be examined. Some problems introduced by SUSY such as the and gravitino problems will then be discussed. Then in a different direction, the quintessential inflation model will be examined as a proposal where a single scalar field plays the role of both the inflaton at early time and the dark energy field later. The final topic covered is developments in understanding dissipation and particle production processes during the inflationary phase.
Chew, Geoffrey F
2008-01-01
Arrowed-time divergence-free rules or cosmological quantum dynamics are formulated through stepped Feynman paths across macroscopic slices of Milne spacetime. Slice boundaries house totally-relativistic rays representing elementary entities--preons. Total relativity and the associated preon Fock space, despite distinction from special relativity (which lacks time arrow), are based on the Lorentz group. Each path is a set of cubic vertices connected by straight, directed and stepped arcs that carry inertial, electromagnetic and gravitational action. The action of an arc step comprises increments each bounded by Planck's constant. Action from extremely-distant sources is determined by universe mean energy density. Identifying the arc-step energy that determines inertial action with that determining gravitational action establishes both arc-step length and universe density. Special relativity is accurate for physics at laboratory spacetime scales far below that of Hubble and far above that of Planck.
Wilson, Robert W
2008-01-01
Observation of the CMB is central to observational cosmology, and the Antarctic Plateau is an exceptionally good site for this work. The first attempt at CMB observations from the Plateau was an expedition to the South Pole in December 1986 by the Radio Physics Research group at Bell Laboratories. Sky noise and opacity were measured. The results were sufficiently encouraging that in the Austral summer of 1988-1989, three CMB groups participated in the "Cucumber" campaign, where a temporary site dedicated to CMB anisotropy measurements was set up 2 km from South Pole Station. Winter-time observations became possible with the establishment in 1990 of the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center. CARA developed year-round observing facilities in the "Dark Sector", a section of Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station dedicated to astronomical observations. CARA scientists fielded several astronomical instruments: AST/RO, SPIREX, White Dish, Pyth...
Supersymmetric classical cosmology
Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo
2010-01-01
In this work a supersymmetric cosmological model is analyzed in which we consider a general superfield action of a homogeneous scalar field supermultiplet interacting with the scale factor in a supersymmetric FRW model. There appear fermionic superpartners associated with both the scale factor and the scalar field, and classical equations of motion are obtained from the super-Wheeler-DeWitt equation through the usual WKB method. The resulting supersymmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations contain extra radiation and stiff matter terms, and we study their solutions in flat space for different scalar field potentials. The solutions are compared to the standard case, in particular those corresponding to the exponential potential, and their implications for the dynamics of the early Universe are discussed in turn.
Estimating Cosmological Parameter Covariance
Taylor, Andy
2014-01-01
We investigate the bias and error in estimates of the cosmological parameter covariance matrix, due to sampling or modelling the data covariance matrix, for likelihood width and peak scatter estimators. We show that these estimators do not coincide unless the data covariance is exactly known. For sampled data covariances, with Gaussian distributed data and parameters, the parameter covariance matrix estimated from the width of the likelihood has a Wishart distribution, from which we derive the mean and covariance. This mean is biased and we propose an unbiased estimator of the parameter covariance matrix. Comparing our analytic results to a numerical Wishart sampler of the data covariance matrix we find excellent agreement. An accurate ansatz for the mean parameter covariance for the peak scatter estimator is found, and we fit its covariance to our numerical analysis. The mean is again biased and we propose an unbiased estimator for the peak parameter covariance. For sampled data covariances the width estimat...
Lyth, David
2016-01-01
Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience.
Quercellini, Claudia; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel
2010-01-01
In recent years the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky in real time have become conceivable thanks to the thoroughly improved technique applied to new astrometric and spectroscopic experiments, leading to the research domain we call Real-time cosmology. We review for the first time great part of the work done in this field, analysing both the theoretical framework and some endeavor to foresee the observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We firstly focus on real time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant source, able to trace background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper acceleration in clustered systems and therefore the gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the short time future change of the cosmic microwave background, as ...
The Standard Cosmological Model
Scott, D
2005-01-01
The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) is an enormously successful description of high energy physics, driving ever more precise measurements to find "physics beyond the standard model", as well as providing motivation for developing more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Simultaneously, a description of the entire 3-dimensional structure of the present-day Universe is being built up painstakingly. Most of the structure is stochastic in nature, being merely the result of the particular realisation of the "initial conditions" within our observable Universe patch. However, governing this structure is the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC), which appears to require only about a dozen parameters. Cosmologists are now determining the values of these quantities with increasing precision in order to search for "physics beyond the standard model", as well as trying to develop an understanding of the more fundamental ideas which might explain the values of its parameters. Althoug...
Cosmology with Superluminous Supernovae
Scovacricchi, Dario; Bacon, David; Sullivan, Mark; Prajs, Szymon
2015-01-01
We predict cosmological constraints for forthcoming surveys using Superluminous Supernovae (SLSNe) as standardisable candles. Due to their high peak luminosity, these events can be observed to high redshift (z~3), opening up new possibilities to probe the Universe in the deceleration epoch. We describe our methodology for creating mock Hubble diagrams for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the "Search Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae" (SUDSS) and a sample of SLSNe possible from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), exploring a range of standardisation values for SLSNe. We include uncertainties due to gravitational lensing and marginalise over possible uncertainties in the magnitude scale of the observations (e.g. uncertain absolute peak magnitude, calibration errors). We find that the addition of only ~100 SLSNe from SUDSS to 3800 Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from DES can improve the constraints on w and Omega_m by at least 20% (assuming a flat wCDM universe). Moreover, the combination of DES SNe Ia a...
Davydov, Evgeny
2011-01-01
Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant F*F(dual), one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the 'electric' and 'magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.
Cosmology With Extra Dimensions
Martín, J
2005-01-01
We review several properties of models that include extra dimensions, focusing on aspects related to cosmology and particle physics phenomenology. The properties of effective four dimensional inflationary geometry are studied in two distinct frameworks: (i) in Kaluza- Klein (KK) compactifications and (ii) in braneworld scenarios. From numerical simulations we find that inflationary braneworlds are unstable if the scale of inflation is too large in comparison with the stabilization scale of the interbrane distance. The analysis of perturbations confirms the existence of a tachyon associated with the volume modulus of the extra dimensions both in braneworlds and KK compactifications. With the numerical program BRANECODE non- perturbative properties of braneworlds are studied. We fully understand the non-perturbative consequences of this instability. Generic attractors are (i) an increase of the interbrane distance and the formation of a naked singularity, (ii) the brane colli...
Ferrara, S; Sagnotti, A
2016-01-01
Abdus Salam was a true master of 20th Century Theoretical Physics. Not only was he a pioneer of the Standard Model (for which he shared the Nobel Prize with S. Glashow and S.Weinberg), but he also (co)authored many other outstanding contributions to the field of Fundamental Interactions and their unification. In particular, he was a major contributor to the development of supersymmetric theories, where he also coined the word "Supersymmetry" (replacing the earlier "Supergauges" drawn from String Theory). He also introduced the basic concept of "Superspace" and the notion of "Goldstone Fermion"(Goldstino). These concepts proved instrumental for the exploration of the ultraviolet properties and for the study of spontaneously broken phases of super Yang-Mills theories and Supergravity. They continue to play a key role in current developments in Early-Universe Cosmology. In this contribution we review models of inflation based on Supergravity with spontaneously broken local supersymmetry, with emphasis on the rol...
Noncommutative quantum cosmology
Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Institute Superior Teico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)
2009-06-01
We present a phase-space noncommutative extension of Quantum Cosmology in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs (KS) minisuperspace model. We obtain the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation for the noncommutative system through the ADM formalism and a suitable Seiberg-Witten map. The resulting WDW equation explicitly depends on the phase-space noncommutative parameters, theta and eta. Numerical solutions of the noncommutative WDW equation are found and, interestingly, also bounds on the values of the nonommutative parameters. Moreover, we conclude that the noncommutativity in the momenta sector lead to a damped wave function implying that this type of noncommutativity can be relevant for a selection of possible initial states for the universe.
Splotch: Visualizing Cosmological Simulations
Dolag, K; Gheller, C; Imboden, S
2008-01-01
We present a light and fast, public available, ray-tracer {\\tt Splotch} software tool which supports the effective visualization of cosmological simulations data. We describe the algorithm it relies on, which is designed in order to deal with point-like data, optimizing the ray-tracing calculation by ordering the particles as a function of their ``depth'' defined as a function of one of the coordinates or other associated parameter. Realistic three-dimensional impressions are reached through a composition of the final color in each pixel properly calculating emission and absorption of individual volume elements. We describe several scientific as well as public applications realized with {\\tt Splotch}. We emphasize how different datasets and configurations lead to remarkable different results in terms of the images and animations. A few of these results are available online.
COSMOLOGY WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSES
Emilio E. Falco
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational lenses yield a very high rate of return on observational investment. Given their scarcity, their impact on our knowledge of the universe is very signi cant. In the weak- eld limit, lensing studies are based on well-established physics and thus o er a straightforward approach to pursue many currently pressing problems of astrophysics. Examples of these are the signi cance of dark matter and the density, age and size of the universe. I present recent developments in cosmological applications of gravitational lenses, regarding estimates of the Hubble constant using strong lensing of quasars. I describe our recent measurements of time delays for the images of SDSS J1004+4112, and discuss prospects for the future utilizing synoptic telescopes, planned and under construction.
Cosmological quantum entanglement
Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
2012-01-01
We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this trans...
Shortcuts in Cosmological Branes
Abdalla, Elcio; Cuadros-Melgar, B; Abdalla, Elcio; Casali, Adenauer G.; Cuadros-Melgar, Bertha
2004-01-01
We aim at gathering information from gravitational interaction in the Universe, at energies where quantum gravity is required. In such a setup a dynamical membrane world in a space-time with scalar bulk matter described by domain walls, as well as a dynamical membrane world in empty Anti de Sitter space-time are analysed. We later investigate the possibility of having shortcuts for gravitons leaving the membrane and returning subsequently. In comparison with photons following a geodesic inside the brane, we verify that shortcuts exist. For late time universes they are small, but for some primordial universes they can be quite effective. In the case of matter branes, we argue that at times just before nucleosynthesis the effect is sufficiently large to provide corrections to the inflationary scenario, especially as concerning the horizon problem and the Cosmological Background Radiation.
Fractional Derivative Cosmology
Roberts, Mark D
2009-01-01
The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.
Inflationary Cosmologies from Compactification?
Wohlfarth, M N R
2004-01-01
We consider the compactification of (d+n)-dimensional pure gravity and of superstring/M-theory on an n-dimensional internal space to a d-dimensional FLRW cosmology, with spatial curvature k=-1,0,+1, in Einstein conformal frame. The internal space is taken to be a product of Einstein spaces, each of which is allowed to have arbitrary curvature and a time-dependent volume. By investigating the effective d-dimensional scalar potential, which is a sum of exponentials, it is shown that such compactifications, in the k=0,+1 cases, do not lead to large amounts of accelerating expansion of the scale factor of the resulting FLRW universe, and, in particular, not to inflation. The case k=-1 admits solutions with eternal accelerating expansion for which the acceleration, however, tends to zero at late times.
Cosmological disformal invariance
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao
2015-01-01
The invariance of physical observables under disformal transformations is considered. It is known that conformal transformations leave physical observables invariant. However, whether it is true for disformal transformations is still an open question. In this paper, it is shown that a pure disformal transformation without any conformal factor is equivalent to rescaling the time coordinate. Since this rescaling applies equally to all the physical quantities, physics must be invariant under a disformal transformation, that is, neither causal structure, propagation speed nor any other property of the fields are affected by a disformal transformation itself. This fact is presented at the action level for gravitational and matter fields and it is illustrated with some examples of observable quantities. We also find the physical invariance for cosmological perturbations at linear and high orders in perturbation, extending previous studies. Finally, a comparison with Horndeski and beyond Horndeski theories under a d...
Cosmological Structure Formation
Primack, Joel R
2015-01-01
LCDM is remarkably successful in predicting the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure, and LCDM parameters have been determined with only mild tensions between different types of observations. Hydrodynamical simulations starting from cosmological initial conditions are increasingly able to capture the complex interactions between dark matter and baryonic matter in galaxy formation. Simulations with relatively low resolution now succeed in describing the overall galaxy population. For example, the EAGLE simulation in volumes up to 100 cubic Mpc reproduces the observed local galaxy mass function nearly as well as semi-analytic models. It once seemed that galaxies are pretty smooth, that they generally grow in size as they evolve, and that they are a combination of disks and spheroids. But recent HST observations combined with high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations are showing that most star-forming galaxies are very clumpy; that galaxies often undergo compaction which reduces their radius and ...
Arkani-Hamed, Nima
2015-01-01
We study the imprint of new particles on the primordial cosmological fluctuations. New particles with masses comparable to the Hubble scale produce a distinctive signature on the non-gaussianities. This feature arises in the squeezed limit of the correlation functions of primordial fluctuations. It consists of particular power law, or oscillatory, behavior that contains information about the masses of new particles. There is an angular dependence that gives information about the spin. We also have a relative phase that crucially depends on the quantum mechanical nature of the fluctuations and can be viewed as arising from the interference between two processes. While some of these features were noted before in the context of specific inflationary scenarios, here we give a general description emphasizing the role of symmetries in determining the final result.
Chaos, Dirac observables and constraint quantization
Dittrich, Bianca; Koslowski, Tim A; Nelson, Mike I
2015-01-01
There is good evidence that full general relativity is non-integrable or even chaotic. We point out the severe repercussions: differentiable Dirac observables and a reduced phase space do not exist in non-integrable constrained systems and are thus unlikely to occur in a generic general relativistic context. Instead, gauge invariant quantities generally become discontinuous, thus not admitting Poisson-algebraic structures and posing serious challenges to a quantization. Non-integrability also renders the paradigm of relational dynamics cumbersome, thereby straining common interpretations of the dynamics. We illustrate these conceptual and technical challenges with simple toy models. In particular, we exhibit reparametrization invariant models which fail to be integrable and, as a consequence, can either not be quantized with standard methods or lead to sick quantum theories without a semiclassical limit. These troubles are qualitatively distinct from semiclassical subtleties in unconstrained quantum chaos and...
Hydrodynamics of the Chiral Dirac Spectrum
Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail
2016-01-01
We derive a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the chiral Dirac spectrum in the vacuum and in the large $N$ (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The stochastic relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical instanton configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of localized eigenvalues and unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of de-localized eigenvalues and broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound. We show that the time is $\\Delta \\tau=\\pi\\rho(0)/2\\beta N$ with $\\rho(0)$ the spectral density at zero virtuality and $\\beta=1,2,4$ for the three Dyson ensembles that characterize QCD with different quark representations in the ergodic regime.
Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters
Shen, Shun-Qing
2012-01-01
Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...
Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter
Shen, Shun-Qing
2017-01-01
This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...
From "Dirac combs" to Fourier-positivity
Giraud, Bertrand G
2015-01-01
Motivated by various problems in physics and applied mathematics, we look for constraints and properties of real Fourier-positive functions, i.e. with positive Fourier transforms. Properties of the "Dirac comb" distribution and of its tensor products in higher dimensions lead to Poisson resummation, allowing for a useful approximation formula of a Fourier transform in terms of a limited number of terms. A connection with the Bochner theorem on positive definiteness of Fourier-positive functions is discussed. As a practical application, we find simple and rapid analytic algorithms for checking Fourier-positivity in 1- and (radial) 2-dimensions among a large variety of real positive functions. This may provide a step towards a classification of positive positive-definite functions.
On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution
Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.
2016-01-01
In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.