Sample records for dipropionate scalp formulation

  1. Significant one week efficacy of a calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation

    Jemec, G.B.E.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Enevold, A.;


    of the two-compound scalp formulation after 1 week of treatment. Methods Pooled data from two large pivotal phase III trials with 2920 patients receiving once-daily treatment for up to 8 weeks with either the two-compound scalp formulation (n = 1108), betamethasone dipropionate (n = 1118), calcipotriol (n...

  2. Treatment of paediatric scalp psoriasis with calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation: effectiveness, safety and influence on children's quality of life in daily practice

    Oostveen, A.M.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Donders, A.R.T.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Seyger, M.M.B.


    BACKGROUND: Evidence on efficacy and safety of topical treatments for paediatric scalp psoriasis is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation for paediatric scalp psoriasis in daily clinical practice.

  3. Treatment of paediatric scalp psoriasis with calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation: effectiveness, safety and influence on children's quality of life in daily practice.

    Oostveen, A M; de Jong, E M G J; Donders, A R T; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Seyger, M M B


    Evidence on efficacy and safety of topical treatments for paediatric scalp psoriasis is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation for paediatric scalp psoriasis in daily clinical practice. The influence of this formulation on the quality of life (QoL) was assessed as well. Data of children treated with the scalp formulation were extracted from a prospective observational daily clinical practice registry of children with psoriasis, called Child-Continuous Assessment of Psoriasis Treatment Use Registry. Severity was expressed by Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) and the impact on the QoL was reflected by the validated Children's Scalpdex in Psoriasis (CSP). Eighty-four treatment episodes were analysed. Significant improvements of PSSI score (18.7 ± 11.8 to 12.7 ± 9.4) were demonstrated in the first 12 weeks and this result was well maintained during 48 weeks of follow-up. Three patients (4.1%) developed striae of the skin (arms, trunk and legs), which are possibly related to the scalp formulation. CSP scores (79.0-46.3) declined significantly after 3 months. In a daily clinical practice cohort of children with scalp psoriasis, calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation was effective with a 32.1% improvement of PSSI at week 12 and a maintenance of this effect until 48 weeks of follow-up, in combination with improvement of QoL. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of CFC free inhalers for beclomethasone dipropionate

    Gopala Krishna Murthy Talasila


    Full Text Available Beclomethasone dipropionate CFC free inhalation formulations were developed with a view to treat asthma prophylactically. Dry powder inhalers (DPI for beclomethasone dipropionate were prepared with different grades of lactose monohydrate. The influence of carrier and overages on performance of DPI was studied. Metered dose inhalers (MDI with HFA based propellants were formulated with various doses, overages and different concentrations of alcohol. Formulated DPI and MDI were evaluated for various official and unofficial quality control tests. The influence of over doses on valve delivery, effect of overages on emitted dose and influence of alcohol on spray pattern from MDI were studied. The better fine particle fraction and emitted dose were obtained from the DPI formulated with 10:90 ratio of fine lactose: coarse lactose and with 20% w/w overages. The studies on MDI revealed that the 15% of overdoses are required for effective valve delivery and 20% overages are required for 100% drug delivery. 5-10%v/v alcohol was found to be preferable to get optimum emitted dose and fine particle fraction.

  5. Development of a new formulation combining calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate in an ointment vehicle

    Simonsen, Lene; Høy, Gert; Didriksen, Erik


    Calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate are widely used effective treatments for psoriasis. Combined therapy is known to be superior to monotherapy, but current formulations do not permit simultaneous application as the drug substances will degrade when mixed. The purpose of the study...... was to develop a formulation which combines calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate in a single vehicle hereby achieving optimal delivery of both substances into the skin. As the two substances are incompatible in aqueous and alcoholic medias, different non-aqueous formulations were prepared. Skin permeation...... ether (PSE) had a marked effect. A 5% PSE formulation resulted in a permeation rate comparable to the marketed products. Thus, by using PSE as solvent, it was possible to combine calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate in a single formulation while optimal skin permeability was attained. Recently...

  6. Supersaturation of Calcipotriene and Betamethasone Dipropionate in a Novel Aerosol Foam Formulation for Topical Treatment of Psoriasis Provides Enhanced Bioavailability of the Active Ingredients


    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated the superior efficacy of a novel aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriene 0.005% (Cal) and betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD), compared with the ointment formulation. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether enhanced bioavailability of the active ingredients due to supersaturation and/or occlusive properties can explain the observed greater clinical efficacy. Methods Solubility and evaporation experiments were conduct...

  7. Improvement in Extensive Moderate Plaque Psoriasis With a Novel Emollient Spray Formulation of Betamethasone Dipropionate 0.05.

    Stein Gold, Linda; Jackson, J Mark; Knuckles, Melissa L F; Weiss, Jonathan S


    A novel formulation of 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate in an emollient spray vehicle (DFD-01) was developed to deliver steroid to the skin layers most affected by psoriasis. To compare the efficacy and safety of DFD-01 to its vehicle for the treatment of moderate plaque psoriasis over 4 weeks. Two Phase 3 trials enrolled adults with moderate psoriasis (Investigator Global Assessment [IGA]=3; 10-20% body surface area [BSA]) and randomized them 2:1 to DFD-01 or Vehicle. Products were applied twice daily to affected areas for 28 days. Treatment success was defined as an IGA=0 or 1 and ≥ 2-grade improvement from baseline. Primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects achieving treatment success at day 15. Moderate psoriasis subjects were enrolled in Study 1 (174 DFD-01; 87 Vehicle) and Study 2 (182 DFD-01; 95 Vehicle). Mean BSA was 13-14%. Treatment success was achieved in significantly more subjects using DFD-01 than Vehicle at day 15 in both Study 1 (Peffective choice for topical steroid treatment of psoriasis.

  8. Feasibility of measuring the bioavailability of topical betamethasone dipropionate in commercial formulations using drug content in skin and a skin blanching bioassay.

    Pershing, L K; Silver, B S; Krueger, G G; Shah, V P; Skelley, J P


    An in vivo technique has been developed which simultaneously compares a skin blanching bioassay with drug content in human stratum corneum following topical application of four 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate formulations. Bioavailability of drug from commercial cream and ointment formulations was assessed by quantification of drug content in tape-stripped stratum corneum and skin blanching in the treated skin site under occluded conditions. Tape-stripping removed stratum corneum to a varying degree between individuals but was consistent (35%) within an individual with all formulations, day to day. A correlation (r = 0.9935) between the amount of drug in the treated stratum corneum normalized for surface area and the corresponding skin blanching score was observed with four 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate formulations. Increasing the amount of drug in the tape-stripped stratum corneum correlated with an increased skin blanching score. Ointment formulations delivered more drug to the skin and produced greater blanching scores than the cream formulations. Topical corticosteroid content in the treated skin site can therefore be quantified and correlates well with the resulting pharmacodynamic activity.

  9. Supersaturation of Calcipotriene and Betamethasone Dipropionate in a Novel Aerosol Foam Formulation for Topical Treatment of Psoriasis Provides Enhanced Bioavailability of the Active Ingredients.

    Lind, Marianne; Nielsen, Kim Troensegaard; Schefe, Line Hollesen; Nørremark, Kasper; Eriksson, André Huss; Norsgaard, Hanne; Pedersen, Brian Thoning; Petersson, Karsten


    Previous studies have demonstrated the superior efficacy of a novel aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriene 0.005% (Cal) and betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD), compared with the ointment formulation. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether enhanced bioavailability of the active ingredients due to supersaturation and/or occlusive properties can explain the observed greater clinical efficacy. Solubility and evaporation experiments were conducted to examine the abilities of Cal/BD aerosol foam ingredients to create a supersaturated environment. Optical microscopy, Raman imaging and X-ray powder diffraction were used to examine the physical state of Cal and BD in the formulations after application, and determine whether a supersaturated state remained stable for clinically relevant time periods. In vitro skin penetration and ex vivo biomarker assays were conducted to compare the skin penetration and bioavailability of Cal and BD from the aerosol foam and ointment formulations, respectively. Occlusive properties were examined via transepidermal water loss. Solubility studies showed that Cal and BD solubility increased with increasing dimethyl ether (DME) content. Both active ingredients are completely dissolved in the final aerosol foam formulation. DME rapidly evaporates after spraying, and the amount was reduced to 0.5% of the initial amount after 2 min. This led to the formation of a supersaturated environment, where Cal and BD crystals were absent for at least 26 h after application. Cal/BD aerosol foam had significantly greater in vitro skin penetration and had increased bioavailability compared with Cal/BD ointment. Both formulations effectively occluded the skin. A stable supersaturated solution of Cal/BD in the aerosol foam leads to increased bioavailability and explains the improved clinical effect when compared to the Cal/BD ointment. The studies included in the paper are all conducted by LEO Pharma A/S or CROs on behalf of LEO

  10. Scalp psoriasis.

    Kircik, Leon H; Kumar, Sandeep


    Psoriasis is a chronic, debilitating disease that commonly involves the scalp. Despite a wide range of therapy options, scalp psoriasis remains difficult to treat, highlighting a long-standing unmet need for the safe and effective treatment of scalp psoriasis. Many topical therapies for scalp psoriasis are also difficult or unpleasant to apply, resulting in decreased adherence and efficacy. In brief, the high level of patient dissatisfaction with currently available treatments for psoriasis supports the need for new, effective and well-tolerated treatment options for scalp psoriasis. This article aims to review the efficacy and safety of new formulations and treatment options available to control scalp psoriasis. For example, a new formulation of calcipotriene/betamethasone scalp solution has a rapid onset of action with once daily dosing that improves compliance. The CalePso study examines the safety profile of otherwise established Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05%, and reports that CP shampoo is safe and efficacious in the long-term management of scalp psoriasis. A new foam formulation of coal tar is shown to be cosmetically acceptable and easier to apply.

  11. 2-Bromobeclometasone dipropionate

    Kamal Aziz Ketuly


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of 2-bromobeclometasone dipropionate [systematic name: (8S,9R,10S,11S,13S,14S,16S,17R-2-bromo-9α-chloro-11-hydroxy-10,13,16-trimethyl-3-oxo-17-[2-(propionyloxyacetyl]-6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-3H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl propionate], C28H36BrClO7, the six-membered ring with the 1,4-diene-3-one composition is planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.03 and 0.04 Å for the two independent molecules, whereas the remaining six-membered rings have chair conformations. Each of the independent molecules self-associates via O—H...Opropionate hydrogen bonding, generating a supramolecular chain running along the b axis. The crystal is twinned, with the monoclinic unit cell emulating an orthorhomic crystal system; the major twin component constitutes approximately 60%.

  12. Scalp Micropigmentation

    Pak, Jae P.; Kim, Jino; Estrin, Norman F.


    Background: Cosmetic deformities, resulting from some dermatologic diseases or deformities caused by hair restoration surgeries, have had few, if any, good, permanent solutions. Most of these patients have learned to live with their problems. Objective: A cosmetic tattoo technique has been developed to address unsightly scalp and hair conditions. Materials and Methods: The technique called scalp micropigmentation uses specialized techniques and conventional cosmetic tattoo instruments and pigments in a stippling pattern on the scalp. Results: A variety of alopecias, refractory to treatment and hair transplant deformities, impact millions of men and women. Many of these deformities can be concealed with scalp micropigmentation, making the deformities minimally detectable. Included are the results of treatment. Patient satisfaction is very high. Conclusion: Scalp micropigmentation offers a good nonsurgical alternative treatment for hair and scalp deformities. This paper demonstrates scalp micropigmentation results and discusses the histology, physiology, and pathology of tattoo pigments in the skin. The regulation of the tattoo process by the United States Food and Drug Administration and state governments is summarized. Unlike medical devices, scalp micropigmentation offers a tattoo-based, non-medical “cover-up” that effectively hides unsightly conditions on the scalp and creates the illusion of thicker hair. The authors believe that scalp micropigmentation is destined to become a standardized offering for physicians specializing in cosmetic office procedures. PMID:25852813

  13. Scalp meningioma

    Singh Sunil


    Full Text Available Primary extracranial meningiomas occur very rarely. We present a rare case of extracranial meningioma of the transitional variant which was excised satisfactorily. There was no suggestion of any connection to the intracranial compartment or cranial nerves. The underlying galea was uninvolved, suggesting the true extracranial nature of this tumour. This rare diagnosis should nonetheless be kept in the differential diagnosis of scalp tumors.

  14. Scalp Psoriasis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Scalp psoriasis Overview Scalp psoriasis: When psoriasis forms on the scalp, it can creep beyond the scalp. Scalp psoriasis: Overview Psoriasis (sore-EYE-ah-sis) can appear ...

  15. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  16. Scales on the scalp

    Jamil A


    Full Text Available A five-year-old boy presented with a six-week history of scales, flaking and crusting of the scalp. He had mild pruritus but no pain. He did not have a history of atopy and there were no pets at home. Examination of the scalp showed thick, yellowish dry crusts on the vertex and parietal areas and the hair was adhered to the scalp in clumps. There was non-scarring alopecia and mild erythema (Figure 1 & 2. There was no cervical or occipital lymphadenopathy. The patient’s nails and skin in other parts of the body were normal.

  17. Scalp imaging techniques

    Otberg, Nina; Shapiro, Jerry; Lui, Harvey; Wu, Wen-Yu; Alzolibani, Abdullateef; Kang, Hoon; Richter, Heike; Lademann, Jürgen


    Scalp imaging techniques are necessary tools for the trichological practice and for visualization of permeation, penetration and absorption processes into and through the scalp and for the research on drug delivery and toxicology. The present letter reviews different scalp imaging techniques and discusses their utility. Moreover, two different studies on scalp imaging techniques are presented in this letter: (1) scalp imaging with phototrichograms in combination with laser scanning microscopy, and (2) follicular measurements with cyanoacrylate surface replicas and light microscopy in combination with laser scanning microscopy. The experiments compare different methods for the determination of hair density on the scalp and different follicular measures. An average terminal hair density of 132 hairs cm-2 was found in 6 Caucasian volunteers and 135 hairs cm-2 in 6 Asian volunteers. The area of the follicular orifices accounts to 16.3% of the skin surface on average measured with laser scanning microscopy images. The potential volume of the follicular infundibulum was calculated based on the laser scanning measurements and is found to be 4.63 mm3 per cm2 skin on average. The experiments show that hair follicles are quantitatively relevant pathways and potential reservoirs for topically applied drugs and cosmetics.

  18. Leprosy on the scalp*

    Macedo, Raila de Brito; Santos, Tárcio; Ramos, Paulyane Bezerra Sampaio; Takano, Daniela Mayumi; Leal, Virgínia Sampaio Madeiro


    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This bacillus has a high predilection for skin and peripheral nerves. The scalp’s anatomical properties do not favor the development of such mycobacterium. We report a case of leprosy with scalp involvement, a rare occurrence in our literature.

  19. Cladosporium scalp infection.

    Sosa, Erwin Eduardo Argueta; Cohen, Philip R; Tschen, Jaime A


    An 11-year-old healthy red-haired girl presented with a 3-year history of hair loss and mild pruritus of her scalp. She had previously been diagnosed with trichotillomania. Cutaneous examination showed scant hair loss with neither crusting nor scaly lesions. The scalp hair was diffusely thin, dry, and brittle on the frontal, mid-parietal, and anterior occipital scalp (Figure 1A). A pull test was negative, and a significant number of hair shafts were not detached on repeated traction. Closer examination using a dermatoscope showed follicles with broken hair shafts. The dermatoscopic evaluation also showed frequent pinpoint black dots scattered among the terminal hair shafts at their bases. No scale, scar, or inflammatory changes were seen in the involved areas (Figure 1B). A 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation of material obtained after gentle scrapping of the black dots on the scalp provided fragments of hair fibers containing aggregates of pigmented yeast forms (Figure 2A) and brown septate hyphae (Figure 2B). Two samples were sent for fungal culture and both showed dark brown colonies on the surface and black coloration when viewed from the reverse side (Figure 3A). Lactophenol cotton blue preparation of the fungal colonies revealed long and septate hyphae with laterally branching conidiophores ending in round-shaped conidia (Figure 3B). The microorganism was identified by the reference laboratory as Cladosporium species. The conidia were usually noted to be single-celled with a distinct dark hilum. They also exhibited prominent attachment scars that caused the cells to appear "shield-shaped." These features were considered to be diagnostic for Cladosporium; however, the reference laboratory could not identify the organism to the species level. The girl's Cladosporium scalp infection was treated with itraconazole at an oral daily dose of 200 mg for 2 months. Upon re-evaluation, she showed significant improvement with not only discontinuation of her alopecia

  20. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

    Tanmoy Maiti


    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  1. Angiosarcoma of the scalp.

    Kohen, Denise; Dross, Peter


    Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp is a rare malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells which occurs predominantly in elderly Caucasian males. The etiology is unknown; however the most common association is prior radiation exposure. The diagnosis is often delayed due to misinterpretation for other lesions, including trauma-related bruising and infectious processes such as abscess. Radiologic imaging is non-diagnostic but can be helpful in defining the extent of local disease, as well as distant metastases. Prognosis is poor with a five-year survival rate of less than 30 percent. Treatment guidelines are not well established; however the mainstay is surgical resection with wide margins followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Prognosis remains poor with a local recurrence rate of greater than 80 percent. Adjuvant chemotherapy is also controversial but may play a role in short term palliation of metastatic or locally advanced disease. Current investigations using molecular targeted therapy are underway with the goal of eliminating systemic side effects.

  2. Transient drug supersaturation kinetics of beclomethasone dipropionate in rapidly drying films.

    Reid, Monica L; Jones, Stuart A; Brown, Marc B


    Supersaturation is an effective method to enhance the delivery of active compounds into the skin, however the long-term instability of the drug in these formulations that exceed thermodynamic unity prevents clinical use. The creation of supersaturation in situ by volatile solvent evaporation after application may overcome this. The aim of this study was to determine how altering the kinetics of transient supersaturation and recrystallisation would effect the rate of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) release from metered dose aerosols (MDA) that also consisted of hydrofluoroalkane 134a, ethanol (EtOH), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) K90. An MDA containing 10% EtOH generated a sub-saturated concentration of BDP immediately after dose actuation and did not become supersaturated until 30 min post-actuation. Increasing the EtOH to 20% (w/w) and thus the BDP to 1.76% created supersaturation upon dose actuation but the drug recyrstallised within minutes of application. It was shown that the formulations with higher DS had accelerated rates of release despite rapid recrystallisation (444.9+/-79.3 microg/(cm2 h) for the fastest compared to 206.5+/-23.0 microg/(cm2 h) for the slowest). In highly volatile sprays maintaining BDP supersaturation for extended periods of time was less important than generating instantaneous, high levels of supersaturation to enhance drug release.

  3. Diffuse heterochromia of scalp hair.

    Lee, W S; Lee, I W; Ahn, S K


    Heterochromia of hair is the presence of more than one distinct color of hair in the same person. A color difference between scalp hair and a mustache or sideburns is not uncommon. Pubic and axillary hair and eyebrows and eyelashes are often darker than scalp hair in a fair-haired person. Rarely, a circumscribed patch of hair of different colors occurs. However, diffuse heterochromia of black and red scalp hair has not been previously reported. We describe a father and son with this condition.

  4. Scalp Micropigmentation: A Concealer for Hair and Scalp Deformities


    Background: Cosmetic deformities, resulting from some dermatologic diseases or deformities caused by hair restoration surgeries, have had few, if any, good, permanent solutions. Most of these patients have learned to live with their problems. Objective: A cosmetic tattoo technique has been developed to address unsightly scalp and hair conditions. Materials and Methods: The technique called scalp micropigmentation uses specialized techniques and conventional cosmetic tattoo instruments and pig...

  5. Long-term beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol therapy in juvenile asthma.

    Francis, R S


    Following a short-term clinical trial reported elsewhere, beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol has been given to 15 children with asthma for between 2 1/2 and 3 years except for a short placebo period after the first year. Month-by-month records of wheezing, peak flow rate, and other treatments used are presented for the first 17 months, adrenocortical function tests are reported for the first 2 years, and growth is recorded for 2 1/2-3 years. The short-term clinical benefits of the treatment are confirmed in the longer term, adrenocortical function appears to be unchanged, and growth proceeds along expected lines. The main disadvantage seems to be worsening of eczema and allergic rhinitis in those children who have ceased using corticotrophin or oral steroids for the control of asthma. It is concluded that in the long term beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol provides safe and effective day-to-day control of asthma in children, although occasional recourse to systemic steroid therapy cannot be avoided. Oral candidasis has not been a clinical problem.

  6. Anaesthesia for a "Scalped" Patient.

    Rizvi, M M; Singh, Raj Bahadur; Sarkar, Arindam; Choubey, Sanjay


    Trichilemmal carcinoma of scalp is a rare malignant tumour of scalp. A 52-year-old female presented with an extensive ulcerative lesion of the scalp. As the location of the tumour was in the occipital region and there was loss of bony skull in the region, this case became challenging. This patient was managed in the left lateral which was a difficult situation for even the experienced Anaesthesiologist. Intravenous access was acquired, central venous catheter (CVC) was placed in the right internal jugular vein under ultrasonography (USG) guidance and intubation was carried out in the lateral position. After the procedure, patient was again returned to the left lateral position. The trachea was extubated in the lateral position once the patient was awake, after thorough reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Patient had an uneventful postoperative period. This case report highlights the management of an unusual case of Trichilemmal carcinoma of the scalp.

  7. Minoxidil topical treatment may be more efficient if applied on damp scalp in comparison with dry scalp.

    Angelo, T; Barbalho, G N; Gelfuso, G M; Gratieri, T


    There is yet no consensus among prescribers whether minoxidil (MXD) formulations should be applied on wet/damp or dry scalp and no clear FDA guidelines on the matter. We hypothesized that the use of MXD on damp scalp may lead to higher drug penetration. First, because the drug diffusion and consequent deposition into the hair follicle may be favored when follicle cast is humid. Second, because humidity may also prevent drug crystallization and, therefore, maintain a higher thermodynamic activity for longer periods, which leads to increased penetration. Following in vitro experiments on rat and porcine skin we confirmed the hypothesis, which could markedly improve treatment effectiveness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Beclomethasone dipropionate enema in ulcerative colitis: Is it safe?

    Luboshitzky, Rafael; Rachelis, Zoia; Nussensone, Elchanan; Ishay, Avraham


    Objective: To evaluate the pituitary-adrenal axis (PA axis) reserve in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with steroid enemas, we performed 1mug ACTH test.Methods: Patients with UC (n=8) given beclomethasone dipropionate enema (Betnesol) for 4 weeks. Fasting serum cortisol and the response at 30 and 60 minutes following an IV 1mug ACTH injection were determined after 2 weeks of Betnesol enemas. Patients were retested, one month after discontinuation of enemas.Results: Fasting and peak cortisol responses to ACTH were suppressed in six patients. Additional patient had suppressed fasting cortisol and another patient had blunted response to ACTH. One month off Betnesol enema, basal and peak cortisol response to ACTH were normal in all but one patient.Conclusion: Betnesol enemas are associated with severe suppression of the PA axis in almost all patients. Caution is required in patients with UC after withdrawal of rectal steroids as adrenal insufficiency can occur.

  9. Humidity affects the morphology of particles emitted from beclomethasone dipropionate pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Ivey, James W; Bhambri, Pallavi; Church, Tanya K; Lewis, David A; McDermott, Mark T; Elbayomy, Shereen; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard


    The effects of propellant type, cosolvent content, and air humidity on the morphology and solid phase of the particles produced from solution pressurized metered dose inhalers containing the corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate were investigated. The active ingredient was dissolved in the HFA propellants 134a and 227ea with varying levels of the cosolvent ethanol and filled into pressurized metered dose inhalers. Inhalers were actuated into an evaporation chamber under controlled temperature and humidity conditions and sampled using a single nozzle, single stage inertial impactor. Particle morphology was assessed qualitatively using field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-helium ion microscopy. Drug solid phase was assessed using Raman microscopy. The relative humidity of the air during inhaler actuation was found to have a strong effect on the particle morphology, with solid spheroidal particles produced in dry air and highly porous particles produced at higher humidity levels. Air humidification was found to have no effect on the solid phase of the drug particles, which was predominantly amorphous for all tested formulations. A critical level of air relative humidity was required to generate porous particles for each tested formulation. This critical relative humidity was found to depend on the amount of ethanol used in the inhaler, but not on the type of propellant utilized. The results indicate that under the right circumstances water vapor saturation followed by nucleated water condensation or ice deposition occurs during particle formation from evaporating propellant-cosolvent-BDP droplets. This finding reveals the importance of condensed water or ice as a templating agent for porosity when particle formation occurs at saturated conditions, with possible implications on the pharmacokinetics of solution pMDIs and potential applications in particle engineering for drug delivery.

  10. Synthesis of 7. cap alpha. -chloro-16. cap alpha. -methylprednisolone 17. cap alpha. ,21-dipropionate-4-/sup 14/C (alclometasone dipropionate-4-/sup 14/C). [Antiinflammatory Agent

    Terasawa, Tadao; Atsumi, Kazunori; Yokoshima, Tetsuyoshi; Ohyabu, Shintaro; Fukasaku, Noboru


    In order to study the bioavailability, metabolism and protein-binding effects of the new antiinflammatory corticoid, alclometasone dipropionate, it was required to obtain the biochemically stable /sup 14/C-labelled substrate. In the present publication we describe an efficient synthesis of the title compound.

  11. Scalp Mycetoma- A Diagnostic Puzzle

    Maiti P K


    Full Text Available A 30 year old male with a history of avulsion injury of scalp presented with discharging sinuses one year after wound repair. Patients was admitted in Neuro-Sugery unit. Subsequently microscopic grains were detected from the sinuses and N. Asteroides was grown in culture. Patient was treated with contrimoxazole. One year follow up showed clinical recovery.

  12. Segmented heterochromia in scalp hair.

    Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kim, Daehwan; Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Won Soo


    Segmented heterochromia of scalp hair is characterized by the irregularly alternating segmentation of hair into dark and light bands and is known to be associated with iron deficiency anemia. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with segmented heterochromia associated with iron deficiency anemia. After 11 months of iron replacement, the boy's segmented heterochromic hair recovered completely.

  13. Treatment of multiple scalp cylindroma

    Radmilo Rončević


    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare, benign adnexal tumor of the skin. The most frequent tumor location is the head, especially the scalp, and neck area. This type of tumor can occur as solitary or multiple tumors. Tumor diagnosis is relatively easy and is based on clinical findings and biopsy. The therapy of choice is surgical excision with parts or entire scalp excision depending on whether it is solitary or multiple tumor. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with multiple scalp tumors of 0.5–6 cm in diameter. An entire scalp excision was performed and the postoperative wounds (i.e., the periosteum of the skull and the fascia galea were covered with free skin graft of partial thickness. In order to prevent profuse bleeding, we placed a tourniquet around his head and performed bilateral temporary ligature of temporal artery prior to surgery. During the nine-year follow-up, there were no new tumors or tumor recurrence reported.

  14. [Teaching design of mastering scalp acupuncture fast].

    Li, Jie; Niu, Wenmin


    Scalp acupuncture is a method of treating whole-body diseases. The author takes the easy positioning of scalp acupuncture as starting point, covers the positioning of scalp acupuncture and needle insertion points, acupuncture manipulation and the selection of acupoints, so as to introduce the design of teaching the international standardized scalp acupuncture with texts and illustrations. The positions of scalp acupuncture are 4 lines in frontal area, 5 lines in parietal area, 2 lines in temporal area and 3 lines in occipital area. The needle insertion angle is 30° to the skin. Acupoints can be selected crossly and correspondingly in clinic.

  15. Prescription of high-potency corticosteroid agents and clotrimazole-betamethasone dipropionate by pediatricians.

    Fleischer, A B; Feldman, S R


    Family physicians, internists, and pediatricians are more likely to prescribe combination topical antifungal-topical corticosteroid preparations than are dermatologists. One such preparation, clotrimazole-betamethasone dipropionate, can cause atrophy because it has a high-potency corticosteroid component. We analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for visits to pediatricians from 1990 to 1994 and isolated visits at which a topical corticosteroid agent or clotrimazole-betamethasone dipropionate was prescribed. Pediatricians rarely prescribed single-agent, high-potency topical corticosteroid agents in managing patients with skin disorders. High-potency corticosteroid agents accounted for 5.0% of topical corticosteroid prescriptions, whereas 56.3% were low-potency and 38.7% were medium-potency agents. Of the 696,285 mentions of clotrimazole-betamethasone dipropionate, 56.4% (389,920) were for children aged newborn to 4 years; diagnoses were erythematodesquamatous dermatoses, diaper rash, tinea, well-baby visit, and candidiasis. In contrast, for dermatologists nationwide, no drug mention existed for this combination agent for children aged newborn to 4 years over the 5-year study period. Our results show that clotrimazole-betamethasone dipropionate is prescribed inappropriately by pediatricians, especially in the treatment of young children. Pediatricians rarely use high-potency topical corticosteroid agents, but most of their use of clotrimazole-betamethasone dipropionate is in the youngest children, in whom such corticosteroid use is least appropriate. This prescription pattern suggests that some pediatricians may be unaware that clotrimazole-betamethasone dipropionate has a high-potency cortico steroid component.

  16. Primary epithelioid sarcoma of scalp

    Sushma G Gurwale


    Full Text Available Epithelioid sarcoma (ES is a rare mesenchymal tumor of unknown histogenesis which displays multidirectional differentiation, predominantly epithelial. They have no normal cellular counterpart and differ from both synovial sarcoma and other carcinomas. It mainly affects young adults. It has two variants, classic type and proximal type. The more common classic type presents as a slowly growing painless nodule or plaque on the distal extremities. It is rare in children and older individuals. There is male predominance. The size varies from few millimeters to several centimeters. Central deeply seated lesions in pelvis and genital tract are termed as proximal ES. It has a multinodular growth pattern and usually occurs in older patients. These are comparatively more aggressive and metastasize early. On histopathological examination, these lesions need to be distinguished from other tumors showing epithelioid morphology. Primary ES of scalp is an exceedingly rare tumor. We present a case of nodular tumor on the scalp with cervical lymph node metastasis.

  17. Adrenal function in children with bronchial asthma treated with beclomethasone dipropionate or budesonide

    Bisgaard, H; Damkjaer Nielsen, M; Andersen, B;


    The effect of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate and budesonide on the adrenal function was studied in 30 children (aged 7 to 15 years) with mild bronchial asthma. The trial was designed as a prospective double-blind parallel study of the effect of stepwise increase of either beclomethasone...... difference was found between the two topical steroids (probability value 5.3%), and yet the suppression was apparent in the group of children treated with beclomethasone dipropionate but not in the group of children treated with budesonide. Further studies are desirable in order to ascertain whether...

  18. The effects of increased penetration of betamethasone dipropionate in a propylene glycol base (Diprolene) for psoriasis.

    Kansky, A


    The efficacy and safety of betamethasone dipropionate, 0.05% in a propylene glycol base (Diprolene), was investigated in an open, fixed-dose study of thirty-one patients with resistant psoriasis. Clearing of lesions or marked improvement occurred in 97% (thirty out of thirty-one) of patients. Increased penetration of corticosteroid did not cause adrenal suppression or other adverse reactions.

  19. Scalp Psoriasis vs. Seborrheic Dermatitis: What's the Difference?

    ... does a doctor tell the difference between scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp? Answers from ... such as pitting. Compare signs and symptoms Scalp psoriasis Red skin covered with flakes and silvery scales ...

  20. Comparative effectiveness of 0.1% metilprednisolone aceponate and 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce

    Ceballos-González, Sergio; Torres-Cantero, César; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Muñiz, Jesús; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Vásquez, Clemente


    .... betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce. Between August 2001 and November 2002, we carried out a double blind and controlled clinical trial in 34 children with a diagnosis of nonretracable prepuce...

  1. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana


    and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions......Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...

  2. [Effectiveness of scalp cooling in chemotherapy].

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie; Lemieux, Renald


    The main objectives of this literature review are to determine if scalp cooling is efficient and safe, if there are side effects and if the patients' quality of life improves. In terms of effectiveness, scalp cooling seems to get good performance in its aim to prevent hair loss in patients receiving chemotherapy. The weighted average results of all identified studies indicate that this technology allows for 63.5% of patients to have a good preservation of their hair. In studies with a group of control, the weighted rates of good preservation of the hair are 50.6% with scalp cooling and 16.3% without. From the standpoint of safety technology, the main risk is that of scalp metastases. However, no study has successfully demonstrated a statistically significant difference between groups of patients receiving chemotherapy with or without scalp cooling.

  3. Expert recommendations: the use of the fixed combination calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate gel for the topical treatment of psoriasis.

    Daudén, E; Bewley, A; Lambert, J; Girolomoni, G; Cambazard, F; Reich, K


    Treatment non-adherence is a general challenge and a complex problem. It is a key factor that impacts the 'real-life' effectiveness of topical treatments for chronic disorders, such as psoriasis. Here, we provide our expert opinion on the real-life effectiveness of topical psoriasis treatment, using the fixed combination gel (Daivobet(®) gel; calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate) as a case study. The fixed combination gel is a first-line topical treatment for mild-to-moderate psoriasis, developed to be the gold-standard therapy for psoriasis patients. This fixed combination gel is an effective and well-tolerated topical psoriasis treatment that the majority of our patients prefer to the ointment formulation. We assessed our real-life experience and considered any gaps between daily practice and clinical trials data. We recommend a multifaceted approach to improve real-life effectiveness and bridge the gap between investigational trials and treatment reality and propose the following recommendations: (1) educate primary healthcare providers on how to effectively manage topical psoriasis treatment and the patients who use the treatment; (2) educate the patient on why treatment needs to be maintained, even when symptoms improve; and (3) provide a supportive environment that will not allow the patient to feel abandoned. A patient-centric approach may improve adherence, which will lead to patients receiving more effective treatment for psoriasis.

  4. Development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of clotrimazole and beclomethasone dipropionate in lotion and cream dosage form

    Komal R Dhudashia


    Full Text Available Background: The combination of Clotrimazole and Beclomethasone dipropionate is used as anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory for external use in the form of cream and lotion. Aim: A simple, specific, economic, precise, and accurate reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method development for the simultaneous estimation of clotrimazole (CT and beclomethasone dipropionate (BD in lotion and cream formulations. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm analytical column. A mixture of acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v was used as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detector wavelength at 254 nm. The validation of the proposed method was carried out for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and system suitability test as per ICH guideline. Results: The retention time of CT and BD was found to be 5.4 and 4 min, respectively. The linear dynamic ranges were from 2-16 μg/ml and 80-640 μg/ml for BD and CT, respectively. Limit of detection and quantification for BD were 0.039 and 0.12 μg/ml, for CT 1.24 and 3.77 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The developed method was validated and found to be simple, specific, accurate and precise and can be used for routine quality control analysis of titled drugs in combination in lotion and cream formulation.


    Maria Bibiana Leroux


    Full Text Available The trichoscopy has been incorporated as a first hand method in patients consulting for scalp problems. Magnifying glass or digital microscope that permit the direct visualization of the hair shaft and the perifolicullar skin are utilized to diagnose cicatricial and non-cicatricial alopecia. A female patient with an alopecia plaque associated with a scalp dysesthesia in which trichoscopy was very useful in its diagnosis is presented.

  6. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05%: a new option to treat patients with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

    Jarratt, Michael; Breneman, Debra; Gottlieb, Alice B; Poulin, Yves; Liu, Yin; Foley, Valerie


    Psoriasis is a chronic, papulosquamous condition that affects up to 2% of the U.S. population. Approximately 50% of patients with psoriasis have involvement of the scalp. This was a multicentre, randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-masked and parallel-group study. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo, 0.05% versus its corresponding vehicle in subjects aged 12 years and older with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis over a treatment period of 4 weeks. Recurrence of scalp psoriasis was assessed during a two week follow-up period. A total of 142 subjects were treated. Results after 4 weeks demonstrated that clobetasol propionate shampoo, 0.05% was with a similar safety profile significantly more effective than its vehicle. The novel short contact shampoo formulation of clobetasol propionate is convenient and efficacious and minimizes systemic exposure while being efficient, safe and well-tolerated in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  7. On the Keyhole Hypothesis: High Mutual Information between Ear and Scalp EEG

    Kaare B. Mikkelsen


    Full Text Available We propose and test the keyhole hypothesis—that measurements from low dimensional EEG, such as ear-EEG reflect a broadly distributed set of neural processes. We formulate the keyhole hypothesis in information theoretical terms. The experimental investigation is based on legacy data consisting of 10 subjects exposed to a battery of stimuli, including alpha-attenuation, auditory onset, and mismatch-negativity responses and a new medium-long EEG experiment involving data acquisition during 13 h. Linear models were estimated to lower bound the scalp-to-ear capacity, i.e., predicting ear-EEG data from simultaneously recorded scalp EEG. A cross-validation procedure was employed to ensure unbiased estimates. We present several pieces of evidence in support of the keyhole hypothesis: There is a high mutual information between data acquired at scalp electrodes and through the ear-EEG “keyhole,” furthermore we show that the view—represented as a linear mapping—is stable across both time and mental states. Specifically, we find that ear-EEG data can be predicted reliably from scalp EEG. We also address the reverse view, and demonstrate that large portions of the scalp EEG can be predicted from ear-EEG, with the highest predictability achieved in the temporal regions and when using ear-EEG electrodes with a common reference electrode.

  8. Results of scalp cooling during anthracycline containing chemotherapy depend on scalp skin temperature

    Komen, M.M.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Nortier, J.W.; Ploeg, T. van der; Hurk, C.J. van den; Hoeven, J.J. van der


    OBJECTIVES: The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients undergoing similar chemotherapy regimens. A decrease of the scalp skin temperature seems to be an important factor, but data on the optimum temperature reached

  9. Correlation of invasive EEG and scalp EEG.

    Ramantani, Georgia; Maillard, Louis; Koessler, Laurent


    Ever since the implementation of invasive EEG recordings in the clinical setting, it has been perceived that a considerable proportion of epileptic discharges present at a cortical level are missed by routine scalp EEG recordings. Several in vitro, in vivo, and simulation studies have been performed in the past decades aiming to clarify the interrelations of cortical sources with their scalp and invasive EEG correlates. The amplitude ratio of cortical potentials to their scalp EEG correlates, the extent of the cortical area involved in the discharge, as well as the localization of the cortical source and its geometry have been each independently linked to the recording of the cortical discharge with scalp electrodes. The need to elucidate these interrelations has been particularly imperative in the field of epilepsy surgery with its rapidly growing EEG-based localization technologies. Simultaneous multiscale EEG recordings with scalp, subdural and/or depth electrodes, applied in presurgical epilepsy workup, offer an excellent opportunity to shed some light to this fundamental issue. Whereas past studies have considered predominantly neocortical sources in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, current investigations have included deep sources, as in mesial temporal epilepsy, as well as extratemporal sources. Novel computational tools may serve to provide surrogates for the shortcomings of EEG recording methodology and facilitate further developments in modern electrophysiology.

  10. Monitoring the initial pulmonary absorption of two different beclomethasone dipropionate aerosols employing a human lung reperfusion model

    Fritz Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pulmonary residence time of inhaled glucocorticoids as well as their rate and extend of absorption into systemic circulation are important facets of their efficacy-safety profile. We evaluated a novel approach to elucidate the pulmonary absorption of an inhaled glucocorticoid. Our objective was to monitor and compare the combined process of drug particle dissolution, pro-drug activation and time course of initial distribution from human lung tissue into plasma for two different glucocorticoid formulations. Methods We chose beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP delivered by two different commercially available HFA-propelled metered dose inhalers (Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™ and Ventolair®/Qvar™. Initially we developed a simple dialysis model to assess the transfer of BDP and its active metabolite from human lung homogenate into human plasma. In a novel experimental setting we then administered the aerosols into the bronchus of an extracorporally ventilated and reperfused human lung lobe and monitored the concentrations of BDP and its metabolites in the reperfusion fluid. Results Unexpectedly, we observed differences between the two aerosol formulations Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™ and Ventolair®/Qvar™ in both the dialysis as well as in the human reperfusion model. The HFA-BDP formulated as Ventolair®/Qvar™ displayed a more rapid release from lung tissue compared to Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™. We succeeded to explain and illustrate the observed differences between the two aerosols with their unique particle topology and divergent dissolution behaviour in human bronchial fluid. Conclusion We conclude that though the ultrafine particles of Ventolair®/Qvar™ are beneficial for high lung deposition, they also yield a less desired more rapid systemic drug delivery. While the differences between Sanasthmax®/Becloforte™ and Ventolair®/Qvar™ were obvious in both the dialysis and lung perfusion experiments, the latter

  11. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD


    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  12. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;


    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  13. Nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia in black scalp hair.

    Faulkner, C; Godbolt, A M; Messenger, A G; Jones, S K


    Nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia in black scalp hair is a rarely reported entity, the only previous report being described in association with iron deficiency anaemia. A 14-year-old girl presented with a 2-year history of nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia. She was otherwise well and her serum iron, copper, zinc and protein levels were all within the normal range. She had no clinical evidence of vitiligo or alopecia areata. This patient is believed to represent the first reported case of nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia in black scalp hair as a presentation of premature greying of the hair.

  14. Adrenal function in children with bronchial asthma treated with beclomethasone dipropionate or budesonide

    Bisgaard, H; Damkjaer Nielsen, M; Andersen, B;


    dipropionate or budesonide from 200 micrograms through 400 micrograms, to 800 micrograms daily in three consecutive periods of 4 weeks. At the end of each period, the adrenal stress response was evaluated by measurements of serum cortisol and androstenedione during a short adrenocorticotropic hormone test....... The unstimulated diurnal production of glucocorticosteroids was assessed by measurements of free cortisol in 24-hour urine samples. Free cortisol in urine was found a valid measure of the total diurnal excretion of cortisol metabolites, since it exhibited a good correlation to the fractional cortisol metabolites...

  15. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form

    Darwish, Hany W.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Saad, Ahmed S.; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi


    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models.

  16. Human botfly larva in a child's scalp.

    Liebert, Peter S; Madden, Robert C


    The botfly is the name for several families of hairy flies the larvae of which live as parasites in the bodies of mammals. Reported are the presentation, diagnosis, and noninvasive therapy for a botfly larva in the scalp of a 14 year old.

  17. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    Wagenblast, Lene


    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area.

  18. [Treatment of autism with scalp acupunctur].

    Li, Nuo; Jin, Bing-Xu; Li, Jie-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Huan


    To verify the efficacy on autism treated with scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice in children. Seventy cases of child autism were divided into an observation group (30 cases) and a control group (40 cases). In observation group, the cases were treated with scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice, in combination with music therapy and structure education method. Scalp acupuncture was applied to intelligent nine needles (frontal five needles, Sishencong (EX-HN 1)), affection area, heart and liver area, once a day, at the interval once every one week. Totally, 60 treatments made one session. In control group, music therapy and structure education method were applied simply. Clancy Autism Behavior Scale, Childhood Autism Behavior Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Gesell Developmental Scale (social adaptive behaviors and language development) were adopted to assess the scores before treatment and after 1 session of treatment. After treatment, the scores in Clancy Autism Behavior Scale, CARS and ABC were lower apparently in observation group as compared with those before treatment (all P 0.05). Scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice can significantly improve the efficacy on autism, effectively relieve child autism symptoms and enhance the intelligence, language ability and social adaptive ability. Moreover, the efficacy cannot be impacted by child's age.

  19. Towards the bioequivalence of pressurised metered dose inhalers 1: design and characterisation of aerodynamically equivalent beclomethasone dipropionate inhalers with and without glycerol as a non-volatile excipient.

    Lewis, D A; Young, P M; Buttini, F; Church, T; Colombo, P; Forbes, B; Haghi, M; Johnson, R; O'Shea, H; Salama, R; Traini, D


    A series of semi-empirical equations were utilised to design two solution based pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations, with equivalent aerosol performance but different physicochemical properties. Both inhaler formulations contained the drug, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), a volatile mixture of ethanol co-solvent and propellant (hydrofluoroalkane-HFA). However, one formulation was designed such that the emitted aerosol particles contained BDP and glycerol, a common inhalation particle modifying excipient, in a 1:1 mass ratio. By modifying the formulation parameters, including actuator orifice, HFA and metering volumes, it was possible to produce two formulations (glycerol-free and glycerol-containing) which had identical mass median aerodynamic diameters (2.4μm±0.1 and 2.5μm±0.2), fine particle dose (⩽5μm; 66μg±6 and 68μg±2) and fine particle fractions (28%±2% and 30%±1%), respectively. These observations demonstrate that it is possible to engineer formulations that generate aerosol particles with very different compositions to have similar emitted dose and in vitro deposition profiles, thus making them equivalent in terms of aerosol performance. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of each formulation identified significant differences in terms of morphology, thermal properties and drug dissolution of emitted particles. The particles produced from both formulations were amorphous; however, the formulation containing glycerol generated particles with a porous structure, while the glycerol-free formulation generated particles with a primarily spherical morphology. Furthermore, the glycerol-containing particles had a significantly lower dissolution rate (7.8%±2.1%, over 180min) compared to the glycerol-free particles (58.0%±2.9%, over 60min) when measured using a Franz diffusion cell. It is hypothesised that the presence of glycerol in the emitted aerosol particles altered solubility and drug transport, which may have

  20. Effects of topical administration of beclomethazone dipropionate on the symptoms of chronic rhinitis

    Ursulović Dejan D.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate on common nasal symptoms in moderate allergic and non-allergic hyperreactive eosinophilic rhinitis, and in allergic and non-allergic hyperreactive eosinophilic rhinitis associated with bilateral moderate nasal polyposis. The study was prospective and controlled. During the study 106 patients were examined, out of whom 66 were treated, while 40 had no therapy. Beclomethasone diproprionate nasal spray was administered in the daily dose of 400 çg. Patients with isolated rhinitis underwent 3 otorhinolaryngologic examinations during the six-week treatment. Patients with nasal polyposis underwent 4 otorhinolaryngologic examinations during six-month treatment. One-week therapy showed highly significant decrease of the average score of symptoms of isolated rhinitis in relation to basal condition. No further significant change was noted after six-week therapy. Six-week therapy of nasal polyposis exerted significantly reduced score of symptoms in relation to basic condition. During further treatment no significant reduction of symptoms was noted. Follow-up period of all control subgroups showed no significant change of symptom scores. Topical therapy with beclomethasone dipropionate represented a significant medication of the first therapeutic line in moderate isolated eosinophilic rhinitis, as well as in moderate bilateral eosinophilic nasal polyposis.

  1. Theileria equi isolates vary in susceptibility to imidocarb dipropionate but demonstrate uniform in vitro susceptibility to a bumped kinase inhibitor

    The apicomplexan hemoparasite Theileria equi is a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis, eradicated from the United States in 1988. However, recent outbreaks have sparked renewed interest in treatment options for infected horses. Imidocarb dipropionate is the current drug of choice, however variat...

  2. Surgical management of large scalp infantile hemangiomas

    Imad S Khan


    Full Text Available Background: Infantile Hemangiomas (IH are the most common benign tumor of infancy, occurring in over 10% of newborns. While most IHs involute and never require intervention, some scalp IHs may cause severe cosmetic deformity and threaten tissue integrity that requires surgical excision. Case Description: We present our experience with two infants who presented with large scalp IH. After vascular imaging, the patients underwent surgical resection of the IH and primary wound closure with excellent cosmetic outcome. We detail the surgical management of these cases and review the relevant literature. Conclusion: In some cases the IHs leave behind fibro-fatty residuum causing contour deformity. Surgery is often required for very large lesions causing extensive anatomical and/or functional disruption. The goal of surgical intervention is to restore normal anatomic contour and shape while minimizing the size of the permanent scar.

  3. Scalp abscess--a cautionary tale.

    Nugent, Nora F


    Transcranial extension of frontal sinus infection is a rare, but not eradicated entity. We present a 21-year-old male, in whom a persistent scalp abscess heralded the discovery of skull vault osteomyelitis and extradural abscesses secondary to frontal sinusitis. Patients with prolonged or unusual symptoms with a history of sinusitis or trauma warrant further investigation as they may have developed serious intracranial complications. Urgent management, both surgical and antimicrobial, is indicated in such scenarios.

  4. The role of full thickness scalp resection for management of primary scalp melanoma

    Pannucci, Christopher J.; Collar, Ryan M.; Johnson, Timothy M.; Bradford, Carol R.; Rees, Riley S.


    BACKGROUND Scalp melanoma is aggressive and has a proclivity for regional metastasis. We hypothesize that subperiosteal scalp melanoma resection reduces in-transit/satellite recurrence, when compared to subgaleal resection. METHODS We identified patients with intermediate to deep, primary scalp melanoma referred to head/neck surgery over an eight-year period. Patients were compared based on scalp resection depth, including subperiosteal (resection to the level of calvarium) and subgaleal (resection including skin, subcutaneous tissue, and galea). The dependent variables were in-transit/satellite recurrence and time to in-transit/satellite recurrence. RESULTS Among 48 identified patients, the in-transit/satellite recurrence rate was 16.7%. Subgaleal resection patients had higher in-transit/satellite recurrence rates than subperiosteal resection patients (24.0% vs. 8.7%, p=0.155). Among node-negative patients, subgaleal resection had significantly higher in-transit/satellite metastasis rates when compared to subperiosteal resection (26.3% vs. 0%, p=0.047). CONCLUSION For node-negative, primary scalp melanoma, subperiosteal resection significantly decreases in-transit/satellite recurrence when compared to subgaleal resection. Given our small sample size, further studies are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:21734540

  5. Salicylic Acid 6% in an ammonium lactate emollient foam vehicle in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Kircik, Leon


    Scalp psoriasis is a common life-altering skin condition causing a great deal of distress. It significantly affects quality of life and is difficult to manage. Treatment can provide variable results, often impacting patient compliance with therapy. Salicylic acid is used as adjunctive therapy to other topical treatments because of its marked keratolytic effect. Its effectiveness as a monotherapy is not fully understood. An emollient foam formulation of 6% salicylic acid (Salkera) in an ammonium lactate vehicle has recently become available. Efficacy, tolerability and patient acceptability of salicylic acid 6% emollient foam were assessed in an open-label pilot study of 10 subjects with scalp psoriasis. All psoriasis severity parameters were reduced with a significant decrease in Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) score from 15.3 to 3.0 after four weeks of monotherapy (PSalicylic acid 6% emollient foam provides a useful option in the treatment of psoriasis that is highly effective, well tolerated and acceptable to patients.

  6. Review of clinical applications of scalp acupuncture for paralysis: an excerpt from chinese scalp acupuncture.

    Hao, Jason Jishun; Hao, Linda Lingzhi


    Chinese scalp acupuncture is a contemporary acupuncture technique integrating traditional Chinese needling methods with Western medical knowledge of representative areas of the cerebral cortex. It has been proven to be a most effective technique for treating acute and chronic central nervous system disorders. Scalp acupuncture often produces remarkable results with just a few needles and usually brings about immediate improvement, sometimes taking only several seconds to a minute. Acupuncture, a therapeutic technique of Oriental Medicine, can be traced back more than 2500 years. Throughout its long history, acupuncture has evolved as its own unique traditional medicine. By embracing newly developed knowledge and technology, the profession continues to create additional methods of treatment. Techniques such as electrical and laser acupuncture and even new acupuncture points are currently being developed. We believe scalp acupuncture, which integrates Western medicine with Traditional Chinese Medicine, to be the most significant development that Chinese acupuncture has made in the past 60 years.

  7. Dermoscopy of Scalp Melanoma: Report of Three Cases

    Antonella Tosti


    Full Text Available Scalp melanoma is rare and often late-discovered because of its unusual position. As a consequence, its prognosis is poorer than melanoma on other body sites and only few clinical reports about its dermoscopic pattern have been published. In this paper, we report three clinical cases of scalp melanoma with photographic documentation and dermoscopic images, in order to improve the early detection of scalp melanoma.

  8. [Comparative effectiveness of 0.1% metilprednisolone aceponate and 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce].

    Ceballos-González, Sergio; Torres-Cantero, César; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Muñiz, Jesús; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Vásquez, Clemente


    To compare clinical improvement between treatment with metilprednisolone aceponate vs. betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce. Between August 2001 and November 2002, we carried out a double blind and controlled clinical trial in 34 children with a diagnosis of nonretracable prepuce. Children were randomly assigned to one of the following groups and topical treatment was administered: Group A; metilprednisolone aceponate 0. I 1% and Group B; betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. Improvement was noted in 88.2% of our sample studied; (n= 15) children from group A and 76.4% (n= 13) childrenfrom group B; however, we did not observe a significant difference when comparing percentages between the two groups (chi2 = 0.2; p = 0.6). The percentage of clinical improvement was similar between the two groups of topical steroid treatment administered.

  9. Eccrine cylindroma of the face and scalp

    Indu Manicketh


    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine differentiation. Clinically, they are disfiguring lesions that can mimic a malignancy. Cylindromas can be single or multiple and commonly involve the scalp (turban tumor and face. Multiple cylindromas can have a syndromic association as seen in Brooke–Spiegler syndrome and familial cylindromatosis. We present a case of non familial cylindroma of the face that clinically mimicked a basal cell carcinoma. The histopathology was confirmatory. Herein we also highlight the utility of a simple and inexpensive histochemical stain Periodic Acid Schiff in supporting the diagnosis.

  10. Once-daily application of calcipotriene 0.005%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% ointment for repigmentation of facial vitiligo.

    Newman, Marissa D; Silverberg, Nanette B


    Vitiligo vulgaris is an autoimmune pigmentary disorder with no universally efficacious therapeutic options. Separate applications of calcipotriene ointment 0.005% and topical corticosteroid ointments have been successful in the repigmentation of vitiligo. We sought to examine the efficacy of a combination calcipotriene 0.005%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% ointment in the repigmentation of vitiligo. An institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review was conducted in 13 pediatric and adult patients with vitiligo treated with calcipotriene 0.005%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% ointment once daily for at least 2 months. Two of 3 children had 76% to 100% repigmentation of facial vitiligo with once-daily usage after 2 months. Of the 10 adults (aged 28-55 years), 1 had 100% facial repigmentation in 3 months, 1 had 76% to 99% facial repigmentation in 5 to 9 months, and 2 had 26% to 50% repigmentation in 3 months. Twelve patients developed some facial repigmentation. No patients experienced atrophy, telangiectases, or lesion enlargement during treatment. Combination calcipotriene 0.005%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% ointment shows promise as a once-daily vitiligo therapy. Adult and pediatric facial vitiligo patients may see repigmentation as early as 2 months after initiation of therapy. Children may experience a better response, but larger studies are needed.

  11. Heterochromia of the scalp hair following Blaschko lines.

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella


    Heterochromia of the scalp hair is characterized by the presence of tufts of hair of a color that differs from the general hair color. It is considered a disorder of pigmentation when the tufts are asymmetrically distributed. We report four patients with isolated congenital tufts of heterochromia in the scalp hair following the Blaschko lines of the head.

  12. Spontaneous scalp arteriovenous fistula in a child with hartnup disease.

    Kim, Doris Maria; Benndorf, Goetz; Von Moers, Arpad; Campi, Adriana; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas


    To report the endovascular treatment of a spontaneous scalp arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a child with Hartnup disease. A 6-year-old girl with Hartnup disease presented with recurrent attacks of intense, migraine-like, right-sided headache; a tender, pulsatile small mass was observed in the scalp. Selective digital subtraction angiography revealed a high-flow scalp AVF fed by the frontal branch of the right superficial temporal artery draining via the scalp veins. Endovascular treatment was performed by direct puncture of the distal feeding artery and injection of 2 mL of a 50% mixture of N-butyl-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol. Serial arteriograms performed 6 months and 2 years later documented complete resolution of the lesion. The patient has had no recurrence of clinical symptoms or local signs for recanalization. Scalp AVFs may progress in size, causing significantly disabling symptoms, particularly in children. We recommend endovascular treatment at the earliest possible stage.

  13. Definitive cranioplasty and scalp reconstruction in recurrent dermato fibrosarcoma protuberance of scalp

    Ankur Bhatnagar


    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP of the scalp is a relatively uncommon soft-tissue neoplasm. Calvarial involvement can lead to a quick intracranial spread making the tumor incurable. The management of DFSP scalp, especially recurrent lesions with calvarial involvement should be a team approach with close cooperation between the neurosurgeon and the reconstructive surgeon. The failure to excise the underlying periosteum is one of the major reasons for early calvarial spread. At no stage adequate excision, i.e., 5 cm margin and removal of underlying periosteum should be compromised. In developing world where follow-up of patients is difficult and specialized health services are at a premium we believe that a wide surgical excision, including the underlying periosteum and cranioplasty followed by local flap cover if possible will provide the best results with the shortest downtime.

  14. Tufted hair folliculitis after scalp injury.

    Fernandes, J C; Correia, T M; Azevedo, F; Mesquita-Guimarães, J


    We describe the case of a 38-year-old epileptic man with tufted hair folliculitis. The condition started 5 years ago after a scalp laceration that had been sustained 3 months earlier during an epileptic crisis. There then appeared a circumscribed inflammatory bulging lesion (with exudation and crusts) that evolved to scarring alopecia with tufts of 20 to 30 apparently normal hair shafts. Results of bacteriologic examination of pus extruding from the dilated follicular ostia revealed Staphylococcus aureus. The cutaneous pathologic examination showed polymorphous inflammatory exudate in the upper and mid dermis, which was mostly perifollicular, and the presence of normal and independent follicles in the deep dermis, which, while ascending, converged to a common dilated follicular channel. The patient was treated successively with oral flucloxacillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and with topical application of erythromycin, clindamycin, povidone iodine, and ketoconazole. Transient improvement was followed by recurrence and enlargement of the affected area.

  15. Beclomethasone Dipropionate Nasal Aerosol in Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (BALANCE) study: 6-month results.

    Bukstein, Donald; Parikh, Ruchir; Eid, Sherrine; Ferro, Thomas; Morello, Jean-Pierre


    Perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) exerts significant quality-of-life and economic burdens on society. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) nasal aerosol is the first nonaqueous, hydrofluoroalkane-propelled intranasal corticosteroid approved for patients in the United States to treat PAR and seasonal allergic rhinitis. To evaluate real-world effectiveness of BDP nasal aerosol from the patient's perspective by using a postmarketing observational registry. Patients (N = 824) from 43 U.S. study sites completed monthly patient-reported outcome instruments, including the Rhinitis Control Assessment Test (primary outcome variable), Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire plus Classroom Impairment Questions: Allergy-Specific, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire for 6 months. The primary outcome assessment (Rhinitis Control Assessment Test score) (N = 527) indicated significant symptomatic improvement over baseline beginning at month 1 (p 78.8% of respondents who achieved clinically meaningful improvement over 6 months. Secondary outcome measures Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (p Questionnaire for Medication-9 scales of effectiveness (p Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire plus Classroom Impairment Questions: Allergy-Specific, with the exception of work time missed and class time missed, were significantly (p life, work, and school-related activities, and is associated with high patient satisfaction, reduced productivity loss and activity impairment, and improvement in sleep quality.

  16. Development and validation of simultaneous spectrophotometric and TLC-spectrodensitometric methods for determination of beclomethasone dipropionate and salbutamol in combined dosage form

    Samir, Ahmed; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Salem, Hesham; Abdelkawy, Mohammed


    Spectrophotometric and TLC-spectrodensitometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of beclomethasone dipropionate (BEC) and salbutamol (SAL). The spectrophotometric methods include dual wavelength, ratio difference, constant center coupled with a novel method namely, spectrum subtraction and mean centering with mean percentage recoveries and RSD 99.72 ± 1.07 and 99.70 ± 1.12, 100.25 ± 1.12 and 99.89 ± 1.12, 99.66 ± 1.85 and 99.19 ± 1.32, 100.74 ± 1.26 and 101.06 ± 0.90 for BEC and SAL respectively. The TLC-spectrodensitometric method was based on separation of both drugs on TLC aluminum plates of silica gel 60 F254, using benzene: methanol: triethylamine (10:1.5:0.5 v/v/v) as a mobile phase, followed by densitometric measurements of their bands at 230 nm. The mean percentage recoveries and RSD were 99.07 ± 1.25 and 101.35 ± 1.50 for BEC and SAL respectively. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and were applied for the simultaneous analysis of the cited drugs in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical preparation. The methods were found to be rapid, specific, precise and accurate and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of BEC and SAL in their pharmaceutical formulation with no need for prior separation. The results obtained were statistically compared to each other and to that of the reported HPLC method. The statistical comparison showed that there is no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision.

  17. [Observation on therapeutic effect of scalp acupuncture analgesia on labor].

    Bo, Qi-xiu; Zhang, Jin-xue


    To observe analgesic effect of scalp acupuncture on labor. Seventy primiparae with term pregnancy and monocyesis were randomly divided into scalp acupuncture group treated by acupuncture at the Shengzhi area of scalp, and control group by no treatment. Pain grades before and after scalp acupuncture were evaluated with the pain 4-grade rating criteria stipulated by WHO, and the active stage and the second birth process, the Apgar scores of new-born and postpartum hemorrage amount were compared between the two groups. The labor pain with 1 to approximately 2 grades was found in 33 cases in the scalp acupuncture group, and 2 cases in the control group with very significant difference between the two groups (P scalp acupuncture group, and (166.15 +/- 62.65) min and (53.30 +/- 26.93) min in the control group, respectively, with significant differences between the two groups (all P new-born and postpartum hemorrhage amount. Scalp acupuncture has a better analgesic effect in vaginal delivery with no adverse effect on the mother and infant.

  18. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Didem Didar Balcı,


    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  19. Scalp fibroma: a rare cutaneous manifestation of tuberous sclerosis.

    Sharma, Bhawna; Prakash, Swayam; Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki; Panagariya, Ashok


    We report a case of a 23-year-old woman with a history of generalised tonic-clonic seizures, reddish brown maculopapular swelling over the face and an enlarging swelling over the scalp. Physical examinations revealed angiofibroma of the face and other typical cutaneous lesions of tuberous sclerosis, for example, shagreen patch and periungual fibroma. Scalp swelling was labelled as fibroma by dermatologists, which was further supported by the histopathological findings. Fibroma of the face is one of the commonest lesions, however, fibroma of the scalp is a rarely described entity.

  20. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.


    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  1. Development of a topical ointment of betamethasone dipropionate loaded nanostructured lipid carrier

    Xin Kong


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design an innovative topical ointment containing betamethasone dipropionate loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (BD-NLC for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD. BD-loaded NLC was produced with precirol ATO 5 and oleic oil (OA by melt emulsification method. Effects of surfactant concentration, amount of solid lipid and liquid lipid on skin retention and skin penetration were investigated by in vitro percutaneous permeation experiment. The optimized BD-NLC showed a homogeneous particle size of 169.1 nm (with PI = 0.195, negatively charged surface (−23.4 mV and high encapsulation efficiency (85%. Particle morphology assessed by TEM revealed a spherical shape. In vitro skin permeation study was carried out to investigate the percutaneous behaviors of W/O ointment with BD-NLC and Carbopol emulgel ointment with BD-NLC. W/O ointment with BD-NLC showed high skin retention (35.43 µg/g and low penetration (0.87 µg/ml. In vitro drug release studies were carried out to demonstrate the drug releasing properties of the two ointments. W/O ointment with BD-NLC showed an advantage for skin retention as it was better for drug release. The tissue distribution test suggested that BD distribution was skin > muscle > blood. Self-made topical ointment in mice showed no skin irritation. The animal experiments indicated that BD-loaded NLC ointment was effective and safe for topical use.

  2. Solubilization of beclomethasone dipropionate in sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles (SSMs: physicochemical and in vitro evaluations

    Peh KK


    Full Text Available Mohanad Naji Sahib, Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer, Yusrida Darwis, Kok Khiang Peh, Yvonne Tze Fung TanSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MalaysiaBackground: The local treatment of lung disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via pulmonary drug delivery offers many advantages over oral or intravenous routes of administration. This is because direct deposition of a drug at the diseased site increases local drug concentrations, which improves the pulmonary receptor occupancy and reduces the overall dose required, therefore reducing the side effects that result from high drug doses. From a clinical point of view, although jet nebulizers have been used for aerosol delivery of water-soluble compounds and micronized suspensions, their use with hydrophobic drugs has been inadequate.Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles (SSMs loaded with beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP as a carrier for pulmonary delivery.Methods: 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol 5000 polymeric micelles containing BDP (BDP-SSMs were prepared by the coprecipitation and reconstitution method, and the physicochemical and in vitro characteristics of BDP-SSMs were investigated.Results: BDP-SSMs were successfully prepared with a content uniformity and reproducibility suitable for pulmonary administration. The maximum solubility of BDP in SSMs was approximately 1300 times its actual solubility. The particle size and zeta potential of BDP-SSMs were 19.89 ± 0.67 nm and -28.03 ± 2.05 mV, respectively. The SSMs system slowed down the release of BDP and all of the aerodynamic values of the aerosolized rehydrated BDP-SSMs were not only acceptable but indicated a significant level of deposition in the lungs.Conclusion: The SSM system might be an effective way of improving the therapeutic index of nebulized, poorly soluble corticosteroids

  3. Assessment of hair and scalp disorders.

    Tosti, Antonella; Gray, John


    The diagnosis and management of hair and scalp disorders in the clinic or office presents a unique challenge for the physician. In addition to identifying and treating the underlying cause of the disorder, the physician also needs to take into account the impact of these disorders on the patient's self-esteem and quality of life. The first stage in determining the correct treatment strategy is to evaluate the underlying cause of the condition; and to that end, there are a number of invasive and non-invasive methods available to the office physician. These methods range from traditional biopsy and microscopic techniques to new optical methods such as videodermoscopy. Once the type and cause of the condition have been identified, the next stage is to determine the most appropriate holistic treatment strategy. In addition to any prescribed medical treatment, the use of cosmetic hair care products can often play an important role in improving the patient's quality of life. These products (particularly conditioners and styling aids) have been shown to provide the patient with improvements in hair feel, appearance, behavior, and protection against damage. Many of these cosmetic benefits can be measured directly on the hair fiber, using a variety of techniques.

  4. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D


    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX.

  5. Modelling of temperature and perfusion during scalp cooling

    Janssen, F E M; Leeuwen, G M J van; Steenhoven, A A van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    Hair loss is a feared side effect of chemotherapy treatment. It may be prevented by cooling the scalp during administration of cytostatics. The supposed mechanism is that by cooling the scalp, both temperature and perfusion are diminished, affecting drug supply and drug uptake in the hair follicle. However, the effect of scalp cooling varies strongly. To gain more insight into the effect of cooling, a computer model has been developed that describes heat transfer in the human head during scalp cooling. Of main interest in this study are the mutual influences of scalp temperature and perfusion during cooling. Results of the standard head model show that the temperature of the scalp skin is reduced from 34.4 deg. C to 18.3 deg. C, reducing tissue blood flow to 25%. Based upon variations in both thermal properties and head anatomies found in the literature, a parameter study was performed. The results of this parameter study show that the most important parameters affecting both temperature and perfusion are the perfusion coefficient Q{sub 10} and the thermal resistances of both the fat and the hair layer. The variations in the parameter study led to skin temperature ranging from 10.1 deg. C to 21.8 deg. C, which in turn reduced relative perfusion to 13% and 33%, respectively.

  6. Modelling of temperature and perfusion during scalp cooling

    Janssen, F. E. M.; Van Leeuwen, G. M. J.; Van Steenhoven, A. A.


    Hair loss is a feared side effect of chemotherapy treatment. It may be prevented by cooling the scalp during administration of cytostatics. The supposed mechanism is that by cooling the scalp, both temperature and perfusion are diminished, affecting drug supply and drug uptake in the hair follicle. However, the effect of scalp cooling varies strongly. To gain more insight into the effect of cooling, a computer model has been developed that describes heat transfer in the human head during scalp cooling. Of main interest in this study are the mutual influences of scalp temperature and perfusion during cooling. Results of the standard head model show that the temperature of the scalp skin is reduced from 34.4 °C to 18.3 °C, reducing tissue blood flow to 25%. Based upon variations in both thermal properties and head anatomies found in the literature, a parameter study was performed. The results of this parameter study show that the most important parameters affecting both temperature and perfusion are the perfusion coefficient Q10 and the thermal resistances of both the fat and the hair layer. The variations in the parameter study led to skin temperature ranging from 10.1 °C to 21.8 °C, which in turn reduced relative perfusion to 13% and 33%, respectively.

  7. Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in mild-to-moderate paediatric psoriasis: long-term daily clinical practice data in a prospective cohort

    Geel, M.J. van; Mul, K.; Oostveen, A.M.; Kerkhof, P.C. van de; Jong, E.M. de; Seyger, M.M.B.


    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis in children has a significant negative impact on the quality of life (QoL) and effective treatment can improve this. The two-compound ointment calcipotriol 50 mug g(-1) and betamethasone dipropionate 0.5 mg g(-1) is an effective treatment option for moderate-to-severe psoriasis

  8. Sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia.

    Dan, Luke; Relic, John


    In this article we describe a 39-year-old man who presented with non-scarring non-scalp alopecia of his limbs as the initial presentation of sarcoidosis. Alopecia is a rare cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. A literature review has found only one other example of sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia in an area other than the scalp in a patient who was otherwise asymptomatic. Several reported cases have described scarring alopecia of the scalp, which is the area of skin most commonly affected by sarcoidosis. There has been one documented case of sarcoidosis manifesting as total body non-scarring alopecia in a patient who had systemic symptoms of sarcoidosis. Other cases have presented rare cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis but in all these cases several other organ systems have been involved, and the patient has had systemic symptoms on presentation or the cutaneous presentation did not include non-scalp non-scarring alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Scalp Medical Tattooing Technique to Camouflage Bifid Parietal Whorls

    You, Seung Hyun


    Background: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports have described cosmetic problems arising from the hair direction around the parietal whorl (PW). This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of scalp medical tattooing technique for camouflaging bifid PWs. Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of scalp medical tattooing in 38 patients who were admitted for camouflage of a bifid PW. Results: All patients’ cosmetic appearance was judged, by both the patients and the surgeon, to be markedly improved. No specific complications occurred, such as infection, hair loss in the operative field, or other problems. Conclusion: Scalp medical tattooing appears to be an effective method that helps to camouflage the see-through appearance of bifid PWs. PMID:27200232

  10. Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp with a Familial Pattern

    Waleed AlShehri


    Full Text Available Aplasia Cutis Congenita (ACC is a condition characterized by congenital absence of skin, usually on the scalp. ACC can occur as an isolated condition or in the presence of other congenital anomalies. Here we describe a case of a 16-day-old baby girl with an isolated ACC of the scalp. Her elder two siblings have been diagnosed with ACC with concomitant cardiac or limb anomalies. The patient was managed conservatively until the defect has formed scar tissue 6 months later.

  11. PIXE analysis of scalp hair from carcinoma patients

    Zeng, Xianzhou; Yao, Huiying; Mu, Meiyun; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhixing; Chang, Husheng; Ye, Yanqing


    Naso-pharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of major malignant tumors and has high incidence in Guangdong, a province in China. For a better understanding of the effect of the geographic district on NPC, 68 scalp hair samples collected from 34 NPC patients who reside near Shanghai far away from Guangdong were analyzed and compared with the hair samples from healthy people by PIXE. With the same technique scalp hair samples from 34 osteoma patients were also analyzed. The experimental data are presented and discussed.

  12. [Clinical effectiveness and tolerance of climbazole containing dandruff shampoo in patients with seborrheic scalp eczema].

    Wigger-Alberti, W; Kluge, K; Elsner, P


    Pityrosporum ovale appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dandruff as a symptom of seborrheic dermatitis. Climbazole is an antimycotic agent with a high in vitro and in vivo efficacy against P. ovale. In the presented work we investigated the efficacy and safety of a climbazole 0.65% shampoo on seborrheic dermatitis of 30 volunteers. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. After a 1-week washout and a 4-week treatment the clinical evaluation showed a successful reduction of dandruff, skin redness and itching in 80% of the volunteers and a mild improvement in 20% of the volunteers. The cosmetic acceptability was very good by the majority. It is concluded that the formulation tested is effective in the treatment of moderate to severe dandruff.

  13. Long-term management of scalp psoriasis: perspectives from the International Psoriasis Council

    Kragballe, K.; Menter, A.; Lebwohl, M.; Tebbey, P.W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    The scalp is a well-known predilection site for psoriasis. Epidemiological data on the various manifestations of scalp psoriasis as well as on its therapeutic management are sparse. The understanding of the natural course of scalp psoriasis is relevant for its therapeutic management. In over 25% of

  14. Long-term management of scalp psoriasis: perspectives from the International Psoriasis Council

    Kragballe, K.; Menter, A.; Lebwohl, M.; Tebbey, P.W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    The scalp is a well-known predilection site for psoriasis. Epidemiological data on the various manifestations of scalp psoriasis as well as on its therapeutic management are sparse. The understanding of the natural course of scalp psoriasis is relevant for its therapeutic management. In over 25% of

  15. Use of rotation scalp flaps for treatment of occipital baldness.

    Juri, J; Juri, C; Arufe, H N


    We have used 25 rotation scalp flaps to treat occipital baldness associated with fronto-parietal baldness (the third flap), and 35 such flaps for the correction of isolated occipital baldness. We have not had any flap necrosis, and our patients have been well satisfied with the results of this surgery.

  16. Congenital scalp defects and vitreoretinal degeneration: redefining the Knobloch syndrome.

    Seaver, L H; Joffe, L; Spark, R P; Smith, B L; Hoyme, H E


    An apparently autosomal recessive syndrome of hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration (VRD) with retinal detachment, high myopia, and congenital encephalocele was described in 1971 by Knobloch and Layer [J Pediatr Ophthalmol 8:181-184]. Clinical confirmation of the presence of encephaloceles was lacking, and no neuropathologic studies were reported. We have evaluated a similarly affected family with 2 sibs with high myopia, VRD, and occipital scalp defects. Histologic examination of the scalp defects showed heterotopic neuronal tissue in both instances. The older girl has had a unilateral retinal detachment. Her other eye and both eyes of the younger sib have so far been treated successfully with prophylactic retinal cryotherapy. Both children have normal to above normal intelligence. The family reported by Knobloch and Layer [1971] and the sibship herein described appear to represent a distinct autosomal recessive trait. Analysis of the associated defects suggests an underlying defect in early cephalic neuroectodermal morphogenesis. Data from these families imply that congenital occipital scalp defects rather than true encephaloceles may, as is true in some cases of Meckel syndrome, accompany Knobloch syndrome. The presence of a congenital midline scalp defect should alert the clinician to possible underlying central nervous system and/or ocular pathology and should lead to consideration of further diagnostic evaluations and prophylactic measures.

  17. Congenital osteolytic dural fibrosarcoma presenting as a scalp swelling.

    Brohi, Shams Raza; Dilber, Muzamil


    An extremely rare case of congenital dural fibrosarcoma is reported in a 2 months old child who presented with scalp swelling since birth. CT scan revealed an osteolytic lesion compressing the underlying atrophic brain. Tumour was completely excised and duroplasty was done with a patch graft. Postoperative CSF leak was managed with aspirations and lumbar puncture.

  18. A rare case of large verrucous hemangioma on the scalp

    Ananta A Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Verrucous hemangioma is an uncommon vascular malformation commonly seen in the lower limbs, histologically characterized by vascular proliferation and dilatation from dermis to subcutaneous tissue and proliferative reaction of the epidermis. Here we report a rare case of large verrucous hemangioma on the scalp which was excised and grafted. In a 6-month follow-up, the patient had no recurrence.

  19. Primary cutaneous melanoma of the scalp: Patterns of recurrence.

    Sparks, David S; Read, Tavis; Lonne, Michael; Barbour, Andrew P; Wagels, Michael; Bayley, Gerard J; Smithers, B Mark


    Patients with primary melanoma of the scalp have been reported to have worse disease-related outcomes compared with other anatomical regions. There are few studies in the literature specifically addressing recurrence patterns and treatment outcomes for primary scalp melanoma as a discrete anatomical sub-region. We sought to identify key features adversely influencing disease control and survival and to clarify the role of resection plane, margin, and method of reconstruction in the management of this disease process. A retrospective clinical study of medical records was performed evaluating all patients with primary melanoma of the scalp treated at two hospitals in southeast Queensland between 2004 and 2014. A total of 107 patients were eligible for analysis. There were 46 recurrences in 38 patients in the cohort accounting for a recurrence rate of 35.5%. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% with 12 in-transit metastases after diagnosis. Regional and distant recurrence rates were 12.1% and 15%, respectively. At a median follow up of 30.5 months, disease-free survival was 47% and overall survival was also 47%. On multi-variate analysis, the deeper resection plane (sub-galeal) had a lower disease-free survival rate compared with the supra-galeal resection plane (P = 0.032). Our results support the hypothesis that primary scalp melanoma represents a unique aggressive subcategory with high rates of in-transit disease and poor disease-related and survival outcomes. There is a need for robust prospective comparative studies to address the significance of resection plane in the management of patients with scalp melanoma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of the use of atropine sulfate, a combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses.

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Alfaqeeh, Sameh M; Mustafa, Ghazi; Qura'n, Lara; Al-Majali, Ahmad M


    To evaluate the ability of atropine sulfate, butylscopolammonium bromide combined with metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate the clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses. 28 horses with piroplasmosis. 28 horses were randomly assigned to 4 equal groups according to the pretreatment administered. Fifteen minutes before administration of 2.4 mg of imidocarb dipropionate/kg IM, horses in the first group were pretreated with 0.02 mg of atropine sulfate/kg IV, the second group with a combination of 0.2 mg of butylscopolammonium bromide/kg IV and 25 mg of metamizole sodium/kg IV, the third group with 1.1 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg IV, and the fourth (control) group with 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution/50 kg IV. Physical examination, including evaluation of rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, hydration status, abdominal sounds, signs of abdominal pain, salivation, diarrhea, and number of defecations, was performed. Imidocarb dipropionate use in the control group was associated with serious adverse effects including signs of abdominal pain (4/7 horses) and diarrhea (2/7). Horses pretreated with atropine had no diarrhea, but 6 had signs of abdominal pain. Only 1 horse that received butylscopolammonium-metamizole pretreatment had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea, which was numerically but not significantly different than the control group. Of horses pretreated with flunixin, 3 had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea. A combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium may be useful to ameliorate the adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses, although group size was small and significant differences from the control group were not found.

  1. Experience of fetal scalp blood sampling during labor.

    Liljeström, Lena; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Akerud, Helena; Jonsson, Maria


    Fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) is often claimed to be painful for women in labor and difficult for obstetricians to perform. Our aim was to assess women's experience of pain during FBS and obstetricians' experience of difficulty in performing the test. At a tertiary center in Sweden, a questionnaire with answers on a 10-point scale was completed by 51 women and the obstetricians performing the test. Women's experience of pain had a median of 3.5. FBS was well tolerated in women who had epidural analgesia but might be associated with pain in women without. Higher maternal body mass index and less cervical dilation were associated with higher pain ratings. Obstetricians did not generally experience scalp sampling as difficult to perform (median score 3.0). However, the sampling procedure can be more complicated in situations with higher maternal body mass index, less cervical dilation, and a higher station of the fetal head.

  2. Atopic dermatitis of the face, scalp, and neck

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Poulsen, L K; With, H;


    We have previously reported that a lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale (P. ovale) produced a high frequency of positive skin prick tests and in vitro histamine-release (HR) tests in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) of the face, scalp, and neck. In the present study, our aim...... was to confirm the involvement of P. ovale-specific IgE and to produce a standardized extract for diagnostic tests; 7/20 sera from patients with a positive HR test were positive in RAST. Several IgE-binding proteins could be detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed...... by immunoblotting. Comparison of different extraction methods demonstrated that allergens were not released from P. ovale until after mechanical destruction of the yeast cells. Extraction of cultured P. ovale, obtained from the skin of various individuals suffering from AD of the face, scalp, and neck, resulted...

  3. Detecting Epileptic Seizure from Scalp EEG Using Lyapunov Spectrum

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa


    Full Text Available One of the inherent weaknesses of the EEG signal processing is noises and artifacts. To overcome it, some methods for prediction of epilepsy recently reported in the literature are based on the evaluation of chaotic behavior of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG recordings. These methods reduced noises, but they were hazardous to patients. In this study, we propose using Lyapunov spectrum to filter noise and detect epilepsy on scalp EEG signals only. We determined that the Lyapunov spectrum can be considered as the most expected method to evaluate chaotic behavior of scalp EEG recordings and to be robust within noises. Obtained results are compared to the independent component analysis (ICA and largest Lyapunov exponent. The results of detecting epilepsy are compared to diagnosis from medical doctors in case of typical general epilepsy.

  4. Detecting epileptic seizure from scalp EEG using Lyapunov spectrum.

    Khoa, Truong Quang Dang; Huong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toi, Vo Van


    One of the inherent weaknesses of the EEG signal processing is noises and artifacts. To overcome it, some methods for prediction of epilepsy recently reported in the literature are based on the evaluation of chaotic behavior of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. These methods reduced noises, but they were hazardous to patients. In this study, we propose using Lyapunov spectrum to filter noise and detect epilepsy on scalp EEG signals only. We determined that the Lyapunov spectrum can be considered as the most expected method to evaluate chaotic behavior of scalp EEG recordings and to be robust within noises. Obtained results are compared to the independent component analysis (ICA) and largest Lyapunov exponent. The results of detecting epilepsy are compared to diagnosis from medical doctors in case of typical general epilepsy.

  5. Methodological standards for experimental research on stroke using scalp acupuncture.

    Zheng, Guo-qing


    Scalp acupuncture (SA) is a modality based on different physiologic functions of different brain areas, using needles to stimulate different scalp zones so as to excite the reflex-related nervous tissue. The findings of several studies showed that the clinical effect of SA on stroke was significant, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. In this research, some new ways of thinking and new methodological standards on stroke experiment using SA are put forward. They are as follows: A, establishment of standard animal model of stroke; B, simulation of head acupoint line on animal model following traditional Chinese medicine localization; C, acupuncture manipulation and quantity of stimulus for SA in animal model; D, optimal curative opportunity and instant effect of SA therapy on stroke; E, mechanism study of SA on stroke. This research may provide methodological reference for future mechanism study on stroke experiment using SA.

  6. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

    Rana Roshani


    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  7. Comparison of suture types in the closure of scalp wounds.

    Bonham, Joseph


    Innovation in practice can benefit patients and healthcare providers but must be evidence based. This article describes a quantitative study of whether absorbable sutures are as beneficial as non-absorbable sutures in the management of simple scalp lacerations in adults. The results suggest that absorbable sutures can provide the same cosmetic and functional results as non-absorbable sutures. Their use can also reduce patient returns and save money and resources.

  8. Scalp Cooling: The Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia

    Katz, Anne


    Hair loss (alopecia) from chemotherapy is one of the most feared side effects of many patients, particularly women. Many patients and their healthcare providers believe that cryotherapy can help prevent or mitigate these changes. Scalp cooling has been used for more than 30 years to prevent alopecia caused by chemotherapy, particularly taxanes and anthracyclines. This article presents an overview of the evidence for this strategy, as well as its impact on nursing care provision.

  9. Scalp psoriasis associated with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    Krista N. Larson


    Full Text Available Scalp psoriasis is a very common dermatological condition with a variety of presentations, but only rarely presents as severe alopecia. We present a case of a 50-year-old female with many years of recalcitrant hair loss that was thought to be secondary to central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia which was later diagnosed as psoriasis. This case highlights an interesting presentation and rare complication of a common disease.

  10. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Khuder Ali


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  11. Exhibition of Design, Development and Manufacturing of Scalp Cooling Cap


    Exhibition Narrative:\\ud University of Huddersfield and Paxman Coolers Limited showcased the output of a collaborative project that resulted in an innovative scalp-cooling cap at Arab Health 2016 Exhibition Dubai, UEA. In collaboration with Medilink Yorkshire & Humber at the Stand No: Z1G57. The Arab Health 2016 exhibition showcased more than 4,000 companies exhibiting their latest innovations to more than 130,000 healthcare professionals attending from 163 countries.

  12. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk


    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  13. Development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous assay of betamethasone dipropionate, chlorocresol, and for the estimation of betamethasone dipropionate related compounds in a pharmaceutical cream and ointment.

    Johnston, Stephen E; Gill, Nicole L; Wei, Yu-Chien; Markovich, Robert; Rustum, Abu M


    A new stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous assay of betamethasone dipropionate (BD) and chlorocresol and also for the estimation of BD related compounds in a pharmaceutical cream matrix. In addition, this newly developed RP-HPLC method was also demonstrated as suitable for a pharmaceutical ointment product that does not contain chlorocresol. The RP-HPLC method uses a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 analytical column (150 × 4.6 mm). Water (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B) were used in the gradient elution with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and detection wavelength at 240 nm. A Waters XBridge Shield RP18 analytical column (150 × 4.6 mm) was identified as an alternate column. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) are 0.02 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively. The precision of the method for BD is less than 0.3% RSD, and the accuracy of BD ranged from 99.5% to 102.6%. The stability-indicating capability of this method has been demonstrated by analyzing aged samples of the product. This RP-HPLC method was successfully validated per ICH guidelines and proved to be suitable for routine quality control use.

  14. Simple flaps for reconstruction of pediatric scalp defects after electrical burn

    Mohamed Makboul; Mohamed Abdel-Rahim


    Objective:To analyze the management of high-voltage electrical burn injury of the scalp in our hospital.Methods:This study involved 10 patients who suffered from high-voltage electrical burn injury of the scalp.Scalp reconstruction was done by different modalities according to the size and location of the defect.Results:Complete flap viability was achieved in all the cases.We had one case of gapped wound which was managed only by dressing.Widening of the scar was found in 2 cases.Conclusion:Rotation,advancement and transposition scalp flaps are used for reconstructing scalp defects caused by electrical burn.The choice of ideal flaps for reconstruction depends upon the size and site of scalp defect.

  15. [The key of increasing the therapeutic effect of scalp acupuncture on hemiplegia due to stroke].

    Ouyang, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Mei


    Discuss the 5 aspects for increasing the therapeutic effect of scalp acupuncture for treatment of hemiplegia due to stroke. First is deqi (getting qi), which is an important factor for acupuncture effect, and the needling sensation of scalp acupuncture should be the feeling of sucking the needle as main; second is needling manipulation, which should be selected for getting proper needling sensation, conducting direction and intensity; third is effective stimulating amount, only stimulating intensity and amount match with response state in the body of the patient, can produce resonance of energy, and attain the best therapeutic effect; fourth is treatment opportunity: the increase of rehabilitation level for hemiplegia of stroke depends on early scalp acupuncture treatment; fifth is rehabilitation training: scalp acupuncture needs combination with rehabilitation training in scalp acupuncture treatment of hemiplegia of stroke to exert positive effects. Clinically, taking note of these five aspects, the therapeutic effects of scalp acupuncture on hemiplegia of stroke can be consolidated and increased.

  16. An open label prospective randomized trial to compare the efficacy of coal tar-salicylic acid ointment versus calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in the treatment of limited chronic plaque psoriasis

    Sujay Khandpur


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic plaque psoriasis is a common papulosquamous skin disorder, for which a number of topical agents are being used including coal tar, topical steroids and more recently topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate. There is no study comparing purified coal tar preparation with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Aims and Objectives: A prospective randomized open label controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of topical application of coal tar-salicylic acid ointment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment applied once at night for 12 weeks for the treatment of limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 patients of limited chronic plaque psoriasis (body surface area <10% were randomized into two treatment groups: Group A received topical application of 6% coal tar with 3% salicylic acid ointment and Group B received calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, once at night for 12 weeks. Results were assessed based on psoriasis area severity index (PASI scores and patient global assessment (PGA at each visit. Results: Mean PASI was significantly lower at week 2 (P = 0.01 and week 4 follow-up (P = 0.05 and the mean reduction in PASI was significantly higher at week 2 (P = 0.02 with calcipotriol/betamethasone than coal tar-salicylic acid, but this difference was not sustained at subsequent follow-up visits. Similarly, PGA scores at weeks 2 and 4 were significantly lower with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment (P = 0.003 and P = 0.007 respectively. There was no significant difference in any parameter during subsequent follow-up visits or at the end of the treatment phase (12 weeks. Conclusion: Topical nightly application of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment leads to an initial, more rapid reduction in disease severity, but the overall outcome parameters are comparable in the two treatment groups.

  17. Scalping Surgery – Dermatologic Indications beyond Curative Primary Skin Cancer Surgery

    Wollina, Uwe; Langner, Dana; Hansel, Gesina; Koch, André; Tchernev, Georgi


    Skin tumours are among the most frequent tumour types of mankind. In the case of large tumours, field cancerization, or satellitosis scalping surgery is a possible option. The procedure can also be used in a palliative setting with tumour debulking. Less common indications are multiple benign tumours of the scalp and chronic inflammatory scalp dermatoses not responding to medical treatment. We present a case series and discuss surgical modalities beyond curative surgery of primary skin cancer. PMID:28785321

  18. Ex-vivo measurement of scalp follicular infundibulum delivery of zinc pyrithione and climbazole from an anti-dandruff shampoo.

    Chen, Guoqiang; Ji, Chengdong; Miao, Miao; Yang, Kang; Luo, Yajun; Hoptroff, Michael; Collins, Luisa Z; Janssen, Hans-Gerd


    Efficient delivery of anti-dandruff (AD) actives into the scalp follicular infundibulum as well as onto the scalp surface is critical for the efficacy of AD shampoos. A method involving scalp cyanoacrylate (CA) biopsy sampling, a tailor made cutting device, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement and Raman imaging has been developed for the measurement of delivery of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) from an AD shampoo into the scalp follicular infundibulum. Scalp CA biopsy enables the sampling of ZPT and CBZ delivered into the scalp follicular infundibula as well as onto the scalp surface. Raman imaging of scalp CA biopsy samples allows the visualization of the spatial distribution of ZPT and CBZ deposited on the scalp. A tailor made cutting device enables the separation of the scalp follicular infundibulum sample (20μm below the scalp surface) from the scalp surface samples (including top 20μm of infundibula). UHPLC-MS/MS was used as a sensitive and specific methodology enabling the quantification of ZPT and CBZ without interference. Using this method, both ZPT and CBZ were successfully quantified and spacially visualized within the scalp follicular infundibulum, after scalp was washed with an AD shampoo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Observation of Depression Following Cerebral Apoplexy Treated by Scalp-acupuncture

    SONG Ying; LIANG Hao-rong


    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of scalp-acupuncture on post-apoplectic depression.Methods: Twenty-nine patients with depression due to cerebral apoplexy were treated by scalp-acupuncture and compared with 28 cases of medicine group chosen randomly. Results: In scalp-acupuncture group, the total effective rate was 89. 6%. In medicine group (control group), the total effective rate was 71.4%. Conclusion:The result showed that the therapeutic effect in scalp-acupuncture group was obviously better than that in medicine group (P<0.05).

  20. Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in mild-to-moderate paediatric psoriasis: long-term daily clinical practice data in a prospective cohort.

    van Geel, M J; Mul, K; Oostveen, A M; van de Kerkhof, P C M; de Jong, E M G J; Seyger, M M B


    Psoriasis in children has a significant negative impact on the quality of life (QoL) and effective treatment can improve this. The two-compound ointment calcipotriol 50 μg g(-1) and betamethasone dipropionate 0·5 mg g(-1) is an effective treatment option for moderate-to-severe psoriasis in adults. To study prospectively the effectiveness and safety of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in paediatric patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis in daily clinical practice and to investigate the influence on QoL. Data were obtained from a prospective, longitudinal paediatric psoriasis registry, called Child-CAPTURE. Severity was assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and body surface area (BSA). The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was used to assess QoL and visual analogue scores (VAS) for pain and itch were collected. For safety data the number of (serious) adverse events was recorded. Seventy-three patients (mean age 10·8 years, range 3-18) were treated for a median time of 35·0 weeks (range 1·0-176·0). At week 12, mean PASI decreased 15·4% (from 5·2 to 4·4), BSA barely changed, and median CDLQI decreased significantly from 5·5 to 4·0. VAS scores for pain and itch declined. At week 24, mean PASI decreased to 4·3 (17·3%). No related serious adverse events were observed. In this daily clinical practice study in paediatric psoriasis, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment initially improved mild-to-moderate psoriasis and then maintained its effect. In addition, it improved QoL, with few adverse events. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Application of Local Axial Flaps to Scalp Reconstruction

    Yolanda Zayakova


    Full Text Available Background Scalp defects may be caused by various etiological factors, and they representa significant surgical and aesthetic concern. Various surgical techniques can be applied forreconstructive work such as primary closure, skin grafting, pedicled or free flaps. In this article,the authors share their clinical experience with scalp operations using the technique of localflaps and discuss the application of this method from the perspective of not only the sizeof the defect, but also in relation to the anatomical area, quality of surrounding tissue, andpatient’s condition.Methods During the period from December 2007 to December 2012, 13 patients with variousscalp defects, aged 11 to 86 years, underwent reconstruction with local pedicle flaps. Theindicationswere based on the patients’ condition (age, sex, quality of surrounding tissue, andcomorbidities and wound parameters. Depending on the size of the defects, they wereclassified into three groups as follows: large, 20 to 50 cm2; very large, 50 to 100 cm2; extremelylarge, 100 cm2. The location was defined as peripheral (frontal, temporal, occipital, central,or combined (more than one area. We performed reconstruction with 11 single transpositionflaps and 1 bipedicle with a skin graft on the donor area, and 2 advancement flaps in 1 patient.Results In all of the patients, complete tissue coverage was achieved. The recovery was relativelyquick, without hematoma, seroma, or infections. The flaps survived entirely.Conclusions Local flaps are widely used in scalp reconstruction since they provide healthy,stable, hair-bearing tissue and require a short healing time for the patients.

  2. Robust Detection of Dynamical Change in Scalp EEG

    Gailey, P.C.; Hively, L.M.; Protopopescu, V.A.


    We present a robust, model-independent technique for measuring changes in the dynamics underlying nonlinear time-serial data. We define indicators of dynamical change by comparing distribution functions on the attractor via L{sub 1}-distance and X{sup 2} statistics. We apply the measures to scalp EEG data with the objective of capturing the transition between non-seizure and epileptic brain activity in a timely, accurate, and non-invasive manner. We find a clear superiority of the new metrics in comparison to traditional nonlinear measures as discriminators of dynamical change.

  3. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom


    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various...... surveillance methods and data from the Danish National Birth Registry, we have assessed the usefulness of FBS as a complementary tool to improve the specificity and sensitivity of electronic cardiotocography (CTG). Based on heterogeneous studies of modest quality with somewhat inconsistent results, we conclude...

  4. Ectodermal dysplasias associated with clefting: significance of scalp dermatitis.

    Fosko, S W; Stenn, K S; Bolognia, J L


    Several clinical syndromes are characterized by ectodermal dysplasia (ED) in association with clefting of the lip and/or palate. The three most commonly recognized entities are (1) the EEC syndrome (ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, cleft lip/palate); (2) the Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome with ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate, and mid facial hypoplasia; and (3) the Hay-Wells or AEC syndrome (ankyloblepharon, ectodermal defects, cleft lip/palate). The clinical characteristics of these entities as well as several less common syndromes are reviewed and summarized. The presence of scalp dermatitis in patients with the AEC syndrome and less often the Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome is emphasized.

  5. [Color Doppler ultrasound of the scalp and hair].

    Wortsman, X; Roustan, G; Martorell, A


    Color Doppler ultrasound is an imaging technique that allows the study of frequent diseases of the scalp and hair. This examination provides anatomical and functional information in real time that can reveal the extent, activity or severity of common diseases in a non-invasive way, and allows monitoring of their treatment. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Scalp acupuncture treatment protocol for anxiety disorders: a case report.

    He, Yuxin; Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou


    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely

  7. Treatment of Pseudobulbar Paralysis by Scalp Acupuncture and Sublingual Needling



    @@ Pseudobulbar or supranuclear paralysis is one of the severe complications after stoke. Clinically, it is characterized by dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing), dyslalia (impairment of utterance with abnormality of the external speech organs) and hoarseness due to bilateral lesions of the corticospinal tract. It may lead to malnutrition and disturbance of metabolism subsequent to dysphagia, or pulmonary infections due to swallowing of foreign bodies into the trachea, and or even death due to suffocation. We have treated such patients by scalp acupuncture1 plus the sublingual needling art initiated by Dr. Liu Jisheng (刘济生). The therapeutic results are satisfactory and reported as follow.

  8. Complete cranium bifidum without scalp abnormality. Case report.

    Celik, Suat E; Kara, Ayhan


    Cranium bifidum is an unusual lesion in newborns. The majority of previously reported cases have described enlarged parietal foramina with some scalp and other congenital abnormalities. In this report the authors present the first case of complete cranium bifidum without any other anomaly. The cranial defect persisted for 3 years during the follow-up period. No hereditary or familial transition has been observed. The authors conclude that such an extremely rare occurrence of complete cranium bifidum may be a result of a coincidental mutation.

  9. In vitro metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate, budesonide, ciclesonide, and fluticasone propionate in human lung precision-cut tissue slices

    Fisher Robyn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS may be affected by the metabolism of the drug in the target organ. We investigated the in vitro metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP, budesonide (BUD, ciclesonide (CIC, and fluticasone propionate (FP in human lung precision-cut tissue slices. CIC, a new generation ICS, is hydrolyzed by esterases in the upper and lower airways to its pharmacologically active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC. Methods Lung tissue slices were incubated with BDP, BUD, CIC, and FP (initial target concentration of 25 μM for 2, 6, and 24 h. Cellular viability was assessed using adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and protein synthesis in lung slices. Metabolites and remaining parent compounds in the tissue samples were analyzed by HPLC with UV detection. Results BDP was hydrolyzed to the pharmacologically active metabolite beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (BMP and, predominantly, to inactive beclomethasone (BOH. CIC was hydrolyzed initially to des-CIC with a slower rate compared to BDP. A distinctly smaller amount (approximately 10-fold less of fatty acid esters were formed by BMP (and/or BOH than by BUD or des-CIC. The highest relative amounts of fatty acid esters were detected for BUD. For FP, no metabolites were detected at any time point. The amount of drug-related material in lung tissue (based on initial concentrations at 24 h was highest for CIC, followed by BUD and FP; the smallest amount was detected for BDP. Conclusion The in vitro metabolic pathways of the tested ICS in human lung tissue were differing. While FP was metabolically stable, the majority of BDP was converted to inactive polar metabolites. The formation of fatty acid conjugates was confirmed for BMP (and/or BOH, BUD, and des-CIC.

  10. Mutations in KCTD1 cause scalp-ear-nipple syndrome.

    Marneros, Alexander G; Beck, Anita E; Turner, Emily H; McMillin, Margaret J; Edwards, Matthew J; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Fortes, Jose A R; Lampe, Anne K; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Gordon, Christopher T; Plessis, Ghislaine; Le Merrer, Martine; Amiel, Jeanne; Reichenberger, Ernst; Shively, Kathryn M; Cerrato, Felecia; Labow, Brian I; Tabor, Holly K; Smith, Joshua D; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J


    Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.

  11. Automatic and Direct Identification of Blink Components from Scalp EEG

    Guojun Dai


    Full Text Available Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA. Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn’t need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects.

  12. Automatic and direct identification of blink components from scalp EEG.

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhou, Zhanpeng; Hu, Sanqing; Zhang, Jianhai; Babiloni, Fabio; Dai, Guojun


    Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn't need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG) reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects.

  13. Scalp hair cortisol for diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

    Wester, Vincent L; Reincke, Martin; Koper, Jan W; van den Akker, Erica L T; Manenschijn, Laura; Berr, Christina M; Fazel, Julia; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Feelders, Richard A; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C


    Current first-line screening tests for Cushing's syndrome (CS) only measure time-point or short-term cortisol. Hair cortisol content (HCC) offers a non-invasive way to measure long-term cortisol exposure over several months of time. We aimed to evaluate HCC as a screening tool for CS. Case-control study in two academic referral centers for CS. Between 2009 and 2016, we collected scalp hair from patients suspected of CS and healthy controls. HCC was measured using ELISA. HCC was available in 43 confirmed CS patients, 35 patients in whom the diagnosis CS was rejected during diagnostic work-up and follow-up (patient controls), and 174 healthy controls. Additionally, we created HCC timelines in two patients with ectopic CS. CS patients had higher HCC than patient controls and healthy controls (geometric mean 106.9 vs 12.7 and 8.4 pg/mg respectively, P cortisol (r = 0.691, P cortisol was increased 3 and 6 months before CS became clinically apparent. Analysis of cortisol in a single scalp hair sample offers diagnostic accuracy for CS similar to currently used first-line tests, and can be used to investigate cortisol exposure in CS patients months to years back in time, enabling the estimation of disease onset. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Cellular Neurothekeoma of the Scalp in the Elderly.

    Park, Min-Cheol; Seung, Won-Bae


    Cellular neurothekeoma (CNT) is an uncommon variant of neurothekeoma that is composed of pithelioid to spindled cells with variable nuclear atypia or pleomorphism but no myxoid stroma. CNT occurs predominantly in the head and neck or upper trunk of children and young adults, with female predominance. The following case is different from typical CNTs. An 88-year-old female presented with a palpable mass on the scalp, which we excised. Histologically, the tumor was non-encapsulated and composed of spindled and epithelioid cells arranged in fascicles and nodules separated by a collagen-rich stroma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the epithelioid and spindle-shaped cells were focally positive for vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, smooth muscle actin, CD68, and CD10 but negative for S-100 protein, HMB-45, epithelial membrane antigen, and CD34. We report a new case of CNT that arose in the scalp of an older patient and that was associated with uncommon clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical profiles.

  15. Negligible motion artifacts in scalp electroencephalography (EEG during treadmill walking

    Kevin eNathan


    Full Text Available Recent Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI techniques based on active electrode scalp electroencephalogram (EEG allow the acquisition and real-time analysis of brain dynamics during active unrestrained motor behavior involving whole body movements such as treadmill walking, over-ground walking and other locomotive and non-locomotive tasks. Unfortunately, MoBI protocols are prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts, including motion artifacts that may contaminate the EEG recordings. A few attempts have been made to quantify these artifacts during locomotion tasks but with inconclusive results due in part to methodological pitfalls. In this paper, we investigate the potential contributions of motion artifacts in scalp EEG during treadmill walking at three different speeds (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 km/h using a wireless 64 channel active EEG system and a wireless inertial sensor attached to the subject’s head. The experimental setup was designed according to good measurement practices using state-of-the-art commercially-available instruments, and the measurements were analyzed using Fourier analysis and wavelet coherence approaches. Contrary to prior claims, the subjects’ motion did not significantly affect their EEG during treadmill walking although precaution should be taken when gait speeds approach 4.5 km/h. Overall, these findings suggest how MoBI methods may be safely deployed in neural, cognitive, and rehabilitation engineering applications.

  16. [Forum on tissue expansion. Expansion of the scalp. Surgical techniques and clinical applications].

    Foyatier, J L; Delay, E; Comparin, J P; Latarjet, J; Masson, C L


    Repair of all forms of alopecia is one of the principal applications of scalp expansion. The authors have inserted 400 expansion prostheses, including 20 in the scalp. The surgical technique, choice of material and various types of flaps are described and illustrated by clinical cases of extensive alopecia.

  17. Domestic donkey (Equus africanus asinus bites: An unusual aetiology of severe scalp injuries in Morocco

    Hatim Droussi


    Discussion: The bite of a donkey is rare aetiology of scalp injuries. Special features of these injuries, including a literature review, are discussed focusing on the care of these patients in the emergency centre, describing the surgical procedures required and antibiotic choice. Recommendations for the management of donkey bite scalp injuries are provided.

  18. An overview of age-related changes in the scalp distribution of P3b.

    Friedman, D; Kazmerski, V; Fabiani, M


    In this overview of 7 studies, the scalp distribution of the P3b component (i.e. the P3 or P300) of the event-related potential elicited by target events in young and older adults was assessed. The target P3b data were recorded in either auditory oddball paradigms or in visual study tasks in which orienting activity was manipulated (as a within-subjects variable) in investigations of indirect memory. Some of the studies required choice reaction time responses, whereas others required responses only to the target stimuli. Motor response requirements had a profound effect on the P3b scalp distribution of older but not of younger subjects. The presence of a frontally oriented scalp focus in the topographies of the older adults in most of the tasks described here is consistent with older adults continuing to use prefrontal processes for stimuli that should have already been well encoded and/or categorized. However, although older subjects generally had different P3b scalp distributions than younger subjects, their scalp distributions were modulated similarly by task requirements. These data suggest that similar mechanisms modulate the scalp distribution of P3b in older compared to younger adults. However, in the older adult, these scalp distribution changes in response to task demands are superimposed on a frontally oriented scalp focus due to a putative frontal lobe contribution to target P3b topography.

  19. Clinical Application and Characteristics of KONG's Scalp Acupuncture and Daoyin Technique

    JIANG Ling-zhen; XIAO Yuan-chun


    @@ Scalp Acupuncture and Daoyin Technique, which are summarized by Dr. KONG in the light of his long-term acupuncture practice, has been considered as one of the clinical diagnostic and treatment programs in Chinese medicine by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this paper, the characteristics and clinical application of Scalp Acupuncture and Daoyin Technique are presented as follows.

  20. Treatment with bifonazole shampoo for scalp seborrhea in infants and young children.

    Zeharia, A; Mimouni, M; Fogel, D


    Thirty-four infants and children were prescribed bifonazole 1% shampoo as a treatment for lesions of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. All but one were cured or showed improvement within a short period. No serious side effects were observed. We conclude that bifonazole 1% shampoo is an effective and safe treatment for lesions of scalp seborrheic dermatitis in infants and young children.

  1. Scalp blood lactate for intra-partum assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    Heinis, A.M.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Gunnewiek, J.M.; Lotgering, F.K.


    Objective. To study to what extent the fetal scalp blood lactate concentration during labor correlates with fetal scalp pH and base deficit, and metabolic acidosis at birth, and to suggest lactate cut-off values to serve as indicators for either reassurance or immediate intervention. Design. A retro

  2. Ivermectin treatment for massive orbital myiasis in an empty socket with concomitant scalp pediculosis

    Neelam Puthran


    Full Text Available We report a rare case of massive orbital myiasis following recent lid injury, occurring in the empty socket of an elderly lady, who had concurrent scalp pediculosis. The orbital myiasis was effectively treated with the broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, ivermectin, thus precluding the need for an exploratory surgery. Ivermectin was also effective in managing the concurrent scalp pediculosis.

  3. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis.

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Krueger, James G


    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes.

  4. The role of oxidative damage in poor scalp health: ramifications to causality and associated hair growth.

    Schwartz, J R; Henry, J P; Kerr, K M; Mizoguchi, H; Li, L


    The oxidative stress element of unhealthy scalp leads to compromised pre-emergent hair formation and poorly formed hair as it grows. Only cosmetic solutions can minimize the impact of unhealthy hair and to achieve healthy looking and feeling hair, the scalp health must be normalized first. The objectives of this research were to both investigate whether oxidative stress was a relevant aetiological element in scalp dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis and whether scalp condition affects the quality of hair that grows from it. Further, this research was designed to determine whether an effective anti-dandruff shampoo would repair and protect the scalp and pre-emergent hair from oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that oxidative stress is an aetiological element relevant to the dandruff condition and that a potentiated ZPT shampoo effectively improves scalp condition, including a reduction in oxidative stress. The compromised hair condition associated with dandruff is concomitantly improved when the scalp condition is improved. It appears that there is a direct link between hair quality and scalp health.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of scalp cooling to reduce chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    van den Hurk, C.J.; van den Akker-van Marle, E.M.; Breed, W.P.M.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Nortier, J.; Coebergh, J.W.W.


    Background. Alopecia is a frequently occurring side effect of chemotherapy that often can be prevented by cooling the scalp during the infusion. This study compared effects and costs of scalp cooling with usual general oncological care, i.e. purchasing a wig or head cover. Material and methods.

  6. The reconstructive management of hardware-related scalp erosion in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease.

    Gómez, Raúl; Hontanilla, Bernardo


    The presence of foreign material in deep brain stimulation is a risk factor for infection, and hardware-related pressure under the scalp may cause skin erosion. The aim of this article is to present our experience in the coverage of scalp in relation to underlying hardware. We analyzed 21 patients with Parkinson disease who had undergone deep brain stimulation surgery and developed scalp erosion with hardware exposition during follow-up. Nine patients were programmed for a scalp rotation flap, whereas free tisue transfer was performed in the rest of the patients. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. A hardware-related ulcer appeared in 5 of 9 rotation flap patients. No ulceration or major complications were observed in free flap patients. Free flaps are probably the best option for stable coverage in hardware-related scalp erosion with a high rate of success.

  7. Incidental Syringomas of the Scalp in a Patient with Scarring Alopecia

    Kristyn Deen


    Full Text Available Syringomas are benign adnexal neoplasms of eccrine lineage, which occur most commonly in the periorbital region in middle-aged females. These cutaneous lesions rarely occur on the scalp, are typically asymptomatic and are predominantly of cosmetic significance. Involvement of the scalp may be indistinguishable from that of scarring alopecia. We present an unusual case of clinically inapparent syringomas occurring on the scalp of a 56-year-old female with alopecia who was subsequently diagnosed with lichen planopilaris after repeated scalp biopsy. In patients with unexplained hair loss, or in cases that are refractive to treatment, clinicians should perform scalp biopsy to exclude the diagnosis of rare neoplastic lesions like syringomas and to diagnose associated conditions.

  8. Hemangioma rubi no couro cabeludo Cherry hemangioma in the scalp

    José Marcos Pereira


    Full Text Available O hemangioma rubi (HR é dermatose de origem vascular extremamente freqüente, acometendo mais de 75% da população acima de 70 anos de idade. Em geral compõe-se de lesões múltiplas,localizadas predominantemente no alto do tronco e braços. Clinicamente é caracterizado por lesões que variam desde máculas puntiformes até lesões papulosas com cinco milímetros de diâmetro. As mais novas são vermelhas, em tons vivos, e as mais antigas podem ser azuladas. O HR é de etiologia desconhecida. Histologicamente chama atenção uma neoformação de vasos capilares, que se tornam dilatados e com fenestrações em suas paredes. A membrana basal está muito espessada e existe abundante estroma de colágeno entre os vasos. O presente trabalho demonstra a alta incidência do HR no couro cabeludo Em amostra de 171 pacientes, sendo 85 homens e 86 mulheres, o autor observou que 123 deles (72% tinham HR no couro cabeludo, localização em que o HR nunca foi descrito na literatura.Cherry hemangioma (CH is an extremely frequent dermatosis with vascular origin involving more than 75% of the population over 70 years of age. Normally they are multiplex spots and focus predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. Clinically they are characterized by pinpoint maculae and papules with up to 5 millimeters in diameter. The most recent lesions can be a strong red color while the older ones are bluish. The etiology of CH is still unknown. From the histologic standpoint, the neoformation of the capillary tube draws attention: they are very dilated and with fenestration along the wall. The basement membranes are thickened and there is abundant collagen stroma between the veins. This work demonstrates the high frequency of CH in the scalp. In a sample of 171 patients (85 men and 86 women the author noted that 123 (72% had CH in the scalp. However, according to the literature, CH in the scalp has never been described.

  9. A Pyoderma Gangrenosum Case Located on the Scalp

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz


    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is a reactive neutrophilic dermatosis, accompanying inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, lymphoproliferative disorders and rheumatic diseases. It is generally characterized by painful, ulcerative lesions with violaceous borders. Lesions are mostly located on face, upper extremities and dorsum of the hand. The aetiology of disease is unknown. The subtypes of disease are ulcerative, bullous, pustular and vegetative types of PG. The differential diagnosis of PG includes arterial and venous ulcers, bacterial and mycotic infections, vasculitides, cancer, syphilis and Sweet syndrome. Although there is no effective treatment of the disease, immunosupressive agents such as topical and systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, methotrexate are used in the treatment. Herein, a case of PG located on an atypical site, on scalp was reported.

  10. Brain oscillations and electroencephalography scalp networks during tempo perception.

    Tian, Yin; Ma, Weiyi; Tian, Chunyang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong


    In the current study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the relation between musical tempo perception and the oscillatory activity in specific brain regions, and the scalp EEG networks in the theta, alpha, and beta bands. The results showed that the theta power at the frontal midline decreased with increased arousal level related to tempo. The alpha power induced by original music at the bilateral occipital-parietal regions was stronger than that by tempo-transformed music. The beta power did not change with tempo. At the network level, the original music-related alpha network had high global efficiency and the optimal path length. This study was the first to use EEG to investigate multi-oscillatory activities and the data support the tempo-specific timing hypothesis.

  11. Impact of the reference choice on scalp EEG connectivity estimation

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura


    Objective. Several scalp EEG functional connectivity studies, mostly clinical, seem to overlook the reference electrode impact. The subsequent interpretation of brain connectivity is thus often biased by the choice of a non-neutral reference. This study aims at systematically investigating these effects. Approach. As EEG reference, we examined the vertex electrode (Cz), the digitally linked mastoids (DLM), the average reference (AVE), and the reference electrode standardization technique (REST). As a connectivity metric, we used the imaginary part of the coherency. We tested simulated and real data (eyes-open resting state) by evaluating the influence of electrode density, the effect of head model accuracy in the REST transformation, and the impact on the characterization of the topology of functional networks from graph analysis. Main results. Simulations demonstrated that REST significantly reduced the distortion of connectivity patterns when compared to AVE, Cz, and DLM references. Moreover, the availability of high-density EEG systems and an accurate knowledge of the head model are crucial elements to improve REST performance, with the individual realistic head model being preferable to the standard realistic head model. For real data, a systematic change of the spatial pattern of functional connectivity depending on the chosen reference was also observed. The distortion of connectivity patterns was larger for the Cz reference, and progressively decreased when using the DLM, the AVE, and the REST. Strikingly, we also showed that network attributes derived from graph analysis, i.e. node degree and local efficiency, are significantly influenced by the EEG reference choice. Significance. Overall, this study highlights that significant differences arise in scalp EEG functional connectivity and graph network properties, in dependence on the chosen reference. We hope that our study will convey the message that caution should be used when interpreting and comparing

  12. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias.

    Khidhir, Karzan G; Woodward, David F; Farjo, Nilofer P; Farjo, Bessam K; Tang, Elaine S; Wang, Jenny W; Picksley, Steven M; Randall, Valerie A


    Balding causes widespread psychological distress but is poorly controlled. The commonest treatment, minoxidil, was originally an antihypertensive drug that promoted unwanted hair. We hypothesized that another serendipitous discovery, increased eyelash growth side-effects of prostamide F(2α)-related eyedrops for glaucoma, may be relevant for scalp alopecias. Eyelash hairs and follicles are highly specialized and remain unaffected by androgens that inhibit scalp follicles and stimulate many others. Therefore, we investigated whether non-eyelash follicles could respond to bimatoprost, a prostamide F(2α) analog recently licensed for eyelash hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost, at pharmacologically selective concentrations, increased hair synthesis in scalp follicle organ culture and advanced mouse pelage hair regrowth in vivo compared to vehicle alone. A prostamide receptor antagonist blocked isolated follicle growth, confirming a direct, receptor-mediated mechanism within follicles; RT-PCR analysis identified 3 relevant receptor genes in scalp follicles in vivo. Receptors were located in the key follicle regulator, the dermal papilla, by analyzing individual follicular structures and immunohistochemistry. Thus, bimatoprost stimulates human scalp follicles in culture and rodent pelage follicles in vivo, mirroring eyelash behavior, and scalp follicles contain bimatoprost-sensitive prostamide receptors in vivo. This highlights a new follicular signaling system and confirms that bimatoprost offers a novel, low-risk therapeutic approach for scalp alopecias.

  13. Clinical Observation of Infantile Cerebral Palsy Mainly Treated by Scalp Acupuncture

    REN Yi-zhong; CHEN Rui-hua; LIAO Rong-gui; XIAO Yuan-chun


    Purpose: The clinical effects of scalp acupuncture in treating infantile cerebral palsy were observed. Methods: Forty-five patients were treated by scalp acupuncture, functional exercise, intravenous drip,and parents' instructive training. Results: Basic recovery occurred in 4 cases, marked effectiveness in 21 cases and effectiveness in 15 cases. The total effective rate was 88.9%. The shorter duration and the longer course were,the better curative effects got. Conclusion: A combined treatment of scalp acupuncture, physiotherapy and intravenous drip can markedly improve clinical symptoms, signs, and intelligence in children with cerebral palsy.

  14. Phthirus pubis infestation of the eyelashes and scalp hairs in a girl.

    Ikeda, Nariko; Nomoto, Hiroo; Hayasaka, Seiji; Nagaki, Yasunori


    A 4-year-old girl was seen because of foreign bodies on the eyelashes. Parasites and their nits were seen on the patient's eyelashes and scalp. Her parents denied having Phthirus pubis infection of the axillary, pubic, or body hair, despite confirmation of the infestation in their child. The parasites were removed and the lashes with nits were cut off at the base. The parasite was identified as P. pubis. The scalp was washed with phenothrin shampoo. One month later no P. pubis infestation was found. Removal of the parasites, cutting the lashes at the base, and using phenothrin shampoo on the scalp were effective in resolving phthiriasis.


    CAO Renjun; SHI Qing


    @@ The authors of the present paper treated 50cases of migraine by scalp acupuncture plus electro-comb stimulation from 1995 to 1999 and achieved satisfactory therapeutic effects. It is reported as follows.

  16. A Retrospective Analysis on the Proper Size of Tissue Expanders to Treat Scalp Lesions

    Rino Aya, MD


    Conclusions: Expanders that generate functional skin at least more than 2.5 times the width of the lesion and have a volume more than 7 ml/cm2 lesion are necessary to cover scalp lesions without complications.

  17. Topical melagenine for repigmentation in twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp

    许爱娥; 尉晓冬


    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical melagenine for repigmentation in child patients with vitiligo on the scalp. Methods Twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp were treated with 1.2 mg/ml aqueous melagenine in combination with 20 minutes of infrared exposure twice daily. Results In 4 patients (18.2%), melagenine treatment in combination with infrared exposure led to complete recovery; in 6 patients (27.3%), treatment was shown to be effective; in 8 patients(36.3%), treatment led to improvements in patient condition; and only 4 patients (18.2%) showed no response after 1 -2 treatment sessions. The general effective rate of melagenine-infrared combination treatment was 45. 5% for the children with vitiligo on the scalp, and treatment was accompanied by minimal side effects.Conclusion Melagenine may be efficacious and a safe treatment option for childhood vitiligo affecting the scalp.

  18. [Discussion about the divided methods and unification on the location of scalp acupuncture].

    An, Bao-zhen


    Two kinds of divided methods currently used in clinic and their unified new method on the scalp acupuncture were discussed. Through comparing with the nomination and selecting methods on the stimulating location, the characteristics of the two kinds of divided methods on the location of scalp acupuncture were pointed out respectively. The advantage of the method with scalp projection areas is that the nomination is easy to associate and remember, however its disadvantage is that the measurement on point-selecting is less reasonable. For the method with standard treatment lines, its measurement is more reasonable, but its nomination on the location is sophisticated and difficult to be associated and remembered, especially having more repeated lines. The new divided method of scalp acupuncture combines the advantages of the two methods in order to easily remember and freely apply through their unification, which is worth being popularized.

  19. Treatment of juvenile stroke using Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA) - a case report

    Yamamoto, Toshikatsu; Schockert, Thomas; Boroojerdi, Babak


    .... A case is described of an 18 month old girl with hemiparesis, who showed a considerable degree of recovery over the course of 21 months while receiving Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture using soft laser...

  20. Improvement in scalp hair growth in androgen-deficient women treated with testosterone: a questionnaire study

    Glaser, RL; Dimitrakakis, C.; Messenger, AG


    Background Androgens are thought to have an adverse effect on female scalp hair growth. However, our clinical experience of androgen replacement therapy in women with androgen deficiency, in which hair loss was seldom reported, led us to question this concept. Objectives To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous testosterone therapy on scalp hair growth in female patients. Methods A total of 285 women, treated for a minimum of 1 year with subcutaneous testosterone implants for symptoms of androg...

  1. The persistence of human scalp hair on clothing fabrics.

    Dachs, J; McNaught, I J; Robertson, J


    This study reports the persistence behaviour of human scalp hairs under a number of different circumstances. The effects of artificial dyeing of hairs, the presence or absence of roots and different types of fabrics on the persistence of hair on a variety of garments were investigated. The garments were made from cotton, polycotton, cotton/acrylic, polyester and wool. The results indicated that neither artificial dyes nor the presence or absence of roots had statistically significant effects on the persistence of hair. In contrast, the type of fabric had a major impact and it was found that, generally, hairs persist longer on rougher fabrics. The rate of loss of hairs from non-woollen fabrics during normal wear was found to follow an exponential decay curve. In contrast, the rate of loss from the woollen garments was quite linear, indicating a constant, even loss, and thus suggests that a different process is involved in the persistence of hairs on woollen garments from that on non-woollen garments. The speed at which hair was lost from fabrics decreased in the order polyester, cotton/acrylic, polycotton, cotton, smooth wool, rough wool, so that wool gives the best chance of recovering samples of hair. Due to the uniqueness of each case, it is advised that caution be used when making any interpretations and before drawing any conclusions.

  2. Compressive sensing scalp EEG signals: implementations and practical performance.

    Abdulghani, Amir M; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther


    Highly miniaturised, wearable computing and communication systems allow unobtrusive, convenient and long term monitoring of a range of physiological parameters. For long term operation from the physically smallest batteries, the average power consumption of a wearable device must be very low. It is well known that the overall power consumption of these devices can be reduced by the inclusion of low power consumption, real-time compression of the raw physiological data in the wearable device itself. Compressive sensing is a new paradigm for providing data compression: it has shown significant promise in fields such as MRI; and is potentially suitable for use in wearable computing systems as the compression process required in the wearable device has a low computational complexity. However, the practical performance very much depends on the characteristics of the signal being sensed. As such the utility of the technique cannot be extrapolated from one application to another. Long term electroencephalography (EEG) is a fundamental tool for the investigation of neurological disorders and is increasingly used in many non-medical applications, such as brain-computer interfaces. This article investigates in detail the practical performance of different implementations of the compressive sensing theory when applied to scalp EEG signals.

  3. Probing interval timing with scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG).

    Ng, Kwun Kei; Penney, Trevor B


    Humans, and other animals, are able to easily learn the durations of events and the temporal relationships among them in spite of the absence of a dedicated sensory organ for time. This chapter summarizes the investigation of timing and time perception using scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG), a non-invasive technique that measures brain electrical potentials on a millisecond time scale. Over the past several decades, much has been learned about interval timing through the examination of the characteristic features of averaged EEG signals (i.e., event-related potentials, ERPs) elicited in timing paradigms. For example, the mismatch negativity (MMN) and omission potential (OP) have been used to study implicit and explicit timing, respectively, the P300 has been used to investigate temporal memory updating, and the contingent negative variation (CNV) has been used as an index of temporal decision making. In sum, EEG measures provide biomarkers of temporal processing that allow researchers to probe the cognitive and neural substrates underlying time perception.


    柴之芳; 关铭; 等


    The contents of total and methyl mercury in scalp hair samples of 1179 fishermen living at a typical Hg-polluted region in Northeast China and 27 lying-in women and their new born babies in Beijing have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis,gas chromatography(electron coupling)and other techniques.Only 18 of all fishermen have the Hg contents above 5μg/g,which indicates that the Hg pollution there has been substantially alleviated.The longitudinal Hg patterns of the lying-in women show a gradually lowering tendency during pregnant period.Further,the Hg contents of the new-born babies are generally above or close to those of their mothers,confirming the mechanism that the methyl Hg,an organic species of Hg with high toxicity,is readily able to penetrate the placental barrier and accumulated in fetus.Thus,the mercury poison has occurred at the early stage of pregnancy.

  5. Surface Laplacian of central scalp electrical signals is insensitive to muscle contamination.

    Fitzgibbon, Sean P; Lewis, Trent W; Powers, David M W; Whitham, Emma W; Willoughby, John O; Pope, Kenneth J


    The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of surface Laplacian processing on gross and persistent electromyographic (EMG) contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in electrical scalp recordings. We made scalp recordings during passive and active tasks, on awake subjects in the absence and in the presence of complete neuromuscular blockade. Three scalp surface Laplacian estimators were compared to left ear and common average reference (CAR). Contamination was quantified by comparing power after paralysis (brain signal, B) with power before paralysis (brain plus muscle signal, B+M). Brain:Muscle (B:M) ratios for the methods were calculated using B and differences in power after paralysis to represent muscle (M). There were very small power differences after paralysis up to 600 Hz using surface Laplacian transforms (B:M > 6 above 30 Hz in central scalp leads). Scalp surface Laplacian transforms reduce muscle power in central and pericentral leads to less than one sixth of the brain signal, two to three times better signal detection than CAR. Scalp surface Laplacian transformations provide robust estimates for detecting high-frequency (gamma) activity, for assessing electrophysiological correlates of disease, and also for providing a measure of brain electrical activity for use as a standard in the development of brain/muscle signal separation methods.


    韩舰华; 董颖丽; 等


    Objective:To observe the therapeutic effect of scalp acupuncture on cerebral blood flow in pseudobulbar paralysis patients for analyzing mechanisms of scalp-acupuncture in the treatment of wind strokek.Methods:A total of 38 inpatients (26 males and 12 females) were treated with electroacupuncture (EA) of scalp-point Dingzhougxian (MS 5),Dingnie Houxiexian (MS 7),Dingpangxian Ⅱ (MS 9) and Dingnie Qianxiexian (MS 6).Before and after acupuncture treatment,clinical symptoms of dysphadia and dyskphonia sere compared,and the mean blood flow speed (MBFS) values of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA),middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) detected by using Doppler blood flow meter.Results:Following two courses (4 weeks) of scalp-acupuncture treatment,of the 38 cases,23 had their dysphagia and dyskphonia cured (60.5%),10 (25.3%) had remarkable improvement,3(7.9%) experienced improvement and 2(5.3%) had no apparent changes.Simultaneously.MBFS of ACA,MCA and PCA increased significantly in comparison with that of pre-treatment (P<0.01).Additionally,results also showed that scalp acupuncture could stabilize the blood circulation between both hemispheres of the brain.Conclusion:Scalp acupuncture has a fairly good therapeutic effect in improving stroke caused dysphagia and dysphonia and in facilitating carebral blood flow.


    HAN Jianhua; DONG Yingli; ZHANG Ru


    Objective: To observe the therapeuticeffect of scalp acupuncture on cerebral blood flow in pseudobulbar paralysis patients for analyzing mechanisms of scalp-acupunoture in the treatment of wind stroke. Methods: A total of 38 inpatients (26 males and 12 females) were treated with electroacupuncture (EA) of scalp-point Dingzhongxian (MS 5), Dingnie Houxiexian (MS 7), Dingpangxian Ⅱ (MS 9) and Dingnie Qianxiexian (MS 6). Before and after acupuncture treatment, clinical symptoms of dysphagia and dysphonia were compared, and the mean blood flow speed (MBFS) values of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) detected by using Doppler blood flow meter. Results: Following two courses (4 weeks) of scalp-acupuncture treatment, of the 38 cases, 23 had their dysphagia and dysphonia cured (60.5%), 10 (25.3%) had remarkable improvement, 3(7.9% ) experienced improvement and 2 (5.3%) had no apparent changes. Simultaneously, MBFS of ACA, MCA and PCA increased significantly in comparison with that of pre-treatment (P < 0.01 ). Additionally, results also showed that scalp acupuncture could stabilize the blood circulation between both hemispheres of the brain. Conclusion: Scalp acupuncture has a fairly good therapeutic effect in improving stroke caused dysphagia and dysphonia and in facilitating cerebral blood flow.

  8. Formulation and Evaluation of Hair Gel for the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Disorder Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Sharma M


    Full Text Available Dandruff is a condition in which dead skin cells from the scalp come off in scales that are visible on the hair. The scales are dry, white or greyish and appear as small patches, especially at the top of the head. Dandruff may be a symptom of a more serious problem, such as seborrheic dermatitis. Various Antifungal agents are widely used in hair shampoos for the treatment of dandruff. These products show temporary effect for span of hours in a day on the scalp. Therefore, an attempt has been made for formulation of Ketoconazole Anti-dandruff hair gels which may give antidandruff action for number of hours. All the formulations were evaluated Active Content, Physical appearance, PH, Viscosity, Extrudability, Antifungal activity, Drug release Profile and Stability study. The formulation HG3 shows superior drug release than other formulations. In carbopol gel formulations, the drug release was decrease with increase in carbopol concentration Antimicrobial activity shows that formulation HG3 shows higher efficacy without any dermal irritancy. Moreover the optimized formulation showed no signs of irritation or inflammation.

  9. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  10. [Interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture combined with occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment in stroke: a randomized controlled trial].

    Wang, Jun; Pei, Jian; Cui, Xiao; Sun, Kexing; Ni, Huanhuan; Zhou, Cuixia; Wu, Ji; Huang, Mei; Ji, Li


    To compare the clinical efficacy on upper limb motor impairment in stroke between the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture therapy and the traditional scalp acupuncture therapy. The randomized controlled trial and MINIMIZE layering randomization software were adopted. Seventy patients of upper limb with III to V grade in Brunnstrom scale after stroke were randomized into an interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group and a traditional scalp acupuncture group, 35 cases in each one. In the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group, the middle 2/5 of Dingnieqianxiexian (anterior oblique line of vertex-temporal), the middle 2/5 of Dingniehouxiexian (posterior oblique line of vertex-temporal) and Dingpangerxian (lateral line 2 of vertex) on the affected side were selected as the stimulation areas. Additionally, the rehabilitation training was applied during scalp acupuncture treatment. In the traditional scalp acupuncture group, the scalp stimulation areas were same as the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group. But the rehabilitation training was applied separately. The rehabilitation training was applied in the morning and the scalp acupuncture was done in the afternoon. The results in Fugl-Meyer for the upper limb motor function (U-FMA), the Wolf motor function measure scale (WM- FT) and the modified Barthel index in the two groups were compared between the two groups before treatment and in 1 and 2 months of treatment, respectively. After treatment, the U-FMA score, WMFT score and the score of the modified Barthel index were all apparently improved as compared with those before treatment (all P acupuncture group was better than that in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (P acupuncture group were improved apparently as compared with those in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (P acupuncture group were not different significantly as compared with those in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (both P > 0.05). For the patients of IV to V grade in

  11. [Comparative study of efficacy and effect on plasma cortisol levels of micronised desonide cream 0.1 p. 100 versus betamethasone dipropionate cream 0.05 p. 100 In the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis].

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Legrain, V; Amoric, J; Taïeb, A


    Systemic side effects of local corticosteroid therapy may occur when treating chronic inflammatory dermatoses in children. We compared the effect of micronized desonide cream 0.1 p.100 versus betamethasone dipropionate cream 0.5 p.100. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of micronized desonide cream 0.1 p.100 (group 1) versus bethamethasone cream dipropionate 0.05 p.100 (group 2) in children treated for atopic dermatitis and to compare their effects on serum cortisol levels 8 hours after administration. Twenty-nine patients, mean age 13.8 months were included (15 in group 1 and 14 in group 2). The creams were applied twice a day from day 1 to 5 then once a day from day 6 to 7 and finally once every two days to day 15. The two treatments were effective with a decrease in body surface area involved and an improvement in lesion score from day 5 to day 20. Cortisolemia fell off significantly for both treatments between day 0 and day 5 (group 1: Deltad5=-4.74 mg/ml, p=0.01; group 2: Deltad5=-13.06 mg/ml, pbetamethasone dipropionate cream 0.05 p.100 while the therapeutic effect on childhood atopic dermatitis is the same.

  12. Direct Puncture Embolization of Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with Severe Hemophilia A: A Case Report

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha [Dept. of Radiology, Samsug Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We present a case of scalp arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a patient with severe hemophilia A. The 22-year-old man presented with a pulsatile right parietal scalp mass. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an AVM in the right parietal scalp, supplied by superficial temporal and occipital arteries that drained into multiple venous structures. We successfully performed direct puncture embolization followed by surgical resection of the scalp AVM in conjunction with supplemental infusion of coagulation factor VIII before, during and after the embolization and the operation.

  13. Solid effervescent formulations as new approach for topical minoxidil delivery.

    Pereira, Maíra N; Schulte, Heidi L; Duarte, Natane; Lima, Eliana M; Sá-Barreto, Livia L; Gratieri, Tais; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Cunha-Filho, Marcilio S S


    Currently marketed minoxidil formulations present inconveniences that range from a grease hard aspect they leave on the hair to more serious adverse reactions as scalp dryness and irritation. In this paper we propose a novel approach for minoxidil sulphate (MXS) delivery based on a solid effervescent formulation. The aim was to investigate whether the particle mechanical movement triggered by effervescence would lead to higher follicle accumulation. Preformulation studies using thermal, spectroscopic and morphological analysis demonstrated the compatibility between effervescent salts and the drug. The effervescent formulation demonstrated a 2.7-fold increase on MXS accumulation into hair follicles casts compared to the MXS solution (22.0±9.7μg/cm(2) versus 8.3±4.0μg/cm(2)) and a significant drug increase (around 4-fold) in remaining skin (97.1±29.2μg/cm(2)) compared to the drug solution (23.5±6.1μg/cm(2)). The effervescent formulations demonstrated a prominent increase of drug permeation highly dependent on the effervescent mixture concentration in the formulation, confirming the hypothesis of effervescent reaction favoring drug penetration. Clinically, therapy effectiveness could be improved, increasing the administration interval, hence, patient compliance. More studies to investigate the follicular targeting potential and safety of new formulations are needed.

  14. A Comparison Of Three Therapeutic Modalities In Scalp Psoriasis And A Review Of Literature

    Kaur Inderjeet


    Full Text Available Despite the development of newer patient- friendly agents and regimens, treatment of scalp psoriasis is difficult and relapse are common. The adverse effects and drawbacks of topical corticosteroids and calcipotriol led us to compare the effects of three relatively bland therapeutic agents in a prospective randomized trial in scalp psoriasis. A literature search was also done on the treatment of scalp psoriasis. Forty patients with scalp psoriasis were randomized to receive any of the following topical therapies under overnight occlusion:5% coal tar solution mixed 1:1 in coconut oil; a preparation containing 10% urea, 10% lactic acid, 10% propylene glycol and 10% liquid paraffin in a washable cream base and only coconut oil. The 3 groups showed significant improvement in 57%, 64.4% and 58.3% patients respectively (p<0.1. Clearance rates were also comparable between the groups. There were no adverse effects reported in patients using tar or coconut oil. The literature search revealed that only topical corticosteroids had substantially higher response and clearance rates that those achieved by us. The risk/ benefit ratios of topical corticosteroids and calcipotriol vs bland emollients and their place in the treatment of scalp psoriasis are discussed.

  15. The management of non-melanocytic skin malignancies of the scalp and calvarium

    Harun Çöloglu


    Full Text Available Background: The management of advanced cutaneous malignancies has been controversial. Thirteen patients with nonmelanoma skin neoplasias that had invaded the bone of the calvarium and scalp were treated in our centre. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience in treating these malignancies with scalp resection and full or partial thickness cranium reconstruction. Patients and Methods: From June 2008 to March 2012, thirteen patients with locally advanced tumours of the scalp invading the calvarium were treated with wide local excision of the scalp combined with an underlying craniectomy and dural resection if needed. Results: Using histopathological diagnosis eleven patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. A full thickness cranium resection was performed in seven patients and partial in six patients. Conclusion: These large cancers occasionally invade adjacent structures, as well as bone, presenting a challenging surgical problem. In general, giant rotational or island scalp flaps and free tissue transfers are needed to close the area. Finding clean margins are an important part of treating patients with bone involvement and can usually be attained using outer tabula curettage thus preventing unnecessary morbidity.

  16. The prognostic importance of scalp location in primary head and neck melanoma.

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Nelson, Daniel W; Hiles, Jason; Stern, Stacey; Yoon, Jeong Lim; Sim, Myung Shin; Faries, Mark B


    For patients with cutaneous melanoma, primary tumors located in the head and neck is associated with poor outcomes. The reason for this difference and whether it is applicable to all locations within the head and neck remains unclear. We hypothesized that scalp melanoma is uniquely distinguished from other anatomic sites and is independently responsible for the poor prognosis of head and neck melanoma. Query and analysis of a prospectively maintained melanoma database of all patients treated for primary cutaneous melanoma from 1971 to 2010. Of 11 384 patients identified, 7% (n = 799) of lesions originated on the scalp. Scalp primaries were more often found in males and were associated with increased Breslow thickness and were more frequently ulcerated compared to all other anatomic sites (P = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, scalp location was an independent predictor of worse melanoma-specific (HR 1.75; CI 1.50-2.04; P melanoma, confirms that scalp location is independently responsible for the negative prognosis associated with head and neck melanoma. Although the pathophysiology of this difference remains to be determined, these data argue for more rigorous surveillance of this anatomic location. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vascularized Bipedicled Pericranial Flaps for Reconstruction of Chronic Scalp Ulcer Occurring after Cranioplasty

    Seok Ho Yoon


    Full Text Available BackgroundIntractable chronic scalp ulcers with cranial bone exposure can occur along the incision after cranioplasty, posing challenges for clinicians. They occur as a result of severe scarring, poor blood circulation of the scalp, and focal osteomyelitis. We successfully repaired these scalp ulcers using a vascularized bipedicled pericranial flap after complete debridement.MethodsSix patients who underwent cranioplasty had chronic ulcers where the cranial bone, with or without the metal plate, was exposed along the incision line. After completely excising the ulcer and the adjacent scar tissue, subgaleal dissection was performed. We removed the osteomyelitic calvarial bone, the exposed metal plate, and granulation tissue. A bipedicled pericranial flap was elevated to cover the defect between the bone graft or prosthesis and the normal cranial bone. It was transposed to the defect site and fixed using an absorbable suture. Scalp flaps were bilaterally advanced after relaxation incisions on the galea, and were closed without tension.ResultsAll the surgical wounds were completely healed with an improved aesthetic outcome, and there were no notable complications during a mean follow-up period of seven months.ConclusionsA bipedicled pericranial flap is vascularized, prompting wound healing without donor site morbidity. This may be an effective modality for treating chronic scalp ulcer accompanied by the exposure of the cranial bone after cranioplasty.

  18. Scalp Haematoma in Cerebral Palsy Case due to Unknown Cause - A Rare Case Report

    Singh, Dharamjit Singh Jitsweer


    Incidences of cerebral palsy (CP) in children are not quite common even though it is the most common motor disorder in children. Further quality of life in CP cases is not so good in young adult stages and has to face certain problems. However scalp haematoma formation in CP patient without injury to head is rarely been reported. The case is being reported for the first time from Malaysia. We report on a unique case of scalp haematoma in an 18-year-old girl of known CP patient with unknown cause. No history of trauma or fall with any of the focal neurological signs or symptoms was found. Clinical examination showed soft boggy swelling of 8 x 10 cm size, involving most of scalp and upper face. CT - scan showed scalp haematoma with right orbital extraconal lesion. She underwent incision and drainage of scalp lesion; consequently around 100 ml of clotted blood came out. At follow-up she was doing well. PMID:27504347

  19. Golden Spirals and Scalp Whorls: Nature's Own Design for Rapid Expansion.

    Paul, Sharad P


    This paper documents what began as an exercise in curiosity-logarithmic spiral designs abound in nature-in galaxies, flowers, even pinecones, and on human scalps as whorls. Why are humans the only primates to have whorls on the scalp? Is the formation of scalp whorls mechanical or genetic? A mechanical theory has long been postulated- the mechanical theory suggests that hair whorl patterning is determined by the tension on the epidermis during rapid expansion of the cranium while the hair follicle is growing downwards-however, this has never before, to the author's knowledge, been experimentally proven conclusively. We found, that under certain conditions, we were able to experimentally recreate spirals on the scalp to demonstrate that the basis of scalp whorls is indeed mechanical-and that logarithmic spirals may be nature's own design for rapid expansion of organic tissues. Given our experiments only created whorls when certain conditions were satisfied (and not in others), they have given us great insight into the mechanical formation of skin whorls and the physiology of skin stretch. We believe that these findings will lead to many more advances in understanding skin dynamics and indeed the changes that occur in tissue when confronted by stretch.

  20. Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.

    Hee Kuk Park

    Full Text Available The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp. was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp. was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff.

  1. A Smartphone App to Assist Scalp Localization of Superficial Supratentorial Lesions--Technical Note.

    Eftekhar, Behzad


    Neuronavigation is an established technology in neurosurgery. In parts of the world and certain circumstances in which neuronavigation is not easily available or affordable, alternative techniques may be considered. An app to assist scalp localization of superficial supratentorial lesions has been introduced, and its accuracy has been compared with established neuronavigation systems. Sina is a simple smartphone app that overlaps the transparent patients' computed tomography/magnetic resonance images on the background camera. How to use Sina intraoperatively is described. The app was used for scalp localization of the center of the lesions in 11 patients with supratentorial pathologies <3 cm in longest diameter and <2 cm from the cortex. After localization of the lesion using Sina, the center of the lesion was marked on the scalp using standard neuronavigation systems and the deviations were measured. Implementation of Sina for intraoperative scalp localization is simple and practical. The center of the lesions localized by Sina was 10.2 ± 2 mm different from localization done by standard neuronavigation systems. When neuronavigation is not easily available or affordable, Sina can be helpful for scalp localization and preoperative planning of the incision for selected supratentorial pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Active Micromachined Scalp Electrode Array for Eeg Signal Recording.

    Alizadeh-Taheri, Babak

    This thesis describes the design, microfabrication, and testing of an active scalp EEG (electroencephalograph) electrode that has several distinct advantages over existing technologies. These advantages are: (1) no electrolyte used, (2) no skin preparation, (3) significantly reduced sensor size, and (4) compatibility with EEG monitoring systems. The active electrode array is an integrated system made of an array of capacitive sensors with local integrated circuitry housed in a package with batteries to power the circuitry. This level of integration was required to achieve the functional performance obtained by the electrode. The electrode consists of a silicon sensor substrate fabricated at UCD and a custom circuit substrate fabricated at Orbit Semiconductors, using a 2 μm analog CMOS technology. The circuitry was designed for low 1/f noise. One side of the sensor substrate holds four capacitive sensors with rm Si_3N _4 as the dielectric material. The opposite side holds aluminum pads for bonding to the circuit substrate. A via hole technology was developed to make electrical contact to both sides of the sensor substrate. The via holes are 200 μm square openings etched through the silicon by a reactive ion etching (RIE) process using an rm SF_6/O_2 gas mixture, oxidized, and then filled with sputtered aluminum for contacts through the substrate. The via holes have an aspect ratio of 2:1 (length of opening to depth of hole). Silicon RIE etch rates of up to 18 mu/hr were obtained under optimum conditions, using a 0.8 μm aluminum mask. The circuit and sensor substrates were bonded with silver adhesive, and wire bonding was used to make electrical contacts between the substrates. The two substrates were then integrated in a custom package for testing. The electrode was tested on an electrical test bench and on human subjects in four modalities of EEG activity, namely: (1) spontaneous EEG, (2) sensory event-related potentials, (3) brain stem potentials, and (4

  3. Synthesis and solvent performance of ethylene glycol dipropionate%乙二醇二丙酸酯的合成与溶剂性能研究

    张宇博; 张余英; 陈祎平; 肖增均


    This article focuses on the preparation and properties of ethylene glycol dipropionate( EGDP) ,and EGDP was synthesized from ethanediol and propanoic acid by direct esterification method. For purpose of an optimum reaction conditions,orthogonal meth-od was employed on the basis of single-factor test. The structure of EGDP was determined by fourier transform infrared( FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR). The results indicated that molar ratio of propionic acid to ethanediol was 2. 5∶1,p-toluene sul-fonic acid and toluene accounted for 1. 0%and 10%of the total mass,respectively,reaction time was 3. 0 h,the yield of EGDP was up to 87. 4%. Compared with the performance of common high boiling-point solvents,ethylene glycol dipropionate was environmen-tally friendly,which had high capability for dissolving,and had potential application in coating and plastic industry as well.%以乙二醇二丙酸酯为重点,研究了乙二醇二羧酸酯的合成与性能。用乙二醇和丙酸直接酯化合成乙二醇二丙酸酯,在单因素实验的基础上,用正交法探讨较佳合成条件。采用红外、核磁对产物进行表征。结果表明,n(丙酸)∶n(乙二醇)=2.5∶1,对甲苯磺酸和甲苯分别占反应物总质量的1.0%和10%,反应时间3 h,乙二醇二丙酸酯收率可达87.4%。并结合其他乙二醇二羧酸酯,通过与常见高沸点溶剂性能的比较分析,表明该产物溶解力强,相对环保安全,在涂料、塑料等工业中具有潜在的应用价值。

  4. Quantitative determination of betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone dipropionate in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and a bioequivalence study.

    Chen, Man-Yun; Tang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Chen, Yao; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Huang, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Hao


    The compound medicine of betamethasone sodium phosphate (BSP) and betamethasone dipropionate (BDP) is widely used for diverse glucocorticoid-sensitive acute and chronic diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. It will be useful and beneficial to validate sensitive method for the determination of BSP, BDP and their metabolites for their pharmacokinetic study. Hereby, an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been validated for the determination of BSP, BDP and their metabolites betamethasone (BOH), betamethasone 17-monodipropionate (B17P) and betamethasone 21-monodipropionate (B21P) in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction with ether and n-hexane (v/v, 4:1) was used for sample preparation of BDP, BOH, B17P and B21P with beclomethasone dipropionate as internal standard (IS), while solid phase extraction was adopted for sample preparation of BSP using prednisolone as IS. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypurity C18 column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm) for BOH, BDP, B21P and B17P, and a Luna C18 (2) column (150 mm×2.0 mm, 5 μm) for BSP. Electrospray ionization interfaced with positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode was used for mass spectrometric detection. The standard calibration curves were linear within the range of 2.525 × 10(-9)-403.9 × 10(-9) mol·dm(-3) for BSP, 0.125 × 10(-9)-55.81 × 10(-9) mol·dm(-3) for BDP, 0.278 × 10(-9)-74.95 × 10(-9) mol·dm(-3) for BOH, 0.098 × 10(-9)-4.688 × 10(-9) mol·dm(-3) for B17P and 0.226 × 10(-9)-5.411 × 10(-9) mol·dm(-3) for B21P, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 23 healthy subjects after they were injected with this compound medicine BSP and BDP.

  5. [Clinical experience of Qin's eight scalp needles for treatment of Parkinson's disease].

    Dong, Jun; Cui, Hua-Shun


    The eight scalp needles, founded by Professor QIN Liang-fu, and its clinical experience for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) are introduced. Based on his years of clinical experience, it is proposed by Professor QIN that the Governor Vessel is mainly for miscellaneous disease and disease of limbs. Combined with distribution of cephalic motor region and meridian, an acupuncture treatment plan that is full of innovativeness is proposed, which is called Qin's eight scalp needles. It includes bilateral Fengchi (GB 20), Shuaigu (GB 8), Toulinqi (GB 15) as well as Yintang (GV 29) and Baihui (GV 20), mainly for treatment of nervous system diseases, such as PD and multiple sclerosis and so on. Besides, some outpatient cases are introduced to explain that eight scalp needle could alleviate the progression of PD, improve patients' motor, cognitive and affective disorders, reduce the suffering of patients, and improve the patient's quality of life.

  6. Lesion in Scalp and Skull as the First Manifestation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    V. R. Ferraz


    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common primary tumor of the liver and the fifth most common cancer in the world. The lungs, bone, and lymph nodes are frequent sites of metastasis of HCC. The purpose of the present study is show that metastases, although rare, must be among the differential diagnosis of skin lesions and that a diagnostic research based on these findings can be conducted. The authors report a rare case of metastatic hepatocellular injury to the scalp and skull treated by a radical surgical approach. Excision of the lesion in the scalp was performed “en bloc.” The tumor was supplied by the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery. There are few case reports of metastatic HCC to scalp and skull; treatment of these lesions should be individualized in order to control symptoms, improve quality of life, and promote an increase in survival.

  7. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.


    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch

  8. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.


    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch

  9. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following hair coloring/treatment

    Sanjit O. Tewari, MD


    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp is a process often attributed to secondary factors such as trauma, infection, or a myriad of iatrogenic etiologies. Here, we are presenting a case report of an adult patient with spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following a hair coloring/treatment. We performed an extensive review of literature on this topic, however, could not find a single case with similar presentation of subcutaneous emphysema. This case demonstrates an unreported etiology for this diagnosis and is thus being reported for its uniqueness and to raise clinical awareness.

  10. [Lin Xue-Jian's experience on treatment of a part of cerebral diseases with scalp acupuncture].

    Wang, Hai-Li; Wu, Jiu-Wei


    LIN Xue-Jian adopts Chinese traditional acupuncture and moxibustion manipulation methods to stimulate the special area of scalp to treat a part of brain-derived diseases, such as infantile cerebral palsy, nerve deafness, cerebellar ataxia, lacunar cerebral infarction, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety, insomnia and central constipation, and so on. Scalp acupuncture can improve ability of blood and oxygen supply for general blood vessels; stimulation of corresponding acupoint area according to symptoms and signs can control condition of disease; and can repair, activate and regenerate the injured, dormancy and aging neurons, so as to dredge nerve network in the brain, hence better therapeutic effect.

  11. Rapid-growing juvenile xanthogranuloma on the scalp in 18-month-old girl.

    Park, Young Woo; Koh, Eun Jeong; Choi, Ha Young


    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is an uncommon histiocytic cutaneous lesion. An 18-month-old girl visited our clinic due to rapid growing orange-yellowish lesion on scalp. Enlarging time from 1 mm to 12 mm was just 8 weeks. We excised the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Histopathological study showed numerous eosinophils and Touton giant cells within the lesion. Immunohistochemical study revealed positive immunoreactivity for CD68 in most areas. No recurrence was seen during 12 months after resection. We report a case with rapidly growing JXG on scalp with peculiar histopathologic findings.

  12. Scalp acupuncture effect on language development in children with autism: a pilot study.

    Allam, Hemat; ElDine, Nirvana Gamal; Helmy, Ghada


    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in delays in social interaction, language used in social communication, and symbolic or imaginative play, with an onset prior to age 3 years. Language therapy (LT) for children with autism is the main form of rehabilitation, because it emphasizes its major presenting symptom (i.e., language impairment). Scalp acupuncture (scalp AP) is a modality based on the physiologic function of different brain areas, where different scalp zones are stimulated with needles so as to stimulate the reflexively related nervous tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the role of scalp AP as a complementary modality to LT in rehabilitation of children with autism. The study involved 20 children (divided into 2 equal groups: A and B), diagnosed as autistic according to DSM IV classification. Their ages ranged between 4 and 7 years old. All subjects underwent LT twice weekly, aiming at stimulation of cognitive and verbal abilities. Group B only was subjected to scalp AP sessions--twice weekly--as a rehabilitation complementary tool during the 9-month period of the study. The acupoints used were: Du 20, 26, GV17; three temple needles; and Yamamoto's New Scalp Acupuncture cerebrum and aphasia points (acupuncture needles 0.3 x 30 mm). A language test was performed before and after therapy to monitor cognition and expression (an Arabic test was included). Both groups, whose mean age range was 5.5 years+/-1.22 years, showed a significant improvement in cognitive and expressive language skills pre- and post-therapy, which was highly significant among group B children treated with scalp AP (attention 2.8+/-0.8 in group A versus 3.5+/-0.8 in group B; receptive semantics were 7+/-3.8 in group A versus 9.4+/-3.1 in group B). Expressive semantics significantly improved in both groups. Scalp AP is a safe complementary modality when combined with LT and has a significantly positive effect on language development in children with autism.

  13. Torsion formulation of gravity

    Lledo, M A; Sommovigo, L, E-mail: Maria.Lledo@ific.uv.e, E-mail: Luca.Sommovigo@mfn.unipmn.i [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia, and IFIC (Centro mixto CSIC-UVEG) C/Dr Moliner, 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)


    We explain precisely what it means to have a connection with torsion as a solution of the Einstein equations. While locally the theory remains the same, the new formulation allows for topologies that would have been excluded in the standard formulation of gravity. In this formulation it is possible to couple arbitrary torsion to gauge fields without breaking the gauge invariance.

  14. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

    N. A. Afifi


    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  15. Comparison of clinical effects of beclomethasone dipropionate & budesonide in treatment of children with mild persistent asthma: A double-blind, randomized, controlled study

    Singh, Anju; Nandan, Devki; Dewan, Vivek; Sankar, Jhuma


    Background & objectives: Various inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are available to control the symptoms of asthma. Although beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and budesonide (BUD) are one of the oldest ICSs, their wide availability and low cost make them attractive options in developing countries. Due to lack of consensus on which of the two drugs is better for controlling mild persistent asthma, we undertook this study to compare the efficacy of these two drugs by measuring the change in percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from baseline in children with mild persistent asthma. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, parallel group study was conducted in children 7-15 yr of age with newly diagnosed asthma. Of the 85 cases of mild persistent asthma, 42 received BUD while 43 received BDP at a dose of 400 µg/day using pressurized metered-dose inhaler with valved spacer for two months. The outcomes measured were change in FEV1, symptom scores and side effects. Results: There was a significant (P management of children with mild persistent asthma. [CTRI No: CTRI/2013/03/003495]. PMID:27934805

  16. Comparison of beclomethasone dipropionate (2 and 3 mg) and prednisolone sodium phosphate enemas (30 mg) in the treatment of ulcerative proctitis. An adrenocortical approach.

    Mulder, C J; Endert, E; van der Heide, H; Houthoff, H J; Wiersinga, W; Wiltink, E H; Tytgat, G N


    Twenty-three patients with attacks of distal ulcerative colitis were treated randomly with either 2 or 3 mg of topically administered beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) or 30 mg of prednisolone sodium phosphate (PP). The effect of the steroid enemas on adrenocortical function was assessed by ACTH tests, which were performed before and after treatment. Endoscopic, clinical and histological scores were comparable in the three treatment groups in this pilot trial. Fasting cortisol in the PP group decreased significantly from 0.47 +/- 0.12 mumol/l before to 0.22 +/- 0.14 mumol/l (P less than 0.05) after therapy; in the BDP group no significant changes were found. Urinary cortisol excretion in the PP group was not detectable after therapy; in the BDP group no changes were found. It is concluded that in the topical treatment of ulcerative colitis, BDP may be preferable to PP because it exerts a promising anti-inflammatory action without affecting adrenocortical function.

  17. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected withTrypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu


    Objective:To determine the effect ofTrypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected withT. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected withT. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serialNo.GN:10023338). Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05) was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions:T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  18. Microstructure of Temporomandibular Joint Cartilage after Intra-Articular Betamethasone Sodium Phosphate/Betamethasone Dipropionate Injection during the Early Stage of Experimental Osteoarthrosis

    Irina N. Kostina


    Full Text Available Objective: to study the morphological changes in cartilage after a single intra-articular betamethasone sodium phosphate (BSP/betamethasone dipropionate (BDP injection during the early stage of experimental osteoarthrosis (OA of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Material and Methods: The experiment was performed on 18 male rabbits aged 6 months .The first group consisted of 9 healthy rabbits. The second group included 9 rabbits with mechanically induced TMJ OA. For 5 days, 3 hours daily, a load (with a force of 200N on the TMJ was imposed. In the left TMJ of the second group of rabbits, betamethasone was injected intra-articularly in different doses: 0.1 ml (n=3, 0.3 ml (n=3, and 0.5 ml (n=3. The right TMJ was used for comparison. A combined anesthesia was applied each experimental day. Rabbits of both groups were sacrificed on days 7, 14, and 30 with introductory combined anesthesia and intravenous injection of Zoletil 100® 20 mg/kg to stop their breathing. Results: Betamethasone caused destruction of the chondrocytes, fragmentation of collagen fibers, deficit of proteoglycans (PGs and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, thinning of the cartilage, and contributed to the progression of TMJ OA. Conclusion: The optimal dose of BSP/BDP for intra-articular injection in the early stages of TMJ OA must be within the range of 0.1-0.3 ml|0.7-1.5 mg.

  19. Short-term safety assessment of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, atrophogenicity, and ocular safety in subjects with scalp psoriasis.

    Andres, Philippe; Poncet, Michel; Farzaneh, Sidou; Soto, Pascale


    Clobetasol propionate is known to be a very effective treatment for psoriasis; however, its use is limited by potent corticosteroid class related side effects such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression and atrophogenicity. The aim of this single-center, parallel group, randomized study was to assess the HPA axis suppression potential, atrophogenicity, and ocular tolerability of clobetasol propionate shampoo in 26 patients with scalp psoriasis. Suitable subjects were treated once daily for 4 weeks with clobetasol propionate shampoo, to be rinsed off after 15 minutes or with a leave-on clobetasol propionate gel. The study demonstrated that clobetasol propionate shampoo did not lead to HPA axis suppression or to skin atrophy. Conversely, the gel led to HPA axis suppression and a decrease in skin thickness. Neither formulation had an impact on ocular safety. Despite the short contact application time, the clobetasol propionate shampoo provides similar efficacy results to the gel.

  20. Changes of blood biochemical indexes in stroke patients after scalp acupuncture:A randomized controlled observation

    Hongxing Zhang; Li Zhou; Tangfa Zhang; Guofu Huang


    BACKGROUND:Hemorrheologic indexes and the disturbances of lipid metabolism are closely correlated with stroke.Whether scalp acupuncture can correct the abnormality of hemorrheologic indexes,and improve the hyperviscosity of stroke patients,and then ameliorate their brain function? OBJECTIVE:To observe the curative effect of internationally standardized scheme of scalp acupuncture on stroke,and analyze the influence of scalp acupuncture on the hemorrheologic indexes,levels of blood lipids and plasma endothelin in stroke patients.DESIGN:A randomized controlled observation.SETTING:Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion,Wuhan Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine.PARTICIPANTS:Totally 128 stroke inpatients were selected from the Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion,Wuhan Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine from May 2000 to June 2005,including 72 males and 56 females,with an average age of(64±37)years.All the subjects were accorded with the diagnostic standards of stroke in the criteria for the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) diagnosis and efficacy evaluation(in trial)and the diagnostic key points for cerebrovascular diseases revised by Chinese Association of Neurology,and they were all confirmed by cranial CT scanning.Of the 128 patients,there 73 cases of cerebral infarction,48 of cerebral hemorrhage,and 7 of mixed type.For TCM diagnosis,there were 79 cases of stroke involving channels and 49 cases of stroke involving zangfu organs.The stroke patients with randomly divided into scalp acupuncture group(n=66)and body acupuncture group(n=62).Meanwhile, 15 healthy physical examinees were taken as the normal control group. All the subjects were informed and agreed with the treatment scheme.METHODS:①Scalp acupuncture group:Anterior oblique line of vertex-temporal[from Qianshencong to Xuanli (GB 6)]and posterior oblique line of vertex-temporal[from Baihui (DU 20)to Qubin(GB 7)]were selected as the acupoints to


    Annapurna Sarma


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Awake craniotomy is an important technique used for brain tumour excision from eloquent cortex. Awake craniotomy allows maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment . The critical aspect is to maintain adequate analgesia and sedation, hemodynamic stability, airway safety, while keeping the patient awake and cooperative for neurological testing. AIM OF THE STUDY: We are reporting cases series of awake craniotomy under monito red anesthesia care using dexmedetomidine infusion as an adjuvant to scalp block, titrating the sedation level by BIS monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After careful patient selection and psychological preparation Monitored Anesthesia Care was provided by continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.2 - 0.5ug/kg/min titrating sedation score to BIS value of 70 - 90. Bilateral scalp block was administered using 0.5% bupivacaine. For dura mater incision, a pad with 2% lidocaine was applied for 3 minutes . The tumor removal was complete with no neurological deficiency. All the patients were discharged on 5 th postoperative day without complications and with full patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION: We conclude that monitored anesthesia care with dexmedetomidine infusion and scalp block for awake craniotomy is safe and efficacious. Absence of complications and high patient satisfaction score makes this technique close to an ideal technique for awake craniotomy. KEYWORDS: Awake craniotomy; Dexmedetomidine; Scalp b lock; BIS index

  2. Safety and effectiveness of scalp cooling in cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic treatment

    Hurk, Corina Johanna Geertruida van den


    Various cytotoxics cause severe alopecia, it is estimated to affect more than 15.000 Dutch cancer patients per year. Hair loss has high impact on the majority of these patients, they describe it as stigmatizing and a constant reminder of cancer disease. Scalp cooling decreases hair loss and is well

  3. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of moderate to thick actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.


    with a total of 2768 AKs (severity grades I-III) of the face and scalp were randomized to either 11/2 or 21/2 h exposure groups. After application of a sunscreen (sun protection factor 20) and gentle lesion preparation, MAL was applied to the entire treatment area. Patients left the clinic immediately after...

  4. Treatment of Infantile Cerebral Palsy by Scalp Acupuncture Combined with Point Injection in 48 Cases

    SU Li-min; XIANG Li-min


    The author treated forty-eight cases of infantile cerebral palsy with scalp acupuncture and point injection. After two courses of treatment the infants made progress in different degrees. Eight cases were cured,sixteen cases were obviously improved, twenty-two cases were improved and two cases were unchanged. The total effective rate was 95.8%.

  5. Giant congenital cellular blue nevus of the scalp: neonatal presentation and approach

    Debyser M


    Full Text Available Martine Debyser1, Sofie De Schepper2, James D'haese1, Veerle De Ketelaere3, Luc Cornette11Neonatal Intensive Care Unit AZ St Jan Bruges-Ostend AV, Bruges, Belgium; 2Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 3Department of Paediatrics, St Rembert Hospital, Torhout, BelgiumAbstract: The authors report the case of a massive vaginal bleeding during labor and delivery, resulting in the birth of a newborn infant in hypovolemic shock. The origin of the bleeding was a giant congenital cellular blue nevus (CBN of the scalp. The report illustrates the crucial role of immediate and aggressive volume resuscitation, suturing of the skin dehiscence, and firm external compression. This therapy was combined with whole-body hypothermia. The neurological outcome of the patient was normal. A shiny blue mass on the scalp should alert neonatologists to the possibility of a blue nevus of the scalp, rather than a simple scalp hematoma. Final diagnosis is made by biopsy and histologic examination. Early surgical intervention is necessary to prevent malignant degeneration and metastasis. A multidisciplinary approach involving a pediatrician/neonatologist, dermatologist, and surgeon is thus needed for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term follow-up.Keywords: neonate, cellular blue nevus, giant blue nevus, giant congenital blue nevus, hemorrhagic shock, whole-body hypothermia

  6. Actinomycotic Mycetoma Of Scalp Caused By Actinomadura Pelletierii-A Report Of Two Cases

    Selvam A


    Full Text Available Two cases of actinomycotic mycetoma of the scalp caused by Actinomadura pelletierii are described with their classical clinical, mycological, histopathological and radiological features. The first case was treated with contrimoxazole as monotherapy. She developed recurrence later, even while on therapy. The second case was treated with combined oral cotrimoxazole and parenteral streptomycin with a good response.


    LU Zeqiang


    To observe the therapeutic effect of scalp-plus body-acupuncture for treatment of senile urinary incontinence. Methods: A total of 71 urinary incontinence outpatients were randomly divided into treatment group (n = 37)and control group (n= 34). In treatment group, scalp-plus body-acupuncture was conducted once daily, with 10 days being a therapeutic course. Scalp acupoints used were Epangxian Ⅲ (MS 4) and Dingzhongxian (MS 5), while body acupoints used were Guanyuan (CV 4), Shuidao (ST 28), Qichong (ST 30), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc.. The treatment was given once daily, with 10 days being a therapeutic course. In control group, patients were ordered to take Centrofenoxine, ATP, Vitamin E and B12, with ten days being a therapeutic course. Results: After 3 courses of treatment, in treatment group, of the 37 patients, 26 (70.3%) were cured, 6 (16.0%) had marked improvement, 3 (8.1%) had improvement and 2 (5.4%) failed; in control group, of the 34 patients, 14 (41.1% ) were cured, 9 (26.5%) had remarkable improvement, 3 (8.8%) had improvement and 8 (23.5%) failed, showing that the therapeutic effect of the treatment group was significantly superior to that of control group ( P< 0.05). Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of scalp plus body acupuncture is fairly effective in treatment of senile urinary incontinence.

  8. Acne keloidalis-like lesions on the scalp associated with antiepileptic drugs.

    Grunwald, M H; Ben-Dor, D; Livni, E; Halevy, S


    A man developed acne keloidalis-like lesions in the scalp during treatment with diphenylhydantoin and carbamazepine for epilepsy. These drugs were suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of this skin disease in an unusual location, based on clinical evidence and on the in vitro test, mast cell degranulation (MCD).

  9. Multiple Eclipse Naevi on Scalp of a Child: Awareness Can Prevent Unnecessary Surgery

    Nilay Duman


    Full Text Available Eclipse naevi are a kind of signature naevi that are mostly observed on trunks of adults and on scalps of children. As they can have some of the criteria for melanoma and can be difficult to follow up especially when they are located on scalp, removal might be recommended frequently by dermatologists. However they are actually benign and they only need observation. In this report a child with multiple eclipse naevi on scalp was described and literature data about eclipse nevus was reviewed to make physicians to be aware of this innocent lesion and to prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. Fifteen years old boy presented with 8 similar naevi on scalp characterized by tan homogenous centers and brown peripheral rims. Dermatoscopy of the lesions demonstrated central homogenous tan areas that were structureless except focal globules and regular brown pigment networks in the periphery. Excisional biopsy of a lesion was done and histopathological diagnosis was consistent with benign compound melanocytic naevus. With these findings diagnosis of eclipse naevus was made. To be aware of eclipse naevi is important to prevent unnecessary concern and surgical procedures

  10. Demodex Folliculitis of the Scalp: Clinicopathological Study of an Uncommon Entity.

    Helou, Wissam; Avitan-Hersh, Emily; Bergman, Reuven


    Demodex is a saprophytic mite in humans commonly present in the pilosebaceous units, which has been implicated as a pathogen in several skin conditions. The clinical presentation and histopathology of Demodex folliculitis of the scalp have been described in only a few case reports. This study was performed to further elucidate the clinicopathological features of this entity. We have studied 333 consecutively submitted scalp biopsies performed for hair loss and alopecia. All specimens were completely step-sectioned. Biopsies with Demodex mites were further studied histopathologically, and the patients' clinical files were reviewed. There were 17 biopsies (5.1%) with Demodex in at least 1 pilosebaceous unit. Based on the clinical presentation, histopathology, and response to therapy, Demodex was considered to be nonpathogenic in 13 cases. The remaining 4 cases were characterized by hair loss, scalp erythema, scales, and pustules. There were 2 or more pilosebaceous units with Demodex along mononuclear and/or neutrophilic infiltrates around and in the involved follicles and occasionally granulomas. All 4 cases responded completely to metronidazole therapy. In conclusion, Demodex is infrequently found in scalp biopsies for hair loss and alopecia, and, in most cases, it does not seem to be pathogenic. Occasionally, however, it is associated with folliculitis characterized by hair loss, erythema, scales, and pustules clinically; neutrophilic and/or mononuclear-cell folliculitis with occasional granulomas histopathologically; and a prompt response to anti-Demodex therapy.

  11. Pityriasis Amiantacea-Like Eruptions in Scalp: A Novel Manifestation of Pityriasis Rosea in a Child

    Zawar, Vijay


    Unusual clinical features are known in pityriasis rosea (PR). We report a case of a child who presented with onset of PR in scalp, clinically mimicking pityriasis amiantacea. Careful clinical observations and follow-up led us to appropriate diagnosis. PMID:21712901

  12. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D


    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  13. Coexistence of congenital giant melanocytic nevus of the scalp with cranial defect, poliosis, and hair loss.

    Lee, Woo J; Lee, Sang M; Won, Chong H; Chang, Sung E; Lee, Mi W; Choi, Jee H; Moon, Kee C


    Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are pigmented lesions presenting on the skin in approximately 1% of all newborns at or shortly after birth. CMN have been described as being associated with several anomalies, including cranial bone hypertrophy, scoliosis, and spina bifida. This is the first report to describe a giant congenital melanocytic nevus on the scalp associated with cranial involvement, poliosis, and alopecia.

  14. Estimation of toxic metals in scalp hair samples of chronic kidney patients.

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jalbani, Nusrat; Kazi, Naveed; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Ansari, Rehana


    The determination of toxic metals (TMs) in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. The aim of this work is to determine total content of TMs, aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in scalp hair samples of chronic kidney male patients (CKPs) on maintenance hemodialysis, during the period of 2005-2007. The study included 115 CKPs (all smokers) and 150 controls or referents [82 (nonsmokers) and 68 (smokers)]. Both controls and patients (males) were of the same age group (ranged 25-55 years), socioeconomic status, localities, and dietary habits. The scalp hair samples were analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-induced acid digestion. The accuracy of the total Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb measurements was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference material (human hair NCS ZC81002). No significant differences were observed between the analytical results and the certified values (paired t test at p > 0.05). The levels of TMs in scalp hair samples of patients were found to be higher as compared to control nonsmoker and smokers. Moreover, the study shows that levels of Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb in scalp hair samples may be useful to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking in kidney failure patients.

  15. Trichophyton tonsurans scalp carriage among wrestlers in a national competition in Turkey.

    Ilkit, Macit; Gümral, Ramazan; Saraçlı, Mehmet Ali; Burgut, Refik


    Trichophyton tonsurans tinea gladiatorum is an emerging epidemic among combat-sport athletes across the globe. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic dermatophytic infections among wrestlers in the National Greco-Roman Championship in Turkey. In total, 194 wrestlers from 32 provinces and 72 clubs were examined for scalp, trunk, groin, and toe web dermatophytic infections. We also administered a questionnaire to obtain information on the participants' lifestyles, wrestling characteristics, and risk factors for dermatophytic infections. The hairbrush method was used for scalp and trunk sampling, whereas a cotton swab was used for groin, toe web, and mat sampling. Three wrestling mats in the gymnasium were surveyed for dermatophytes using the touch preparation method. A total of 17 (8.8%) wrestlers harbored dermatophytes, and 22 strains were isolated: 13 (59.1%) T. tonsurans and 9 (40.9%) T. rubrum. These isolates were found on the scalp (8), trunk (2), forearm (1), hand (1), groin (3), and feet (7). In addition, we recovered 8 dermatophyte strains from the 150 mat samples (5.3%): T. rubrum in 6 samples (75%) and T. tonsurans in two samples (25%). T. tonsurans was only recovered from 11 out of 194 (5.7%) wrestlers. Scalp carriage represents the predominant (72.7%) clinical picture of a T. tonsurans infection in these Greco-Roman wrestlers in Turkey.

  16. Resistor mesh model of a spherical head: part 1: applications to scalp potential interpolation.

    Chauveau, N; Morucci, J P; Franceries, X; Celsis, P; Rigaud, B


    A resistor mesh model (RMM) has been implemented to describe the electrical properties of the head and the configuration of the intracerebral current sources by simulation of forward and inverse problems in electroencephalogram/event related potential (EEG/ERP) studies. For this study, the RMM representing the three basic tissues of the human head (brain, skull and scalp) was superimposed on a spherical volume mimicking the head volume: it included 43 102 resistances and 14 123 nodes. The validation was performed with reference to the analytical model by consideration of a set of four dipoles close to the cortex. Using the RMM and the chosen dipoles, four distinct families of interpolation technique (nearest neighbour, polynomial, splines and lead fields) were tested and compared so that the scalp potentials could be recovered from the electrode potentials. The 3D spline interpolation and the inverse forward technique (IFT) gave the best results. The IFT is very easy to use when the lead-field matrix between scalp electrodes and cortex nodes has been calculated. By simple application of the Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse matrix to the electrode cap potentials, a set of current sources on the cortex is obtained. Then, the forward problem using these cortex sources renders all the scalp potentials.


    Li Yingkun; Chen Xujun


    Objectiv:To compare the therapeutic effect of scalp-electroacupuncture with that of conventional body acupuncture for apoplexy (wind stroke) and to observe the influence of both acupuncture therapies on hemorheology of ischemic apoplexy. Methods: 183 patients, whose diseases are attributed to apoplexy according to the diagnostic criteria, are randomly divided into treatment group (93 cases) and control group (90 cases) and treated respectively with scalp-electroacupuncture and conventional body acupuncture. 11 items of hemorheology of patients' blood samples are tested with NXE- 1 Viscometer which are taken in the early morning before and after treatment under fasting condition. Results: Both scalp-electroacupuncture and conventional body acupuncture exert therapeutic effect for apoplexy, but the effect of scalp-electroacupuncture is obviously better than that of conventional acupuncture (P<0.05); both treatment group and control group are statistically significant in reducing plasma viscosity, high shear reduced viscosity, low shear reduced viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hematocrit and fibrinogen, (P<0.01and 0.05); while the treatment group is statistically significant in reducing whole blood viscosity, ratio of whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte index of rigidity and electrophoresis time of erythrocyte (P<0.01~0.05), but the control group is not significant statistically in influencing these indexes (P>0.05).

  18. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O


    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures d...

  19. Safety and effectiveness of scalp cooling in cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic treatment

    Hurk, Corina Johanna Geertruida van den


    Various cytotoxics cause severe alopecia, it is estimated to affect more than 15.000 Dutch cancer patients per year. Hair loss has high impact on the majority of these patients, they describe it as stigmatizing and a constant reminder of cancer disease. Scalp cooling decreases hair loss and is well




    19 consecutive patients underwent a posterolateral neck dissection (PLND) in continuity with a wide excision of the primary melanoma on the posterior scalp. After a mean follow-up of 74 months, 5 patients are alive with minimal morbidity. PLND can safely be performed, even bilaterally, as an

  1. Forehead and scalp sensation after brow-lift: a comparison between open and endoscopic techniques.

    Guillot, Jason M; Rousso, Daniel E; Replogle, William


    To compare postoperative forehead and scalp sensation for the "open" brow-lift (OBL) (coronal and trichophytic) with that of the endoscopic brow-lift (EBL). A controlled outcome evaluation study was designed to objectively (mechanoceptive and thermoceptive) and subjectively (visual analog scale) test forehead and scalp sensation in a group of patients having undergone or scheduled to undergo either OBL or EBL in a single, private facial plastic surgery clinic. Prospectively enrolled participants were tested at defined intervals (A, preoperation; B,1-2 weeks after; C, 4-6 weeks after; D, 12-14 weeks after; and E, 24-26 weeks after). To provide extended follow-up data (≥6 months), patients returning for scheduled follow-up examination who had already undergone either OBL or EBL were subjected to the same test battery. For statistical analysis of the extended follow-up data, the participants were divided into 2 groups (F, 6-18 months; and G, >18 months). The null hypothesis was that there would be no measurable difference between the OBL and the EBL groups related to postoperative forehead and scalp sensation. Twenty-one individuals (EBL, n = 11; OBL, n = 10) were enrolled prospectively. All showed normal objective and subjective values preoperatively. While both groups objectively and subjectively demonstrated decreased sensation over follow-up, the OBL group showed statistically significant decrement in objective scalp sensitivity at times B, C, and D vs the EBL group. Subjectively, the OBL group felt less sensitive than the EBL group at times C and D. Those relationships disappeared at time E. Fifty-eight individuals were retrospectively enrolled. At time F (EBL, n = 16; OBL, n = 10), an objective and subjective difference was again observed with the OBL group demonstrating less scalp sensitivity vs the EBL group. At time G (EBL, n = 20; OBL, n = 12), this difference was no longer observed. We reject the null hypothesis and state that there is a measurable

  2. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)


    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  3. [Imaging Observation of Scalp Acupuncture on Brain Gray Matter Injury in Stroke Patients with Cerebral Infarction].

    Lang, Yi; Cui, Fang-yuan; Li, Kuang-shi; Tan, Zhong-jian; Zou, Yi-huai


    To study features of brain gray matter injury in cerebral infarction patients and intervention of scalp acupuncture by using voxel-based morphology. A total of 16 cerebral infarction patients were recruited in this study, and assigned to the scalp acupuncture group and the control group, 8 in each group. Another 16 healthy volunteers were recruited as a normal group. All patients received scanning of T1 structure. Images were managed using VBM8 Software package. Difference of the gray matter structure was compared among the scalp acupuncture group, the control group, and the healthy volunteers. Compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients mainly occurred in 14 brain regions such as cingulate gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, anterior central gyrus, insular lobe, and so on. They were mainly distributed in affected side. Two weeks after treatment when compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients in the scalp acupuncture group still existed in 8 brain regions such as bilateral lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, left cuneus, right precuneus, and so on. New gray matter injury occurred in lingual gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Two weeks after treatment when compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients in the control group existed in 23 brain regions: bilateral anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus, cuneate lobe, insular lobe, inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, precuneus, paracentral lobule, superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and so on. New gray matter injury still existed in 9 cerebral regions such as lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and so on. Brain gray matter structure is widely injured after cerebral infarction. Brain gray matter volume gradually decreased as time went by. Combined use of

  4. Development, stability and in vitro permeation studies of gels containing mometasone furoate for the treatment of dermatitis of the scalp

    Ana Cristina Gomes Barros Salgado


    Full Text Available Dermatological inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and seborrhoeic dermatitis often affect the scalp and the eyebrows. Although there are many dosage forms available, these are particularly critical anatomic regions for application of topical formulations because of the presence of hair. Lotions are therefore the recommended type of drug delivery system for these areas. The presence of hair may limit the application and thus the acceptability of the formulation and its compliance. Because of its low apparent viscosity, lotion application is unpleasant. Gels, given their consistency and adhesiveness, are a suitable alternative to lotions in this situation. The aim of this study was to formulate a stable gel containing mometasone furoate, which is an anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic corticosteroid, in order to improve topical treatment of scalp dermatitis. In this study, pharmaceutical development, physical-chemical characterization, stability and in vitro permeation studies were performed. In terms of the pH, viscosity, assay and macroscopic and microbiological properties, the gel was stable over the period of study. The in vitro permeation studies allowed the characterization of the mometasone furoate permeation profile for the gel through different membranes. Mometasone furoate presented a slow permeation through the skin. This gel appears safe for topical application.Afecções dermatológicas do tipo inflamatório como a dermatite atópica, psoríase e dermatite seborreica, afetam freqüentemente o couro cabeludo e sobrancelhas. Apesar de existirem várias formas farmacêuticas para o seu tratamento, apenas as loções são indicadas para estas zonas, mas devido à baixa viscosidade, a aplicação de loções torna-se desagradável. Os geles, pela maior consistência e capacidade de adesão, apresentam-se como alternativa nesta situação. Neste trabalho procedeu-se ao desenvolvimento galênico de um gel com furoato

  5. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Calcipotriol Plus Betamethasone Dipropionate Aerosol Foam Compared with Betamethasone 17-Valerate-Medicated Plaster for the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    Queille-Roussel, Catherine; Rosen, Monika; Clonier, Fabrice; Nørremark, Kasper; Lacour, Jean-Philippe


    Fixed combination calcipotriol as hydrate (Cal) 50 µg/g plus betamethasone as dipropionate (BD) 0.5 mg/g aerosol foam is an alcohol-free treatment for psoriasis. Betamethasone 17-valerate 2.25 mg (BV)-medicated plasters are recommended for treating psoriasis plaques localized in difficult-to-treat (DTT; elbow, knee, anterior face of the tibia) areas. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Cal/BD foam with BV-medicated plaster in patients with plaque psoriasis. In this phase IIa, randomized, single-center, investigator-blinded, 4-week study, both Cal/BD foam and BV-medicated plaster were applied once daily to six test sites (three for each treatment). The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change in total clinical score (TCS; sum of erythema, scaling, and infiltration); secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in each individual clinical score, ultrasonographic changes (total skin and echo-poor band thickness), and safety; and post hoc analysis was change from baseline in TCS on DTT areas. Thirty-five patients were included. Least-squares mean change in TCS from baseline was significantly greater for Cal/BD foam (-5.8) than BV-medicated plaster (-3.7; difference -2.2; 95% confidence interval -2.6 to -1.8; p plaster (both p plaster on DTT areas after 4 weeks (p plasters, including on DTT areas, in patients with plaque psoriasis. NCT02518048.

  7. Formulations in first encounters

    A. Hak (Tony); F. de Boer (Fijgje)


    markdownabstractThe paper describes and compares the use and function of the formulation--decision pair in three types of diagnostic interviewing. The investigatory type of interviewing, which typically occurs in the medical interview, is characterized by the absence of formulations. In the explora

  8. [Scalp neuralgia and headache elicited by cranial superficial anatomical causes: supraorbital neuralgia, occipital neuralgia, and post-craniotomy headache].

    Shimizu, Satoru


    Most scalp neuralgias are supraorbital or occipital. Although they have been considered idiopathic, recent studies revealed that some were attributable to mechanical irritation with the peripheral nerve of the scalp by superficial anatomical cranial structures. Supraorbital neuralgia involves entrapment of the supraorbital nerve by the facial muscle, and occipital neuralgia involves entrapment of occipital nerves, mainly the greater occipital nerve, by the semispinalis capitis muscle. Contact between the occipital artery and the greater occipital nerve in the scalp may also be causative. Decompression surgery to address these neuralgias has been reported. As headache after craniotomy is the result of iatrogenic injury to the peripheral nerve of the scalp, post-craniotomy headache should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  9. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten


    (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating......OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  10. A case of plasmacytoma of scalp in pediatric thalassemia human immunodeficiency virus positive child

    Swapan Kumar Mallick


    Full Text Available A 9-year-old female child, known case of beta thalassemia major and human immunodeficiency virus seropositive, presented with two slowly growing masses in the temporoparietal region of the skull on both sides. Irregular bony erosion at left parietal area with underlying scalp hematoma with similar change at the right side to a lesser degree were found. Fine needle aspiration cytology from masses showed abundant plasmacytoid cells some of which are binucleated along with free erythroblasts. Cytological features were suggestive of plasmacytoma. Serum protein electrophoresis showed no M-band. Urine was negative for Bence-Jones protein. Bone marrow biopsy showed no plasma cell neoplasm. Diagnosed as first reported case of primary multiple solitary plasmacyomas affecting bilateral temporoparietal bones in a pediatric patient, the child was treated with external beam radiation therapy to scalp lesions showing excellent results and on further follow-up showed no evidence of progressive disease.

  11. Aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp with large underlying skull defect: a case report.

    Leboucq, N; Montoya y Mártínez, P; Montoya-Vigo, F; Catan, P


    Localised agenesis of the scalp is the most frequent pattern in aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), a congenital absence of the skin and occasionally of deeper layers. Several clinical groups are characterised by the location and pattern of skin defects, associated malformations and the mode of inheritance. Death occurs in 20% of cases, secondary to the associated anomalies, to infections or to haemorrhage from ulceration of the sagittal sinus when there is also a defect of the underlying skull. In this latter case, we close the defect by two rotational scalp flaps (Orticochea technique) at birth. A three-dimensional CT study is useful for showing the extent of the skull defect and the deformity of the craniofacial complex and the changes in the bone after treatment.

  12. Melanoma associated with congenital intermediate common blue nevus of the scalp - Case report*

    Ribeiro, Camila Sampaio; Serpa, Sergio S.; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon; Jeunon, Thiago


    Melanomas can arise either de novo (70%) or from pre-existing melanocytic lesions (30%). Of the latter, most cases arise at the dermoepidermal junction from small congenital or acquired non-blue nevi while only a few arise from blue nevi, notably the cellular subtype and less commonly the common (dendritic) type. Melanomas that arise from blue nevi usually occur on the scalp with greater frequency, as in the case described. Although previous studies have discussed melanoma arising from giant congenital blue nevi, few have discussed those arising from intermediate blue nevi. We present a case of a 52-yearold man with melanoma on the scalp evolving from an intermediate congenital common blue nevus. PMID:27579751

  13. Multiple synchronous verrucous carcinomas of the scalp in the background of generalized verruca vulgaris

    Arvind Krishnamurthy


    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma (VC is a clinicopathologic entity which is defined as a locally aggressive, clinically exophytic, slow-growing, well-differentiated, squamous cell carcinoma with negligible metastatic potential. The cutaneous form of VC is typically known to arise from the palmoplantar and the genitocrural areas. Involvement of the scalp is extremely rare. Multiple synchronous involvement of the scalp by VC along with associated generalized verruca vulgaris has possibly never been reported before. We present this unique report of VC in a 38-year-old male patient with emphasis on its atypical clinical presentation and the resultant challenges in management. Interestingly, the tumor cells of our patient were confirmed to be positive for human papillomavirus infection by polymerase chain reaction and by p16 immunohistochemistry.

  14. [A case with scalp pruritus caused by Dermanysus gallinae (order: mesostigmata)].

    Şengül, Mustafa; Kaçar, Nida; Karaca, Mehmet; Öner, Sedef Zeliha; Ergin, Çağrı


    Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the important hematophagous ectoparasite species of poultry like chicken, pigeon and wild bird species. These ectoparasites in the form of nymphs or adults who can not find their hosts are also seen in mammals and even in humans. For this reason, they are considered as important for public health. The ectoparasite causes a clinical condition named gamasoidosis among pet owners and people who live or work close to animal shelters, barns and chicken farms. Pruritus dermatitis is also caused by D.gallinae in humans and can cause false diagnosis. In this report, a case of D.gallinae which leads to severe itch in the hairy head skin was presented. A 66-year-old female patient admitted to University Hospital with complaints of "bugs in her hair and itching of the skin increasing in the evenings" that have persisted for a month. In the dermatological examination of the patient, it was noted that her hair and scalp were usual. Routine laboratory tests were normal. However, a large number of mites were found in her headscarf that she brought with her to the examination. Later, it was learned that the patient feeds chicken in her garden in the village where she lives. The collected mite samples were were kept in glass test tubes that contained glycerol and alcohol. The mites were identified as D.gallinae by morphological identification with light microscopy by using 10x, 20x and 40x magnifications. The mites were described as D.gallinae (Order: Mesostigmata, local name: poultry red mite, perch mite, poultry mite) with the morphological examination. Long-acting 1% permethrin shampoo was applied to remove the mites on the patient and during the controls, it was changed as 5% permethrin and 10% crotamiton lotion. For environmental sanitation, carbamates (such as carbolineum, trichlorfon, malathion, tetrachlorvinphos, etc.), organophosphates and acaricide insecticides with pyrethroids spraying or powder formulations were recommended. It was

  15. Linear Non Scarring Alopecia of the Scalp: A Rare Manifestation of Lupus Panniculitis

    Kshetrimayum, Sandhyarani; Thokchom, Nandakishore; Hmar, Vanlalhriatpuii


    Alopecia in a linear pattern is very rare with only a few cases reported in the medical literature. We report a case of linear non scarring alopecia involving the scalp in a 17-year-old boy with a histological diagnosis of lupus panniculitis. We report this case because of its rarity and also the inclusion of this entity as one of the rare differential of non scarring alopecia. PMID:27688465

  16. TANG's Scalp Acupuncture and Infantile Cerebral Palsy:Case Reports of 34 Cases

    秦秀娣; 韩丑萍


    @@ Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to non-progressive motor disorder resulting from a group of cerebral lesions. It can occur as a result of motor center injuries before, during or after birth and subsequently non-progressive central motor dysfunction, followed by mental retardation and motor impairment of the four limbs. The author treated 34 cases of cerebral palsy with the scalp acupuncture of Doctor TANG Song-yan. The report is now as follows.

  17. Purpuric nodules and macules on the scalp of an 18-month-old boy.

    Malbora, Baris; Senel, Engin; Avci, Zekai; Ozbek, Namik


    An 18-month-old boy was consulted to a pediatric clinic with a 5-month history of purpuric macules and nodules on the scalp. He had a history of trauma (falling down from a chair) to the scalp about 6 months before the consultation. He had been brought to an emergency department after the trauma. Cranial computed tomography revealed a small crack on the temporal bone. Purpuric macules and nodules of the scalp had been noticed on the control 1 month later. Results of total blood tests had been within normal limits. Dermatologic examination disclosed multiple pink to violaceous infiltrated cutaneous nodules and purpuric macules with diameters of0.5 to 1.5 cm on his scalp (Figure 1). No petechiae or ecchymoses were seen. Cervical lymphadenopathy was detected during physical examination. There was no hepatosplenomegaly. A punch biopsy was obtained from one of the infiltrated nodules and was sent for histopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse dermal and subcutaneous edema, erythrocyte extravasation and infiltration by monomorphic cells with large hyperchromatic nuclei, and high mitotic activity (Figure 2). Histopathologic staining was positive for leukocyte common antigen and CD68 in these cells. Results of complete blood cell count of the patient were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.44 g/dL; white blood cell count: 29.2 x 10(9)/L; and platelet count 55.6 x 10(9)/L. Bone marrow aspirate results showed 68.4% blast cells and a biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, with flow cytometry findings positive for acute monoblastic leukemia (AML) French-American-British (FAB)-M5 phenotype. We initiated induction chemotherapy for AML (AML-M5) according to the AML Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 2004 protocol.' Complete resolution of the leukemia cutis lesions was attained with chemotherapy at the end of the first month of treatment.

  18. Inferring regional brain activity from evoked potential fields on the scalp.

    Srebro, R; Oguz, R M; Hughlett, K; Sanders, N B; Purdy, P D


    A new method is described to calculate epicortical potential fields from scalp fields based on linear algebra. It requires detailed anatomical information, for each subject, obtained from MR images. The calculation is validated in a physical model of the human head and applied to human subjects. The results suggest that the method yields reliable epicortical fields that help to localize evoked cortical activity in humans.

  19. [Exploration of the application of detective pressing method in LIN's scalp acupuncture].

    Wang, Hai-Li


    The origin, theoretic basis and operation of detective pressing method in clinical application of LIN's scalp acupuncture are introduced in this paper and its advantages in clinical practice are explored. It is found that the therapy could reduce the sense of fear in patients, localize the points precisely, guide treatment and develop the ideas of treatment. Under the guide of modern science in the brain, the therapy could be used to treat much more cerebral diseases.

  20. Craniosynostosis, telecanthus, scalp hair abnormalities, and sensorineural deafness in two sibs.

    Mégarbané, André; Hersh, Joseph H; Chouery, Eliane; Fabre, Michel


    A sister and a brother with anomalous skull configuration, facial abnormalities, abnormal scalp hair growth, sensorineural hearing loss and, in the boy, proven craniosynostosis, severe mental retardation, and autism were reported in 1986 in an abstract by Hersh et al. We reexamined this family and here review the literature focusing on the major clinical findings, and suggest that their clinical manifestations may represent a previously unreported syndrome. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The cross-sectional size and shape of human terminal scalp hair.

    Hutchinson, P E; Thompson, J R


    Change in size of the hair shaft with distance form the scalp has been investigated, using a rotatory profile method of diameter measurement, in terminal human scalp hair of long-haired young Caucasian women. As the whole length of hairs having completed anagen are rarely found intact, two types of hair were investigated: those including segments produced at the onset of anagen ('anagen hairs'), and those including segments produced at the end of anagen ('telogen hairs'). In addition, a method of determining the cause of any size variation has been described and employed. Changes were found in the major axis of the hair cross-section, cross-sectional area and ellipticity with distance from the scalp, while the minor cross-sectional axis remained constant. It was established that these changes were the result of intrafollicular rather than extrafollicular mechanisms. Finally, a composite picture of the cross-sectional size and shape of the 'average' whole anagen hair of the study has been constructed. From the distal tip towards the scalp for approximately 6-8 cm, there was an abrupt increase in size, representing a starting-up phase of early anagen. Following this, the hair was at its greatest cross-sectional size and ellipticity which then progressively decreased through anagen (20% decrease for cross-sectional area and 13% for ellipticity). In contrast, the minor axis of the hair cross-section, remained constant throughout anagen. The hair was not therefore a uniformly sized cylinder. It was approximately spear-shaped, being broadened out in one plane distally where it was more elliptical. Subsequently as anagen progressed the hair shaft became smaller and more circular.

  2. Scalp and Body Acupuncture for Treatment of Senile Insomnia-A Report of 83 Cases



    @@ The author has in recent years treated 83 cases of senile insomnia with scalp and body acupuncture. Meanwhile, 35 cases in the control group were treated with western and Chinese drugs. The therapeutic results in the treatment group were superior to that of nitrazapam and An Shen Bu Nao Ye (安神补脑液Sedative and Brain-invigorating Fluid) used in the control group. A report of the treatment follows.

  3. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki


    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of juvenile stroke using Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA) - a case report.

    Yamamoto, Toshikatsu; Schockert, Thomas; Boroojerdi, Babak


    In Germany, stroke affects approximately 300 children each year. Treatment options for stroke patients, particularly for children, are limited. A case is described of an 18 month old girl with hemiparesis, who showed a considerable degree of recovery over the course of 21 months while receiving Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture using soft laser. This may represent a new option for the therapy of such patients.

  5. Linear non scarring alopecia of the scalp: A rare manifestation of lupus panniculitis

    Sandhyarani Kshetrimayum


    Full Text Available Alopecia in a linear pattern is very rare with only a few cases reported in the medical literature. We report a case of linear non scarring alopecia involving the scalp in a 17-year-old boy with a histological diagnosis of lupus panniculitis. We report this case because of its rarity and also the inclusion of this entity as one of the rare differential of non scarring alopecia.

  6. Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study

    Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; ROSELINO, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana


    Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were ...

  7. Determination of arsenic in scalp hair of children and its correlation with drinking water in exposed areas of Sindh Pakistan.

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel A; Shah, Abdul Q; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Afridi, Hassan I; Kolachi, Nida F; Khan, Sumaira; Wadhwa, Sham K; Shah, Faheem


    This study was focused on the analysis of arsenic (As) levels in scalp hair of children (age, 63 μg/g, respectively. Twenty percent of the total children who belong to Gambat have skin lesions on their hands and feet. A positive correlation coefficient (R = 0.91-0.99) was obtained between As contents in drinking water and scalp hairs of children of both towns.

  8. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David


    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  9. Using Scalp Electrical Biosignals to Control an Object by Concentration and Relaxation Tasks: Design and Evaluation

    George, Laurent; Abad, Raquel Viciana; Lécuyer, Anatole


    In this paper we explore the use of electrical biosignals measured on scalp and corresponding to mental relaxation and concentration tasks in order to control an object in a video game. To evaluate the requirements of such a system in terms of sensors and signal processing we compare two designs. The first one uses only one scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) electrode and the power in the alpha frequency band. The second one uses sixteen scalp EEG electrodes and machine learning methods. The role of muscular activity is also evaluated using five electrodes positioned on the face and the neck. Results show that the first design enabled 70% of the participants to successfully control the game, whereas 100% of the participants managed to do it with the second design based on machine learning. Subjective questionnaires confirm these results: users globally felt to have control in both designs, with an increased feeling of control in the second one. Offline analysis of face and neck muscle activity shows that thi...

  10. Comparison of procedures for co-registering scalp-recording locations to anatomical magnetic resonance images

    Chiarelli, Antonio M.; Maclin, Edward L.; Low, Kathy A.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele


    Functional brain imaging techniques require accurate co-registration to anatomical images to precisely identify the areas being activated. Many of them, including diffuse optical imaging, rely on scalp-placed recording sensors. Fiducial alignment is an effective and rapid method for co-registering scalp sensors onto anatomy, but is quite sensitive to placement errors. Surface Euclidean distance minimization using the Levenberq-Marquart algorithm (LMA) has been shown to be very accurate when based on good initial guesses, such as precise fiducial alignment, but its accuracy drops substantially with fiducial placement errors. Here we compared fiducial and LMA co-registration methods to a new procedure, the iterative closest point-to-plane (ICP2P) method, using simulated and real data. An advantage of ICP2P is that it eliminates the need to identify fiducials and is, therefore, entirely automatic. We show that, typically, ICP2P is as accurate as fiducial-based LMA, but is less sensitive to initial placement errors. However, ICP2P is more sensitive to spatially correlated noise in the description of the head surface. Hence, the best technique for co-registration depends on the type of data available to describe the scalp and the surface defined by the recording sensors. Under optimal conditions, co-registration error using surface-fitting procedures can be reduced to ˜3 mm.

  11. [Pneumothorax Secondary to Pulmonary Metastasis of Angiosarcoma of the Scalp;Report of a Case].

    Naomi, Akira; Oyamatsu, Yasunori; Narita, Kunio; Nakayama, Masao; Maeda, Matsuyoshi


    Angiosarcoma has been reported as a rare case, having high potential of hematogeneous lung metastasis and then developing to pneumothorax with ease. The patient was a 74-year-old man afflicted with a malignant hemangio endothelioma (MHE) of the scalp. His MHE of the scalp was resected and skin grafting was made, then, he was administered docetaxel hydrate intravenously as adjuvant setting. Three years after, he complainted left chest pain and dyspnea, so his chest Xp was checked up and showed left pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple thin walled cavities of right and left lung and bullae with slightly thick walled cavity at apex legion of the left lung. We resected bullae with tumor of the left apex legion under video assisted thoracic surgery. After operation, He was administerd ricombinant interleukin-2 intravenously in order to control lung metastasis of the scalp, but his condition deteriorated and 6 months after pneumothorax he died. The average survival time from the 1st pneumothorax episode was only 4.7 months. He kept a good activities of daily living without reccurrence of pneumothorax by operation, so we thought that the operaion for pneumothorax with MHE was one option for therapy.

  12. Aesthetic sideburn reconstruction with an expanded reversed temporoparieto-occipital scalp flap.

    Yang, Zengjie; Fan, Jincai; Tian, Jia; Liu, Liqiang; Gan, Cheng; Chen, Wenlin; Yin, Zhuming


    The sideburn is an important feature of the facial profile in both women and men. Scars in the area around the sideburn and temple are difficult to conceal. Sideburn reconstruction is an especially challenging procedure for plastic surgeons because of the difficulty involved in acquiring high-quality tissue and achieving proper hair direction for a satisfactory appearance. This article describes how to utilize an expanded temporoparieto-occipital scalp flap for sideburn reconstruction, which results in satisfactory hair direction, inconspicuous scars in both the donor and recipient areas, and few complications. From August 2011 to April 2012, 11 patients underwent sideburn reconstruction treatments that involved the use of an expanded temporoparieto-occipital scalp flap. The likeness of hair color and density in the sideburn area was achieved, and the scars at the donor site were hidden in the post-auricular hairline. All of the patients were shown a satisfactory appearance, with few complications both on the recipient and donor site. An expanded temporoparieto-occipital scalp flap is an ideal flap to utilize in sideburn reconstructions because it results in satisfactory hair direction, inconspicuous scars at both the donor and recipient areas, and few complications.

  13. Versatility of the pinwheel flap to reconstruct circular defects in the temporal and scalp region.

    Simsek, Tekin; Eroglu, Lutfi


    The pinwheel flap technique involves raising four small rotation flaps, which are 90° apart from each other and converge into a defect in their centre. It is suitable for resurfacing defects of the scalp, which offers limited skin mobility. It may also be used for certain circular skin defects on the hairless temporal region. This study first re-formularised the original description of this flap technique via a laboratory study. Thanks to a new smaller flap design, closure was achieved with a lesser scar. Afterwards, the technique was used on the 14 patients who had circular skin defects of the temple and scalp. Defect diameters and resultant scar lengths were recorded. When the new design was used, scarring required for defect closure was less than half of that required for the original design. Thus, it was easier to avoid distortion to the anatomical subunits such as eyebrows and hairline. It is believed that this technique is quite appropriate for closing circular defects of scalp up to 50 mm, and temporal defects up to 40 mm. Also, Z-plasties can be added to the design when needed to increase flap rotation and decrease skin distortion.

  14. [Unusual presentation of mycetoma caused by Actinomadurella pelletieri on the scalp].

    Diallo, M; Niang, S O; Tounkara, T; Fricker, A; Mbaye, P S


    Mycetoma is chronic inflammatory process characterized by areas of tumefaction with draining sinus tracts. It affects the foot in 80% of cases. The purpose of this report is to describe a case that posed a diagnostic challenge due to unusual scalp location and clinical presentation. A 23-year-old woman residing in a rural zone of Senegal consulted for indolent lesions ongoing on the scalp for 2 years. Physical examination showed two soft tumid lesions measuring about 3 cm in diameter on the vertex. The surface of the lesions was crusty but showed no sign of granules. Skull x-ray was normal. Skin biopsy demonstrated a polymorphous granulomatous infiltrate with foci of suppuration circumscribing small, irregular grains with radiating filaments. Mycological culture on Lowenstein medium demonstrated Actinomadurella pelletiere. Treatment with cotrimoxazole for 8 months led to significant regression of the lesions. The mycetoma described in this report posed a diagnostic challenge because of its unusual scalp location and especially its tumoral or pseudo-cystic presentation. This clinical form of mycetoma must be taken into account for diagnosis in any patient from endemic areas.

  15. Indications for peripheral and central sensitization in patients with chronic scalp pain (trichodynia).

    Defrin, Ruth; Lurie, Raziel


    The underlying mechanism of trichodynia (scalp/hair pain, is unknown). The aim of this study was to characterize chronic trichodynia and to conduct, for the first time, sensory testing in patients with trichodynia to learn about possible underlying mechanisms. Participants were 16 trichodynia patients and 19 healthy controls. Participants underwent testing of touch and pressure-pain threshold as well as allodynia in painful and pain-free scalp sites and in the hands (intact remote region). A trichogram (hair test) was conducted on painful and pain-free scalp sites to evaluate hair cycle abnormalities. The chronic pain was characterized as well. Painful sites were characterized by decreased thresholds for light touch (Ptrichodynia patients compared with controls. The cranial hyperalgesia and allodynia, the generalized hyperalgesia, and the correlation between hyperalgesia and chronic pain suggest that trichodynia is related with both peripheral and central sensitization, respectively. The coexistence of hair cycle abnormalities and chronic pain might suggest a common denominator for both phenomena, possibly mediated by proinflammatory agents. Clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Measuring time-varying information flow in scalp EEG signals: orthogonalized partial directed coherence.

    Omidvarnia, Amir; Azemi, Ghasem; Boashash, Boualem; O'Toole, John M; Colditz, Paul B; Vanhatalo, Sampsa


    This study aimed to develop a time-frequency method for measuring directional interactions over time and frequency from scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in a way that is less affected by volume conduction and amplitude scaling. We modified the time-varying generalized partial directed coherence (tv-gPDC) method, by orthogonalization of the strictly causal multivariate autoregressive model coefficients, to minimize the effect of mutual sources. The novel measure, generalized orthogonalized PDC (gOPDC), was tested first using two simulated models with feature dimensions relevant to EEG activities. We then used the method for assessing event-related directional information flow from flash-evoked responses in neonatal EEG. For testing statistical significance of the findings, we followed a thresholding procedure driven by baseline periods in the same EEG activity. The results suggest that the gOPDC method 1) is able to remove common components akin to volume conduction effect in the scalp EEG, 2) handles the potential challenge with different amplitude scaling within multichannel signals, and 3) can detect directed information flow within a subsecond time scale in nonstationary multichannel EEG datasets. This method holds promise for estimating directed interactions between scalp EEG channels that are commonly affected by the confounding impact of mutual cortical sources.

  17. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont


    Full Text Available Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe. Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence.

  18. Comparative metal distribution in scalp hair of Pakistani and Irish referents and hypertensive patients.

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brabazon, Dermot; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Naher, Sumsun; Nesterenko, Ekaterina


    The abnormal metabolism of metal ions plays an important role in health and disease conditions, and studies about them have been attracting significant interest. The aim of our study was to assess the heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in scalp hair samples of 50 Irish and 78 Pakistani hypertensive patients of an urban population together with 50 Irish and 96 Pakistani non-hypertensive male subjects in the age group of 30-50 years. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometer before microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials, and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials and on real samples. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 97.5-99.7% in certified reference material. The results of this study showed that the mean values of cadmium, nickel, and lead were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of both Pakistani and Irish hypertensive patients than in referents (p < 0.001); whereas, the concentration of zinc was lower in the scalp hair samples of hypertensive patients of both genders. The deficiency of zinc and the high exposure of trace and toxic metals may be the risk factors associated with hypertension.

  19. Response of malignant scalp dermatofibrosarcoma to presurgical targeted growth factor inhibition.

    Mattox, Austin K; Mehta, Ankit I; Grossi, Peter M; Cummings, Thomas J; Adamson, D Cory


    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon, locally aggressive, malignant cutaneous tumor that sparingly presents on the scalp. Dermatofibrosarcomas often result from the formation of a fusion oncogene on translocated or supernumerary ring chromosomes 17 and 22, causing the overexpression of PDGFRbeta driven by the COL1A1 promoter. Because of uncertainty surrounding appropriate treatment of aggressive scalp DFSP, the authors performed an extensive review of the available data from a MEDLINE (Ovid) search to describe the clinical presentation and treatment options for this rare tumor. Their search identified 39 different cases, including the illustrative case presented in this study. Adjuvant therapy for this malignant lesion is not universally established in the literature. In the present case, the authors successfully treated a locally invasive scalp DFSP with presurgical therapy that specifically inhibited the PDGFbeta receptor. Imatinib significantly shrank the DFSP tumor mass, reduced hypervascularity, reduced metabolic activity on PET scanning, and permitted a safe gross-total resection. Although wide excision and Mohs micrographic surgery remain the standard surgical treatments for DFSP, the authors illustrate that presurgical chemotherapeutic treatment by imatinib provides a critical adjunct to traditional therapy.

  20. Occupational Therapy and the amazon riverside child victim of scalping by motor boat shaft

    Paula Dayse Braga Santos


    Full Text Available Although scalping is a recurrentaccident innorthern Brazil, there are still few studies on the subject. The aim of the present work was to report the occupational therapy procedure on the minimization of the occupational performance impairment of two riverside children that were victims of scalping by unprotected motor boat shaft, through the evaluation of occupational performance and exposure of the intervention performed. This is a case study with two scalped riverside girls hospitalized between April and June, 2013. The application of evaluation protocols verified changes in the areas of occupational performance, where activities of daily living (ADL such as dependence for bathing and ambulationare inserted; changesin the performance context, verified in the anxiety to be discharged from hospital; and changesin the performance component, with decreased self-esteem because of the change on their self-image. Reassessment after intervention showed improvement in the performance of ADL and self-image perceptionof both patients. Thereby it is believed that the development of the research allowed the contact with a theme that is so typical in the Braziliannorth region, stressing the importance of Occupational Therapy assistance, providing greater independence in the performance of ADL that are meaningful to each child.


    MSSV Prasad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Awake craniotomy for removal of intracranial tumors is most challenging procedure. The critical aspect of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate analgesia and sedation, hemodynamic stability, airway safety, while keeping the patient immobile for duration of surgery, cooperative for neurological testing. AIM OF THE STUDY: Dexmedetomidine is good analgesic, sedative and has anaesthetic-sparing properties without causing significant respiratory depression. [1] We are reporting cases series of awake craniotomy under monitored anesthesia care using dexmedetomidine infusion as an adjuvant to scalp block, titrating the sedation level by BIS monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: after careful patient selection and psychological preparation Monitored Anesthesia care(MAC was provided by continuous infusion of Dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.2-0.5 mcg/kg/min titrating sedation level to a BIS value of 70-90%. Bilateral scalp block was administered using 0.5% bupivacaine. For dura mater incision, a pad with 2% lidocaine was applied for 3 minutes. The tumor removal was complete with no neurological deficiency. All the patients were discharged on 5th postoperative day without complications and with full patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION: We conclude that monitored anesthesia care with dexmedetomidine infusion and scalp block for awake craniotomy is a safe and efficacious. Absence of complications and high patient satisfaction score makes this technique close to an ideal technique for awake craniotomy.

  2. Half forehead reconstruction with a single rotational scalp flap for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans treatment

    Mori Stefano


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a soft tissue neoplasm of intermediate to low-grade malignancy. Although metastasis rarely occurs, DFSP has a locally aggressive behavior with a high recurrence rate. In the head and neck area, resection involving a wide margin of healthy tissue can be difficult because of functional and cosmetic considerations. We describe a novel reconstructive method for half forehead defects with an innovative single local wide scalp flap following excision of DFSP with a 3 cm margin of healthy tissue. Methods Two patients underwent wide resection of forehead DFSP and reconstruction with a single rotational scalp flap. The scalp flap blood supply was provided from three main vessels: the superficial temporal artery, occipital artery and posterior auricular artery. Results No early or late complications were observed in either patient with no local recurrence after 18 months of follow-up. The donor area could be closed primarily in both cases and the flaps survived completely. Conclusion This innovative technique allowed a radical excision of forehead DFSP with sufficient healthy margins, thus potentially decreasing tumor recurrence rate. Reconstruction was achieved avoiding microsurgery, skin expanders and large skin grafts. Moreover, all main reconstructive criteria, such as functional and cosmetic tissue characteristics, were completely fulfilled.

  3. [Therapeutic effect of scalp-acupuncture combined with exercise therapy on spastic cerebral palsy of the child].

    Ji, Yu-Hong; Sun, Bao-Dong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ru; Ji, Yuan-Hong


    To observe clinical therapeutic effect of scalp-acupuncture combined with exercise therapy on spastic cerebral palsy. Eighty children of spastic cerebral palsy were randomly divided into a scalp-acupuncture plus exercise therapy group and a exercise therapy group, 40 cases in each group. The scalp-acupuncture plus exercise therapy group were treated with scalp-acupuncture and exercise therapy, with Yundongqu (the motor area), Pinghengqu (the balance area), Ganjuequ (the sensory area), etc. selected for scalp-acupuncture, and puncture at main points Baihui (GV 20) and Sishencong (EX-HN 1) and exercise therapy. The exercise therapy group were treated by exercise therapy. Changes of GMFM scores and WeeFIM scores before and after treatment were compared. There were significant differences in GMFM scores and WeeFIM scores before and treatment in the scalp-acupuncture plus exercise therapy group (P exercise therapy group (P exercise therapy group and 72.5% in the exercise therapy group with a significant difference between the two groups (P exercise therapy can improve motor function of limits of children with spastic cerebral palsy, with therapeutic effect better than that of simple exercise therapy.

  4. Sensitive and simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione and climbazole deposition from anti-dandruff shampoos onto human scalp.

    Chen, Guoqiang; Miao, Miao; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Collins, Luisa Z; Jones, Andrew; Janssen, Hans-Gerd


    A sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) deposited onto human scalp from anti-dandruff (AD) shampoos. Scrubbing with a buffer solution was used as the sampling method for the extraction of ZPT and CBZ from scalp. Derivatization of ZPT was carried out prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The identification of ZPT and CBZ was performed by examining ratios of selected multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions in combination with UHPLC retention times. The limit of detection for ZPT and CBZ was established to be 1 and 2ng/mL, respectively. This sensitivity enables the quantification of ZPT and CBZ at deposition levels in the low ng/cm(2) range. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of scalp buffer scrub samples from an in vivo study. The levels of ZPT and CBZ deposited on the scalp at different time points after application of the AD shampoo were measured. The results revealed that dual-active AD shampoo delivered more ZPT onto the scalp in a single wash than single active shampoo did. The amount of ZPT and CBZ retained on the scalp after AD shampoo application declined over 72h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The scalp as a donor site for split-thickness skin graft: a rare complication case report.

    Robert, N; May, P; Binder, J P; Revol, M; Servant, J M


    The scalp is a useful and reliable donor site for the paediatric burn population that can be harvested several times with minimal morbidity. However, the scalp cannot be used as skin graft donor site with impunity. Scalp alopecia and chronic folliculitis can be observed among the complications. In these cases, the reconstruction phase offers different surgical procedures such as primary closure, staged excision or tissue expansion. We report the case of a patient (29-years-old), treated 20 years ago for second-degree burns covering up to 20% total body surface area (TBSA) by using thin split-thickness skin grafts of his scalp. As a teenager, he developed multiple episodes of folliculitis at the donor site of the scalp and then of recurrent abscesses, resistant to all existing medical treatments. Surgical treatment consisted in the skin excision of his scalp donor site which was immediately covered by a thin split-thickness skin graft. Four months after surgery, the patient was satisfied with the functional and aesthetic result. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Similar Response Patterns to 5%Topical Minoxidil Foam in Frontal and Vertex Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Microarray Analysis

    Mirmirani, P.; Consolo, M.; Oyetakin-White, P.; Baron, E.; Leahy, P.; Karnik, P.


    Summary Background There are regional variations in scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions are less well studied. Methods A placebo controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs placebo was conducted in sixteen healthy men ages 18-49 with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for eight weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were done at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo and microarray analysis was done using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Results Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. Conclusions These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. PMID:25204361

  7. Assessment of strategy formulation

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda


    . Practical implications – The integration of three different strategy assessment approaches has been made to obtain a holistic, multi-perspective reflection on strategy formulation. Such reflection is assumed to enable managers to proactively evaluate the potential outcome and performance of their chosen......Purpose – Today, industrial firms need to cope with competitive challenges related to innovation, dynamic responses, knowledge sharing, etc. by means of effective and dynamic strategy formulation. In light of these challenges, the purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate an assessment tool...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...

  8. An efficient protocol for inducing pseudopregnancy using estradiol dipropionate and follicular development associated with changes in reproductive hormones after prostaglandin F2alpha treatment in pseudopregnant sows

    Noguchi Michiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of estrus synchronization program in livestock industry would provide greater options for reproductive management in herd. To develop a convenient method for estrus synchronization in pigs, we determined the effective protocol using estradiol dipropionate (EDP for the establishment of pseudopregnancy and investigated follicular development during the estrus synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha in association with reproductive hormone profiles in pseudopregnant sows. Methods In Experiment 1, the effective dose (0, 10, 20, or 30 mg and timing (5, 8, 11 or 13 days after ovulation of a single administration of EDP in cyclic pigs for the induction of pseudopregnancy were investigated. In Experiment 2, four pseudopregnant sows were treated with PGF2alpha twice at a 24-h interval between 24 and 28 days after EDP treatment. The changes in plasma concentrations of reproductive hormones were analyzed by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Follicular development and ovulation following PGF2alpha administration were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. Results High efficiency (greater than 80% of pseudopregnancy was achieved with a single treatment with 20 mg of EDP at 8 and 11 days after ovulation (equivalent to 9-13 days after the onset of estrus. Plasma estradiol-17beta concentrations in pseudopregnant sows were significantly higher between 12 h and 7 days than before EDP treatment. Total inhibin concentrations significantly decreased following EDP treatment and remained low for 14 days. The number of small follicles was increased from 6.3 +/- 2.6 at PGF2alpha treatment to 22.8 +/- 4.8 at 3 days later; this was associated with increased plasma concentrations of inhibin. Onset of estrus was detectable in all sows on 5.3 +/- 0.3 days after PGF2alpha treatment and the number of ovulated follicles was 15.5 +/- 1.4 detected at 7.6 +/- 0.2 days after the treatment. Conclusions This study has defined the

  9. Evaluation of human skin tolerance to creams containing tazarotene and betamethasone dipropionate%他扎罗汀倍他米松乳膏人体皮肤耐受性研究

    宗文凯; 吴黎莉; 陈沄; 佘晓东; 陈正琴; 吴国华


    Objective To evaluate skin tolerance to creams containing different concentrations of tazarotene and betamethasone dipropionate in healthy volunteers after single or multiple applications,and to predict potential adverse effects of these creams as well as their degree.Methods Thirty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled in a single-dose trial group,and divided into six subgroups to receive single session of topical treatment with creams containing tazarotene and betamethasone dipropionate both at the concentrations of 0.025%,0.05%,0.1%,0.15%,0.2% and 0.25% respectively.Another 12 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a multiple-dose trial group,and divided into two subgroups to topically apply creams containing tazarotene and betamethasone dipropionate both at the concentrations of 0.2% and 0.15%,respectively,once a day for 7 consecutive days.General status and subjective feelings of these testees were evaluated,skin reactions at application sites were observed,and routine laboratory examinations (including routine blood test,routine urine test,hepatic and renal function examination) were performed,before and after the application of these creams in both single-and multiple-dose trials.Endogenous cortisol levels were measured before and 7,14 days after the initial application of the creams,and the amount of drugs percutaneously absorbed into systemic circulation was determined before and 1,3,5,7 days after that in the multiple-dose trial.Results No serious adverse events were found in the study.In the single-dose trial,the testees showed no drug-related adverse reactions or abnormal changes in test patameters after the application of the creams.In the multiple-dose trial,no aberrant skin reaction or self-reported discomfort was noted in any of the testees from day 0 to 7 after the first initial application of the creams,but mild irritation occurred in 5 out of 6 volunteers applying the cream containing 0.2% tazarotene and 0.2% betamethasone

  10. Formulations and nebulizer performance.

    O'Riordan, Thomas G


    To deliver a drug by nebulization, the drug must first be dispersed in a liquid (usually aqueous) medium. After application of a dispersing force (either a jet of gas or ultrasonic waves), the drug particles are contained within the aerosol droplets, which are then inhaled. Some drugs readily dissolve in water, whereas others need a cosolvent such as ethanol or propylene glycol. Some drugs are delivered as suspensions, and the efficiency of nebulizers can be different for solutions and suspensions. Solutions are delivered more efficiently with most devices. In general, conventional ultrasonic nebulizers should not be used to aerosolize suspensions, because of low efficiency. Newer strategies to improve the delivery of non-water-soluble drugs include the use of liposomes and the milling of the drug into very small "nanoparticles." In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient and solvents, drug formulations may include buffers (the solubility of some medications is influenced by pH), stabilizers, and, in the case of multi-dose preparations, antibacterial agents. Though formulations are designed to optimize drug solubility and stability, changes in formulation can also affect inhaled mass, particle size, and treatment time, though the differences between nebulizer brands probably have a greater impact than differences in formulation. Ultrasonic and jet nebulizers may damage protein and other complex agents through heat or shear stress. Additives to multi-dose formulations, especially antimicrobial and chelating agents, may cause adverse events, so there is a trend towards single-use, preservative-free vials.

  11. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant


    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  12. Real and potential mercury accumulation in human scalp of adolescents: a case study.

    Vieira, H C; Morgado, F; Soares, A M V M; Abreu, S N


    Mercury (Hg) concentration in human hair is used to estimate methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and establish a reference dose for MeHg intake. In this study, Hg accumulation and MeHg intake were evaluated in relation to fish consumption habits in adolescents from two coastal areas: Angra do Heroísmo (Azores archipelago) and Murtosa (Portuguese mainland). Results showed that Hg concentration and MeHg intake increased with increasing fish consumption. In spite of that, Hg concentrations remained relatively low when compared with World Health Organization "no observed adversary effect level"; therefore, risk for mercury exposure should not be considered. Adolescents revealed a similar range of Hg concentrations (0.03-2.60 μg g(-1)) in scalp hair, apart from being exposed to natural or anthropogenic Hg source (Azores and Mainland, respectively). Nevertheless, Mainland volunteers generally exhibited higher values of Hg accumulation, being approximately 50 % of the results above 1 μg g(-1). Hg concentrations increased in both adolescent groups according to the weekly rate of fish meals, however, not linearly in the highest fish consumption rates. In fact, considering the adolescents' group having over one fish meal per week, the Hg bioaccumulation pattern found in the respective scalp hair suggests the ability of the human body to induce a self-protection response, probably mitigating Hg levels in the blood when experiencing increasing Hg exposure due to fish uptake. Actual and potential mercury levels in human scalp of adolescents probably diverge as fish consumption increases, the effective Hg uptake being lower than the expected, reducing risk to human health.

  13. Disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine, morphine and codeine from human scalp hair after discontinuation of opiate abuse.

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Sun, Yingying; Shen, Baohua


    Opiates continue to be used at high rates in East and Southeast Asia. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse has been developed into a powerful and widely used tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. Specifically, testing the proximal segment of scalp hair to confirm morphine (MOR) positive urine samples could solve the poppy seed problem. Human scalp hair grows approximately 1cm per month and can therefore reflect a retrospective timeline of drug exposure. This study is the first to investigate the disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), MOR and codeine (COD) from human scalp hair after the discontinuation of drug use. Thirty-two healthy women (ages 21-51 years) with a known history of heroin abuse, who went to a rehabilitation centre and ceased consuming heroin (for 4-5 months), were recruited into the study. A pharmacokinetic analysis in seven individual hair segments was performed using a first-order kinetic. Assuming a rate of hair growth of 1cm/month, the mean hair elimination half-lives of 6-AM, MOR and COD were 0.88 months (95% CI, 0.74-1.03), 0.73 months (95% CI, 0.64-0.81), and 0.61 months (95% CI, 0.54-0.69), respectively. Our results suggest that to evaluate the discontinuation of opiate abuse after a 6-month period of abstinence, the results from a 3-cm proximal hair segment should be free of 6-AM at the proposed 0.2 ng/mg cutoff level. This finding should become the basis for the interpretation of results from segmental hair analyses in the evaluation of drug abstinence.


    HUANG Yong(黄泳); Win Moe Htut; LI Dong-jiang(李东江); TANG An-wu(唐安戊); LI Qiu-shi(李求实)


    Objective: To observe the effect of electro-scalp acupuncture on glucose metabolism of cerebral regions involving mental activity in healthy people. Methods: A total of 6 cases of volunteer healthy subjects (3 males and 3 females) ranging in age from 22 to 36 years were subjected to this study. Changes of cerebral glucose metabolism before and after electro-scalp acupuncture were observed by using positron emission tomography (PET) and semi-quantifying analysis method. Electro-scalp acupuncture stimulation (50 Hz, 2 mA) of Middle Line of Vertex (Dingzhongxian,顶中线,MS5), Middle Line of Forehead (Ezhongxian, 额中线,MS1) and bilateral Lateral Line 1 of Forehead (Epangyixian,额旁一线,MS2) was administered for 30 minutes. Then cerebral regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen and their average glucose metabolism levels (radioactivity of 18 fluorine deoxyglucose ) were analyzed. Results:After administration of electro-scalp acupuncture, the glucose metabolism levels in bilateral frontal lobes and bilateral caudate nuclei, left cingulate gyrus and right cerebellum increased significantly in comparison with those of pre-stimulation (P<0.05). Conclusion:Electro-scalp acupuncture of MS1, MS2 and MS5 can increase the glucose metabolism of certain cerebral regions involving in mental activity in healthy subjects.

  15. Recurrent Multiple Squamous Cell Carcinomas on the Scalp in a Patient with Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Sato, Yota; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Tsukada, Akira; Hidaka, Takanori; Tanita, Kayo; Haga, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya


    Both long-term administration of immunosuppressive agents and chronic inflammatory conditions, such as autoimmune disease, could be risk factors for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). In this report, we present a case of recurrent multiple cSCC on the scalp in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis who had been administered cyclosporine and Predonine since she was a 1-year-old infant. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed IL-17-producing cells adjacent to IL-17R-expressing atypical keratinocytes. Our present case suggested that IL-17/IL-17R signaling might contribute to the carcinogenesis of cSCC. PMID:28203172

  16. Comparative metal distribution in scalp hair of Pakistani and Irish referents and hypertensive patients

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brabazon, Dermot; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Naher, Sumsun; Nesterenko, Ekaterina


    The abnormal metabolism of metal ions plays an important role in health and disease conditions, and studies about them have been attracting significant interest. The aim of our study was to assess the heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in scalp hair samples of 50 Irish and 78 Pakistani hypertensive patients of an urban population together with 50 Irish and 96 Pakistani non-hypertensive male subjects in the age group of 30–50 years. The concentrations of trace a...

  17. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata


    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Similar response patterns to topical minoxidil foam 5% in frontal and vertex scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia: a microarray analysis.

    Mirmirani, P; Consolo, M; Oyetakin-White, P; Baron, E; Leahy, P; Karnik, P


    There are regional variations in the scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions have been less well studied. To determine whether scalp biopsies from men with AGA show variable gene expression before and after 8 weeks of treatment with minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs. placebo. A placebo-controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of MTF vs. placebo was conducted in 16 healthy men aged 18-49 years with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for 8 weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits, to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were taken at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo, and microarray analysis was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin-associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Clinical and mycological study of scalp white piedra in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva Pontes


    Full Text Available White piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeasts. In the present study, clinical and mycological findings of scalp white piedra caused by Trichosporon spp. are related. Twenty three cases of scalp white piedra were observed with a high incidence in women (87% and preschool children from 2 to 6 (74% years old. These groups presented a relationship of dependence with this infection. Despite the low socio-economic status, poor standards of hygiene, (48% of the patients as well as the fact that 30.4% of the children shared the same nursery, these factors were not significant for the transmission of the mycosis. These were the first reports of scalp white piedra in João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil.

  20. Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp.

    Cécile Clavaud

    Full Text Available The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject's were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05. These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface.

  1. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé


    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS shampoo or vehicle twice weekly. When relapse (GSS > 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS shampoo, almost 4 months later than with vehicle (30.5 days;p shampoo (40.3%) than with vehicle (11.6%;p shampoo was also safe during the 7-month study period, without leading to more cases of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression or adverse events compared to vehicle. The alternate treatment regimen with CP shampoo is efficacious and safe for long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  2. Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study

    Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana


    Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. Results Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, ≥50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas ≥75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. Conclusions This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:20428227

  3. Dermoscopic findings in scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis; Two new signs; Signet ring vessel and hidden hair

    Melike Kibar


    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis are both chronic erythemato-squamous dermatoses that can involve the scalp. It may be difficult to differentiate these two diseases when there is isolated scalp involvement. Recently, trichoscopy is commonly used to differentiate noncicatricial alopecias including psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis that can lead to telogen effluvium (TE. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the trichoscopic figures that may help to differentiate scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty one with scalp psoriasis and 112 patients with seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled. Trichoscopic examinations were performed using a videodermatoscope (MoleMax 3 ® . Trichoscopic findings of scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis were compared with each other, with 100 healthy individuals and with other noncicatricial alopecias including female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA (n: 138, male androgenetic alopecia (n: 63, FAGA of male pattern (FAGA.M (n: 5, alopecia areata (39, TE (n: 22 and trichotillomania (n: 4. Results: Atypical red vessels, red dots and globules (RDG, signet ring vessels (SRV, structureless red areas and hidden hairs (HH were statistically more common in psoriasis while twisted red loops and comma vessels (CV in seborrheic dermatitis. RDG were considered as the characteristic videodermatoscopic figure for psoriasis and arborizing red lines and CV for seborrheic dermatitis. In comparison with previous reports, our study yielded two new trichoscopic structures supporting the diagnosis of psoriasis; HH and SRV. Besides, according to our study, CV were described for the first time in seborrheic dermatitis and considered to be specific for seborrheic dermatitis. Conclusion: This study confirmed that trichoscopy might be useful in differentiating scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis from each other and from other noncicatricial alopecia with three trichoscopic

  4. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir


    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  5. Dosimetric comparison of three different treatment techniques in extensive scalp lesion irradiation.

    Wojcicka, Jadwiga B; Lasher, Donette E; McAfee, Sandra S; Fortier, Gregory A


    This study compared lateral photon/electron plan (3DCRT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan, and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy plan for total scalp irradiation. The techniques were planned on a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp for a prescribed dose of 60 Gy. Conformity indexes and dose volume histograms were used for the comparison. Clinical target volume coverage factors for 3DCRT, IMRT, and HDR were 0.976, 0.998, and 0.967, and Conformation Numbers were 0.532, 0.713, and 0.761, respectively. The dose gradient across the target was 59-136%, 91-129%, and 58-242% for 3DCRT, IMRT, and HDR techniques, respectively. The 3DCRT and IMRT techniques produced low optical structure doses. 3DCRT produced hotspots in the brain, while IMRT produced brain sparing. HDR produced the highest integral doses to the brain and optical structures. IMRT provided the best target dose homogeneity and coverage, and delivered clinically acceptable doses to normal structures. HDR produced the most conformal plan, but the total dose delivered is limited by doses to the brain and eyes. HDR is a clinically feasible alternative for less extensive lesions, lower prescription doses, and for patients who cannot lie on the treatment table.

  6. Predicting hand forces from scalp electroencephalography during isometric force production and object grasping.

    Paek, Andrew Y; Gailey, Alycia; Parikh, Pranav; Santello, Marco; Contreras-Vidal, Jose


    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting hand forces from brain activity recorded with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Ten able-bodied subjects participated in two tasks: an isometric force production task and a grasp-and-lift task using unconstrained and constrained grasps. We found that EEG electrodes spanning central areas of the scalp were highly correlated to force rate trajectories. Moreover, EEG grand averages in central sites resembled force rate trajectories as opposed to force trajectories. The grasp-and-lift task resulted in higher decoding accuracies than the isometric force production task: across nine subjects, median accuracies for the isometric force production task were r=0.35 whereas median accuracies for unconstrained grasping were r=0.51 and for constrained grasping were r=0.50. Such results could lead to an understanding of the neural representation behind the control of hand forces and could be implemented in the neural control of closed-loop hand-based neuroprostheses.

  7. Hair and Scalp Manifestations in Secondary Syphilis: Epidemiology, Clinical Features and Trichoscopy.

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Broccoli, Alessandro; Starace, Michela; Gaspari, Valeria; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Dika, Emi; Patrizi, Annalisa


    Syphilitic alopecia (SA) is mainly described in single case reports, and there are only a few epidemiological studies. To investigate the clinical and dermoscopic features of SA in patients with secondary syphilis and to record its actual prevalence. All patients with a diagnosis of secondary syphilis were clinically and trichoscopically evaluated in search of hair and scalp alterations. Five of 12 patients (41.6%) diagnosed with secondary syphilis had SA. The 'moth-eaten' pattern was detected in 4 patients (80% of cases): 1 had 'essential' SA, whereas 3 patients had 'symptomatic' SA. The 'diffuse' SA pattern was found in 1 patient. Trichoscopy of the 'moth-eaten' areas showed that alopecia is mainly due to a reduction in the number of terminal hairs. One patient with secondary syphilis showed trichodynia that regressed completely after antibiotic therapy. The small number of patients included and the fact that none of our patients accepted to be biopsied in an affected area. Since SA appears to be present much more frequently than reported in the literature, when secondary syphilis is suspected, the patient should be examined for the presence of signs compatible with SA and the scalp should be examined by dermoscopy.

  8. Subcutaneous oxygen tension in the fetal scalp during labour continuous monitoring with a needle electrode.

    Aarnoudse, J G; Huisjes, H J; Oeseburg, B; Zijlstra, W G


    Continuous intrapartum PO2 recordings were made in 25 fetuses, using a needle electrode that measures PO2 in the subcutaneous (sc) tissue of the scalp or the breech. This small electrode is combined with a spiral ECG electrode and can be easily applied in early labour. One hour after application of the electrode in the early first stage, a mean fetal scPO2 of 29.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg was found. In the course of labour, scPO2 gradually fell to a mean value of 22.2 +/- 5.6 mm Hg, recorded just before the onset of bearing down contractions, and stabilised in the second stage of labour. ScPO2 values of less than 20 mm Hg were not recorded for a longer period except in one case of severe fetal distress. The relation between scPO2 just before delivery and cord arterial PO2 revealed a coefficient of correlation of 0.85. In general, scPO2 appeared higher than tcPO2 as described in the literature. This is ascribed to the different technique of measurement: the needle electrode measures in the deeper layers of the scalp, whereas the tc electrode is supplied with oxygen form the more superficial capillaries, where blood flow is more liable to be affected by mechanical factors.

  9. Cutaneous leiomyoma of scalp: a rare case report with review of literature

    Qadir Fatima


    Full Text Available Skin is the largest organ of the body and many types of tumor arises from different part of skin layer. A leiomyoma is an uncommon, benign tumour of smooth muscle of skin derived from the arrector pili muscle of skin. These lesions can develop wherever smooth muscle is present, but malignant transformation probably does not occur. Cutaneous leiomyomas or piloleiomyomas appear as small (0.5-2 cm firm skin coloured nodules. They arise from the arrector pili muscles which are responsible for making your hairs stand on end. Multiple lesions may develop, often in clusters and commonly in a segmental distribution. These nodules are benign, so are only of concern because of their appearance or their tendency to be tender if knocked. Female patients with cutaneous leiomyomas may also develop uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, and very rarely leiomyomas can be associated with renal cell carcinoma (hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. We report a case cutaneous leiomyoma of scalp in a 22 year old male who present with the complaints of scalp swelling. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 993-997

  10. A case of chemical scalp burns after hair highlights: experimental evidence of oxidative injuries.

    Bertani, Roberta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Pendolino, Flavio; Facchin, Giangiacomo; Snenghi, Rossella


    Hair highlights are quite common procedures carried out in hair salons by using a mixture of a lightening powder containing persulfates with a suspension containing hydrogen peroxide: a representative case of chemical scalp burns is described as a consequence of this treatment. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the strict relationship between the scalp damage and the commercial products used in a case of hair highlighting. The results of some chemical analyses have been reported, showing, in particular, that the chemical reactivity of the mixture changes in the time, thus strongly suggesting that the procedure for the application of the mixture is critical for the occurrence of possible accidents. The presence in the powder of chemical compounds bearing aliphatic chains as surfactants explains the appearance of dramatic symptoms after days due to a slow dissolution of the oxidant compounds in the stratum corneum of skin with no effect in reducing injury of palliative treatments. Safety suggestions and recommendations for producers and workers are also included.

  11. Methods for artifact detection and removal from scalp EEG: A review.

    Islam, Md Kafiul; Rastegarnia, Amir; Yang, Zhi


    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the most popular brain activity recording technique used in wide range of applications. One of the commonly faced problems in EEG recordings is the presence of artifacts that come from sources other than brain and contaminate the acquired signals significantly. Therefore, much research over the past 15 years has focused on identifying ways for handling such artifacts in the preprocessing stage. However, this is still an active area of research as no single existing artifact detection/removal method is complete or universal. This article presents an extensive review of the existing state-of-the-art artifact detection and removal methods from scalp EEG for all potential EEG-based applications and analyses the pros and cons of each method. First, a general overview of the different artifact types that are found in scalp EEG and their effect on particular applications are presented. In addition, the methods are compared based on their ability to remove certain types of artifacts and their suitability in relevant applications (only functional comparison is provided not performance evaluation of methods). Finally, the future direction and expected challenges of current research is discussed. Therefore, this review is expected to be helpful for interested researchers who will develop and/or apply artifact handling algorithm/technique in future for their applications as well as for those willing to improve the existing algorithms or propose a new solution in this particular area of research.

  12. Principles for transformation of scalp EEG from potential field into source distribution.

    Hjorth, B


    Tracings representing simultaneously recorded values of EEG potentials from different positions on the scalp surface describe how the instantaneous potential field over the scalp surface changes with time. Each instantaneous distribution of potential can be seen as resulting from spatial integration of primary components into the potential field. These components may be derived by means of the reverse procedure: subjecting the data from the potential field to spatial differentiation as provided by the Laplacian source operator. The result is a "deblurred," i.e., a more differentiated, distribution of source components hypothetically associated with the generators of the potential field. The Laplacian source operator can be implemented as a linear combination of the instantaneous potential values, either by means of very simple electronic circuitry or in a computer. The linear combination is a standard operation in matrix algebra and is widely applied in signal processing. The formalism of matrix algebra simplifies a precise evaluation of the method in relation to conventional derivation techniques and provides further methods for analysis of the EEG data.

  13. [Fetal scalp pH during labor: Which threshold for intervention?

    Morin, C; Chartier, M; Bounan, S; Hatem, G; Goffinet, F; Le Ray, C


    In case of abnormal fetal heart rate, there is no consensus on the decision threshold pH scalp leading to a rapid birth. The objective of this study was to compare neonatal issues and cesarean rate in two maternity using different decision thresholds of scalp pH. A comparative retrospective study conducted in two level III maternity units between January 2013 and May 2014, one maternity unit used a decision threshold of 7.20 (maternity unit 7,20), and the other one a threshold of 7.25 (maternity unit 7,25). An adverse neonatal outcome was defined by a composite endpoint of neonatal morbidity. The risk of cesarean was assessed using a multivariate analysis. One hundred and four patients were included in the maternity unit 7,20 and 163 patients in the maternity 7,25. Adverse neonatal outcome was similar in both maternities (25% vs. 30,1%; P=0.4). The average pH at birth was similar in both maternities, as well as the Apgar score at 5minutes and neonatal transfer rates. However, BEpH threshold (7% vs. 0%; P17-4.25]). It seems that a decisional threshold fixed to 7,20 could be used reasonably. It could allow to reduce cesarean rate. Other studies are, however, needed to confirm that such threshold of 7,20 does not increase the risk of severe acidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Human scalp irritation compared to that of the arm and back.

    Zhai, Hongbo; Fautz, Rolf; Fuchs, Anne; Bhandarkar, Sulochana; Maibach, Howard I


    Large-scale data comparing reactions to surfactants between scalp and back and arm are lacking. The sensitivity of responses between scalp and back and arm were explored utilizing an open-application model for testing the potential irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). 10 bald male Caucasians (mean age 56 +/- 9 years) were enrolled. We conducted 5 successive washings: for each wash, the technician pipetted 1 ml of 20% SLS solution into a glass cylinder placed on the designated area with hand pressure that prevented the cylinder leaking. The test area was then rubbed with a Teflon Policeman scrubber for 1 min. Post scrubbing, the solution was absorbed dry with a plastic pipette and blotted by gently applying paper tissues. After a 5-min rest, the procedure was repeated for 4 more times for a total of 5 times. Skin-irritancy assessments by visual scoring and instrumental measurements were made at 30 min and 24 h thereafter and squamometry at the end of last washing. Results indicated that most param- eters revealed that the back was most sensitive to the SLS challenge. Thus, these data support the current standard skin-compatibility testing procedure, employing the back for potential irritation testing of hair care products.

  15. Helmet mold-based surface brachytherapy for homogeneous scalp treatment: a case report

    Liebmann, A.; Pohlmann, S.; Heinicke, F.; Hildebrandt, G. [Univ. Hospital Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology


    Background/Case Report: External-beam radiotherapy of complex-shaped areas is sometimes difficult to realize. In a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) infiltrates of the skin of the whole scalp, conventional external-beam radiotherapy with electrons or photons was not able to treat the target sufficiently. Thus, the authors developed a brachytherapy moulage technique using a customized helmet (polyethylene) with flexible interstitial plastic applicators and irradiated the target very homogeneously with a microselectron {sup 192}Ir HDR (high-dose-rate) source (2.0 Gy daily fractionated; 36.0 Gy total dose related to the reference points in 3 mm focus depth). Technical difficulties, CT-supported three-dimensional conformal treatment planning, and verification with TLD probe measurements are described. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in complete local remission of the CLL infiltrates within a follow-up of 30 months. Conclusion: The presented treatment of lymphoma infiltrates at the scalp by HDR moulage techniques is exceptional but safe and practicable to achieve local tumor control.

  16. Scalp Metastasis from Leiomyosarcoma of the Inferior Vena Cava Sign as the First Clinical Sign: A Case Report

    Isabel Prieto Muñoz


    Full Text Available The presentation of scalp metastases from leiomyosarcoma of the vena cava is an extremely infrequent event. There are no other publications that describe such finding and very few of leiomyosarcoma in vessels. About this event we have reviewed the English literature describing studies on scalp metastases and skin metastases in general: their incidence, origin, clinical appearance, meaning, and diagnosis. The case we describe would be the second one presented worldwide because, as far as we know, it has been only one more published in 2005.

  17. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Bahnassy, A.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Medicine); Denton, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)


    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP 11/34 data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair. (author).

  18. Liposomal paclitaxel formulations.

    Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav


    Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development.

  19. A Network Meta-Analysis of the Relative Efficacy of Treatments for Actinic Keratosis of the Face or Scalp in Europe

    Vegter, Stefan; Tolley, Keith


    Background: Several treatments are available for actinic keratosis (AK) on the face and scalp. Most treatment modalities were compared to placebo and therefore little is known on their relative efficacy. Objectives: To compare the different treatments for mild to moderate AK on the face and scalp

  20. The influence of actuator materials and nozzle designs on electrostatic charge of pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations.

    Chen, Yang; Young, Paul M; Fletcher, David F; Chan, Hak Kim; Long, Edward; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Traini, Daniela


    To investigate the influence of different actuator materials and nozzle designs on the electrostatic charge properties of a series of solution metered dose inhaler (pMDI) aerosols. Actuators were manufactured with flat and cone nozzle designs using five different materials from the triboelectric series (Nylon, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyethylene-High density, Polypropylene copolymer and Polytetrafluoroethylene). The electrostatic charge profiles of pMDI containing beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug in HFA-134a propellant, with different concentrations of ethanol were studied. Electrostatic measurements were taken using a modified electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and the deposited drug mass assayed chemically using HPLC. The charge profiles of HFA 134a alone have shown strong electronegativity with all actuator materials and nozzle designs, at an average of -1531.34 pC ± 377.34. The presence of co-solvent ethanol significantly reduced the negative charge magnitude. BDP reduced the suppressing effect of ethanol on the negative charging of the propellant. For all tested formulations, the flat nozzle design showed no significant differences in net charge between different actuator materials, whereas the charge profiles of cone designs followed the triboelectric series. The electrostatic charging profiles from a solution pMDI containing BDP and ethanol can be significantly influenced by the actuator material, nozzle design and formulation components. Ethanol concentration appears to have the most significant impact. Furthermore, BDP interactions with ethanol and HFA have an influence on the electrostatic charge of aerosols. By choosing different combinations of actuator materials and orifice design, the fine particle fractions of formulations can be altered.

  1. Formulations of entomopathogens as bioinsecticides

    Developing a proper formulation is a necessary component for commercialization of entomopathogenic microbes as biological insecticides. The objective of this chapter is to present broad-ranging information about formulations to foster research toward developing commercial microbial-based insecticide...

  2. Systematic Equation Formulation

    Lindberg, Erik


    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  3. A Combined Treatment of Scalp Acupuncture and Traction in 108 Cases of Prolapse of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc


    @@ Prolapse of the lumbar intervertebral disc is a syndrome commonly seen in clinic. The main manifestation is pain in the lumbar region radiating to the lower limbs. In the treatment of this disease, the author has employed traction together with scalp needling, and obtained quite good therapeutic effects. A report follows.

  4. A fetal scalp electrode as a simple aid in the search for a lost needle fragment during sacrospinous ligament fixation

    Schoonenberg, M.P.G.; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.


    A needle fragment was lost during a sacrospinous ligament fixation. This was recognized during the procedure, but could not be found at that moment. The patient complained of severe buttock pain postoperatively. The needle fragment was localized on CT scan of the pelvis. A fetal scalp electrode help

  5. Severe scalp hair loss in a female patient with acromegaly treated with lanreotide autogel after unsuccessful surgery.

    Alvarez-Escola, Cristina; Cárdenas-Salas, Jersy J; Pelegrina, Beatriz; Sanz-Valtierra, Angel; Lecumberri, Beatriz


    Scalp hair loss is an underreported adverse event of somatostatin analogs therapy that in severe cases may require treatment withdrawal. It can be related to an acute decrease in GH/IGF-1 levels, but a direct effect cannot be ruled out.

  6. Differences in topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps of the scalp between patients with migraine and healthy controls

    Barón, Johanna; Ruiz, Marina; Palacios-Ceña, María;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps of the scalp between patients with migraine and healthy controls considering the chronicity (episodic/chronic) and side (strictly unilateral/bilateral) of the symptoms. BACKGROUND: It seems that the trigeminal a...

  7. The combined application of scalp and body acupuncture by stages for low limb dysfunction of patients with apoplexy



    Objective To verify the clinical efficacy on the function recovery of lower extremities for patients with cerebral apoplexy by the staging treatment with the combined therapy of the scalp and body acupuncture. Methods Ninety-six cases were randomized into an observation group and a control group

  8. Sensitive and simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione and climbazole deposition from anti-dandruff shampoos onto human scalp

    Chen, G.; Miao, M.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Collins, L.Z.; Jones, A.; Janssen, H.G.


    A sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) deposited onto human scalp from anti-dandruff (AD) shampoos. Scrubbing with a buffer so

  9. Analysis of the expression pattern of involucrin in human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle-associated alterations.

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A


    Involucrin is a structural component of the keratinocyte cornified envelope that is expressed early in the keratinocyte differentiation process. It is a component of the initial envelope scaffolding and considered as a marker for keratinocyte terminal differentiation. The expression pattern of involucrin in human scalp skin and hair follicle cycle stages is not fully explored. This study addresses this issue and tests the hypothesis that "the expression of involucrin undergoes hair follicle cycle-dependent changes". A total of 50 normal human scalp skin biopsies were examined (healthy females, 51-62 years) using immunofluorescence staining methods and real-time PCR analysis. In each case, 50 hair follicles were analyzed (35, 10 and 5 follicles in anagen, catagen and telogen, respectively). Involucrin was prominently expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles, on both gene and protein levels. The protein expression showed hair follicle cycle-associated changes i.e. a very strong expression during early and mature anagen, intermediate to strong expression during catagen and prominent decline in the telogen phase. The expression value of involucrin in both anagen and catagen was statistically significantly higher than that of telogen hair follicles (p < 0.001). This study provides the first morphologic indication that involucrin is differentially expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles and reports that involucrin expression pattern undergoes hair cycle-dependent changes. The clinical ramifications of these findings are open for further investigations.

  10. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical pr

  11. Sensitive and simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione and climbazole deposition from anti-dandruff shampoos onto human scalp

    G. Chen; M. Miao; M. Hoptroff; X. Fei; L.Z. Collins; A. Jones; H.G. Janssen


    A sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) deposited onto human scalp from anti-dandruff (AD) shampoos. Scrubbing with a buffer so

  12. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical pr

  13. Spatial and temporal resolutions of EEG: Is it really black and white? A scalp current density view.

    Burle, Borís; Spieser, Laure; Roger, Clémence; Casini, Laurence; Hasbroucq, Thierry; Vidal, Franck


    Among the different brain imaging techniques, electroencephalography (EEG) is classically considered as having an excellent temporal resolution, but a poor spatial one. Here, we argue that the actual temporal resolution of conventional (scalp potentials) EEG is overestimated, and that volume conduction, the main cause of the poor spatial resolution of EEG, also distorts the recovered time course of the underlying sources at scalp level, and hence degrades the actual temporal resolution of EEG. While Current Source Density (CSD) estimates, through the Surface Laplacian (SL) computation, are well known to dramatically reduce volume conduction effects and hence improve EEG spatial resolution, its positive impact on EEG temporal resolution is much less recognized. In two simulation studies, we first show how volume conduction and reference electrodes distort the scalp potential time course, and how SL transform provides a much better spatio-temporal description. We then exemplify similar effects on two empirical datasets. We show how the time courses of the scalp potentials mis-estimate the latencies of the relevant brain events and that CSD provides a much richer, and much more accurate, view of the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain activity.

  14. Results of 20- versus 45-min post-infusion scalp cooling time in the prevention of docetaxel-induced alopecia

    Komen, M.M.; Breed, W.P.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Ploeg, T. van der; Goey, S.H.; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Nortier, J.W.; Hurk, C.J. van den


    PURPOSE: For patients, chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of treatment. Scalp cooling can prevent or minimise CIA; the results may depend on the duration of cooling. Since a previous study on post-infusion cooling time in patients treated with docetaxel

  15. Cystic Pulmonary Metastasis in a Patient with Scalp Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Jong Ho; Kim, Ho Joong; Kim, Kwhan Mien; Baek, Chung Hwan [Samsugn Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    It has been well known that angiosarcoma (AS), particularly scalp AS, metastasizes to the lungs with multiple air-filled cystic lesions on chest computed tomography scans. Pneumothorax, due to cystic lesion rupture into the pleural space, is frequent;however, we do not exactly know how rapidly the metastatic lesions spread to the lungs or what the exact pathogenetic mechanism for cystic metastasis is. According to our experience, the speed of disease progression in pulmonary metastasis is relatively fast and the entire lungs may be involved within two or three months. The infiltrating spindle cell tumors in the alveolar walls are tethering the adjacent alveolar spaces in order to form a dilated air-filled cystic lesion.

  16. Scalp current density mapping in the analysis of mismatch negativity paradigms.

    Giard, Marie-Hélène; Besle, Julien; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gomot, Marie; Bertrand, Olivier


    MMN oddball paradigms are frequently used to assess auditory (dys)functions in clinical populations, or the influence of various factors (such as drugs and alcohol) on auditory processing. A widely used procedure is to compare the MMN responses between two groups of subjects (e.g. patients vs controls), or between experimental conditions in the same group. To correctly interpret these comparisons, it is important to take into account the multiple brain generators that produce the MMN response. To disentangle the different components of the MMN, we describe the advantages of scalp current density (SCD)-or surface Laplacian-computation for ERP analysis. We provide a short conceptual and mathematical description of SCDs, describe their properties, and illustrate with examples from published studies how they can benefit MMN analysis. We conclude with practical tips on how to correctly use and interpret SCDs in this context.

  17. Scalp metastasis as the first sign of small-cell lung cancer: management and literature review.

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Veloudis, Georgios; Spiliopoulos, Kyriakos; Nakos, Georgios; Vrizidis, Nikolaos; Gourgiotis, Stavros


    Cutaneous metastasis from primary visceral malignancy is a relatively uncommon clinical entity, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.22% to 10% among various series. However, the presence of cutaneous metastasis as the first sign of a clinically silent visceral cancer is exceedingly rare. We describe here a case of an asymptomatic male patient who presented with a solitary scalp metastasis as the initial manifestation of an underlying small-cell lung cancer. Diagnostic evaluation revealed advanced disease. We conclude that the possibility of metastatic skin disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a history of smoking or lung cancer presenting with cutaneous nodules. Physicians should be aware of this rare clinical entity, and appropriate investigation should be arranged for early diagnosis and initiation of the appropriate treatment. The prognosis for most patients remains poor.

  18. Scalp electroacupuncture at the Baihui acupoint (DU 20) improves functional recovery in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Min-Wook Kim; Seung Chan Kim; Woo-Seok Im; Jin Young Chung; Minky Kim; Manho Kim; You Chul Chung; Hee Chan Jung; Moon-Seo Park; Young-Min Han; Yong-An Chung; Lee-So Maeng; Sang-In Park; Jiyeon Lim


    In this study, we induced cerebral infarction in rats by occluding the right middle cerebral artery, and tested the effects of electroacupuncture at the Baihui acupoint (DU 20). Motor and sensory function was tested using Garcia's scale and motor weakness grading, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the brain was quantified using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We found that scalp electroacupuncture at DU 20 significantly improved motor performance and sensory function in rats with stroke, and this was accompanied by an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic brain tissue and peri-ischemic area. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that the improvements in functional recovery were correlated with the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor.

  19. Excess of counterclockwise scalp hair-whorl rotation in homosexual men.

    Klar, Amar J S


    While most men prefer women as their sexual partners, some are bisexual and others are homosexuals. It has been debated for a long time whether a person's sexual preference is innate, learned, or due to a combination of both causes. It was recently discovered that the human right-versus-left-hand use preference and the direction of scalp hair-whorl rotation develop from a common genetic mechanism. Such a mechanism controls functional specialization of brain hemispheres. Whether the same mechanism specifying mental makeup influences sexual preference was determined here by comparing hair-whorl rotation in groups enriched with homosexual men with that in males at large. Only a minority of 8.2% (n = 207) unselected 'control' group of males had counterclockwise rotation. In contrast, all three samples enriched with homosexual men exhibited highly significant (P homosexual men by a biological/genetic factor that also controls direction of hair-whorl rotation.

  20. Experiencia en el tratamiento de quemaduras de cuero cabelludo Scalp burns treatment experience

    N. Pereira


    Full Text Available El cuero cabelludo es la barrera más externa y más importante del cráneo y del cerebro. Si bien las quemaduras de esta zona son raras, cuando se producen suelen estar causadas por alta tensión eléctrica, fuego, líquidos hirvientes u otras fuentes de calor. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una serie de casos de quemaduras de cuero cabelludo tratadas en los últimos 10 años en el Hospital del Trabajador de Santiago (Chile. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en el que se analizó la información demográfica y terapéutica de los pacientes que requirieron hospitalización al tiempo que se revisó la literatura al respecto. En total se registraron 2.266 consultas por quemaduras en la cabeza, de las cuales 34 fueron del cuero cabelludo y 11 requirieron hospitalización; la mayoría fueron quemaduras eléctricas, 4 casos y por fuego, otros 4 casos. En el tratamiento, destacó el uso en 1 caso de colgajo libre asociado a colgajos locales de avance. En el tratamiento de las secuelas se utilizaron expansores y posteriormente colgajos locales de avance. Sólo una pequeña parte de los pacientes que consultan por quemaduras en la cabeza corresponden a quemaduras del cuero cabelludo. La mayoría son tratadas de forma ambulatoria y no requieren acciones mayores. Los pacientes con quemaduras eléctricas suelen requerir tratamientos más agresivos. Para el tratamiento de las secuelas son preferibles los expansores y los colgajos de avance.The scalp is the most external and important barrier of the skull and brain. Burns in this area are rare, but often caused by high voltage injuries, fire, liquid or other heat sources. The aim of this paper is to present a series of cases of scalp burns of the last 10 years in the Hospital del Trabajador de Santiago (Chile. This is a retrospective and descriptive study. We analyzed the demography and treatment of patients requiring hospitalization and we reviewed the literature. There were 2

  1. 头针疗法治疗自闭症%Treatment of autism with scalp acupuncture

    李诺; 金炳旭; 黎洁玲


    Objective To verify the efficacy on autism treated with scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice in children. Methods Seventy cases of child autism were divided into an observation group (30 cases) and a control group (40 cases). In observation group, the cases were treated with scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice, in combination with music therapy and structure education method. Scalp acupuncture was applied to intelligent nine needles (frontal five needles, Sishencong (EX-HN 1)), affection area, heart and liver area, once a day, at the interval once every one week. Totally,60 treatments made one session. In control group, music therapy and structure education method were applied simply. Clancy Autism Behavior Scale, Childhood Autism Behavior Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Gesell Developmental Scale (social adaptive behaviors and language development) were adopted to assess the scores before treatment and after 1 session of treatment. Results After treatment, the scores in Clancy Autism Behavior Scale, CARS and ABC were lower apparently in observation group as compared with those before treatment (all P<0.01), and the scores in Clancy Autism Behavior Scale and ABC were lower than those in control group (both P<0.01). In observation group, the scores of social adaptive behavior scale and language development scale were improved obviously after treatment (both P<0.01), which were all higher than those in control group (both P<0. 01). In observation, between the group aged from 4 to 6 years and the group aged from 2 to 3 years, the value differences in Clancy Autism Behavior Scale, ABC and social adaptive development scale did not present statistical significance in group comparison before and after treatment (all P>0.05). Conclusion Scalp acupuncture for regaining the consciousness and opening the orifice can significantly improve the efficacy on autism, effectively

  2. Clinical efficacy of a new ciclopiroxolamine/zinc pyrithione shampoo in scalp seborrheic dermatitis treatment.

    Lorette, Gérard; Ermosilla, Valérie


    Ciclopiroxolamine (CPO) and Zinc Pirythione (ZP) antifungals are efficient at treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis. This multicentre, single-blind, clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a shampoo containing the 1.5% CPO/1% ZP association compared to the vehicle shampoo and to 2% ketoconazole foaming gel in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In 189 patients randomised to apply 1 of the 3 products twice a week for 28 days, the global lesional score, erythema, pruritus, global efficacy, quality of life (SF12 and DLQI questionnaires) and tolerance were measured at 0, 7, 14 and 28 days. The 3 products reduced lesional score, erythema and pruritus from day 7 (p shampoo was more efficient in reducing pruritus than ketoconazole gel and vehicle (p = 0.032 and p shampoo improved all DLQI questionnaire dimensions. The CPO/ZP shampoo was as rapid and efficient as ketoconazole gel in SD treatment.

  3. Extra-scalp black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among contact sports players.

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kojima, Kiyoto; Hatta, Junko; Tababe, Hiroshi; Higaki, Shuichi; Fujita, Shigeru


    We describe here two patients with tinea corporis exhibiting black dot ringworm (BDR). A cluster of black dots was observed on the extensor surfaces of the extremities of two rather hairy male patients, a 15-year-old judo practitioner and a 26-year-old combined martial arts fighter, during treatment of tinea corporis with topical antimycotics. Direct KOH examination showed that the black dots were composed of degenerated hair with numerous arthroconidia and were indistinguishable from BDR of tinea capitis. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from the dots of both patients. Although they were diagnosed with tinea corporis, they required 2-3 months of treatment with oral terbinafine. Dermatologists should be aware that BDR can appear on areas of the skin other than the scalp.

  4. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar


    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

  5. Primary cutaneous lymphoma of scalp in a child: a case report

    K. Satya Sri


    Full Text Available CCutaneous lymphomas are a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative disorders with involvement of skin and form a separate group under Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Skin may be involved along with other organs but if the initial manifestation is in the skin, it is referred to as primary cutaneous lymphoma (PCL. One year eight months child brought with a scalp swelling of three months duration. Histopathology revealed a lymphoma and immuno- histochemistry studies were positive for T-cell lymphoma. The case is presented due to the rarity of primary cutaneous lymphoma at the age of one year eight months. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1810-1812

  6. Diagnostic dilemma; report of a bizarre case of advanced scalp and face angiosarcoma and literature review

    Emejulu JKC


    Full Text Available Jude-Kennedy C Emejulu1, Igwebuike V Onyiaorah2, Cornelius O Ukah2, Titus OG Chukwuanukwu3, Nneka JF Osuigwe1, Effiong E Akang4, Adefolarin O Malomo51Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, PMB 5025 Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Pathology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, PMB 5025 Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 3Plastic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, PMB 5025 Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 4Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 5Department of Neurological Surgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaAbstract: A 36-year-old male painter presented to our service in 2007 with an ulcerated solitary scalp swelling of 8 months’ duration. The mass was a dormant, painless, pea-sized growth, which he had had since childhood and which he bruised in a passenger motorcycle road traffic accident 8 months prior to presentation. The accident caused it to flare up and progressively increase in size, with associated pain, contact bleeding, and ulceration. A work-up for excision biopsy was proposed, but the patient defaulted and presented 2 years later with an increased number of lesions all around the scalp and face and in an obviously deteriorating clinical status with regional lymph node involvement at this stage. An incisional biopsy was then carried out and the histological reports came out with three different diagnoses of glioblastoma multiforme, poorly differentiated angiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, constituting a major diagnostic dilemma for our service.Keywords: angiosarcoma, glioblastoma multiforme, head, neck, squamous cell carcinoma

  7. Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy).

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Dongarrà, G; Sposito, F


    The aim of this survey was to use scalp hair as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to metals and metalloids of schoolchildren living around the Mt. Etna area, and to verify whether the degree of human exposure to trace elements is subject to changes in local environmental factors. Twenty trace elements were determined in 376 samples of scalp hair from schoolboys (11-13 years old) of both genders, living in ten towns located around the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily). The results were compared with those (215 samples) from children living in areas of Sicily characterized by a different geological setting (reference site). As, U and V showed much higher concentrations at the volcanic site whereas Sr was particularly more abundant at the reference site. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) indicated an Etna factor, made up of V, U and Mn, and a second factor, concerning the reference site, characterized by Ni and Sr, and to a lesser extent by Mo and Cd. Significant differences in element concentrations were also observed among three different sectors of Mt. Etna area. Young people living in the Mt. Etna area are naturally exposed to enhanced intakes of some metals (V, U, Mn) and non-metals (e.g., As) than individuals of the same age residing in other areas of Sicily, characterized by different lithologies and not influenced by volcanic activity. The petrographic nature of local rocks and the dispersion of the volcanic plume explain the differences, with ingestion of water and local food as the most probable exposure pathways.


    郭长春; 王凡; 贾少微


    Objective: To observe the influence of local infiltration anesthesia at the scalp-point on acupuncture stimulation induced changes of cerebral blood perfusion in the brain. Methods: Experiments were conducted in 10 healthy volunteer subjects (8 males and 2 females) who were ordered to take a lying position on a specific bed with their heads keeping in a fixed position. Scalp-point used was Motor Area (MS 6). The first syringe needle (gauge-5) was inserted into the scalp from the upper 1/5 of MS-6 and the second syringe needle inserted into the scalp from the middle 2/5 of MS-6 and advanced downward, with the two needles connected to a HAN's Therapeutic Apparatus. Images of the brain were then taken before and after electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation, and after local injection of 1% lidocaine [mixed with epinephrine (1∶200,000, 3 mL)] plus EA by using Siemens ECAM/ICON Single Photo Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). Intravenous injection of Ethyl cysteinate dimmer 555 MBq was performed before displaying cerebral images. Data of blood functional changing rat (BFCR%) were analyzed quantitatively using a mathematic model. Results: Before EA stimulation, the blood perfusion and function of cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglion and cerebellum on both sides of the brain were basically symmetry. Following EA of MS-6, BFCR% of the contralateral thalamus, parietal lobe and the frontal lobe increased significantly. Following local infiltration anesthesia, BFCR% of the contralatral thalamus declined markedly (P<0.05). The results of quantitative analysis were in agreement with those of visual observation. Conclusion: Local infiltration anesthesia of the scalp-point can significantly weaken or block EA stimulation induced changes of BFCR%.

  9. Normalized spectral power of fetal heart rate variability is associated with fetal scalp blood pH.

    van Laar, J O E H; Peters, C H L; Houterman, S; Wijn, P F F; Kwee, A; Oei, S G


    Spectral power of fetal heart rate variability is related to fetal condition. Previous studies found an increased normalized low frequency power in case of severe fetal acidosis. To analyze whether absolute or normalized low or high frequency power of fetal heart rate variability is associated with fetal scalp blood pH. Prospective cohort study, performed in an obstetric unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Consecutive singleton term fetuses in cephalic presentation that underwent one or more scalp blood samples, monitored during labour using ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram. Ten-minute continuous beat-to-beat fetal heart rate segments, preceding the scalp blood measurement were used. Absolute and normalized spectral power in the low frequency band (0.04-0.15 Hz) and in the high frequency band (0.4-1.5 Hz). In total 39 fetal blood samples from 30 patients were studied. We found that normalized low frequency and normalized high frequency power of fetal heart rate variability is associated with fetal scalp blood pH. The estimated ß of normalized low frequency power was -0.37 (95% confidence interval -0.68 to -0.06) and the relative risk was 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.94). The estimated ß of normalized high frequency power was 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.01-0.65) and the relative risk was 1.39 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.92). Normalized low and normalized high frequency power of fetal heart rate variability is associated with fetal scalp blood pH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incubatory environment of the scalp impacts pre-emergent hair to affect post-emergent hair cuticle integrity.

    Schwartz, James R; Henry, James P; Kerr, Kathy M; Flagler, Michael J; Page, Steve H; Redman-Furey, Nancy


    To determine whether the oxidative stress transmitted to newly grown hair from an unhealthy scalp has physical consequences to the cuticular condition and function. A uniquely designed 24-week clinical study included 8 weeks of pretreatment with a cosmetic shampoo and 16 weeks of treatment with either a potentiated zinc pyrithione (ZPT) antidandruff shampoo or a placebo cosmetic shampoo. This clinical design allowed the growth and acquisition of hair samples under conditions of varying but known scalp health as a result of treating a dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) population. Two complementary methods were used to characterize the integrity of the cuticular surface. Hair surface hydrophobicity was assessed by quantifying water wetting force using a Wilhelmy balance method. Surface structure and porosity were assessed using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) to gravimetrically quantify water sorption. Chemical oxidative stress to pre-emergent hair has been shown to have negative consequences to hair surface structure. Compared to a placebo shampoo control, use of a potentiated ZPT shampoo improved scalp health and significantly improved the following attributes associated with healthy hair: hair surface hydrophobicity (surface energy) and cuticular moisture barrier effectiveness (dynamic vapor sorption). Pre-emergent hair can be negatively impacted by the oxidative stress that occurs with an unhealthy scalp, possibly due to metabolic activity of resident microbes. Manifestations of the oxidative stress include altered cuticle surface properties that are responsible for its protective function; these effects are similar in type to those observed by bleaching post-emergent hair. These alterations have the potential to make the hair, once emerged from the scalp, more susceptible to the cumulative physical and chemical insults responsible for hair feel and look, fiber integrity, and overall retention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. SU-E-T-633: Preparation and Planning of a VMAT Multi - Arc Radiation Therapy Technique for Full Scalp Treatment

    Araujo, C; Bardock, A; Berkelaar, S; Gillund, D; McGee, K; Mohamed, I; Lapointe, C [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Kelowna, BC (Canada)


    Purpose: The target volume for angiosarcoma of the scalp encompasses the entire scalp. Full scalp radiotherapy (FSRT) requires careful design of required bolus, immobilization and marking of the field before the patient CT is acquired. A VMAT multi-arc technique was designed to deliver FSRT for a patient with angiosarcoma of the scalp to a dose of 6000cGy in 25 fractions. Methods: A custom bolus helmet was fabricated from a 0.5 cm thick sheet of aquaplast material, which was molded to the patient’s head. With the bolus helmet in place the patient was then positioned supine on a H&N immobilization board. A custom vaclock bag positioned on a standard headrest and a thermoplastic mask were used to immobilize the patient. Additional bolus to cover the remaining treatment area was attached to the mask. We acquired two CT scans of the patient’s head, one in treatment position and an additional scan without the immobilization mask with wires marking the treatment area that the oncologist had delineated on the patient’s skin. The second scan was registered to the first and used to define the treatment CTV. A four-arc VMAT treatment planned using Varian-Eclipse was optimized to cover the skin with a PTV margin while sparing the brain and limiting the dose to the optic apparatus and lacrimal glands. Daily treatment setup was verified using anterior and lateral kV on-board-imaging. To verify the treated dose, TLDs were positioned on the patient’s scalp during one fraction. Results: With full dose coverage to the PTV, the mean dose to the brain was less than 24 Gy. The dose measured by the TLDs (mean difference 1%, standard deviation 4%)showed excellent agreement with the treatment planning calculation. Conclusion: FSRT delivered with a bolus helmet and a VMAT multi-arc technique can be accurately delivered with high dose uniformity and conformality.

  12. Olaparib tablet formulation

    Plummer, Ruth; Swaisland, Helen; Leunen, Karin


    BACKGROUND: The oral PARP inhibitor olaparib has shown efficacy in patients with BRCA-mutated cancer. This Phase I, open-label, three-part study (Parts A-C) in patients with advanced solid tumours evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of olaparib when administered in tablet...... formulation. METHODS: PK data were obtained in Part A using a two-treatment period crossover design; single-dose olaparib 300 mg (two 150 mg tablets) was administered in two prandial states: fasted and fed. In Part B, patients received olaparib tablets (300 mg bid) for 5 days under fasting conditions; in Part...... exposure to olaparib 300 mg tablets, although in the absence of an effect on the extent of olaparib absorption....

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Ebbinghaus, B.


    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  14. Reconstrucción inmediata de cuero cabelludo Immediate scalp reconstruction

    O. Iribarren Brown


    . En conclusión, la estrategia de reconstrucción del cuero cabelludo mediante colgajos arterializados permite el cierre de grandes defectos en una operación fácil y con cicatrices inaparentes que quedan ocultas bajo el cabello. Es por ello que creemos que estos procedimientos son la mejor alternativa de tratamiento y recomendamos su uso por sus resultados fiables cuando se siguen los principios técnicos del manejo de colgajos.We present sucessive cases performed at Surgery Department of Hospital San Pablo, Coquimbo, Chile, between April1998, and April 2005: Twenty two consecutive patients suffering surgical or postinjury scalp defects, greater than 3 cm of diameter. Semilunar flap, mirror flap, or multiple pinwheel flap arterialized from the main scalp arteries were used for reconstruction. We determinate in every case the large of the defect, asociated bone loss, kind of surgery, end result and complications. Patients’ mean age was 40.6 years with rank between 3 and 71 years old. The involved anatomical area was parietal on 11 patients, (50 %, temporal in 7 cases (31.8 %, occipital in 3 cases (13.6 % and frontal 1 case, (4.5 %. The origin of scalp loss was malign or benign tumor resection in 10 patients, post injury 5 cases, secondary to neurosurgical procedures in 4 cases, and alopecia or baldness in 3 cases. The mean large of the defect was 147 cm² with rank between 28 and 615 cms² . The mirror flap was used in 10 cases (50 %, the sliding semilunar flap in 9 patients (36.4 %, and the multiple pinwheel flap in 3 patients (13.6 %. An aditional dermoepidermal graft was used on 6 patients to cover a small area of flap donor site (two mirror flaps, and two semilunar flaps. Patients’ evolution were without complications in 95 % of cases (21/22. One woman with a temporal bone necrosis after two craniotomies suffered a distal flap necrosis, and finally died due aspirative pneumonia. The three kind of flap were compared according the defect length and defect area

  15. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab


    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  16. A robust adaptive denoising framework for real-time artifact removal in scalp EEG measurements

    Kilicarslan, Atilla; Grossman, Robert G.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose Luis


    Objective. Non-invasive measurement of human neural activity based on the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) allows for the development of biomedical devices that interface with the nervous system for scientific, diagnostic, therapeutic, or restorative purposes. However, EEG recordings are often considered as prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts of different types and frequency characteristics. Among them, ocular artifacts and signal drifts represent major sources of EEG contamination, particularly in real-time closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) applications, which require effective handling of these artifacts across sessions and in natural settings. Approach. We extend the usage of a robust adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) scheme ({H}∞ filtering) for removal of eye blinks, eye motions, amplitude drifts and recording biases simultaneously. We also characterize the volume conduction, by estimating the signal propagation levels across all EEG scalp recording areas due to ocular artifact generators. We find that the amplitude and spatial distribution of ocular artifacts vary greatly depending on the electrode location. Therefore, fixed filtering parameters for all recording areas would naturally hinder the true overall performance of an ANC scheme for artifact removal. We treat each electrode as a separate sub-system to be filtered, and without the loss of generality, they are assumed to be uncorrelated and uncoupled. Main results. Our results show over 95-99.9% correlation between the raw and processed signals at non-ocular artifact regions, and depending on the contamination profile, 40-70% correlation when ocular artifacts are dominant. We also compare our results with the offline independent component analysis and artifact subspace reconstruction methods, and show that some local quantities are handled better by our sample-adaptive real-time framework. Decoding performance is also compared with multi-day experimental data from 2 subjects

  17. Trace elements in scalp hair samples from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Elisa Tamburo

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible role of trace elements (TE in the etiology of several neurological diseases including Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Hair analysis provides an easy tool to quantify TE in human subjects, including patients with neurodegenerative diseases.To compare TE levels in scalp hair from patients with MS and healthy controls from the same geographic area (Sicily.ICP-MS was used to determine the concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn in scalp hair of 48 patients with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis compared with 51 healthy controls.MS patients showed a significantly lower hair concentration of aluminum and rubidium (median values: Al = 3.76 μg/g vs. 4.49 μg/g and Rb = 0.007 μg/g vs. 0.01 μg/g; and higher hair concentration of U (median values U: 0.014 μg/g vs. 0.007 μg/g compared to healthy controls. The percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations greater than the 95th percentile of controls were 20% for Ni, 19% for Ba and U, and 15% for Ag, Mo and Se. Conversely, the percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations lower than the 5th percentile of healthy controls were 27% for Al, 25% for Rb, 22% for Ag, 19% for Fe, and 16% for Pb. No significant association was found between levels of each TE and age, disease duration or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score. After stratification by gender, healthy subjects did not show any significant difference in trace element levels, while MS patients showed significant differences (p<0.01 for the concentrations of Ag, Cr, Fe, Ni and Sr. No significant differences were also found, at p<0.01, in relation to the use of cigarettes, consume of water, vegetables and place of living.The different distributions of TE in hair of MS patients compared to controls provides an additional indirect evidence of metabolic imbalance of chemical elements in the

  18. Clinical utility of current-generation dipole modelling of scalp EEG.

    Plummer, C; Litewka, L; Farish, S; Harvey, A S; Cook, M J


    To investigate the clinical utility of current-generation dipole modelling of scalp EEG in focal epilepsies seen commonly in clinical practice. Scalp EEG recordings from 10 patients with focal epilepsy, five with Benign Focal Epilepsy of Childhood (BFEC) and five with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE), were used for interictal spike dipole modelling using Scan 4.3 and CURRY 5.0. Optimum modelling parameters for EEG source localisation (ESL) were sought by the step-wise application of various volume conductor (forward) and dipole (inverse) models. Best-fit ESL solutions (highest explained forward-fit to measured data variance) were used to characterise best-fit forward and inverse models, regularisation effect, additional electrode effect, single-to-single spike and single-to-averaged spike variability, and intra- and inter-operator concordance. Inter-parameter relationships were examined. Computation times and interface problems were recorded. For both BFEC and MTLE, the best-fit forward model was the finite element method interpolated (FEMi) model, while the best-fit single dipole models were the rotating non-regularised and the moving regularised models. When combined, these forward-inverse models appeared to offer clinically meaningful ESL results when referenced to an averaged cortex overlay, best-fit dipoles localising to the central fissure region in BFEC and to the basolateral temporal region in MTLE. Single-to-single spike and single-to-averaged spike measures of concordance for dipole location and orientation were stronger for BFEC versus MTLE. The use of an additional pair of inferior temporal electrodes in MTLE directed best-fit dipoles towards the basomesial temporal region. Inverse correlations were noted between unexplained variance (RD) and dipole strength (Amp), RD and signal to noise ratio (SNR), and SNR and confidence ellipsoid (CE) volume. Intra- and inter-operator levels of agreement were relatively robust for dipole location and orientation

  19. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Langton, C


    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Baihui (GV20)-based scalp acupuncture in experimental ischemic stroke

    Wang, Wen-wen; Xie, Cheng-long; Lu, Lin; Zheng, Guo-qing


    Acupuncture for stroke has been used in China for over 2,000 years and nowadays is increasingly practiced elsewhere in the world. However, previous studies had conflicting findings on the results of acupuncture. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the current evidence for the effect of Baihui (GV20)-based scalp acupuncture in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia. Six databases from the inception of each database up to June 2013 were electronically searched. Primary outcomes were infarct size and neurobehavioral outcome. Ultimately, 54 studies involving 1816 animals were identified describing procedures. Meta-analysis results showed that twelve studies reported significant effects of Baihui (GV20)-based scalp acupuncture for improving infarct volume compared with middle cerebral artery occlusion group (P stroke. PMID:24496233

  1. Clinical Observation on Treatment of 63 Cases of Enuresis by Scalp Acupuncture,Body Acupuncture plus Moxibustion with BOX

    LU Ze-qiang; KUAI Le


    To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of scalp acupuncture,body acupuncture plus moxibustion with box in treating enuresis.Methods:Ninety-three patients were divided into treatment group of 63 cases and control group of 30 cases.Scalp acupuncture,body acupuncture plus moxibustion with box were used in treatment group.Routine western medicine therapy was used in control group.Results and Conclusion:The cured rate was 69.8% and the total effective rate was 95.3% in the treatment group and 33.3% and 76.7% in the control group.The therapeutic effect in treatment group was superior to that in control group(P<0.05).

  2. Short-contact clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% improves quality of life in patients with scalp psoriasis.

    Tan, Jerry; Thomas, Richard; Wang, Béatrice; Gratton, David; Vender, Ronald; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé


    Scalp psoriasis has a considerable impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients, and most patients are dissatisfied with available treatments. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% has been shown to be effective and safe for moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. We evaluated the effect of clobetasol propionate shampoo on QOL and the degree of participant satisfaction with the product. Participants received once-daily treatment for up to 4 weeks. Their QOL and degree of satisfaction were evaluated by questionnaires. The mean (standard deviation) Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score decreased significantly from 7.0 (4.9) at baseline to 3.2 (3.2) at week 4 (Pshampoo improved the QOL of participants and resulted in high satisfaction.

  3. Fetal scalp blood lactate during second stage of labor: determination of reference values and impact of obstetrical interventions.

    Wiberg, Nana; Källén, Karin


    To determine the reference interval of fetal scalp blood lactate during second stage of labor. Two hundred and fifty-three women in first stage of labor with a reassuring CTG were asked for permission to sample fetal scalp blood during second stage. In cases with reassuring CTG and five minute Apgar score ≥9, the mean lactate value (±2 SD) was 2.5 mmol/L (lower limit 1.1, higher limit 5.2). The lactate concentration was significantly higher among nulliparous and in cases with use of epidural or oxytocin (p oxytocin and active pushing time were analyzed together, they had equal influence on lactate values (p oxytocin and the duration of pushing are associated to increased lactate concentration; however, we could not demonstrate any correlation to advancing gestational age or birthweight.

  4. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features.

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés


    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair.

  5. Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.

    Cohn, Jack


    Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)

  6. Formulation of supergravity without superspace

    Ferrara, S


    Supergravity, the particle theory which unifies under a unique gauge principle the quantum-mechanical concept of spin and space-time geometry, is formulated in terms of quantities defined over Minkowski space-time. 'l'he relation between this formulation and the fonnulation which uses superspace, the space-time supplemented by spinning degrees of freedom, is also briefly discussed.

  7. Scalp congenital hemangioma with associated high-output cardiac failure in a premature infant: Case report and review of literature.

    Shah, Sumedh S; Snelling, Brian M; Sur, Samir; Ramnath, Alexandra R; Bandstra, Emmalee S; Yavagal, Dileep R


    Introduction Scalp congenital hemangiomas (CHs) are rare vascular malformations among infants; they can be associated with an array of complications, including cardiac and cosmetic issues. Here, we report the endovascular treatment of a premature infant with a suspected large right parietal scalp hemangioma and associated high-output cardiac failure. Case description A two-day-old female premature infant (29 weeks gestational age; 1330 g birth weight) was referred by the neonatologists to our department for consultation and potential treatment of a large right parietal CH causing abrupt hypotension and high-output cardiac failure. Doppler ultrasound imaging at bedside revealed areas of arterial-venous shunting from the scalp and the presence of a superior sagittal sinus waveform, consistent with intracranial venous drainage. To alleviate cardiac dysfunction secondary to this lesion, trans-arterial embolization via n-butyl cyanoacrylate (nBCA) glue and deployment of detachable coils was performed via umbilical artery to occlude the right superficial temporal and occipital artery branches supplying the CH. Following treatment, the infant continued to require ventilator management, vasopressor support, and correction of coagulopathy, but by post-operative day two, her condition improved remarkably and the mass size began decreasing. The patient was discharged after a relatively uncomplicated subsequent 2½-month course in the neonatal intensive care unit. Conclusion Endovascular therapy proved effective and safe in treating cardiac failure associated with scalp CH, despite potential complications associated with neuro-interventional surgery in premature infants. Appropriate consideration in this patient population should be given to factors including blood loss, contrast use, radiation exposure, operative time, and possible intra-/post-operative complications.

  8. Mycetoma of the scalp due to Microsporum canis: hystopathologic, mycologic, and immunogenetic features in a 6-year-old girl.

    Chiapello, Laura S; Dib, Moisés D; Nuncira, Carmen T; Nardelli, Luciana; Vullo, Carlos; Collino, César; Abiega, Claudio; Cortes, Paulo R; Spesso, María F; Masih, Diana T


    Dermatophytic mycetoma is an extremely rare subcutaneous mycosis. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl with clinical, histologic, and mycologic findings consistent with a mycetoma of the scalp caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the immunologic and immunogenetic features of a patient with a recalcitrant dermatophytic mycetoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Planning study of flattening filter free beams for volumetric modulated arc therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp.

    Youqun Lai

    Full Text Available Flattening filter free (FFF beams show the potential for a higher dose rate and lower peripheral dose. We investigated the planning study of FFF beams with their role for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT in squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp.One patient with squamous cell carcinoma which had involvement of entire scalp was subjected to VMAT using TrueBeam linear accelerator. As it was a rare skin malignancy, CT data of 7 patients with brain tumors were also included in this study, and their entire scalps were outlined as target volumes. Three VMAT plans were employed with RapidArc form: two half-field full-arcs VMAT using 6 MV standard beams (HFF-VMAT-FF, eight half-field quarter-arcs VMAT using 6 MV standard beams (HFQ-VMAT-FF, and HFQ-VMAT using FFF beams (HFQ-VMAT-FFF. Prescribed dose was 25 × 2 Gy (50 Gy. Plan quality and efficiency were assessed for all plans.There were no statistically significant differences among the three VMAT plans in target volume coverage, conformity, and homogeneity. For HFQ-VMAT-FF plans, there was a significant decrease by 12.6% in the mean dose to the brain compared with HFF-VMAT-FF. By the use of FFF beams, the mean dose to brain in HFQ-VMAT-FFF plans was further decreased by 7.4% compared with HFQ-VMAT-FF. Beam delivery times were similar for each technique.The HFQ-VMAT-FF plans showed the superiority in dose distributions compared with HFF-VMAT-FF. HFQ-VMAT-FFF plans might provide further normal tissue sparing, particularly in the brain, showing their potential for radiation therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp.

  10. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P


    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  11. Interaction between essential trace and toxic elements in the scalp hair samples of smokers and alcohol user diabetics

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun


    In the present study, trace and toxic elements were determined in the Scalp Hair (SH) samples of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) who were smokers and habitual alcohol drinkers living in Dublin, Ireland. The concentrations of elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked using Certified Reference Material (CRM) (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conv...

  12. Prediction of Long-Term Treatment Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs Using Scalp and Source Loudness Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials (LDAEP Analysis in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Bun-Hee Lee


    Full Text Available Background: Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP is inversely related to central serotonergic activity, with a high LDAEP reflecting weak serotonergic neurotransmission and vice versa, though the findings in humans have been less consistent. In addition, a high pretreatment LDAEP appears to predict a favorable response to antidepressant treatments that augment the actions of serotonin. The aim of this study was to test whether the baseline LDAEP is correlated with response to long-term maintenance treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods: Scalp N1, P2 and N1/P2 LDAEP and standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography-localized N1, P2, and N1/P2 LDAEP were evaluated in 41 MDD patients before and after they received antidepressant treatment (escitalopram (n = 32, 10.0 ± 4.0 mg/day, sertraline (n = 7, 78.6 ± 26.7 mg/day, and paroxetine controlled-release formulation (n = 2, 18.8 ± 8.8 mg/day for more than 12 weeks. A treatment response was defined as a reduction in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score of >50% between baseline and follow-up. Results: The responders had higher baseline scalp P2 and N1/P2 LDAEP than nonresponders (p = 0.017; p = 0.036. In addition, changes in total BDI score between baseline and follow-up were larger in subjects with a high baseline N1/P2 LDAEP than those with a low baseline N1/P2 LDAEP (p = 0.009. There were significantly more responders in the high-LDAEP group than in the low-LDAEP group (p = 0.041. Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal that a high baseline LDAEP is associated with a clinical response to long-term antidepressant treatment.

  13. Elemental concentrations in scalp hair, nutritional status and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    Ochi, Akinobu; Ishimura, Eiji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Mori, Katsuhito; Tahara, Hideki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki


    Elemental concentrations in hair from hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. We examined the relationships between the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and nutritional status in HD patients. Twenty six elemental concentrations were measured in scalp hair samples from 60 male HD patients using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form 36 item health survey (SF36) was used. As indices of nutritional status, body mass index, serum parameters, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were used. Phosphorus correlated positively with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), GNRI and the physical domains of the SF36. Zinc correlated positively with serum creatinine, BUN and the physical domains of the SF36. Mercury and arsenic correlated positively with BUN. Cadmium correlated negatively with serum albumin, BUN and GNRI. Copper correlated positively with the physical domains of the SF36. Iodine correlated negatively with the physical domains of the SF36. Selenium correlated negatively with the mental domains of the SF36. In conclusion, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in scalp hair can be additional biomarkers of HRQOL and/or nutritional status in HD patients. Cadmium accumulation correlated with malnutrition. Iodine and selenium accumulation may adversely affect HRQOL. Further investigation is necessary to determine precisely how these elements affect these measures.

  14. Multidimensional ultrasound and computed tomography imaging support in bleeding plexiform neurofibromatosis of the scalp: A case report and literature review

    Ximena Wortsman


    Full Text Available Active bleeding in plexiform neurofibromatosis can be a life-threatening complication in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. The prompt imaging support of 2D-3D ultrasound (US and computed tomography (CT during the active hemorrhage phase of cutaneous neurofibromas has not been previously reported. We report a case with NF1 who experienced a sudden swelling in the parieto-temporal region that corresponded to a massive and active hemorrhage within a plexiform neurofibroma. The US and CT imaging characteristics of this bleeding tumor are shown. Active hemorrhage in a plexiform neurofibroma of the scalp appeared in US as a heterogeneous hypodermal mass. CT demonstrated a fully hyperdense soft tissue mass. These characteristics differ from the non-complicated or old hemorrhagic imaging appearances of scalp plexiform neurofibromas and encourage prompt surgical treatment. This case report demonstrates the usefulness of imaging support in the early diagnosis of this hemorrhagic complication of NF1 in the scalp and also stimulates multispecialty management.

  15. Baldness may be caused by the weight of the scalp: gravity as a proposed mechanism for hair loss.

    Ustuner, E Tuncay


    Available theories on the etiology and pathogenesis of male pattern baldness have not been satisfactory. Nonetheless, the most widely adopted theory today is the androgenetic theory. The current article introduces a new theory. According to the new theory the pressure created by the weight of the scalp is the cause of the baldness. The weight of the whole scalp over the loose areolar tissue is the operative weight. Hair follicles are pressed between the scalp skin and the cranial bones. The soft tissues around the hair follicles work as a buffer against the pressure. When the buffer decreases and becomes inadequate with age the effective pressure on the hair follicles increases. Unlike the existing theories, the new theory is able to explain every feature of male and female pattern baldness and agrees completely with all scientifically established facts and produced data. The new theory promises a radical change in how baldness is conceived and treated. Notice by the author: The materials and methods that utilize the new theory described in this article for prevention and treatment of hair loss are in patent pending status.

  16. Free perforating branch flap for primary repairing the huge soft-tissue defects on the scalp and face.

    Wang, Hong-Yuan; Wang, Ming-Gang; Yu, Gang; Chu, Yan-Jun; Wang, Kai; Wei, Xiang-Pin; Sun, Jing-Wu


    This study aimed to explore the effect of free perforating branch flap on the reconstruction of huge soft-tissue defects on the scalp and face. Sixteen cases of huge soft-tissue defects on the scalp and face were reconstructed by nine latissimus dorsi-free perforator flaps and seven anterolateral thigh-free perforator flaps. The defects area was from 12 cm× 7 cm to 20 cm × 11 cm, while the flaps area was from 14 cm × 8 cm to 23 cm × 12 cm. The survival, planeness, chromatic aberration, radiotherapy toleration of flap and the function, scar of donor site were observed postoperatively. All of the flaps were survived completely, and 15 cases presented for primary reconstruction; one underwent secondary reconstruction. One of the patients died one-year postoperatively due to intracranial tumor recurrence and the others had no recurrence. All of the flaps showed perfect shape and appropriate thickness. No roentgen ulcer was observed except for some extent of chromatic aberration. The donor-site scar was larvaceous and the function was good. This study indicated that the latissimus dorsi-free perforator flap or anterolateral thigh-free perforator flap was an ideal choice for the reconstruction of defects on the scalp and face.

  17. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé


    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  18. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: results of a pilot study.

    Reygagne, Pascal; Poncet, Michel; Sidou, Farzaneh; Soto, Pascale


    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a common dermatosis associating hyperseborrhea, erythema, itching, and dandruff, has frequent scalp involvement. Malassezia furfur infection seems to play an important role in the condition's etiopathology. Treatment of SD usually consists of corticosteroids or antifungals, such as ketoconazole. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% after different short-contact application times compared with its vehicle and ketoconazole foaming gel 2% in the treatment of SD of the scalp. For 4 weeks, 55 subjects received one of the following treatments twice weekly: clobetasol propionate shampoo for 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes; clobetasol propionate vehicle for 10 minutes; or ketoconazole foaming gel for 5 minutes before rinsing off. Efficacy criteria included total severity score (TSS) and individual scores of signs such as itching and global improvement. Safety included reporting of burning, overall tolerance, and adverse events. Results showed that an application of clobetasol propionate for 5 and 10 minutes provided a similar mean percentage decrease of TSS, and the mean percentage decrease of TSS for all active groups was significantly superior to that of the vehicle (P shampoo is effective and safe in the treatment of SD of the scalp.

  19. Evaluation of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers and alcohol user hypertensive patients.

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brabazon, Dermot; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Naher, Sumsun


    The incidence of hypertension has been associated to cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol. In the present study, trace and toxic elements were determined in scalp hair of patients diagnosed with hypertension who are smokers and habitual alcohol drinkers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmokers, nondrinking controls. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 97.5%-99.7% in certified reference material. The results of this study showed that the mean values of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel and lead were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of both smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients than referents (P < 0.001); whereas, the concentration of zinc was lower in the scalp hair samples of hypertensive patients of both genders. The deficiency of zinc and the high exposure of trace and toxic metals as a result of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension.

  20. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal


    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  1. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid vs. photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid for actinic keratosis of the scalp.

    Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Cortelazzi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Valeria; Zucchi, Alfredo; Conti, Maria Luisa; Montanari, Paola; Feliciani, Claudio; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Pagliarello, Calogero


    Photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl-aminolevulinate and photodynamic therapy with trichloroacetic acid 50% are the two techniques utilized in the management of actinic keratosis. This study was planned to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, recurrence and cosmetic outcome of these option therapies in patients with multiple actinic keratosis of the scalp. Thirteen patients with multiple actinic keratosis were treated with one of the two treatments on half of the scalp at baseline, while the other treatment was performed on the other half 15 days apart, randomly. Efficacy, adverse effects, cosmetic outcome and recurrence were recorded at follow-up visit at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Photodynamic therapy with 5 methyl-aminolevulinate was more effective than trichloroacetic acid although less tolerated by patients as it was more painful. Early adverse effects were almost the same even if trichloroacetic acid leads also to crust formation and to a worse cosmetic outcome characterized by hypopigmentation. Recurrence was lower in the area treated with photodynamic therapy. Trichloroacetic acid 50% is less effective than photodynamic therapy with 5 methyl-aminolevulinate in the treatment of multiple actinic keratosis of the scalp although better tolerated by patients. As this technique is less painful and less expensive than photodynamic therapy, we hypothesize and suggest that more sequential treatments could lead to better results. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia


    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  3. Unusual Presentation of Necrotic Erythema Nodosum Leprosum on Scalp: A Case Report.

    Barman, K D; Madan, A; Garg, V K; Goel, K; Khurana, N


    Lepra reactions are acute episodes occurring during the disease process of leprosy and are of 2 types: type 1 or reversal reaction and type 2 reaction or erythema odosumleprosum (ENL). In the episodes of lepra reaction several parts are affected including face and extremities like oral cavity. In the present case report we reported a rare case of lepromatous leprosy with necrotic ENL involving scalp apart from the usual sites. A 58 year old married male presented to us with complaints of spontaneous onset, recurrent eruption of multiple reddish raised painful lesions. Biopsy from the infiltrated skin over the back showed atrophic epidermis, free Grenz zone, diffuse and periadnexal macrophage granulomas with predominant mononuclear infiltrate, appandageal atrophy, fibrosis around the neural structures and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Fites stain showed strong positivity for M. leprae. His routine blood investigations showed anemia (Hb = 7.8 gm%), neutrophil leukocytosis (TLC = 17,600, DLC = P66L28M4E2) and raised ESR (80 mm in the first hour). These bullous and necrotic lesions in leprosy may be a manifestation of severe type II reactions in patients with very high bacillary load.

  4. Excess of counterclockwise scalp hair-whorl rotation in homosexual men

    Amar J. S. Klar


    While most men prefer women as their sexual partners, some are bisexual and others are homosexuals. It has been debated for a long time whether a person’s sexual preference is innate, learned, or due to a combination of both causes. It was recently discovered that the human right-versus-left-hand use preference and the direction of scalp hair-whorl rotation develop from a common genetic mechanism. Such a mechanism controls functional specialization of brain hemispheres. Whether the same mechanism specifying mental makeup influences sexual preference was determined here by comparing hair-whorl rotation in groups enriched with homosexual men with that in males at large. Only a minority of 8.2% ($n = 207$) unselected ‘control’ group of males had counterclockwise rotation. In contrast, all three samples enriched with homosexual men exhibited highly significant ($P \\lt 0.0001$), 3.6-fold excess (29.8%, $n = 272$) counterclockwise rotation. These results suggest that sexual preference may be influenced in a significant proportion of homosexual men by a biological/genetic factor that also controls direction of hair-whorl rotation.

  5. Sympathetic skin responses from the scalp evoked by electrical stimulation in seborrheic dermatitis.

    Altunrende, Burcu; Yildiz, Serpil; Kandi, Basak; Yildiz, Nebil


    Although the role of autonomic nervous system in seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is still unclear, seborrhea is sometimes accepted as a sign of autonomic dysfunction in several nervous system diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in SD by recording sympathetic skin responses (SSR) from the scalp (S-SSR). Thirty-one control subjects and 22 SD patients were studied by evoking right and left S-SSR with electrical stimulation of the right median nerve at the wrist. Mean latencies and maximum amplitudes were calculated for both sides in each group. In seven out of 31 control subjects and in 13 out of 22 patients, the S-SSR could not be elicited on either side. There were four subjects with unilateral response in the patient group. There were significantly more non-responders among the patients with SD (P < 0.000). This study suggests that in SD, the autonomic nervous system may be involved. The S-SSR is a new site for recording SSR. The responses are relatively symmetrical and can be evoked easily by electrical stimulation, and may be used to evaluate the SNS function in SD patients and also in healthy subjects.

  6. Discrimination of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Using Transfer Entropy Measures of Scalp EEG

    Joseph McBride


    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a neurological condition related to early stages of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study investigates the potential of measures of transfer entropy in scalp EEG for effectively discriminating between normal aging, MCI, and AD participants. Resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years—15 normal controls, 16 MCI, and 17 early AD—are examined. The mean temporal delays corresponding to peaks in inter-regional transfer entropy are computed and used as features to discriminate between the three groups of participants. Three-way classification schemes based on binary support vector machine models demonstrate overall discrimination accuracies of 91.7— 93.8%, depending on the protocol condition. These results demonstrate the potential for EEG transfer entropy measures as biomarkers in identifying early MCI and AD. Moreover, the analyses based on short data segments (two minutes render the method practical for a primary care setting.

  7. Recurrent sebaceous carcinoma of the scalp in a young male treated with adjuvant radiotherapy

    Puja Sahai


    Full Text Available Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the skin appendages. It tends to occur in elderly patients. Orbital region is the most commonly involved site seen in 75% of cases. The involvement of extra-orbital sites is infrequent. Herein, a case of extra-ocular sebaceous carcinoma arising in the scalp of a 20-year-old man is described.The patient developed tumor relapse after excision biopsy. He was treated with wide local excision of the tumor. However, the patient developed local recurrence after an interval of four months for which he again underwent wide local excision. He did not manifest any regional or distant metastases. In view of the locally aggressive tumor, he received adjuvant radiation therapy. The patient was successfully treated with no evidence of any local recurrence seen after a follow-up period of one year. The timely recognition of sebaceous carcinoma is imperative so as to execute the primary treatment i.e., wide local excision. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the clinical outcome for recurrent tumors.

  8. Rehabilitation of stroke patients using Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture: a pilot study.

    Hegyi, Gabriella; Szigeti, Gyula P


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether acupuncture, especially Yamamoto's New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA), is of value in additional to standard poststroke motor rehabilitation. A prospective, assessor-blinded randomized control trial was carried out in an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit with day hospital service. After inclusion, patients were stratified into control group and acupuncture group, randomly. The Barthel Index, the Rivermead Scale Index, and the Visual Analogue Scale were used to follow the efficacy of treatment. In the acupuncture group, all the sensory, motor, and functional scores improved significantly during the examination period until 2 years after injury. The Barthel Index is increased from 4±2 to 95±4 in the acupuncture group. This index also increased in the control group (from 4±2 to 75±4), but the changes were significantly less than in the acupuncture group. A significant spontaneous recovery during the 2-year follow-up was found, but the YNSA treatment facilitated the functional recovery. Improved moving function and more flexible joints and ligaments were observed in comparison to the patients' condition prior to treatment. The data suggest that the YNSA is a useful method to treat stroke patients and enhance their quality of life.

  9. Efficacy of Yamamoto new scalp acupuncture versus Traditional Chinese acupuncture for migraine treatment.

    Rezvani, Mehran; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Mohseni, Masood; Fathimoghadam, Farshid


    Traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA) is an effective alternative treatment in migraine headache. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of Yamamoto new scalp acupuncture (YNSA), a recently developed microcupuncture system, with TCA for the prophylaxis and treatment of migraine headache. In a randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with migraine headache were assigned to receive YNSA or TCA. A pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and migraine therapy assessment questionnaire (MTAQ) were completed before treatment, after 6 and 18 sections of treatment, and 1 month after completion of therapy. All the recruited patients completed the study. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Frequency and severity of migraine attacks, nausea, the need for rescue treatment, and work absence rate decreased similarly in both groups. Recovery from headache and ability to continue daily activities 2 hours after medical treatment showed similar improvement in both groups (p>0.05). Classic acupuncture and YNSA are similarly effective in the prophylaxis and treatment of migraine headache and may be considered as alternatives to pharmacotherapy.

  10. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  11. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech


    We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum $\\hat{q}$ and $\\hat{p}$ being replaced with non-hermitian operators $\\hat{q}_{new}$ and $\\hat{p}_{new}$, and their eigenstates ${}_m

  12. Formulation optimization of arecoline patches.

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin


    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  13. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    Pao-Chu Wu


    Full Text Available The response surface methodology (RSM including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS, Eudragit RL 100 (ERL and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP, plasticizers (PEG 400, and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  14. Niosomal Formulation Of Orlistat: Formulation And In-Vitro Evaluation



    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to prepare Orlistat niosomes from proniosome to improve its poor and variable oral bioavailability. The non-ionic surfactant vesicles are prepared by the reverse phase evaporation technique (slurry method. The slurry of - Cyclodextrin and Span 60 was dried to form a free flowing powder in rotary flash evaporator which could be rehydrated by addition of buffer (0.5% NaCl with 3% SLS at pH 6.0. The lipid mixture consisted of cholesterol, Span 60 and - Cyclodextrin carrier in molar ratios of (0.1:0.9:1 to 0.9:0.1:1 respectively. The niosomal formulations were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release, release kinetics, Interactions and compatibility (FT-IR, surface morphology (SEM, stability studies, conductivity and sedimentation rate, pH density, viscosity. The formulation OT9 which showed higher entrapment efficiency of 44.09% and invitro releases of 94.59% at the end of 12hrs was found to be best among all the 9 formulations. Release was best fitted with Hixson kinetics and it shows that the drug release may follow diffusion mechanism. FT-IR data revealed that, compatible and there were no interactions between the drug and excipients added in the formulation. SEM images of niosomes with various magnifications revealed the mean size of the niosomes were 100 nm with smooth surface. Niosome formulation has showed appropriate stability for 90 days by storing the formulation at room temperature. Thus the niosomal formulations could be a promising delivery system for Orlistat with improved oral bioavailability, stability and for sustained drug release.

  15. Delving into α-stable distribution in noise suppression for seizure detection from scalp EEG

    Wang, Yueming; Qi, Yu; Wang, Yiwen; Lei, Zhen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang


    Objective. There is serious noise in EEG caused by eye blink and muscle activities. The noise exhibits similar morphologies to epileptic seizure signals, leading to relatively high false alarms in most existing seizure detection methods. The objective in this paper is to develop an effective noise suppression method in seizure detection and explore the reason why it works. Approach. Based on a state-space model containing a non-linear observation function and multiple features as the observations, this paper delves deeply into the effect of the α-stable distribution in the noise suppression for seizure detection from scalp EEG. Compared with the Gaussian distribution, the α-stable distribution is asymmetric and has relatively heavy tails. These properties make it more powerful in modeling impulsive noise in EEG, which usually can not be handled by the Gaussian distribution. Specially, we give a detailed analysis in the state estimation process to show the reason why the α-stable distribution can suppress the impulsive noise. Main results. To justify each component in our model, we compare our method with 4 different models with different settings on a collected 331-hour epileptic EEG data. To show the superiority of our method, we compare it with the existing approaches on both our 331-hour data and 892-hour public data. The results demonstrate that our method is most effective in both the detection rate and the false alarm. Significance. This is the first attempt to incorporate the α-stable distribution to a state-space model for noise suppression in seizure detection and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

  16. The effect of ground electrode on the sensitivity, symmetricity and technical feasibility of scalp EEG recordings.

    Paukkunen, Antti Kimmo Olavi; Sepponen, Raimo


    Although the choice of the measurement reference strongly affects the measurement sensitivity, validity and comparability, selection is often based on tradition, convenience and comparability to earlier results [Dien in Behav Res Methods Ins C 30(1):34-43, 1998; Femi and Sundor in Int J Psychosom 36(1-4):23-33; 1989]. Artificial means can be applied to compensate for the referential issues, but they cannot restore any lost data. The validity of the recorded data is ultimately defined by the hardware setup. In this simulation study, common average ground reference (AR) is characterized and compared to two alternative common ground reference schemes in respect to their influence on the sensitivity distribution and technical feasibility of scalp EEG recording. It was found that, despite the polar average reference effect [Junghöfer et al. in Clin Neurophysiol 110(6):1149-1155; 1999], AR merits a significantly higher symmetricity and should be promoted generally not only in high-electrode-density studies, but also in low-channel-count studies if the stringent design requirements can be met. In low-electrode-density studies, balancing the setup may prove challenging, but successful implementation can provide nearly undistorted data. Isolation of the system is a critical parameter, but technological advances enable the requirements to be fulfilled. A physical ground should be applied if high isolation is not applicable or if it is defined by the application. The results will apply for the applied homogenous concentric 3-sphere model, but should be further studied in a realistic context if more detailed and case-sensitive information is required; the underlying phenomena are generally applicable.

  17. Trace metals in scalp hair of children and adults in three Alberta Indian villages.

    Moon, J; Smith, T J; Tamaro, S; Enarson, D; Fadl, S; Davison, A J; Weldon, L


    This study examined trace metal levels in scalp hair taken from 122 children and 27 adult residents of three small northern Alberta (Canada) Indian villages, one of which is situated close to the world's first tar sands oil extraction plants. The three communities studied were: Fort McKay (the exposed village), Fort Chipewyan (also in the tar sands ecosystem but distant from the plants), and Garden River (not in the tar sands ecosystem). Inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy was used to determine hair sample metal content. Nineteen metals were included in data analysis. Children from Fort McKay had the highest average hair lead, cadmium and nickel levels. Chromium levels were approximately equal in hair from Fort McKay and Garden River children, and significantly elevated above levels found in the hair of Fort Chipewyan children. Children from Garden River showed highest hair levels of eight metals: vanadium, aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, zinc, magnesium and calcium. Fort Chipewyan children had the highest hair levels of copper, but the lowest levels of all other metals. Among adults, hair lead, nickel and cadmium levels were highest in Fort McKay residents, while phosphorous and vanadium were highest in hair from Garden River residents. Bioaccumulation of lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair from Fort McKay residents may be related to exposure to extraction plant pollution. Plant stack emissions are known to contain appreciable amounts of lead, nickel and chromium. Spills into the Athabasca River, until recently the source of Fort McKay drinking water, have been reported from plant wastewater holding ponds, known to contain elevated levels of lead, nickel and cadmium. An increased number of significant metal-metal correlations in hair metal levels for Fort McKay children suggests a richer source of multiple metal exposure, relative to children in the other two communities.

  18. Hair care practices and their association with scalp and hair disorders in African American girls.

    Rucker Wright, Dakara; Gathers, Raechele; Kapke, Alissa; Johnson, Dayna; Joseph, Christine L M


    Few studies have extensively examined the prevalence of hair care practices and their association with scalp and hair conditions in African American girls. We sought to determine the prevalence of hair care practices and their association with traction alopecia, seborrheic dermatitis (SD), and tinea capitis (TC). A questionnaire was administered to caregivers of African American girls aged 1 to 15 years. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of hair care practices with reported disorders. A total of 201 surveys were completed from dermatology (n = 98) and nondermatology (n = 103) clinics. Mean patient age was 9.8 ± 4.4 years. Essentially all respondents reported use of hair oils/grease (99%). Ponytails, braids, and cornrows were worn by 81%, 67%, and 49% of girls, respectively, within the past 12 months. In all, 61% reported hair washing every 2 weeks; 80% used hot combs; and 42% used chemical relaxers. Cornrows were significantly related to traction alopecia among respondents from nondermatology clinics only: adjusted odds ratio = 5.79 (95% CI 1.35-24.8, P = .018). Hair extensions and infrequent hair oil use were significantly related to SD: adjusted odds ratio = 2.37 (95% CI 1.03-5.47, P = .04) and 3.69 (95% CI 1.07-12.7, P = .039), respectively. No significant associations were observed for TC. Small sample size and disorders reported by caregivers were limitations. Certain hair care practices were strongly associated with development of traction alopecia and SD. No association was found between hair washing frequency and SD or TC, or between hair grease use and TC. These results can be used to inform practitioners, advise parents, and adapt treatment regimens to accommodate cultural preferences. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using nicotine in scalp hair to assess maternal passive exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Lu, Qun; Wang, Bin


    Quantifying population exposure level to tobacco smoke is important for investigating its adverse effects on human health. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and application of using population hair concentrations of nicotine and cotinine to indicate their exposure level to tobacco smoke among pregnant women. Our study recruited 256 mothers who delivered healthy babies and collected their hair samples from scalp, of which 172 mothers were self-reported non-passive smokers and the other 84 mothers were self-reported passive smokers. We analyzed nicotine and cotinine concentrations of the hair section grown during the early pregnancy. The linear relationship between cotinine and nicotine was developed and validated by internal cross-validation method. Our results revealed that self-reported passive smokers had higher concentrations of nicotine [2.08 (1.00-4.46) ng/mg hair, i.e. median value (inter-quartile range)] and cotinine [0.063 (0.041-0.148) ng/mg hair] than non-passive smokers [1.35 (0.58-2.59) ng/mg hair of nicotine and 0.049 (0.022-0.087) ng/mg hair of cotinine, respectively]. There existed a linear regression model between hair cotinine and nicotine concentrations, i.e. [cotinine] = 0.024 × [nicotine]+0.0184 (R(2) = 0.756) for this population. The internal cross-validation squared correlation coefficient slightly increased from 0.689 to 0.734 with the training subjects varying from 20% to 90%, suggesting that this regression model had high robustness and predictive accuracy. It was concluded that nicotine in maternal hair can evaluate the hair cotinine level and reflect maternal passive exposure level to ambient tobacco smoke with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sugihara causality analysis of scalp EEG for detection of early Alzheimer's disease

    Joseph C. McBride


    Full Text Available Recently, Sugihara proposed an innovative causality concept, which, in contrast to statistical predictability in Granger sense, characterizes underlying deterministic causation of the system. This work exploits Sugihara causality analysis to develop novel EEG biomarkers for discriminating normal aging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD. The hypothesis of this work is that scalp EEG based causality measurements have different distributions for different cognitive groups and hence the causality measurements can be used to distinguish between NC, MCI, and AD participants. The current results are based on 30-channel resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years — 15 normal controls (NCs, 16 MCI, and 17 early-stage AD. First, a reconstruction model is developed for each EEG channel, which predicts the signal in the current channel using data of the other 29 channels. The reconstruction model of the target channel is trained using NC, MCI, or AD records to generate an NC-, MCI-, or AD-specific model, respectively. To avoid over fitting, the training is based on the leave-one-out principle. Sugihara causality between the channels is described by a quality score based on comparison between the reconstructed signal and the original signal. The quality scores are studied for their potential as biomarkers to distinguish between the different cognitive groups. First, the dimension of the quality scores is reduced to two principal components. Then, a three-way classification based on the principal components is conducted. Accuracies of 95.8%, 95.8%, and 97.9% are achieved for resting eyes open, counting eyes closed, and resting eyes closed protocols, respectively. This work presents a novel application of Sugihara causality analysis to capture characteristic changes in EEG activity due to cognitive deficits. The developed method has excellent potential as individualized biomarkers in the

  1. Sugihara causality analysis of scalp EEG for detection of early Alzheimer's disease.

    McBride, Joseph C; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Munro, Nancy B; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D; Jiang, Yang


    Recently, Sugihara proposed an innovative causality concept, which, in contrast to statistical predictability in Granger sense, characterizes underlying deterministic causation of the system. This work exploits Sugihara causality analysis to develop novel EEG biomarkers for discriminating normal aging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hypothesis of this work is that scalp EEG based causality measurements have different distributions for different cognitive groups and hence the causality measurements can be used to distinguish between NC, MCI, and AD participants. The current results are based on 30-channel resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years) - 15 normal controls (NCs), 16 MCI, and 17 early-stage AD. First, a reconstruction model is developed for each EEG channel, which predicts the signal in the current channel using data of the other 29 channels. The reconstruction model of the target channel is trained using NC, MCI, or AD records to generate an NC-, MCI-, or AD-specific model, respectively. To avoid over fitting, the training is based on the leave-one-out principle. Sugihara causality between the channels is described by a quality score based on comparison between the reconstructed signal and the original signal. The quality scores are studied for their potential as biomarkers to distinguish between the different cognitive groups. First, the dimension of the quality scores is reduced to two principal components. Then, a three-way classification based on the principal components is conducted. Accuracies of 95.8%, 95.8%, and 97.9% are achieved for resting eyes open, counting eyes closed, and resting eyes closed protocols, respectively. This work presents a novel application of Sugihara causality analysis to capture characteristic changes in EEG activity due to cognitive deficits. The developed method has excellent potential as individualized biomarkers in the detection of

  2. Empirical models of scalp-EEG responses using non-concurrent intracranial responses

    Kaur, Komalpreet; Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.


    Objective. This study presents inter-subject models of scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (sEEG) event-related potentials (ERPs) using intracranially recorded ERPs from electrocorticography and stereotactic depth electrodes in the hippocampus, generally termed as intracranial EEG (iEEG). Approach. The participants were six patients with medically-intractable epilepsy that underwent temporary placement of intracranial electrode arrays to localize seizure foci. Participants performed one experimental session using a brain-computer interface matrix spelling paradigm controlled by sEEG prior to the iEEG electrode implantation, and one or more identical sessions controlled by iEEG after implantation. All participants were able to achieve excellent spelling accuracy using sEEG, four of the participants achieved roughly equivalent performance in the iEEG sessions, and all participants were significantly above chance accuracy for the iEEG sessions. The sERPs were modeled using a linear combination of iERPs using two different optimization criteria. Main results. The results indicate that sERPs can be accurately estimated from the iERPs for the patients that exhibited stable ERPs over the respective sessions, and that the transformed iERPs can be accurately classified with an sERP-derived classifier. Significance. The resulting models provide a new empirical representation of the formation and distribution of sERPs from underlying composite iERPs. These new insights provide a better understanding of ERP relationships and can potentially lead to the development of more robust signal processing methods for noninvasive EEG applications.

  3. Bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil formulations.

    Donn, K H; James, N C; Powell, J R


    Cefuroxime axetil tablets have proved effective for the treatment of a variety of community-acquired infections. A suspension formulation has been developed for use in children. Two studies have been conducted to determine if the cefuroxime axetil formulations are bioequivalent. In the initial randomized, two-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received 250-mg doses of suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil every 12 h after eating for seven doses. Each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Comparisons of serum and urine pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil are not bioequivalent. Following the initial bioequivalency study, 0.1 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was added to the suspension to assure the homogeneity of the granules during the manufacturing process. In the subsequent randomized, three-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received single 250-mg doses of three cefuroxime axetil formulations: suspension without SLS, suspension with SLS, and tablet. Again each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that while the suspension with SLS and suspension without SLS are bioequivalent, bioequivalence between the suspension with SLS and the tablet was not observed. Thus, the addition of the SLS surfactant to the suspension did not alter the bioavailability of the formulation.

  4. Aceturato de diminazeno e dipropionato de imidocarb no controle de infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente Diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era iniciado o tratamento com as drogas (dia zero. O estudo foi dividido em dois protocolos terapêuticos e os fármacos foram administrados via intramuscular. O primeiro protocolo foi aplicado nos grupos A, B, C e D e o segundo protocolo nos grupos E, F, G e H. O grupo controle foi identificado como grupo I, não medicados. No primeiro protocolo, os ratos receberam uma dose única dos fármacos no dia zero e sempre que se observasse T. evansi na circulação periférica. No segundo protocolo, os roedores receberam as mesmas doses, no entanto, por cinco dias consecutivos. No primeiro protocolo, os dois princípios ativos não apresentaram eficácia curativa, ocorrendo reincidência da parasitemia após alguns dias do tratamento. No segundo protocolo, o aceturato de diminazeno eliminou a forma tripomastigota da circulação e os ratos foram eutanasiados após 90 dias do início do tratamento. Os roedores tratados com dipropionato de imidocarb apresentaram recidiva da infecção após 30 dias. Na histopatologia não se observou alteração renal e hepática relacionada à doença ou aos medicamentos testados. Com base nos resultados, foi concluído que o aceturato de diminazeno, quando administrado por cinco dias consecutivos, é efetivo no tratamento da tripanossomose em ratos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rats (Rattus norvegicus

  5. Social Groupwork. A Model for Goal Formulation.

    Tompkins, Rosamond P.; Gallo, Frank T.


    A conceptual model for goal formulation in social groupwork, discussion of existing models and their limitations, and an attempt to formulate an encompassing groupwork model that facilitates goal formulation. (Author/PD)

  6. Four formulations of noncommutative quantum mechanics

    Gouba, Laure


    Four formulations of noncommutative quantum mechanics are reviewed. These are the canonical, path-integral, Weyl-Wigner and systematic formulations. The four formulations are charaterized by a deformed Heisenberg algebra but differ in mathematical and conceptual overview.

  7. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L


    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev


    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 μg/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 μg/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 μg/g for Ca, 107-128 μg/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water.

  9. Differences in Topographical Pressure Pain Sensitivity Maps of the Scalp Between Patients With Migraine and Healthy Controls.

    Barón, Johanna; Ruiz, Marina; Palacios-Ceña, María; Madeleine, Pascal; Guerrero, Ángel L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César


    To investigate differences in topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps of the scalp between patients with migraine and healthy controls considering the chronicity (episodic/chronic) and side (strictly unilateral/bilateral) of the symptoms. It seems that the trigeminal area is sensitized in migraine. No study has investigated topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the scalp in patients with migraine. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed from 21 points distributed over the scalp in 86 patients with episodic migraine, 76 with chronic migraine, and 42 healthy age and matched healthy controls in a blinded design. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps based on interpolation of the PPTs were constructed. Clinical features of migraine, anxiety, and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS) were collected. The multivariate ANCOVA revealed significant differences in PPT between points (F = 55.674; P  .335) except for Fp1 (P = .045) and Fp2 (P = .017) points where subjects with chronic migraine had lower PPTs than those with episodic migraine; (3) no differences between bilateral/unilateral migraine (P > .417). An anterior to posterior gradient was found, with the lowest PPTs located in frontal regions and the highest PPTs in occipital areas (all groups, P pressure pain hypersensitivity in the head as compared to healthy controls and that hypersensitivity was similar between episodic/chronic and unilateral/bilateral migraine. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps revealed an anterior to posterior gradient of pressure pain sensitivity in both migraine and control groups. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. Age-associated changes in integral cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate concentrations in human scalp hair and finger nail clippings.

    Brosche, T; Dressler, S; Platt, D


    In contrast to surface lipids originating from the sebaceous glands, membrane-forming integral lipids occur in keratinized tissues of skin, and skin appendages like fingernail plates or scalp hair. After removal of lipids of sebaceous origin by exhaustive solvent extraction, lyophilizing and hydrolyzing fingernail plate and scalp hair samples, fractions of integral cholesterol (CH) and cholesterol sulfate (CS) were quantified using gas chromatography. We studied these bound lipids and the serum lipids of 70 healthy subjects, aged 20.1 to 92.0 years. We observed higher amounts of CS in hair clippings of men than of women (775+/-241 vs 662+/-239 nmol/g hair, respectively). The highest amounts of CS were found in men with serum LDL-CH > 4.14 mmol/L; this subgroup also showed the highest CH values in fingernail clippings (2293+/-621 nmol/g nail). However, analysis of integral lipids of hair and fingernail plate clippings had little significance in detecting hypercholesterolemia in normal persons. An increase in integral CH levels in fingernail clippings with donor age was noted, independently of variations in serum CH or LDL-CH. This correlation proved to be significant in men (R=0.43), but not in women (R=0.38). In contrast, in women but not in men we found donor age correlated with internal CH of hair samples (R=0.43) and with CS of nail plates (R=-0.59), independently of serum CH or LDL-CH variations. This age-dependent decrease in CS levels might explain the previously observed higher incidence of brittle nails in women. Obviously, the metabolism of internal lipids CH and CS in fingernail and scalp hair differs between genders, and shows age-associated changes.

  11. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the first year following herbicide and scalping in a revegetation trial in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Hosseini Bai, Shahla; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Wild, Clyde H; Chen, Chengrong


    During revegetation, the maintenance of soil carbon (C) pools and nitrogen (N) availability is considered essential for soil fertility and this study aimed to evaluate contrasting methods of site preparation (herbicide and scalping) with respect to the effects on soil organic matter (SOM) during the critical early establishment phase. Soil total C (TC), total N (TN), hot-water extractable organic C (HWEOC), hot-water extractable total N (HWETN), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), total inorganic N (TIN) and potentially mineralizable N (PMN) were measured over 53 weeks. MBC and MBN were the only variables affected by herbicide application. Scalping caused an immediate reduction in all variables, and the values remained low without any sign of recovery for the period of the study. The impact of scalping on HWETN and TIN lasted 22 weeks and stabilised afterwards. MBC and MBN were affected by both herbicide and scalping after initial treatment application and remained lower than control during the period of the study but did not decrease over time. While scalping had an inevitable impact on all soil properties that were measured, that impact did not worsen over time, and actually improved plant growth (unpublished data) while reducing site establishment costs. Therefore, it provides a useful alternative for weed control in revegetation projects where it is applied only once at site establishment and where SOM would be expected to recover as canopy closure is obtained and nutrient cycling through litterfall commences.

  12. Quantification of arsenic in dialysate solution and scalp hair samples of kidney failure patients by cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Baig, Jameel A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Mahar, Khalida Perveen


    A method has been developed for the determination of arsenic (As) in pharmaceutical and scalp hair samples of kidney failure patients by cloud point extraction (CPE). The scalp hair samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion in nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide (2 + 1, v/v). Then, dialysate and digested scalp hair solutions were preconcentrated by CPE using pyronine B as a complexing agent. The resulting complex was entrapped in nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114) prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The validity of the CPE method for As was checked by analysis of a certified reference material of human hair and a standard addition method for dialysate solution. The chemical variables affecting the analytical performance of the CPE methods were studied and optimized. After optimization of the complexation and extraction conditions, a preconcentration factor of 52 was obtained for As in 10 mL of dialysate solution and acid digested samples of scalp hair. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the LOD and LOQ of As for the preconcentration of 10 mL of solution were 0.022 and 0.073 microg/L, respectively. The level of As in scalp hair samples of kidney failure patients was higher than in healthy controls.

  13. Presurgical evaluation for partial epilepsy: Relative contributions of chronic depth-electrode recordings versus FDG-PET and scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG

    Engel, J. Jr.; Henry, T.R.; Risinger, M.W.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Sutherling, W.W.; Levesque, M.F.; Phelps, M.E.


    One hundred fifty-three patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy underwent chronic stereotactic depth-electrode EEG (SEEG) evaluations after being studied by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and scalp-sphenoidal EEG telemetry. We carried out retrospective standardized reviews of local cerebral metabolism and scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets to determine when SEEG recordings revealed additional useful information. FDG-PET localization was misleading in only 3 patients with temporal lobe SEEG ictal onsets for whom extratemporal or contralateral hypometabolism could be attributed to obvious nonepileptic structural defects. Two patients with predominantly temporal hypometabolism may have had frontal epileptogenic regions, but ultimate localization remains uncertain. Scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets were misleading in 5 patients. For 37 patients with congruent focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets and temporal hypometabolic zones, SEEG recordings never demonstrated extratemporal or contralateral epileptogenic regions; however, 3 of these patients had nondiagnostic SEEG evaluations. The results of subsequent subdural grid recordings indicated that at least 1 of these patients may have been denied beneficial surgery as a result of an equivocal SEEG evaluation. Weighing risks and benefits, it is concluded that anterior temporal lobectomy is justified without chronic intracranial recording when specific criteria for focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG onsets are met, localized hypometabolism predominantly involves the same temporal lobe, and no other conflicting information has been obtained from additional tests of focal functional deficit, structural imaging, or seizure semiology.

  14. Children presenting in delayed fashion after minor head trauma with scalp swelling: do they require further workup?

    Sellin, Jonathan N; Moreno, Amee; Ryan, Sheila L; Lam, Sandi K; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew


    It is common to evaluate children who have sustained minor head trauma with computed tomography (CT) of the head. Scalp swelling, in particular, has been associated with intracranial injury. A subset of patients, however, present in delayed fashion, often days after the head trauma, as soft tissue edema progresses and their caregiver notices scalp swelling. We explore the value of further workup in this setting. We conducted a retrospective review of a prospectively collected cohort of children ≤24 months of age presenting to the Texas Children's Hospital with scalp swelling more than 24 h following a head trauma. Cases were collected over a 2-year study period from June 1, 2014 to May 31, 2016. Seventy-six patients comprising 78 patient encounters were included in our study. The mean age at presentation was 8.8 months (range 3 days-24 months). All patients had noncontrast CT of the head as part of their evaluation by emergency medicine, as well as screening for nonaccidental trauma (NAT) by the Child Protection Team. The most common finding on CT head was a linear/nondisplaced skull fracture (SF) with associated extra-axial hemorrhage (epidural or subdural hematoma), which was found in 31/78 patient encounters (40%). Of all 78 patient encounters, 43 patients (55%) were discharged from the emergency room (ER), 17 patients (22%) were admitted for neurologic monitoring, and 18 patients (23%) were admitted solely to allow further NAT evaluation. Of those patients admitted, none experienced a neurologic decline and all had nonfocal neurologic exams on discharge. No patient returned to the ER in delayed fashion for a neurologic decline. Of all the patient encounters, no patient required surgery. Pediatric patients ≤24 months of age presenting to the ER in delayed fashion with scalp swelling after minor head trauma-who were otherwise nonfocal on examination-did not require surgical intervention and did not experience any neurologic decline. Further radiographic

  15. Formulations of Amlodipine: A Review

    Muhammad Ali Sheraz


    Full Text Available Amlodipine (AD is a calcium channel blocker that is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. However, latest findings have revealed that its efficacy is not only limited to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as it has shown to possess antioxidant activity and plays an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, it is also employed in the treatment of cerebrovascular stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, leukemia, breast cancer, and so forth either alone or in combination with other drugs. AD is a photosensitive drug and requires protection from light. A number of workers have tried to formulate various conventional and nonconventional dosage forms of AD. This review highlights all the formulations that have been developed to achieve maximum stability with the desired therapeutic action for the delivery of AD such as fast dissolving tablets, floating tablets, layered tablets, single-pill combinations, capsules, oral and transdermal films, suspensions, emulsions, mucoadhesive microspheres, gels, transdermal patches, and liposomal formulations.

  16. Tratamento endovascular de aneurismas cirsoideos do couro cabeludo Endovascular treatment of scalp cirsoid aneurysms

    Eduardo Wajnberg


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados da aplicação de técnicas endovasculares no tratamento de aneurismas cirsoideos do couro cabeludo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Quatro pacientes com diagnóstico de aneurismas cirsoideos foram submetidos ao tratamento por via endovascular. Todos os quatro pacientes incluídos nesta série tinham malformações arteriovenosas e foram tratados apenas com embolização. RESULTADOS: Três pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento endovascular mediante embolização transarterial e um foi tratado por punção direta da porção venosa. Os resultados clínicos e cosméticos foram satisfatórios em todos os pacientes. Não houve recidiva clínica durante o período de acompanhamento. CONCLUSÃO: A via endovascular é uma alternativa segura e eficaz no tratamento dos aneurismas cirsoideos. Embora possa ser efetivamente utilizado como uma alternativa adjuvante ou complementar à cirurgia, especialmente quando é necessário lidar com aferências profundas, a maioria dos casos pode ser totalmente curada apenas com a terapêutica endovascular. A escolha do método de tratamento deve ser baseada em uma variedade de características próprias da lesão, incluindo sua angioarquitetura, tamanho e apresentação clínica.OBJECTIVE: To report results of the application of endovascular techniques in the management of scalp cirsoid aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four patients diagnosed with cirsoid aneurysms were submitted to treatment by endovascular approach. All the four patients included in the present series had arteriovenous malformations and were treated solely by embolization. RESULTS: Three of the patients underwent endovascular treatment by transarterial embolization and one was treated by direct puncture of the venous segment. Both clinical and cosmetic outcomes were satisfactory in all of the patients. Clinical relapse was not observed along the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The endovascular approach is safe and effective in

  17. Covariant Formulations of Superstring Theories.

    Mikovic, Aleksandar Radomir


    Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the subject of string theory, and tries to motivate the study of superstrings and covariant formulations. Chapter 2 describes the Green-Schwarz formulation of the superstrings. The Hamiltonian and BRST structure of the theory is analysed in the case of the superparticle. Implications for the superstring case are discussed. Chapter 3 describes the Siegel's formulation of the superstring, which contains only the first class constraints. It is shown that the physical spectrum coincides with that of the Green-Schwarz formulation. In chapter 4 we analyse the BRST structure of the Siegel's formulation. We show that the BRST charge has the wrong cohomology, and propose a modification, called first ilk, which gives the right cohomology. We also propose another superparticle model, called second ilk, which has infinitely many coordinates and constraints. We construct the complete BRST charge for it, and show that it gives the correct cohomology. In chapter 5 we analyse the properties of the covariant vertex operators and the corresponding S-matrix elements by using the Siegel's formulation. We conclude that the knowledge of the ghosts is necessary, even at the tree level, in order to obtain the correct S-matrix. In chapter 6 we attempt to calculate the superstring loops, in a covariant gauge. We calculate the vacuum-to -vacuum amplitude, which is also the cosmological constant. We show that it vanishes to all loop orders, under the assumption that the free covariant gauge-fixed action exists. In chapter 7 we present our conclusions, and briefly discuss the random lattice approach to the string theory, as a possible way of resolving the problem of the covariant quantization and the nonperturbative definition of the superstrings.

  18. Effects of the Lifting Manipulation of Scalp Acupuncture for Raising Myodynamia of the Affected Limbs in Hemiplegic Patients Due to Cerebral Thrombosis


    Objective: To provide a new therapy with definite quality controllable therapeutic effects for functional restoration of the affected limbs in hemiplegic patients due to cerebral thrombosis. Method: 180 patients with hemiplegia due to cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into 2 groups: the treatment group (treated with scalp acupuncture by using the lifting manipulation) and the control group (treated with scalp acupuncture by using the twirling manipulation). Evaluations were given for the two groups based on the improvement of myodynamia and comprehensive functions after the treatment. Results: Both groups showed increased myodynamia, but with different cured and much relieved rates (86.67% in the treatment group and 5% in the control group, P<0.01). Conclusion: Scalp acupuncture with the lifting manipulation can dramatically increase myodynamia of the affected limbs in hemiplegic patients due to cerebral thrombosis.

  19. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics of stratum corneum of dandruff scalp reveals new insights into its aetiology and similarities with atopic dermatitis.

    Cavusoglu, Nükhet; Delattre, Caroline; Donovan, Mark; Bourassa, Sylvie; Droit, Arnaud; El Rawadi, Charles; Jourdain, Roland; Bernard, Dominique


    The study aimed at detecting differentially expressed proteins in the stratum corneum of dandruff versus non-dandruff scalps to better understand dandruff aetiology. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis revealed a total of 68 differentially expressed biomarkers. A detailed analysis of their known physiological functions provided new insights into the affected metabolic pathways of a dandruff scalp. Dandruff scalp showed (1) profound changes in the expression and maturation of structural and epidermal differentiation related proteins, that are responsible for the integrity of the skin, (2) altered relevant factors that regulate skin hydration, and (3) an imbalanced physiological protease-protease inhibitor ratio. Stratum corneum proteins with antimicrobial activity, mainly those derived from sweat and sebaceous glands were also found modified. Comparing our data with those reported for atopic dermatitis revealed that about 50 % of the differentially expressed proteins in the superficial layers of the stratum corneum from dandruff and atopic dermatitis are identical.

  20. Formulating Policy for Summer Schools.

    Marriot, Helen


    Explores issues relating to the formulation of policy for summer programs for language learning, describing one university's experience with student demand, student motivation and progress, course timing and structure, academic staffing, administrative organization, student and staff evaluation, and funding. (three references) (CB)

  1. Hyperbolic Formulation of General Relativity

    Abrahams, A M; Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W; Abrahams, Andrew; Anderson, Arlen; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.


    Two geometrical well-posed hyperbolic formulations of general relativity are described. One admits any time-slicing which preserves a generalized harmonic condition. The other admits arbitrary time-slicings. Both systems have only the physical characteristic speeds of zero and the speed of light.

  2. "Rabbit Ear" scalp deformity caused by massive subdural effusion in infant following bilateral burr-hole drainage

    Guru Dutta Satyarthee


    Full Text Available Subdural effusion (SDE in an infant is a rare clinical scenario, which may be secondary to a variety of etiologies. Massive SDE is an extremely rare complication of head injury. It usually runs a self-limiting course. Though neurosurgical intervention is occasionally needed, different methods of surgical procedure for management includes burr-hole alone, burr-holes with subdural drain placement, twist drill craniotomy with drain and even craniotomy. The authors report a rare case of progressive massive SDE, which despite bilateral burr-hole placement and drainage failed and presented with visual deterioration and massive bulge of scalp at burr-hole sites producing rabbit ear sign in a 10 month old infant. Ultimately cystoperitoneal shunt was carried out in a desperate attempt to prevent impending rupture of scalp sutures at sites of previous burr-hole placement. Astonishingly not only complete resolution of hygroma, but visual recovery also took place. Patient is doing well at 6 months following shunt with regaining normal vision and appropriate developmental milestones. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain at last follow-up revealed mild ventriculomegaly with subduro-peritoneal shunt in situ and rest of brain was unremarkable. Such cases have not been reported in literature until date.

  3. Simultaneous scalp electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and whole-body segmental inertial recording for multi-modal neural decoding.

    Bulea, Thomas C; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Ozdemir, Recep; Paloski, William H; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L


    Recent studies support the involvement of supraspinal networks in control of bipedal human walking. Part of this evidence encompasses studies, including our previous work, demonstrating that gait kinematics and limb coordination during treadmill walking can be inferred from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) with reasonably high decoding accuracies. These results provide impetus for development of non-invasive brain-machine-interface (BMI) systems for use in restoration and/or augmentation of gait- a primary goal of rehabilitation research. To date, studies examining EEG decoding of activity during gait have been limited to treadmill walking in a controlled environment. However, to be practically viable a BMI system must be applicable for use in everyday locomotor tasks such as over ground walking and turning. Here, we present a novel protocol for non-invasive collection of brain activity (EEG), muscle activity (electromyography (EMG)), and whole-body kinematic data (head, torso, and limb trajectories) during both treadmill and over ground walking tasks. By collecting these data in the uncontrolled environment insight can be gained regarding the feasibility of decoding unconstrained gait and surface EMG from scalp EEG.

  4. Removing ballistocardiogram (BCG artifact from full-scalp EEG acquired inside the MR scanner with Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP

    Hongjing eXia


    Full Text Available Ballistocardiogram (BCG artifact remains a major challenge that renders electroencephalographic (EEG signals hard to interpret in simultaneous EEG and functional MRI (fMRI data acquisition. Here, we propose an integrated learning and inference approach that takes advantage of a commercial high-density EEG cap, to estimate the BCG contribution in noisy EEG recordings from inside the MR scanner. To estimate reliably the full-scalp BCG artifacts, a near-optimal subset (20 out of 256 of channels first was identified using a modified recording setup. In subsequent recordings inside the MR scanner, BCG-only signal from this subset of channels was used to generate continuous estimates of the full-scalp BCG artifacts via inference, from which the intended EEG signal was recovered. The reconstruction of the EEG was performed with both a direct subtraction and an optimization scheme. We evaluated the performance on both synthetic and real contaminated recordings, and compared it to the benchmark Optimal Basis Set (OBS method. In the challenging non-event-related-potential (non-ERP EEG studies, our reconstruction can yield more than fourteen-fold improvement in reducing the normalized RMS error of EEG signals, compared to OBS.

  5. A Comparative Analysis on Levels of Mercury in Human Scalp Hair of Students from Different Locations in Ghana

    E.T. Anim


    Full Text Available This research was carried out to assess the levels of accumulation of total mercury (Hg-T in human scalp hair samples from selected students. Thirty seven (37 human scalp hair samples were collected from students of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology whilst on campus and analysed for total mercury (Hg-T concentrations by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The least concentration, 0.007±0.001 μ/g was measured in a sample from a male student. The highest concentration, 5.535±0.133 μg/g was measured in a sample from a female student.5.4% of the population had Hg-T concentrations above the WHO, 1990 limit of 2 μg/g based on fish consumption. 94.6% of the population studied however measured Hg- T concentrations below the WHO limit. In general, the concentrations measured in female students were higher compared to concentrations in male students. The mean concentration of Hg-T in female students was 1.417±0.037 μg/g compared to 0.600±0.001 μg/g for male students. The higher concentrations measured in female students may be attributed to the application of Hg containing cosmetics aside environmental exposures.

  6. Evaluation of toxic elements in scalp hair samples of myocardial infarction patients at different stages as related to controls.

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal


    In the present study, the association of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nickel between scalp hair samples and mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) patients at first, second, and third heart attack was studied. The biological samples of 130 MI patients (77 male and 53 female) age ranged (45-60 years), were collected and 61 healthy persons of same age group (33 male and 28 female) was selected as control subjects. The toxic elements (TEs) in biological samples were assessed by the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of methodology was checked by the certified human hair reference material (BCR 397). It was observed during the study that 78% of 32 patients of the third MI, age >50 years were expired. In these subjects, the level of As, Cd, Ni, and Pb were increased by 10.6%, 19.5%, 15.7%, and 9.8% in the scalp hair as compared to those who tolerated third MI attack (p = 0.12). The high level of toxic metals may play a role in the development of heart disease in the subjects of this study.

  7. Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area.

    Wang, Thanh; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Liao, Chunyang; Tao, Yongqing; Jiang, Guibin


    Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 microg/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu > Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 microg/g) was also found to be significantly higher compared to that in hair samples from control areas. Differences with age, gender, residence status and villages could be distinguished for most of the elements. The high levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were likely found to be originated from e-waste related activities, and specific sources were discussed. This study shows that human scalp hair could be a useful biomarker to assess the extent of heavy metal exposure to workers and residents in areas with intensive e-waste recycling activities.

  8. Long-term safety of Mometasone Furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler in children: Results of an open-label study comparing Mometasone Furoate with Beclomethasone Dipropionate in children with persistent asthma

    Corren Jonathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the long-term pediatric safety of 2 doses of mometasone furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI for mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and compare them with that of beclomethasone dipropionate administered via a metered dose inhaler (BDP-MDI in the treatment of persistent asthma. Both MF-DPI doses tested are twice the approved pediatric dosage of 100 μg once-daily (QD for children aged 4–11 years. Methods Children (N = 233 aged 4–11 years were randomized to 52 weeks of treatment with MF-DPI 200 μg QD AM, MF-DPI 100 μg twice daily (BID, or BDP-MDI 168 μg BID. Patients had used inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs daily for ≥ 30 days before the screening visit and were on stable ICS doses for ≥ 2 weeks before screening. The primary safety variable was the incidence of adverse events. Secondary safety variables were laboratory tests (including cortisol concentrations, vital signs, and physical examination. Results The incidence of adverse events was similar in all 3 treatment groups. The most frequently reported adverse event was upper respiratory tract infection, reported by 47%–49% of the MF-DPI-treated patients and 51% of the BPD-treated patients. Most adverse events were considered unrelated to study drug. The most frequently reported related adverse events were headache (MF-DPI 200 μg QD AM, 8%; MF-DPI 100 μg BID, 4%; BDP-MDI 168 μg BID, 2% and oral candidiasis (4% in each treatment group. No clinically relevant changes in laboratory values, including plasma cortisol, vital signs, or physical examinations were noted in any treatment group. Conclusion Both MF-DPI doses were well tolerated, with no unusual or unexpected adverse events or safety concerns, and had a similar adverse event profile to that of BDP-MDI 168 μg BID.


    Ali Heyam Saad


    Full Text Available Synthetic preservatives and detergents have sometimes been the cause of adverse effects among consumers. A more radical approach in reducing the synthetic ingredients is by incorporating natural extract whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic ingredients. Selection of Ziziphus spina cristi (Z. spina cristi leaves extract was based on its particular properties such as antimicrobial and detergent activities. This study aimed to formulate a self preserving shampoo having low concentration of the detergent using Ziziphus spina cristi leaves with emphasis on safety and efficacy; will avoid the risk posed by chemical ingredients. Formulation of three investigated shampoos was prepared containing different amounts of Ziziphus spina cristi extract and sodium laureth sulfate as a surfactant. Evaluation of organoleptic, physicochemical and performance tests were performed and compared with herbal marketed product (Cedr shampoo®, Sehat Company, Iran. The results indicated that F2 and F3 produced clear shampoos and their averaged pH values were in the range of 5.59-6.25 which were suitable to retain the acidic mantle of scalp. They provided stable foam, surface tension reduction, good cleaning and wetting effect and have pseudo plastic rheological behavior. Moreover, the aesthetic attributes, such as lather and clarity were comparable with the marketed shampoos. The foam volume was on a par and formulas showed higher detergency and foaming effects than the commercial herbal one (p< 0.05. Moreover they can be considered safe to children since less chemical contents were used and no side effects observed after application.

  10. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    cause an infeasible solution. In this paper, we consider (mixed) integer program formulations and propose a method for ensuring an optimal solution to the original (disaggregated) problem using an aggregated formulation. The method is based on Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the disaggregated...... mathematical formulation and the aggregated formulation. The method allows usage of relaxed aggregated formulations and enables branching on both aggregated and disaggregated variables. Also, the method guarantees an LP bound at least as good as those for the disaggregated and aggregated formulations...

  11. A Green Analytical Procedure for Sensitive and Selective Determination of Arsenic in Scalp Hair Samples of Arsenic Exposed Adults of Both Genders

    Jameel A. Baig


    Full Text Available A green analytical procedure based on cloud point extraction (CPE is proposed for arsenic determination in biological samples (scalp hair. The scalp hair samples were subjected to microwave assisted digestison in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (2:1 ratio, prior to preconcentration by CPE. Arsenic in digested samples of scalp hair was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC, and resulted As-PDC complex was extracted by a non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L−1 HNO3 in methanol. For optimum recovery of analyte, the influence of the analytical parameters including pH, amounts of complexing and surfactant reagents were investigated. An enrichment factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of As. Limit of detection and quantitation obtained under the optimal conditions were 0.03 and 0.11 µg kg-1, respectively. The obtained result showed sufficient recovery (> 98% for As in certified reference material of human hair (BCR 397. The developed method was applied to the determination of As in scalp hair samples of male and female subjects of two villages of Hyderabad, Pakistan.

  12. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    G. Chen; M. Hoptroff; X. Fei; Y. Su; H.-G. Janssen


    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal st

  13. Whole scalp resting state EEG of oscillatory brain activity shows no parametric relationship with psychoacoustic and psychosocial assessment of tinnitus: A repeated measures study.

    Pierzycki, Robert H; McNamara, Adam J; Hoare, Derek J; Hall, Deborah A


    Tinnitus is a perception of sound that can occur in the absence of an external stimulus. A brief review of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) literature demonstrates that there is no clear relationship between tinnitus presence and frequency band power in whole scalp or source oscillatory activity. Yet a preconception persists that such a relationship exists and that resting state EEG could be utilised as an outcome measure for clinical trials of tinnitus interventions, e.g. as a neurophysiological marker of therapeutic benefit. To address this issue, we first examined the test-retest correlation of EEG band power measures in tinnitus patients (n = 42). Second we examined the evidence for a parametric relationship between numerous commonly used tinnitus variables (psychoacoustic and psychosocial) and whole scalp EEG power spectra, directly and after applying factor reduction techniques. Test-retest correlation for both EEG band power measures and tinnitus variables were high. Yet we found no relationship between whole scalp EEG band powers and psychoacoustic or psychosocial variables. We conclude from these data that resting state whole scalp EEG should not be used as a biomarker for tinnitus and that greater caution should be exercised in regard to reporting of findings to avoid confirmation bias. The data was collected during a randomised controlled trial registered at (Identifier: NCT01541969).

  14. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    Chen, G.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Su, Y.; Janssen, H.-G.


    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal st

  15. Variation in the Levels of Aluminum and Manganese in Scalp Hair Samples of the Patients Having Different Psychiatric Disorders with Related to Healthy Subjects.

    Arain, Mariam S; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Atif; Naeemullah; Ali, Jamshed; Arain, Salma Aslam; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem


    There is very limited information available on the role of trace elements in psychiatric disorders (PSD). Immense pieces of evidence support the idea that exposure to trace and toxic metals, such as aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn), may be factors or cofactors in the etiopathogenesis of a variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the Al and Mn in scalp hair samples of 102 patients having different types of psychiatric disorder PSD diseases together with 120 referent subjects of male patients in the age group of 45-60 years. The understudy elements in scalp hair samples were assessed by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion method .The validity of methodology was checked by the certified human hair reference material (NCS ZC81002). The recovery of studied elements was found in the range of 98.1-99.2 % of certified reference material. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Al and Mn were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of all types of PSD as compared to referents subjects. The resulted data indicated a significant increase in the contents of Mn and Al in scalp hair samples of psychiatric patients than that of its control counterpart, which may provide prognostic tool for the diagnosis of the mental disorders. However, further work is suggested to examine the exact correlation between trace elements level and the degree of disorder.

  16. 自制“防刺头皮针”及其临床评价%Self-made " puncture-proof scalp needle" and its clinical evaluation

    胡荣; 梁观桃


    目的 通过改良普通头皮针,减少医务人员针刺伤的发生率.方法 在现有头皮针的基础上制作一头皮针防刺套,减低针体与针柄交接处与皮肤的高度,将头皮针制成z型头皮针,用于操作前后的保护.通过对100名一线临床护士的问卷调查,对自制“防刺头皮针”进行评价.结果 临床护士对自制“防刺头皮针”的各项指标满意度(满意及很满意)分另为:技术水平83%,精巧水平76%,操作顺应性77%,保障病人输液时头皮针固定在皮肤上的安全性53%,封装于包装袋中的安全性86%,防刺实用价值86%,经济效益67%,社会效益78%,推广价值73%.结论 临床护士对自制的“防刺头皮针”满意度高,有临床应用前景.%Objective To reduce the incidence of pricking wound by reforming ordinary scalp needle.Methods A scalp needle protection cap with z-type on the existing scalp was made to reduce the needle body and needle handle junction with the height of the skin.A survey about the evaluation on the new puncture-proof scalp needle was carried out on 100 clinical nurses.Results The clinical nurses ‘satisfaction on puncture-proof scalp needle was as follow:technical level was 83%,sophisticated level was 76%,operation compliance was 77%,the protection of patients when the infusion needle fixed scalp the security of the skin 53% ; the security in packaged bag was 86% ; puncture-proof practical value was 86% ; economic benefits was 67% ; social benefits was 78% ; promotion value was 73%.Conclusions The clinical nurses were satisfied with the new puncture-proof scalp needle which would have good future in clinical application.

  17. [Clinical observation on scalp point injection to improve the cerebral microcirculation for children of early cerebral palsy].

    Su, Xiu-zhen; Zhao, Yong-gang


    To explore an effective therapy for children of early cerebral palsy. One hundred and twenty cases were randomly divided into an acupoint injection group and a medication group, 60 cases in each group. The acupoint injection group was treated with scalp point injection of 0.5-1 mL brain protein hydrolysate into each point, Baihui (GV 20), Fengchi (GB 20) and motor area etc. were selected; the medication group was treated with 10 mL brain protein hydrolysate by intravenous drip. The therapeutic effects in the two groups were observed, and the changes of cerebral blood flow were compared before and after treatment. The total effective rate of 91.4% in the acupoint injection group was superior to that of 73.7% in the medication group (Pcerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and decrease the vascular resistance index (RI) (all Pcerebral microcirculation of patients, and has a good therapeutic effect for early cerebral palsy.

  18. Reproduction of scalp acupuncture therapy on strokes in the model rats, spontaneous hypertensive rats-stroke prone (SHR-SP).

    Inoue, Isao; Chen, Lihua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Xiaorong; Wang, Hongdu


    Scalp acupuncture (SA) therapy on strokes has been empirically established and widely used in clinics in China. SA is particularly effective at ameliorating paralyses and speech disturbances, and the recovery rate is twice that for those treated with medication alone. To investigate the effects of SA on a scientific basis, we have developed a new experimental system that provides reliable controls and excludes psychological effects by using a genetic strain of rats, spontaneous hypertensive rats-stroke prone. Here we report that SA indeed has rapid and powerful effects to remove limb paralyses caused either by cerebral infarct or by cerebral haemorrhage. This model is well suited to study the mechanism of the effects of SA in parallel with clinical studies, and to describe the whole recovery process after the stroke onset. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  19. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy


    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P hair dryer use (P hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P hairs (P hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.


    东红升; 东贵荣; 白妍


    Objective: To study the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) of scalp-points for regulating abnormal discharges of neurons in different regions around the cerebral hemorrhage focus by using neuro-electrophysiological methods. Methods: 80 Wistar rats (anesthetized with 20% urethane 1 g/kg, I.p.) were randomly divided into normal, saline, model and EA groups, with 20 cases in each group. Cerebral hemorrhage model was established by intracerebral injection of the rat's own arterial blood sample (40 uL). In rats of saline group, the same volume of saline was given for intracerebral injection. Extracellular electrical activity of neurons of the caudate nucleus and parafascicular nucleus and Tail filiform needles and stimulated electrically with stimulating parameters of strength of 1 V, frequency of 15 Hz and duration of 15 min. Results: Compared with normal group, TFL values of model group and EA group increased significantly (P<0.01); and compared with model group, those of EA group decreased significantly (P<0.01), suggesting that the pain threshold increased significantly in cerebral hemorrhage rats while after acupuncture stimulation, it lowered strikingly. Compared with normal and saline groups, the latency values of the pain excitement and inhibitory responses of the cellular discharges of the caudate and parafascicular nuclei in model and EA groups increased significantly (P<0.05~0.01), while after EA, it recovered apparently (P<0.01), showing an apparent regulative effect of EA on the abnormal changes of discharges of neurons around the cerebral hemorrhage focus. Conclusion: Scalp-acupuncture possesses an apparent regulatory effect on the abnormal electrical activity of neurons around the cerebral hemorrhage focus which may favor the early recovery of functional activity of neurons near the focus tissues.

  1. Scalp Incision Suturation Technology Improvement%头皮切口缝合技术的改良进展



    Traditional scalp suture only closes the incision,which has high incidence of complications and poor cosmetic effect. So constant improvement of surgical suture method to improve wound healing and aesthetic effects is needed. With the emergence of new suture materials and constantly improving suture methods, the healing of the scalp incision has been significantly improved. The advantages of intradermal suture are the-neat match,small scar,and good apperance;aU subcutaneous and skin sutures adopt absorbable materials , which avoids long term thread end exposure. The method has both reduced the suffering of the patients, and comforted the patient's psychological needs, which is in line with the physiological,psychological,and social model.%传统的头皮缝合方法仅能达到闭合切口的作用,不但并发症高,而且切口美容效果差.为提高切口的愈合率和美观效果,需要不断地改良手术缝合方法.随着新的缝合材料的出现,缝合方法不断改良,头皮切口的愈合效果得到了明显的改善.皮内缝合法的优点是切口对合整齐,瘢痕小,美观;所有皮下及皮内缝线均采用可吸收线、免拆线,也避免了切口远期线头外露.既减轻了患者的痛苦,又安慰了患者的心理,符合生理-心理-社会模式.

  2. Clinical study of modifying method of sturuing expanded scalp%扩张头皮改良缝合方法临床应用研究

    赵京玉; 陈敏亮; 赖琳英


    Objective To investigate the protective effects of a modifying method of closing scalp on hair follicle and its clinical effects. Methods We have cut the scalp pararelled the hair growth direction.then pruned the expansion capsule and galea aponeurotica inner scalp margin 1mm,interrupted suturing directly, avoiding hair bulb continuous sutured in scalp. Results From 2010 to 2011,this method have been applied in 56 patients who with expanded flap in head. Follow-up result shows that this method can effectively protect the hair follicle,prevent hair loss and scar formation. Conclusion This new method of sturuing scalp can preventing localized alopecia and scar effectively.%目的:探讨头皮改良缝合方法对毛囊的保护作用及其临床效果.方法:平行于毛发方向切开头皮,将扩张后包膜层或帽状腱膜缘修剪至头皮缘内1mm,拉拢间断缝合,头皮层则避开毛球部间断缝合.结果:2010年~2011年,应用于56例头部扩张皮瓣缝合术患者,术后随访证实此缝合方法能有效的保护毛囊、减少脱发和瘢痕的产生.结论:改良头皮缝合方法可有效减少瘢痕性秃发.

  3. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Ellena, Céline


    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  4. A Geometric Formulation of Supersymmetry

    Freedman, Daniel Z; Van Proeyen, Antoine


    The scalar fields of supersymmetric models are coordinates of a geometric space. We propose a formulation of supersymmetry that is covariant with respect to reparametrizations of this target space. Employing chiral multiplets as an example, we introduce modified supersymmetry variations and redefined auxiliary fields that transform covariantly under reparametrizations. The resulting action and transformation laws are manifestly covariant and highlight the geometric structure of the supersymmetric theory. The covariant methods are developed first for general theories (not necessarily supersymmetric) whose scalar fields are coordinates of a Riemannian target space.

  5. BRST formulation of 4-monopoles

    Gianvittorio, R; Restuccia, A


    A supersymmetric gauge invariant action is constructed over any 4-dimensional Riemannian manifold describing Witten's theory of 4-monopoles. The topological supersymmetric algebra closes off-shell. The multiplets include the auxiliary fields and the Wess-Zumino fields in an unusual way, arising naturally from BRST gauge fixing. A new canonical approach over Riemann manifolds is followed, using a Morse function as an euclidean time and taking into account the BRST boundary conditions that come from the BFV formulation. This allows a construction of the effective action starting from gauge principles.

  6. Formulation of soy oil products

    Woerfel, John B.


    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  7. Necessity of rethinking oral pediatric formulations

    Bar-Shalom, Daniel


    This commentary reviews the difficulties in formulating oral products for children. The significance of the fragmentation of the pediatric population in terms of development and ability to ingest different dosage formulations is examined. It is postulated that a flexible formulation, acceptable...

  8. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Pinto, Moises L.


    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  9. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Pinto, Moises L.


    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  10. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    Josephine Liu


    Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.

  11. Hamiltonian formulation of teleparallel gravity

    Ferraro, Rafael; Guzmán, María José


    The Hamiltonian formulation of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity is developed from an ordinary second-order Lagrangian, which is written as a quadratic form of the coefficients of anholonomy of the orthonormal frames (vielbeins). We analyze the structure of eigenvalues of the multi-index matrix entering the (linear) relation between canonical velocities and momenta to obtain the set of primary constraints. The canonical Hamiltonian is then built with the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse of that matrix. The set of constraints, including the subsequent secondary constraints, completes a first-class algebra. This means that all of them generate gauge transformations. The gauge freedoms are basically the diffeomorphisms and the (local) Lorentz transformations of the vielbein. In particular, the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner algebra of general relativity is recovered as a subalgebra.

  12. On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies

    K D Krori; S Dutta


    Novello et al [1,2] have shown that it is possible to find a pair of canonically conjugate variables (written in terms of gauge-invariant variables) so as to obtain a Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of a cosmological system. This opens up the way to the usual technique of quantization. Elbaz et al [4] have applied this method to the Hamiltonian formulation of FRW cosmological equations. This note presents a generalization of this approach to a variety of cosmologies. A general Schrödinger wave equation has been derived and exact solutions have been worked out for the stiff matter era for some cosmological models. It is argued that these solutions appear to hint at their possible relevance in the early phase of cosmological evolution.

  13. Hamiltonian formulation of teleparallel gravity

    Ferraro, Rafael


    The Hamiltonian formulation of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is developed from an ordinary second-order Lagrangian, which is written as a quadratic form of the coefficients of anholonomy of the orthonormal frames (vielbeins). We analyze the structure of eigenvalues of the multi-index matrix entering the (linear) relation between canonical velocities and momenta to obtain the set of primary constraints. The canonical Hamiltonian is then built with the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse of that matrix. The set of constraints, including the subsequent secondary constraints, completes a first class algebra. This means that all of them generate gauge transformations. The gauge freedoms are basically the diffeomorphisms, and the (local) Lorentz transformations of the vielbein. In particular, the ADM algebra of general relativity is recovered as a sub-algebra.

  14. Spiritual and religious aspects of torture and scalping among the Indian cultures in Eastern North America, from ancient to colonial times

    Juha Hiltunen


    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago a common perception prevailed that the historic­al Native Americans were very prone to violence and warfare. Scalping and torture were seen as a specific custom attached into their ideology and sociocultural ethos. However in the 1960s a completely reversed picture started to emerge, following the course of other worldwide movements, such as ethnic rights, pan-Indianism, ecological conscience, revisionist historiography and so on. Immediately the Native American people came to be seen as the victims of the European colonialism and the Whites were the bad guys who massacred innocent women and children, either at Sand Creek or in Vietnam. Books were written in which the historians pointed out that the practice of scalping was actually not present in the Americas before the whites came. This theory drew sustenance from some early colonial accounts, especially from the Dutch and New England colonies, where it was documented that a special bounty was offered for Indian scalps. According to this idea, the practice of scalping among the Indians escalated only after this. On the other hand, the blame fell on the Iroquois tribesmen, whose cruel fighting spread terror throughout the seventeenth century, when they expanded an empire in the north eastern wilderness. This accords with those theorists who wanted to maintain a more balanced view of the diffusion of scalping and torture, agreeing that these traits were indeed present in Pre-Columbian America, but limited only to the Iroquoians of the east. Colonial American history has been rewritten every now and then. In the 1980s, and in the field of archaeology especially, a completely new set of insights have arisen. There has been a secondary burial of the myth of Noble Savage and a return of the old Wild Indian idea, but this time stripped of its cartoon stereo­typical attachments. The Indians are now seen as being like any other human beings, with their usual mixture of vices

  15. Liposomal formulations of cytotoxic drugs.

    Janknegt, R


    Liposomes are microscopic particles of lipid bilayer membrane that enclose aqueous internal compartments. These drug-delivery systems offer a very interesting opportunity for delivering cytotoxic drugs with equal or improved clinical efficacy and reduced toxicity. The most important clinical application of liposomes until now has been the inclusion of amphotericin B. At the same dose level, liposomal amphotericin B is as effective or slightly less effective than the conventional formulation, but much higher dosages, up to 5-7 mg kg-1day-1, can be given with acceptable toxicity. There are three preparations of cytotoxic drugs in an advanced stage of commercial development. Two of these (Doxil and TLD D99) contain doxorubicin and the other (DaunoXome) contains daunorubicin. The cardiac toxicity of the three preparations under clinical evaluation appears to be low in comparison with conventional doxorubicin or daunorubicin. No direct comparisons between the new formulations are available, so it is not yet possible to make any statements concerning their relative efficacy and toxicity. DaunoXome is the only drug that is approved in any country, and is also the best documented. It is too early to make recommendations concerning the place of these drugs in therapy. The marked increase in concentrations at the site of the tumour has yet to lead to increased therapeutic efficacy. These findings need further investigation. The efficacy of liposomal preparations in Kaposi's sarcoma appears to be similar to that of standard therapy and the clinical tolerance is good. Perhaps combination therapy with other cytotoxic agents could result in improved clinical efficacy. Their cost will probably be high in comparison with standard therapies.

  16. Effects of CT-Localized Scalp Round-Needling on the Blood Rheology, NO and NOS of Patients with Multiple Infarctional Dementia

    Lun Xin; Yang Wenhui; Fu Bing


    Objective: To observe the short-term therapeutic effects of CT-localized scalp round-needling on the blood rheology, nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) of patients with multiple infarctional dementia.Methods: 89 cases of multiple infarctional dementia were randomly divided into an electro-round-needling group (57 cases), and a western medication group (32 cases). The therapeutic effects, including the effects on the blood rheology, NO and NOS, were observed. Results: After receiving same courses of treatment, both the electro-round-needling group and the western medication group showed significant differences in the various kinds of indexes (P< 0.05-0.01). Conclusion: The CT-localized scalp round-needling is an effective therapy for multiple infarctional dementia.

  17. A 92-year-old man with primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma manifesting as a giant scalp mass

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenchuan


    Abstract Rationale: Primary cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is an uncommon entity, representing 10% of all extranodal NHLs. Among all cutaneous sites, the scalp is a rare site of representation. Patient concerns: A 92-year-old Chinese man visited our hospital with a multiple-nodular huge scalp mass on the right parieto-occipital regions. The mass was of 7-month duration and progressively enlarging in size. Diagnoses: On the basis of the result of biopsy, diffuse large B-cell NHL was diagnosed. Interventions: The mass was partially resected by surgery and no further treatment was conducted due to the advanced age and poor physical status. Outcomes: The tumor relapsed in situ after 6 months and the patient died after 2 years. Lessons: This case highlighted the limited access to standard treatment options in patients with advanced age. A thorough examination is necessary to decide upon the treatment for the primary cutaneous lymphoma. PMID:28272240

  18. Effects of the lifting manipulation of scalp acupuncture for raising myodynamia of the affected limbs in hemiplegic patients due to cerebral thrombosis.

    Kong, Yaoqi; Xu, Fu; Lin, Xiurong; Feng, Zhengen; Shi, Hongfei; Yu, Guoqiao; Hu, Lirong; Li, Xinwei; Jiang, Lingzhen


    To provide a new therapy with definite quality controllable therapeutic effects for functional restoration of the affected limbs in hemiplegic patients due to cerebral thrombosis. 180 patients with hemiplegia due to cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into 2 groups: the treatment group (treated with scalp acupuncture by using the lifting manipulation) and the control group (treated with scalp acupuncture by using the twirling manipulation). Evaluations were given for the two groups based on the improvement of myodynamia and comprehensive functions after the treatment. Both groups showed increased myodynamia, but with different cured and much relieved rates (86.67% in the treatment group and 5% in the control group, PScalp acupuncture with the lifting manipulation can dramatically increase myodynamia of the affected limbs in hemiplegic patients due to cerebral thrombosis.

  19. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on the aggregated variables. In this presentation, we propose a general method for solving aggregated formulations, such that the solution is optimal to the original problem. The method is based on applying Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the original...... to mathematical formulations with a different solution space than that for the original formulation, i.e., the aggregated formulation may be a relaxation of the original problem. In a branch-and-bound context, variable aggregation can also lead to a formulation where branching is not trivial, for example when...... and aggregated formulations. Put in a branch-and-bound context, branching can be performed on the original variables to ensure optimality. We show how to apply the method on well-known optimization problems....

  20. Technical tips: verification of accurate placement and labeling of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid/strip electrodes using documentation tools.

    Feravich, Susan M; Keller, Crystal M


    In some instances, evaluation of seizure activity may require the addition of 10-10 scalp electrodes or the placement of intracranial grids and strips. At any given time, different technologists may be responsible for placement, addition, and the care of electrodes for the same patient. The presence of extra surface electrodes or extensive coverage of brain with intracranial electrodes increases the risk of incorrect placement and labeling which can cause treatment errors based on inaccurate reading of EEG recordings. Procedures should be put into place with documentation tools to correctly place, label, and hook-up extra 10-10 scalp and intracranial electrodes without errors. By using written processes and documentation tools, staff are more capable of acquiring safe and accurate patient data which increase good patient outcomes. The processes for placement and hook up of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid and strip electrodes are different and require separate procedures and documentation tools to ensure accuracy. For 10-10 scalp electrode placement, the use of a 10-10 map, labeled tape, and non-duplicating adjacent electrode colors reduces risk of error Documentation of intracranial grid/strip electrodes includes placement map, list of electrode locations in amplifier and a table of cables and corresponding grid/strips with colors. Accurate hook-up is verified by the technologist and the epileptologist and is documented on recording. With the use of documentation tools and verification procedures, the quality of patient outcomes increases while the potential for recording errors is reduced.

  1. SU-E-T-424: Dosimetric Verification of Modulated Electron Radiation Therapy Delivered Using An Electron Specific Multileaf Collimator for Treatment of Scalp Cases

    Eldib, A [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Al-Azhar University Cairo (Egypt); Jin, L; Martin, J; Li, J; Chibani, O; Galloway, T; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mora, G [Universidade de Lisboa, Codex, Lisboa (Portugal)


    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) has the potential to achieve better treatment outcome for shallow tumors such as those of breast and scalp. In a separate study with scalp lesions, MERT was compared to volumetric modulated arc therapy. Our results showed a reduction in the dose reaching the brain with MERT. However dose calculation accuracy and delivery efficiency challenges remain. Thus in the current study we proceed to add more cases to demonstrate MERT beneficial outcome and its delivery accuracy using an electron specific multileaf collimator (eMLC). Methods: We have used the MCBEAM code for treatment head simulation and for generating phase space files to be used as radiation source input for our Monte Carlo based treatment planning system (MC TPS). MCPLAN code is used for calculation of patient specific dose deposition coefficient and for final MERT plan dose calculation. An in-house developed optimization code is used for the optimization process. MERT plans were generated for real patients and head and neck phantom. Film was used for dosimetric verification. The film was cut following the contour of the curved phantom surface and then sealed with black masking tape. In the measurement, the sealed film packet was sandwiched between two adjacent slabs of the head and neck phantom. The measured 2D dose distribution was then compared with calculations. Results: The eMLC allows effective treatment of scalps with multi-lesions spreading around the patient head, which was usually difficult to plan or very time consuming with conventional applicators. MERT continues to show better reduction in the brain dose. The dosimetric measurements showed slight discrepancy, which was attributed to the film setup. Conclusion: MERT can improve treatment plan quality for patients with scalp cancers. Our in-house MC TPS is capable of performing treatment planning and accurate dose calculation for MERT using the eMLC.

  2. On fictitious domain formulations for Maxwell's equations

    Dahmen, W.; Jensen, Torben Klint; Urban, K.


    We consider fictitious domain-Lagrange multiplier formulations for variational problems in the space H(curl: Omega) derived from Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions and the divergence constraint are imposed weakly by using Lagrange multipliers. Both the time dependent and time harmonic...... formulations of the Maxwell's equations are considered. and we derive well-posed formulations for both cases. The variational problem that arises can be discretized by functions that do not satisfy an a-priori divergence constraint....

  3. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit


    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w):...

  4. Formulation of disperse systems science and technology

    Tadros, Tharwat F


    This book presents comprehensively the science and technology behind the formulation of disperse systems like emulsions, suspensions, foams and others. Starting with a general introduction, the book covers a broad range of topics like the role of different classes of surfactants, stability of disperse systems, formulation of different dispersions, evaluation of formulations and many more. Many examples are included, too. Written by the experienced author and editor Tharwart Tadros, this book is indispensable for every scientist working in the field.




    Based on the Ehresmann connection theory and symplectic geometry, the canonical formulation of nonholonomic constrained mechanical systems is described. Following the Lagrangian formulation of the constrained system, the Hamiltonian formulation is given by Legendre transformation. The Poisson bracket defined by an anti-symmetric tensor does not satisfy the Jacobi identity for the nonintegrability of nonholonomic constraints. The constraint manifold can admit symplectic submanifold for some cases, in which the Lie algebraic structure exists.


    K. Jiyauddin *, A. Fadli , J. C. Wei , A. Jawad , A. D. Samer , M. Kaleemullah, S. Budiasih, S. Rasha , M. R. Rasny , Y. K. Sung , A. H. Junainah , H. Todo and Y. Eddy


    Full Text Available Nano-emulsions consist of fine oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions, having droplets covering the size range of 10 - 600 nm. The aim of this study is to formulate nano-emulsion of Clindamycin by using Emulsion Phase Inversion method and olive oil as the oil phase. Pseudo ternary phase diagram was first developed by using distilled water, olive oil and mixture of surfactants (Tween®80 and Span®20 at a ratio of 1:1. Then, appearance test and microscopic examination were done for all the pre-formulation. Three potential pre-formulation were then selected and incorporated with the Clindamycin Phosphate and Methyl Paraben. The mean droplet size and stability studies were done for these three formulations. Clindamycin Nano-emulsions were not obtained using the Emulsion Phase Inversion (EPI method in this study, whereby the mean droplet sizes were in micro-range. However, out of all the three formulations which undergone extensive studies which include the heating-cooling cycle, whereby the formulation F8 and F17 were found to be physically stable. Significant differences were identified on the pH value and viscosity measurement for all the three formulations which undergone the heating-cooling cycle; except for the pH in F17. Furthermore, the formulation F8 had the smallest droplet size of 0.92 µm. Future research on this topic is needed to reduce the droplet size of the formulation.

  7. A new formulation of fenofibrate: suprabioavailable tablets.

    Guichard, J P; Blouquin, P; Qing, Y


    The rationale for, and development of, a new suprabioavailable fenofibrate tablet formulation is described. The new suprabioavailable tablet formulation combines well-established micronisation technology with a new micro-coating process. The new formulation provides more predictable and reliable drug absorption. Owing to the strong relationship between the fenofibrate dissolution performance and its oral bioavailability, equivalent plasma levels of active principal are achieved at a lower dose, with less inter-subject variability and a reduced food effect. The new suprabioavailable tablet may, therefore, be a more efficient and better tolerated formulation.

  8. Necessity of rethinking oral pediatric formulations.

    Bar-Shalom, Daniel


    This commentary reviews the difficulties in formulating oral products for children. The significance of the fragmentation of the pediatric population in terms of development and ability to ingest different dosage formulations is examined. It is postulated that a flexible formulation, acceptable by all patient groups, is needed, and an automated compounding concept is proposed. The finishing of the formulation is done at the dispensing pharmacy using an automated process. The individual components (pudding-like carrier, microencapsulated drug, and the dispensing robot and its software) are reviewed. The involvement of different stakeholders is considered because new regulatory, clinical, and marketing thinking is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    Nagao, Keiichi


    We formulate the complex action theory from a fundamental level so that we can deal with a complex coordinate $q$ and a complex momentum $p$. We extend $| q >$ and $| p>$ to complex $q$ and $p$ by utilizing coherent states of harmonic oscillators. Introducing a philosophy to keep the analyticity in parameter variables of Feynman path integral, we define a modified set of complex conjugate, real and imaginary parts, hermitian conjugates and bras. They enable us to have both orthogonality and completeness relations for $|q >$ and $|p >$ with complex $q$ and $p$. We also pose a theorem on the relation between functions and operators to make it clear to some extent. Furthermore, extending our previous work \\cite{Nagao:2010xu} to the complex coordinate case, we study a system defined by a diagonalizable non-hermitian bounded Hamiltonian, and show that a hermitian Hamiltonian is effectively obtained after a long time development by introducing a proper inner product. If the hermitian Hamiltonian is given in a local...

  10. MOND and its bimetric formulation

    Milgrom, Mordehai


    I first give a succinct account of the MOND paradigm--emphasizing the centrality of scale invariance in the nonrelativistic, deep-MOND limit--and describing rudiments of its phenomenology. I then present my credo, and some generalities, concerning existing MOND theories. Then I concentrate on one relativistic formulation of MOND in the form of a bimetric theory (BIMOND). I describe its various limits: the weak field, with application to gravitational waves, the nonrelativistic limit, and their further deep-MOND (low acceleration) limits, which are scale invariant. Other aspects of BIMOND that have been explored are aspects of cosmology, matter fluctuations in cosmology, and matter-twin-matter interactions. BIMOND remains largely unexplored, despite its promise in several regards: It tends to GR for a0 goes to 0 (a0 is the MOND constant); it has a simple nonrelativistic limit; it describes gravitational lensing correctly; and, it has a generic appearance of a cosmological-constant term that is of order a0^2/c^...

  11. Postmodern string theory stochastic formulation

    Aurilia, A


    In this paper we study the dynamics of a statistical ensemble of strings, building on a recently proposed gauge theory of the string geodesic field. We show that this stochastic approach is equivalent to the Carath\\'eodory formulation of the Nambu-Goto action, supplemented by an averaging procedure over the family of classical string world-sheets which are solutions of the equation of motion. In this new framework, the string geodesic field is reinterpreted as the Gibbs current density associated with the string statistical ensemble. Next, we show that the classical field equations derived from the string gauge action, can be obtained as the semi-classical limit of the string functional wave equation. For closed strings, the wave equation itself is completely analogous to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation used in quantum cosmology. Thus, in the string case, the wave function has support on the space of all possible spatial loop configurations. Finally, we show that the string distribution induces a multi-phase, or ...

  12. Investigation of Alteration in the Levels of Iron and Copper in Scalp Hair Samples of Patients Having Different Types of Viral Hepatitis.

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem G; Talpur, Farah Naz; Shah, Faheem; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Brahman, Kapil Dev


    The aim of this study was to measure the alterations of copper and iron contents in scalp hair samples of hepatitis A-E patients of both genders, same age group, and socioeconomic status. For comparative study, the scalp hair samples of healthy individuals of the same age and socioeconomic status were collected. The concentrations of copper and iron were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using a certified reference material. The results of this study showed that the mean values of copper and iron were higher in scalp hair samples of hepatitis patients than those of age-matched control subjects, while the difference was significant in the cases of patients having viral hepatitis B, C, and D as compared to those who have viral hepatitis A and E (p < 0.001). It was concluded that the overload of copper and iron in the human body may cause lipid peroxidation and eventually damage the hepatic system.

  13. Unusual explosive growth of a squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp after electrical burn injury and subsequent coverage by sequential free flap vascular connection – a case report

    Beier Justus P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinomos may arise from chronic ulcerating wounds in scars, most commonly postburn scars. Tumour growth usually takes place over months to years. Localization on the scalp is a relatively rare condition. Case presentation This report presents the case of a 63-year-old man with chronic ulceration of a postburn scar of the scalp due to an electrical burn 58 years ago. Sudden tumour growth started within weeks and on presentation already had extended through the skull into frontal cortex. After radical tumour resection, defect was covered with a free radial forearm flap. Local recurrence occurred 6 weeks later. Subsequent wide excision including discard of the flap and preservation of the radial vessels was followed by transfer of a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap, using the radial vessels of the first flap as recipient vessels. The patient received radiotherapy post-operatively. There were no problems with flap survivals or wound healing. Due to rapidly growing recurrence the patient died 2 months later. Conclusion Explosive SCC tumour growth might occur in post-burn scars after more than 50 years. As a treatment option the use of sequential free flap connections might serve in repeated extensive tumour resections, especially in the scalp region, where suitable donor vessels are often located in distance to the defect.

  14. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd


    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Experimental Validation of a Dry Non-Invasive Multi-Channel Mouse Scalp EEG Sensor through Visual Evoked Potential Recordings

    Kim, Donghyeon; Yeon, Chanmi; Kim, Kiseon


    In this paper, we introduce a dry non-invasive multi-channel sensor for measuring brainwaves on the scalps of mice. The research on laboratory animals provide insights to various practical applications involving human beings and other animals such as working animals, pets, and livestock. An experimental framework targeting the laboratory animals has the potential to lead to successful translational research when it closely resembles the environment of real applications. To serve scalp electroencephalography (EEG) research environments for the laboratory mice, the dry non-invasive scalp EEG sensor with sixteen electrodes is proposed to measure brainwaves over the entire brain area without any surgical procedures. We validated the proposed sensor system with visual evoked potential (VEP) experiments elicited by flash stimulations. The VEP responses obtained from experiments are compared with the existing literature, and analyzed in temporal and spatial perspectives. We further interpret the experimental results using time-frequency distribution (TFD) and distance measurements. The developed sensor guarantees stable operations for in vivo experiments in a non-invasive manner without surgical procedures, therefore exhibiting a high potential to strengthen longitudinal experimental studies and reliable translational research exploiting non-invasive paradigms. PMID:28208777

  16. Model-Based Analysis and Optimization of the Mapping of Cortical Sources in the Spontaneous Scalp EEG

    Andrei V. Sazonov


    Full Text Available The mapping of brain sources into the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG depends on volume conduction properties of the head and on an electrode montage involving a reference. Mathematically, this source mapping (SM is fully determined by an observation function (OF matrix. This paper analyses the OF-matrix for a generation model for the desynchronized spontaneous EEG. The model involves a four-shell spherical volume conductor containing dipolar sources that are mutually uncorrelated so as to reflect the desynchronized EEG. The reference is optimized in order to minimize the impact in the SM of the sources located distant from the electrodes. The resulting reference is called the localized reference (LR. The OF-matrix is analyzed in terms of the relative power contribution of the sources and the cross-channel correlation coefficient for five existing references as well as for the LR. It is found that the Hjorth Laplacian reference is a fair approximation of the LR, and thus is close to optimum for practical intents and purposes. The other references have a significantly poorer performance. Furthermore, the OF-matrix is analyzed for limits to the spatial resolution for the EEG. These are estimated to be around 2 cm.

  17. Alterations in the Th1/Th2 balance in breast cancer patients using reflexology and scalp massage.

    Green, Victoria L; Alexandropoulou, Afroditi; Walker, Mary B; Walker, Andrew A; Sharp, Donald M; Walker, Leslie G; Greenman, John


    The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can adversely affect quality of life. Here the aim was to determine the effects of reflexology on host defences and endocrine function in women with early breast cancer. Six weeks after surgery for early breast cancer, 183 women were randomly assigned to self-initiated support (SIS), SIS plus foot reflexology, or SIS plus scalp massage. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum were isolated at T1 (6 weeks post surgery; baseline), T2 and T3 (4 and 10 weeks post completion of intervention, respectively). Lymphocyte phenotyping found that CD25(+) cells were significantly higher in the massage group compared with the SIS group at T3. The percentage of T cells, and more specifically the T helper subset expressing IL4, decreased significantly in the massage group compared with the SIS group at T3. This change was accompanied by an increase in the percentage of CD8(+) T cytotoxic cells expressing IFNγ in the massage group. Natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cell cytotoxicity measurements, serum levels of cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone, and flow cytometric assessment of their corresponding receptors all revealed no significant differences between the three groups of patients. This study provides evidence that the immunological balance of patients can be altered in a potentially beneficial manner by massage. The original trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Registry (ISRCTN87652313).

  18. Familiarity, opinions, experiences and knowledge about scalp cooling: a Dutch survey among breast cancer patients and oncological professionals

    Mijke Peerbooms


    Full Text Available Objective: Scalp cooling (SC is applied to reduce chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA. The aim of this study was to investigate patients′ familiarity and opinions and oncological professionals′ attitude and knowledge about SC in the Netherlands. Methods: Ex breast cancer patients, nurses and medical oncologists (MDs from SC and non-SC hospitals filled out questionnaires. Results: The majority of MDs and nurses were satisfied with the results of SC, as were SC patients. Over 33% of MDs and nurses perceived their knowledge level insufficient to inform patients about effectiveness, which was over 43% for information about safety. MDs main reason to not apply SC was doubt about effectiveness and safety. Nurses generally offered SC to a minority of eligible patients. Patients were frequently unfamiliar with SC before diagnosis. Seventy percent of SC patients with insufficient results (20/52 reported to mind it very much. With expected success rates of 35% and 50%, respectively, 36% and 54% of patients would use SC again. Conclusion: Room for improvement has been shown for both patients′ familiarity and oncological professionals′ knowledge about SC. Sharing knowledge about results, safety and patients′ experiences will improve patient counseling and SC availability. The results of this survey led to the development of a national standard on CIA and SC.

  19. Anatomical substrate and scalp EEG markers are correlated in subjects with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    davide v Moretti


    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndromic diagnosis, encompassing various stage of severity and different anatomo-physiological substrates. The hippocampus is one of the first and most affected brain regions affected by both Alzheimer’s disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Morevoer, cronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD is one of the major risk factor for developing dementia. Recent studies have demonstrated different relationship between the anatomical substrate and scalp electroencephalography (EEG markers. Indeed, modifications of EEG rhythmicity is not proportional to the hippocampal atrophy, whereas changes in EEG activity are directly proportional to the load of subcortical CVD.Quantitative EEG have been demonstrated a reliable tool in identifying specific patterns in dementia research (Coburn et al., 2006; John and Prichep, 2006. The computation of the spectral power and the analysis of the functional coupling of brain areas, through linear coherence, are two of the most known processing methods in EEG research. Two specific EEG markers, theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 frequency ratio have been reliable associated to the atrophy of amygdalo-hippocampal complex. Moreover, theta/gamma ratio has been related to MCI conversion i

  20. Determination of arsenic and mercury level in scalp hair from a selected population in Penang, Malaysia using XRF technique

    Aldroobi, Khalid Saleh Ali; Shukri, A.; Bauk, Sabar; Munem, Eid Mahmoud Abdel; Abuarra, Ali. M. A.


    As with many cities all over the world with active industrial developments, the city of Penang in Malaysia has also the potential of being exposed to industrial pollution. Such exposure would certainly have a detrimental impact on the environment and the people. The determination of trace elemental levels in hair which is well known as a method for environmental exposure monitoring, evaluation of heavy metal poisoning, assessment of nutrient levels and disease diagnoses. In this study, it is selected as the method to determine the possible exposure to pollutants in the form of unwanted trace elements. The natural levels of trace elements in hair are hence monitored first as reference values for the assessment of the possible human contamination levels. In this work the concentrations of As and Hg in the human scalp hair of 100 residents of Penang were determined using XRF. The results of this study are compared with the results obtained in other cities where such measurements have also been carried out.

  1. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    Sukumar, A. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)]. E-mail:; Subramanian, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)


    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  2. Fetal scalp stimulation test: an adjunct to intermittent auscultation in non-reassuring fetal status during labor.

    Rathore, Asmita M; Ramji, Siddarth; Devi, Chabungbam Bijayalakshmi; Saini, Sushila; Manaktala, Usha; Batra, Swaraj


    To evaluate fetal scalp stimulation test (FSST) as an adjunct to intermittent auscultation in diagnosis of intrapartum fetal acidosis and associate result of FSST with cord blood pH and immediate neonatal outcome. This study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in India. Digital FSST was performed in seven hundred and fifty women in labor with singleton gestation ≥37 weeks, cephalic presentation and fetal heart abnormalities and/or thick meconium stained amniotic fluid. Intermittent auscultation was used for fetal monitoring during labor. The outcome measure was cord blood pH fetal acidosis is 44% and negative predictive value is 83%. The likelihood ratio for acidosis with noncreative FSST is 2.57. Non-reactive FSST is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. The positive and negative predictive values of FSST to diagnose fetal cord blood pH < 7.20 during labor are 44% & 83%, respectively. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. [Variations of pain in the treatment of one classical acupuncture-point versus one point of Yamamoto's new scalp acupuncture].

    Ogal, H P; Hafer, J; Ogal, M; Krumholz, W; Herget, H F; Hempelmann, G


    In an experimental design the pain reduction effect of acupuncture is studied and compared to the treatment of a classical acupuncture point and a point of the Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA). Experimental pain stimuli (32 per test person) were set in 42 test persons at the upper calcaneus edge and pain reduction was checked intra-individually by using the following variations of treatment: Acupuncture YNSA basis-point D, Acupuncture at the classical point Xiao Chang Shu = Bl 27, Acupuncture at a placebo point of the head, Acupuncture at a placebo point of the gluteal region. Evaluation of the data as well as a statistical investigation using a bi-factoral variance analysis with repeated measurements of 2 respectively 1 factor yielded following results: There are highly significant differences concerning pain reduction through the stimulation of the YNSA basis-point D and the acupuncture at the classical point Bl 27 (p acupuncture of the YNSA basis-point D and the classical acupuncture point Xiao Chang Shu (Bl 27) with regard to pain reduction induced by experimental stimuli at the calcaneus. These differences are significant.

  4. The Role of Scalp Acupuncture for Relieving the Chronic Pain of Degenerative Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study of Egyptian Women.

    Allam, Hemat; Mohammed, Nagwa Hassan


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic and painful condition secondary to deterioration of cartilage. OA-related pain can be managed pharmacologically together with complementary therapies, such as acupuncture. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA) for relieving pain associated with OA in Egyptian women. At the Female Outpatient Pain Clinic, of the National Research Centre, in Cairo, Egypt, between March 2008 and June 2009, 30 females (ages 27-80) presenting with chronic pain caused by OA were studied. The affected YNSA points were treated for 20 minutes in a single session. Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) prior to, and 1 hour after, the intervention. PREINTERVENTION VAS SCORES WERE: 3-10 (mean 7.43±1.9; P>0.05). Postintervention VAS scores ranged from 0 to 8 (mean 3.37±2.1) with a statistically significant positive correlation between these scores and pretreatment values (P=0.01). Postintervention VAS scores were significantly related to pain locations. Post-hoc analysis showed statistically significant lower postintervention VAS scores for cervical OA, compared to those of lumbosacral OA. YNSA acupuncture is effective in immediate pain relief among females suffering from degenerative OA.

  5. LC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of six glucocorticoids in pharmaceutical formulations and counterfeit cosmetic products.

    Fiori, Jessica; Andrisano, Vincenza


    A screening method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of six corticosteroids (betamethasone 17-valerate BM 17-V, beclomethasone BC, beclomethasone dipropionate BCDP, methylprednisolone MP, budesonide BD, flunisolide FN) was developed in order to control their illegal use in cosmetic and natural products. Indeed, despite corticosteroids are banned in cosmetics, counterfeit products might be present on the market, representing a health hazard. Therefore, effective analytical methods are required to rapidly screen over the counter products in health care shops for counterfeit corticosteroids. The analytical method involves the employment of a Waters Synergy C18 column (150mm×2.0mm I.D.) by using the following mobile phase: A (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile), B (0.1% formic acid in water) in a linear gradient (from A-B 25:75, v/v to A-B 95:5, v/v in 30min) at the flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The detection was performed with an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer in positive polarity, total ion current (TIC) and tandem mass modalities for qualitative purpose; single ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis on the ESI generated most abundant ion for each steroid. The method was fully validated in terms of precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, recovery, and it was applied to the identification and quantification of corticosteroids in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetic products. The mean recovery of BM 17-V, BC, BCDP, MP, BD and FN were found to be 101.3, 101.5, 98.8, 98.9, 98.1, 99.0%, respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were comprised in the range 29-95ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time this mix of glucocorticoids were simultaneously determined in cosmetic products by using a fully validated method. BMV, in its two isomeric forms BM 17-V and BM 21-V, was found to be illegally present in one cream sample (A) with the total concentration level

  6. New ethanol and propylene glycol free gel formulations containing a minoxidil-methyl-β-cyclodextrin complex as promising tools for alopecia treatment.

    Lopedota, Angela; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopalco, Antonio; Selva, Stefano; Ragni, Lorella; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo


    New topical totally aqueous formulations that improve the low water solubility of minoxidil and realize an adequate permeability of drug in the skin are proposed. These formulations are lacking in propylene glycol and alcohol that are the principal irritant ingredients present in minoxidil commercial solutions. In order to enhance poor water solubility of minoxidil randomly methyl-β-cyclodextrin was used, and four hydrogels such as, calcium alginate, sodium alginate, carbopol 934 and hydroxyethylcellulose were utilized to ensure a prolonged time of contact with the scalp. The inclusion complex minoxidil/methyl-β-cyclodextrin with a molar ratio 1:1 was obtained by freeze drying and evaluated by NMR, FT-IR and DSC analysis. An apparent stability constant of formed inclusion complex was calculated by phase solubility diagram and its value was 400 M(-1). The solid inclusion complex was used to prepare gel formulations with similar dose to minoxidil commercial solution. The gels were evaluated for various technological parameters including rheological behavior, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation through pig skin. The best performance was observed for the calcium alginate formulation.

  7. [Study on the effect of cluster needling of scalp acupuncture on the plasticity protein MAP-2 in rats with focal cerebral infarction].

    Zhu, Wen-zeng; Ni, Jin-xia; Tang, Qiang; Dong, Gui-rong; Li, Hong-ying


    To investigate the material base and underlying mechanism of the effect of cluster needling of scalp acupuncture on the neuronal plasticity in rats with focal cerebral infarction. The model rats with acute cerebral infarction were made by blocking the middle cerebral artery with monofilament. One hundred and thirty two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham-operation group (A), model group (B), point-to-point scalp acupuncture group (C) and cluster-needling of scalp acupunture group (D). Puncturing from "Baihui (GV 20)" to "Qubin (GB 7)" was used in group C. Cluster needling of scalp acupuncture was used in group D, in which needles were inserted forward and slantingly into "Baihui (GV 20)" and its left and right sides at 4 mm. In both groups, the treatment was carried out with rapid twirling reinforcing-reducing for 1 min then retaining needle for 30 min, once a day, 6 days in one course, for treating 4 courses. There was no treatment for group A and B. The change of neurological function was evaluated with Bederson score, while the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in the ischemic penumbra was examined with immunohistochemistry (streptavidin-peroxidase method). In comparison,with group B, the score of neurological function in group D decreased on 7th day (P<0.05), while the scors in group C and D also decreased on 14th and 28th days (both P<0.05). As compared with group C, the score of neurological function in group D obviously decreased on 28th days (P<0. 05). Comparing with group B, the expression of MAP-2 on the ischemic cortex was significantly increased in group D and C on 7th, 14th and 28th days (all P<0. 05), however, this expression in group D was higher than that in group C on 14th and 28th days (P<0. 05). Cluster needling of scalp acupuncture can improve the neurological function of rats with focal cerebral infarction, and increase the expression of MAP-2 in the ischemic penumbra.

  8. Environmental biomonitoring of essential and toxic elements in human scalp hair using accelerated microwave-assisted sample digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

    Kumakli, Hope; Duncan, A'ja V; McDaniel, Kiara; Mehari, Tsdale F; Stephenson, Jamira; Maple, Lareisha; Crawford, Zaria; Macemore, Calvin L; Babyak, Carol M; Fakayode, Sayo O


    Human scalp hair samples were collected and used to assess exposure to toxic elements and essential elements in the state of North Carolina, USA using accelerated microwave assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES were appropriate for elemental analysis in scalp hair with detection limits as low as 0.0001 mg/L for Cd, good linearity (R(2) > 0.9978), and percent recoveries that ranged from 96 to 106% for laboratory-fortified-blanks and 88-112% for sample spike recovery study. The concentrations of essential elements in scalp hair were larger than those of toxic elements, with Ca having the highest average concentration (3080 μg/g, s = 14,500, n = 194). Some of the maximum concentrations observed for As (65 μg/g), Ni (331 μg/g), Cd (2.96 μg/g), and Cr (84.6 μg/g) in individual samples were concerning, however. Samples were statistically analyzed to determine the influence of race, gender, smoking habits, or age on the elemental concentrations in scalp hair. Higher concentrations of essential elements were observed in the scalp hair of Caucasians, females, and non-smokers, and the differences were often significant at a 90% confidence level. Several pairs of essential elements, for example Ca-K, Ca-Mg, and Ca-Zn, were strongly correlated in Caucasian hair but uncorrelated in African-American hair. Similarly, essential elements were strongly correlated in female hair but weakly correlated in male hair. Toxic element pairs (As-Cd, As-Se, Pb-As, and Se-Cd) were strongly correlated in the hair of smokers but uncorrelated in that of non-smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke is a common source of toxic elements in humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Veaceslav Boldescu


    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the role of cyclodextrins in new formulations for the treatment of infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are in the process of design and development. Cyclodextrins play the role of solubilizing agents and promoters of the antimycobacterial substances penetration inside the mycobacterial cell. Different formulations and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  10. Digluconate and Isopropyl Alcohol Biocide Formulation

    Barbara Conway


    Full Text Available Effective surface disinfection is a fundamental infection control strategy within healthcare. This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of novel biocide formulations comprising 5% and 2% eucalyptus oil (EO combined with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA contained within a wipe. The efficacy of this novel antimicrobial formulation to remove and eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans from steel surfaces was investigated. Adpression studies of pre-contaminated wipes were also utilised to assess their potential to induce cross-contamination between hard surfaces. Furthermore, the bactericidal nature of the EO-formulation was established in addition to time-kill. The EO-containing formulations demonstrated bactericidal antimicrobial efficacy against all microorganisms and did not induce surface cross-contamination. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 between the 5% and 2% EO formulations in their ability to remove microorganisms from steel surfaces, however both significantly (p < 0.05 removed more than the control formulations. Microbial biofilms were eliminated within 10 min (p < 0.05 when exposed to the EO formulations. Our novel EO-formulation demonstrated rapid antimicrobial efficacy for potential disinfection and elimination of microbial biofilms from hard surfaces and may therefore be a useful adjunct to current infection control strategies currently employed within healthcare facilities.

  11. Bioavailability of sustained-release theophylline formulations.

    Bonora Regazzi, M; Rondanelli, R; Vidale, E; Cristiani, D


    Sustained-release formulations of theophylline as well as of other drugs are designed to effect a delayed but constant release of the active principle in the gastrointestinal tract, thus ensuring more prolonged blood level curves. This study was made to assess the bioavailability of two sustained-release microencapsulated formulations and one sustained-release Diffucaps formulation, in comparison with an equivalent dose of theophylline solution. As regards bioavailability, none of the three formulations differed significantly from the reference formulation. The blood levels at steady state were estimated on the basis of data obtained after a single-dose study. All three sustained release formulations showed good results after prolonged administration in terms of peaks and troughs. The time duration at which the theophylline plasma levels remain higher than 75% of the maximum steady-state levels, following 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated: for the sustained-release microencapsulated formulations this time duration reaches 100% of the dosing interval. A multiple-dose administration of the sustained-release formulations used in this study should guarantee almost complete time coverage, with blood levels sharply exceeding the minimum threshold level of the theophylline therapeutic range.

  12. Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs


    2000 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED AD Award Number DAMDl7-92-C-2035 TITLE: Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs DAMD17-92-C-2035 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas Flanagan, Ph.D. 7

  13. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Ji-Huan He


    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  14. Constructing Extended Formulations from Reflection Relations

    Kaibel, Volker


    There are many examples of optimization problems whose associated polyhedra can be described much nicer, and with way less inequalities, by projections of higher dimensional polyhedra than this would be possible in the original space. However, currently not many general tools to construct such extended formulations are available. In this paper, we develop a framework of polyhedral relations that generalizes inductive constructions of extended formulations via projections, and we particularly elaborate on the special case of reflection relations. The latter ones provide polynomial size extended formulations for several polytopes that can be constructed as convex hulls of the unions of (exponentially) many copies of an input polytope obtained via sequences of reflections at hyperplanes. We demonstrate the use of the framework by deriving small extended formulations for the G-permutahedra of all finite reflection groups G (generalizing both Goeman's extended formulation of the permutahedron of size O(n log n) an...

  15. Inherent formulation issues of kinase inhibitors.

    Herbrink, M; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B


    The small molecular Kinase Inhibitor (smKI) drug class is very promising and rapidly expanding. All of these drugs are administered orally. The clear relationship between structure and function has led to drugs with a general low intrinsic solubility. The majority of the commercial pharmaceutical formulations of the smKIs are physical mixtures that are limited by the low drug solubility of a salt form. This class of drugs is therefore characterized by an impaired and variable bioavailability rendering them costly and their therapies suboptimal. New formulations are sparingly being reported in literature and patents. The presented data suggests that continued research into formulation design can help to develop more efficient and cost-effective smKI formulation. Moreover, it may also be of help in the future design of the formulations of new smKIs.

  16. Subscale testing of prompt agent defeat formulations

    Knott, A.; Stamatis, D.; Svingala, F.; Lightstone, J.; Miller, K.; Bensman, M.; Bohmke, M.


    There is a need to improve the current bioagent defeat systems with formulations that produce lower peak pressure and impulse, sustained high temperatures, and release of biocidal species for prompt defeat applications. In this work, explosive charge configurations similar to fuel-air explosives were detonated in a semi-enclosed chamber configuration. Binder type and fuel-to-oxidizer ratios were varied to observe the effects on combustion performance. Thermocouple measurements and high-speed video were used to monitor the combustion of the dispersed formulation. The down-selected formulations were then tested in a sub-scale vented agent defeat system developed to evaluate performance of formulations against aerosolized Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores. Diagnostics including thermocouples and piezoelectric pressure gauges were utilized to characterize the detonation event. Biological sampling with surface coupons, liquid impingement, and filters of the post detonation environment were utilized to determine spore survivability and to rank the relative effectiveness of each formulation.

  17. What can be found in scalp EEG spectrum beyond common frequency bands. EEG-fMRI study

    Marecek, R.; Lamos, M.; Mikl, M.; Barton, M.; Fajkus, J.; I, Rektor; Brazdil, M.


    Objective. The scalp EEG spectrum is a frequently used marker of neural activity. Commonly, the preprocessing of EEG utilizes constraints, e.g. dealing with a predefined subset of electrodes or a predefined frequency band of interest. Such treatment of the EEG spectrum neglects the fact that particular neural processes may be reflected in several frequency bands and/or several electrodes concurrently, and can overlook the complexity of the structure of the EEG spectrum. Approach. We showed that the EEG spectrum structure can be described by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), a method which blindly uncovers the spatial-temporal-spectral patterns of EEG. We used an algorithm based on variational Bayesian statistics to reveal nine patterns from the EEG of 38 healthy subjects, acquired during a semantic decision task. The patterns reflected neural activity synchronized across theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands and spread over many electrodes, as well as various EEG artifacts. Main results. Specifically, one of the patterns showed significant correlation with the stimuli timing. The correlation was higher when compared to commonly used models of neural activity (power fluctuations in distinct frequency band averaged across a subset of electrodes) and we found significantly correlated hemodynamic fluctuations in simultaneously acquired fMRI data in regions known to be involved in speech processing. Further, we show that the pattern also occurs in EEG data which were acquired outside the MR machine. Two other patterns reflected brain rhythms linked to the attentional and basal ganglia large scale networks. The other patterns were related to various EEG artifacts. Significance. These results show that PARAFAC blindly identifies neural activity in the EEG spectrum and that it naturally handles the correlations among frequency bands and electrodes. We conclude that PARAFAC seems to be a powerful tool for analysis of the EEG spectrum and might bring novel insight to the

  18. Alkaline-earth elements of scalp hair and presence of hypertension in housewives: A perspective of chronic effect.

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Sun, Ying; Yan, Jingjing; Lu, Qun; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen


    The relationship between population intakes of alkaline-earth elements (AEEs) and hypertension risk remains under discussion. Hair AEE concentrations can indicate their intake levels into human body. Thus, we aimed to investigate an association of hair AEE concentrations with hypertension risk, and the potential effect of dietary habit on this association. We recruited 398 housewives [163 subjects with hypertension (case group) and 235 subjects without hypertension (control group)] in Shanxi Province of north China. The scalp hair grown in the recent 2 years of each subject was collected and analyzed for the four concerned AEEs [i.e. calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba)]. Our study results revealed that median concentrations (μg/g hair) of hair AEEs in the case group were systematically lower than those in control group [i.e. 701 vs. 1271 of Ca, 55.2 vs. 88.3 of Mg, 4.60 vs. 10.4 of Sr, and 1.02 vs. 1.68 of Ba]. Lower levels of the four individual AEEs of hair were associated with an increased presence of hypertension, respectively. Moreover, hair AEE concentrations were all positively correlated with the ingestion frequencies of meat, eggs, fresh vegetables, and fruits, while negatively with that of salted vegetables. A high ingestion frequency of fresh vegetables was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension with or without adjusting confounders, while salted vegetables revealed a reverse tend. It was concluded that low hair AEEs, as markers of their long-term dietary intake, were associated with the presence of hypertension in a rural Chinese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amphotericin B formulations and drug targeting.

    Torrado, J J; Espada, R; Ballesteros, M P; Torrado-Santiago, S


    Amphotericin B is a low-soluble polyene antibiotic which is able to self-aggregate. The aggregation state can modify its activity and pharmacokinetical characteristics. In spite of its high toxicity it is still widely employed for the treatment of systemic fungal infections and parasitic disease and different formulations are marketed. Some of these formulations, such as liposomal formulations, can be considered as classical examples of drug targeting. The pharmacokinetics, toxicity and activity are clearly dependent on the type of amphotericin B formulation. New drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanospheres and microspheres can result in higher concentrations of AMB in the liver and spleen, but lower concentrations in kidney and lungs, so decreasing its toxicity. Moreover, the administration of these drug delivery systems can enhance the drug accessibility to organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow) otherwise inaccessible to the free drug. During the last few years, new AMB formulations (AmBisome, Abelcet, and Amphotec) with an improved efficacy/toxicity ratio have been marketed. This review compares the different formulations of amphotericin B in terms of pharmacokinetics, toxicity and activity and discusses the possible drug targeting effect of some of these new formulations.

  20. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    Pi-Ju Tsai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.

  1. Formulation of heat absorbing glasses

    Álvarez-Casariego, Pedro


    Full Text Available In the thermal exchanges between buildings and environment, glazing is an element of major importance, for it largely influences the so-called Solar Heat Gain and Thermal Losses. These parameters can be modified by applying different type of coatings onto glass surface or by adding colorant compounds during glass melting. The latter is a cheaper way to control the Solar Heat Gain. The knowledge of the laws governing the interaction between colorant compounds and solar radiation, allows us to define glass formulations achieving specific aesthetic requirements and solar energy absorption. In this paper two examples of application of the modelling of glass colorants spectral absorptance are presented. First is addressed to obtaining a glass with high luminous transmittance and low solar energy transmittance, and the other one to obtaining a glass with neutral colour appearance and minimized solar energy transmittance. Calculation formulas are defined together with photometric properties so-obtained. These type of glasses are particularly suitable to be used as building and automotive glazing, for they retain the mechanical characteristics and possibilities of transformation of standard glass.

    En los intercambios de energía entre un edificio y el medio exterior, el vidrio es el elemento de mayor importancia, por su influencia en la Ganancia de Calor Solar y en las Pérdidas Térmicas. Estos parámetros pueden ser modificados mediante el depósito de capas sobre el vidrio o mediante la adición de compuestos absorbentes de la radiación solar. Esta última vía es la más económica para controlar la Ganancia de Calor Solar. El conocimiento de las leyes que gobiernan la interacción de los diversos colorantes con la radiación solar, permite definir formulaciones de vidrios con características especificas de tipo estético y de absorción energética. En este trabajo se presentan dos ejemplos de aplicación de esta modelización de las

  2. A covariant formulation of classical spinning particle

    Cho, J H; Kim, J K; Jin-Ho Cho; Seungjoon Hyun; Jae-Kwan Kim


    Covariantly we reformulate the description of a spinning particle in terms of the which entails all possible constraints explicitly; all constraints can be obtained just from the Lagrangian. Furthermore, in this covariant reformulation, the Lorentz element is to be considered to evolve the momentum or spin component from an arbitrary fixed frame and not just from the particle rest frame. In distinction with the usual formulation, our system is directly comparable with the pseudo-classical formulation. We get a peculiar symmetry which resembles the supersymmetry of the pseudo-classical formulation.

  3. The Electromagnetic Duality Formulation of Geometric Phases

    Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Kang


    This paper focuses on the electromagnetic(EM) duality formulation of geometric phases of Aharonov-Bohm(A-B) effect and Aharonov-Casher(A-C) effect. Through the two four-vector potential formulation of electromagnetic theory, we construct a EM duality formulation for both A-B effect and A-C effect. The He-McKellar-Wilkens(HMW) effect is included as a EM duality counterpart of the A-C effect, and also the EM duality counterpart of the A-B effect is also predicted.

  4. Geometric Formulation of Gauge Theory of Gravity

    WUNing; ZHANGDa-Hua; RUANTu-Nan


    DitTerential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied in this paper. The quantum gauge theory of gravity is formulated completely in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. In order to study the relationship between quantum gauge theory of gravity and traditional quantum gravity which is formulated in curved space, it is important to set up the geometry picture of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The correspondence between quantum gauge theory of gravity and differential geometry is discussed and the geometry picture of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied.

  5. Geometric Formulation of Gauge Theory of Gravity

    WU Ning; ZHANG Da-Hua; RUAN Tu-Nan


    Differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied in this paper. The quantumgauge theory of gravity is formulated completely in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. In order to studythe relationship between quantum gauge theory of gravity and traditional quantum gravity which is formulated in curvedspace, it is important to set up the geometry picture of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The correspondence betweenquantum gauge theory of gravity and differential geometry is discussed and the geometry picture of quantum gaugetheory of gravity is studied.

  6. A possible gauge formulation for gravity?

    Gaitan, R


    A possible Yang-Mills like lagrangian formulation for gravity is explored. The starting point consists on two next assumptions. First, the metric is assumed as a real map from a given gauge group. Second, a gauge invariant lagrangian density is considered with the condition that it is related to the Einstein one up to a bound term. We study a stationary solution of the abelian case for the spherical symmetry, which is connected to the M\\"oller's Maxwell like formulation for gravity. Finally, it is showed the consistence of this formulation with the Newtonian limit.

  7. Formulation and stability of cytokine therapeutics.

    Lipiäinen, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Sarkhel, Sanjay; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Urtti, Arto; Juppo, Anne


    Cytokines are messenger proteins that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells and control immune responses. Interferons, interleukins, and growth factors have applications in cancer, autoimmune, and viral disease treatment. The cytokines are susceptible to chemical and physical instability. This article reviews the structure and stability issues of clinically used cytokines, as well as formulation strategies for improved stability. Some general aspects for identifying most probable stability concerns, selecting excipients, and developing stable cytokine formulations are presented. The vast group of cytokines offers possibilities for new biopharmaceuticals. The formulation approaches of the current cytokine products could facilitate development of new biopharmaceuticals.

  8. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem.......Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...

  9. Algebraic formulation of higher gauge theory

    Zucchini, Roberto


    In this paper, we present a purely algebraic formulation of higher gauge theory and gauged sigma models based on the abstract theory of graded commutative algebras and their morphisms. The formulation incorporates naturally Becchi - Rouet -Stora - Tyutin (BRST) symmetry and is also suitable for Alexandrov - Kontsevich - Schwartz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ) type constructions. It is also shown that for a full-fledged Batalin-Vilkovisky formulation including ghost degrees of freedom, higher gauge and gauged sigma model fields must be viewed as internal smooth functions on the shifted tangent bundle of a space-time manifold valued in a shifted L∞-algebroid encoding symmetry. The relationship to other formulations where the L∞-algebroid arises from a higher Lie groupoid by Lie differentiation is highlighted.

  10. Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.

    Norris, A. C.


    Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

  11. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Kunikazu Moribe


    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  12. Formulation and characterization of caffeine biodegradable chewing ...

    Methods: Biodegradable plasticized poly(D,L-lactic acid) caffeine-MCGs were formulated with a fixed concentration (15 ... Caffeine serves as a key component in various beverages such as ..... reasonable shelf life, and long-lasting flavour.

  13. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  14. On the Mathematical Formulation of Radiance

    Lessig, Christian; Desbrun, Mathieu


    Radiance is widely regarded as the principal quantity in light transport theory. Yet, the concept of radiance in use today has remained mostly unchanged since Lambert's work in the 18th century. His formulation of the measurement of light intensity is based on classical differentials, and is known to suffer from several theoretical and practical limitations. After tracing the historic development of radiance and its shortcomings, we provide a modern formulation of light intensity measurements that models radiance as a differential form. We demonstrate the utility of this use of exterior calculus for questions in light transport theory by rigorously deriving the cosine term and the area formulation, without the need for postulates or heuristic arguments. The formulation of radiance as a differential form introduced in this paper hence provides the first step towards a modern theory of light transport.

  15. Hepatoprotective activity studies of herbal formulations

    Kamble Manisha


    Full Text Available Traditional system of medicine recommends various hepatoprotective agents and preparations to treat hepatic disorders. Polyherbal formulations F1 and F2 were developed for treatment of liver disorders by exploiting the knowledge of traditional system of medicine and evaluated for hepatoprotective activity using acute liver toxicity models of CCl 4 and Paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. The rats were monitored for morphological changes in liver, biochemical parameter Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase, Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase, Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, and Serum bilirubin, histopathological studies, and pentobarbitone sleeping time. Both of these formulations F1 and F2 showed significant hepatoprotective activity at dose of 400 mg/kg, which was comparable to silymarin at 6 mg/kg. Formulations F1 and F2 are effective both as prophylactic and therapeutic in experimental liver damage. Biochemical parameters showed better results for formulation F2 but morphological, pentobarbitone sleeping time and hisptopathological observation were similar for both the groups.

  16. The Boltzmann equation in the difference formulation

    Szoke, Abraham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brooks III, Eugene D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    First we recall the assumptions that are needed for the validity of the Boltzmann equation and for the validity of the compressible Euler equations. We then present the difference formulation of these equations and make a connection with the time-honored Chapman - Enskog expansion. We discuss the hydrodynamic limit and calculate the thermal conductivity of a monatomic gas, using a simplified approximation for the collision term. Our formulation is more consistent and simpler than the traditional derivation.

  17. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    Stuurman, F.E.


    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The majority of new anti-cancer drugs are oral pharmaceutical formulations, consisting of new chemical entities, like molecular targeted agents and novel variants of existing drugs. The development of oral ...

  18. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul


    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property mea...... on the design of an insect repellent lotion will show that the software is an essential instrument in decision making, and that it reduces time and resources since experimental efforts can be focused on one or few product alternatives....

  19. Prophylactic plastic surgery closure of neurosurgical scalp incisions reduces the incidence of wound complications in previously-operated patients treated with bevacizumab (Avastin®) and radiation.

    Golas, Alyssa Reiffel; Boyko, Tatiana; Schwartz, Theodore H; Stieg, Philip E; Boockvar, John A; Spector, Jason A


    Neurosurgical craniotomy, craniectomy, or other trans-galeal interventions are performed for a variety of indications, including the resection of benign or malignant tumors, hematoma evacuation, and for the management of intractable seizure disorders. Despite an overall low complication rate of intervention, wound healing complications such as dehiscence, surgical site infection, and cerebrospinal fluid leak are not uncommon. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent scalp incision closure at a single institution by a single plastic surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Sixty patients (83 procedures) were included in the study. Fifty-seven patients (95.0 %) underwent previous craniotomy, craniectomy, or other trans-galeal procedure. Of the total 60 patients, 35 patients received preoperative radiation. Sixteen patients received bevacizumab prior to their index case, while 12 received bevacizumab postoperatively. Ten patients (16.7 %) required additional plastic surgical intervention for wound complications after their index plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgery was consulted prophylactically in 34 patients (38 procedures). When plastic surgery was consulted prophylactically, 4 patients (11.8 %) required further wound revision. None of the 14 patients who underwent prophylactic plastic surgery closure for previous scalp incision, preoperative bevacizumab, and XRT administration required re-intervention. Plastic surgery closure of complex scalp incisions reduces the incidence of wound complications among patients who underwent previous neurosurgical intervention, XRT administration, and preoperative bevacizumab administration. This is particularly true when plastic surgery closure is performed "prophylactically." Further collaboration between the neurosurgical and plastic surgery teams is therefore warranted, particularly in the setting of these high-risk cases.

  20. Temperature controlled ionic liquid-based dispersive micro-extraction using two ligands, for determination of aluminium in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's patients: A multivariate study

    Arain, Mariam S.; Arain, Salma A.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Ali, Jamshaid; Naeemulllah; Arain, Sadaf S.; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Mughal, Moina Akhtar


    A green and sensitive temperature controlled dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-DLLME) methodology based on the application of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim][PF6], as an extractant solvent was proposed for the preconcentration of trace levels of aluminium (Al3+) in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's (AD) patients, prior to analyzing by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Al3+ was complexed with 8-hydrooxyquinoline (oxine) (L1) and 3,5,7,2‧-4‧ pentahydroxy flavone (morin) (L2) separately and then extracted by IL at temperature (50 ± 2.0 °C). Some effective factors that influence the TIL-DLLME efficiency such as pH, ligands concentrations, volume of IL, ionic strength, and incubation time were investigated and optimized by multivariate analysis. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3 s) and enhancement factor were 0.56 μg L-1, 0.64 μg L-1 and 85, 73 for both ligands, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate determinations of 100 μg L-1 Al3+ complexed with oxine and morin were found to be 3.88% and 4.74%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material of human hair (NCSZC81002).and applied satisfactorily to the determination of Al3+ in acid digested scalp hair samples of AD patients and healthy controls. The resulted data shows significant higher level in scalp hair samples of AD male patients with related to referents of same age and socioeconomic status.