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Sample records for dipotassium boro maleate

  1. Crystal structure of levomepromazine maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Tamás Gál

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C19H25N2OS+·C4H3O4− [systematic name: (S-3-(2-methoxyphenothiazin-10-yl-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium hydrogen maleate], comprises two (S-levomepromazine cations and two hydrogen maleate anions. The conformations of the two cations are similar. The major difference relates to the orientation of the methoxy substituent at the phenothiazine ring system. The crystal components form a three-dimensional supramolecular network via N—H...O, C—H...O and C—H...π interactions. A comparison of the conformations of the levomepromazine cations with those of the neutral molecule and similar protonated molecules reveals significant conformational flexibility of the phenothiazine ring system and the substituent at the phenothiazine N atom.

  2. Embedment of Chlorpheniramine Maleate in Directly Compressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) from its matrix tablets prepared by direct compression. Methods: Different ratios of compritol and kollidon SR (containing 50 % matrix component) in 1:1, 1:2, ... Magnesium stearate and hydrochloric acid were.

  3. Comparative investigation on the spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liaolin; Dong, Guoping; Peng, Mingying; Qiu, Jianrong

    We report on the spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses. The stimulated absorption and emission cross sections were estimated. Only one emission at 596 nm and 605 nm is observed in Pr3+-doped boro-phosphate and boro-germo-silicate glasses, respectively, while three emissions at 605 nm, 612 nm and 645 nm are observed in Pr3+-doped tellurite glass when excited at 467 nm. The fluorescence lifetime at 600 nm in Pr3+-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses is 137 μs, 73 μs and 51 μs, respectively. The emissions from Pr3+-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses show different decay behaviors and can be well explained by multiphonon relaxation theory.

  4. Analysis of Hydraulic Flood Control Structure at Putat Boro River

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzziyatno, Ruhban

    2015-01-01

    Putat Boro River is one of the main drainage systems of Surakarta city which drains into Bengawan Solo river. The primary problem when flood occur is the higher water level of Bengawan Solo than Boro River and then backwater occur and inundates Putat Boro River. The objective of the study is to obtain operational method of Putat Boro River floodgate to control both inflows and outflows not only during flood but also normal condition. It also aims to know the Putat Boro rivers floodgate op...

  5. Compound list: diethyl maleate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available diethyl maleate DEM 00A05 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/diethyl_male.../Rat/in_vitro/diethyl_maleate.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/diethyl_maleate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ... ...ate.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate in pure form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two simple, quick and sensitive methods were described for the spectrophotometric determination of pizotefin maleate (PZT) either in pure form or pharmaceutical form (tablets). The methods were based on the reaction of pizotefin maleate as 'n' electron donor with chloranilic acid (p-CLA) and 7,7,8 ...

  7. Comparative investigation on the spectroscopic properties of Pr³⁺-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liaolin; Dong, Guoping; Peng, Mingying; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-07-01

    We report on the spectroscopic properties of Pr(3+)-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses. The stimulated absorption and emission cross sections were estimated. Only one emission at 596 nm and 605 nm is observed in Pr(3+)-doped boro-phosphate and boro-germo-silicate glasses, respectively, while three emissions at 605 nm, 612 nm and 645 nm are observed in Pr(3+)-doped tellurite glass when excited at 467 nm. The fluorescence lifetime at 600 nm in Pr(3+)-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses is 137 μs, 73 μs and 51 μs, respectively. The emissions from Pr(3+)-doped boro-phosphate, boro-germo-silicate and tellurite glasses show different decay behaviors and can be well explained by multiphonon relaxation theory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin-Loaded Starch-Maleate Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Suh Cem Pang; Soon Hiang Tay; Suk Fun Chin

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the loading of curcumin onto starch maleate (SM) under mild conditions by mixing dissolved curcumin and SM nanoparticles separately in absolute ethanol and ethanol/aqueous (40 : 60 v/v), respectively. Curcumin-loaded starch-maleate (CurSM) nanoparticles were subsequently precipitated from a homogeneous mixture of these solutions in absolute ethanol based on the solvent exchange method. TEM analysis indicated that the diameters of CurSM nanoparticles were ranged between 30...

  9. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Maleat Anhidrat Terhadap Derajat Grafting Maleat Anhidrat Pada High Density Polyethylene ( HDPE ) Dengan Inisiator Benzoil Peroksida

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Pranata Sitepu

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh konsentrasi maleat anhidrat terhadap derajat grafting maleat anhidrat pada High Density Polyethylene ( HDPE ) dengan inisiator Benzoil Peroksida, dilakukan dengan teknik pengolahan reaktif dalam Internal Mixer pada suhu 1450C dan waktu proses selama 60 menit dengan variasi komposisi HDPE:MA:BPO, 95:3:2, 92:6:2, 89:9:2, 86:12:2 dan 83:15:2. Selanjutnya dilakukan penentuan derajat grafting dengan metode titrasi dan analisis spektra FTIR untuk menen...

  10. Studies on boro cadmium tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri Pavani, P.; Suresh, S.; Chandra Mouli, V.

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the modification effect of the modifier CdO on boro tellurite glass, a series of glasses with compositions (50 - x) CdO- xTeO 2-50B 2O 3 have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Optical absorption, IR and Raman structural studies are carried out on the glass system. The optical absorption studies revealed that the cutoff wave length and refractive index increase while optical band gap ( Eopt) and Urbach energy decreases with increase of CdO content. The IR and Raman studies revealed that structure of glass network consists of [TeO 3]/[TeO 3+1], [TeO 4], [BO 3], [BO 4] and [Cd-Te] linkages .The compositional dependence of different physical parameters such as density, molar volume, oxygen packing density, optical basicity, have been analyzed and discussed.

  11. Adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayali, Yusuf; Yalcin, Yilmaz; Taktak, Suekrue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study, the wear and adhesion properties of BDI were investigated. → Boro-tempering process under several heat treatment conditions was examined. → Optical microscope, SEM and XRD analysis were carried out to investigate the microstructure. → It was observed that boro-tempering process improves micro-hardness and wear properties of ductile irons. -- Abstract: In this study, adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron (BDI) were investigated. Boro-tempering was carried out on two stage processes i.e. boronizing and tempering. At the first stage, ductile iron samples were boronized by using pack process at 900 o C for 1, 3, and 5 h and then, secondly tempered at 250, 300, 350, and 400 o C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of boro-tempered samples showed that FeB and Fe 2 B phases were found on the surface of the samples. The Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test was used to assess the adhesion of boride layer. Test result showed that adhesion decreased with increasing boriding time and increased with increasing tempering temperature. Dry sliding wear tests of these samples were performed against Al 2 O 3 ball at a constant sliding speed and loads of 5 and 10 N. Wear tests indicated that boro-tempering heat treatment increased wear resistance of ductile iron. In addition, it was found that while wear rate of boro-tempered samples decreased with increasing boriding time, there is no significant affect of tempering temperature on wear rate.

  12. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  13. Exposure to methylergonovine maleate as a cause of sirenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Riviello, Chiara; Fichtel, Gertrud; Tommaso, Mariarosaria Di

    2016-07-01

    Sirenomelia is a rare, but deadly condition characterized by fusion of the lower limbs, lower spinal column defects, severe malformations of the urogenital and lower gastrointestinal tract, and an aberrant abdominal umbilical artery. The two main hypotheses, not mutually exclusive, that have been advanced to explain the pathogenesis of sirenomelia are the blastogenetic theory and the vascular disruption theory. We describe a case of sirenomelia, probably associated with the use of methylergonovine maleate, an ergot alkaloid, during the first weeks of pregnancy. On the basis of the mechanisms of vascular disruption and early administration of methylergonovine maleate at a critical stage of organogenesis, we conclude that exposure to methylergonovine maleate could be the cause of the development of sirenomelia. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:643-647, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pheniramine Maleate-Induced Rhabdomyolysis and Aki: Is it Fatal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K; Reddy, M Mallikarjun; Bharathraj, M Y; Jaligidad, Kadappa; Kushal, D P

    2014-01-01

    Pheniramine maleate is an easily accessible, over-the-counterantihistaminic, which is frequently involved in overdoses. Pheniramine has antimuscarinic effect causing tachycardia, dilated pupils, urinary retention, and dry flushed skin, and decreased bowel sounds, confusion, mild increase in body temperature, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures at lethal doses. It has not been implicated as an important cause of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis causing AKI is rarely reported in the literature. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis in pheniramine maleate overdose which required hemodialysis. Since there is a lack of a specific antidote, treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. We report a fatal case of a young male with a very high dose of consumption of pheniramine maleate (4.077 g), which was complicated by seizures, respiratory depression, nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis, and AKI. Despite hemodialysis, ventilator support, and other intensive supportive care, patient could not survive and death ensued due to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome.

  15. Growth and characterization of hexaaquacobalt(II) dipotassium tetrahydrogen tetra-o-phthalate tetrahydrate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110 012 (India); Mahadevan, C.K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India); Meenakshisundaram, S.P., E-mail: aumats2009@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Single crystals of hexaaquacobalt(II) dipotassium tetrahydrogen tetra-o-phthalate tetrahydrate K{sub 2}[Co(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](C{sub 8}H{sub 5}O{sub 4}){sub 4}·4H{sub 2}O (PCHP), a semiorganic light-rose colored crystal of size ∼38 × 16 × 4 mm{sup 3} have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The lattice parameters of the as-grown crystals were obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The functional groups of the phthalate complex were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The UV–Vis optical absorption spectrum of PCHP shows the lower optical cut-off at ∼300 nm and the crystal was transparent in the visible region. The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curves (DC). The DC contains multi-peaks showing the structural grain boundaries. The dielectric, thermal and mechanical behaviors of the specimen were also studied. - Highlights: ► Bulk growth of large size phthalate complex crystals. ► Crystalline perfection of the grown crystal has been determined. ► HRXRD curves compared with pure material and the reasons are analyzed.

  16. Differential behavioral profile induced by the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate within brain areas that project to the nucleus accumbens septi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano López, Luis H; Caif, Fernando; Fraile, Miriam; Tinnirello, Belén; de Gargiulo, Adriana I Landa; Lafuente, José V; Baiardi, Gustavo C; Gargiulo, Pascual A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the agonism on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors was studied within medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) and ventral hipocampus (VH) in the plus-maze test in male rats bilaterally cannulated. These structures send glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS), in which interaction and integration between these afferent pathways has been described. In a previous study of our group, blockade of glutamatergic transmission within NAS induced an anxiolytic like effect. Three rat groups received either saline or dipotassium chlorazepate (1 or 2 μg/1 μl solution) 15 min before testing. Time spent in the open arms (TSOA), time per entry (TPE), extreme arrivals (EA), open and closed arms entries (OAE, CAE) and relationship between open- and closed-arms quotient (OCAQ) were recorded. In the AMY injected group TSOA, OAE and EA were increased by the higher doses of dipotassium chlorazepate (p < 0.01). In the mPFC, TPE was decreased by both doses (p < 0.05). Injection within ventral hippocampus (VH) decreased TSOA, OAE and OCAQ with lower doses (p < 0.05). When the three studied saline groups were compared, TSOA, OAE, EA and OCAQ were enhanced in the VH group when compared to mPFC and AMY (p < 0.001). Insertion of inner canula (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01) and saline injection showed an increasing significant difference (p < 0.001 in all cases) with the action of guide cannula alone within VH in TSOA, OAE and EA. We conclude that the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate has a differential effect depending of the brain area, leading to facilitatory and inhibitory effects on anxiety processing.

  17. EPR and optical study of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Singh, Manju

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • EPR study of Mn{sup 2+}: DPSC crystal is done at room temperature. • The spin Hamiltonian parameters for two Mn{sup 2+} sites are determined. • The optical absorption study is also done. • The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. • Theoretical zero-field splitting parameters match well with the experimental values. - Abstract: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study at room temperature (RT) is used to investigate the property of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride (K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 4}⋅H{sub 2}O) single crystal. EPR spectra show that there exist two substitutional sites, the spin Hamiltonian parameters for which are determined. The optical absorption study is also done at room temperature in the wavelength range 195–1100 nm. The observed bands are assigned as transitions from {sup 6}A{sub 1g}(S) ground state to various excited states. These bands are fitted with four parameters, namely Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters B = 792 cm{sup −1}, C = 2278 cm{sup −1}; cubic crystal field splitting parameter Dq = 700 cm{sup −1} and Trees correction α = 76 cm{sup −1}. The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. Superposition model (SPM) is used to find out the crystal field (CF) parameters and the perturbation formulae are used to obtain zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters. Theoretically calculated ZFS parameters match well with the experimental values obtained from EPR study.

  18. Fluoxetine combined with clorazepate dipotassium and behaviour modification for treatment of anxiety-related disorders in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, S; Anzola, B; Olivares, A; Ibáñez, M

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of clorazepate dipotassium combined with fluoxetine and a behaviour modification programme for the treatment of anxiety disorders in dogs was investigated. Forty dogs with anxiety disorders were initially enrolled and 36 dogs completed the trial. Dogs were classified into two behavioural categories (anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression) according to their presenting complaints, and were also subdivided into males, females, juveniles and adults. The dog owners were provided with a behaviour modification plan for their dogs to be commenced in the first week of therapy. Clorazepate dipotassium was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 4 weeks, and fluoxetine was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 10 weeks. Therapy with both drugs was initiated simultaneously. Improvement was reported in 25/36 dogs. Significant differences in treatment effects were observed between anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression (P<0.05). Positive correlations between owner compliance with the treatment plan and reported improvement achieved during three periods of study were also noted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of TPS/PHBV blends prepared in the presence of maleated PHBV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Natalia F.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2011-01-01

    Maleated derivatives of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were obtained in an internal mixer in the presence of maleic anhydride and benzoyl peroxide, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Extruded blends of cornstarch and PHBV were prepared with and without the addition of maleated PHBV. Although the X-ray diffractograms had revealed decreased crystallinity, the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy indicated that the addition of the maleated derivatives led to a partial compatibilization. (author)

  20. Accommodation Paralysis after Pheniramine Maleate Injection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol Kiziltunc, Pinar; Atilla, Huban; Yalcindag, F Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    We present a case in which Gilbert syndrome was diagnosed following a neuro-ophthalmic complaint. Adverse effects of drugs as well as various systemic, neurological, and local ocular pathologies can cause accommodative insufficiency and loss of accommodation. A 29-year-old man was admitted to an ophthalmology department with blurred vision and diagnosed as suffering from acute accommodation paralysis. He had a history of being given a pheniramine maleate injection for pruritus 20 days previously. Symptoms began immediately following the injection. After systemic evaluation and laboratory tests, he was diagnosed as having Gilbert syndrome. His complaints and symptoms recovered in approximately a further 10 days. Metabolism of pheniramine maleate can be impaired in Gilbert syndrome and anticholinergic effects can cause accommodation paralysis.

  1. The efficacy and safety of bimatoprost/timolol maleate, latanoprost/timolol maleate, and travoprost/timolol maleate fixed combinations on 24-h IOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Degirmenci, Cumali; Karakoyun, Yunus Emre; Yusifov, Emil; Ates, Halil

    2017-06-14

    To evaluate the effect of bimatoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (BTFC), latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (LTFC), and travoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (TTFC) on 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma. This prospective, observer-masked, randomized study included 50 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients were using hypotensive lipids and timolol maleate fixed combination treatment for ≥4 weeks and had an IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. Group 1 (n = 18) received BTFC, group 2 (n = 14) received LTFC, and group 3 (n = 18) received TTFC. All patients were hospitalized, and IOP was monitored for 24-h (10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00, 02:00, and 06:00). Mean diurnal IOP variation measurements were taken between 06:00 and 18:00, and mean nocturnal IOP variation measurements were taken between 22:00 and 02:00. Mean IOP and IOP variation in the three groups were compared. Mean 24-h IOP did not differ significantly between the three groups (group 1: 14.6 ± 2.9 mmHg; group 2: 14.1 ± 3.7 mmHg and group 3: 15.8 ± 2.0 mmHg; P > 0.05). Mean diurnal IOP variation was 4.6 ± 2.3 mmHg in group 1, 5.8 ± 2.4 mmHg in group 2, and 4.3 ± 1.7 mmHg in group 3, and mean nocturnal IOP variation was 3.2 ± 2.8 mmHg in group 1, 2.9 ± 1.9 mmHg in group 2, and 3.0 ± 1.6 mmHg group 3. There were not any significant differences in diurnal or nocturnal IOP variation between the three groups (P < 0.05). All three fixed combinations effectively controlled IOP for 24-h and had a similar effect on diurnal and nocturnal IOP variations.

  2. Boro-norleucine as a P1 residue for the design of selective and potent DPP7 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreder, Kevin R; Wong, Melissa S; Corral, Sergio; Yu, Zhizhou; Winn, David T; Wu, Min; Hu, Yi; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Alemayehu, Senaiet; Fuller, Stacy R; Rosenblum, Jonathan S; Kozarich, John W

    2005-10-01

    Dipeptide-based inhibitors with C-substituted (alkyl or aminoalkyl) alpha-amino acids in the P2 position and boro-norleucine (boro-Nle) in the P1 position were synthesized. Relative to boro-proline, boro-Nle as a P1 residue was shown able to significantly dial out DPP4, FAP, DPP8, and DPP9 activity. Dab-boro-Nle (4g) proved to be the most selective and potent DPP7 inhibitor with a DPP7 IC50 value of 480 pM.

  3. 4-Substituted boro-proline dipeptides: synthesis, characterization, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, 8, and 9 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Milo, Lawrence J; Shu, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Youhua; Woznica, Iwona; Yu, Gengli; Sanford, David G; Zhou, Yuhong; Poplawski, Sarah E; Connolly, Beth A; Sudmeier, James L; Bachovchin, William W; Lai, Jack H

    2012-09-01

    The boroProline-based dipeptidyl boronic acids were among the first DPP-IV inhibitors identified, and remain the most potent known. We introduced various substitutions at the 4-position of the boroProline ring regioselectively and stereoselectively, and incorporated these aminoboronic acids into a series of 4-substituted boroPro-based dipeptides. Among these dipeptidyl boronic acids, Arg-(4S)-boroHyp (4q) was the most potent inhibitor of DPP-IV, DPP8 and DPP9, while (4S)-Hyp-(4R)-boroHyp (4o) exhibited the most selectivity for DPP-IV over DPP8 and DPP9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Volumetric, acoustic and viscometric behaviour of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and disodium hydrogen phosphate in aqueous solution of N-acetyl glycine at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Harsh; Singla, Meenu; Mittal, Heena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities, speeds of sound, viscosities of phosphate salts in aqueous N-acetyl glycine. • Large values of partial molar volume for dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. • Partial molar volume of transfer are positive for phosphate salts. • Positive B-coefficient values indicate ion–solvent interactions. - Abstract: Densities, speeds of sound and viscosities of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (DPHP) and disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) in aqueous solutions of N-acetyl glycine (AcGly) are reported at different temperatures. Densities and speeds of sound have been used to calculate apparent molar volume, apparent molar isentropic compression, partial molar volume, partial molar isentropic compression, partial molar volume of transfer, partial molar isentropic compression of transfer and partial molar expansivity. Pair and triplet interaction coefficients have also been calculated. Experimental viscosities have been used to determine B-coefficients. Further pair and triplet interaction coefficients have also been calculated. The results are discussed in terms of solute–solvent interactions.

  5. Modification of (DGEBA epoxy resin with maleated depolymerised natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DEGBA type epoxy resin has been modified with maleated depolymerised natural rubber (MDPR. MDPR was prepared by grafting maleic anhydride onto depolymerised natural rubber. MDPR has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. MDPR was blended with epoxy resin at three different ratios (97/3, 98/2 and 99/1, by keeping the epoxy resin component as the major phase and maleated depolymerised natural rubber component as the minor phase. The reaction between the two blend components took place between the acid/anhydride group in the MDPR and the epoxide group of the epoxy resin. The proposed reaction schemes were supported by the FT-IR spectrum of the uncured Epoxy/MDPR blends. The neat epoxy resin and Epoxy/MDPR blends were cured by methylene dianiline (DDM at 100°C for three hours. Thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of the neat epoxy and the blends were investigated. Free volume studies of the cured, neat epoxy and Epoxy/MDPR blends were correlated with the morphological and mechanical properties of the same systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Studies.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin-Loaded Starch-Maleate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the loading of curcumin onto starch maleate (SM under mild conditions by mixing dissolved curcumin and SM nanoparticles separately in absolute ethanol and ethanol/aqueous (40 : 60 v/v, respectively. Curcumin-loaded starch-maleate (CurSM nanoparticles were subsequently precipitated from a homogeneous mixture of these solutions in absolute ethanol based on the solvent exchange method. TEM analysis indicated that the diameters of CurSM nanoparticles were ranged between 30 nm and 110 nm with a mean diameter of 50 nm. The curcumin loading capacity of SM as a function of loading duration was investigated using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The loading of curcumin onto SM increased rapidly initially with loading duration, and the curcumin loading capacity of 15 mg/g was reached within 12 hours. CurSM nanoparticles exhibited substantially higher water solubility of 6.0 × 10−2 mg/mL which is about 300 times higher than that of pure curcumin. With enhanced water solubility and bioaccessibility of curcumin, the potential utility of CurSM nanoparticles in various biomedical applications is therefore envisaged.

  7. Optical studies on Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2012-06-01

    Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (39-x)B2O3+30TeO2+15MgO+15K2O +xEu2O3 (where x = 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3 wt%) have been prepared by following conventional melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses have been studied by recording the optical absorption and luminescence measurements. Through the optical absorption spectra, bonding parameters (β¯, δ) have been calculated to identify the ionic/covalent nature of the glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis have been carried out using the luminescence spectra. The JO parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4 and 6) were used to calculate the radiative properties for the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 3 and 4) emission transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The change in optical properties with the variation of Eu3+ ion concentration have been studied and discussed with similar studies.

  8. Effect of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate on thermodynamic properties of glycine and L-alanine in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Harsh; Kaur, Kirtanjot

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in DKHP. ► Apparent molar volume and apparent molar compressibilities were calculated. ► The partial molar expansibilities at infinite dilution φ E 0 were obtained. ► Hydration number n H was calculated. ► The results are discussed in terms of solute–solvent interactions. - Abstract: Densities, ρ, speed of sound, u for glycine, L-alanine have been measured in aqueous solutions of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (DKHP) ranging from 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mol·kg −1 at temperatures T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K. The different parameters such as apparent molar volume, limiting apparent molar volume, transfer volume, partial molar expansibility have been derived from density data. Experimental speeds of sound data were used to estimate apparent molar adiabatic compressibility, limiting apparent molar adiabatic compressibility, transfer parameter and hydration number. These parameters have been discussed in the light of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions.

  9. Dipotassium N-stearoyltyrosinate ameliorated pathological injuries in triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, anandamide (AEA analogues have been well recognized for its potent neuroprotective effects in counteracting the deterioration of Alzheimer's disease (AD brains through multiple pathological processes. In our previous studies, dipotassium N-stearoyltyrosinate (NSTK, an AEA analogue synthesized by our laboratory was reported to exert significant efficacy through multiple interventions. Within this study, the amyloid precursor protein (APPSWE/presenilin-1 (PS1M146V/TauP301L mouse (3×Tg-AD model was used to explore further the neuroprotective effects of NSTK and its underlying mechanisms. NSTK could increase spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field and low anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, and improve the spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze. The biochemical analysis suggested that NSTK could decrease Aβ42 deposition, abnormal tau aggregation, and the expressions of p-APP Thr668, PS1 and p-tau Ser202/Thr205 in the hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice. Consistently, NSTK could reduce the level of malondialdehyde, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Up-regulation of Bcl-2, and down-regulation of BAX, caspase-3 and inflammatory cytokines also occurred in the hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice after treatment with NSTK. Thus, NSTK could intervene in multiple pathological processes of AD and would be a drug candidate against AD.

  10. Development of maleated starches using an internal mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fernanda T.G.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2009-01-01

    Novel maleated starches (MSt) were prepared by chemical modification of cornstarch with maleic anhydride (MA), using an internal mixer as a reactor. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was chosen as initiator. Physico-chemical parameters were determined for the process carried out at different MA contents, under the same reaction conditions. Processing was carried out at 50 deg C, 30 rpm for 8 min.Torque developed during processing was given by the digital display of the rheometer, and the total specific mechanical energy (SME) input was estimated. FTIR measurements confirmed the successful incorporation of MA into the starch backbone. In addition, WAXS diffraction analyses revealed disruption of the crystalline structure of native starch for the products. Such reactions promoted by MA reduced the crystallinity of the products. The results indicated that the MA content had a significant effect on the characteristics of the processed starch samples. (author)

  11. Comparison between epleys maneuvre and prochlorperazine maleate in treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, K.O.K.; Dastgir, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to compare the efficacy of Epley's maneuver and vestibular sedative, prochlorperazine maleate in the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place and Duration of Study: ENT department, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 1st May 2011 to 1st November 2011. Patients and Methods: After consent, 60 patients of BPPV fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomly allotted two groups. Group A was treated with Epley's maneuver (n=30) while group B with prochlorperazine maleate (n=30). Outcomes were analyzed on disappearance of vertigo at follow-up examination. Results: 24 (80%) cases managed by Epley's maneuver showed relief of symptoms while only 14 (47%) treated by rochlorperazine maleate showed recovery after 15 days. Conclusion: Epley's maneuver was more effective than vestibular sedatives like prochlorperazine maleate in treating patients of BPPV. (author)

  12. Characterization of d-boroAla as a Novel Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agent Targeting d-Ala-d-Ala Ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Putty, Sandeep; Rai, Aman; Jamindar, Darshan; Pagano, Paul; Quinn, Cheryl L.; Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Gutheil, William G.

    2011-01-01

    d-boroAla was previously characterized as an inhibitor of bacterial alanine racemase and d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzymes [Duncan, K., et al Biochemistry 1989, 28:3541–9]. In the present study, d-boroAla was identified and characterized as an antibacterial agent. d-boroAla has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, with MICs down to 8 µg/mL. A structure-function study on the alkyl side chain (NH2-CHR-B(OR’)2) revealed that d-boroAla is the most effective agent in a series ...

  13. High performance maleated lignocellulose epicarp fibers for copper ion removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural lignocellulosic fiber epicarp extracted from the babassu coconut (Orbignya speciosa was chemically modified through reaction with molten maleic anhydride without solvent, with incorporation of 189.34 mg g-1 of carboxylic acid groups into the biopolymer structure. The success of this reaction was also confirmed by the presence of carboxylic acid bands at 1741 and 1164 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum. Identically, the same group is observed through 13C NMR CP/MAS in the solid state, via high field signals in the 167 pm region. Both the precursor and the immobilized maleated biopolymers presented nearly the same thermal stability and similar crystallinity to cellulose. However, the pendant carboxylic groups have the ability to remove copper with maximum sorption through a batchwise process at pH 6.0, as expected from the point of zero charge, determined to be 6.45. The sorption kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich-chemisorption and intra-particle diffusion models and the equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, the Freundlich and Tenkim isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function and determination coefficients, the data were fit to the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum sorption capacity of copper ions of 55.09 mg g-1. This value suggests the application of this biopolymer with incorporated carboxylate groups as a favorable agent for copper removal from appropriate systems.

  14. Improving Yield of Transplanted Aman and Boro Rice Through Tegra Package of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Kader, MSR Mia, MA Kafi, MS Hossain, N Islam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the yield performance of transplant aman rice cv. BRRI dhan49 and boro rice cv. BRRI dhan29 under improved package of cultivation (TEGRA as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA is a rice farming practice which includes use of quality seeds and healthy seedlings, transplanting with rice transplanter, use of herbicide, use of balanced fertilization and micronutrients, and preventive plant protection measures. The study during transplant aman season included two treatments on rice cultivation method viz. TEGRA package and farmers’ practice while in boro rice four treatments viz. TEGRA package, farmers’ practice with high inputs, farmers’ practice with medium inputs and farmers’ practice with low inputs. The yield and plant characters of both transplant aman and boro rice were significantly influenced by the TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice increased the grain yield by 18.3% in transplant aman rice and by 80% in boro rice with less cost of production as compared to farmers’ practice, which eventually resulted 23% increase in gross return and 400% in net return. As a result, the benefit cost ratio of TEGRA package was much higher (1.35 and 2.20 during transplant aman rice and boro rice, respectively compared to that of farmers’ practice (1.07 and 1.30.

  15. Effects of dexamethasone and pheniramine hydrogen maleate on stress response in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Kerem; Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Aksoy, Erol; Ulas, Murat; Yigit, Tuba; Erdemli, Mehmet Ozcan; Ercin, Ugur; Bilgihan, Ayse; Saydam, Gul; Akoglu, Musa

    2013-02-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) still leads to significant postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone or pheniramine hydrogen maleate, either alone or combined, in reducing the stress response and symptoms after LC. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, each consisting of 20 patients: control, dexamethasone (8 mg/2 mL), pheniramine hydrogen maleate (45.5 mg/2 mL), and the combined group. The drugs were given before anesthesia induction. C-reactive protein levels (CRP) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were significantly less in the dexamethasone (P = .003) and combined groups (P pheniramine hydrogen maleate (P = .005) significantly reduced PONV. Dexamethasone significantly reduced postoperative pain and the systemic acute-phase response, whereas these effects were only partially attained with pheniramine hydrogen maleate. Both dexamethasone and pheniramine hydrogen maleate significantly reduced PONV. An additive effect seemed to occur if these drugs were used in combination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical evaluation of treatment for diabetic foot with PTA and PTA combined cinepazide maleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Cheng Yingsheng; Zhu Yueqi; Tan Huaqiao; Zhao Jungong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value for treatment of diabetic foot with PTA and PTA combined cinepazide maleate. Methods: In 24 cases of diabetic associated vascular disease of lower limb, 12 cases were treated with PTA and other 12 cases were treated with PTA combined cinepazide maleate. We analysed and compared clinical effects before and after the procedure, together with 3 months follow up. Results: In patients treated with PTA, the clinical symptom scores of posttreatment and follow-up decreased; ABI and TcPO 2 increased significantly. The clinical symptom score and ABI of follow-up remained, stable, but TcPO 2 decreased significantly. Control angiography showed improvement in degree of vascular stenosis and peripheral staining of 11 patients after treatment. The vascular patency remained in 12 patients and the peripheral staining decreased in 7 patients on follow-up. In patients treated with PTA combined cinepazide maleate, the clinical symptom score, ABI and TcPO 2 after treatment and on follow-up showed no significant changes compared with those in patients treated by PTA. Control angiography showed that the degree of vascular stenosis and peripheral staining were improved in 12 patients after treatment. The vascular patency was maintained and peripheral staining was improved on follow-up. Before and after treatment, there were no significant differences in clinical symptom score, ABI and TcPO 2 between patients treated with PTA and PTA combined cinepazide maleate, however, there were significant differences in clinical symptom score and TcPO 2 on follow-up. Conclusion: PTA can significantly improve clinical symptom of diabetic foot and the application of cinepazide maleate is a beneficial and necessary supplement. PTA combined cinepazide maleate can be taken as one of the conventional treatment plans for diabetic foot. (authors)

  17. Effect of pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürekli, Ismail; Gökalp, Orhan; Kiray, Müge; Gökalp, Gamze; Ergüneş, Kazım; Salman, Ebru; Yürekli, Banu Sarer; Satoğlu, Ismail Safa; Beşir, Yüksel; Cakır, Habib; Gürbüz, Ali

    2013-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (Pn), which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and pheniramine maleate (Ph), which is an antihistaminic with some anti-inflammatory effects, on reperfusion injury in brain developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was the control group, Group 2 was the sham group (I/R), Rats in Group 3 were subjected to I/R and given Ph, and rats in Group 4 were subjected to I/R and given Pn. A tourniquet was applied at the level of left groin region of subjects in the I/R group after induction of anesthesia. One h of ischemia was performed with no drug administration. In the Ph group, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg Ph was administered intraperitoneally before ischemia and the remaining half before reperfusion. In the Pn group, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg Pn intraperitoneally at the 30th min of ischemia. Brains of all subjects were removed after 24 h for examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Histological examination demonstrated that Ph had protective effects against I/R injury developing in the brain tissue. Ph has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury created experimentally in rat brains.

  18. Managment of superficial infantile capillary hemangiomas with topical timolol maleate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Yusuf, Faraz; Sharma, Rajeev; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of eyelids and orbit in children. Recently, a topical beta blocker has been reported as an effective treatment for superficial capillary hemangiomas. We present a case report of two children having large capillary hemangiomas who responded well to topical treatment by 0.5% timolol maleate solution. After 12 months of treatment, the lesion has significantly reduced in size, thickness, and color in both cases. Thus, we conclude that long-term use of topical 0.5% timolol maleate solution is safe and effective in treating superficial capillary hemangiomas.

  19. Facile synthesis of semi-library of low charge density cationic polyesters from poly(alkylene maleate)s for efficient local gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huijie; Zhu, Dingcheng; Zhou, Zhuxian; Liu, Xin; Piao, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Xiangrui; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing

    2018-03-30

    Cationic polymers are one of the main non-viral vectors for gene therapy, but their applications are hindered by the toxicity and inefficient transfection, particularly in the presence of serum or other biological fluids. While rational design based on the current understanding of gene delivery process has produced various cationic polymers with improved overall transfection, high-throughput parallel synthesis of libraries of cationic polymers seems a more effective strategy to screen out efficacious polymers. Herein, we demonstrate a novel platform for parallel synthesis of low cationic charge-density polyesters for efficient gene delivery. Unsaturated polyester poly(alkylene maleate) (PAM) readily underwent Michael-addition reactions with various mercaptamines to produce polyester backbones with pendant amine groups, poly(alkylene maleate mercaptamine)s (PAMAs). Variations of the alkylenes in the backbone and the mercaptamines on the side chain produced PAMAs with tunable hydrophobicity and DNA-condensation ability, the key parameters dominating transfection efficiency of the resulting polymer/DNA complexes (polyplexes). A semi-library of such PAMAs was exampled from 7 alkylenes and 18 mercaptamines, from which a lead PAMA, G-1, synthesized from poly(1,4-phenylene bis(methylene) maleate) and N,N-dimethylcysteamine, showed remarkable transfection efficiency even in the presence of serum, owing to its efficient lysosome-circumventing cellular uptake. Furthermore, G-1 polyplexes efficiently delivered the suicide gene pTRAIL to intraperitoneal tumors and elicited effective anticancer activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of Prophylactic Use of Timolol Maleate (0.5%) in Preventing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    Materials and Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, parallel group study conducted in 220 eyes, ... age, gender, PCO grade and mean post-surgery time lag for PCO ... maleate in controlling different ranges of raised IOP spikes, this study ...

  1. Microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil for bio-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, a simple, “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. This modifying process did not involve any solvent, catalyst, or initiator, but demonstrated the most efficiency of functionalizing...

  2. Characteristic of peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescence intensity in the presence of Chlorpheniramine maleate and its analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Akhoondi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) increases chemiluminescence intensity of bis-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of biphenylquinoxaline as a fluorophore. In this work, the effect of CPM on the intensity of chemiluminescence (CL) in the system of (TCPO-sodium salicylate-fluorophore-hydrogen peroxide) was investigated. The fall and rise rates constants were also studied. A pooled-intermediate model was used for determining the kinetics parameters of CL with and without CPM. Results indicated that addition of CMP to this system increases the fall rate constant and decreases the rise rate constant. Results also specified that there is a linear relationship between CPA concentration and chemiluminescence intensity in the range 0.66-21.5 μg/ml. Detection limit 0.18 μg/ml and the relative standard deviation (RSD) 2 O 2 - sodium salicylate- fluorescer) in the presence of chlorpheniramine maleate. → Results also introduced a reliable method for determination of chlorpheniramine using peroxyoxalte chemiluminescence system. → A pooled-intermediate model was used for determination the kinetics parameters of chemiluminescence with and without chlorpheniramine maleate. → Results also specified that there is a linear relationship between chlorpheniramine maleate concentration and chemiluminescence intensity.

  3. Thermoreversible cross-linking of maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers with diamines and amino-alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mee, van der M.A.J.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Duin, van M.

    2008-01-01

    Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers (MAn-g-EPM) were thermoreversibly cross-linked using diamines and amino-alcohols. Covalent cross-links are formed via the equilibrium reaction of the grafted anhydride groups with di-functional cross-linkers containing combinations of primary (1°) and secondary

  4. Thermoreversible covalent crosslinking of maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers with diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mee, van der M.A.J.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Duin, van M.

    2008-01-01

    Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymer (MAn-g-EPM) was thermoreversibly cross-linked using different routes, i.e. ionic interactions (ionomers), hydrogen bonding and a combination thereof. Microphase separation into polar MAn-rich aggregates occurs for MAn-g-EPM and all cross-linked materials, which

  5. The effects of trimebutine maleate on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Caner, B.; Ozturk, F.; Bayhan, H.; Narin, Y.; Mentes, T.

    1999-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of trimebutine maleate, a drug used in both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic motility disorders, on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia having prolonged gastric emptying rates and to compare the parameters used for the determination of the lag period observed during the emptying of solid foods from the stomach. Gastric emptying was measured by the radionuclide technique. Twenty normal volunteers and 43 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia participated in the study. Radionuclide imaging was performed by using a solid meal labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid. Of the patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, 20 had prolonged gastric emptying. They were given three weeks of oral treatment with trimebutine maleate and had their radionuclide gastric emptying study repeated. Treatment with trimebutine maleate resulted in reduction in duration of the lag period and less retention of food at 100 minutes (p<0.0005). After treatment with trimebutine maleate, no significant difference has been observed in the mean symptom score of patients with prolonged gastric emptying. Among the parameters used for the determination of the lag period, lag period determined by a mathematical equation (TLAG) has been found to be longer than the lag period determined by visual inspection of the images (VLAG) and there was correlation between the two parameters when the lag time was short. (author)

  6. The effects of boro-tempering heat treatment on microstructural properties of ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayali, Yusuf; Yalcin, Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effects of boro-tempering heat treatment on microstructural properties of ductile iron were investigated. Test samples with dimensions of 10 x 10 x 55 mm were boronized at 900 o C for 1, 3 and 5 h and then tempered at four different temperatures (250, 300, 350 and 450 o C) for 1 h. Both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to reveal the microstructural details of coating and matrix of boro-tempered ductile iron. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the constituents of the coating layer. The boride layer formed on the surface of boro-tempered ductile cast iron is tooth shape form and consisted of FeB and Fe 2 B phases. The thickness of boride layer increases as the boronizing time increases and tempering temperature decreases. Tempering temperature is more effective than boronizing time on the matrix structure. Boro-tempering heat treatment reduces the formation of lower and upper ausferritic matrix temperature according to classical austempering. This causes formation of upper ausferritic matrix in the sample when tempered at 300 o C. This is in contrast to general case which is the formation of lower ausferritic matrix via austempering at this temperature.

  7. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of water in aquatic systems is subject to temporal and spatial variations due to varying effects of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study assessed the dynamics of water quality in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system along an upstream–downstream gradient above and below Maun during February, ...

  8. Efeito de doses de boro no crescimento vegetativo de girassol em diferentes classes de solos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Euba Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A baixa disponibilidade de boro (B no solo é um dos fatores que mais limita a produção do girassol, planta oleaginosa caracterizada por ampla adaptabilidade climática. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência de doses de boro, aplicadas em distintas classes de solos, no desenvolvimento do girassol cultivar Hélio 863. As amostras foram coletadas na camada de 0-20 cm dos solos: Argissolo Acinzentado (PAC; Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (PVA; Neossolo Litólico (RL; Argissolo Vermelho eutrófico (PVe; Neossolo Flúvico (RY e Vertissolo Háplico (VX. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 6 x 4 (solos x doses, com quatro repetições. A unidade experimental foi representada por uma planta por vaso. Os solos apresentaram efeito significativo (p < 0,01 sobre todos os parâmetros de crescimento estudados. As plantas de girassol cultivadas nos solos RY, VX, PAC e RL apresentaram a maior área foliar, os maiores capítulos, o maior teor de boro foliar e maior número de folhas e altura de plantas, respectivamente. A adubação com boro não influenciou a produção de fitomassa seca do girassol cv. Hélio 863.

  9. Dipotassium hydrogencarbonate fluoride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kahlenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, K2(HCO3F·H2O, were obtained as a secondary product after performing flux synthesis experiments aimed at the preparation of potassium rare earth silicates. The basic building unit of the structure is an [(HCO3(H2OF]2− zigzag chain running parallel to [001]. Both types of anions as well as the water molecules reside on mirror planes perpendicular to [010] at y = 0.25 and y = 0.75, respectively. Linkage between the different constituents of the chains is provided by O—H...O and O—H...F hydrogen bonding. The K+ cations are located between the chains and are coordinated by two F and five O atoms in form of a distorted monocapped trigonal prism.

  10. Arylboronate ester based diazeniumdiolates (BORO/NO), a class of hydrogen peroxide inducible nitric oxide (NO) donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Ravikumar, Govindan; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2014-05-16

    Here, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of arylboronate ester based diazeniumdiolates (BORO/NO), a class of nitric oxide (NO) donors activated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species (ROS), to generate NO. We provide evidence for the NO donors' ability to permeate bacteria to produce NO when exposed to H2O2 supporting possible applications for BORO/NO to study molecular mechanisms of NO generation in response to elevated ROS.

  11. Effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating intestinal hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yanqin; Liu, Ying; Tong, Jingjing; Qian, Wei; Hou, Xiaohua

    2010-06-25

    Trimebutine maleate, which modulates the calcium and potassium channels, relieves abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, its effect on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome is not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating colonic hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Mice infected up to 8 weeks with T. spiralis underwent abdominal withdrawal reflex to colorectal distention to evaluate the visceral sensitivity at different time points. Tissues were examined for histopathology scores. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared in the organ bath under basal condition or to be stimulated by acetylcholine and potassium chloride, and consecutive concentrations of trimebutine maleate were added to the bath to record the strip responses. Significant inflammation was observed in the intestines of the mice infected 2 weeks, and it resolved in 8 weeks after infection. Visceral hyperalgesia and colonic muscle hypercontractility emerged after infection, and trimebutine maleate could effectively reduce the colonic hyperreactivity. Hypercontractility of the colonic muscle stimulated by acetylcholine and high K(+) could be inhibited by trimebutine maleate in solution with Ca(2+), but not in Ca(2+) free solution. Compared with 8-week postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group, 2-week acute infected strips were much more sensitive to the stimulators and the drug trimebutine maleate. Trimebutine maleate was effective in reducing the colonic muscle hypercontractility of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome mice. The findings may provide evidence for trimebutine maleate to treat postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients effectively. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and Properties of EPDM/Silicone Alloy Using Maleated EPDM-polydimethylsiloxane Compatibilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doo Whan; Kim, Bum Jin [Hyperstructured Organic Materials Research Center, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Shim, Dae Sup [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    EPDM used as an electrical insulating material was blended with silicone rubber and compatibilizer to improve weatherability, ozone resistance, and dielectric strength. The compatibilizer was prepared by imidizing maleated EPDM with {alpha},{omega}-aminopropyl polydimethylsiloxane. EPDM/ silicone alloy was prepared by blending EPDM and silicone rubber with weight ratio of 9/1, 7/3, 5/5, 3/7 and 1/9, maleated EPDM-polydimethylsiloxane copolymer, and dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The maximum tensile strength of 0.177 kgf/mm{sup 2}, elongation at break of 257%, and dielectric breakdown voltage 362.25 kV/cm were obtained from the alloy prepared with 9 to 1 weight ration of EPDM/silicone. The compatibility of the alloy was confirmed from the thermal characteristics measured using DMA and DSC. The morphology of the alloys was observed with SEM. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Toxicidad de boro en plantaciones de banano(Musa AAA en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En las hojas de plantas de banano (Musa AAA, cvs. Grande Naine y Valery, se observó una necrosis marginal irregular y continua, la cual se desarrolló a partir de un área clorótica igualmente irregular, que avanzó del margen hacia el interior de la hoja. La parte central de la lámina foliar retuvo siempre su coloración verde original. Los análisis de suelo y tejido foliar mostraron que los síntomas fueron causados por altas concentraciones de boro, debido ya fuese a aplicaciones excesivas del nutrimento al suelo y al follaje, o por el efecto de aplicaciones muy frecuentes de boro vía fertirriego, combinado con una disminución de la concentración de calcio en la hoja

  14. Effect of Dexamethasone and Pheniramine Maleate in Patients Undergoing Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B B; Karmacharya, M; Gharti, B B; Timilsina, B; Ghimire, P

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is elective surgical procedure for uncomplicated gallstone disease and gallbladder polyp. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of Dexamethasone and Pheniramine hydrogen maleate on reducing stress response and pain after surgery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After obtaining approval from the institutional ethics committee and written informed consent, 120 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study from Sep 2103 to Aug 2014 at Department of Surgery, Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal. Patients were randomized to receive either 8mg/2ml of Dexamethasone + 45.5/2ml Pheniramine hydrogen maleate (treatment group, n= 60) or 5 ml of normal saline (control group, n=60) 90 minutes before skin incision. There was a reduction of total bilirubin, C-reactive protein (CRP) value and Visual Analogue Score (VAS) in treatment group as compared to control group (p Pheniramine hydrogen maleate prior to surgical skin incision helps to reduce both postoperative pain and acute physiological stress.

  15. Optical, physical and structural studies of boro-zinc tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri Pavani, P.; Sadhana, K.; Chandra Mouli, V.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the modification effect of the modifier ZnO on boro-tellurite glass, a series of glasses with compositions 50B 2 O 3 -(50-x)ZnO-xTeO 2 have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of the samples was confirmed through X-ray diffraction technique. Optical absorption and IR structural studies are carried out on the glass system. The optical absorption studies revealed that the cutoff wavelength increases while optical band gap (E opt ) and Urbach energy decreases with an increase of ZnO content. Refractive index evaluated from E opt was found to increase with an increase of ZnO content. The compositional dependence of different physical parameters such as density, molar volume, oxygen packing density, optical basicity, have been analyzed and discussed. The IR studies showed that the structure of glass consists of TeO 4 , TeO 3 /TeO 3+1 , BO 3 , BO 4 and ZnO 4 units. -- Research highlights: → Novel boro-zinc tellurite ternary glasses that can compete with boro-tellurite and zinc tellurite glasses are successfully prepared. → Boro-zinc tellurite ternary glasses are of higher refractive index compared with zinc tellurite glasses. → Optical, physical and structural properties of the novel ternary glass system are explained.→ At 30 mol% of ZnO, TeO 4 is replaced by ZnO 4 indicating the presence of ZnO 4 network.

  16. Preparation and Quality Control of 166Ho-Boro-Macroaggregates for Radiosynoviorthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáček, Martin; Melichar, František; Šrank, Jiří; Mirzajevová, Marcela; Klejzarová, Michaela; Kraft, O.; Kašpárek, R.; Záhlava, J.; Chodacki, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 33, Suppl. 2 (2006), S327-S328 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. 01.10.2006-03.10.2006, Athens] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IQS10480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 166Ho- Boro -Macroaggregate * Radiosynoviorthesis Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry

  17. Boro e Vanadio: requisiti di potabilitá e valori di parametro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrante

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: i minerali, che costituiscono circa il 4% del peso corporeo e svolgono numerose ed importanti funzioni biodinamiche, si possono suddividere in due gruppi: elementi principali ed elementi essenziali. Gli elementi essenziali necessitano in quantità minime, dal millesimo di milligrammo fino a qualche decina di milligrammi e per la bassissima concentrazione nei tessuti del corpo umano vengono chiamati anche oligoelementi o minerali in traccia. I minerali in traccia sono stati molto attenzionati dalle normative per le acque potabili essendo per i suddetti motivi importanti requisiti di potabilità. Con l’evoluzione della normativa alcuni oligoelementi che prima erano citati solo per memoria adesso devono rientrare in precisi valori di parametro. Tra questi il boro e il vanadio. In questa nota riportiamo la problematica relativa alla presenza di boro e vanadio nelle acque utilizzate per il consumo umano nella zona etnea.

    Metodi: le acque utilizzate nella zona etnea, in particolare quelle della provincia di Catania, sono state analizzate con spettrofometria in emissione (Inductively Coupled Plasma e con spettrofotometria per Assorbimento Atomico (A.A.con effetto Zeeman per il dosaggio del boro e del vanadio in esse contenuti.

    Risultati: il boro e il vanadio essendo elementi naturalmente presenti nei vari comparti ambientali sono stati ritrovati nelle acque potabili della zona etnea in concentrazioni estremamente variabili che talvolta superano i valori di parametro.

    Conclusioni: alla luce dei risultati ottenuti, non essendo ancora dimostrata la reale tossicità per assunzione di tali elementi attraverso il canale alimentare ed essendo molto difficile la loro eliminazione dalle acque, si propone un riesame delle concentrazioni massime ammissibili sulla base della percentuale di assorbimento gastro-enterico e dei relativi “tollerable intake” con

  18. Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Re-Examination of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterility-Associated Gene in Boro-Taichung-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear genome substitutions between subspecies can lead to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) through incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Boro-Taichung (BT)-type CMS rice was obtained by substituting the nuclear genome of Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar Chinsurah Boro II with that of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica cultivar Taichung 65. In BT-type CMS rice, the mitochondrial gene orf79 is associated with male sterility. A complete sequence of the Boro-type mitochondrial genome responsible for BT-type CMS has not been determined to date. Here, we used pyrosequencing to construct the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. The contiguous sequences were assembled into five circular DNA molecules, four of which could be connected into a single circle. The two resulting subgenomic circles were unable to form a reliable master circle, as recombination between them was scarcely detected. We also found an unequal abundance of DNA molecules for the two loci of atp6. These results indicate the presence of multi-partite DNA molecules in the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. Expression patterns were investigated for Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, which were not found in the mitochondria from the standard japonica cultivar Nipponbare. Restorer of fertility 1 (RF1)-dependent RNA processing has been observed in orf79-containing RNA but was not detected in other Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, supporting the conclusion that orf79 is a unique CMS-associated gene in Boro-type mitochondria.

  19. Aplicação de boro em bananeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fertilização de bananeiras com micronutrientes é pouco estudada, principalmente a aplicação de boro (B que apresenta funções ligadas ao desenvolvimento de meristemas apicais. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as respostas da adubação com B em diferentes doses e formas de aplicação em bananeira 'Grande Naine'. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em esquema fatorial com três doses (0,85; 1,70 e 3,40 g planta-1 e três formas de aplicação do fertilizante (solo, folhas e orifício do perfilho desbastado, utilizando-se de ácido bórico como fonte de B, mais uma testemunha sem aplicação de B. Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos na disponibilidade do B no solo, no desenvolvimento, no estado nutricional e na produção de frutos das bananeiras. A aplicação de B no solo e nas folhas aumentou a disponibilidade do micronutriente na camada superficial do solo (entre 1,0-1,5 mg kg-1, para a maior dose do nutriente e correspondente aumento até 20-40 cm, como resultado da lixiviação. A contribuição da adubação foliar no aumento do teor no solo deveu-se à lavagem e ao escorrimento da solução fertilizante das folhas para a superfície do solo. Por outro lado, não houve efeito do B quando aplicado no orifício do perfilho desbastado (~0,3 mg kg-1 de B. Também, verificou-se que não houve efeitos da aplicação de B no desenvolvimento da bananeira (altura e diâmetro do pseudocaule medidos após a emissão da inflorescência. Nas amostragens quinzenais, os teores foliares de B, quando aplicado no orifício do perfilho desbastado, foram maiores e prolongaram-se por até um mês após a aplicação na bananeira. Porém, na última amostragem foliar (emissão da inflorescência, não houve efeito da forma de aplicação nos teores foliares de B (~20 mg kg-1. Não foram observados efeitos da fertilização na produção de frutos em função das doses e formas de aplicação do B, porém a aplicação no

  20. Comparison of hematologic values in blood samples with lithium heparin or dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulants in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Mitchell, Mark A; Gaunt, Stephen D; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and were divided into tubes that contained dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) and lithium heparin. Complete blood cell counts were determined in each sample within 2 hours of collection. The level of agreement in results was moderate for plasma protein, packed cell volume (PCV), and leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts between the anticoagulants. Plasma protein and PCV values were significantly lower in samples with lithium heparin than in those with K2EDTA, whereas lymphocyte numbers were significantly higher in lithium heparin samples than in K2EDTA samples. The level of agreement was good for the other cell types (heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) when comparing the different anticoagulants. The poor level of agreement between anticoagulants with the increase in thrombocyte clumping in lithium heparin samples indicates that the use of lithium heparin as anticoagulant may affect thrombocyte count. No negative effects on morphology and staining of blood cells were apparent in smears from heparin samples compared with K2EDTA samples. Within the different values compared, the limits of agreement are small enough to be confident that lithium heparin can be used for routine CBC counts in a clinical setting. The use of the same anticoagulant should be recommended to follow trends within the same patient, especially when considering plasma protein concentration, PCV, and lymphocyte count.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of the halogenated boroxine dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate (K2[B3O3F4OH]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovic, Sinisa; Stojkovic, Ranko; Galic, Zoran; Galic, Borivoj; Ostojic, Jelena; Marasovic, Maja; Milos, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    Dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate K2[B3O3F4OH] was listed as a promising new therapeutic for cancer diseases. For in vitro and in vivo investigation of its antitumor effects 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma, B16F10 melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII were used. The detailed in vitro investigation undoubtedly showed that K2[B3O3F4OH] affects the growth of cancer cells. The proliferation of cells depends on the concentration so that aqueous solution of K2[B3O3F4OH], the concentrations of 10(-4) M and less, does not affect cell growth, but the concentrations of 10(-3) M or more, significantly slows cells growth. B16F10 and SCCVII cells show higher sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of K2[B3O3F4OH] compared to 4T1 cells. Under in vivo conditions, K2[B3O3F4OH] slows the growth of all three tumors tested compared to the control, and the inhibitory effect was most pronounced during the application of the substance. There is almost no difference if K2[B3O3F4OH] was applied intraperitoneally, intratumor, peroral or as ointment. Addition of 5-FU did not further increase the antitumor efficacy of K2[B3O3F4OH].

  2. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  3. Our first clinical experience with radiosynoviorthesis by means of (166)Ho-holmium-boro-macroaggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Otakar; Kasparek, R; Ullmann, V; Melichar, F; Kropacek, M; Mirzajevov, M

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the therapeutic and adverse effects of the application of 166-holmium-boro-macroaggregates (HMBA) in radiosynovectomy (RSO) of the knees. We assessed the efficacy and safety of (166)Ho-HBMA in a prospective clinical trial in patients suffering from chronic synovitis. An effective component of radiopharmaceutical (166)Ho-boro-macroaggregates is radionuclide (166)Ho which has both beta-emission and gamma-emission. The physical half-life time of 166 Ho is 26.8 hours. After application of the radiopharmaceutical into a joint cavity, the effect of beta-emission causes radiation necrosis of pathologically changed (inflamed) synovial membrane. From 15th April 2005, we have started RSO of knees by means of new radiopharmaceutical (166)Ho-boro-macroaggregates in patients with gonarthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic synovitis, psoriatic arthritis, gout arthropathy. Seventeen intra-articular injections were performed in fifteen patients receiving a mean activity of 972 MBq (range: 904-1,057 MBq) (166)Ho-HMBA. The patients were hospitalized for three days. Side effects were evaluated during hospital stay and after 6-8 weeks. Static scintigraphy of knee joints and measurements of blood radioactivity were performed. Therapeutic effects were evaluated after 6-8 weeks. In 2 hours and 2 days after application, we proved, by means of knee and inguinal scintigraphy, only insignificant radiopharmaceutical leakage from the joint cavity to the inguinal lymph nodes in four patients. In treated patients, no serious adverse effects occurred. Nine patients were without complaints; 4 patients had slight knee exsudation and 2 patients had great exsudation. Therapeutic effects after 6-8 weeks were as follows: 2 patients were without pain, 9 with lower pain, 3 with the same pain and 1 patient with increased pain. Joint motion was improved in 7 patients, remained the same in 7 patients and was impaired in 1 patient. Analgesics consumption was lower in 5 patients

  4. Pisodonophis boro (ophichthidae: anguilliformes): specialization for head-first and tail-first burrowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Natalie; De Kegel, Barbara; Adriaens, Dominique

    2007-02-01

    The rice paddy eel, Pisodonophis boro (P. boro), is of special interest because of its peculiar burrowing habits. P. boro penetrates the substrate tail-first, a technique common for ophichthids, but it is able to burrow head-first as well. P. boro exhibits three feeding modes: inertial feeding, grasping, and spinning. Rotational feeding is a highly specialized feeding mode, adopted by several elongate, aquatic vertebrates and it is likely that some morphological modifications are related to this feeding mode. The detailed morphology of the head and tail of P. boro is examined with the goal to apportion the anatomical specializations among head-first burrowing, tail-first burrowing, and rotational feeding. The reduced eyes, covered with thick corneas may be beneficial for protection during head-first burrowing, but at the same time decreased visual acuity may have an impact on other sensory systems (e.g. cephalic lateral line system). The elongated and pointed shape of the skull is beneficial for substrate penetration. The cranial bones and their joints, which are fortified, are advantageous for resisting high mechanical loads during head-first burrowing. The aponeurotic connection between epaxial and jaw muscles is considered beneficial for transferring these forces from the body to the head during rotational feeding. Hypertrophied jaw muscles facilitate a powerful bite, which is required to hold prey during spinning movements and variability in the fiber angles of subdivisions of jaw muscles may be beneficial for preventing the lower jaw from being dislodged or opened. Furthermore, firm upper (premaxillo-ethmovomerine complex) and lower jaws (with robust coronoid processes) and high neurocranial rigidity are advantageous for a solid grip to hold prey during rotational feeding. The pointed shape of the tail and the consolidated caudal skeleton are beneficial for their tail-first burrowing habits. It is quite likely that the reduction of the caudal musculature is

  5. Creating large second-order optical nonlinearity in optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses in boro-aluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong-Lin; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Withford, Michael J.; Fleming, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thermal poling technique was applied to optical waveguides embedded in a commercial boro-aluminosilicate glass, resulting in high levels of induced second-order optical nonlinearity. The waveguides were fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique, and thermally poled samples were characterized with second harmonic optical microscopy to reveal the distribution profile of the induced nonlinearity. It was found that, in contrast to fused silica, the presence of waveguides in boro-aluminosilicate glass led to an enhancement of the creation of the second-order nonlinearity, which is larger in the laser written waveguiding regions when compared to the un-modified substrate. The magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient d33 achieved in the core of the laser-written waveguides, up to 0.2 pm/V, was comparable to that in thermally poled fused silica, enabling the realization of compact integrated electro-optic devices in boro-aluminosilicate glasses.

  6. REVISIÓN LEGISLATIVA SOBRE EL ELEMENTO CONTAMINANTE BORO EN AGUAS RESIDUALES INDUSTRIALES (GALICIA, NOROESTE DE ESPAÑA

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    Mª JESÚS RODRÍGUEZ GUERREIRO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ácido bórico y sus derivados se utilizan en numerosas actividades industriales, de tal manera que las aguas residuales procedentes de vertidos industriales constituyen una de las fuentes de boro para los lodos de depuradora o para las rías en caso de vertido directo desde los colectores. Los compuestos borados en las aguas residuales no son retenidos por los procesos de tratamiento en las estaciones depuradoras (EDAR por lo que son reintegrados al medio natural. Además, las EDAR no poseen legislación que limite y controle los compuestos borados generados en las aguas residuales de los vertidos industriales. De forma general se puede decir que la tendencia del boro a acumularse en los tejidos animales y vegetales constituyen un riesgo potencial para la salud de aquellos que consuman alimentos y aguas con altos contenidos de boro. Debido a la preocupación existente en algunas Comunidades autónomas sobre la contaminación por boro en sus EDAR se ha realizado un análisis de la situación actual del boro en la Legislación de la Comunidad Económica Europea y en las disposiciones de ámbito estatal y autonómico. Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que Galicia es una de las Comunidades que presenta una de las normativas autonómicas más permisivas para el valor del boro en las aguas residuales (Canon de vertido mayor 10 mg/L mientras que otras Comunidades autónomas tienen rebajado este valor.

  7. Determination of glibenclamide, metformin hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate by reversed phase liquid chromatographic technique in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havele Shweta S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, glibenclamide present in multicomponent dosage forms. Chromatography was performed on a 25 cm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5-μm particle, C18 column with 78:22 (v/v methanol: 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 238 nm for metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, and glibenclamide. The total elution time was shorter than 9 min. This method was found to be precise and reproducible. This proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, glibenclamide as a bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulation without any interference from the excipients.

  8. EFFECTS OF DEXAMETHASONE AND PHENIRAMINE MALEATE ON HEMODYNAMIC AND RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS AFTER CEMENTATION IN CEMENTED PARTIAL HIP PROSTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yektaş, Abdulkadir; Gümüş, Funda; Totoz, Tolga; Gül, Nurten; Erkalp, Kerem; Alagöl, Ayşin

    2015-02-01

    To prevent hemodynamic and respiratory changes that are likely to occur during cementation in partial hip prosthesis by prophylactic use of pheniramine maleate and dexamethasone. The study included 40 patients aged between 60 and 85 years with an American Society ofAnesthesiologists (ASA) grade of II-III who underwent partial hip prosthesis. Just after spinal anesthesia, 4 mL normal saline was pushed in patients in Group S, whereas 45.5 mg pheniramine maleate and 8 mg dexamethasone mixture was pushed intravenously in a total volume of 4 mL in patients in Group PD. Amounts of atropine and adrenaline administered after cementation were significantly higher in Group S than in Group PD (P pheniramine maleate and dexamethasone in partial hip prosthesis led to an increase in SpO2 value and a decrease in the utilization of adrenaline and atropine after cementation.

  9. Determination of basic state parameters and characterization of optical, dielectric and fluorescence properties of calcium boro lactate (CaBL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, A.; Balraj, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of basic solid state parameters like penn gap, plasma energy, polarizability and fermi energy for calcium boro lactate single crystal. calcium boro lactate crystals were developed by solution growth method. Single crystal diffraction studies carried out and calculated basic solid state criterion for the CaBL compound. optical nature of these compound explained by using UV-Visible spectrum. Electro-optic behaviour of the crystal explained by dielectric studies. Light emitting properties explained by fluorescence studies. (author)

  10. Chick chorioallantoic membrane model for in ovo evaluation of timolol maleate-brimonidine tartrate ocular inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Vinod Kombath; Repala, Swathi; Subadhra, Sandhya; Appapurapu, Ashok Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The main aspire of this study was to develop ocular drug delivery system for dual drug glaucoma therapy by timolol maleate-brimonidine tartrate and endeavor the possibility of biocompatibility studies by in ova studies. Matrix type, both hydrophilic and lipophilic polymers, and reservoir-type ocular inserts of timolol maleate were prepared using hydrophilic polymers like polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K4M and lipophilic polymers like ethylcellulose and eudragit S100 and were optimized. Based on the optimized formulation, triple-layered ocular inserts (reservoir type) of dual drug were prepared by solvent casting technique with an objective of reducing the frequency of administration, obtaining controlled release and greater therapeutic efficacy, preservative free dosage form for the treatment of glaucoma. FTIR spectral studies revealed no pharmaceutical incompatibility and no drug polymer interactions. Maximum drug release (99.18 ± 1.7) was achieved when PVP and HPMC K4M in 1:1 ratio with PEG 400 (0.3 ml) drug reservoir layer was sandwiched between ethyl cellulose as rate control membrane up to 32 h in a controlled fashion. Drug release was by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism for single drug formulation. But in dual drug insert, timolol maleate best fit into zero order and for brimonidine tartrate to Higuchi model and diffusion of drugs from this by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. In ovo studies suggested that the optimized formulation was found to be sterile, biocompatible and physicochemically stable and support us to claim that the developed formulation was biocompatible.

  11. Frações de boro e índices de disponibilidade em solos do estado do Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Ferreyra H.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 29 amostras superficiais (0-20 cm de solos do estado do Ceará, foram determinadas diferentes frações de boro e estabelecidas relações com algumas propriedades do solo e com o boro solúvel, usado como índice de disponibilidade para as plantas. As frações de boro foram analisadas, seguindo-se um esquema de fracionamento seqüencial. Determinaram-se o boro solúvel em água (B-Sol, o boro não especificamente adsorvido (B-NEsAd, o boro especificamente adsorvido (B-EsAd, o boro associado a óxidos de Mn (B-OxMn, o boro associado a óxidos de Fe e Al amorfo (B-OxFeA e a óxidos de Fe e Al cristalino (B-OxFeC, e o boro residual (B-Res. Também foram determinados o boro total (B-Total e o solúvel em três extratores: água quente, HCl 0,05 mol L-1 e manitol 0,05 mol L-1 + CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1. O teor de boro total nos solos variou de 10,5 a 24,0 mg kg-1 (média de 14,4 mg kg-1. As frações B-Sol, B-NEsAd e B-EsAd apresentaram teores entre 0,05 e 0,79 mg kg-1, representando entre 0,3 a 4,4% do B-Total. Dentre os óxidos, houve predominância do B-OxFeC (média de 4,4 mg kg-1 com teores entre 1 a 2 vezes superiores aos de B-OxFeA (média de 2,72 mg kg-1. Na maioria dos solos, a fração predominante foi o B-Res (média de 6,22 mg kg-1, ocluso em minerais silicatados, com teores que variaram de 19,6 a 70,7% do B-Total. Os valores de B disponível, nos três extratores, correlacionaram-se de forma altamente significativa entre si e com as frações B-Sol, B-NEsAd e B-EsAd. A matéria orgânica e a argila foram as propriedades que se correlacionaram melhor com o B-Sol, B-NEsAd e B-EsAd.

  12. Absorption and emission analysis of RE3+(Sm3+ and Dy3+): lithium boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraj Hussain, N; Hungerford, G; El-Mallawany, R; Gomes, M J M; Lopes, M A; Ali, Nasar; Santos, J D; Buddhudu, S

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on the development and spectral analysis of Sm3+ (1.0%) and Dy3+ (1.0%) doped lithium-boro-tellurite glasses. A bright orange (4G5/2-->6H7/2) along with a red (4G5/2-->6H9/2) and a yellow (4G5/2-->6H5/2) emission transition have been measured from Sm3+ doped lithium-boro-tellurite glass. Both blue (4F9/2-->6H15/2) and yellow (4F9/2-->6H13/2) emission bands have been obtained from Dy3+ glass. From the measured decay profiles, the lifetimes of the emissions of the Sm3+ glass (4G5/2-->6H5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) at an excitation of 401 nm have been found to be in the range 0.47-0.81 ms, and with respect to the Dy3+ emissions (4F9/2-->6H15/2 and 13/2), with excitation at 450 nm, are measured to be in the range of 0.302-0.307 ms. Stimulated emission cross-sections (sigmapE) of the measured emission transitions have also been computed and the values are in the range of (0.38-1.20) x 10(-20) cm2 for Sm3+ and for Dy3+ doped lithium-boro-tellurite glass the values are (0.66-1.39) x 10(-20) cm2.

  13. The structural studies of vanadium substituted lithium-bismuth-boro-tellurite glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-05-01

    The structural studies of vanadium substituted lithium-bismuth-boro-tellurite glass is successfully prepared and certain analysis like XRD,FTIR,DTA/TGA with density, molar volume are done. The amorphous phase has been identified based on X-ray diffraction analysis. The vanadium oxide plays the role as a glass-modifier and influences on BO3 ↔ BO4 conversion. The observed nonlinear variation in Tg with vanadium oxide increase, it reflects structural changes. The nonlinear variation of density and molar volume can be attributed to vanadium oxide incorporation have increased the number of Non-bridging oxygen (NBO'S).

  14. EPR Study of Vanadium Ion in Zinc-Boro-Vanadate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renuka, C.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes EPR studies on x V 2 O 5 -(40-x)ZnO-60B 2 O 3 (where x 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol %) glass system. These studies indicate a strong compositional dependent trend and existence of characteristic boro-vanadate groups in these glasses. The EPR spectra show a distinct hyperfine structure of 51 V. Spectral analysis shows that the vanadium is present in the glass as vanadyl ion [VO] 2+ at tetragonally distorted octahedral site. The decrease of A || and A perpendicular with increase of V 2 O 5 concentration suggests an increase in the covalence between the central atom and the surrounding oxygen ligands.

  15. Aplicación de boro en eucalipto: comparación de fuentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrando,Marcelo Gabriel; Zamalvide,José Pedro

    2012-01-01

    La deficiencia de boro (B) en sistemas forestales ha sido reportada en diferentes especies de pino y eucalipto, verificándose importantes mejoras en la producción y/o calidad de madera, con el agregado de este nutriente. La baja retranslocación del B dentro de la planta hace necesario un aporte constante para satisfacer las demandas del cultivo. Al ser un nutriente muy poco retenido por el suelo está sujeto a pérdidas por lixiviación. El uso de fertilizantes solubles brinda una solución a cor...

  16. A novel translabial platform utilizing bioexcipients from Litchi chinesis for the delivery of rosiglitazone maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Satheesh Madhav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to formulate drug-loaded bio-lipstrips using novel bioexcipients isolated from the fruit pulp of Litchi chinesis (biomaterial L and to explore the potentiality of lip skin as a novel translabial drug delivery system. The biomaterial, prepared by a simplified economical process and purified by hot dialysis, was subjected to various physicochemical evaluations along with spectral analysis including UV, FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR. The lipstrip formulated with the novel bioexcipients was screened for its functional properties, including filmability using a film-casting method, and bio/muco-adhesitivity using a shear-stress method, the Park and Robinson method and a rotating cylinder method. Rosiglitazone-loaded bio-lipstrips were formulated by using biomaterial L as a strip former and dextrose as a flexicizer. The formulated strips were subjected to various evaluations, including thickness, folding endurance, in-vitro release and in-vivo release. The release of rosiglitazone maleate was maintained over 24 h, which was confirmed in in-vitro and in-vivo release experiments. Our results reveal that this biopolymer possesses promising stripability as well as bio-adhesitivity. The formulated bio-lipstrips are feasible for delivering rosiglitazone maleate by translabial administration.

  17. Pheniramine Maleate is more effective than Lidocaine on Fentanyl Induced Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Ozgur; Kara, Duygu; Karaman, Emine Uzlas; Karakoc, Fatma; Karakaya, Muhammet Ahmet; Arslan, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is frequently used during anesthesia induction. The use of fentanyl can cause cough through different mechanisms. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of pheniramine maleate (PM), an antihistaminic agent, and compare it with lidocaine on fentanyl induced cough. This is a randomized double-blind prospective clinical study of ASA I-II, 120 patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery. Patients were administered drugs intravenously and randomly allocated into three groups: Group C (2 ml 0.9 % normal saline), Group L (1mg/kg lidocaine), and Group F (PM 45.5 mg). 90 seconds after administration, 2µ/kg fentanyl was applied in three seconds to all patients. Severity of cough (mild: 1-2, moderate: 3-5, severe> 5), time of the cough and vital parameters were recorded 90 seconds after fentanyl injection. Eight patients (25%) in Group C had fentanyl induced cough whereas three patients (7.5%) in Group L and one patient (2.5%) in Group F experienced this phenomenon. There was statistically significant difference between Group F and Group C (p0.05). Pheniramine Maleate 45.5 mg is better that placebo and as effective as lidocaine to prevent fentanyl induced cough.

  18. Facile Arylation of Four-Coordinate Boron Halides by Borenium Cation Mediated Boro-desilylation and -destannylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Daniel L; Cid, Jessica; Curless, Liam D; Turner, Michael L; Ingleson, Michael J

    2015-12-28

    The addition of AlCl 3 to four-coordinate boranes of the general formula (C-N-chelate)BCl 2 results in halide abstraction and formation of three-coordinate borenium cations of the general formula [(C-N-chelate)BCl] + . The latter react with both arylstannanes and arylsilanes by boro-destannylation and -desilylation, respectively, to form arylated boranes. Catalytic quantities of AlCl 3 were sufficient to effect high-yielding arylation of (C-N-chelate)BCl 2 . Boro-destannylation is more rapid than boro-desilylation and leads to double arylation at the boron center, whereas in reactions with arylsilanes either single or double arylation occurs dependent on the nucleophilicity of the arylsilane and on the electrophilicity of the borenium cation. The electrophilicity of the borenium cation derived from 2-phenylpyridine was greater than that of the benzothiadiazole analogues, enabling the boro-desilyation of less nucleophilic silanes and the direct electrophilic borylation of 2-methylthiophene.

  19. Future changes in water requirements of Boro rice in the face of climate change in North-West Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharjee, Tapos Kumar; Ludwig, Fulco; Halsema, van Gerardo; Hellegers, Petra; Supit, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding future changes in crop water requirements and irrigation demand in the context of climate change is essential for long-term water resources management and agricultural planning. This study investigates the impacts of climate change on future water requirements of dry season Boro

  20. SÍNTOMAS ASOCIADOS A LA DEFICIENCIA DE BORO EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es brindar información fisiológica relativa a las funciones, la disponibilidad, la economía y la deficiencia de boro en las plantas, con énfasis en la palma aceitera cultivada en Coto, Costa Rica. Se exponen las generalidades sobre la química del boro en el suelo y en las plantas, y se discuten sus posibles funciones estructurales, metabólicas y morfogenéticas. Se resalta su papel en la formación y la estabilidad de la pared celular, el transporte de azúcares, el control de los niveles de auxinas y en el desarrollo reproductivo. Se compara la susceptibilidad relativa de las hojas y las raíces a la deficiencia de boro. Se describen los síntomas de la deficiencia de boro observados en la palma aceitera, los posibles mecanismos causales y los métodos apropiados para su diagnóstico. Se discuten además las terapias, formulaciones químicas y métodos agronómicos disponibles para su corrección.

  1. Clinical evaluation of enalapril maleate and furosemide usage in dogs with degenerative myxomatous mitral valve, CHF functional class Ib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Franco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative myxomatous mitral valve (DMMV is a heart disease of high incidence in small animal clinical medicine, affecting mainly older dogs and small breeds. Thus, a scientific investigation was performed in order to evaluate the clinical use of the medicines furosemide and enalapril maleate in dogs with this disease in CHF functional class Ib before and after the treatment was established. For this purpose 16 dogs with the given valve disease were used, separated into two groups: the first received furosemide (n=8 and the second received enalapril maleate (n=8 throughout 56 days. The dogs were evaluated in four stages (T0, T14, T28 and T56 day in relation to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical and serum assessment, which included serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and aldosterone, as well as radiography, electrocardiography, Doppler-echocardiography and blood pressure. The results regarding the clinical, hematological and serum chemistry evaluations revealed no significant changes in both groups, but significant reductions in the values of ACE and aldosterone in the group receiving enalapril maleate were verified. The radiographic examination revealed reductions of VHS values and variable Pms wave of the electrocardiogram in both groups, but no changes in blood pressure values were identified. The echocardiogram showed a significant decrease of the variables LVDd/s in the studied groups and the FS% in animals that received only enalapril. Therefore, analysis of results showed that monotherapy based on enalapril maleate showed better efficiency of symptoms control in patients with CHF functional class Ib.

  2. Thermoreversible cross-linking of maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers using hydrogen-bonding and ionic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, C.; Mee, van der M.A.J.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Duin, van M.

    2006-01-01

    Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers (MAn-g-EPM) were thermoreversibly cross-linked via a reaction with primary alkylamines of different length, either with an equimolar amount to obtain the amideacid or with an excess to obtain the amide-salt, which was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared

  3. Crystal structure and thermal behaviour of boro-pollucite CsBSi2O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnova, R.S.; Stepanov, N.K.; Filatov, S.K.; Levin, A.A.; Paufler, P.; Meyer, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure of Cs 0.82 B 1.09 Si 1.98 O 6 boro-pollucite at room temperature was determined by direct methods and refined in the l a 3-bar d space group using an anisotropic approximation of atomic thermal displacements (a = 13.009 (1) angstrom, Z = 16, R w = 0.027, R F = 0.037 for 141 independent observed (IFI ≥4σ F ) reflections). The occupancy factors have been refined for Cs and tetrahedral positions assuming the oxygen sites being fully occupied. The compound is isostructural to leucite pollucite high-temperature modification. Thermal behaviour of CsBSi 2 O 6 was investigated by DTA and TG, annealing at different temperatures with following wet chemical analysis and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction methods. The CsBSi 2 O 6 cubic phase loses mass before melting and decomposes to form a new crystalline phase with close to CsBSi 3 O 8 stoichiometry in the temperature range of 1303 353 K. Thermal expansion of two boro-pollucite samples, which differed in the number of Cs + and/or B 3+ ions of a nominal composition CsBSi 2 O 6 was investigated in air as well as in vacuum. Temperature ranges of negative thermal expansion were found. (authors)

  4. A validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Taomin; Chen, Nianzu; Wang, Donglei; Lai, Yonghua; Cao, Zhijuan

    2014-02-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Optimum chromatographic separations among pheniramine maleate, naphazoline hydrochloride and stress-induced degradation products have been achieved within 10 minutes by using an Agilent zorbax eclipse XDB C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) as the stationary phase with a mobile phase consisted of 10 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.8 containing 0.5% triethlamine and methanol (68:32, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. Detection was performed at 280 nm using a diode array detector. Theoretical plates for pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride were calculated to be 6762 and 6475, respectively. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and quantitation. Regression analysis showed good correlations (R2 > 0.999) for pheniramine maleate in the concentration range of 150-1200 μg mL-1 and naphazoline hydrochloride in 12.5-100 μg mL-1. The method results in excellent separation of both the analytes and degradation products. The peak purity factor is ≥980 for both analytes after all types of stress, indicating complete separation of both analyte peaks from the stress induced degradation products. Overall, the proposed stability-indicating method was suitable for routine quality control and drug analysis of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.

  5. Our first clinical experience with radiosynoviorthesis by means of 166Ho-holmium-boro-macroaggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, O.; Ullmann, V.; Kasparek, R.; Melichar, F.; Kropacek, M.; Mirzajevova, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the therapeutic and adverse effects of the application of 166- holmium-boro-macroaggregates (HMBA) in radiosynovectomy (RSO) of the knees. We assessed the efficacy and safety of 166H o-HBMA in a prospective clinical trial in patients suffering from chronic synovitis. An effective component of radiopharmaceutical 166H o-boro-macroaggregates is radionuclide 166H o which has both b-emission and g-emission. The physical half-life time of 166H o is 26.8 hours. After application of the radiopharmaceutical into a joint cavity, the effect of b-emission causes radiation necrosis of pathologically changed (inflamed) synovial membrane. From 15 april 2005, we have started RSO of knees by means of new radiopharmaceutical 166H o-boro-macroaggregates in patients with gonarthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic synovitis, psoriatic arthritis, gout arthropathy. Seventeen intra-articular injections were performed in fifteen patients receiving a mean activity of 972 MBq (range: 904.1057 MBq) 166H o-HMBA. The patients were hospitalized for three days. Side effects were evaluated during hospital stay and after 6.8 weeks. Static scintigraphy of knee joints and measurements of blood radioactivity were performed. Therapeutic effects were evaluated after 6.8 weeks. In 2 hours and 2 days after application, we proved, by means of knee and inguinal scintigraphy, only insignificant radiopharmaceutical leakage from the joint cavity to the inguinal lymph nodes in four patients. In treated patients, no serious adverse effects occurred. Nine patients were without complaints; 4 patients had slight knee exudation and 2 patients had great exudation. Therapeutic effects after 6.8 weeks were as follows: 2 patients were without pain, 9 with lower pain, 3 with the same pain and 1 patient with increased pain. Joint motion was improved in 7 patients, remained the same in 7 patients and was impaired in 1 patient. Analgesics consumption was lower in 5 patients, the same in 9

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-alkyl Gly-boro-Pro inhibitors of DPP4, FAP, and DPP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Ma, Lifu; Wu, Min; Wong, Melissa S; Li, Bei; Corral, Sergio; Yu, Zhizhou; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Alemayehu, Senaiet; Fuller, Stacy R; Rosenblum, Jonathan S; Rozenkrants, Natasha; Minimo, Lauro C; Ripka, William C; Szardenings, Anna K; Kozarich, John W; Shreder, Kevin R

    2005-10-01

    The structure-activity relationship of various N-alkyl Gly-boro-Pro derivatives against three dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs) was studied. In a series of N-cycloalkyl analogs, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) optimally preferred N-cycloheptyl whereas DPP7 tolerated even larger cycloalkyl rings. Gly alpha-carbon derivatization of N-cyclohexyl or N-(2-adamantyl) Gly-boro-Pro resulted in a significant decrease in potency against all the three DPPs.

  7. The radiation-induced copolymerization of vinyl acetate with dibutyl maleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Lustig, A.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation-induced copolymerization of vinyl acetate with dibutyl maleate was investigated in the temperature range from -50 0 to 90 0 . A copolymer of the unsaturated ester with vinyl acetate was obtained in which the comonomers alternate with regularity along the polymer chain over the entire range of comonomer compositions and temperature range investigated. Both the rate of copolymerization and the molecular weight of the resulting copolymer were found to depend strongly on the comonomer composition. The monomer reactivity ratios were found to be practically zero. The apparent activation energy was found to change at 5 0 with an increase in temperature from a value of 1,6 kcal/mole to a value of 4,4kcal/mole. Scavenger studies indicate that a free radical mechanism prevails over the entire temperature range investigated. (Author) [af

  8. A comparative study of loratadine versus pheniramine maleate in chronic idiopathic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Ranjan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty cases with chronic idiopathic urticaria of more than 3 months duration were selected and divided into two groups. Group ′A′ was given 10 mg loratadine once daily, while group ′B′ was given pheniramine maleate 25 mg, twice daily for one month. All patients were followed for one month more. 48% excellent response was observed in group ′A′ while 16% excellent response was observed in group ′B′. Good response was observed in 24% of patients in group ′A′, while in group ′B′ 16% of patients had good response. No side effects were observed in loratadine group, while drowsiness was observed in pheniramine group

  9. Formulation design and optimization of novel fast dissolving tablet of chlorpheniramine maleate by using lyophilization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dave

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs have received more interest in the pharmaceutical industry for those categories of drug which show slow dissolution and less oral bioavailability. Nowadays various technologies have been developed for FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. FDTs tablets provide an advantage particularly for the pediatric and geriatric patients who have difficulty in swallowing and also for that who are travelling for a long and suffers from lack of water availability. Lyophilization (freeze-drying is a process in which water is sublimated from the product after freezing at a specific temperature and pressure. Lyophilization technique is used in order to improve the dissolution of the given substance and improve the oral bioavailability of the drugs with poor solubility and high permeability. In this work, chlorpheniramine maleate FDTs was formulated by lyophilization method. The prepared tablets were subjected to various evaluation such as hardness (2.4–2.9 kg/cm2, friability (0.68–0.79%, disintegration time (10–19 s, drug content (95.32–99.09%, water absorption ratio (31–53%, wetting time (64–106 s and in-vitro drug release shown in 5 min (96.04–99.92%. FTIR studies showed that there is no interaction between drug and polymer. Stability studies showed that there is no change in drug content within three and six months. Results revealed that fast dissolving tablets of chlorpheniramine maleate prepared by lyophilization method result in rapid dissolution.

  10. Enhancement and inhibition effects on the corneal permeability of timolol maleate: Polymers, cyclodextrins and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2017-08-30

    This study investigates how both bioadhesive polymers (chitosan, hyaluronic acid and alginate) and permeability enhancers (ethylene glycol- bis(2-aminoethylether)- N, N, N', N'- tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin) influence the permeability of the anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate through ex vivo bovine corneas. Our results showed that only the permeability enhancers alone were able to increase drug permeability, whereas the polymers significantly reduced drug permeation, and however, they increased the pre-corneal residence of timolol. Ternary systems (polymer-enhancer-drug) showed a reduced drug permeability compared to the polymers alone. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the epithelium surface confirmed there was no evidence of epithelial disruption caused by these formulations, suggesting that polymer-enhancer interactions reduce drug solubilization and counteract the disruptive effect of the permeability enhancers on the surface of the cornea. Further mucoadhesive tests, revealed a stable interaction of chitosan and hyaluronic acid with the epithelium, while alginate showed poor mucoadhesive properties. The differences in mucoadhesion correlated with the permeability of timolol maleate observed, i.e. formulations containing mucoadhesive polymers showed lower drug permeabilities. The results of the present study indicate polymers acting as an additional barrier towards drug permeability which is even more evident in the presence of permeability enhancers like EGTA and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. Then, this study highlights the need to adequately select additives intended for ocular applications since interactions between them can have opposite results to what expected in terms of drug permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An efficient synthesis of S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy] benzenepropanamine-[1-[sup 14]C]maleate, an important metabolite of fluoxetine hydrochloride. [Antidepressant, serotonin uptake inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, W.J. (Lilly (Eli) and Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Lilly Research Labs.)

    1992-02-01

    S-[gamma]-[(4-Trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[1-[sup 14]C] maleate has been prepared in six steps from R-(-)1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. The isotope was incorporated by the reaction of NaCN-[[sup 14]C] with the tert. butyldimethylsilyl ether of R-(-)1-phenyl-1,2-ethane-diol 2-tosylate. Borane reduction and arylation, followed by salt formation yielded S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[1-[sup 14]C] maleate. (Author).

  12. An efficient synthesis of S-γ-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy] benzenepropanamine-[1-14C]maleate, an important metabolite of fluoxetine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    S-γ-[(4-Trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[1- 14 C] maleate has been prepared in six steps from R-(-)1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. The isotope was incorporated by the reaction of NaCN-[ 14 C] with the tert. butyldimethylsilyl ether of R-(-)1-phenyl-1,2-ethane-diol 2-tosylate. Borane reduction and arylation, followed by salt formation yielded S-γ-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[1- 14 C] maleate. (Author)

  13. Structural and spectroscopic studies on Er{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraju, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram - 624 302 (India); Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari_ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram - 624 302 (India)

    2012-04-01

    Er{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (69-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xTeO{sub 2}-15MgO-15K{sub 2}O-1Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) have been prepared and their structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied and reported. The varying tellurium dioxide content in the host matrix that results, changes in structural and spectroscopic behavior around Er{sup 3+} ions are explored through XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS-NIR and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses and the FTIR spectra explore the fundamental groups and the local structural units in the prepared boro-tellurite glasses. The bonding parameters ({beta}{sup Macron} and {delta}) have been calculated from the observed band positions of the absorption spectra to claim the ionic/covalent nature of the prepared glasses. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters {Omega}{sub {lambda}} ({lambda}=2, 4 and 6) were determined through experimental and calculated oscillator strengths obtained from the absorption spectra and their results are studied and compared with reported literature. The variation in the JO parameters {Omega}{sub {lambda}} ({lambda}=2, 4 and 6) with the change in chemical composition have been discussed in detail. The JO parameters have also been used to derive the important radiative properties like transition probability (A), branching ratio ({beta}{sub R}) and peak stimulated emission cross-section ({sigma}{sub P}{sup E}) for the excited state transitions {sup 2}H{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}S3{sub /2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} of the Er{sup 3+} ions and the results were studied and reported. Using Davis and Mott theory, optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) values for the direct and indirect allowed transitions have been calculated and discussed along with the Urbach energy values for the prepared Er{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses in the present study. The

  14. Luminescence studies on Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses for White light applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2017-09-01

    A new series of Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic properties were studied through FTIR, absorption luminescence and lifetime spectral measurements. FTIR studies have been made to explore the presence of various stretching and bending vibrations of different borate and tellurite groups in the prepared glasses. The bonding parameter values were estimated from the absorption band positions using Nephelauxetic ratios to examine the nature of the metal-ligand bond. The optical band gap and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were obtained from the absorption spectra to explore the electronic band structure of the studied glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory have been used to determine the JO intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) following the least square fitting procedure between the experimental and calculated oscillator strength values. The luminescence spectra of the Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses exhibit two intense emission bands corresponding to the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions. Further, they exhibit less intense emission band due to the 4F9/2→6H11/2 transition. Luminescence spectra were characterized through CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram to obtain the dominant emission color of the prepared glasses. The JO intensity parameters and refractive index values have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (AR), branching ratios (βR) and stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) values for the observed transitions in the luminescence spectra. The decay curves of all the studied glasses found to exhibit non-exponential behavior and further to understand the energy transfer process takes place between the Dy3+ ions, the decay curves were fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model. The structural and optical properties of the Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses have been studied as a function of different metal cations (Zn, Cd, Pb and

  15. Structural and spectroscopic studies on Er3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2012-04-01

    Er3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (69-x)B2O3-xTeO2-15MgO-15K2O-1Er2O3 (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) have been prepared and their structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied and reported. The varying tellurium dioxide content in the host matrix that results, changes in structural and spectroscopic behavior around Er3+ ions are explored through XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS-NIR and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses and the FTIR spectra explore the fundamental groups and the local structural units in the prepared boro-tellurite glasses. The bonding parameters (βbar and δ) have been calculated from the observed band positions of the absorption spectra to claim the ionic/covalent nature of the prepared glasses. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) were determined through experimental and calculated oscillator strengths obtained from the absorption spectra and their results are studied and compared with reported literature. The variation in the JO parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) with the change in chemical composition have been discussed in detail. The JO parameters have also been used to derive the important radiative properties like transition probability (A), branching ratio (βR) and peak stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) for the excited state transitions 2H9/2→4I15/2 and 2H11/2 and 4S3/2→4I15/2 of the Er3+ ions and the results were studied and reported. Using Davis and Mott theory, optical band gap energy (Eopt) values for the direct and indirect allowed transitions have been calculated and discussed along with the Urbach energy values for the prepared Er3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses in the present study. The optical properties of the prepared glasses with the change in tellurium dioxide have been studied and compared with similar results.

  16. Vickers microhardness studies on solution-grown single crystals of potassium boro-succinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipriya, M.; Rajan Babu, D.; Ezhil Vizhi, R.

    2015-02-01

    The semiorganic crystals of potassium boro-succinate (KBS) were grown by slow evaporation method. KBS crystallizes in monoclinic system which was confirmed by powder XRD analysis. Vickers microhardness study has been carried out over a load range of 25-100 g. The Vickers hardness numbers (Hv) of the material increases as the load increases so the material is suitable for device fabrication. The Meyer index 'n' is estimated to be greater than 1.6, the crystal system belongs to the soft material category. The elastic stiffness coefficient, c11, has also been calculated using Wooster's empirical relation from the hardness data. The fracture toughness values 'Kc', determined from measurements of crack lengths, were estimated to be 0.15166 MN/m3/2. The brittleness indices 'Bi' were estimated as 276 m-1/2.

  17. Concentration dependent spectroscopic properties of Dy3+ ions doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyappan, M.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-05-01

    Dy3+ ions doped boro-phosphate glasses have been synthesized by melt quenching method and characterized through FTIR, absorption and luminescence spectral measurements. The presence of various stretching and bending vibrations of different borate and phosphate groups were identified from the FTIR spectra. In order to examine the electronic band structure of the studied glasses, Optical energy gap (Eopt) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were estimated from the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated to examine the symmetry of the ligand environment around the Dy3+ ions site. The emission spectra exhibit two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponding to the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions respectively. The emission spectra were characterized through Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram to explore its suitability for WLED applications.

  18. Influence of silver nanoparticles on the spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthanthirakumar, P.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Sm3+ doped novel boro-phosphate glasses containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) (SmBPxA) have been prepared following the melt quenching technique and their structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied through HR-TEM, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectral measurements. The TEM analysis validates the existence of Ag NPs with an average diameter of ~8 nm. The Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of silver NPs was found at around 600 nm from the absorption spectrum of the Sm3+ ions free glass sample. The optical band gap energy (Eopt) corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions and the Urbach energy (ΔE) values were determined from the absorption spectral measurements. The luminescence intensity is found to get enhance when the Ag NPs were embedded along with the Sm3+ ions in the prepared glasses due to the local electric field effect around the rare earth (RE) ion site produced by the SPR of Ag NPs.

  19. Respostas de cultivares de girassol a doses crescentes de boro na entressafra do Cerrado Tocantinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No cerrado brasileiro a deficiência de boro no solo ocorre com maior frequência. A cultura do girassol é muito sensível à deficiência deste micronutriente, além de apresentar pouca eficiência em seu aproveitamento. Neste contexto, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar as respostas de cultivares de girassol a doses crescentes de boro no período da entressafra no cerrado tocantinense. O experimento foi conduzido em Gurupi, (TO, com sistema de plantio direto em sucessão a soja, sobre Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quinze tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos num esquema fatorial simples 3 x 5, constituído por três cultivares de girassol (variedade Br 122, híbridos Aguará 4 e Helio 863 e cinco doses de ácido bórico (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 kg ha-1. As características avaliadas foram: altura de planta, diâmetro da haste, diâmetro do capítulo, concentração de boro foliar, massa de mil aquênios e produtividade de aquênios. A dose de 3 kg ha-1 de boro proporcionou, em sua grande maioria, as melhores respostas das cultivares Br 122, Aguará 4 e Helio 863 quanto às características avaliadas. No entanto, com esta dose, a cultivar Aguará 4 apresenta melhor aproveitamento para produção de aquênios.Responses of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron in the between harvests the Cerrado TocantinenseAbstract: In the brazilian cerrado soil boron deficiency occurs more frequently. The sunflower crop is very sensitive to this micronutrient deficiency, and have little efficiency in its use. In that context, aimed to of this study was to evaluate the response of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron during the between harvests in the cerrado tocantinense. The experiment was conducted in Gurupi (TO, with no-tillages soybeans in succession on dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol. The experimental design was a randomized block

  20. Mobilidade do boro em plantas de abacaxi Boron mobility in pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cristine Siebeneichler

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Para confirmar a mobilidade do boro em abacaxizeiro, cultivaram-se doze mudas da cultivar 'Pérola' em solução nutritiva completa, contendo 1 µmol L-1 de B, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 45 dias, coletaram-se quatro plantas (T0 e, nas oito plantas restantes, aplicou-se, por 3 dias consecutivos, uma solução de H3BO3 a 10 mmol L-1, pincelando-se ambas as faces da folha basal número sete (7. A partir do início da aplicação foliar, foi suspenso o fornecimento de B na solução nutritiva. Um dia após a terceira aplicação foliar, coletaram-se quatro plantas (T1 e, 60 dias após esta, coletaram-se as últimas quatro plantas (T2. As plantas foram fracionadas em diferentes partes nas quais o teor de B total foi determinado pelo método da azometina-H. Em T0, o maior teor de B observado foi na raiz; no T1, na folha pincelada e na raiz e, no T2, na folha pincelada. O conteúdo de B acompanhou a variação da massa seca das porções da planta, sendo que, no T2, o maior conteúdo de B e massa seca foram observados nas folhas novas formadas entre o T1 e o T2. O boro contido nessas folhas (29,8% do boro total da planta proveio das folhas mais velhas (FMed, FTrat e FBas, cujo conteúdo diminuiu significativamente, confirmando a mobilidade do boro em plantas de abacaxi 'Pérola'.To confirm the mobility of boron in pineapple, twelve 'Pérola' pineapple seedlings were cultivated in a complete nutrient solution containing 1 mmol L-1 B in a completely randomized design. After 45 days, B was removed from the nutrient solution, and four plants were harvested (T0, and in the eight remaining plants 10 mmol L-1 H3BO3 solution were painted, for 3 consecutive days, on both faces of the basal leaf number seven (7. One day after the third foliar application, four plants were harvested (T1 and, sixty days later, the last four plants were harvested (T2. The plants were partitioned into different parts in which total B concentration was determined

  1. Investigations on luminescence behavior of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Arunkumar, S.; Venkata Krishnaiah, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition 30TeO2+(24 - x)B2O3 + 15SrO + 10BaO + 10Li2O + 10LiF + 1Er2O3 + xYb2O3 (where x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 in wt%) have been prepared and their luminescence behavior were studied and reported. Absorption spectral measurements have been used to derive the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters from the experimental and calculated oscillator strength values following the JO theory. The various lasing parameters such as stimulated emission cross-section (σEp), experimental and calculated branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetime (τcal) for the 2H9/2 → 4I15/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission transitions were determined using the JO intensity parameters. The absorption and emission cross-section values for the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission band have been calculated using McCumbar theory and the Gain cross-section for the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission transition also obtained. The upconversion emission mechanism have been studied through various energy transfer processes and the intensity of the upconversion emission transitions are found to increase with the increase in Yb3+ ion concentration. The luminescence decay curves corresponding to the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition of the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped boro-tellurite glasses under 980 nm excitation wavelength have also been studied and reported in the present work.

  2. Efeito de substratos e boro no enraizamento de estacas de pitaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Marcio Guimarães Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya é uma espécie vegetal trepadeira e frutífera, pertencente à família das cactáceas e que vem se destacando no mercado de frutas exóticas no Brasil. Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes substratos no enraizamento de cladódios com a base imersa e não-imersa em solução com ácido bórico, na formação e no desenvolvimento inicial de raízes, visando à obtenção de mudas mais vigorosas, de melhor qualidade e com maiores chances de sobrevivência. O experimento foi conduzido sob ripado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal, setor de Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas no campus de Botucatu, UNESP, São Paulo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (substratos x boro, com quatro repetições. Após 60 dias da instalação do experimento foram avaliados: massa de matérias fresca e seca da parte aérea, massa de matérias fresca e seca das raízes e comprimento da maior raiz. O crescimento e desenvolvimento radicular inicial de estacas são influenciados pelo tipo de substrato e pelo uso do micronutriente boro. A mistura areia + esterco proporciona maior acúmulo de fitomassa na parte aérea e no sistema radicular de pitaya vermelha. Dentre os substratos trabalhados, o mais indicado para a produção de mudas mais vigorosas e de boa qualidade é o preparado à base de mistura de areia + esterco bovino curtido.

  3. Stability and in vitro release profile of enalapril maleate from different commercially available tablets: possible therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Dione Marçal; dos Santos, Leandro Dias; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2008-08-05

    Stability of enalapril maleate formulations can be affected when the product is exposed to higher temperature and humidity, with the formation of two main degradation products: enalaprilat and a diketopiperazine derivative. In this work, stability and drug release profiles of 20 mg enalapril maleate tablets (reference, generic and similar products) were evaluated. After 180 days of the accelerated stability testing, most products did not exhibit the specified amount of drug. Additionally, drug release profiles were markedly different from that of the reference product, mainly due to drug degradation. Changes in drug concentration and drug release profile of enalapril formulations are strong indicators of a compromised bioavailability, with possible interferences on the therapeutic response for this drug.

  4. Development of thermoplastic elastomers based on maleated ethylene propylene rubber (m-EPM and polypropylene (PP by dynamic vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dicumyl peroxide (DCP-cured thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs based on blends of maleated ethylene propylene rubber (m-EPM and polypropylene (PP using maleated-PP as a compatibilizer have been developed. Physical properties of these TPVs change significantly with concentrations of DCP and rubber/plastic blend ratios. Important correlations were obtained from rheometer delta torque values with various physical properties of the TPVs like tension set and crosslink density etc. Wide angle X-ray diffraction study confirms that concentration of DCP has a strong influence on the crystallinity of PP, which might affect the final physical properties of TPVs. The recyclability and ageing characteristics of these TPVs are also found excellent.

  5. Crystal growth and structure of L-methionine L-methioninium hydrogen maleate-a new NLO material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Subramanian; Rajan Devi, Neelamagam; Britto Dhas, Sathiya Dhas Martin; Athimoolam, Shanmuganarayanan

    2008-01-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal from the amino acid family, viz., L-methionine L-methioninium hydrogen maleate (LMMM), has been grown by slow evaporation method from aqueous solution. Bulk crystals were grown using submerged seed solution method. The structure was elucidated using the single crystal x-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallized in the space group P2 1 and the unit cell contains a protonated L-methioninium cation and a zwitterionic methionine residue plus a maleate anion. The backbone conformation angles Ψ 1 and Ψ 2 are in cis and trans configurations for both the methionine and methioninium residues, respectively. Amino and carboxyl groups of the methioninium and methionine residues are connected through N-H...O hydrogen bonds leading to a ring R 2 2 (10) motif.

  6. Development of analytical method for the determination of carbinoxamine maleate, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfoud, J.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and accurate method was developed for the analysis of carbinoxamine maleate, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride content in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations using HPLC. Analysis was conducted on a silica column (6 μm) with mobile phase consisting of ethanol - ammonium acetate (0.05 M) in rate [85:15] respectively, and at detection wavelength of 276 nm and flow rate 1 ml/min. Results were linear (correlation coefficient R > 0.9996) in the range of the studied concentrations for the active materials. The relative standard deviations (n=6) of intra and interday assay were 0.931%, 1.527% for carbinoxamine maleate and 0.717%, 1.058% for dextromethorphan hydrobromide and 0.309%, 0.891% for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, respectively. This method, proved to be easy, precise and economical, is useful for quality control of pharmaceutical drugs industrial samples. (author)

  7. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium maleate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Kalaivani, M.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2013-04-01

    The structural investigations of the molecular complex of melamine with maleic acid, namely melaminium maleate monohydrate have been carried out by quantum chemical methods in addition to FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. The quantum chemical studies were performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G**, cc-pVDZ and 6-311++G** basis sets to determine the energy, structural and thermodynamic parameters of melaminium maleate monohydrate. The hydrogen atom from maleic acid was transferred to the melamine molecule giving the singly protonated melaminium cation. The ability of ions to form spontaneous three-dimensional structure through weak Osbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds shows notable vibrational effects.

  8. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium maleate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Kalaivani, M; Marchewka, M K; Mohan, S

    2013-04-15

    The structural investigations of the molecular complex of melamine with maleic acid, namely melaminium maleate monohydrate have been carried out by quantum chemical methods in addition to FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. The quantum chemical studies were performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G(**), cc-pVDZ and 6-311++G(**) basis sets to determine the energy, structural and thermodynamic parameters of melaminium maleate monohydrate. The hydrogen atom from maleic acid was transferred to the melamine molecule giving the singly protonated melaminium cation. The ability of ions to form spontaneous three-dimensional structure through weak OH···O and NH···O hydrogen bonds shows notable vibrational effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonempirical investigations of the structure and stability of complex boro- and alumohydrides of K, Ca, Cu and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaev, D.G.; Charkin, O.P.

    1991-01-01

    Using nonempirical MO LCAO SCF method the structural and relative energy characteristics of boro- and alumohydrides of alternative configurations, CuAlH 4 , ZnBH 4 + , ZnAlH 4 + and HZnAlH 4 , were calculated. Differences and similarities in the properties of identical boro- and alumohydrides, as well as L 1 MH 4 , HL 2 MH 4 and L 2 MH 4 + molecules with the change of cation in the series K + -HCa + -Ca 2+ and Cu + -HZn + -Zn 2+ on the one hand, and with Cu and Zn substitution for K and Ca on the other hand, were considered. It was shown that alumohydrides of electropositive alkali and alkaline-earth cations K and Ca are less, and those of transition metals Cu and Zn are more hard to cation migration around AlH 4 - and BH 4 - anions than borohydrides

  10. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate and ibuprofen in gynaecological ambulatory surgeries: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Ahuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Flupirtine maleate is a centrally acting, non-opioid analgesic with unique muscle relaxant properties as compared to common analgesics. The aim of this study was to compare post-operative analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate and ibuprofen in patients undergoing gynaecological ambulatory surgeries. Methods: This prospective, randomised controlled study was conducted in 60 women of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II, 18-70 years of age and scheduled to undergo gynaecological ambulatory surgeries. The participants were randomised to receive either 100 mg oral flupirtine maleate (group flupirtine, n = 30 or 800 mg oral ibuprofen (group ibuprofen, n = 30, 1 h prior to surgery and then every 8 h for 48 h. Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS on movement was assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h following surgery. Following discharge from hospital, the patients were interviewed telephonically at 12, 24 and 48 h post-operatively. VNRS was statistically analysed using Mann-Whitney test. Results: VNRS on movement was statistically reduced at 2 h after surgery (P = 0.04 in group flupirtine as compared to group ibuprofen. The analgesic efficacy was similar in both the groups at 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. The satisfaction scores at 24 and 48 h post-operatively were superior in group flupirtine as compared to group ibuprofen (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Analgesic efficacy of flupirtine maleate was comparable with ibuprofen in patients in ambulatory gynaecological patients up to 48 h postoperatively with superior satisfaction scores.

  11. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalambate, Pramod K.; Rawool, Chaitali R.; Karna, Shashi P.; Srivastava, Ashwini K.

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (I p ) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0 × 10 −8 –2.0 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 7.1 × 10 −9 M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM. - Highlights: • Voltammetric sensor for methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticle - carbon paste electrode • Wide working range, good reproducibility, fast response and high stability were the main advantages of the proposed sensor • Analysis of methylergometrine maleate in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples • Lowest limit of detection obtained for methylergometrine maleate

  12. Physical and structural properties of Sm3+ ions doped heavy metal oxide containing lanthanum-boro-telluirte glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-05-01

    The structural studies of Tellurium oxide substituted by samarium oxide in lathanum-lead-boro-tellurite glass are successfully prepared with physical and optical parameters are determined. Due to the effect of increased number of non-bridging oxygen's in the glass samples few physical parameters are observed to be decreased. For the better structural analysis FTIR was carried out and transformation of BO3 → BO4 is observed. Most effective absorption coefficient OH- group was attained in the present work.

  13. Investigation of the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol on testicular damage in rats with experimentally induced testis torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvanc, Ercan; Tuglu, Devrim; Ozan, Tunc; Kisa, Ucler; Balci, Mahi; Batislam, Ertan; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the biochemical, histopathologic, and spermatogenetic changes in the detorsionated testicle after experimental torsion and to study the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Sham; Group 2: Torsion/Detorsion (T/D); Group 3: T/D + Pheniramine maleate (PM); Group 4: T/D + Nebivolol (NB) group. Paroxanase (PON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stres index (OSI) were measured, and spermatogenetic and histopathologic evaluation was performed in tissue and blood samples. The evaluation of tissue TAS indicated no statistically significant difference in Group 3 compared to Group 2. A statistically significant increase was detected in Group 4 compared to Group 2. Serum PON levels revealed a statistically significant increase in Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2. The Johnsen testicular biopsy score decreased in Groups 3 and 4, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Pheniramine maleate and nebivolol have antioxidant effects against ischemia-reperfusion damage. They also support tissue recovery, which is more significantly observed by nebivolol.

  14. Brimonidine 0.2% given two or three times daily versus timolol maleate 0.5% in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, A G; Stewart, W C; Topouzis, F; Tersis, I; Holmes, K T; Stangos, N T

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of brimonidine 0.2% two or three times daily versus timolol maleate 0.5% solution twice daily. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were randomized by Latin square technique to one of the three treatment sequences in this crossover, prospective double-masked trial. Each treatment period consisted of 6 weeks of chronic dosing followed by a diurnal curve for the intraocular pressure measured at 08:00, 10:00, 16:00, 18:00, 20:00, 22:00, and 24:00 hours. Intraocular pressure was measured by applanation tonometry. Thirty patients completed this trial. The average diurnal intraocular pressures in the trial were measured for timolol maleate (17.7 +/- 2.7 mm Hg), brimonidine given three times daily (18.0 +/- 2.2 mm Hg), and brimonidine given twice daily (19.2 +/- 2.4 mm Hg). There was a statistical difference between groups (P <.005). When groups were compared by pairs, three times daily dosing with brimonidine and timolol maleate both reduced the pressure more than twice daily brimonidine at every time point past 10:00 hours and for the diurnal curve (P <.05). In contrast, three times daily brimonidine and timolol maleate were statistically similar for the diurnal pressure, and each time point, except timolol maleate, decreased the pressure more at 16:00 (P =.042). Safety was similar between groups. This study demonstrated that both timolol maleate twice daily and brimonidine three times daily provide a similar intraocular pressure reduction to each other. Timolol maleate twice daily and brimonidine three times daily provide a greater decrease in pressure in the late afternoon and nighttime hours, compared with brimonidine twice daily.

  15. Effective extraction method through alkaline hydrolysis for the detection of starch maleate in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for the determination of maleic acid which was released from starch maleate (SM through the alkaline hydrolysis reaction. The proper alkaline hydrolysis conditions and LC separation are reported in this study. The starch samples were treated with 50% methanol for 30 minutes, and then hydrolyzed by 0.5N KOH for 2 hours to release maleic acid. A C18 column and gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% phosphoric acid and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/minute were used for separation. The method showed a good linearity in the range of 0.01–1.0 ìg/mL, with a limit of quantification (LOQ at 10 mg/kg in starch. The recoveries in corn starch, noodle, and fish balls were between 93.9% and 108.4%. The relative standard deviation (RSD of precision was <4.9% (n = 3. This valid method was rapid, sensitive, precise, and suitable for routine monitoring of the illegal adulteration of SM in foods.

  16. Gamma irradiation effects on the grafting of low-density polyethylene with diethyl maleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Y.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Perera, R.; Silva, P.; Gonzalez, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was grafted with diethyl maleate (DEM) using gamma-rays from a Cobalt-60 source at different absorbed doses and monomer concentrations between 5 and 30 wt.%. This process was carried out in a decalin solution at 10 w/v% to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. It was found that the grafting degree increases with the absorbed doses, as a consequence of the increased amount of energy given to the system, which made the grafting process more favorable. The grafting degree also increases with the concentration of DEM, because a higher concentration makes the insertion easier due to the increased availability of the free monomer. The highest grafting degree was obtained at 200 kGy of absorbed dose and with 30 wt.% of DEM. The melt flow index (MFI) values showed a decreasing trend as the absorbed dose was increased. This fact reveals that crosslinking and grafting are taking place simultaneously, this behavior being remarkable at higher irradiation doses. The results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the initial degradation temperatures remained almost unchanged with the absorbed dose

  17. Electrically atomised formulations of timolol maleate for direct and on-demand ocular lens coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prina; Al-Kinani, Ali A; Haj-Ahmad, Rita; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Chang, Ming-Wei; Alany, Raid G; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2017-10-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled solutions for challenging drug delivery targets. While the eye presents numerous emerging opportunities for delivery, analysis and sensing; issues persist for conventional applications. This includes liquid phase formulation localisation on the ocular surface once administered as formulated eye-drops; with the vast majority of dosage (>90%) escaping from the administered site due to tear production and various drainage mechanisms. The work presented here demonstrates a single needle electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering process to nano-coat (as an on demand and controllable fiber depositing method) the surface of multiple contact lenses rendering formulations to be stationary on the lens and at the bio-interface. The coating process was operational based on ejected droplet charge and glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) was used to demonstrate surface coating optimisation, bio-surface permeation properties (flux, using a bovine model) and various kinetic models thereafter. Polymers PVP, PNIPAM and PVP:PNIPAM (50:50%w/w) were used to encapsulate the active. Nano-fibrous and particulate samples were characterised using SEM, FTIR, DSC and TGA to confirm structural and thermal stability of surface coated formulations. More than 52% of nano-structured coatings (for all formulations) were drainage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of rice husk surface modified with maleated polypropylene and silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.-D.; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Kwang Ho; Singh, A.P.; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kim, Y.S.

    2004-01-01

    Rice husks were subjected to dry-grinding and steam-explosion to reduce their sizes. Subsequently, the surface of rice husk particles was modified using two different coupling agents, maleated polypropylene (MAPP) and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS, A-1100) to induce chemical reactions between the husk surface and the coupling agents used. The modified surface properties of rice husk were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. Dry grinding, a simple method of fracturing husk, provided particulate segments, while steam explosion separated husk into fibrous components. When treated with MAPP, the O/C ratio of the husk surface decreased for both dry ground and steam-exploded husk. The γ-APS treatment resulted in an increase in the Si/O ratio for dry ground husk surface while this ratio decreased for steam-exploded husk particles. These results indicated that both coupling agents might be linked to the husk surface through chemical reactions. FT-IR results also supported the occurrence of ester and ether bonds after treatment of husks with MAPP and γ-APS. The present work suggested that the method of preparing rice husk particles had a great impact on their surface properties, and would therefore affect the interfacial adhesion in rice husk-thermoplastic composites

  19. Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrajati, I. N.; Dewi, I. R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maleated castor oil (MACO) as plasticizer on natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The parameter studied were involving rheological, curing and swelling properties. The MACOs were prepared by an esterification reaction between castor oil (CO) and maleic anhydride (MAH) with the help of xylene as water entrainer to improve water removal. Resulting oils then applied as a plasticizer in each of those rubbers within a fixed loading of 5 phr. Comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of MACO and conventional plasticizer (paraffinic oil for NR and EPDM, DOP for NBR) on each rubber. Rheology, curing characteristic and swelling of each rubber were studied. The results showed that rubber (NR/EPDM/NBR) plasticized with MACO had given similar flow characteristic to conventional plasticizers. MACO exhibited slow curing, confirmed by higher t90, but the scorch safety was of the same magnitude. MAH loading tended to decrease the flow properties and curing rate, while scorch time (ts2) was independent.

  20. Influence of diethyl maleate in irradiated mice survival and related to percentages of serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1990-01-01

    The use of radiomodifying drugs that alter the radiation effect, protecting or sensitizing cells and organisms, presents great interest in tumor radiotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) can be described as the major endogenous radioprotector. The diethyl maleate (DEM) is a drug able to block intracellular GSH. This work aims at the establishment of the radiomodifying competence of DEM administered in two different vehicles, peanut oil and aqueous ethanolic solution by the analysis of mouse survival curves as well as the relative percentages of serum proteins. Groups of animals were previously injected intraperitoneally with 0.3 ml of 418 e 150 μM DEM respectively in each one of the vehicles one hour before irradiated with an 60 Co acute dose of 9 Gy. The survival of mice was followed during 30 days and electrophoretic profiles of serum proteins 1,3 and 7 days after irradiation. The results showed that the action of DEM om mouse radiosensitivity depends on the vehicles used, considering that both media showed a radio modifier action. (author)

  1. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties. In this paper, soybean oil maleate (SOMA) was synthesized by grafting soybean oil with various weight percents of maleic anhydride (MA) using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. Then, SOMA was employed for the surface modifying of cassava starch powder, resulting in SOMA-g-STARCH. The obtained SOMA-g-STARCH was mixed with PLA in various weight ratios using twin-screw extruder, resulting in PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH. Finally, the obtained PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH composites were prepared by a compression molding machines. The compatibility, thermal properties, morphology properties, and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility, surface appearance, and mechanical properties at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratios of PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH were the best. PMID:24307883

  2. Growth and characterisation of a new polymorph of barium maleate: a metal organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P; Bijini, B R; Prasanna, S; Eapen, S M; Nair, C M K; Deepa, M; RajendraBabu, K

    2015-02-25

    A new polymorph of barium maleate (BM) with chemical formula C24H14O24Ba5⋅7H2O is grown by modified gel method. Transparent plate like crystals of dimensions 9×4×1 mm(3) were obtained. Single crystal X-ray Diffraction analysis was done to determine the structure and the crystal belongs to triclinic system, P-1 space group with cell dimensions a=7.2929(3) Å, b=10.5454(4) Å, c=14.2837(6) Å, α=102.0350(10)°, β=99.1580(10)°, γ=102.9170(10)°. Hydrogen bonding stabilises the two dimensional polymeric crystal structure. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic method was utilised for the analysis of various functional groups present in the complex. Elemental analysis confirmed the stoichiometry of the complex. Thermal properties of the crystal were studied by TGA/DTA. The material melts at 368°C. The optical transparency of the crystal was studied using UV-Visible absorption spectra. The optical band gap is found to be 3.35 eV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a novel bio-based resin from maleated soybean oil polyols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel bio-based resin was prepared by the radical copolymerization of maleated soybean oil polyols (MSBOP) and styrene (ST). Structure of the product was studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and the result was found to be consistent with that of theoretical structure. Swelling experiments indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with the increase of hydroxyl value. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) revealed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing hydroxyl values, and that its thermal stability showed a good correlation with the hydroxyl value. The tensile strength and impact strength were significantly affected by the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols. With increasing hydroxyl value, the tensile strength presented an increasing trend, while the impact strength showed a decreasing one. Moreover, the property of the polymer from elastomer to plastic character also depended on the functionality of the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols.

  4. Rendimento e qualidade de sementes de arroz irrigado em função da adubação com boro

    OpenAIRE

    LEITE, Ricardo Figueiredo Cavalheiro

    2008-01-01

    O boro é um nutriente essencial para as plantas. Suas funções estão envolvidas com o crescimento celular e o desenvolvimento da flor. Na floração, a deficiência do micronutriente reduz a macho-fertilidade em função do prejuízo à microesporogênese e ao crescimento do tubo polínico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se definir as fases de maior sensibilidade da cultura, com o intuito de identificar épocas apropriadas para a aplicação de tratamentos corretivos de boro. A aplicação do boro, na forma de b...

  5. Rendimento e qualidade de sementes de arroz irrigado em função da adubação com boro

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Ricardo Figueiredo Cavalheiro; Schuch, Luis Osmar Braga; Amaral, Ademir dos Santos; Tavares, Lizandro Ciciliano

    2011-01-01

    O boro é um nutriente essencial para as plantas. Suas funções estão envolvidas com o crescimento celular e o desenvolvimento da flor. Na fase reprodutiva, a deficiência do micronutriente reduz a macho-fertilidade em função do prejuízo à microesporogênese e ao crescimento posterior do tubo polínico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de boro, sobre as características agronômicas e a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de arroz produzidas. A aplicação do boro, na forma de...

  6. Effect of antimony-oxide on the shielding properties of some sodium-boro-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulfakar, A M; Abdel-Ghany, A M; Abou-Elnasr, T Z; Mostafa, A G; Salem, S M; El-Bahnaswy, H H

    2017-09-01

    Some sodium-silicate-boro-antimonate glasses having the molecular composition [(20) Na 2 O - (20) SiO 2 - (60-x) B 2 O 3 - (x) Sb 2 O 3 (where x takes the values 0, 5 … or 20)] have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The melting and annealing temperatures were 1500 and 650K respectively. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values showed gradual increase with increasing Sb 2 O 3 content. The empirical densities showed higher values than those obtained experimentally, while the empirical molar volume values appeared lower than those obtained experimentally, which confirm the amorphous nature and randomness character of the studied samples. The experimentally obtained shielding parameters were approximately coincident with those obtained theoretically by applying WinXCom program. At low gamma-ray energies (0.356 and 0.662MeV) Sb 2 O 3 has approximately no effect on the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient, while at high energies it acts to increase the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient gradually. The obtained Half Value Layer and Mean Free Path values showed gradual decrease as Sb 2 O 3 was gradually increased. Also, the Total Mass Attenuation Coefficient values obtained between about 0.8 and 3.0MeV gamma-ray energy showed a slight decrease, as gamma-ray photon energy increased. This may be due to the differences between the Attenuation Coefficients of both antimony and boron oxides at various gamma-ray photon energies. However, it can be stated that the addition of Sb 2 O 3 into sodium-boro-silicate glasses increases the gamma-ray Attenuation Coefficient and the best sample is that contains 20 mol% of Sb 2 O 3 , which is operating well at 0.356 and 0.662MeV gamma-ray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal, structural and spectroscopic investigations on Eu{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraju, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302 (India); Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari_ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302 (India); Seshagiri, T.K.; Godbole, S.V. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental O-H, (BO{sub 3}){sup -} vibrations and B-O-B linkages in borate network explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The covalent nature of the Eu{sup 3+} ions with surrounding ligands have been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B3TMK glass is found to be the best optical candidate for laser working at 612 nm. - Abstract: Eu{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (69 - x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xTeO{sub 2}-15Mg{sub 2}O-15K{sub 2}O-1Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) have been synthesized and its thermal, structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied and reported. The thermal behavior of the Eu{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses were explored through DTA thermograms. The presence of varying tellurium dioxide results in structural and spectroscopic changes around Eu{sup 3+} ions and are explored through XRD, FTIR, UV-vis, Luminescence and lifetime measurements. The XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature and the FTIR spectra reveal the formation of the local structural units BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} in the prepared glasses. The bonding parameters (-bar {beta} and {delta}) have been calculated based on the observed band positions of the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters were determined from the absorption and luminescence spectra and the results are presented. The variation in the JO intensity parameters {Omega}{sub {lambda}} ({lambda} = 2, 4 and 6) and the hypersensitive band positions with the change in chemical composition have been discussed in detail. The JO parameters have been used to derive important radiative properties like transition probabilities (A), branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}) and peak stimulated emission cross section ({sigma}E/P) for the {sup 5}D{sub 0} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions. The varying optical properties of the prepared glasses with the change in tellurium dioxide have

  8. Role of lithium ions on the physical, structural and optical properties of zinc boro tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S.; Ahlawat, N.; Parmar, R.; Dhankhar, S.; Kundu, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium zinc boro tellurite glasses with compositions xLi2O-(100-x) [0.25ZnO-0.15B2O3-0.60TeO2] [where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%] have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared system is ascertained by X-ray diffraction. The density and molar volume are found to decrease with the increase in concentration of Li2O. The differential scanning calorimetry is used to calculate the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the observed values are found to be decreased. The IR and Raman spectra indicate that Li2O acts as a network modifier in the glass matrix. In the present system, tellurium exists as TeO4 and TeO3, B2O3 in the form of BO4 and BO3 and zinc oxide exists as ZnO4 structural units. The values of the optical band gap are estimated from the fitting of Mott and Davis's and model. A better convergence is achieved between experimental observed spectra of absorption coefficient and hydrogenic excitonic model. The optical band gap energy increases, whereas refractive index and molar refractivity follow the reverse trend with Li2O. The range of metallization criterion suggests that these glasses may be a potential candidate for nonlinear optical materials.

  9. Dy{sup 3+} ions as optical probes for studying structure of boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyen, Vu Phi, E-mail: vptuyen@gust-edu.vast.vn [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Graduate University of Science and Technology – VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sengthong, Bounyavong; Quang, Vu Xuan [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Van Do, Phan [Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Van Tuyen, Ho; Xuan Hung, Le [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Thanh, Nguyen Trong [Institute of Materials Science – VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nogami, Masayuki [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Toyota Physical and Chemical research Institute (Japan); Hayakawa, Tomokatsu [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokisocho Showaku, 466-8555 Nagoya, Aichiken (Japan); Huy, Bui The, E-mail: buithehuy.nt@gmail.com [Duytan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dy{sup 3+}-doped glasses with various compositions (35+x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+ (45−x)TeO{sub 2}+9.5ZnO+10Na{sub 2}O+0.5Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0; 10 and 20) were prepared by a melt–quenching technique. The Dy{sup 3+} ions are used as an optical probe, of which the Judd–Ofelt parameters, the phonon-side band, and the Raman spectra were quantitatively estimated to search the change of glass structure (the change of the ratio of [BO{sub 4}] to [BO{sub 3}] units, formation of the non-bridging oxygens (NBO{sup −}), the change of [TeO{sub 3}] to [TeO{sub 4}] units) as a function of the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The Ω{sub 2} and Ω{sub 6} values of Dy{sup 3+}-doped boro-tellurite samples are larger than that of Dy{sup 3+}-doped borate or tellurite sample. The CIE chromaticity color coordinates were calculated for the luminescence spectra of Dy{sup 3+} ions of the glasses with the different compositions and they were all located in the vicinity of white light center of the color coordination diagram.

  10. Investigations on optical properties of Sm3+ ion doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Suthanthirakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, P.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Sm3+ doped Boro-phosphate glasses with the chemical composition 60H3BO3+20Li2CO3+10ZnO+(10-x) H6NO4P+xSm2O3 (where x= 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized through optical absorption and luminescence spectral measurements. The band gap energies corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions and the Urbach's energy values were estimated from the absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been derived to predict the radiative properties of the various emission transitions. In order to identify the emission color of the prepared glasses, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram. The energy transfer process takes place between Sm3+-Sm3+ ions through cross-relaxation mechanism have also been investigated and the results were discussed and reported.

  11. Investigations on structural and optical behavior of Er3+ doped lead boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Suthanthirakumar, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    Er3+ doped lead boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (30-x)B2O3+30TeO2+23MgO+17PbF2+xEr2O3 (where x=0.05, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 in wt%) were synthesized by melt quenching technique. The structural and optical behaviors have been investigated through FTIR, absorption and emission spectral analysis. The UV-vis- NIR absorption spectra were used to calculate the bonding parameters (β ¯, δ), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6), Optical band gap and Urbach's energy of the prepared glasses. The radiative properties such as transition probability (AR), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE ), branching ratios (βR) were calculated from the luminescence spectra. The optical properties of the prepared glasses with varying Er3+ ion concentration have been studied and reported in the present work.

  12. Band gap and polarizability of boro-tellurite glass: Influence of erbium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said Mahraz, Zahra Ashur; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the influence of rare earth ions in improving the structural and optical properties of inorganic glasses are the key issues. Er3+-doped zinc boro-tellurite glasses with composition 30B2O3-10ZnO-(60-x) TeO2-xEr2O3 are prepared (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol%) using melt quenching technique. The physical and optical characterizations are measured by density and UV-Vis-IR absorption spectroscopy. The color of the glass changed from light yellow to deep pink due to the introduction of Er3+ ions. The maximum density is found to be ∼4.73 g cm-3 for 1 mol% of Er3+ doping. The variations in the polarizability (6.7-6.8 cm3) and the molar volume (27.987-28.827 cm3 mol-1) with dopant concentration are ascribed to the formation of non-bridging oxygen. This observation is consistent with the alteration of number of bonds per unit volume. The direct and indirect optical band gaps are increased while the phonon cut-off wavelength and Urbach energy decreased with the increase of erbium content. A high density and wide transparency range in VIS-IR area are achieved. Our results on high refractive index (∼2.416) and polarizability suggest that these glasses are potential for photonics, solid state lasers and communications devices.

  13. Nd3+-doped lanthanum lead boro-tellurite glass for lasing and amplification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.; Manasa, P.; Srinatha, N.

    2018-01-01

    Nd3+-doped lanthanum lead boro-tellurite glass samples were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and their structural, thermal, fluorescence, and decay times of the glasses were investigated. Prepared glass samples exhibits amorphous nature and shows good thermal stability in the temperature range of 100-800 °C. Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis was carried out and the intensity parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4, 6) also spontaneous radiative probability and stimulated-.emission cross-sections were estimated. The magnitude of Ωλ confirms the covalency nature. The near infrared emission spectra were measured by 808 nm excitation in which the emission intensity is found to be high at 1060 nm for the 4F3/2 → 4F11/2 transition. The stimulated cross section, effective band width and branching ratios are found to be 8.910 × 10-20 cm2, 21.57 nm and 53.72 % respectively, for 4F3/2 → 4F11/2 transition. The derived gain bandwidth, figure of merit, threshold and saturation intensity found to be comparable to some of the glass systems. Furthermore, the time decay rate found to decrease from 100 μs to 27 μs when the concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 mol% of Nd3+ ions and also all follow the single exponential behaviour which is attributed to the self quenching effect due to the cross-relaxation channels.

  14. Optical properties of Dy3+ doped bismuth boro-tellurite glasses for WLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Dy3+ doped bismuth boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (79.5-x) B2O3+xTeO2+10Bi2O3+10PbF2+0.5Dy2O3 (where x = 10, 20, 30 and 40 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical properties of the prepared glasses have been studied through absorption and emission spectral measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap energy, Urbach's energy and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated from the absorption spectra. The radiative properties like transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) and branching ratios (βR) were calculated from the emission spectra using JO theory. The strong emissions in the visible region, large stimulated emission cross-section and higher branching ratio values observed for the title glasses are found to be suitable for lasers and WLED applications.

  15. Concentration dependent spectroscopic properties of Dy{sup 3+} ions doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariyappan, M.; Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari-ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University, Gandhigram – 624 302 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Dy{sup 3+} ions doped boro-phosphate glasses have been synthesized by melt quenching method and characterized through FTIR, absorption and luminescence spectral measurements. The presence of various stretching and bending vibrations of different borate and phosphate groups were identified from the FTIR spectra. In order to examine the electronic band structure of the studied glasses, Optical energy gap (E{sub opt}) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were estimated from the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated to examine the symmetry of the ligand environment around the Dy{sup 3+} ions site. The emission spectra exhibit two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponding to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions respectively. The emission spectra were characterized through Commission International d’Eclairage (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram to explore its suitability for WLED applications.

  16. Investigations on optical properties of Sm{sup 3+} ion doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Suthanthirakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, P.; Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari-ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed University, Gandhigram – 624302 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Sm{sup 3+} doped Boro-phosphate glasses with the chemical composition 60H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}+20Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}+10ZnO+(10−x) H{sub 6}NO{sub 4}P+xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x= 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized through optical absorption and luminescence spectral measurements. The band gap energies corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions and the Urbach’s energy values were estimated from the absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been derived to predict the radiative properties of the various emission transitions. In order to identify the emission color of the prepared glasses, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram. The energy transfer process takes place between Sm{sup 3+}−Sm{sup 3+} ions through cross-relaxation mechanism have also been investigated and the results were discussed and reported.

  17. Immobilization of uranium and plutonium into boro-basalt, pyroxene and andradite mineral-like compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyunin, Y.I.; Smelova, T.V.

    2000-01-01

    The immobilization of plutonium-containing wastes with the manufacturing of stable solid compositions is one of the problems that should be solved in the disposal of radioactive wastes. The works on the choice, preparation with the use of the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology, and investigation of materials that are most suitable for immobilizing plutonium-containing wastes of different origin have been carried out at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) and the Institute of the Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (IGEM), Russian Academy of Sciences in the framework of the agreements with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, USA) on the material and technical support. This paper presents the data on the synthesis of cerium-, uranium-, and plutonium-containing materials based on boro-basalt, pyroxene, and andradite compositions in the muffle furnace and by using the CCIM method. The compositions containing up to 15 - 18 wt % cerium oxide, 8 - 11 wt % uranium oxide, and 4.6 - 5.7 wt % plutonium oxide were obtained in laboratory facilities installed in glove boxes. Comparison studies of the materials synthesized in the muffle furnace and CCIM demonstrate the advantages of using the CCIM method. The distribution of components in the materials synthesized are investigated, and their certain physicochemical properties are determined. (authors)

  18. Lanthanum lead boro-tellurite glasses doped with samarium trioxide for luminescent devices application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    Boro-tellurite based glasses (10La2O3-(20-x) TeO2-30PbO-40B2O3-xSm2O3) (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol %) doped with different concentrations of Sm3+ ions has been investigated. The optical properties have been studied through spectroscopic measurements such as absorption and luminescence. Absorption spectra reveals nine peaks due to 6H5/2→6P3/2, 4I3/2+4F5/2+4I11/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2, and 6H13/2 transitions. Luminescence spectra under the excitation of 403 nm display four emission bands due to 4G5/2→6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions of Sm3+ ions. Among them 6H7/2 bright orange -red is more intense which proves that the present glasses are potential candidates for luminescent device applications in visible range as well as optical fibre communication since its refractive index is 1.65 high compared to other glasses.

  19. Aplicación de boro en eucalipto: comparación de fuentes Aplicação de boro em eucalipto: comparação de fontes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Gabriel Ferrando; José Pedro Zamalvide

    2012-01-01

    La deficiencia de boro (B) en sistemas forestales ha sido reportada en diferentes especies de pino y eucalipto, verificándose importantes mejoras en la producción y/o calidad de madera, con el agregado de este nutriente. La baja retranslocación del B dentro de la planta hace necesario un aporte constante para satisfacer las demandas del cultivo. Al ser un nutriente muy poco retenido por el suelo está sujeto a pérdidas por lixiviación. El uso de fertilizantes solubles brinda una solución a cor...

  20. TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Gabby J; Nuttall, Tim; López, Javier; Magnone, William; Leclerc, Antoine; Potier, Romain; Lécu, Alexis; Guézénec, Maëlle; Kolter, Lydia; Nicolau, Amélie; Lemberger, Karin; Pin, Didier; Cosgrove, Sallie B

    2017-09-01

    Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3-1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46-0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23-0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.

  1. STABILITY OF EMULSIFIER-FREE EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE/ BUTYL ACRYLATE/SODIUM MONO(ETHYL POLYOXYETHYLENE) MALEATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-gen Zhang; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang; Zu-ren Pan

    1999-01-01

    A series of new water-soluble bifunctional comonomers having both carboxyl and alkyl polyoxyethylene groups, such as sodium mono(ethyl polyoxyethylene) maleate (ZE series) with various molecular weights of polyoxyethylene ethyl ether, were synthesized and characterized. The effects of the structural factor, the amount and feeding mode of the comonomers, the initiator concentration and polymerization temperature on the stability of emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) in the presence of a small amount of ZE with potassium persulfate as initiator were investigated. Stable, almost monodispersed MMA/BA/ZE emulsifier-free latex particles were prepared.

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Requirements of Dry Season Boro Rice: Recent Trends and Future Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, T. K.; Ludwig, F.; Halsema, G. V.; Hellegers, P.; Supit, I.

    2017-12-01

    The North-West part of Bangladesh is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, because of dry season water shortage and high water demand for rice cultivation. A study was carried out to understand the impacts of recent climate change (1980-2013) and future consequences (for 2050s and 2080s) on water requirements of Boro rice. The reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), potential crop water requirement (∑ETC), effective rainfall (ER), potential irrigation requirement for crop evapotranspiration (∑ETC-ER) and net irrigation requirement of Boro rice were estimated in CropWat using observed daily climate data for recent trends and statistically downscaled and bias corrected GCM outputs (five models and two RCPs) for future scenarios. ETo showed a significant decreasing recent trends due to increasing relative humidity and decreasing wind speed and sun shine hours instead of an increase in temperature. However, the strong future increase in temperature will lead to an insignificant increase in ETo. ∑ETC showed a decreasing recent trend and will further decrease in the future because of shortened duration of Boro growth stages as crop's phenological response to increased temperature. The variations in trends of ∑ETC-ER found among different districts, are mainly linked to the variations in trends of changes in effective rainfall. During last three decades, the net irrigation requirement has decreased by 11% at an average rate of -4.4 mm/year, instead of a decreasing effective rainfall, mainly because of high rate of decrease of crop evapotranspiration (-5.9 mm/year). In future, although daily water requirement will increase, the total net irrigation requirement of Boro rice will decrease by 1.6% in 2050s and 7.4% in 2080s for RCP 8.5 scenario on an average for five models and four districts compared to the base period (1980-2013). High variations in projected changes in rainfall bring high uncertainty for future water requirements estimation. Therefore, a

  3. Absorção e redistribuição de boro em coqueiro-anão-verde.

    OpenAIRE

    PINHO, L. G. da R.; MONNERAT, P. H.; PIRES, A. A.; SANTOS, A. L. A.

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se ocorre redistribuição de boro em coqueiros (Cocos nucifera), quando a aplicação de ácido bórico é realizada na axila foliar ou no solo. Foram empregados os seguintes tratamentos com ácido bórico: 30 g aplicados sobre a axila da folha número 10; 60 g aplicados ao solo; e controle, sem aplicação. Foram realizadas duas aplicações de B, com um intervalo de cinco meses entre elas. A unidade experimental consistiu de duas plantas, com seis repetições, em d...

  4. Determinación de las causas del rajado del fruto de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. bajo cubierta. II. Efecto de la oferta de calcio, boro y cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooman Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluo la incidencia del rajado del fruto de uchuva, cultivada en macetas y bajo invernadero, con presencia y ausencia en la fertilizacion de los elementos calcio, cobre y boro, y sus interacciones. Los rendimientos en cosecha se redujeron por la ausencia de calcio y cobre pero el boro no incidio en este aspecto. El peso de los frutos individuales aumento por la ausencia del boro en la fertilizacion, mientras que la ausencia del calcio produjo frutos de menor peso y el cobre no incidio en este aspecto. En el tratamiento de fertilizacion completa, que incluyo todos los elementos, el rajado fue mas importante en las primeras semanas y menor hacia el final del periodo de cosecha. El rajado del fruto se expreso en funcion de la presencia de calcio y boro en la fertilizacion, con un incremento de 5,5 a 13% de frutos rajados cuando cualquiera de los dos era eliminado de la solucion nutritiva. El cobre no tuvo efecto sobre la incidencia del rajado. El tamano del fruto, aunque significativo, incidio poco sobre la ocurrencia del rajado.

  5. Evaluation of the analgesic properties of acepromazine maleate, oxymorphone, medetomidine and a combination of acepromazine-oxymorphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Matthew D; Hubbell, John A E; Muir, William W

    2000-07-01

    To determine the presence and duration of analgesia after oxymorphone, acepromazine maleate, acepromazine-oxymorphone combination and medetomidine administration in dogs. Blinded, controlled study. Six adult beagle dogs. Each dog participated in five trials receiving acepromazine maleate (0.2 mg kg -1 IM), oxymorphone (0.2 mg kg -1 IM), acepromazine-oxymorphone drug combination (0.2 mg kg -1 each IM), medetomidine (20 μg kg -1 IM) and sterile saline (control). Two specially designed instruments were used for analgesia determination: a heat device (HD) utilized a linear ramped intensity incandescent bulb and a pressure device (PD) consisted of a pneumatic cylinder that protruded a 2.5-cm bolt. The minimum pressure and heat necessary to produce an avoidance response were determined. Analgesia testing was performed prior to and at 30-minute intervals for six hours after drug administration. Oxymorphone, acepromazine-oxymorphone and medetomidine significantly elevated both pressure and heat response thresholds compared to controls and acepromazine. Both medetomidine and acepromazine-oxymorphone provided a significantly longer duration of analgesia than oxymorphone. No adverse effects were observed at any of the thermal or pressure application sites. Oxymorphone, medetomidine and acepromazine-oxymorphone produced significant analgesia with medetomidine and acepromazine-oxymorphone providing the longest duration of analgesia. Copyright © 2000 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate, K2[B3O3F4OH], on cell viability and gene expression of common human cancer drug targets in a melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojskic, Lejla; Haveric, Sanin; Lojo-Kadric, Naida; Hadzic, Maida; Haveric, Anja; Galic, Zoran; Galic, Borivoj; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Milos, Mladen

    2016-12-01

    Recently it was found that dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate, K2(B3O3F4OH), is a potent and highly specific inhibitor of precancerous cell processes. We conducted gene expression profiling of human melanoma cells before and after treatment with two concentrations (0.1 and 1 mM) of this boron inorganic derivative in order to assess its effects on deregulation of genes associated with tumor pathways. Parallel trypan blue exclusion assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity effects of this chemical. Treatment with K2(B3O3F4OH) induced a significant decrease of cell viability in melanoma cellline at both tested concentrations. Furthermore, these treatments caused deregulation of more than 30 genes known as common anti-tumor drug targets. IGF-1 and hTERT were found to be significantly downregulated and this result may imply potential use of K2(B3O3F4OH) as an inhibitor or human telomerase and insulin-like growth factor 1, both of which are associated with various tumor pathways.

  7. Concentration dependent luminescence quenching of Er{sup 3+}-doped zinc boro-tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said Mahraz, Zahra Ashur; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.; Reza Dousti, M.

    2013-12-15

    Understanding the mechanism of luminescence quenching in rare earth doped tellurite glass is an important issue. The Er{sup 3+}-doped boro-tellurite glasses with compositions 30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+10ZnO+(60−x)TeO{sub 2}+xEr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. Structural and optical properties of the proposed glasses were characterized using XRD, FTIR, density, UV–vis-IR absorption and PL spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of these glasses was confirmed by XRD technique. The IR-spectrum reveals five absorption bands assigned to different B–O and Te–O vibrational groups. UV–vis-IR absorption spectrum exhibits seven absorption bands at 6553, 10,244, 12,547, 15,360, 19,230, 20,661 and 22,522 cm{sup −1} corresponding to {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 7/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} excited states of Er{sup 3+} ion respectively. The optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions decreased, while the Urbach energy and cut-off wavelengths are increased by the introduction of Er{sup 3+} ions. The refractive index, density and phonon cut-off edge of the samples are increased and the molar volume decreased with the further addition of dopants. The Judd–Ofelt parameter (Ω{sub 2}) decreased from 5.73 to 3.13×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} with the increase of erbium ions concentration from 0.5 to 2 mol%. The PL spectra show green emissions for the transition from {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} excited states to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} ground state, which show strong quenching due to the addition of Er{sup 3+} ions. -- Highlights: • Er{sup 3+}-doped zinc boro-tellurite glass has been synthesized by melt quench method. • Spectroscopic properties dependent concentration is analyzed by different techniques. • Judd–Ofelt intensity parameter (Ω{sub 2}) decreased by increase in erbium

  8. Aplicación de boro en eucalipto: comparación de fuentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gabriel Ferrando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de boro (B en sistemas forestales ha sido reportada en diferentes especies de pino y eucalipto, verificándose importantes mejoras en la producción y/o calidad de madera, con el agregado de este nutriente. La baja retranslocación del B dentro de la planta hace necesario un aporte constante para satisfacer las demandas del cultivo. Al ser un nutriente muy poco retenido por el suelo está sujeto a pérdidas por lixiviación. El uso de fertilizantes solubles brinda una solución a corto plazo, muy dependiente de situaciones ambientales, mientras que las fuentes de liberación lenta permitirían un aporte más constante y por más tiempo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la disponibilidad en el tiempo del B proveniente de diferentes fuentes, a través de cambios en las concentraciones foliares de Eucalyptus globulus (Labille y Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden, en distintas situaciones de suelos y manejo. Se instalaron tres experimentos de campo de comparación de fuentes boratadas (borato de sodio vs ulexita, aplicadas en cobertura, a árboles con seis meses de transplantados, en distintos sitios experimentales de Uruguay. A los 6, 12 y 24 meses luego de la fertilización se evaluaron las concentraciones foliares de B. La ulexita mostró una alta solubilidad y baja residualidad, con similar eficiencia que el borato de sodio como aporte de B para los eucaliptos. La dosis de B aplicada (4 g de B por planta parecería ser suficiente para alcanzar niveles foliares que podrían considerarse de suficiencia, sin llegar a niveles de toxicidad.

  9. Novel selenium containing boro-phosphate glasses: Preparation and structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Radu, T.; Ponta, O.; Simon, V.

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized a new boro-phosphate glass system with different %mol SeO 2 content by conventional melt quenching technique. All samples were obtained in a glassy state with the vitreous structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed some non-homogeneous domains on the glasses surface, and their tendency to link each other once the selenium oxide content increases. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated similar elemental composition in different regions of each sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the nature of chemical bonding and the elemental composition at the sample surfaces, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structural groups in the obtained glass structure. Based on FT-IR results, the glass structure at short range order consists mainly of small phosphate units such as pyrophosphate (i.e. P 2 O 7 4− dimmers or terminating groups at the end of phosphate chains) and some metaphosphate (i.e. PO 3 − middle groups in the phosphate chains) units. The boron atoms are mainly placed in three-coordinated sites in BØ 3 or BØ 2 O − units. A small contribution of BØ 4 − units was also detected from the FT-IR spectra of glasses. For SeO 2 content higher than 5 mol%, the modifier role of selenium ions is strongly reflected on the local structure dominated in this case by pyrophosphate units. - Highlights: • New P 2 O 5 -CaO-B 2 O 3 -SeO 2 glasses synthesized by conventional melt quenching method. • Evidences for the Se ions modifier role in the local structure by FT-IR and XPS. • Significant advances in understanding the structural properties of the new system

  10. Structural and luminescence studies on Dy3+ doped lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S.; Venkataiah, G.; Arunkumar, S.; Muralidharan, G.; Marimuthu, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports results obtained on the structural and luminescence properties of Dy3+doped lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses prepared following the melt quenching technique. FTIR spectra exhibit the presence of B-O vibrations, P-O-P symmetric vibrations and Te-O stretching modes of TeO3 and TeO6 units. The metal-ligand bond was identified through UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra and to determine the band tailing parameter, direct and indirect band gap energy of the prepared glasses. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), experimental and theoretical oscillator strengths were also determined and reported. Luminescence measurements were made to determine the transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) and branching ratio (βR) for the transitions that include 4F9/2→6H11/2, 6H13/2 and 6H15/2 bands. The effect of Dy3+ ion concentration on the intensity ratio of yellow to blue emission bands has also been studied and reported. The lifetime corresponding to the 4F9/2 level of the title glasses has been found to decrease with the increase in Dy3+ ion concentration. The chromaticity coordinates (x,y) have been estimated from the luminescence spectra and the suitability of title glasses for white light applications has been analyzed using CIE chromaticity diagram. The variation of optical properties with the concentration of dysprosium oxide content in the glasses have been studied and reported.

  11. Red light generation through the lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses activated by Eu3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Suriya Murthy, N.; Muralidharan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses containing 0.05 to 2.0 wt% of Eu3+ ions were prepared through melt quenching technique. Structural characteristics of title glasses were identified through XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. The optical properties of the prepared glasses were studied using UV-Vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectra. From the resultant spectra, we have obtained the bonding parameters (δ), nephelauxetic ratio (β), direct and indirect band gaps and Urbach energy (ΔE) values. A deep red luminescence due to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions could be observed for the title glasses. The local site symmetry around the Eu3+ ions and the degree of Eu3+-O2- covalence were assessed from the luminescence intensity ratio of 5D0 → 7F2/5D0 → 7F1 transitions. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, calculated from the luminescence spectra, were used to estimate the radiative parameters like transition probability (A), branching ratio (βexp, βcal) and stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) concerning the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions. The important laser parameters, gain bandwidth and optical gain are also estimated. The decay curves associated with the transition from 5D0 state was found to be single-exponential at all Eu3+ ion concentrations. CIE colour coordinates and colour purity of the prepared glasses were estimated from the CIE chromaticity diagram.

  12. Structural and optical studies on Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Veeran, P. K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2013-03-01

    Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses (69 - x)B2O3 + xTeO2 + 15Na2CO3 + 15NaF + 1Eu2O3 (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) have been prepared and their structural and optical properties were studied through XRD, FTIR, absorption, luminescence and decay time measurements. The FTIR spectra reveal the presence of B-O-B bond bending vibrations and Te-O-Te or O-Te-O linkage bending vibrations in the prepared glasses. The absorption spectral measurements were used to calculate the bonding parameters (β¯, δ). The direct, indirect allowed band gap (Eopt), band tail parameter (B) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values of the prepared glasses have also been determined from the absorption spectral measurements. The phonon sideband is observed from the excitation spectra on the higher energy side of the 7F0 → 5D2 transition. The phonon energy (hω) and the electron-phonon coupling constant (g) were also derived from the phonon sideband spectra. Through the luminescence spectra, Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) and the luminescence intensity ratio (R) have been determined. The JO parameters have also been used to calculate the radiative properties like transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE), radiative lifetime (τrad), and branching ratios (βR) for the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) emission transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The experimental lifetime of the 5D0 level is found to be single exponential for all the prepared glasses. The obtained results were discussed and reported in the present work.

  13. Novel selenium containing boro-phosphate glasses: preparation and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceo-Lucacel, R; Radu, T; Ponta, O; Simon, V

    2014-06-01

    We synthesized a new boro-phosphate glass system with different %mol SeO2 content by conventional melt quenching technique. All samples were obtained in a glassy state with the vitreous structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed some non-homogeneous domains on the glasses surface, and their tendency to link each other once the selenium oxide content increases. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated similar elemental composition in different regions of each sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the nature of chemical bonding and the elemental composition at the sample surfaces, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structural groups in the obtained glass structure. Based on FT-IR results, the glass structure at short range order consists mainly of small phosphate units such as pyrophosphate (i.e. P2O7(4-) dimmers or terminating groups at the end of phosphate chains) and some metaphosphate (i.e. PO3(-) middle groups in the phosphate chains) units. The boron atoms are mainly placed in three-coordinated sites in BØ3 or BØ2O(-) units. A small contribution of BØ4(-) units was also detected from the FT-IR spectra of glasses. For SeO2 content higher than 5mol%, the modifier role of selenium ions is strongly reflected on the local structure dominated in this case by pyrophosphate units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isotermas de langmuir e de freundlich na descrição da adsorção de boro em solos altamente intemperizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALLEONI L.R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a adequação dos modelos de Langmuir e de Freundlich para descrever a adsorção do boro em amostras superficiais (0-0,2 m e subsuperficiais (na maior expressão do horizonte B de três solos altamente intemperizados: latossolo roxo distrófico textura muito argilosa (LR, podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico textura arenosa/média (PV e latossolo vermelho-escuro álico textura média (LE. Para a determinação da quantidade de boro adsorvido, 20 mL de soluções de CaCl2 0,01 mol.L-1 com diferentes quantidades de boro (0; 1; 2; 4; 8 e 16 mg.mL-1 foram adicionados a 4 g de terra fina seca em estufa e agitados por 24 h. Tanto o modelo de Langmuir como o de Freundlich adequaram-se bem aos valores de boro adsorvido pelos solos, em toda faixa estudada. As adsorções máximas de maior valor estimadas pelo modelo de Langmuir foram encontradas para as amostras do LR (em torno de 14 mg.g-1, seguidas daquela do horizonte B do PV (7 mg.g-1. Valores menores foram encontrados nas amostras do LE e no horizonte superficial do PV, com menos de 6 mg.g-1 de boro adsorvido. O somatório dos desvios no PV e no LE foram maiores para o modelo de Freundlich, enquanto que, no LR, o somatório foi maior para os valores estimados pelo modelo de Langmuir.

  15. SÍNTOMAS ASOCIADOS CON ALTAS CONCENTRACIONES DE BORO EN RAMBUTÁN (Nephelium lappaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesiones foliares de diferente intensidad fueron observadas en una plantación comercial de rambután de dos a cuatro años de edad, en asocio con papa ya (Carica papaya, ubicada en la provincia de Heredia, cantón de Sa rapi quí, Costa Ri ca, en el año 2003. Como comparador se utilizaron muestras provenientes de plantas sin síntomas, con un rango de edad similar al de las plantas de Sa - rapi quí, y pertenecientes a la colección de frutales exóticos de la Corporación Bananera Na cional (COR BANA S.A, situada en la provincia de Limón, cantón de Pococí y distante 15 km de la plantación afectada. Con el objetivo de determinar el origen de las lesiones, el segundo y tercer par de hojas más jóvenes, de al menos cuatro ramas equidistantes de la parte media de la planta, fueron utilizados para análisis en el Laboratorio Químico de Suelos y Foliares en COR BANA S.A. El muestreo fue realizado una vez y cada muestra provino de cuatro a cinco plantas con cuatro repe ticiones. La muestra, previamente limpia , seca y molida, fue digerida en microondas y la lectura de todos los elementos, con excepción del nitrógeno que se determinó por combustión seca, se efectuó mediante un espectrofotómetro de plasma modelo Op tima 3000. Las plantas afectadas presentaron una necrosis marginal que se desarrolló del ápice hacia la base y del borde hacia el interior de la lámina foliar con moteados intervenales de apa riencia clorótica. En ocasiones, se observó un rizado de la sección api cal con necrosis ocasionado por la torsión hacia arriba de sus márgenes. El análisis foliar indicó una alta concentración de boro.

  16. Structural and optical investigations on Dy{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshvaran, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302 (India); Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari_ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302 (India)

    2011-07-07

    Highlights: > The structural and optical properties have been studied through XRD, FTIR, absorption, luminescence and decay time measurements. > The prepared glasses posses ionic nature and the ionic nature gradually increases when the tellurium di-oxide content increases in the host matrix. > The radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime ({tau}{sub rad}), stimulated emission cross section ({sigma}{sub P}{sup E}) and branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}) are calculated for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 15/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 13/2} and {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} transitions. > The decay curve of the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+}:BXTD glasses is well fitted for single exponential. > The stimulated emission cross section for the Dy{sup 3+}:B3TD glass possess higher value and therefore it is suggested for suitable laser applications. - Abstract: Dy{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses were prepared by following melt quenching technique with the chemical composition (69 - x)H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} + xTeO{sub 2} + 15Mg{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + 15K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + 1Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) by varying the tellurium dioxide content. The structural and optical properties have been studied through XRD, FTIR, absorption, luminescence and decay time measurements. The XRD pattern has been used to confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The FTIR spectra reveals the presence of B-O vibrations and Te-O stretching modes of TeO{sub 3} and TeO{sub 6} units in the prepared glasses. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra were used to calculate the oscillator strength, bonding parameters ({beta}-bar and {delta}) and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ({Omega}{sub {lambda},} {lambda} = 2, 4 and 6). The radiative transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross section ({sigma}{sub P}{sup E}) and the experimental, calculated branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}) have been calculated from the luminescence spectra

  17. Radiosynoviorthesis of knees by means of 166Ho-holmium-boro-macroaggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Otakar; Kaspárek, Richard; Ullmann, Vojtech; Melichar, Frantisek; Kropácek, Martin; Mirzajevova, Marcela

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adverse and therapeutic effects of applicated holmium-boro-macroaggregates (HBMAs) in the radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) of knees in patients suffering from chronic synovitis. We started RSO of the knees by means of a new radiopharmaceutical (RF) HBMA in patients with gonarthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic synovitis, psoriatic arthritis, and gout arthropathy. Seventeen (17) intra-articular injections were performed in 15 patients who were receiving a mean activity of 972 MBq (range, 904-1057) of 166Ho-HBMA. Patient inclusion to the study followed a series of inclusion and exclusion criterions. The patients were hospitalized for 3 days. Side-effects were evaluated during their hospital stay and again after 6-8 weeks. Static scintigraphy of knee joints and measurements of blood radioactivity were performed. Therapeutic effects were evaluated after 6-8 weeks and at 6 months. In 2 hours and 2 days following the application, we proved, by means of knee and inguinal scintigraphy, only insignificant radiopharmaceutical leakage from the joint cavity to the inguinal lymph nodes in 4 patients. In the treated patients, no serious adverse effects occurred. Nine (9) patients were without complaints, 4 patients had slight knee exudation, and 2 patients had great exudation. Therapeutic effects were as follows: 2 patients were without pain, 9 were with lower pain, 3 were with the same pain, and 1 patient was with increased pain. Joint motion was improved in 7 patients, remained the same in 7 patients, and was impaired in 1 patient. Analgesics consumption was lower in 5 patients, the same in 9 patients, and greater in 1 patient. Knee exudation was absent in 2 patients, lower in 4 patients, the same in 6 patients, and greater in 3 patients. In 3 patients it was necessary to do surgical RSO. This RF can extend the range of clinically used radiopharmaceuticals for RSO and to supplement space between 90Y with high energy and 186Re with 169Er with

  18. Novel selenium containing boro-phosphate glasses: Preparation and structural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Radu, T., E-mail: teodora.radu@phys.ubbcluj.ro; Ponta, O.; Simon, V.

    2014-06-01

    We synthesized a new boro-phosphate glass system with different %mol SeO{sub 2} content by conventional melt quenching technique. All samples were obtained in a glassy state with the vitreous structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed some non-homogeneous domains on the glasses surface, and their tendency to link each other once the selenium oxide content increases. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated similar elemental composition in different regions of each sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the nature of chemical bonding and the elemental composition at the sample surfaces, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structural groups in the obtained glass structure. Based on FT-IR results, the glass structure at short range order consists mainly of small phosphate units such as pyrophosphate (i.e. P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4−} dimmers or terminating groups at the end of phosphate chains) and some metaphosphate (i.e. PO{sub 3}{sup −} middle groups in the phosphate chains) units. The boron atoms are mainly placed in three-coordinated sites in BØ{sub 3} or BØ{sub 2}O{sup −} units. A small contribution of BØ{sub 4}{sup −} units was also detected from the FT-IR spectra of glasses. For SeO{sub 2} content higher than 5 mol%, the modifier role of selenium ions is strongly reflected on the local structure dominated in this case by pyrophosphate units. - Highlights: • New P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SeO{sub 2} glasses synthesized by conventional melt quenching method. • Evidences for the Se ions modifier role in the local structure by FT-IR and XPS. • Significant advances in understanding the structural properties of the new system.

  19. Adsorção e lixiviação de boro em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Boron adsorption and leaching in a Brazilian Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adsorção e a lixiviação do boro em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, cultivado com soja, em conseqüência das doses de boro e da calagem. Foram analisadas amostras de um solo do Estado do Mato Grosso, cultivado com soja durante três anos, com doses de 0, 1,5, 3, 4,5, 6, 7,5 e 9 Mg ha-1 de calcário, e 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 e 10 kg ha-1 de boro, aplicados no primeiro ano de cultivo. Foram determinadas isotermas de adsorção de boro em função da calagem e do tempo de cultivo, assim como a lixiviação em função da calagem e da adubação boratada. No caso da calagem, mesmo com doses relativamente altas de calcário, a adsorção de boro pelo solo é muito alta apenas no ano de aplicação do corretivo, e diminui significativamente com o tempo. No entanto, a lixiviação de boro guarda estreita relação com o teor do nutriente no solo e com a dose do nutriente que é aplicada, mas é pouco influenciada pela calagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate soil boron dynamics in a Typic Hapludox cropped with soybean for three years, as affected by boron rates and liming. Soil samples were taken during three years from a field experiment with lime rates of 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 Mg ha-1 and boron rates of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kg ha-1. Boron adsorption isotherms as affected by liming and time under cropping were determined. Boron leaching, as affected by boron fertilization and liming was also evaluated. When lime was applied, even at high rates, soil boron adsorption was very high only in the first year, and decreased with time. Boron leaching, though not affected by liming, is strongly related to soil boron contents and boron fertilization.

  20. Effect of concentration on the photoluminescence properties of Sm3+ and Dy3+: cadmium lithium boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Vemasevana; Sailaja, S; Reddy, M Bhushana; Giridhar, P; Raju, C Nageswara; Reddy, B Sudhakar

    2012-02-01

    Rare-earth (Sm3+ or Dy3+) ions doped cadmium lithium boro tellurite glasses have been prepared by melt quenching method for their spectral studies. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns the glass amorphous nature has been confirmed. Vis-NIR absorption, excitation and emission spectra of these glasses have been analyzed systematically and also rare earth ion concentration is optimised Sm3+: CLiBT glasses have shown strong orange-reddish emission at 598 nm (4G5/2-->6H7/2) with an excitation wavelength lambda(exci) = 401 nm and Dy3+: CLiBT glasses have shown strong yellow emission at 574 nm (6F9/2-->6H13/2) with lambda(exci) = 451 nm.

  1. Structural, mechanical, electrical and optical properties of a new lithium boro phthalate NLO crystal synthesized by a slow evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, K.; Balasubramanian, D.; Jhansi, N.

    2017-11-01

    A new non-linear optical (NLO) single crystal of lithium boro phthalate (LiBP) was grown by slow solvent evaporation technique. The powder sample was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to find its crystalline nature and the crystal structure of the grown crystal was determined using single crystal X-ray (SXRD) diffraction analysis. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum was recorded for grown crystal to identify the various functional groups present in the compound. The mechanical property of the LiBP single crystal was studied using Vickers microhardness tester. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out for the grown crystal at various temperatures. The grown crystal was subjected to UV-Visible Spectral Studies to analyze the linear optical behavior of the grown crystal. The Kurtz-Perry Powder technique was employed to measure the Second Harmonic Generation efficiency of the grown crystal.

  2. Transporte no solo, absorção e translocação de boro por clones de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiello, Edson Marcio

    2008-01-01

    Fatores ambientais, como falta ou má distribuição de chuvas, e deficiências nutricionais têm sido importantes redutores da produção de florestas plantadas no Brasil. O boro (B) é, entre os micronutrientes, aquele que mais freqüentemente se apresenta deficiente no solo, o que leva a freqüentes adubações com esse elemento. Para avaliar o transporte no solo, a absorção e a translocação de B por clones de eucalipto, foram realizados três ensaios em casa de vegetação. No primeiro ensaio, a contrib...

  3. Variation of energy absorption and exposure buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for boro-tellurite (B2O3-TeO2) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Elhouichet, H.

    2017-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of (100-x)TeO2-xB2O3 glass systems (where x=5, 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25 mol%) have been calculated in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameters (G-P) fitting method has been used to estimate both EABF and EBF values. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy and penetration depth have been studied. It was found that EABF and EBF values were higher in the intermediate energy region, for all the glass systems. Furthermore, boro-tellurite glass with 5 mol% B2O3, was found to present the lowest EABF and EBF values, hence it is superior gamma-ray shielding material. The results indicate that the boro-tellurite glasses can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  4. Analise de crescimento do algodoeiro herbáceo BRS-201 com aplicações de zinco e boro sobre condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João H. de Albuquerque

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito no crescimento de plantas de algodoeiro herbáceo cv. BRS 201 em quatro idades diferentes (dias após emergência – dae sob condições de campo, em resposta a adubação com boro e zinco. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, sendo quatro doses de boro (0,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 6,0 kg.ha-1, na forma de Ácido Bórico com 17% de B, quatro doses de zinco (0,0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2 kg.ha-1, na forma de Sulfato de Zinco com 20% de Zn, e mais uma testemunha relativa (adubação de NPK, com quatro repetições, perfazendo o total de 68 parcelas, cultivar BRS-201. As variáveis estudadas foram: altura de planta (AP; diâmetro do caule (DC e a área foliar por planta (AFP, medidos aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a semeadura, DAS. Foram realizadas leituras medidos aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a emergência, dae.  O crescimento do algodoeiro, cultivar BRS 201, medido via altura de planta, foi alterado pelos micronutrientes zinco e boro, com incremento significativo, da ordem de 15,71%, em relação ao tratamento que não recebeu tais elementos químicos. A altura da planta (AP, o diâmetro do caule (DC e a área foliar do algodoeiro (AFP aumentaram com as doses de zinco e boro.  Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Aplicação de boro e reposição de água no solo na cultura do milho forrageiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os tratos culturais, a irrigação e a adubação tornam-se imprescindíveis durante a condução da cultura do milho. Dentre os nutrientes o boro exerce um papel importante no crescimento das plantas. Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho do milho forrageiro (até a fase de corte para volumoso, submetido a diferentes concentrações de boro e níveis de reposição de água. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 16 tratamentos (4x4, sendo testados quatro reposições de água no solo (70%, 100%, 130% e 160% da evapotranspiração diária e quatro doses de boro (0 mg dm-3; 0,5 mg dm-3; 1,0 mg dm-3 e 1,5 mg dm-3 com quatro repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram matéria verde e seca aos 35 dias após semeadura (DAS, 55DAS e 90 DAS e a eficiência do uso da água (E.U.A.. Pode-se concluir que a cultura do milho cultivar 30F90 é sensível tanto ao déficit quando ao excesso de água de irrigação; quando irrigou-se com 70% de reposição, houve maior E.U.A.; aos 90 DAS a reposição estimada que proporcionou maior  média de matéria seca foi de 113,6% com um dose de boro ótima de 0,69 mg dm-3.

  6. Aplicação de duas isotermas de adsorção de boro em solos de baixada do estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Valladares

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a aplicabilidade das equações de adsorção de Langmuir e de Freundlich para boro em solos de baixada do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Glei Pouco Húmico e Cambissolo distrófico, desenvolveram-se ensaios de laboratório, em 1997, em quatro amostras de solo, sendo duas de superfície e duas subsuperficiais. Para isso, as amostras foram equilibradas em soluções de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1, contendo as seguintes concentrações de boro: 0,0, 1,0, 2,0, 4,0 e 8,0 mg L-1. De posse dos dados, foram construídas isotermas de adsorção e verificados os ajustes das curvas obtidas, em relação aos dados experimentais. Observou-se que as isotermas mediante as equações de Langmuir e de Freundlich se adequaram bem para a adsorção de boro nos solos estudados.

  7. Fontes e modos de aplicação de boro na cultura do eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Celestrino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os solos de Cerrado apresentam baixo teor de boro (B no solo, sendo comum a suplementação deste elemento através da adubação via solo e/ou foliar. Portanto, é importante definir qual o melhor modo de aplicação e fonte de B para o bom desenvolvimento do eucalipto. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito de fontes de B com alta e baixa solubilidade na cultura do eucalipto, bem como a aplicação foliar do micronutriente. O experimento foi conduzido em uma área com latitude 20o 34’ S e longitude 51o 50’ O e altitude de 305 m, no período de 01/2012 a 02/2014. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições, dispostos em um esquema fatorial de 3 x 2, sendo: 0 kg ha-1 de B, 1 kg ha-1 de B utilizando como fonte o ácido bórico (alta solubilidade, 17% B ou1 kg ha-1 de B utilizando como fonte o borogran (baixa solubilidade, 10% B, aplicados no sulco de plantio, com ou sem aplicações de ácido bórico via foliar na dose de 0,5% de ácido bórico na calda com volume de 250 L ha-1. Com a omissão de B via foliar houve incremento em altura de plantas nos tratamentos que receberam a aplicação do micronutriente no plantio, diferindo significativamente da testemunha. Porém, ambas as fontes, independente da solubilidade, apresentaram resultados semelhantes. As duas aplicações de B via foliar foram suficientes para que houvesse incremento em altura de plantas, quando comparadas aos tratamentos que não receberam aplicação de B no plantio, aos 21 meses. Aos 24 meses após o plantio foi constatado aumento no teor foliar de B nos tratamentos que receberam aplicação foliar. No entanto, esta não incrementou o crescimento, DAP e volume de madeira do clone de eucalipto. A aplicação de B no plantio, independente da fonte utilizada, assim como aplicação foliar do elemento, foram suficientes para reduzir os sintomas de deficiência de B. Com relação às fontes utilizadas no

  8. Efeito de déficit hídrico transiente e doses crescentes de boro sobre a fertilidade de gemas de videira cv. Itália

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    Jorbas Sampaio de Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes tensões de água no solo e diferentes concentrações de boro, na fertilidade de gemas de videira cv. Itália, manejada sob o sistema de poda mista. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial, no município de Petrolina-PE. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3: três tensões indicativas para a recarga hídrica por irrigação (-30 kPa, -50 kPa e -70 kPa e três concentrações de boro (3%, 6% e 9%, com três repetições e duas plantas por parcela. A testemunha não recebeu aplicações com boro e o solo foi mantido com umidade na capacidade de campo (-10 kPa. As variáveis analisadas foram fertilidade de gemas, índice relativo de clorofila (IRC e área foliar. Os dados foram interpretados por meio de análise de variância e regressão, e os modelos escolhidos com base na significância do coeficiente de regressão (R² > 0,70. Verificou-se que a fertilidade de gemas mostrou efeito linear negativo em função do aumento da tensão de água no solo, diminuindo de 31,88% (-30 kPa, para 23,66% (-70 kPa. Contudo, a fertilidade de gemas nas videiras submetidas a uma restrição hídrica de -30 kPa foi superior à tensão de -10 kPa; o boro a 3% propiciou a maior taxa de fertilidade de gemas em comparação aos demais tratamentos com boro; a restrição hídrica no solo a -30 kPa ocasionou economia no volume de água aplicada da ordem de 35,4% em comparação ao manejo com -10 kPa; o índice relativo de clorofila aumentou linearmente com o acréscimo das tensões de água no solo e houve maior expansão da área foliar em plantas submetidas ao manejo da irrigação na capacidade de campo.

  9. Assessment of ocular hypotensive effect and safety 12 months after changing from an unfixed combination to a latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenji; Okayama, Ryoko; Higa, Risako; Wakakura, Masato; Tomita, Goji

    2012-01-01

    Latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% combined eyedrops were recently made available in Japan. We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect, visual preservation effect, and adverse reactions of a one-year administration of this fixed combination. The subjects included 162 eyes from 162 patients diagnosed with either primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and using an unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%. The unfixed combination was discontinued and replaced with the latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination with no washout period. IOP was measured before (baseline) and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the change. The mean deviation value of Humphrey field analysis was compared. Adverse reactions were examined at every follow-up. No significant differences were found between mean IOP values obtained at baseline (mean ± standard deviation, 15.2 ± 3.3 mmHg) 3 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg), 6 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), 9 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), and 12 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg) after the change from the unfixed to the fixed combination of eyedrops (P = 0.212). In addition, no significant differences were observed between mean deviation values obtained at baseline (-9.11 ± 6.94 dB) and 12 months (-10.08 ± 7.24 dB) after the change (P = 0.114). Thirty-one patients discontinued the fixed combination within 12 months of replacement, due to an insufficient IOP decrease (20 patients, 12.3%) and adverse reactions (11 patients, 6.8%). Following replacement of two eyedrop medications (latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%) by one fixed combination (latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5%), IOP and visual field were preserved. However, 20% of the patients discontinued the new treatment because of an insufficient IOP decrease and complaints of adverse reactions.

  10. Dez anos de sucessivas adubações com boro no algodoeiro Ten years of cotton fertilization with boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Machado da Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um ensaio de adubação boratada do algodoeiro, de longa duração, pela primeira vez, em 1983, em Guaíra (SP, visando avaliar os efeitos de sucessivas aplicações de boro. Aplicaram-se doses anuais de 0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; 1,6 e 3,2 kg/ha de B, como bórax, na mistura de adubos de semeadura, em esquema estatístico de quadrado latino. Utilizou-se uma gleba de latossolo roxo, distrófico, argiloso, anteriormente cultivado, corrigido no aspecto de acidez e adubado com NPK. As parcelas foram calcariadas no quarto, sexto e nono ano de estudo, enquanto, no sétimo ano, cultivou-se guandu, em rotação. O efeito de boro sobre a produção de algodão aumentou com o passar dos anos e com a realização das calagens; na fase inicial, obteve-se a maior produção, com a dose de 0,4 kg/ha de B e, nas etapas posteriores, com a de 0,8 kg/ha. A concentração de boro no limbo foliar mostrou-se muito sensível à aplicação do micronutriente, destacando-se as diferenças com as adubações sucessivas e após as aplicações de calcário. As doses de 1,6 e 3,2 kg/ha de B proporcionaram decréscimo de produtividade das plantas em relação à produção máxima mesmo nos primeiros anos. Após as calagens, os níveis de boro no limbo foliar, associados a essas doses, mostraram-se superiores a 50 mg/kg de B. Análise química, efetuada durante o nono ano de estudo, indicou acúmulo de boro na superfície do solo e uma lixiviação do micronutriente para camadas até 60 cm de profundidade, proporcionais às doses usadas.A long term trial of boron fertilization was conducted with cotton in a latin square design, firstly installed in 1983 on a low fertility Dusky Red Latosol, limed and frequently fertilized without boron. Rates of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 kg/ha of B as borax (11% of B, were applied annually at planting time. The cotton variety used was the IAC-20. The plots were limed in the fourth, sixth and nineth years. In the seventh year

  11. Tolerancia experimental de las especies vegetales Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea al boro, en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta L. de Viana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de las industrias borateras constituye una fuente puntual y difusa de contaminación del aire, suelo y aguas superficiales y profundas. Por lo tanto, el estudio y experimentación acerca de las posibles formas de contrarrestar este impacto constituye una prioridad. Una técnica relativamente nueva para descontaminar suelos es la fitorremediación, que emplea plantas y microorganismos asociados. El primer paso es detectar las especies vegetales tolerantes, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se realizó un experimento en laboratorio para evaluar la germinación, la supervivencia y el crecimiento de distintas especies en diferentes concentraciones de boro. Al comienzo y al final del experimento se determinó la concentración de boro en el sustrato para cada tratamiento y para sustratos con y sin vegetación. Se encontraron diferencias significativas debidas al tratamiento, la especie y la interacción especie *tratamiento. M. sativa, N. glauca y J. mimosifolia fueron las especies de mayor tolerancia al boro. Las otras especies presentaron una disminución en todas las variables-respuesta en función de la concentración del contaminante. Todas presentaron una baja supervivencia en la máxima concentración. La disminución de boro fue máxima en el tratamiento de 30 ppm de boro con M. sativa y la menor se registró en los tratamiento de 20 ppm de boro con J. mimosifolia y de 30 ppm de boro con T. stans y S. oleraceae. Se concluye que N. glauca, M. sativa y J. mimosifolia podrían considerarse como prometedoras en remediación.Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina. The activity of boron industries is a punctual and diffuse source of air, soil and water pollution. Therefore, it is a priority to study possible ways of reducing this impact. A relatively new technology for reducing soil pollution is

  12. Doses de boro no desenvolvimento de copo-de-leite em solução nutritiva Boron doses in the development of calla lily in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Rodrigues de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O boro desempenha funções importantes em processos biológicos das plantas, como a síntese e estruturação da parede celular, lignificação, metabolismo e transporte de carboidratos, além de participar da divisão e diferenciação celular em tecidos meristemáticos. No entanto, as necessidades nutricionais para o cultivo de copo-de-leite, especialmente de boro, ainda são pouco conhecidas. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de boro no crescimento e desenvolvimento, teor e acúmulo desse nutriente em plantas de copo-de-leite cultivadas em solução nutritiva. Mudas micropropagadas foram submetidas aos tratamentos com as doses de 0,05; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 2,00 mg L-1 de boro em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon diluída a 30% de sua força iônica. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. As plantas não manifestaram sintomas visuais de deficiência ou de toxidez de boro, no entanto, o sistema radicular das plantas cultivadas na dose de 0,05 mg L-1 de boro apresentou-se com o crescimento reduzido. A melhor dose para o desenvolvimento adequado de plantas de copo-de-leite em solução nutritiva é de 1,20 mg L-1 de boro.Boron has essential functions in plant biological processes such as cell wall synthesis and structuralization, lignification, carbohydrates metabolism and transport. This element also acts in cell division and differentiation in meristematic tissues. However, the nutritional needs for calla lily cultivation, and especially boron needs, are still poorly known. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different boron doses on growth and development, content and accumulation of boron in calla lily plants grown in a nutrient solution. Micropropagated seedlings were submitted to treatments with the doses 0.05; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00 and 2.00 mg L-1 boron in Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution diluted to 30% of its ionic force. The

  13. Determination of fluvoxamine maleate in human urine and human serum using alkaline KMnO4 -rhodamine B chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongqin; He, Yanyan; Chen, Funan

    2017-09-01

    The flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) behavior of a gold nanocluster (Au NC)-enhanced rhodamine B-KMnO 4 system was studied under alkaline conditions for the first time. In the present study, the as-prepared bovine serum albumin-stabilized Au NCs showed excellent stability and reproducibility. The addition of trace levels of fluvoxamine maleate (Flu) led to an obvious decline in CL intensity in the rhodamine B-KMnO 4 -Au NCs system, which could be used for quantitative detection of Flu. Under optimized conditions, the proposed CL system exhibited a favorable analytical performance for Flu determination in the range 2 to 100 μg ml -1 . The detection limit for Flu measurement was 0.021 μg ml -1 . Moreover, this newly developed system revealed outstanding selectivity for Flu detection when compared with a multitude of other species, such as the usual ions, uric acid and a section of hydroxy compounds. Additionally, CL spectra, UV-visible spectroscopes and fluorescence spectra were measured in order to determine the possible reaction mechanism. This approach could be used to detect Flu in human urine and human serum samples with the desired recoveries and could have promising application under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Investigations on nucleation, HRXRD, optical, piezoelectric, polarizability and Z-scan analysis of L-arginine maleate dihydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthy Priya, S.; Alexandar, A.; Surendran, P.; Lakshmanan, A.; Rameshkumar, P.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2017-04-01

    An efficient organic nonlinear optical single crystal of L-arginine maleate dihydrate (LAMD) has been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) and slow cooling technique (SCT). The crystalline perfection of the crystal was examined using high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) analysis. Photoluminescence study confirmed the optical properties and defects level in the crystal lattice. Electromechanical behaviour was observed using piezoelectric co-efficient (d33) analysis. The photoconductivity analysis confirmed the negative photoconducting nature of the material. The dielectric constant and loss were measured as a function of frequency with varying temperature and vice-versa. The laser damage threshold (LDT) measurement was carried out using Nd:YAG Laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm (Focal length is 35 cm) and the obtained results showed that LDT value of the crystal is high compared to KDP crystal. The high laser damage threshold of the grown crystal makes it a potential candidate for second and higher order nonlinear optical device application. The third order nonlinear optical parameters of LAMD crystal is determined by open-aperture and closed-aperture studies using Z-scan technique. The third order linear and nonlinear optical parameters such as the nonlinear refractive index (n2), two photon absorption coefficient (β), Real part (Reχ3) and imaginary part (Imχ3) of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility are calculated.

  15. Effect of maleated natural rubber on tensile strength and compatibility of natural rubber/coconut coir composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Noviyanti, R.; Wijaya, R.; Ramadhoni, B.

    2017-07-01

    Natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CF) composites were fabricated using co-rotating twin screw extruder with maleated NR (MNR) used as compatibilizer. The MNR was produced at three level of maleic anhydride (MA), and analyzed qualitative and quantitatively using FTIR and titration technique. Analysis on MNR using FTIR and titration methods showed that MA was grafted on NR chain at different percentage (0.76, 2.23, 4.79%) depended on MA concentration. Tensile strength data showed the best tensile strength was produced at 7 phr of MNR with 1 phr of MA level in MNR resulting 16.4 MPa. The improvement of compatibilized samples were more than 300% compare to uncompatibilized composite attributed to better interfacial bonding. The improvement on tensile strength was significantly influenced by MNR level and amount of MA added to produce MNR, as well as their interaction. The optimum conditions for producing NR-CF composite were predicted at 6.5 phr of MNR level with 1 phr of MA concentration added in MNR production, regardless screw rotation settings. Results from verification experiments confirm that developed model was capable of describing phenomena during composite preparation. Morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy shows smooth covered fiber in compatibilized samples than that of without MNR. The morphology also showed less voids on compatibilized samples attributed to better interfacial bonding leading to tensile strength improvement.

  16. Development and characterisation of electrospun timolol maleate-loaded polymeric contact lens coatings containing various permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prina; Al-Kinani, Ali A; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Chang, Ming-Wei; Alany, Raid G; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2017-10-30

    Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery, anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses. Parameters used for engineering included flow rates ranging from 8 to 15μL/min and a novel EHD deposition system was used; capable of hosting four lenses, masked template and a ground electrode to direct charged atomised structures. SEM analysis of the electrospun structures confirmed the presence of smooth nano-fibers; whilst thermal analysis confirmed the stability of all formulations. In vitro release studies demonstrated a triphasic release; initial burst release with two subsequent sustained release phases with most of the drug being released after 24h (86.7%) Biological evaluation studies confirmed the tolerability of all formulations tested with release kinetics modelling results showing drug release was via quasi-Fickian or Fickian diffusion. There were evident differences (p<0.05) in TM release dependant on permeation enhancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of degradation products and process related impurities of asenapine maleate in asenapine sublingual tablets by UPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Sangeetha, D.; Kalyanraman, L.

    2017-11-01

    For determination of process related impurities and degradation products of asenapine maleate in asenapine sublingual Tablets, a reversed phase, stability indicating UPLC method was developed. Acetonitrile, methanol and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with tetra-n- butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate as ion pair (pH 2.2; 0.01 M) at flow rate of 0.2 ml/min were used in gradient elution mode. Separation was achieved by using acquity BEH Shield RP18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm×100 mm) at 35 ºC. UV detection was performed at 228 nm. Subsequently the liquid chromatography method was validated as per ICH. The drug product was exposed to the stress conditions of acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, water hydrolysis, oxidative, thermal, and photolytic. In oxidative stress and thermal stress significant degradation was observed. All the degradation products were well separated from analyte peak and its impurities. Stability indicating nature of the method was proved by demonstrating the peak purity of Asenapine peak in all the stressed samples. The mass balance was found >95% for all the stress conditions. Based on method validation, the method was found specific, linear, accurate, precise, rugged and robust.

  18. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambate, Pramod K; Rawool, Chaitali R; Karna, Shashi P; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2016-12-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (Ip) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0×10(-8)-2.0×10(-5)M with a detection limit of 7.1×10(-9)M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Assessment of protective effects of pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in lung after distant organ ischemia: a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Orhan; Yurekli, Ismail; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Alper; Yetkin, Ufuk; Yurekli, Banu Sarer; Gur, Serkan; Aksun, Murat; Satoglu, Ismail Safa; Gokalp, Gamze; Gurbuz, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (MP) and pheniramine maleate (PM) on reperfusion injury of lungs developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. A total of 28 randomly selected male rats were divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 rats. Group 1 was the control group. Group 2 was the sham group (ischemia/reperfusion [I/R]). Rats in group 3 were subjected to I/R and given PM (Ph group) and rats in group 4 were subjected to I/R and given MP (Pn group). Malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in Ph group than in I/R group (P < .05). Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in Ph group than in the I/R group (P < .05). Histological examination demonstrated that PM had protective effects against I/R injury. The PM has a protective effect against I/R injury in rat lung.

  20. Benefícios da aplicação de azoto, potássio e boro na fisiologia da oliveira em condições de sequeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Bacelar, E.A.; Correia, C.M.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.M.; Gonçalves, Berta; Arrobas, Margarida; Pavão, Francisco; Lopes, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Rodrigues, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    O azoto, o potássio e o boro são nutrientes que frequentemente condicionam a fisiologia da oliveira (Olea europaea L.). O azoto apresenta um papel primordial por ser constituinte de vários compostos orgânicos, em especial proteínas, ácidos nucleicos, hormonas e clorofila. O boro influencia directamente a produção por proporcionar maior desenvolvimento radicular, maximizando o aproveitamento da água e dos fertilizantes, bem como por estar directamente envolvido na formação da parede celular, c...

  1. Irradiations effects on the structure of boro-silicated glasses: long term behaviour of nuclear waste glassy matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfils, J. de

    2007-09-01

    This work deals with the long term behaviour of R7T7-type nuclear waste glasses and more particularly of non-active boro-silicated glasses made up of 3 or 5 oxides. Radioactivity of active glasses is simulated by multi energies ions implantations which reproduce the same defects. The damages due to the alpha particles are simulated by helium ions implantations and those corresponding to the recoil nucleus are obtained with gold ions ones. Minor actinides, stemming from the used fuel, is simulated by trivalent rare-earths (Eu 3+ and Nd 3+ ). In a first part, we have shown by macroscopic experiments (Vickers hardness - swelling) and optical spectroscopies (Raman - ATR-IR) that the structure of the glassy matrices is modified under implantations until a dose of 2,3.10 13 at.cm -2 , which corresponds to a R7T7 storage time estimated at 300 years. Beyond this dose, no additional modifications have been observed. The second part concerns the local environment of the rare-earth ions in glasses. Two different environments were found and identified as follows: one is a silicate rich one and the other is attributed to a borate rich one. (author)

  2. Judd-Ofelt analysis and photoluminescence properties of RE3+ (RE = Er & Nd): Cadmium lithium boro tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K. Vemasevana; Raju, C. Nageswara; Sailaja, S.; Reddy, B. Sudhakar

    2013-01-01

    Rare earth (Er3+ and Nd3+) ions doped cadmium lithium boro tellurite (CLiBT) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method. The vis-NIR absorption spectra of these glasses have been analyzed systematically. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4, 6) have been evaluated and used to compute the radiative properties of emission transitions of Er3+ and Nd3+: CLiBT glasses. From the NIR emission spectra of Er3+: CLiBT glasses a broad emission band centered at 1538 nm (4I13/2 → 4I15/2) is observed and from Nd3+: CLiBT glasses, three NIR emission bands at 898 nm (4F3/2 → 4I9/2), 1070 nm (4F3/2 → 4I11/2) and 1338 nm (4F3/2 → 4I13/2) are observed with an excitation wavelength λexci = 514.5 nm (Ar+ Laser). The FWHM and stimulated emission cross-section values are calculated for Er3+ and Nd3+: CLiBT glasses. FWHM × σeP values are also calculated for Er3+: CLiBT glasses.

  3. Enhanced green and red upconversion emissions in Er3+-doped boro-tellurite glass containing gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousti, M. Reza; Amjad, Raja J.; Mahraz, Zahra Ashur S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the cross-section of upconversion emissions from the rare earth ions doped materials is a challenging issue. In this work, we report on the enhancement of the up-converted emissions of Er3+-doped boro-tellurite glasses containing gold nanoparticles which have been prepared by a conventional melt-quench technique. Seven absorption bands and three emission lines are observed using the UV-Vis-IR and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques, respectively. Red emission is enhanced up to 30 times in a sample having 1 wt% of Au nanoparticles. The presence of the gold nanoparticles with average size of ∼5.74 nm is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and corresponding surface plasmon band is observed at 630 nm in a singly-doped Au-nanoparticles embedded glass sample. A model to determine the enhancement factor of the emissions is suggested which could not describe the phenomenon for high concentrations of nanoparticles. Enhancement is attributed to the increased local field around the metal, and the results are discussed in details.

  4. Optical analysis of RE(3+) (RE = Pr(3) (+) , Er(3) (+) and Nd(3) (+) ):cadmium lead boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Bhushana Reddy, M; Neelima, G; Ramanaiah, R; Nagamuni Reddy, K; Sahadeva Reddy, V; Sudhakar Reddy, B

    2016-09-01

    This article reports on the optical characterization of Pr(3) (+) -, Er(3) (+) - and Nd(3) (+) -doped cadmium lead boro tellurite (CLBT) glasses prepared using the melt quenching method. The visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) absorption spectra of these glasses were analyzed systematically. On measuring the NIR emission spectra of Er(3) (+) :CLBT glasses, a broad emission band centered at 1536 nm ((4) I13 /2  → (4) I15 /2 ) was observed, as were three NIR emission bands at 900 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I9 /2 ), 1069 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I11 /2 ) and 1338 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I13 /2 ) from Nd(3) (+) :CLBT glasses and an NIR emission band at 1334 nm ((1) G4  → (3) H5 ) from Pr(3) (+) :CLBT glasses at an excitation wavelength (λex ) of 514.5 nm (Ar(+) laser). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Luminescence studies on Dy3+ and Dy3+:Eu3+ co-doped boro-phosphate glasses for WLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Uma, V.; Arunkumar, S.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    Dy3+ and Dy3+:Eu3+ co-doped boro-phosphate glasses have been prepared and optically characterized using absorption, luminescence and decay measurements. The Nephelauxetic ratios (β), Bonding parameters (δ) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated to study the nature of the environment around the RE3+ ions in the prepared glasses. The yellow to blue (Y/B) intensity ratio and the chromaticity color coordinates were calculated from the luminescence measurements. The lifetimes of the 4F9/2 excited level were measured using decay curves and is found to decrease in the Dy3+:Eu3+ co-doped glass due to the occurrence of resonant energy transfer between Dy3+-Eu3+ ions and the non-exponential decay rates have been fitted with Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model. The decay curves are well fitted for S= 6 suggesting that the interaction between active ions for the energy transfer is of dipole-dipole nature.

  6. Characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with Lead Rice cytoplasm in comparison with that with Chinsurah Boro II cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Etsuko; Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2009-02-01

    Rice with LD-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) possesses the cytoplasm of 'Lead Rice' and its fertility is recovered by a nuclear fertility restorer gene Rf1. Rf1 promotes processing of a CMS-associated mitochondrial RNA of atp6-orf79, which consists of atp6 and orf79, in BT-CMS with the cytoplasm of 'Chinsurah Boro II'. In this study, we found that LD-cytoplasm contained a sequence variant of orf79 downstream of atp6. Northern blot analysis showed that atp6-orf79 RNA of LD-cytoplasm was co-transcribed and was processed in the presence of Rf1 in the same manner as in BT-cytoplasm. Western blot analysis showed that the ORF79 peptide did not accumulate in an LD-CMS line, while ORF79 accumulated in a BT-CMS line and was diminished by Rf1. These results suggest that accumulation of ORF79 is not the cause of CMS in LD-cytoplasm and the mechanism of male-sterility induction/fertility restoration in LD-CMS is different from that in BT-CMS.

  7. Influence of silver nanoparticles on the spectroscopic properties of Sm{sup 3+} doped boro-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthanthirakumar, P.; Marimuthu, K., E-mail: emari-ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram - 624 302 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The Sm{sup 3+} doped novel boro-phosphate glasses containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) (SmBPxA) have been prepared following the melt quenching technique and their structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied through HR-TEM, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectral measurements. The TEM analysis validates the existence of Ag NPs with an average diameter of ~8 nm. The Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of silver NPs was found at around 600 nm from the absorption spectrum of the Sm{sup 3+} ions free glass sample. The optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions and the Urbach energy (ΔE) values were determined from the absorption spectral measurements. The luminescence intensity is found to get enhance when the Ag NPs were embedded along with the Sm{sup 3+} ions in the prepared glasses due to the local electric field effect around the rare earth (RE) ion site produced by the SPR of Ag NPs.

  8. Efeitos do boro em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em vasos contendo solo Effects of boron on sugarcane cultivated in pots with soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Espironelo

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios em vasos foram estudados os efeitos do boro na cana-de-açúcar var. CB 41-14 (cana-planta e cana-soca, através da administração de doses crescentes do elemento à cana-planta cultivada em solo da série Ibitiruna, do Município de Piracicaba, com teor muito baixo de boro solúvel em água quente. Ao solo dos vasos (80 litros de capacidade foram administradas as doses de 0, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 8 ppm B, sob a forma de ácido bórico. Foram obtidos dados de produção de cana (planta e soca e do teor de boro em folhas de três posições na planta (+3, +1 e -1, em amostragens feitas aos cinco e oito meses de idade da cana-planta, e calcularam-se dados de açúcar-provável (cana-planta e soca. O boro aplicado ao solo não proporcionou aumentos nas produções de cana e de açúcar-provável, tanto em cana-planta como em cana-soca, induzindo, entretanto, efeito depressivo em ambos os casos, pela dose mais elevada (8 ppm B na cana-planta. Os teores de B nas folhas ( + 3, +1 e -1 de cana-planta, aos cinco meses de idade, cresceram com as doses administradas ao solo, alcançando níveis muito elevados (289 ppm no tratamento 8 ppm B, com a média geral atingindo 124,4 ppm B. Aos oito meses, os valores foram bem mais baixos (média geral 61,4 ppm B e não seletivos em relação à dose do boro aplicada. A melhor época de amostragem estaria em torno de cinco meses. As três posições de folha estudadas mostraram-se eficientes em relação às doses de boro aplicadas ao solo, sendo que +3 e +1 deram valores mais altos do que -1.The effects of boron on the behaviour of sugarcane (plant-crop and first ratton crop var. CB 41-14 were studied in a trial pot with increasing doses of this micronutrient to Ibitiruna soil from Piracicaba, SP, considered poor in boron content. The boron applied did not increase cane growth nor sugar content, but 8 ppm B reduced both cane and sugar production. Chemical analysis with leaves 5 months old revealed

  9. Produtividade e desenvolvimento de cultivares de repolho em função de doses de boro Yield of cabbage cultivars depending on levels of boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane S Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do repolho é cultivada em áreas pequenas e necessita de muita mão de obra, sendo na maior parte conduzida pela agricultura familiar. Avaliou-se o efeito de doses de boro em diferentes cultivares de repolho na região oeste de Mato Grosso do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo duas cultivares e cinco doses de boro, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as características: teores de boro foliar, área da planta, altura de planta, número de folhas externas, massa fresca de folhas externas, massa seca de folhas externas, altura da cabeça, diâmetro da cabeça, número de folhas internas, massa fresca de folhas internas, massa seca de folhas externas, classificação do peso da cabeça, compacidade e produção por hectare. A cultivar 60 Dias apresentou maiores valores nos componentes de produção e conseqüentemente maior produtividade. A aplicação de boro influencia linearmente nos teor de boro foliar, diâmetro de cabeça e número de folha interna. As doses de boro interferem na produtividade de repolho, sendo que na cultivar 60 Dias a dose máxima é de 7,2 kg ha-1 e para cultivar Chato de Quintal a dose mínima deve ser de 1,06 kg ha-1.The cabbage crop is cultivated in small areas and requires much labor, this crop being mostly driven by family farmers. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron levels in different cultivars of cabbage in western Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 5, two cultivars and five doses of boron, with four replications. We evaluated the following features: boron foliar plant area, plant height, number of outer leaves, fresh

  10. Comparison between 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.2% brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, H.; Azhar, M.N.; Haider, M.A.; Jahangir, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prophylactically given 0.5% Timolol maleate and 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium (Nd) : yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser capsulotomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Ophthalmology Department, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from 15-05-2009 to 14-05-2010 for a duration of 12 months. Material and Methods: In this study, 90 consecutive patients were referred from outpatient department for Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Hospital ethical committee's approval for this research proposal and the informed consent was taken. These patients were equally divided into two groups A and B, comprising of 45 patients in each group. Group A was control group which received 0.5% Timolol maleate. Group B was experimental group which received 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldmann tonometer before instilling these topical medications. These medications were administered topically 1 hour before the laser procedure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded 1 and 3 hours after laser capsulotomy. Results: In patients belonging to group A, 42 (93.3%) patients had effective control of IOP (raise of less than or equal to 5 mmHg from the baseline) after 3 hours of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy whereas 28 (62.2%) patients had effective control of IOP after the same period of time in group-B with significant difference (p<0.001). Conclusion: Use of prophylactic topical antiglaucoma medications before doing Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy is a effective way to reduce post laser spike of intraocular pressure. Present study showed that the use of 0.5% timolol maleate was safe and more effective than 0.2% brimonidine tartrate when given 1 hour before laser capsulotomy. (author)

  11. The efficacy and safety of irsogladine maleate in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or aspirin-induced peptic ulcer and gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jo, Yun Ju; Hong, Su Jin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Kyung Sik; Choi, Suck Chei; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ji Won

    2018-06-01

    Irsogladine maleate, an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors, has demonstrated its efficacy for various gastric mucosal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of irsogladine for prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or aspirin-induced peptic ulcer and gastritis. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, exploratory clinical trial, 100 patients over 50 years of age who needed continuous NSAIDs or aspirin for more than 8 weeks were randomly assigned to either test group (irsogladine maleate 2 mg, twice daily, 39 patients for full analysis) or placebo group (37 patients for full analysis). Primary outcomes were incidence of peptic ulcer and ratio of modified Lanza score (MLS) 2 to 4. Secondary outcome was the number of acute erosions confirmed by endoscopy at 8 weeks. Adverse effects were also compared. There were no significant differences in gastric protective effects between test and placebo groups. However, two cases of peptic ulcer in the placebo group but none in the test group were observed. These two cases of peptic ulcer were Helicobacter pylori-negative. In addition, H. pylori-negative group showed significant changes in MLS score (p = 0.0247) and edema score (p = 0.0154) after the treatment compared to those before treatment in the test group. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. The efficacy of irsogladine maleate was found in H. pylori-negative group, suggesting its potential as a protective agent against NSAIDs or aspirin-induced peptic ulcer and gastritis.

  12. Controle do capim-braquiária associado à nutrição com boro no cultivo do mogno-africano em sistema silvipastoril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o controle do capim-braquiária (Urochloa decumbens nas linhas de plantio do mogno-africano (Khaya ivorensis com aplicações de herbicidas isoladas ou combinadas com boro (B, bem como a resposta do mogno-africano a esse micronutriente. Ambos os experimentos foram implantados em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Seis tratamentos foram aplicados nas parcelas: testemunha capinada; testemunha sem capina; glyphosate (1.080 g e.a. ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (10 g i.a. ha-1 + 0,05% v/v de óleo mineral, glyphosate (1.080 g e.a. ha-1 + imazethapyr (100 g i.a. ha-1, glyphosate (1.080 g e.a. ha-1 e oxyfluorfen (480 g i.a. ha-1. As subparcelas foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença de 4 kg de ácido bórico (17% B para 100 L de água. A associação do ácido bórico aos herbicidas glyphosate mais chlorimuron-ethyl, glyphosate mais imazethapyr, glyphosate ou oxyfluorfen não interfere no controle do capim-braquiária. A adição do ácido bórico à calda dos herbicidas proporciona incrementos nos teores de boro no solo e, consequentemente, aumento nos teores de boro nas folhas do mogno-africano.

  13. Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride: The use of maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiah Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO, and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/poly vinyl chloride (PVC blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0 showed the highest cure rate index (CRI. MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1 based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.

  14. Fluvoxamine maleate effects on dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex of stressed Parkinsonian rats: Implications for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallé, Ernest; Daniels, Willie M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is also associated with cognitive impairment and reduced extrinsic supply of dopamine (DA) to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the present study, we looked at whether exposure to early life stress reduces DA and serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the PFC thus leading to enhanced cognitive impairment in a Parkinsonian rat model. Maternal separation was the stressor used to develop an animal model for early life stress that has chronic effects on brain and behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antidepressant Fluvoxamine maleate (FM) prior to a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion to model motor deficits in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and the forelimb use asymmetry (cylinder) tests were used to assess learning and memory impairment and motor deficits respectively. Blood plasma was used to measure corticosterone concentration and prefrontal tissue was collected for lipid peroxidation, DA, and 5-HT analysis. Our results show that animals exposed to early life stress displayed learning and memory impairment as well as elevated basal plasma corticosterone concentration which were attenuated by treatment with FM. A 6-OHDA lesion effect was evidenced by impairment in the cylinder test as well as decreased DA and 5-HT concentration in the PFC. These effects were attenuated by FM treatment resulting in higher DA concentration in the PFC of treated animals than in non-treated animals. This study suggests that DA and 5-HT signaling in the PFC are responsive to FM and may reduce stress-induced cognitive impairment in PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Polyamide 4,6 nanocomposites with and without the use of a maleated polyolefin elastomer as a toughener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Fang-Chyou; Deng, Tsung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, polyamide 4,6 (PA 4,6)-based nanocomposites were successfully prepared using a twin screw extruder. A commercial organo-montmorillonite (denoted as 30B) and a commercial maleated polyolefin elastomer (denoted as POEMA) served as the reinforcing filler and toughener, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results confirmed the nano-scaled dispersion of 30B in the composites. Nevertheless, the presence of POEMA slightly depreciated the dispersibility of 30B. Polarized light microscope (PLM) observations showed that the inclusions of 30B and POEMA led to the formation of diffused/broken PA 4,6 spherulites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that the addition of 30B retarded the crystallization of PA 4,6; the addition of POEMA led to a similar retardation effect on PA 4,6 crystallization. Interesting melting behaviors associated mainly with the crystal annealing of PA 4,6 upon heating were observed for the fast-cooled samples. The presence of POEMA was noted to hamper the annealing process of PA 4,6 crystals. The thermal stability enhancement of PA 4,6 in the presence of 30B was further raised to a higher extent when POEMA was included in the matrix. The rigidity, including the storage/Young's/flexural moduli, of PA 4,6 significantly increased after adding 30B. These properties, however, declined after the additional incorporation of POEMA. The PA 4,6/POEMA/30B nanocomposites basically displayed balanced impact strength between those of the neat PA 4,6 and PA 4,6/POEMA blends.

  16. Development and validation of a UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of pheniramine maleate and its stability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, M. S.; Basavaiah, K.; Ramesh, P. J.; Abdulrahman, Sameer A. M.; Vinay, K. B.

    2012-03-01

    A sensitive, precise, and cost-effective UV-spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of pheniramine maleate (PAM) in bulk drug and tablets. The method is based on the measurement of absorbance of a PAM solution in 0.1 N HCl at 264 nm. As per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), and robustness and ruggedness. A linear relationship between absorbance and concentration of PAM in the range of 2-40 μg/ml with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 was obtained. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 0.18 and 0.39 μg/ml PAM, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory: the value of relative standard deviation (RSD) did not exceed 3.47%. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of PAM in tablets with good accuracy and precision. Percentages of the label claims ranged from 101.8 to 102.01% with the standard deviation (SD) from 0.64 to 0.72%. The accuracy of the method was further ascertained by recovery studies via a standard addition procedure. In addition, the forced degradation of PAM was conducted in accordance with the ICH guidelines. Acidic and basic hydrolysis, thermal stress, peroxide, and photolytic degradation were used to assess the stability-indicating power of the method. A substantial degradation was observed during oxidative and alkaline degradations. No degradation was observed under other stress conditions.

  17. The synthesis of the carbonyl-14C analog of zatosetron maleate, a potent, long acting, orally effective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Bannon, D.D.; Wheeler, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1.]-oct-3-yl-7-benzofurancarboxamide-[carbonyl- 14 C] (Z)-2-butenedioate (zatosetron-[ 14 C] maleate,1), has been prepared from 5-chloro-7-bromo-2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran (5) in four radiochemical steps with the reaction of 5 with K 14 CN/CuCN as the key step. The synthesis of 5 from 2-bromo-4-chlorophenol is also outlined. (author)

  18. Efecto del boro, zinc y el azufre sobre la doble finalidad (forraje y grano del cultivo de soya Glycine max (L Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo S. L. Diego

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available El diseño experimental empleado fue el de bloques completamente al azar, con cinco repeticiones y nueve tratamientos constituidos por: un testigo absoluto (no podado, ni fertilizado, un testigo normal (podado, no fertilizado, el resto de tratamientos fueron podados y fertilizados de la siguiente manera: boro, zinc, azufre, boro + zinc, boro + azufre, zinc + azufre, boro + zinc + azufre, esta fertilización se hizo al suelo al momento de la siembra. La variedad empleada fue Andree-23 con una densidad de población de 600.000 plantas /ha, con surcos separados a 40 cm, el corte se realizó a los 38 días de emergencia o sea al inicio de floración a un 40% de altura. La poda total ejerce efecto negativo sobre la producción de grano al reducirlo en un 53%, pero aumenta el número de ramas. La fertilización solo fue favorable en la altura de planta y en la reducción de vainas sin semilla; en las demás variables (número pe vainas/planta, número de semillas/ vaina, peso promedio de cien semillas, etc. no se presentó ninguna incidencia.The experiment pretended to watch the soybean's behavior submited to pruness by realizing fertilization with boron, cinc and sulphur and their influence over seed and f or age yield. Experimental design used was blocks by random completely, with five repetitions and nine treatments set up by: an absolute control (no pruned, no fertilized, a normal control (pruned, no fertilized, other treatments were pruned and fertilized by this way: boron, cinc, sulphur, boron + cinc, boron + sulphur, cinc + sulphur, boron + cinc + sulphur, this fertilization was made to soil in sowing moment. The variety was Andree-23 (600.000 plants /ha., with forrows separated by 40 cm, cutting was made 38 days after emergetion. The whole pruness makes a negative effect over seed yield by decreasing it about 53 percent, but arise branche number. Fertilization only was good for height plant and empty pods reduction; over other variables (pod

  19. Desarrollo de procesos de separación y recuperación del boro de aguas contaminadas mediante el uso de biopolímeros

    OpenAIRE

    Demey Cedeño, Hary

    2010-01-01

    El agua es un recurso fundamental para todos los seres vivientes y es un recurso indispensable para el desarrollo industrial. La creciente presión que genera el crecimiento poblacional y el aumento de las necesidades de la civilización moderna, tiene como consecuencia la búsqueda de métodos que hagan posible la reutilización del agua de desecho, separando los contaminantes presentes en la misma. Uno de los elementos que ha adquirido relevancia a nivel mundial es el boro, ya que una contami...

  20. Estudio del comportamiento a fluencia en caliente de un acero avanzado de alta resistencia de bajo contenido en carbono NiCrVCu microaleado con boro

    OpenAIRE

    González Sala, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Una de las líneas de investigación prioritarias en el contexto internacional es el desarrollo de aceros avanzados de alta resistencia (AHSS) con excelentes propiedades de resistencia y tenacidad para aplicaciones en la industria automotriz, naval, aeronáutica y de generación de energía, que permitan disminuir el peso de los componentes y sustituyan aceros tradicionales de contenidos mayores de carbono. Los aceros AHSS microaleados al boro, debido a sus cualidades, tecnología de...

  1. Aplicación de boro en eucalipto: comparación de fuentes Aplicação de boro em eucalipto: comparação de fontes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gabriel Ferrando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de boro (B en sistemas forestales ha sido reportada en diferentes especies de pino y eucalipto, verificándose importantes mejoras en la producción y/o calidad de madera, con el agregado de este nutriente. La baja retranslocación del B dentro de la planta hace necesario un aporte constante para satisfacer las demandas del cultivo. Al ser un nutriente muy poco retenido por el suelo está sujeto a pérdidas por lixiviación. El uso de fertilizantes solubles brinda una solución a corto plazo, muy dependiente de situaciones ambientales, mientras que las fuentes de liberación lenta permitirían un aporte más constante y por más tiempo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la disponibilidad en el tiempo del B proveniente de diferentes fuentes, a través de cambios en las concentraciones foliares de Eucalyptus globulus (Labille y Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden, en distintas situaciones de suelos y manejo. Se instalaron tres experimentos de campo de comparación de fuentes boratadas (borato de sodio vs ulexita, aplicadas en cobertura, a árboles con seis meses de transplantados, en distintos sitios experimentales de Uruguay. A los 6, 12 y 24 meses luego de la fertilización se evaluaron las concentraciones foliares de B. La ulexita mostró una alta solubilidad y baja residualidad, con similar eficiencia que el borato de sodio como aporte de B para los eucaliptos. La dosis de B aplicada (4 g de B por planta parecería ser suficiente para alcanzar niveles foliares que podrían considerarse de suficiencia, sin llegar a niveles de toxicidad.A deficiência de boro (B em sistemas de produção florestal tem sido relatada em várias espécies de pinheiros e eucaliptos, verificando-se melhorias significativas na produção e/ou qualidade da madeira, com a adição desse nutriente. A baixa translocação de B dentro da planta faz necessário um fornecimento constante para atender as demandas da cultura. Sendo um nutriente pouco retido

  2. Dipotassium zinc tetraiodate(V) dihydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábry, Jan; Krupková, Radmila; Císařová, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, Part 3 (2010), i22-i23 ISSN 1600-5368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : x-ray structure determination * hydrogen -bonds * non-centrosymmetric structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2010

  3. EFEITOS DAS APLICAÇÕES DE CÁLCIO E DE BORO NA OCORRÊNCIA DE PODRIDÃO APICAL E PRODUÇÃO DE TOMATE EM ESTUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLESE L.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos das aplicações de cálcio via foliar e de boro via solo na produção e ocorrência de podridão apical em tomate em estufa, conduziu-se um experimento no município de Regente Feijó, SP, com solo classificado como Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo, fase arenosa. Os tratamentos consistiram de três doses de boro (0, 1 e 2 g cova-1 e três freqüências de aplicação foliar de cloreto de cálcio a 0,6% (sem aplicação, aplicação semanal e quinzenal. Os resultados obtidos sugeriram que a aplicação de 1 g cova-1 de boro e freqüência de aplicação quinzenal de CaCl2 a 0,6% e a aplicação semanal de CaCl2 a 0,6% na ausência de boro constituíram-se nas melhores opções no sentido de conciliar maior produtividade e menor número de frutos com incidência de podridão apical.

  4. Adsorção de boro em solos de várzea do Sul de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Watson Rogério de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adsorção de B em quatro solos de várzea da região de Lavras, MG, por meio dos parâmetros das isotermas de Langmuir e Freundlich, no período de outubro a novembro de 1998. Amostraram-se solos Aluvial, Glei Pouco Húmico, Glei Húmico, e Orgânico artificialmente drenado, coletados na camada de 0-20 cm e peneirados para 2 mm. Amostras com e sem calagem foram incubadas durante 30 dias. Duplicatas de 4,0 g de solo de cada classe foram acondicionadas em tubos de polietileno com oito diferentes doses de B (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 e 32 mig mL-1 preparadas em CaCl2.2H2O 0,01 mol L-1, com ácido bórico como fonte. Os teores de B na solução de equilíbrio foram determinados pelo método da Azometina-H. Os resultados mostraram que alto teor de matéria orgânica confere ao solo Glei Húmico maior capacidade de adsorver boro. A matéria orgânica, a superfície específica, caulinita e alumínio trocável foram os atributos dos solos que se correlacionaram diretamente com a capacidade máxima de adsorção de B (CMAB. A calagem proporcionou diminuição da CMAB em todos os solos.

  5. Optical characterization of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions doped cadmium lithium alumino fluoro boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Vemasevana; Sailaja, S; Raju, C Nageswara; Reddy, B Sudhakar

    2011-06-01

    This article reports on the development and spectral results of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions doped cadmium lithium alumino fluoro boro tellurite (CLiAFBT) glasses in the following composition. 40TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3 (Hostglass) (40-x)TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3-xEu2O3 (40-x)TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3-xTb4O7 where x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mol%. Glass amorphous nature and thermal properties have been studied using the XRD and DSC profiles. From the emission spectra of Eu(3+):glasses, five emission transitions have been observed at 578 nm, 592 nm, 612 nm, 653 nm, 701 nm and are assigned to the transitions (5)D(0)→(7)F(0), (7)F(1,)(7)F(2), (7)F(3) and (7)F(4), respectively, with λ(exci)=392 nm ((7)F(0)→(5)L(6)). In case of Tb(3+):glasses, four emission transitions ((5)D(4)→(7)F(6,)(7)F(5), (7)F(4) and (7)F(3)) are observed at 488 nm, 543 nm, 584 nm and 614 nm, respectively, with λ(exci)=376 nm. Decay curves and energy level diagrams have been plotted to evaluate the life times and to analyze the emission mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectral studies of Sm3+ ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Rama Krishna Reddy, K.; Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Srinivas Prasad, M. V. V. K.; Rao, A. S.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-05-01

    Sm3+ ions doped Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses were prepared by using conventional melt quenching technique and characterized using the spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, optical absorption, emission and decay spectral measurements to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices. From absorption spectra, the bonding parameters, nephelauxetic ratios were determined to know the nature of bonding between Sm3+ ions and its surrounding ligands. From the measured oscillator strengths, the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters were evaluated and in turn used to estimate various radiative parameters for the fluorescent levels of Sm3+ ions in AEBT glasses. The PL spectra of Sm3+ ions exhibit three emission bands corresponding to the transitions 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2 and 6H9/2 in the visible region for which the emission cross-sections and branching ratios were evaluated. The decay spectral profiles measured for 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition showed single exponential for lower concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration of doped rare earth ion in the as prepared glasses. Conversion of decay spectral profiles from single to non-exponential have been analyzed using Inokuti-Hirayama (I-H) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism involved in the decay process. CIE Chromaticity coordinates were measured using emission spectral data to identify the exact region of emission from the as-prepared glasses. From the evaluated radiative parameters, emission cross-sections and quantum efficiencies, it was observed that AEBT glass with 1 mol% of Sm3+ ions is more suitable for designing optoelectronic devices.

  7. Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Pisodonophis boro (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Thailand, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Proleptinae Schulz, 1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Taraschewski, Horst; Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Maipanich, Wanna; Laoprasert, Thitiporn

    2007-01-01

    Physalopterid nematodes identified as Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) were collected from the stomach of rice-paddy eels Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton) (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from two brackish-water localities (mangroves) in Thailand: one in Phan-Nga Province, southwestern Thailand, northeast of Phuket Island, and one in Ranong Province, near the border with Myanmar. Study of the morphology of this hitherto insufficiently known nematode species, including its first SEM examination, enabled a detailed redescription of H. longissimum. Present taxonomic problems in the subfamily Proleptinae Schulz, 1927 are discussed, where a new delimitation of Proleptus Dujardin, 1845, Heliconema Travassos, 1919 and Paraleptus Wu, 1927 is proposed based on the cephalic dentation. H. minnanensis [sic] Damin & Heqing, 2001 is transferred to Paraleptus Wu, 1927 as P. minnanensis (Damin & Heqing, 2001) n. comb. and Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin & Zhang, 1983 transferred by Damin & Heqing (2001) to Heliconema, is retained in Paraleptus. H. ahiri Karve, 1941 is considered a junior synonym of H. longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923). The present finding of H. longissimum in Pisodonophis boro represents the first host record and the first record of this nematode from Thailand.

  8. Interferência de ferro na dosagem de boro no solo com azometina-H em soluções extratoras ácidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Gilvan Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de métodos que permitam a extração do boro para avaliação da fertilidade do solo para a recomendação de adubação é importante, devido aos baixos teores de boro e aos altos teores de Fe na maioria dos solos brasileiros. A extração com água quente, método-referência, é trabalhosa e apresenta dificuldades operacionais. Por outro lado, soluções de CaCl2 5 mmol/L e BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L são usadas com sucesso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a eficiência do ácido tioglicólico na eliminação da interferência do Fe na dosagem de B do solo com azometina-H, após extrações com soluções ácidas de Mehlich-1 e HCl (50 e 100 mmol/L. Dosagem com azometina-H, com e sem ácido tioglicólico, foram feitas para oito solos de Minas Gerais e dois solos do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi utilizada como referência, a extração com BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L, com aquecimento em forno de microondas e dosagem com azometina-H; a determinação de B com azometina-H em extratos originados de soluções ácidas sofre forte interferência do Fe. A adição do ácido tioglicólico não remove esta interferência. A coloração do complexo B-azometina-H fica menos estável com a adição do ácido tioglicólico na dosagem do boro.

  9. Enhanced luminescence from silver nanoparticles integrated Er{sup 3+}-doped boro-tellurite glasses: Impact of annealing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said Mahraz, Zahra Ashur; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.

    2015-11-15

    Considerable enhancement of rare earth ions luminescence intensity stimulated via metal nanoparticles (NPs) inclusion inside inorganic glass matrix opened a new avenue to achieving efficient lasing glass media. Tuning the localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band of noble metal NPs through their precise size manipulation is demonstrated to be the key for such accomplishment. We report the influences of annealing (heat treatment) temperature (AT) on the down-conversion luminescence features of erbium (Er{sup 3+}) doped zinc-boro-tellurite (ZBT) glasses containing silver NPs. The AT dependent (between 390 and 450 °C) variations in refractive index and density are ascribed to the generation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) ions. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the amorphous nature of the melt-quenched synthesized glass samples. TEM micrograph revealed the nucleation of Ag NPs inside the glass matrix having average diameter between 8.4 (un-annealed sample) to 11.8 nm (annealed). The UV–Vis spectra exhibited seven absorption bands corresponding to {sup 4}f–{sup 4}f transitions of Er{sup 3+} ions. Annealed samples displayed a red shift of SPR bands positioned at 550 and 580 nm. Judd–Ofelt theory is used to evaluate the intensity parameters for radiative transitions within 4f{sup n} configuration of Er{sup 3+} ion. Annealing up to 410 °C is found to stimulate the plasmonic effect through the enlargement of NPs. Consequently, the PL intensity is enhanced by a factor of 3.23 ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}), 4.10 ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}), and 3.79 ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}). This achieved excellent down-conversion luminescence efficiency of proposed glasses shows their potential implementation in photonic devices and solid state lasers. - Highlights: • The changes in the physical properties are ascribed to the generation of NBO. • TEM images confirmed the presence of Ag NPs in the glass matrix. • The achieved

  10. Influence of bismuth on structural, elastic and spectroscopic properties of Nd{sup 3+} doped Zinc–Boro-Bismuthate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Sontakke, Atul D.; Karmakar, P.; Biswas, K.; Balaji, S.; Saha, R.; Sen, R.; Annapurna, K., E-mail: annapurnak@cgcri.res.in

    2014-05-01

    The present investigation reports, influence of bismuth addition on structural, elastic and spectral properties of [(99.5−x) {4ZnO−3B_2O_3}−0.5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}−x Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} where x=0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60] glasses. The measured FTIR reflectance spectra facilitated a thorough insight of methodical modifications that are arising in the glass structure from borate (build by BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units) to bismuthate (BiO{sub 3} and BiO{sub 6} units) network due to the increase of bismuth content ensuing with a steady decrease in host phonon energy (ν{sub ph}). The elastic properties estimated from measured longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities (U{sub L} and U{sub s}) demonstrated the reduction in network rigidity of glasses on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusion. The three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2,4,6}) were obtained from recorded absorption spectra of Nd{sup 3+} ions in these glasses and have been used to predict radiative properties as a function of variation in bismuth content. The reduced host phonon energy and high optical basicity effect due to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} incorporation remarkably improved the Nd{sup 3+} luminescence properties such as emission intensity, quantum yield and emission cross-section. The quantum yield showed a strong increase from mere 16% in Zinc–Borate glass to almost 73% in 60 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing glass. Similarly, the emission cross-section for Nd{sup 3+4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} laser transition raised from 2.43×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} to 3.95×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} in studied concentration suggesting a strong improvement in Nd{sup 3+} laser spectroscopic properties in Zinc–Boro-Bismuthate glass. These materials may be promising for compact solid state infrared lasers. - Highlights: • Continuous structural changes associated with reduction in host phonon energy by Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusion. • Ultrasonic velocity study revealed reduced Debye

  11. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl) Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffei, K.A.; Moustafa, A.B.; Hamed, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of poly butyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl) maleate (BEHM). The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  12. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Shaffei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of polybutyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl maleate (BEHM. The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  13. Synthesis and Properties of the Metallo-Supramolecular Polymer Hydrogel Poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]∙AgNO3

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Dossary, Mona S.

    2014-05-01

    Gels are a special class of materials which are composed of 3D networks of crosslinked polymer chains that encapsulate liquid/air in the matrix. They can be classified into organogels or hydrogels (organic solvent for organogel and water for hydrogel). For hydrogels that contain metallic elements in the form of ions, the term of metallo-supramolecular polymer hydrogel (MSPHG) is often used. The aim of this project is to develop a kind of new MSPHG and investigate its properties and possible applications. The commercial polymeric anhydride poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) is converted by reaction with NaOH to give poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-monosodium maleate) (PVM/Na-MA). By addition of AgNO3-solution, the formation of the silver(I) supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]∙AgNO3 is obtained. Freeze-dried samples of the hydrogel show a mesoporous network of polycarboxylate ligands that are crosslinked by silver(I) cations. The supercritical CO2 dried silver(I) hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, SEM-EDAX, TEM, TGA and Physical adsorption (BET) measurements. The intact silver(I) hydrogel was characterized by cryo-SEM. In the intact hydrogel, ion-exchange studies are reported and it is shown that Ag+ ions can be exchanged by copper(II) cations without disintegration of the hydrogel. The silver(I) hydrogel shows effective antibacterial activity and potential application as burn wound dressing.

  14. In vivo evaluation and in-depth pharmaceutical characterization of a rapidly dissolving solid ocular matrix for the topical delivery of timolol maleate in the rabbit eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Raeesa M; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Kumar, Pradeep; Carmichael, Trevor R; Pillay, Viness

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in-depth pharmaceutical properties and in vivo behavior of a novel lyophilized rapidly dissolving solid ocular matrix (RD-SOM) as a 'solid eye drop' formulation comprising timolol maleate as the model drug. Thermal and molecular transition analysis displayed similar findings with no incompatibility between formulation components. Porositometric studies confirmed the presence of interconnecting pores across the matrix surface. The HETCAM test indicated an irritation score of 0 with the inference of good tolerability for the RD-SOM in the New Zealand White albino rabbit eye model. Ex vivo permeation across excised rabbit cornea showed an improved steady state drug flux (0.00052 mg cm(-2)min(-1)) and permeability co-efficient (1.7 × 10(-4)cmmin(-1)) for the RD-SOM compared to pure drug and a marketed eye drop preparation. UPLC analysis quantitatively separated timolol maleate and the internal standard (diclofenac sodium) and gamma irradiation was used as a terminal sterilization procedure. In vivo results revealed a peak concentration of timolol was reached at 104.9 min. In the case of a typical eye drop formulation a lower Cmax was obtained (1.97 ug/mL). Level A point-to-point IVIVC plots via the Wagner-Nelson method revealed a satisfactory R(2) value of 0.84. In addition, the biodegradability and ocular compatibility of the RD-SOM was confirmed by histopathological toxicity studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural and luminescence behavior of Sm{sup 3+} ions doped lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvi, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2015-03-15

    The Sm{sup 3+} ions doped lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses with the chemical composition 30H{sub 3}O{sub 3}+(20–x)PbO+15TeO{sub 2}+10P{sub 2}O{sub 5}+10ZnO+15BaCO{sub 3}+xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in wt%) have been prepared by a melt quenching technique and their structural and optical behavior were studied and reported. The physical properties like, refractive index, density and dielectric constant etc., have been estimated. FTIR and Raman spectral studies have been made to explore the presence of functional groups and various structural units in the prepared glasses. The formation of bridging and non-bridging oxygens of BO{sub 4}, BO{sub 3}, TeO{sub 3}, TeO{sub 6} and PbO{sub 4} structural units have been investigated. From the absorption spectra, the direct (n=1/2), indirect (n=2) band gap, band tailing parameter (B) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were estimated. The ionic nature of the metal–ligand bond in the title glasses has been discussed. The Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub λ,}λ=2, 4, and 6), oscillator strength of ƒ−ƒ electric dipole transitions and transition probability (A) have been evaluated. The predicted radiative lifetime (τ{sub rad}) and branching ratio (β{sub R}) values of the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} excited level of the Sm{sup 3+} ions to the lower energy levels were determined and compared with the experimentally measured values. From the recorded fluorescence spectra, the strong transitions of Sm{sup 3+} ions {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 5/2} (565 nm), {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} (602 nm), {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 9/2} (648 nm) and a weak transition, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 11/2} (709 nm) have been observed. The significant laser parameters like, gain bandwidth (σ{sub p}{sup E}×λ{sub eff}), optical gain (σ{sub p}{sup E}×τ{sub rad}) and stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub p}{sup E}) values were estimated for the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub J} (J=5

  16. Habitat Preferences of Boros schneideri (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the Natural Tree Stands of the Białowieża Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Jerzy M.; Sućko, Krzysztof; Zub, Karol; Bohdan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed habitat requirements of Boros schneideri (Panzer, 1796) (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the natural forests of the continental biogeographical region, using data collected in the Białowieża Forest. This species has been found on the six host trees, but it preferred dead, standing pine trees, characterized by large diameter, moderately moist and moist phloem but avoided trees in sunny locations. It occurred mostly in mesic and wet coniferous forests. This species demonstrated preferences for old tree stands (over 140-yr old), and its occurrence in younger tree-stand age classes (minimum 31–40-yr old) was not significantly different from random distribution. B. schneideri occupied more frequently locations distant from the forest edge, which were less affected by logging. Considering habitat requirements, character of occurrence, and decreasing number of occupied locations in the whole range of distribution, this species can be treated as relict of primeval forests. PMID:25527586

  17. Suplementação de boro em diferentes épocas: Efeito no rendimento e na qualidade de sementes de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pich Brunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aplicação de boro em diferentes épocas no rendimento e na qualidade de sementes de trigo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial A X B, sendo o fator A: cultivares FUNDACEP Horizonte e BRS Campeiro, e fator B: época de aplicação, (Sem aplicação de boro, aplicação na semeadura, no perfilhamento, na floração e 15 dias após floração. A dose de boro aplicada, via solo, em todas as épocas foi de 10 kg ha-1 na forma de tetraborato de sódio (boráx. Após a colheita, avaliaram-se número de espigas, número de sementes por planta, rendimento de sementes por planta, peso hectolítrico e peso de mil sementes. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes produzidas foi avaliada por testes de vigor e de germinação. A adubação de trigo com 10 kg ha-1 de boro na forma de bórax nas diferentes épocas de aplicação, não prejudica rendimento, germinação e vigor das sementes das cultivares de trigo FUNDACEP Horizonte e BRS Campeiro. O peso volumétrico das sementes só teve redução na aplicação no perfilhamento para a cultivar FUNDACEP Horizonte e na floração para a cultivar BRS Campeiro.Boron supplementation at different times: Effect on yield and quality of wheat seedsAbstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of boron application at different times on the yield and seeds quality of wheat. The experimental design was a completely randomized factorial AXB, with factor A: FUNDACEP Horizonte and BRS Campeiro cultivars, and factor B: application time, (No application of boron, application at sowing, tillering, flowering and 15 days after flowering. The boron dose into the soil at all times was 10 kg ha-1 in the form of sodium tetraborate (borax. After harvest, were evaluated number of ears, number of seeds per plant, seed yield per plant, hectoliter weight and thousand seed weight. The physiological quality of seeds produced

  18. Water use practices, water quality, and households' diarrheal encounters in communities along the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, Northern Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubatsi, G; Bonyongo, M C; Gondwe, M

    2015-11-18

    Some rural African communities residing along rivers use the untreated river water for domestic purposes, making them vulnerable to waterborne diseases such as diarrhea. We determined water use practices and water quality, relating them to prevalence of diarrhea in communities along the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, northern Botswana. A total of 452 households were interviewed and 196 water samples collected show during February, May, September, and December 2012 in settlements of Boro, Maun, Xobe, Samedupi, Chanoga, and Motopi. Information was sought on water use practices (collection, storage, and handling) and diarrheal experience using questionnaires. Water quality was assessed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters using portable field meters and laboratory analysis, respectively. All (100%) of the river water samples collected were fecally contaminated and unsuitable for domestic use without prior treatment. Samples had Escherichia coli (E.coli) and fecal streptococci levels reaching up to 186 and 140 CFU/100 ml, respectively. Study revealed high dependence on the fecally contaminated river water with low uptake of water treatment techniques. Up to 48% of households indicated that they experience diarrhea, with most cases occurring during the early flooding season (May). Nonetheless, there was no significant relationship between river water quality and households' diarrheal experience across studied settlements (p > 0.05). Failure to treat river water before use was a significant predictor of diarrhea (p = 0.028). Even though the river water was unsafe for domestic use, results imply further recontamination of water at household level highlighting the need for simple and affordable household water treatment techniques.

  19. Boron affects the growth and ultrastructure of castor bean plants Boro afeta o crescimento e a ultra-estrutura da mamoneira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Herisson da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of oleaginous plants like the castor bean guarantees employment for agricultural families and can contribute in energy and chemical sectors, especially in the northeastern semi-arid regions of Brazil. Boron (B deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder despite the fact that various anthropogenic sources with high B content may increase soil B to toxic levels for plants. The present study was designed to investigate the ultrastructural effects of boron deficiency and toxicity on castor bean plants which were grown under greenhouse condition using plastic containers with 10 L of nutrient solution. Boron treatments comprised: control (no B; 0.27 mg L-1, 5.40 mg L-1 B pots (one plant per pot, tested in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The dry matter of all plant parts and B concentration were determined. Cellular ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy on samples of leaves and petioles. Dry matter yield was affected by the B absence treatment but there was no difference for the 5.4 mg L-1 B (toxic conditions treatment. A marginal leaf burn at edge and tips of oldest leaves and absence of starch granules in chloroplasts were noted for the B toxicity treatment. The deformation of the youngest leaves, the death of the apical meristem as well as the swelling of the middle lamella, absence of starch granules in chloroplasts and petiole vessels untidily were observed in the B absent treatment. It is concluded that the production and development of castor bean plants is affected by boron deficiency, but not for boron toxicity conditions.A mamoneira é uma oleaginosa com grande potencial para a geração de renda na agricultura familiar e para produção de matéria prima para a indústria química e setor energético brasileiro, especialmente em regiões do semi-árido nordestino. A deficiência de boro (B ocorre de forma generalizada no Brasil e a aplicação excessiva deste

  20. Synthesis and properties of the metallo-supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]·AgNO3: Ag+/Cu2+ ion exchange and effective antibacterial activity

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The commercial polymeric anhydride poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) is converted by reaction with NaOH to give poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate) (PVM/Na-MA). By addition of AgNO 3-solution, the formation of the silver(i) supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]·AgNO 3 is reported. Freeze-dried samples of the hydrogel show a mesoporous network of polycarboxylate ligands that are crosslinked by silver(i) cations. In the intact hydrogel, ion-exchange studies are reported and it is shown that Ag+ ions can be exchanged by copper(ii) cations without disintegration of the hydrogel. The silver(i) hydrogel shows effective antibacterial activity and potential application as burn wound dressing. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Microestructura y propiedades mecánicas de dos aceros para herramientas con ultra alto contenido de boro

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    Jiménez, J. A.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, two selected tool steels have been modified by a boron addition of 0.5 and 1 mass %. Both steels were processed by powder metallurgy methods, including argon atomization and hot isostatic pressing. The Consolidated materials presented a microstructure consisting of a fine and homogeneous distribution borocarbides M23(C,B6 in a ferrite-martensite matrix. No changes are observed in the microstructure after deformation by compression-strain-rate-change tests at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1,100 °C. For the Fe-lB-lC steel, a stress exponent of 4.5 was obtained, that suggests that slip creep is the controlling deformation mechanism. On the other hand, a stress exponent between 2 and 3 was obtained for the Fe-0.5B-1.5C steel that suggests that grain boundary sliding is the controlling deformation mechanism. In both cases, the activation energy for creep was related to the activation energy for iron self-diffusion.

    En el presente trabajo se han modificado dos aceros para herramientas convencionales por la presencia de un contenido de boro entre 0,5 y 1 % en masa. Ambos aceros se procesaron por la ruta pulvimetalúrgica, incluyendo atomización por argón y compactación isostática en caliente. El material compactado presentó una microestructura caracterizada por una distribución de partículas de borocarburos M23(C,B6 fina y homogénea en una matriz de ferrita-martensita. Esta microestructura permanece prácticamente inalterada tras los ensayos de cambios en la velocidad de deformación durante el ensayo de compresión a temperaturas entre 750 y 1.000 °C. En el caso del acero Fe-lB-lC se obtuvo un valor para el exponente de la tensión de 4,5, que sugiere que la deformación plástica está controlada por un mecanismo de fluencia por movimiento de dislocaciones. Por otro lado, para el acero Fe-0,5B-1,5C, se obtuvieron valores para el exponente de la tensión comprendidos

  2. Phloem mobility of Boron in two eucalypt clones Mobilidade floemática de Boro em dois clones de eucalipto

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    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron deficiency causes large productivity losses in eucalypt stands in extensive areas of the Brazilian Cerrado region, thus understanding B mobility is a key step in selecting genetic materials that will better withstand B limitation. Thus, in this study B mobility was evaluated in two eucalypt clones (68 and 129, under B sufficiency or B deficiency, after foliar application of the 10B isotope tracer to a single mature leaf. Samples of young tissue, mature leaves and roots were collected 0, 1, 5, 12 and 17 days after 10B application. The 10B:11B isotope ratio was determined by HR-ICP-MS. Samples of leaves and xylem sap were collected for the determination of soluble sugars and polyalcohols by ion chromatography. Boron was translocated within eucalypt. Translocation of foliar-applied 10B to the young tissues, mature leaves and roots was higher in clone 129 than in 68. Seventeen days after 10B application to a single mature leaf, between 14 and 18 % of B in the young tissue was originated from foliar B application. In plants with adequate B supply the element was not translocated out of the labeled leaf.A deficiência de boro tem causado perdas expressivas de produtividade em extensas áreas de eucalipto no Brasil, principalmente na região do Cerrado. A mobilidade de B é um fator chave na seleção de materiais genéticos mais tolerantes à deficiência deste nutriente. Neste trabalho, a mobilidade de B foi avaliada em dois clones de eucalipto (68 e 129, com e sem deficiência de B, após a aplicação foliar do traçador isotópico 10B em uma única folha madura. Amostras de tecidos jovens, folhas maduras e raízes foram coletadas nos tempos de 0, 1, 5, 12 e 17 dias após a aplicação. A determinação da razão isotópica 10B:11B foi feita por meio de HR-ICP-MS. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas e do exsudato xilemático para determinação de açúcares solúveis e poliálcoois, por meio de cromatografia iônica. Houve translocação de B

  3. Fontes e doses de boro em porta-enxertos de seringueira Sources and rates of boron in rubber rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de boro sobre o incremento do diâmetro do caule no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm acima do coleto, número e diâmetro de raízes laterais e estado nutricional de porta-enxertos para produção de toco enxertado de raiz nua. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5: duas fontes (ulexita, 10% de B e ácido bórico, 17% de B e cinco doses de B (0, 2, 4, 8 e 16 kg ha-1 com quatro repetições. Em condições edafoclimáticas locais, curvas de resposta indicam aumentos significativos, no incremento do diâmetro do caule, no ponto de enxertia, nas doses 6,5 e 16 kg ha-1 de B, e no número de raízes laterais, nas doses 13,9 e 16 kg ha-1 de B, com aplicação de ácido bórico e de ulexita, respectivamente. As doses de B não afetaram o número de raízes. O nível crítico de B na folha de mudas de seringueira, alcançado com aplicação de ácido bórico, é de 31,8 mg kg-1. As doses de B apresentam interações significativas com os teores foliares de B, Mn e Zn, enquanto os teores foliares de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Cu e Fe não variaram significativamente em razão das doses de B.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of boron supply on the increment of stem diameter, number and diameter of lateral roots and the nutritional status of rubber rootstocks at the budding height (5 cm above the root collar, for the production of base root budded stumps, in a Xanthic Ferralsol. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a 2x5 factorial scheme: two sources (ulexite - 10% of B and boric acid - 17% of B and five B rates (0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 kg ha-1, with four replicates. Under the local conditions, the response curves showed significant increases in increment of stem diameter at 6.5 and 16 kg ha-1 B, and in the number of lateral roots at 13.9 and 16 kg ha-1 B, with boric acid and ulexite, respectively. The B rate did not improve the number

  4. Produção e qualidade de frutos de laranjeira 'Pêra' em função de fontes e doses de boro Yield and quality of 'Pera' sweet orange in effect of boron source and doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Rodrigues Bologna

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito de fontes e doses de boro aplicadas no solo na produção e qualidade dos frutos de laranjeira 'Pêra'. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de cinco fontes de boro (ulexita-pó, colemanita, ulexita-granulada, termofosfato magnesiano com boro e ácido bórico e quatro doses (1; 2; 3 e 4 kg ha-1, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e esquema fatorial 5 x 4, em quatro repetições. A produção da cultura não sofreu influência das fontes e doses de boro, 11 meses após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Nos atributos tecnológicos, não foram observados efeitos significativos nos parâmetros: ratio, teor de sólidos solúveis e ºBrix. Houve redução do rendimento de suco com o aumento da dose de boro aplicada para todas as fontes testadas. O maior e o menor diâmetro de fruto foram obtidos, respectivamente, com o uso da fonte mais solúvel (ácido bórico e menos solúvel (colemanita, não havendo influência dos tratamentos na espessura de casca.The aim of this research was to evaluate effects of boron sources and doses in the yield and quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. The treatments were five boron sources (ulexite-powder, colemanite, ulexite-grain, magnesian thermo phosphate with boron and acid boric and four boron doses (1, 2, 3 and 4 kg ha-1. Experimental design was completely randomized in factorial 5 x 4, with four replications. Eleven months after treatments application crop yield was not influenced by boron source and doses. Fruit technological attributes as ratio, soluble solid contents and ºBrix were not different. Orange juice production decreased with boron dose increasing for all evaluated sources. The largest fruit diameter was found under the most soluble source (boric acid while the smallest fruit diameter was obtained under the less soluble source (colemanite. Treatment influence was not observed to fruit skin thickness.

  5. Doses de boro e água residuária na produção do girassol Levels of boron and wastewater in production of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Amilton Santos Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade hídrica de qualidade tem se tornado em todo o mundo, um dos principais entraves à expansão das fronteiras agrícolas. Dentro deste contexto o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de doses de boro e da irrigação com dois tipos de água, residuária e de abastecimento, nos componentes de produção do girassol (Helianthus annuus L. cv. EMBRAPA 122/V-2000. A pesquisa foi realizada em ambiente protegido da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, analisados em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 sendo cinco doses de boro (0 - testemunha; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 mg L-1 combinados com dois tipos de água de irrigação (R - residuária e AB - abastecimento, com três repetições. A análise estatística compreendeu análises de variância (teste F e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey para comparar os fatores qualitativos em 0,05 de probabilidade. Verificou-se que as doses de boro e tipos de água utilizados não influenciaram nenhuma variável ligada à produção de aquênios; no entanto, a irrigação com água residuária influenciou positivamente as variáveis fitomassa fresca e seca das folhas, do caule e da parte aérea, todas ligadas à produção de forragem.The availability of water of quality has become worldwide, a major constraint to expanding agricultural frontiers. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of boron doses and irrigation with two types of water, wastewater and municipal supply water, on yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. EMBRAPA 122/V-2000. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in a randomized block design, analyzed in a 5 x 2 factorial with five B of boron (0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 combined with two types of irrigation water (R - wastewater and AB - municipal supply water with three replications. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance

  6. Rapid Discrimination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Assessment of Its Surface Content Uniformity in a Pharmaceutical Formulation by NIR-CI Coupled with Statistical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated that near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI was a rapid and nondestructive technique for discrimination of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM and assessment of its surface content uniformity (SCU in a pharmaceutical formulation. The characteristic wavenumber method was used for discriminating CPM distribution on the tablet surface. To assess the surface content uniformity of CPM, binary image and statistical measurement were proposed. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used as reference method for accurately determining volume content of CPM in the sample. Moreover, HPLC was performed to assess volume content uniformity (VCU of CPM in whole region and part region of the tablets. The NIR-CI result showed that the spatial distribution of CPM was heterogeneous on the tablet surface. Through the comparison of content uniformity of CPM determined by NIR-CI and HPLC, respectively, it demonstrated that a high degree of VCU did not imply a high degree of SCU of the samples. These results indicate that HPLC method is not suitable for testing SCU, and this has been verified by NIR-CI. This study proves the feasibility of NIR-CI for rapid discrimination of CPM and assessment of its SCU, which is helpful for the quality control of commercial CPM tablets.

  7. A novel and discriminative method of in vitro disintegration time for preparation and optimization of taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of carbinoxamine maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Peng; Qian, Rong; Sun, Tianyu; Fang, Fangzhi; Wang, Zonghua; Ke, Xue; Xu, Bohui

    2018-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to mask bitter taste and decrease the disintegration time of carbinoxamine maleate (CAM) orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In order to screen the prescription of ODTs, a novel modified in vitro disintegration method (MIVDM) was developed to measure the in vitro disintegration time. In this method, different concentrations of ethanol served as disintegration medium in order to delay the in vitro water absorption and disintegration process of tablets. The MIVDM demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo correlation and proved more precise and discriminative than other reported methods. In this research, ion exchange resins (IERs) were used to mask bitter taste for improving mouthfeel. The drug-resin ratio and reaction temperature were investigated to obtain the optimum carbinoxamine resin complexes (CRCs). The characterization of CRCs revealed an amorphous state. ODTs were prepared by direct compression. Superdisintegrants and diluents of ODTs were screened first. Further optimization was carried out by using Box-Behnken design. The effect of (X 1 ) mannitol/microcrystalline cellulose ratio, (X 2 ) the amount of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose and (X 3 ) the hardness was investigated for achieving the lowest (Y) in vitro disintegration time. Technological characterization, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and roughness degree were evaluated. The CRCs and ODTs proved successful taste-masking efficiency. The end product improved patients' compliance. The developed MIVDM was practical for commercial use.

  8. Sensitive and selective determination of fluvoxamine maleate using a sensitive chemiluminescence system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B-gold nanoparticles reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    A high-yield chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B reaction was developed for the sensitive determination of fluvoxamine maleate (Flu). Rhodamine B is oxidized by alkaline KMnO4 and a weak CL emission is produced. It was demonstrated that gold nanoparticles greatly enhance this CL emission due to their interaction with Rhodamine B molecules. It is also observed that sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, can strongly increase this enhancement. In addition, it was demonstrated that a notable decrease in the CL intensity is observed in the presence of Flu. This may be related to Flu oxidation with KMnO4 . There is a linear relationship between the decrease in CL intensity and the Flu concentration over a range of 2-300 µg/L. A new simple, rapid and sensitive CL method was developed for the determination of Flu with a detection limit (3s) of 1.35 µg/L. The proposed method was used for the determination of Flu in pharmaceutical and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of Maleated Compatibiliser (PBS-g-MA) Addition on the Flexural Properties and Water Absorption of Poly(butylene succinate)/ kenaf Bast Fibre Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.Z.T.; Mohd, Z.A.M.; Mat, R.T.; Ahmad, M.Z.T.; Mohd, Z.A.I.; Mat, R.T.; Rahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites with 30 wt.% loading of kenaf bast fibre (KBF) were compatibilised with 5 wt. % maleated PBS (PBS-g-MA). The maleic anhydride (MA) concentration in the compatibiliser was either 3, 5, 7 or 10 phr. In general, the compatibilised composites showed better flexural properties than the un-compatibilised composite. The highest increment in the flexural strength and modulus of 12.7 and 8.9 %, respectively, were obtained with the addition of PBS-g-MA with MA concentration of 5 phr. Compatibilised and un-compatibilised PBS/ KBF composites were immersed in distilled water for 90 days. The absorption of water by all the composites was observed to follow Ficks law. The equilibrium moisture content, M m , of the composites with PBS-g-MA at 3, 5 and 7 phr of MA concentrations was lower than that of the un-compatibilised composite due to improved fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion and reduction of voids content. Both un-compatibilised and compatibilised composites showed dimensional instability after the water absorption. This was probably due to the degradation of the fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion and fibre integrity. The flexural properties of these composites decreased after the water absorption. After re-drying only some of the flexural properties were recovered from plasticizing effect of water. (author)

  10. Comparison of the effects of candesartan cilexetil and enalapril maleate on right ventricular myocardial remodeling in dogs with experimentally induced pulmonary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Yoko; Orito, Kensuke; Osamura, Kaori; Kanai, Takao; Wakao, Yoshito

    2008-12-01

    To compare the effects of candesartan cilexetil and enalapril maleate on right ventricular myocardial remodeling in dogs with experimentally induced pulmonary stenosis. 24 Beagles. 18 dogs underwent pulmonary arterial banding (PAB) to induce right ventricular pressure overload, and 6 healthy dogs underwent sham operations (thoracotomy only [sham-operated group]). Dogs that underwent PAB were allocated to receive 1 of 3 treatments (6 dogs/group): candesartan (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h [PABC group]), enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h [PABE group]), or no treatment (PABNT group). Administration of treatments was commenced the day prior to surgery; control dogs received no cardiac medications. Sixty days after surgery, right ventricular wall thickness was assessed echocardiographically and plasma renin activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, and angiotensin I and II concentrations were assessed; all dogs were euthanatized, and collagenous fiber area, cardiomyocyte diameter, and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase-like activities in the right ventricle were evaluated. After 60 days of treatment, right ventricular wall thickness, cardiomyocyte diameter, and collagenous fiber area in the PABNT and PABE groups were significantly increased, compared with values in the PABC and sham-operated groups. Chymase-like activity was markedly greater in the PABE group than in other groups. Results indicated that treatment with candesartan but not enalapril effectively prevented myocardial remodeling in dogs with experimentally induced subacute right ventricular pressure overload.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of a timolol maleate drug-resin ophthalmic suspension as a sustained-release formulation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fuhong; Zeng, Li; Zhu, Yongtao; Cao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the performance of resin as an ocular delivery system. Timolol maleate (TM) was chosen as the model drug and an ion exchange resin (IER) as the carrier. The drug-resin complex was prepared using an oscillation method and then characterized regarding particle size, zeta potential, morphology, and drug content. After in vitro drug release study and corneal permeation study were performed, in vivo studies were performed in New Zealand albino rabbits using a suspension with particles sized 4.8 ± 1.2 μm and drug loading at 43.00 ± 0.09%. The results indicate that drug released from the drug-resin ophthalmic suspension permeated the cornea and displayed a sustained-release behavior. Drug levels in the ocular tissues after administration of the drug-resin ophthalmic suspension were significantly higher than after treatment with an eye drop formulation but were lower in body tissues and in the plasma. In conclusion, resins have great potential as effective ocular drug delivery carriers to increase ocular bioavailability of timolol while simultaneously reducing systemic drug absorption.

  12. Stability-Indicating Reversed-Phase UHPLC Method Development and Characterization of Degradation Products of Almotriptan Maleate by LC-QTOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibaba, B; Vishnuvardhan, Ch; Johnsi Rani, P; Satheesh Kumar, N

    2018-01-01

    Almotriptan maleate (ALMT), a highly selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonist used in the treatment of migraine headache was subjected to various ICH (Q1A (R2)) specified guidelines. The drug underwent significant degradation under hydrolytic (acid, base and neutral), oxidative and photolytic stress conditions, while it was stable under thermal stress condition. A total of seven significant degradation products (DPs) were obtained. A simple, selective and reliable UPLC method has been developed for the separation of ALMT and its DPs using Acquity UPLC HSS Cyano (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) column with mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate (10 mM, pH 4.4) buffer and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode. Chromatographic analysis was performed at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using a PDA detector at a wavelength of 230 nm. All the DPs (DP-1 to DP-7) were characterized using UHPLC-ESI-QTOF based on mass fragmentation pattern and accurate m/z values. The developed UPLC method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The developed stability-indicating method helps in quantification of drug in the presence of DPs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Modulation in the activity of purified tonoplast H+-ATPase by tonoplast glycolipids prepared from cultured rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Kasamo, K

    2001-05-01

    Glycolipids, phospholipids, and neutral lipids were extracted from the tonoplast fraction of cultured rice cells (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro). Acyl steryl glucoside (ASG) and glucocerebroside (GlcCer) were also prepared from this fraction. We determined the effects of these tonoplast lipids on the activity of H+-ATPase which was delipidated and purified from the tonoplast fraction. Exogenously added tonoplast phospholipids stimulated the activity of purified tonoplast H+-ATPase, but tonoplast glycolipids did not. When tonoplast glycolipids or tonoplast ASG was added in the presence of tonoplast phospholipids, they decreased the phospholipid-induced activation of the tonoplast H+-ATPase; tonoplast GlcCer only caused a small decrease. Steryl glucoside (SG) did not cause any decrease in this activation. Phospholipids, ASG, and GlcCer made up 35 mol%, 20 mol% and 7 mol% of the total lipids of the tonoplast fraction of cultured rice cells, respectively, and these glycolipid levels were enough to depress the phospholipid-induced activation of the tonoplast H+-ATPASE: These results revealed that H+-ATPase activity in the tonoplast may be modulated toward activation and depression by tonoplast phospholipids and glycolipids, respectively. The acylation of SG would be responsible for the depression in the phospholipid-induced H+-ATPase activity.

  14. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ Co-doped zinc boro-tellurite glasses for 1.5 xB5m broadband optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthanthirakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    A new series of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Zinc boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (40-x-y)B2O3+ 25TeO2+20ZnO+15BaO+xYb2O3+yEr2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3; y =1 in wt %) were prepared by melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behavior were studied through UV-Vis-NIR absorption and NIR luminescence measurements. The bonding parameters (β ¯ and δ) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) have been calculated from the band positions of the absorption spectra. A broad near-infrared emission band at 1540 nm with a full width at half maximum around 80 nm was observed from the NIR luminescence spectra by monitoring an excitation at 980 nm. The absorption cross-section and emission cross-section for the4I13/2→4I15/2 transition of the Er3+ ions were also determined using McCumber theory and the results were discussed and reported.

  15. Identification of galactose as the immunodominant sugar of leishmanial excreted factor and subsequent labeling with galactose oxidase and sodium boro[3H]hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky, G M; Greenblatt, C L

    1982-01-01

    Inhibition by low-molecular-weight sugars of precipitin line formation between a polysaccharide (EF) excreted by Leishmania tropica subsp. major, Leishmania enriettii, and rabbit antileishmanial antibodies on double gel diffusion plates revealed that galactose residues, possibly as components of lactosyl groups, were the critical immunodominant sugars mediating antibody recognition of EF. The galactose residues of the EF of L. tropica subsp. major were specifically labeled with tritium via galactose oxidase and sodium boro[3H]hydride. The radioactive EF had an apparent molecular weight of about 85,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and was precipitated by antileishmanial antibodies as well as Ricinus communis lectins I and II (galactose specific). Lectins specific for glucose-mannose residues, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylgalactosamine did not precipitate the labeled EF. Treatment of [3H]EF with proteolytic (trypsin, papain, protease) or glycosidic (alpha-amylase, beta-galactosidase) enzymes had no effect on either the electrophoretic pattern of the material or on its recognition by antileishmanial antibodies or R. communis lectin. This resistance to enzyme activity suggests that EF may be a useful marker for the presence of the parasite in vivo if it can be detected in minute quantities. PMID:6179874

  16. Absorção e redistribuição de boro em coqueiro-anão-verde Boron absorption and redistribution in green dwarf coconut tree

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    Leandro Glaydson da Rocha Pinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se ocorre redistribuição de boro em coqueiros (Cocos nucifera, quando a aplicação de ácido bórico é realizada na axila foliar ou no solo. Foram empregados os seguintes tratamentos com ácido bórico: 30 g aplicados sobre a axila da folha número 10; 60 g aplicados ao solo; e controle, sem aplicação. Foram realizadas duas aplicações de B, com um intervalo de cinco meses entre elas. A unidade experimental consistiu de duas plantas, com seis repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinados os teores de boro nas folhas 2, 6, 10, 14 e 18, aos dois e quatro meses após a primeira aplicação de ácido bórico, e aos dois e cinco meses após a segunda aplicação. O boro se redistribuiu pela planta de coqueiro, independentemente da forma de aplicação. A elevação do teor de boro nas folhas persistiu por mais tempo, quando a aplicação de ácido bórico foi feita ao solo. As doses de ácido bórico aplicadas não causaram fitotoxidade, mesmo quando a aplicaçãofoi repetida após um curto período.The aim of this work was to verify if boron redistribution occurs among the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera fronds, when boric acid is applied on frond axils or on soil. The treatments with boric acid were: 30 g applied on the axil of frond number 10; 60 g applied to the soil; and a control without boric acid application. The B applications were repeated after five-month interval. The experimental unit consisted of two plants, with six replicates, in a randomized complete block design. Boron contents were determined in fronds number 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18, two and four months after the first boric acid application, and two and five months after the second application. Boron was redistributed in coconut plants, regardless of the application form. Increases in boron concentration in fronds persisted longer when boric acid was applied to the soil. The applied doses of boric acid hadno

  17. Doses de boro e crescimento radicular e da parte aérea de cultivares de arroz de terras altas Influence of boron addition on growth of roots and shoot of upland rice crops

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    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento radicular é favorecido em condições adequadas de disponibilidade de boro no solo e, por isto, a aplicação da dose correta desse micronutriente é de grande importância, para que não ocorra prejuízo no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura de arroz de terras altas, de acordo com a variedade e tipo de solo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência das doses de boro no crescimento radicular e da parte aérea, em três cultivares de arroz de terras altas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em vaso com capacidade de 10 L, que continha 8 dm³ de solo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, sendo o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de três cultivares (Caiapó, Primavera e Maravilha e três doses de boro (0, 3 e 6 mg dm-3, usando, como fonte, o bórax. A dose de 6 mg dm-3 foi prejudicial tanto à produção de matéria seca da parte aérea como de raiz para o arroz de terras altas. Além de apresentar maior capacidade de absorção de boro, o cultivar Maravilha apresentou-se mais tolerante à elevação da disponibilidade de B no solo, não ocorrendo alterações de comprimento, diâmetro e superfície radicular.Appropriate boron (B availability in soils favors root growth, and a sufficient supply of this micronutrient is very important for adequate rice development and yield in upland fields, depending on the cultivars and soil type. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of B addition on growth of roots and shoot of three upland rice cultivars. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in 10 L pots containing 8 kg of an Hapludox; the experiment was in a completely random 3 x 3 factorial design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of three rice cultivars (Caiapó, Primavera, and Maravilha and three B rates (0, 3 and 6 mg dm-3, as borax. The B rate of 6 mg dm-3 boron was

  18. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles from aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Medhat A.; Yakout, Amr A.

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51 ± 3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, 1H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r2) and non-linear Chi-square (χ2) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.

  19. Ultraviolet A photosensitivity profile of dexchlorpheniramine maleate and promethazine-based creams: Anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and skin barrier protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Gustavo; Eberlin, Samara; Clerici, Stefano Piatto; Alves Pinheiro, Ana Lucia Tabarini; Costa, Adilson

    2017-12-01

    Unwanted side effects such as dryness, hypersensitivity, and cutaneous photosensitivity are challenge for adherence and therapeutical success for patients using treatments for inflammatory and allergic skin response. In this study, we compared the effects of two dermatological formulations, which are used in inflammatory and/or allergic skin conditions: dexchlorpheniramine maleate (DCP; 10 mg/g) and promethazine (PTZ; 20 mg/g). We evaluated both formulations for phototoxicity potential, skin irritation, anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic abilities, and skin barrier repair in vitro and ex vivo using the standard OECD test guideline n° 432, the ECVAM protocol n° 78, and cultured skin explants from a healthy patient. Ultraviolet A was chosen as exogenous agent to induce allergic and inflammatory response. Both PTZ and DCP promoted increases in interleukin-1 (IL-1) synthesis in response to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation compared to control. However, the increase observed with PTZ was significantly greater than the DCP, indicating that the latter has a lower irritant potential. DCP also demonstrated a protective effect on UVA-induced leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) synthesis. Conversely, PTZ demonstrates more robust UVA antihistaminic activity. Likewise, PTZ promoted a significantly greater increase in the production of involucrin and keratin 14, both associated with protective skin barrier property. In conclusion, these data suggest possible diverging UVA response mechanisms of DCP and PTZ, which gives greater insight into the contrasting photosensitizing potential between DCP and PTZ observed in the patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mistura em tanque de boro e herbicidas em semeadura convencional de girassol Tank-mix of boron and herbicides on conventional sunflower sowing

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    C. Castro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foi avaliar a resposta do girassol às aplicações de boro (B, isoladas ou em mistura com herbicidas, e o controle de plantas daninhas por meio de experimento conduzido na Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR. Os tratamentos foram acetochlor (1,92 kg i.a. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0,36 kg i.a. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0,35 kg i.a.ha-1, trifluralin (1,80 kg i.a. ha-1 e as testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados, isoladamente ou em mistura, com 2 kg ha-1 de B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - bórax e H3BO3 - ácido bórico. O tratamento mais eficiente foi acetochlor mais ácido bórico; essa combinação resultou em solução mais homogênea da calda de pulverização, quando comparada com os herbicidas mais bórax. O herbicida acetochlor aplicado isoladamente ou em mistura com as duas fontes de B foi eficiente no controle da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, do picão-preto (Bidens pilosa e da corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia. Os herbicidas oxyfluorfen e sulfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas com as duas fontes de B, foram eficientes no controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla e da corda-de-viola, respectivamente. É viável a aplicação de boro juntamente com os herbicidas testados nesta pesquisa em mistura em tanque, evitando a deficiência desse micronutriente e controlando as plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol.The objectives of this study were to determine the response of sunflower to application of boron (B fertilizer and herbicides, alone or in combination, and to determine its weed control. A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Soja, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. The treatments were acetochlor (1.92 kg a.i. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0.36 kg a.i. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0.35 kg a.i. ha-1, trifluralin (1.80 kg a.i. ha-1 and two controls (with and without hoeing. All treatments were applied alone or in combination with 2 kg ha-1 of B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - borax and H3BO3 - boric acid

  1. Study on the water durability of zinc boro-phosphate glasses doped with MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Moon Kyung; Ryu, Bong Ki

    2016-07-01

    The water durability of zinc boro-phosphate (PZB) glasses with the composition 60P2O5-20ZnO-20B2O3- xMeO ( x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and MeO = MgO, Fe2O3, or TiO2) (mol%) was measured, and PZB glass was studied in terms of its thermal properties, density, and FTIR characteristics. The surface conditions and corrosion byproducts were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. When MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were doped into the PZB glass, Q2 was decreased and Q1 was increased in the phosphate structure, while the number of BO4 structures increased with increasing MeO content. The density of the PZB glass was increased by the addition of Fe2O3 and TiO2, while the glass transition temperature ( T g ) and dilatometric softening temperature ( T d ) were increased when additional MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were added. From the weight loss analysis (95 ◦ C, 96 h), TiO2 doped glass showed the lowest weight loss (1.70 × 10 -3 g/cm2) while MgO doped glass showed the highest value (2.44 × 10 -3 g/cm2), compared with PZB glass (3.07 × 10 -3 g/cm2). These results were discussed in terms of the Me n+ ions in the glass structure, and their different coordination numbers and bonding strengths.

  2. Ability of Rf5 and Rf6 to Restore Fertility of Chinsurah Boro II-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Oryza Sativa (ssp. Japonica) Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honggen; Che, Jianlan; Ge, Yongshen; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Qiaoquan; Gu, Minghong; Tang, Shuzhu

    2017-12-01

    Three-line Oryza sativa (ssp. japonica) hybrids have been developed mainly using Chinsurah Boro II (BT)-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). The Rf1 gene restores the fertility of BT-type CMS lines, and is the only fertility restorer gene (Rf) that has been used to produce three-line japonica hybrids. Using more Rf genes to breed BT-type restorer lines may broaden the genetic diversity of the restorer lines, and represents a viable approach to improve the heterosis level of BT-type japonica hybrids. We identified two major Rf genes from '93-11' that are involved in restoring the fertility of BT-type CMS plants. These genes were identified from resequenced chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between the japonica variety 'Nipponbare' and the indica variety '93-11'. Molecular mapping results revealed that these genes were Rf5 and Rf6, which are the Rf genes that restore fertility to Honglian-type CMS lines. The BT-type F 1 hybrids with either Rf5 or Rf6 exhibited normal seed setting rates, but F 1 plants carrying Rf6 showed more stable seed setting rates than those of plants carrying Rf5 under heat-stress conditions. Furthermore, the seed setting rates of F 1 hybrids carrying both Rf5 and Rf6 were more stable than that of F 1 plants carrying only one Rf gene. Rf6 is an important genetic resource for the breeding of BT-type japonica restorer lines. Our findings may be useful for breeders interested in developing BT-type japonica hybrids.

  3. Produtividade da cultura da pinha (Annona squamosa L. em função de níveis de adubação nitrogenada e formas de aplicação de boro

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    COSTA SELMA LOPES DA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência da adubação com 4 doses de N (0; 100; 200 e 400 g planta-1, utilizando a uréia, e 3 formas de aplicação do boro (via foliar, via solo e sem B, utilizando o ácido bórico, na produtividade, no número, peso médio, diâmetro e comprimento dos frutos, no crescimento e no diâmetro dos ramos, na percentagem de frutos brocados e rachados. As adubações com boro e nitrogênio aumentaram a produtividade e o número de frutos, não se observando variação no diâmetro e no comprimento dos frutos. Houve variação no peso médio de fruto em função do N. O adubo nitrogenado aumentou o número de flores e de frutos e a porcentagem de frutos. As doses de N e as formas de aplicação de B não influenciaram as porcentagens de frutos brocados e rachados.

  4. Assessment of protective effects of methylprednisolone and pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in kidney after distant organ ischemia: a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Serdar; Yurekli, Ismail; Gokalp, Orhan; Kiray, Muge; Bademci, Mehmet Senel; Ozcem, Barcin; Besir, Yuksel; Yilik, Levent; Kestelli, Mert; Gurbuz, Ali

    2012-05-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of tissues is a common problem that cardiovascular surgeons are faced with. Suppression of inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of I/R injury, may reduce this damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (MP)--a potent anti-inflammatory agent--and pheniramine maleate (FM)--an antihistamine that also has some anti-inflammatory effects--on reperfusion injury of kidneys developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 320 to 370 g were divided into four groups, each consisting of seven rats. Group 1 was the control group. Group 2 was the sham group. Rats in group 3 were subjected to I/R and given FM, and rats in group 4 were subjected to I/R and given MP. A tourniquet was applied at the level of the left groin to subjects in group 2 after induction of anesthesia. One hour of ischemia was performed, and no drug was administered. In group 3, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg FM was administered before ischemia, and the remaining half was given intraperitoneally before reperfusion. In group 4, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg MP intraperitoneally in the 30th minute of ischemia. Kidneys of all subjects were removed after 24 hours. Extracted tissues were investigated regarding histological and biochemical parameters. Malondialdehyde--the end product of lipid peroxidation as an important indicator of I/R injury--levels were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2 (P 0.05). Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2 (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference between group 4 and group 2 in terms of these activities. Histological examination demonstrated that both MP and FM had protective effects against I/R injury, but this effect was more potent for FM than for MP. FM has a protective

  5. Efeito do tratamento com fontes de zinco e boro na germinação e vigor de sementes de milho Effects of maize seed treated with zinc and boron sources on germination and vigour

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    N.D. Ribeiro

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no período de março a novembro de 1992, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da aplicação de fontes de zinco e boro em sementes de milho tratadas ou não com defensivos agrícolas. Adotou-se o esquema fatorial 3x2x6, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de avaliações em três épocas (logo após o tratamento, quatro e oito meses depois, utilização de sementes de milho com e sem tratamento fítossanitário, combinados com seis fontes de zinco e boro (testemunha, Zn-Biocrop, B-Biocrop, E-Orgânico, Zn-Biocrop + B-Biocrop e Zn-Biocrop + B-Orgânico, nas doses únicas de 2,50g Zn e de 0,15g B/kg de sementes. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a aplicação da fonte Zn-Biocrop não prejudica a germinação e o vigor, pelo período de oito meses de armazenamento. O tratamento de sementes com boro (B-Biocrop e B-Orgânico diminui a germinação e o vigor.The experiment was carried during the period of march 1992 to november 1992, to study the effects of maize seed treatment with zinc, boron and pesticides, on the germination and vigour during storage. The experimental design was a complete randomized 3x2x6 fatorial with four replicátions. The treatments were three storage periods (zero, four and eight month, pesticides treatments with or without, and six sources of zinc and boron (control, Zn-Biocrop, B-Biocrop, Organic-B, Zn-Biocrop -I- B-Biocrop and Zn-Biocrop + Organic-B, in the dose 2.50g of the Zn and 0.l5g of the B/kg of seeds. The results show that Zn-Biocrop maintain high germination and vigour for eight month of storage. The boron treatment (B-Biocrop and Organic-B showed a low germination and vigour.

  6. Adubos foliares quelatizados e sais na absorção de boro, manganês e zinco em laranjeira ?Pera?

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    Santos Carlos Henrique dos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a eficiência de formulações de adubos foliares quelatizados na absorção dos micronutrientes boro, manganês e zinco, com a aplicação convencional de sais em plantas de laranjeira ?Pera? (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. Para tanto foi conduzido experimento nas dependências do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas UNESP/Campus de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo. Utilizaram-se plantas de laranjeira ?Pera? (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck enxertadas sobre limoeiro ?Cravo? (Citrus limonia Osbeck, com 2 anos de idade, plantadas em caixas de 250 litros. Os adubos foliares utilizados foram: Grex Citros na dose de 1,0 mL L-1; Copas citros 2,0 mL L-1; Plantin Citros 1,0 mL L-1; Citrolino 2,0 mL L-1; Fertamin Citros 1,75 mL L-1; Yogen Citros 2,0 mL L-1; MS-2 1,0 mL L-1; Sais, Sais + 1,0 g L-1 de KCl e Sais substituindo o ZnSO4 pelo ZnCl2. O volume de aplicação, foi de 1 litro de calda planta-1. Em todos os tratamentos adicionou-se o espalhante adesivo do grupo químico dos alquifenoletoxilados a 0,03%. A amostragem das folhas foi realizada 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, coletando-se a 3a ou 4a folha de ramos vegetativos no início do florescimento, dos 4 quadrantes, localizados na região mediana da planta, totalizando 10 folhas por planta. A aplicação foliar de micronutrientes, favoreceu a absorção e resultou no aumento do teor foliar de Mn e Zn mas não de B, sendo que a presença de cloreto aumentou os teores de Zn na folhas de laranjeira ?Pera?, proporcionando maior absorção do que o sulfato e sulfato adicionado ao cloreto de potássio. Os resultados mostram, também, que os produtos quelatizados Yogen e MS-2, para as condições deste estudo, não foram eficientes como fontes fornecedoras de Mn.

  7. Produção e qualidade de rosas em razão de doses de boro aplicadas no substrato

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    Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Muitos trabalhos têm demonstrado os efeitos da aplicação do boro (B em variadas culturas; entretanto, poucos registros demonstram seus efeitos na produção de rosas. Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos de doses de B na produção e qualidade de rosas (Rosa hybrida cv. Shiny Terrazza® em vaso. Os tratamentos foram cinco doses de B (0, 1, 4, 8 e 16 mg kg-1, aplicadas no substrato, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram avaliados: número de flores por planta; número de folhas por haste floral; produção de matéria seca de raízes, folhas e flores; altura da planta; número de dias para o florescimento; comprimento do botão floral; e diâmetro e longevidade floral. Além disso, foram determinados os teores foliares de clorofila total e B e os sintomas de toxidez desse elemento. Verificou-se efeito significativo das doses de B na maioria das variáveis avaliadas, excetuando-se a altura das plantas, o número de flores por planta, a longevidade floral e a produção de matéria seca de raízes. O teor foliar de B aumentou linearmente em função das doses desse elemento. Houve incremento na produção e qualidade das flores com a aplicação do B, com redução do número de dias para o florescimento. Foram verificados sintomas de toxidez causado pelo B a partir da dose de 4 mg kg-1. Esses sintomas foram caracterizados por manchas do tipo encharcamento, iniciando nas margens do limbo foliar, com essas evoluindo para clorose e posterior necrose; na maior dose ocorreu queda de folhas. Essa queda foi responsável pela diminuição do número de folhas por haste no final do ciclo, a partir da dose de 8 mg kg-1 de B. As plantas com sintomas de toxidez apresentaram teores foliares de B acima de 200 mg kg-1, enquanto as sadias (controle, de 65 a 89 mg kg-1.

  8. Adubação foliar de boro em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura do amendoim

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    João Paulo Machado Mantovani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A adubação boratada foliar, na cultura do amendoim, pode ser uma estratégia viável para fornecimento desse elemento à planta; porém, são poucos os conhecimentos sobre dosagens, épocas e efeitos de parcelamento das doses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de produção e a composição mineral foliar em diferentes doses, épocas de aplicação e parcelamentos da adubação boratada. O experimento foi conduzido na safra de verão 2010/2011, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em Rubiácea (SP. Foram estudadas as doses de zero; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 kg ha-1 de boro (B, aplicadas por via foliar, utilizando-se como fonte o ácido bórico. Os efeitos da adubação boratada foram testados em doses únicas nos estádios V1 ou R5, além do parcelamento da dose de 1,0 kg ha-1 (0,5 kg ha-1 em V1 e R5, de 1,5 (0,75 kg ha-1 em V1 e R5; 0,5 kg ha-1 em V1, R1 e R5 e de 2,0 kg ha-1 (1,0 kg ha-1 em V1 e R5; 0,5 kg ha-1 em V1, R1, R3 e R5. O aumento na produtividade de amendoim em casca ocorreu apenas com a dose de 1,5 kg ha-1, parcelada em três aplicações de 0,5 kg ha-1 em V1, R1 e R5. A utilização de 2,0 kg ha-1 de B foliar no amendoim causou efeito depressivo na produtividade, rendimento e número de vagens por planta.

  9. Fertilização com boro e zinco no solo em complementação à aplicação via foliar em laranjeira Pêra

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    Quaggio José Antônio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As deficiências de boro (B e zinco (Zn são as mais freqüentes na citricultura brasileira e há escassez de conhecimento sobre critérios de diagnóstico e manejo desses nutrientes nessa cultura. A aplicação foliar tem sido a forma tradicional de fornecimento desses nutrientes, a despeito da baixa redistribuição na planta cítrica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação complementar de B e Zn no solo em comparação com a aplicação via foliar e estabelecer curvas de calibração de análises de solo e de folhas com a produtividade da laranjeira Pêra. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em delineamento fatorial 4², com três repetições. Foram aplicadas no solo as doses anuais de 0, 2, 4 e 6 kg ha-1 de B (ácido bórico e Zn (sulfato de zinco, em complemento à adubação foliar. A produção de frutos aumentou significativamente com a aplicação de B no solo até a dose de 4 kg ha-1, enquanto a aplicação de Zn no solo mostrou-se pouco eficiente. As doses de B afetaram a qualidade dos frutos. A produtividade máxima foi obtida com teor de B no solo de 1,0 mg dm-3, e na folha de cerca de 300 mg kg-1. A aplicação foliar de B, apesar de evitar os sintomas típicos de deficiência, não otimizou a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos, enquanto a aplicação foliar de Zn mostrou-se eficiente. Curvas de calibração de análises de solo e de folhas mostraram a necessidade de rever as classes de interpretação desses micronutrientes na citricultura.

  10. RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO A DOSES DE BORO EM CULTIVO DE INVERNO E DE PRIMAVERA DRY BEAN RESPONSE TO DOSES OF BORON IN WINTER AND SPRING PLANTINGS

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    HIPÓLITO ASSUNÇÃO ANTONIO MASCARENHAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em vasos foi instalado em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de estudar a resposta do feijoeiro à aplicação de boro (B em solo com baixa disponibilidade desse nutriente. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de doses correspondentes a 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 kg.ha-1 de B, na forma de bórax. Dois ensaios foram desenvolvidos, sendo o primeiro no inverno (junho a julho e o outro na primavera (setembro a outubro. No ensaio do inverno, foi observada a deficiência de B, apenas na testemunha, fato comprovado pela análise de tecidos. Nos demais tratamentos não apareceram sintomas de deficiência e os teores do elemento na parte aérea das plantas foram considerados adequados. No ensaio de primavera, não foi observada deficiência visual de B, mesmo na testemunha. Em ambos os ensaios, aplicações superiores a 2 kg.ha-1 de B proporcionaram teores muito elevados do elemento nas plantas (138 a 710 mg.kg-1. Os dados sugerem que a deficiência é mais relevante no inverno e que o excesso é prejudicial, em qualquer época, ocasionando toxicidade.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of boron in dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in pots. The treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kg.ha-1 of boron in the form of borax. Two identical experiments were carried out during the winter (June/July and the spring (September/October seasons. In the winter experiment, the boron deficiency symptoms were shown only by the control plants. In those conditions, the high concentrations of Ca and Mg and the low temperatures affected the boron absorption of the plants. The application of 1 kg.ha-1 of boron was sufficient to reduce the visible symptoms of B deficiency, and increased the dry weight of the shoots. At the rate of the 2 kg.ha-1 B or above there was excess of boron in the dry matter of the shoots. In the spring experiment there was no deficiency symptoms in the plants and the boron concentration was adequate

  11. APLICAÇÃO FOLIAR DE CÁLCIO E BORO E COMPONENTES DE RENDIMENTO E QUALIDADE DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

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    Bevilaqua Gilberto Antonio Peripolli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de cálcio (Ca e boro (B, aplicados em pulverização foliar, nas fases vegetativa e reprodutiva da cultura de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, cvs. FT Cometa e BR 16, nos componentes de rendimento e na qualidade fisiológica de sementes. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. O solo usado foi um Planossolo, com as seguintes caracteristicas físico-químicas: K: 1,67 mmoc dm-3, P: 3,5mg dm-3, matéria orgânica: 16,6g dm-3; teores de Ca+Mg: 18mmoc dm-3 de solo, pH: 4,7 e argila: 11%. As unidades experimentais foram bandejas com capacidade para 20kg de solo, mantidas com umidade próxima da capacidade de campo (20%, durante o experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação da solução em quatro épocas: pré-floração, floração, pós-floração, pré-colheita, e com uma testemunha não tratada. A solução foi preparada com cloreto de cálcio (0,5% de Ca e borato de sódio (0,25% de B, corrigido para pH 7,0, usando-se volume de calda de 100 ha-1 Os componentes de rendimento avaliados foram: número de vagens e peso de grãos /planta e número de grãos/vagem. As sementes foram avaliadas através de emergência no campo, velocidade de emergência e peso da matéria seca de plântulas. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que: a a aplicação de Ca e B aumentou o peso de grãos por planta; b Ca e B não afetaram a qualidade fisiológica de sementes; c as maiores respostas de Ca e B nos componentes de rendimento foram verificadas nas fases de floração e pós-floração.

  12. Leitura SPAD em abacaxizeiro imperial cultivado em deficiência de macronutrientes e de boro Spad reading in imperial pineapple under macronutrientes and boron deficiency

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    Maria José Mota Ramos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O equipamento Minolta SPAD-502 mede a intensidade da coloração verde das folhas e tem sido utilizado na quantificação de clorofilas, caracterizando-se pela rapidez, simplicidade e, principalmente, por possibilitar uma avaliação não destrutiva do tecido foliar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi calibrar a leitura SPAD, correlacionando-a com o diagnóstico das deficiências induzidas de macronutrientes e de boro associando às deficiências ao crescimento vegetativo do abacaxizeiro. O experimento constou de oito tratamentos: Completo, -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S e - B, em blocos casualizados completos, com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o comprimento e a largura da folha "D" (marcada e realizadas leituras com o medidor de clorofila SPAD 502. O uso do método de medida indireta da clorofila é adequado para a avaliação do estado nutricional de N e de crescimento vegetativo do abacaxizeiro 'Imperial'. O valor Spad e a concentração foliar de N no tratamento completo são, respectivamente: 75,7 e 14,8 g kg-1, e no deficiente de N: 36,6 e 9,7g kg-1. Com exceção das deficiências de N e P, os demais tratamentos não afetaram a leitura SPAD.The equipment Minolta SPAD-502 measures the intensity of green color of leaves and has been used in the quantification of chlorophyll, characterized by speed, simplicity, and especially by allowing a non-destructive evaluation of the leaf tissue. The objective of this study was to calibrate the SPAD reading and its correlation with the diagnosis of induced deficiencies of macronutrients and boron deficiencies involving the vegetative growth of the pineapple. The experiment consisted of eight treatments: complete, -N,-P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S and -B in randomized complete block with six replicates. It was evaluated the length and the width of the sheet "D" (marked and readings taken with the SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter. The use of the method of indirect measurement of chlorophyll is suitable for assessing the

  13. Calculo de funciones de onda lcao para el estado fundamental de solidos. aplicación al estudio teórico de la estructura de los cristales de litio y de nitruro de boro. I.

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    Nepomuceno Quitian C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta primera publicación se ha aplicado el formulismo de la Química Cuántica del Estado Sólido, al estudio teórico de los cristales de Litio y de Nitruro de Boro, utilizando una base de funciones Gausianas dentro del método LCAO— SCF—MO (Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals- Self Consistent Fields – Molecular Orbltals. Se calculan los factores de estructura teóricos a partir de los elementos de la matriz de densidad y las integrales de recubrimiento Generalizadas. Se calcula igualmente la densidad electrónica y una función delta (A a partir de los factores de estructura teóricos, con el fin de poner en evidencia la unión Química.

  14. Tratamiento del cáncer por captura neutrónica de boro: Su aplicación al carcinoma indiferenciado de tiroides Boron neutron capture therapy applied to undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma

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    Mario A. Pisarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides es un tumor muy agresivo, de muy mal pronóstico y sin tratamiento efectivo. La terapia por captura neutrónica de boro (BNCT podría ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Se basa en la captación selectiva de boro por el tumor y su activación por un haz de neutrones. El boro activado libera un núcleo de litio-7 y una partícula alfa, las cuales tienen una alta transmisión linear de energía (linear energy transfer, LET y un alcance de 5-9 µm, destruyendo el tumor. En estudios previos hemos mostrado que la línea celular humana de cáncer indiferenciado de tiroides (ARO tiene una captación selectiva de borofenilalanina (10BPA tanto in vitro como después de ser implantada en ratones NIH nude. También demostramos en estos animales inyectados con BPA e irradiados con un haz de neutrones térmicos, un 100% de control sobre el crecimiento tumoral y un 50% de cura histológica. En trabajos posteriores mostramos que la porfirina 10BOPP tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester de 2,4-bis-(a,b-dihydroxyethyl-deutero-porphyrin IX cuando es inyectada 5-7 días antes que el BPA se obtiene una concentración tumoral de boro de aproximadamente el doble que el BPA solo (45-38 ppm vs. 20 ppm. La posterior irradiación con neutrones mostró un 100% de remisión completa en animales con tumores cuyo volumen pre-tratamiento era de 50 mm³ o menor. Los perros padecen CIT espontáneo, con un comportamiento biológico similar al humano, y una captación selectiva de BPA, abriendo la posibilidad de su tratamiento por BNCT.Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis due to the lack of an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is based on the selective uptake of boron by the tumor and its activation by a neutron beam, releasing lithium-7 and an alpha particle that will kill the tumor cells by their high linear energy transfer (LET. In previous

  15. Resposta de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho à adubação com boro em solo arenoso Response of boron fertilization on broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage planted in sandy soil

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    Luiz Carlos Pizetta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em condições de campo, em solo arenoso, com baixo teor de boro, os efeitos da adubação com cinco doses de boro (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 kg ha-1 de B na forma de bórax na produção de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho. O experimento obedeceu a um esquema fatorial com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. As adubações orgânica e química, inclusive o bórax, foram feitas no sulco antes do transplantio das mudas e a colheita foi feita entre 63 e 93 dias após o transplantio. A produtividade de brócolis variou de 16,9 a 20,5 t ha-1; a de couve-flor de 21,6 a 29,6 t ha-1 e a de repolho de 40,5 a 46,4 t ha-1. O aumento observado na produtividade de brócolis e de repolho foi linear e o efeito das doses de boro na produtividade de couve-flor foi quadrático, sendo necessários 5,1 kg ha-1 de B para atingir a produtividade máxima de 30 t ha-1. Brócolis e repolho mostraram-se menos sensíveis do que a couve-flor tanto à deficiência quanto ao excesso de boro. No caso da couve-flor, com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 ou de 6 kg ha-1 de B houve significativa perda de qualidade do produto.The effects of boron fertilization on yield of broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage were evaluated through a field experiment carried out on a sandy soil low in available boron. Five boron levels (0; 2; 4; 6; and 8 kg ha-1 B as borax were applied in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage using a factorial scheme and a randomized block design with three replicates. Organic manure and chemical fertilizers, including borax, were applied in the planting furrow before seedlings transplant and plants were harvested 63 to 93 days after planting date. The yield intervals obtained with broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage varied according to the following intervals: 16.9 to 20.5 t ha-1, 21.6 to 29.6 t ha-1 and 40.5 to 46.3 t ha-1, respectively. The increase in production observed in broccoli and cabbage yield was linear with boron levels and the

  16. Desenvolvimento de métodos eletroanalíticos empregando o eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro para a determinação simultânea de edulcorantes e corantes em produtos alimentícios

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Batista Deroco

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho, desenvolveu-se métodos eletroanalíticos para a determinação simultânea dos pares: amarelo crepúsculo (AC) e aspartame (AS), azul indigotina (AI) e vermelho 40 (V40)), bem como aspartame (AS) e acesulfame-K (AK) em produtos alimentícios utilizando-se o eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro (BDD). O par AS e AC foi determinado, sem a necessidade de separação prévia em H2SO4 0,30 mol L-1 com o eletrodo de BDD pré-tratado anodicamente e utilizando amperometria de múltiplos pulsos (...

  17. Fenologia e produção de pessegueiros 'granada' com aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e boro Phenologyand production of 'granada' peaches with application of hydrogen cyanamyd and boron

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    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações e épocas de aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada (CH + óleo mineral (OM e boro sobre a fenologia e produção de pessegueiros 'Granada'. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no município de Charqueadas, na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Avaliaram-se a fenologia, a queda de gemas florais e intensidade de floração, a frutificação efetiva, o rendimento e a qualidade físico-química dos frutos. A aplicação de 0,4 % CH + 1,0 % OM no estádio de gema dormente estimulou o florescimento e a brotação, mas reduziu a produção das plantas. A pulverização com 0,2% de bórax (220 mg.L-1 de boro nas gemas e flores aumentou a produção das plantas. A aplicação simultânea de 0,25% CH + 0,8% OM, no estádio de início de inchamento das gemas, e de 0,2% de ácido bórico (340 mg.L-1 de boro, na plena floração, promoveu a maior produção de frutos. A aplicação isolada de 0,25 % CH + 0,8 % OM, no estádio de início de inchamento das gemas, reduziu o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS totais e, quando aplicados simultaneamente com o boro, na plena floração, reduziu a acidez titulável dos frutos.The 'Granada' peach presents, in most years, low fruit set in the main producing regions of southern Brazil. Among the factors that can act negatively about this peach variety production detaches the lack of hibernal cold for buds dormancy liberation, as well as the occurrence of nutritional deficiencies. So, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations and times of application of hydrogen Cyanamid (CH + mineral oil (OM and boron on the phenology and production of peach trees, cv. Granada. The experiment was carried in Charqueadas city, in the Central Depression region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. It has been evaluated the phenology, the floral bud dropping and the intensity of blooming, the fruit setting and the physic-chemistry quality of the

  18. Redetermination of dipotassium trichloridostannate(II chloride monohydrate

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    Fei Ye

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, K2[SnCl3]Cl·H2O, is the prototype of some isostructural compounds of composition M2[SnX3]X·H2O (M = large monovalent cation; X = halogen. In comparison with a previous study based on photographic data [Kamenar & Grdenić (1962. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 24, 1039–1045], its crystal structure has now been redetermined using CCD-based data in order to gain more accurate values for bond lengths and angles within the [SnCl3]− anion and to locate the H atoms. The [SnCl3]− anion has a trigonal–pyramidal shape and exhibits crystallographic mirror symmetry. With the exception of the K+ ion which is located on a general position, all other atoms are situated on crystallographic mirror planes. The coordination polyhedron of the cation may be described by means of nine atoms in the form of a monocapped square antiprism with seven typical K—Cl/O distances and two additional atoms at considerably longer distances. The positions of the H atoms of the water molecule (also lying on a crystallographic mirror plane could be determined and confirm the existence of a bifurcated O—H...Cl hydrogen bond to neighbouring Cl atoms.

  19. Laser-induced photochemical reaction of aqueous maleic acid solutions containing H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yuichi; Kawanishi, Shunichi; Suzuki, Nobutake

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxy acid such as glycolic, tartaric and malic acids was directly produced by XeF-laser irradiation of the N 2 -saturated maleic acid aqueous solution containing H 2 O 2 . The selectivities of these products at the maximum of tartaric acid were 71, 4, and 2% at H 2 O 2 feeding rate of 3.2 ml h -1 , respectively. On the other hand, the irradiation of maleates such as dipotassium, calcium, and disodium greatly enhanced the selectivities of tartaric acid formation to 19%, and of malic acid formation to 13%, respectively, for dipotassium maleate. It may be considered from these results that the stability of the hydroxylated intermediate radical plays an important role for the efficient formations of tartaric and malic acids. (author)

  20. Influência de formas de aplicação de boro na qualidade e no rendimento de maçãs (Malus domestica

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    Alessandra Aparecida de Sá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O boro (B é aplicado na maioria dos pomares brasileiros de maçã, porém sem fundamentação experimental regional. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de formas, doses e épocas de aplicação de B no rendimento e na qualidade de maçãs. O experimento foi instalado em São Joaquim-SC, em 2002, com as cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema conduzidas em áreas diferentes, cujas avaliações foram realizadas nas safras de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os tratamentos consistiram em um fatorial envolvendo doses de B aplicadas ao solo, a cada dois anos, e épocas de pulverização na planta, feitas anualmente. Utilizou-se de delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, cujos tratamentos foram arranjados em parcelas subdividas: na parcela principal, foram alocadas as épocas de aplicação foliar de ácido bórico (sem pulverização, 0,3% pulverizado na fase de botão rosado e 0,6% em pós-colheita e nas subparcelas, as doses de bórax no solo (0; 2,5 e 5,0 kg ha-1 de B. A aplicação de B no solo foi mais eficiente do que a pulverização foliar para aumentar o teor de B na polpa, na folha e no solo; no entanto, não afetou nenhum dos atributos relacionados com a qualidade dos frutos, nas duas cultivares. A pulverização com B diminuiu o teor de amido e a acidez titulável, e não afetou o teor de sólidos solúveis e a firmeza da polpa dos frutos. A pulverização na floração diminuiu a germinação de grãos de pólen na cultivar Imperial Gala e a frutificação efetiva na cultivar Fuji Suprema. O rendimento de frutos não foi afetado pela adição de B, independentemente da época, da forma de aplicação ou dose, nas duas cultivares. Assim, não há necessidade de aplicar B nessas cultivares em pomares cultivados em solos com altos teores de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de incrementar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos.

  1. Utilization of Boron (10B derived from fertilizer by sugar cane Aproveitamento do Boro (10B proveniente do fertilizante pela cana-de-açúcar

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    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2009-12-01

    tomos de 10B dissolvidos em água. A solução foi aplicada ao solo nos dois lados da linha de plantio, a uma distância de 20 cm. Após a colheita (junho de 2006, foram determinados o teor de B e a abundância de 10B em átomos % em todas as partes das plantas de cana-de-açúcar (colmos, folhas secas, ponteiros e raízes. Os resultados mostraram que o acúmulo total de B foi de 471 g ha-1, e, dessa quantidade, 35 % estavam nos colmos, 22 % nas folhas secas, 9 % nos ponteiros e 34 % nas raízes. O aproveitamento do 10B-fertilizante pela cana-de-açúcar representou em média 14 % do boro total acumulado na parte aérea (44 g ha-1, 11 % nas raízes (19 g ha-1 e 13 % na planta inteira (63 g ha-1. A recuperação do 10B-fertilizante pela cana-planta foi baixa, em torno de 2 % do total aplicado.

  2. TAXAS DE RECUPERAÇÃO DE BORO POR EXTRATORES EM SOLOS DA BAHIA E DE MINAS GERAIS, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE CALAGEM

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    José Augusto dos Santos Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As informações referentes às taxas de recuperação do boro pelo extrator em razão das doses adicionadas são escassas e necessárias para os sistemas de recomendação de adubação e corretivos. Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de determinar as taxas de recuperação desse nutriente com água fervente e CaCl2 fervente em solos dos Estados da Bahia e Minas Gerais, na ausência e na presença de calagem. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, utilizando tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 9 × 6, correspondendo a seis solos com e sem calagem, nove solos sem calagem e seis doses de B. Utilizaram-se blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas por 0,6 dm3 de solo. A calagem foi calculada com base na análise de solo, seguindo a recomendação de calagem usada para o Estado de Minas Gerais. Após 15 dias de incubação, os solos receberam doses de B (0,0; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0; e 15 mg dm-3, fazendo-se uma nova incubação por um período de 45 dias. Usou-se ácido bórico como fonte de B. Terminada a incubação, o teor de B disponível foi extraído com água fervente e CaCl2 5 mmol L-1 fervente, sendo a dosagem feita com azometina-H. Foram feitas análises de regressão e correlação para as diversas variáveis. O B extraído do solo com água fervente e o CaCl2 fervente, independentemente da calagem, aumentou linearmente com a elevação das doses aplicadas desse nutriente aos solos. Os extratores água fervente e o CaCl2fervente não são sensíveis à calagem. As taxas de recuperação de B dos solos pelos extratores usados variam de acordo com os teores de matéria orgânica, a quantidade e qualidade de argila e pelo equivalente de umidade. Os extratores utilizados foram altamente correlacionados entre si na extração do B do solo.

  3. Boro e estresse hídrico na produção do girassol Boron and water stress on yield of sunflower

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    César de Castro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar sob condições de casa-de-vegetação, o efeito da interação doses boro e estresse hídrico na produção de matéria seca total, produção de aquênios e conteúdo de óleo em girassol cultivado em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico de textura média. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. Foram estudadas quatro doses de B: 0, 0,25, 0,5 e 2,0 mg kg-1, aplicado na forma de ácido bórico e quatro fases de controle de umidade: sem estresse hídrico durante o ciclo, com estresse hídrico durante o ciclo, estresse hídrico a partir do florescimento e estresse hídrico a partir do enchimento de aquênios. Os resultados mostraram que, independentemente da fase de aplicação ou não de estresse hídrico, a dose 0,5 mg dm-3 de B acarretou na maior produção de matéria seca total, produção de aquênios e rendimento de óleo por capítulo. A aplicação de estresse hídrico a partir do início do florescimento ou no enchimento de aqûenios acarreta em menor produção de matéria seca total, de aquênios e de óleo.The objective of this work was to study under greenhouse conditions, the effect of the interaction between boron rates and phases of water stress on total dry matter production, achene production, oil content and development of sunflower tillage in dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol of medium texture. The experimental design consisted of casual blocks, using factorial scheme 4x4, with four replicates. The treatments studied were: Four boron rates: 0, 0,25, 0,5 e 2,0 mg kg-1, applied through the boric acid form, and four period of soil water content: without water stress for the whole cycle, with water stress during the whole cycle, with stress after beginning of flowering and with water stress after beginning of grain filling. The results showed that independently of the presence or not of water stress, the 0,5 mg dm-3

  4. Crescimento de soja em solos em resposta a doses de Boro, calagem e textura do solo Soybean growth in response to boron dosages, liming and soil texture

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    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se quantificar a produção de matéria seca e os conteúdos de B, Ca e Mg na cultura da soja cultivada em solos com diferentes texturas que receberam doses crescentes de B e calagem, e correlacionar o conteúdo de B absorvido pela planta com o teor de B recuperado com água e CaCl2 ferventes sob influência de doses de boro e a calagem aplicadas em três solos distintos. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 6, consistindo de três solos: textura arenosa (RQ, textura média (LVA1 e textura argilosa (LVA2, com e sem calagem, e seis doses de B (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 9 e 15 mg dm-3, em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Determinou-se o teor de B no solo extraível com água e CaCl2 ferventes após 45 dias da adição das doses de B aos solos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e os teores de B, Ca e Mg na soja. Os teores de B recuperado, tanto pela água fervente, quanto pelo CaCl2 fervente foram semelhantes nos três solos estudados e, apresentaram altas correlações com o conteúdo de B e o peso de matéria seca. As doses de B adicionadas aumentaram a sua absorção pelas plantas, mas causaram redução na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea nos solos RQ (textura arenosa, LVA1 (textura média e o LVA2 (textura argilosa com calagem, neste último solo, o efeito é minimizado na presença de maior teor de argila.This work aimed to quantify the dry matter production and the contents of B, Ca and Mg in soybean plants grown in soils with different textures, which received increasing doses of B, and liming. Additionally, it was correlated the B contents in the plants with the B recovered from the soil with boiling water and CaCl2. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a factorial 3 x 2 x 6 (three soils: sand texture (RQ, loamy sand (LVA1 and clayey (LVA2 textures; with and without liming; and six B doses: 0; 1,5; 3; 6; 9 and 15 mg dm-3 arranged in a entirely

  5. Sintomas visuais de deficiência de macronutrientes e de boro em abacaxizeiro 'imperial' Visual symptons of macronutrients and boron deficiency in 'imperial' pineapple

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    Maria José Mota Ramos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os sintomas visuais de deficiências de macronutrientes e de boro no abacaxizeiro 'Imperial', e associá-los à diagnose foliar. Os tratamentos: Completo, - N, - P, - K, -Ca, - Mg, - S e - B foram aplicados como soluções nutritivas, em vasos plásticos com 14 kg de areia de praia purificada e uma muda de abacaxi, como unidade experimental. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados completos, com seis repetições. Os sintomas visuais de deficiência nutricional foram fotografados e descritos durante todo o processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. Avaliaram-se, também, as concentrações foliares de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B na folha 'D', aos cinco, sete, nove e 12 meses após o plantio. A deficiência de N causou amarelecimento das folhas da planta e da coroa dos frutos e descoramento da polpa do fruto; a de P, folhas novas vermelho-arroxeadas e frutos com a casca avermelhada; a de K, necrose do ápice das folhas mais velhas e escurecimento da polpa do fruto; a de Mg, necrose na base das folhas da coroa do fruto, e na deficiência de B, frutos com cortiça e rachadura nos frutilhos e entre eles. Apesar dos baixos teores foliares de S e de Ca, na época da colheita dos frutos, não foram observados sintomas visuais de deficiência nos frutos. Os teores foliares no início dos sintomas de deficiência e na época da colheita dos frutos foram, respectivamente: N = 8,7 e 6,8; P = 0,70 e 0,32; K = 11,6 e 3,2; Mg = 0,73 e 0,54 g kg-1, e B = 5,8 e 5,5 mg kg-1.The objective of this study was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrients and boron deficiencies in the pineapple 'Imperial', and involve them in the foliar diagnosis. The full treatment, - N, - P - K, - Ca, - Mg, - and S - B was applied as nutrient solutions in plastic pots with 14 kg of purified sand beach and a seedling of pineapple, as an experimental unit . The design was a randomized complete block with six replicates. The

  6. Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina; Tolerancia experimental de las especies vegetales Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea al boro, en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Marta L. de; Albarracin Franco, Silvia [Univ. Nacional de Salta, Inst. de Ecologia y Ambiente Humano, CIUNSa, Buenos Aires No. 177, 4400, Salta (Argentina)], E-mail: mldeviana@arnet.com.ar

    2008-09-15

    germinacion, la supervivencia y el crecimiento de distintas especies en diferentes concentraciones de boro. Al comienzo y al final del experimento se determino la concentracion de boro en el sustrato para cada tratamiento y para sustratos con y sin vegetacion. Se encontraron diferencias significativas debidas al tratamiento, la especie y la interaccion especie-tratamiento. M. sativa, N. glauca y J. mimosifolia fueron las especies de mayor tolerancia al boro. Las otras especies presentaron una disminucion en todas las variables-respuesta en funcion de la concentracion del contaminante. Todas presentaron una baja supervivencia en la maxima concentracion. La disminucion de boro fue maxima en el tratamientos de 30 ppm de boro con M. sativa y la menor se registro en los tratamiento de 20 ppm de boro con J. mimosifolia y de 30 ppm de boro con T. stans y S. oleraceae. Se concluye que N. glauca, M. sativa y J. mimosifolia podrian considerarse como prometedoras en remediacion. (autor)

  7. Chocolate das bagas e clorose foliar: anomalia da videira causada por deficiência de boro Internal browning ("chocolate" and leaf chlorosis of the 'pink Niagara' grafe, a boron deficiency anomaly

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    Hugo Kuniyuki

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A anomalia do cultivar de videira Niagara Rosada, caracterizada por sintomas de clorose nas folhas, chocolate das bagas e cachos malformados, não é de natureza virótica, de acordo com resultados de testes de transmissão e de perpetuação. Essa anomalia, presente em áreas definidas de alguns vinhedos de Indaiatuba e Jundiaí (SP, está associada à deficiência nutricional de boro. O teor médio de boro em amostras de plantas afetadas de 'Niagara Rosada' (18 ppm no limbo e 7 ppm nos frutos foi menor do que nas de plantas normais (24 ppm no limbo e 10 ppm nos frutos das mesmas plantaçoes; um material coletado de um vinhedo bastante afetado mostrou 13 e 1 ppm respectivamente no limbo e nos frutos de plantas deficientes contra 20 e 6 ppm nos de plantas sem sintomas. Amostras de três vinhedos vizinhos sem essa anomalia apresentaram um teor médio de 35 ppm no limbo. As do porta-enxerto 'Traviú' com clorose e sem clorose mostraram 16 ppm e 43 ppm de boro respectivamente. A aplicação de bórax, nas doses de 5, 10 e 20g por planta, 1ogo após a poda de inverno, ou pulverização de ácido bórico nas concentraçoes de 0,3% e 0,6% sobre a folhagem, durante o início do florescimento e durante a fase de uva chumbinho, permitiram controlar a anomalia nas condições de campo. Foi notada resposta favorável por um ciclo vegetativo, pelo menos, indicando controle por efeito residual de uma aplicação.The 'pink Niagara' grape (V. labrusca L. x V. vinifera L. anomaly characterized by leaf chlorosis and "chocolate" (internal browning of the young fruit, at first thought to be a virus disease, has been found to be a result of boron deficiency. The anomaly was first recorded in 1974. It occurs in patches in vineyards of Indaiatuba and Jundiaí, two grape-growing counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Affected plants show yellowing between the primary and secondary veins of the upper leaves and malformed clusters, with normal-sized berries and

  8. The Cementation of Boron to Steels by the Method of Electrolytic Deposition; Cementation Electrolytique d'Aciers par le Bore; Tsementirovanie bora v stali putem ehlektroliticheskogo osazhdeniya; Cementacion de Aceros con Boro por Deposito Electrolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1964-06-15

    This report describes a fabricating method for cementation of a control rod with boron. The cementing is carried out by electrolysis of fused borax at about 900 Degree-Sign C, the steel rod to be cemented acting as a cathode, and the graphite electrode as an anode. As the electrolysis progresses, boron is deposited on/the steel rod and diffused into it. When suitable conditions of electrolysis exist, a case of the steel rod with as much as 20% boron content can easily be obtained. The kinds of steel investigated were carbon steel, stainless steels, high chrome steel etc., and each of them showed good results. (author) [French] L'auteur expose une methode de fabrication d'une barre de commande en acier cemente par le bore. La cementation est effectuee par l'electrolyse de borax fondu a environ 900 Degree-Sign C, la barre d'acier a cementer formant cathode et une electrode en graphite constituant l'anode. Au cours du processus d 'electrolyse, le bore se depose sur la barre d'acier et est diffuse dans le metal. Lorsque l'electrolyse s'effectue dans les conditions requises, on peut obtenir facilement une barre d'acier dont la teneur en bore atteint jusqu'a 20%. Les recherches ont porte sur des aciers tels que les aciers au carbone ordinaires, les aciers inoxydables, les aciers refractaires au chrome, etc. et on a obtenu de bons resultats pour chacun de ces aciers. (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe un metodo de obtencion de barras de control cementadas con boro. La cementacion se efectua por electrolisis de borax fundido a unos 900 Degree-Sign C. Como catodo se emplea la barra de acero que se desea cementar y como anodo, un electrodo de grafito. Conforme progresa la electrolisis, el boro se deposita sobre la barra de acero y penetra en la misma por difusion. Si las condiciones en que se efectua la electrolisis son adecuadas, se logra facilmente la cementacion de la barra de acero, que alcanza un contenido de hasta 20% de boro. Entre los aceros investigados, figuran

  9. Níveis críticos de boro no solo e na planta para cultivo de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo Boron application the nutricional status and dry matter production of passion fruit cuttings

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    Renato de Melo Prado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a aplicação de boro ao substrato de produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, para o estabelecimento dos níveis críticos do B no solo e na planta. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As doses de boro, na forma de ácido bórico, foram: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,0 mg de B dm-3 de solo. As mudas receberam doses de N, P, K e Zn, de 300; 450; 150 e 5 mg dm-3, respectivamente, sendo o N e o K parcelados em três vezes (15; 30 e 45 dias após o plantio. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos com 2 dm-3 de substrato de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Após 70 dias do plantio, foram avaliados: o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, o número de folhas e a matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, bem como os teores de macro e micronutrientes. As mudas de maracujazeiro responderam à aplicação de boro em substrato com baixa concentração (0,06 mg dm-3, extraído com água quente. O maior desenvolvimento das plantas esteve associado à dose próxima de 0,5 mg de B dm-3 e à concentração de 0,4 mg de B dm-3 no substrato e um teor de 22 mg de B kg-1 na parte aérea.It was objectified to evaluate the application of boron to the substratum of production of yellow passion fruit cuttings, for the establishment of the critical levels of the B in the soil and the plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The doses of boron were: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 and 1,00 mg dm-3 of B. All the plants received doses of N, P, K and Zn of 300; 100; 150 and 5,0 mg dm-3, respectively. The experiment was lead in vases with 2.0 dm³ of substratum of a Typic Haplorthox. After 70 days of the sowing were evaluated: height, leave numeric, dry matter, nutritional status of plants and soil nutrients. The passion fruit plant seedlings answered to the boron application in soil with low concentration of

  10. Efeitos do boro em algodoeiro cultivado em condições de casa de vegetação Effects of boron application to cotton plant in a greenhouse study

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    Nelson M. da Silva

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando obter subsídios para a instalação de futuros ensaios de campo com adubação boratada do algodoeiro, foi conduzido estudo em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se solo comprovadamente carente em boro para essa cultura. Foram usadas doses de 0, 133, 266 e 532mg de bórax por vaso contendo 5,0kg de terra. Em vasos extras, estudaram-se níveis mais elevados do produto. O efeito de boro sobre a altura média das plantas, peso de capulho, peso de sementes e comprimento de fibra foi significativo estatisticamente e de natureza quadrática. A concentração de B na matéria seca da parte aérea da planta ou da folha cresceu em proporção à dose utilizada. No caso da análise de folhas de plantas carentes, a concentração variou de 10 a 39ppm, com média de 19pmm de B, enquanto em plantas com grave sintoma de toxicidade foi obtido índice superior a 590ppm de B. Em plantas com carência de boro foi observado um ou vários dos seguintes sintomas: paralisação de crescimento, superbrotamento, intumescimento de nós com escurecimento de tecido, deformações do limbo e do pecíolo de cotilédones e de folhas verdadeiras, anéis concêntricos com necroses correspondentes da medula de pecíolos foliares e deformações das flores. Como sintoma de toxicidade, observou-se clorose marginal e internerval do cotilédone e/ou da folha verdadeira, que evoluiu ou não para necrose do tecido, permanecendo as nervuras com coloração verde normal.A greenhouse experiment of borax application to cotton cultivated on a boron deficient soil, was conducted in order to obtain data for development of future field trials. Borax was applied to pot containing 5,0kg of soil in amounts of 0, 133, 266 e 532mg. Additional treatments with higher levels of boron was applied to extra pots. The influence of boron on plant height, weight of bolls and seeds and on fiber lenght was statistically significant and of quadratic nature. The content of boron, determined either in

  11. Boro em abacaxizeiro 'Pérola' no norte fluminense: teores, distribuição e características do fruto Boro in pineapple plants 'pérola' in the north fluminense: contents, distribution and characteristics of the fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cristine Siebeneichler

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A correta avaliação do estado nutricional de uma planta e a correção das suas deficiências são fatores importantes para a obtenção de frutos de excelente qualidade e alta produtividade. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da aplicação do boro sobre seus teores, distribuição na planta e características dos frutos, além de discutir a faixa de B considerada adequada para o abacaxizeiro. Determinou-se a variação do teor de B em partes das folhas 'D' ao longo do ciclo de crescimento de plantas de abacaxi. O experimento foi conduzido no município de São Francisco do Itabapoana-RJ, em solo Argissolo Amarelo álico. Constou de cinco tratamentos: sem aplicação de B; pulverizações mensais de bórax, no período pré-indução floral, durante seis meses; pulverizações mensais de bórax, no período pós- indução floral, durante seis meses; pulverizações mensais de bórax, no período de seis meses pré e pós-indução floral e aplicação de B, na axila das folhas basais da planta, 30 dias antes da indução floral. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A solução de B utilizada na aplicação foliar foi de Bórax a 0,3%, e nas axilas das folhas foi aplicado 0,5g de Bórax. Cada amostra consistiu de cinco folhas 'D', coletadas aos 230; 300; 370; 450 e 520 dias após o plantio. A aplicação foliar de B determinou tendência de aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis totais do fruto de abacaxi. O peso e o tamanho do fruto não foram significativamente influenciados pelos tratamentos. No geral, a maior concentração de B foi observada na porção apical da folha, e a menor, na porção aclorofilada. As aplicações foliares de bórax aumentaram os teores de B nas porções mediana e apical das folhas, mas não alteraram os teores nas porções aclorofilada e basal. As concentrações de boro bem abaixo do limite inferior da faixa considerada adequada, obtidas em folhas de abacaxizeiro

  12. Influencia de los tratamientos térmicos en el comportamiento frente al desgaste por abrasión de una fundición de grafito esferoidal obtenida mediante adición de boro

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    Varela, A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available By adding boron to the liquid metal, it is possible to obtain spheroidal graphite cast iron without any need for special inoculants. The boron may be in metallic form; alternatively, borax, ferroboron, boron carbonate or borocalcium can be used. These alloys as cast present a pearlite matrix with more or less spheroidal graphite, which is usually edged in ferrite that has markings in the shape of bull’s eye. With normalising, the ferrite edges are eliminated. Thus, a pearlite matrix is achieved. Annealing results in an entirely ferrite matrix; quenching and tempering produce a tempered martensite matrix.This study measures the behaviour under wear of this alloy as cast, normalised, annealed, quenched and tempered . A “pin on disk” test is employed; load and speed conditions, as well as the pin type, are kept constant. Moreover, wear is calculated through weighing, and the variation for the friction coefficient is determined in each case.

    Mediante la adición de boro al metal líquido, bien en forma metálica o en forma de bórax, ferroboro, carburo de boro o boruro cálcico, se pueden obtener fundiciones de grafito esferoidal sin necesidad de inoculantes especiales. Estas fundiciones en estado bruto de colada presentan una matriz perlítica con grafito más o menos esferoidal que suele estar orlado de ferrita formando ojos de buey. Por tratamiento térmico de normalizado, se consigue eliminar la orla ferrítica y tener una matriz enteramente perlítica. Por recocido, se puede obtener una matriz enteramente ferrítica y por temple y revenido una matriz de martensita revenida. En el presente trabajo se mide el comportamiento frente al desgaste abrasivo de la aleación indicada, en estado bruto de colada, normalizado, recocido y bonificado, utilizando el ensayo pin on disk, manteniendo fijas las condiciones de ensayo en cuanto a carga, velocidad y tipo de pin, calculando el desgaste producido por pesada. También, se

  13. Structural and optical studies of Er3+-doped alkali/alkaline oxide containing zinc boro-aluminosilicate glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifier applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Caldiño, U.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Falcony, C.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Halimah, M. K.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we report on the optical spectral properties of Er3+-doped zinc boro-aluminosilicate glasses with an addition of 10 mol % alkali/alkaline modifier regarding the fabrication of new optical materials for optical amplifiers. A total of 10 glasses were prepared using melt-quenching technique with the compositions (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10Li2O - xEr2O3 and (40-x)B2O3 - 10SiO2 - 10Al2O3 - 30ZnO - 10MgO - xEr2O3 (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mol %). We confirm the amorphous-like structure for all the prepared glasses using X-ray diffraction (XRD). To study the functional groups of the glass composition after the melt-quenching process, Raman spectroscopy was used, and various structural units such as triangular and tetrahedral-borates (BO3 and BO4) have been identified. All the samples were characterized using optical absorption for UV, visible and NIR regions. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated from the optical absorption spectra of two glasses LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 (doped with 2 mol % of Er3+). JO parameters for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 glasses follow the trend as Ω6>Ω2>Ω4. Using Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, we obtained radiative probability A (S-1), branching ratios (β), radiative decay lifetimes τrad (μs) of emissions from excited Er+3 ions in LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 to all lower levels. Quantum efficiency (η) of 4I13/2 and 4S3/2 levels for LiEr 2.0 and MgEr 2.0 with and without 4D7/2 level was calculated using the radiative decay lifetimes τrad. (μs) and measured lifetimes τexp. (μs). We measured the visible photoluminescence under 377 nm excitation for both LiEr and MgEr glass series within the region 390-580 nm. Three bands were observed in the visible region at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm, as a result of 2H9/2 → 4I15/2, 2H11/2 → 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transitions, respectively. Decay lifetimes for emissions at 407 nm, 530 nm, and 554 nm were measured and they show

  14. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility of Rice with Boro II Cytoplasm Is Caused by a Cytotoxic Peptide and Is Restored by Two Related PPR Motif Genes via Distinct Modes of mRNA Silencing[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Zou, Yanjiao; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hao; Su, Dihua; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Luo, Da; Long, Yunming; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nucleus-controlled fertility restoration are widespread plant reproductive features that provide useful tools to exploit heterosis in crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this kind of cytoplasmic–nuclear interaction remains unclear. Here, we show in rice (Oryza sativa) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79, is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B-atp6) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. Expression of orf79 in CMS lines and transgenic rice plants caused gametophytic male sterility. Immunoblot analysis showed that the ORF79 protein accumulates specifically in microspores. Two fertility restorer genes, Rf1a and Rf1b, were identified at the classical locus Rf-1 as members of a multigene cluster that encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. RF1A and RF1B are both targeted to mitochondria and can restore male fertility by blocking ORF79 production via endonucleolytic cleavage (RF1A) or degradation (RF1B) of dicistronic B-atp6/orf79 mRNA. In the presence of both restorers, RF1A was epistatic over RF1B in the mRNA processing. We have also shown that RF1A plays an additional role in promoting the editing of atp6 mRNAs, independent of its cleavage function. PMID:16489123

  15. Cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with boro II cytoplasm is caused by a cytotoxic peptide and is restored by two related PPR motif genes via distinct modes of mRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Zou, Yanjiao; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hao; Su, Dihua; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Luo, Da; Long, Yunming; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2006-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nucleus-controlled fertility restoration are widespread plant reproductive features that provide useful tools to exploit heterosis in crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this kind of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction remains unclear. Here, we show in rice (Oryza sativa) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79, is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B-atp6) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. Expression of orf79 in CMS lines and transgenic rice plants caused gametophytic male sterility. Immunoblot analysis showed that the ORF79 protein accumulates specifically in microspores. Two fertility restorer genes, Rf1a and Rf1b, were identified at the classical locus Rf-1 as members of a multigene cluster that encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. RF1A and RF1B are both targeted to mitochondria and can restore male fertility by blocking ORF79 production via endonucleolytic cleavage (RF1A) or degradation (RF1B) of dicistronic B-atp6/orf79 mRNA. In the presence of both restorers, RF1A was epistatic over RF1B in the mRNA processing. We have also shown that RF1A plays an additional role in promoting the editing of atp6 mRNAs, independent of its cleavage function.

  16. Modulation of proton pumping across proteoliposome membranes reconstituted with tonoplast H(+)-ATPase from cultured rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro) cells by acyl steryl glucoside and steryl glucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mineo; Kasamo, Kunihiro

    2002-07-01

    Tonoplast H(+)-ATPase purified from cultured rice cells (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro) was reconstituted into asolectin liposomes containing steryl glucoside (SG) or acyl steryl glucoside (ASG), and the effects of SG and ASG on proton pumping, ATP-hydrolysis activity and proton permeability of the proteoliposome membranes were investigated. In the proteoliposomes containing 10 mol% SG, proton pumping and ATP-hydrolysis activity were increased to around 140% of those in SG-free proteoliposomes. In the proteoliposomes containing ASG, proton pumping and ATP-hydrolysis activity were decreased to one-tenth of those in ASG-free proteoliposomes at 15 mol% ASG; however, activity increased again slightly in the range between 20 and 40 mol% ASG. The change in proton pumping across the proteoliposome membrane is not due to a change of proteoliposome size nor to the location of the catalytic site of the tonoplast H(+)-ATPase in the proteoliposomes. SG and ASG also reduced the passive proton permeability of the proteoliposomes. These results show that SG and ASG modulate proton pumping across the tonoplast toward stimulation and depression, respectively, and they reduce the passive proton permeability of the tonoplast.

  17. Influência da aplicação e do efeito cumulativo de boro nas características agronômicas e propriedades tecnologicas da fibra do algodoeiro Influence of applications and accumulation of boron on the agronomic characteristics and technological properties of cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da aplicação de doses de boro sobre características agronômicas e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra de algodão em catorze ensaios regionais desenvolvidos no Estado de São Paulo, em 1979-86. Deles, selecionou-se o de Guaíra (SP, cujo caráter de longa duração (1984-93 permitiu o estudo do seu efeito cumulativo. Instalou-se tal ensaio em gleba de latossolo roxo distrófico, argiloso, anteriormente cultivada com milho e leguminosas e, para tanto, corrigida no aspecto de acidez e adubada com NPK. Adotou-se, para todos os ensaios, o delineamento de quadrado latino com seis repetições. O boro foi aplicado anualmente no sulco de semeação, nas seguintes doses: 0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; 1,6 e 3,2 kg/ha de B na forma de bórax (11% de B, em mistura com 10-75-75 kg/ha de N, P(20(5 e K2O respectivamente. Os ensaios regionais foram reunidos em dois grupos, estabelecidos em função da resposta esperada do algodoeiro à aplicação de boro. Em solos corrigidos, continuamente cultivados, mas nunca adubados com boro, nos quais se esperava, em termos de produção, média ou alta resposta das plantas, os efeitos positivos da adubação boratada estenderam-se para o comprimento da fibra e para o peso de um capulho, com reflexos negativos no índice Micronaire. Em solos em pousio ou naqueles que já haviam recebido boro nas adubações de plantio anteriores, de baixa resposta esperada, portanto, não se verificou efeito do micronutriente nas características estudadas. Com o acúmulo de boro nas adubações anuais do algodão em solo de média resposta esperada, o efeito sobre o peso de capulho e de sementes se destacou, à semelhança do que ocorreu com a produção.The influence of boron applications on the agronomic characteristics and technological properties of the cotton fiber were studied in a regional group of experiments conducted through the São Paulo State cotton belt, during the years of 1979 to 1986. The boron

  18. Yield and fruit of papaya ‘sunrise solo’ as function of doses of nitrogen and boron/ Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de mamoeiro ‘sunrise solo’ em função de doses de nitrogênio e boro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raunira da Costa Araújo

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the yield and fruit quality of papaya ‘Sunrise Solo’ as function of nitrogen and boron fertilization. The experiment had a randomized block design with four replications, two plants per plot with a single border. To make up the treatments, we used the experimental array Plan Puebla III, which set the rates for nitrogen (0.0 to 111.2 - 200 – 288.9 - 400 g plant-1, and B (0.0 – 0.83 - 1.5 – 2.16 - 3.0 g plant-1, in a total of ten treatments. The addition of nitrogen increased the yield, average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant. The nitrogen and boron increased the diameter and length of the fruit, amount of seeds and content of soluble solids. The pH of the pulp decreased linearly with increasing doses of nitrogen and boron. It was observed a significant effect of N rates on the level of vitamin C.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade de frutos de mamoeiro ‘Sunrise Solo’ em função de doses de nitrogênio e boro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na fazenda Chan de Jardim no Centro de Ciências Agrárias–UFPB no Município de Areia, em um solo de textura areno-argilosa classificado como Neossolo Regolítico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e duas plantas úteis por parcela com bordadura simples. Para a composição dos tratamentos, utilizou-se a matriz experimental Plan Puebla III, onde se definiram as doses para nitrogênio (0,0 - 111,2 – 200 – 288,9 – 400 g planta-1, e para boro (0,0 - 0,83 - 1,5 - 2,16 - 3,0 g planta-1, totalizando dez tratamentos. A adição de nitrogênio aumentou a produtividade, o peso médio dos frutos e o número de frutos por planta. As doses de nitrogênio e boro aumentaram o diâmetro e comprimento do fruto, rendimento de semente e teor de sólidos solúveis totais. O pH da polpa decresceu linearmente com o aumento das doses de N e de boro. Houve efeito significativo das

  19. A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized Study of Arterolane Maleate-Piperaquine Phosphate vs Artemether-Lumefantrine for Falciparum Malaria in Adolescent and Adult Patients in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Offianan Andre; Valecha, Neena; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Thompson, Ricardo; Krudsood, Srivicha; Gaye, Oumar; Rao, Bappanaidu Hoigegudde Krishnamurthy; Sagara, Issaka; Bose, Tarit Kumar; Mohanty, Sanjib; Rao, Ballamudi Srinivas; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Mwapasa, Victor; Noedl, Harald; Arora, Sudershan; Roy, Arjun; Iyer, Sunil S; Sharma, Pradeep; Saha, Nilanjan; Jalali, Rajinder K; Tiacoh, Landry; Enosse, Sonia; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Kokolomami, Jack; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Rao, Deepak; Yumva, Ntamabyaliro Nsengi; Sidibe, Bouran; Mohanty, Rajesh; Jha, A C; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Starzengruber, Peter; Swoboda, Paul

    2016-04-15

    Artemisinins, which are derived from plants, are subject to risk of supply interruption due to climatic changes. Consequently, an effort to identify a new synthetic antimalarial was initiated. A fixed-dose combination of arterolane maleate (AM), a new synthetic trioxolane, with piperaquine phosphate (PQP), a long half-life bisquinoline, was evaluated in patients with uncomplicatedPlasmodium falciparummalaria. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative, parallel-group trial, 1072 patients aged 12-65 years withP. falciparummonoinfection received either AM-PQP (714 patients) once daily or artemether-lumefantrine (A-L; 358 patients) twice daily for 3 days. All patients were followed up until day 42. Of the 714 patients in the AM-PQP group, 638 (89.4%) completed the study; of the 358 patients in the A-L group, 301(84.1%) completed the study. In both groups, the polymerase chain reaction corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (PCR-corrected ACPR) on day 28 in intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations was 92.86% and 92.46% and 99.25% and 99.07%, respectively. The corresponding figures on day 42 in the ITT and PP populations were 90.48% and 91.34%, respectively. After adjusting for survival ITT, the PCR-corrected ACPR on day 42 was >98% in both groups. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable. AM-PQP showed comparable efficacy and safety to A-L in the treatment of uncomplicatedP. falciparummalaria in adolescent and adult patients. AM-PQP demonstrated high clinical and parasitological response rates as well as rapid parasite clearance. India. CTRI/2009/091/000101. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influência do boro e do manganês no crescimento e na composição mineral de mudas de goiabeira Boron and manganese influence on growth and mineral composition on young guava plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Odemir Salvador

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos conduzidos em solução nutritiva tiveram como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de doses de boro e de manganês no crescimento e na composição mineral de folhas de mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L.. No experimento com boro, foram testadas sete doses (0, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5, 1,0, 1,5 e 3,0 mg L-1. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que a necrose marginal e as manchas circulares púrpuras e esparsas no limbo foliar foram os principais sintomas de toxidez apresentados, sendo esses associados com a dose máxima e com um teor foliar de 146 mg kg-1. Análises de tecidos foliares sem e com necroses mostraram teores de 92 e 720 mg kg-1, respectivamente. Somente a produção de matéria seca de raízes e o teor foliar de fósforo e enxofre foram afetados significativamente pelas doses de B. Para o manganês, foram usadas sete doses (0, 0,5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 mg L-1. A produção de matéria seca total e os teores foliares de Ca, Mg e Fe foram afetados pelas doses de Mn. Os sintomas foliares de toxidez evidenciaram-se em salpicos adensados de minúsculas pontuações escuras nas folhas velhas; folhas novas de dimensões menores, cloróticas e com reticulado verde das nervuras; formação de pontuações circulares castanhas espalhadas ou fundidas ao longo ou entre as nervuras.Two experiments were carried out in nutrient solution in order to evaluate the effects of boron and manganese on growth and mineral composition of young guava seedling (Psidium guajava L.. The treatments with boron consisted of seven levels: 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 mg L-1. Tip and marginal necrosis, and purple circular spots on the blade were the main observed symptoms associated with leaf boron concentration of 146 mg kg-1. Analysis of leaf tissues with and without necrosis showed boron content of 92 and 720 mg kg-1, respectively. Boron levels affected only dry matter roots, phosphorus, and sulfur concentration. The experiment with manganese used of

  1. Níveis críticos e tóxicos de boro em solos de Pernambuco determinados em casa de vegetação Critical and toxic boron levels in corn plants and soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Júlio César Patrício de Souza Lima

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre a disponibilidade de B em solos são necessárias para avaliar o comportamento das culturas sob diferentes teores disponíveis desse elemento no solo. Com essa finalidade, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação para avaliar a resposta de milho (Zea mays a doses de boro (0, 2, 4, 6 e 12 mg dm-3 em dez solos de Pernambuco. O B disponível foi determinado por três extratores: água quente, ácido clorídrico 0,05 mol L-1 e Mehlich-1. Foram ainda determinados os níveis críticos (90 e 95 % da produção máxima de matéria seca e tóxicos (equivalente à redução de 10 % da produção máxima nos solos e na planta, além da descrição de sintomas de toxidez de B em milho. Os resultados demonstraram que os níveis críticos e tóxicos de B nos solos variaram de 0,4 a 2,3 mg kg-1 e de 1,8 a 8,3 mg kg-1, respectivamente. Em plantas de milho, os níveis críticos variaram de 13,8 a 129,6 mg kg-1, enquanto teores tóxicos foram obtidos entre 43,3 e 372,2 mg kg-1. O extrator que obteve a melhor correlação com o teor de B na planta foi o HCl 0,05 mol L-1, seguido pelo Mehlich-1 e pela água quente. A disponibilidade do B no solo pelo extrator HCl e os teores de B na folha foram afetados negativamente pelo aumento no teor de argila e matéria orgânica dos solos. Os solos que apresentaram plantas com maior teor de B no tecido vegetal mostraram sintomas mais graves de toxidez, fator associado à maior disponibilidade de boro em solos com textura mais arenosa e, ou, baixos teores de matéria orgânica.Research on B availability in soils is essential to assess the crops response to different concentrations of available B in soils. A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming at studying the corn plant (Zea mays response to B doses (0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 mg dm-3 applied to ten soils from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Available B was assessed by three extractants: hot water, HCl 0.05 mol L-1, and Mehlich-1. The critical and

  2. Boro e nitrogênio na incidência de hastes ocas e no rendimento de brócolis Boron and nitrogen on hollow stem and yield of broccoli

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    Rafael Campagnol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de hastes ocas em brócolis (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck depende de vários fatores que afetam a absorção e o transporte de B, elemento responsável pelo aparecimento dessa desordem fisiológica. O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de quatro níveis de nitrogênio e dois níveis de boro e da interação entre eles na incidência de hastes ocas e na produção de brócolis. As doses de N (100, 150, 200 e 250 kg ha-1 foram divididas em quatro aplicações iguais aos 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após o transplante. O boro (0, 4 e 8 kg ha-1 foi aplicado metade no plantio e a outra metade em cobertura aos 45 dias após o transplante. A massa média das inflorescências e a produção total foram diminuídas com a aplicação de B em função do crescimento mais lento das plantas provocado pela toxicidade desse elemento. Contudo, nas áreas não adubadas com B, a porcentagem de plantas com hastes ocas foi, em média, de 44,14%, sendo que a incidência dessa anomalia sofreu drástica redução com a aplicação de B, onde a maior dose (8 kg ha-1 resultou em apenas 4,52% de inflorescências afetadas. Doses de N superiores a 215,4 kg ha-1 aumentaram o número de plantas com hastes ocas somente nas áreas que não receberam B.The incidence of hollow stem in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck depends on several factors that affect the absorption and transport of boron, which is the element responsible for the appearance of this physiological disorder. This study evaluated the effects of four levels of nitrogen and two levels of boron and the interaction between them in the incidence of hollow stem and yield of broccoli. The levels of N (100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1 were divided into four applications equal to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after transplant. Half of the boron (0, 4 and 8 kg ha-1 was applied at planting and half in coverage at 45 days after transplanting. Average mass and total yield were reduced with B application

  3. Efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha cultivada em solos de várzea Boron effects on nodule development in pea plants cultivated in lowland soils

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    Watson Rogério de Azevedo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do boro na nodulação da ervilha (Pisum sativum L. cv. Torta de Flor Roxa, cultivada em solos de várzea em condições de casa de vegetação, entre maio e julho de 1998. Amostras de Neossolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico, Gleissolo Melânico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado foram coletadas na camada de 0-20 cm. Essas amostras foram previamente cultivadas com rabanete, e receberam calcário, P, K, S, Cu e Zn e seis doses de B (0,0, 0,25, 0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 6,0 mg dm-3. Por ocasião do cultivo da ervilha aplicou-se apenas K (100 mg dm-3. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x6, com três repetições. Foram cultivadas três plantas por vaso, cujas sementes, na época da semeadura, foram submetidas à inoculação com estirpes de Rhizobium leguminosarum (BR 618 e BR 619. Para verificação da existência de estirpes nativas de rizóbio, cultivaram-se sem inoculação nas sementes, três vasos, de cada solo, que haviam recebido a mesma dose de calcário, a mesma adubação básica e 0,5 mg dm-3 de boro. Aos 45 dias após o plantio, em pleno florescimento, colheu-se o experimento. Não foram observadas estirpes nativas nos solos avaliados. Nos solos Gleissolo Háplico e Organossolo Mésico artificialmente drenado, as doses de B influenciaram a nodulação e a atividade da nitrogenase.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of boron on nodule development in pea Pisum sativum L. plants cultivated in lowland soils under greenhouse conditions from May to July, 1998. Samples of Alluvial Soil, Low Humic Gley, Humic Gley and artificially drained Bog Soil were collected from a layer 0-20 cm deep. The samples were previously cultivated with radish plants that received lime, P, K, S, Cu and Zn and doses of B (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg dm-3. Before pea cultivation only K was applied (100 mg dm-3. The experimental design was totally

  4. GROWTH OF PASSION FRUIT SEEDLINGS ACCORDING TO BORON AND TERMITES MOUND NEST MATERIAL FERTILIZING CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE MARACUJAZEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DE ADUBAÇÃO À BASE DE BORO E MATERIAL DE CUPINZEIRO

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    Marlene Estevão Marchetti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For producing passion fruit seedlings, it is necessary to pay attention to the plant nutritional status, whose information about fertilizing with micronutrients such as boron are still scarce for tropical regions where fruit growing is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (B rates and termites mound nest material on growth components and concentration of B on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. shoots, in a Red Distrophic Latosol. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with five B doses (0 mg dm-3, 0.25 mg dm-3, 0.50 mg dm-3, 0.75 mg dm-3, and 1.00 mg dm-3 and four termites mound nest material rates (0 g dm-3, 25 g dm-3, 50 g dm-3, and 75 g dm-3, with four replications, totaling 80 experimental units. The experimental unit was composed of pots with up to 700 cm3 samples. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The highest values for shoot dry matter yield, plant height, leaf area, stem diameter, and SPAD reading are obtained by a joint application of the maximum termites mound nest material dose and between the two highest B rates. The termites mound nest material was little effective as a B source to influence upon the growth components of passion fruit plants. The B concentrations on the yellow passion fruit shoots, for all termites mound nest material rates, decreased with the increases in the B rates applied.

    KEY-WORDS: Passiflora edulis; borate fertilizing; organic fertilizing.

    Na produção de mudas de maracujazeiro, deve-se atentar para o estado nutricional das plantas, cujas informações, quanto à adubação com micronutrientes como o boro, ainda são escassas para as regiões tropicais onde a fruticultura está se expandindo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de boro (B e de material do cartão de cupinzeiro

  5. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HOT CALCIUM CHLORIDE-EXTRACTED BORON AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOME BRAZILIAN SOILS CORRELAÇÕES ENTRE BORO SOLÚVEL EM CLORETO DE CÁLCIO 0,01 mol L-1 A QUENTE E ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS E FÍSICOS DE ALGUNS SOLOS BRASILEIROS

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    Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between soluble boron extracted with a hot CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 solution and pH; organic carbon; exchangeable cations; cation exchange capacity (CEC; base saturation; total, free and amorphous iron and aluminum oxide contents; clay content; and specific surface area were performed for surface and subsurface samples of five soils. The soils were a Rhodic Hapludox, an Arenic Paleudalf and three Typic Hapludox, all representative soils of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. To quantify the relations between soluble boron and the different soil characteristics, simple linear correlations and multiple regressions, using a stepwise regression program, were performed. Hot-CaCl2 extractable boron (HCB was significantly correlated with clay content (r = 0.69*, specific surface area (r = 0.68*, CEC (r = 0.63* and total aluminum oxides (r = 0.70* in all five soils. In addition, there was a correlation between HCB and organic carbon (r = 0.75* in the four Oxisols. The correlation coefficient between the product (carbon x clay and soluble boron contents was also highly significant (r = 0.78**. Multiple regression analysis showed that total aluminum oxide, as well as exchangeable calcium and aluminum, were correlated with HCB, explaining 85% of the variation. The product (carbon x clay took into account the effect of textural gradient and showed high positive correlation with hot-CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1extractable boron.Teores de boro solúveis em CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 a quente, de amostras superficiais e subsuperficiais de dois Latossolos argilosos, dois Latossolos de textura média e um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram correlacionados com alguns de seus atributos químicos e físicos. As correlações entre boro solúvel e superfície específica (r = 0,68*, argila (r = 0,69*, CTC (r = 0,63* e alumínio total (r = 0,70* dos cinco solos e com o teor de carbono orgânico dos quatro Latossolos (r = 0,75* foram estatisticamente

  6. Effect of Mixed Glass Former on Ionic Conductivity of Silver Boro Tungstate glass system x[0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]: (1-x) [Ag2O-{B2O3:WO3}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehariya, Harsha; Kumar, R.; Polu, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The idea to explore new 'Superionic Electrolytes', "Fast ionic conductors" is due to their tremendous potential applications in solid state electrochemical devices viz. solid state batteries, fuel cells, sensors, super capacitors. Superionic glasses have attracted great deal of attention due to their several advantageous over their crystalline counterparts such as high ionic conductivity, easy preparation, wide selection of compositions, isotropic properties and high stability etc [4-7]. Large numbers of silver ion based glasses have been reported in the literature for the glassy system of AgI:Ag2O: MxOy (MxOy = B2O3, SiO2, P2O5, GeO2, V2O5, As2O5, CrO3, SeO2, MoO3 & TeO3 etc many of them shows high silver ion conductivity [8]. Ion transport behavior of Silver Boro Tungstate glass system x[0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]: (1-x) [Ag2O{B2O3:WO3}], where 0 <= x <= 1 in molar wt% prepared by melt quench technique were reported. The new host [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl] was used as a better alternate in place of conventional host salt AgI. Conductivity measurement were carried out on this glass system as a function of frequency from 50 Hz to 5 MHz, over a temperature range of 27°C to 200°C, for different compositions by Impedance spectroscopy. The composition 0.7[0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]: 0.3[Ag2O{B2O3:WO3}] shows the highest conductivity of the order of σrt ~ 2.76 × 10-2 S/cm, referred to as the Optimum Conducting Composition (OCC). The enhancement in the conductivity has been obtained by mixed former effect. XRD result shows that the system is completely amorphous. Temperature dependence of conductivity of all compositions were studied & reported. Activation energies (Ea) were also evaluated from the slope of .Log(σ) vs 1000/T, Arrhenius plots.

  7. Potencial de água do solo e adubação com boro no crescimento e absorção do nutriente pela cultura da soja

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    Ricardo Robson Trautmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A soja é uma cultura exigente em boro (B, entretanto, é estreita a faixa entre o nível adequado e o tóxico para esse nutriente no solo; dessa forma, a dose a ser recomendada deve ser bem definida. As condições hídricas do solo também é um aspecto importante relacionado diretamente com a disponibilidade de B para as plantas. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de fontes e doses de B no crescimento da soja (Glycine max em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico de textura arenosa, submetido a diferentes tensões de água. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em vasos com 5 dm³ de solo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 x 3, sendo cinco doses de B (0,0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; e 2,0 mg dm-3; duas fontes (ácido bórico e colemanita e três tensões de água no solo (0,01; 0,03; e 0,10 MPa, com quatro repetições. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento da soja não é influenciado quando se mantém o nível de tensão de água no solo até 0,1 MPa. O crescimento do sistema radicular foi interferido negativamente com a aplicação de doses de B até 2 mg dm-3, em solo com teor inicial de 0,32 mg dm-3. Os teores de B no solo e no tecido foliar da soja aumentaram linearmente com as doses do nutriente aplicado no solo, sendo observado na maior dose (2 mg dm-3 de B sintomas de típicos de toxidez de B nas folhas da cultura da soja.

  8. Características morfofisiológicas de sementes e produção de girassol em função de boro no solo Morphophysiological characteristics of seed and production of sunflower as a function of boron in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele A. Bonacin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar o efeito de doses de boro sobre as características morfofisiológicas de sementes e a produção de girassol, cultivar Embrapa V122-2000, instalou-se um experimento em 17/11/2000, em área experimental da UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, SP, em Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico de textura média. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco doses de boro (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 kg ha-1 em quatro repetições. Após o florescimento pleno (80-90% de flores abertas se avaliaram semanalmente, as características das sementes: comprimento, largura e espessura, massa seca, concentração e conteúdo de água, primeira contagem da germinação, germinação final e teor de óleo. Pelos resultados obtidos não se constatou efeito significativo da aplicação de boro nas características das sementes avaliadas aos 49 dias após o florescimento pleno da cultura, o que foi atribuído ao teor inicial de boro no solo, 0,22 mg dm-3 (extraído com solução de BaCl2 1,25 g L-1 que, além de considerado médio, deve ter sido suficiente para o crescimento e desenvolvimento das sementes de girassol. A produtividade média foi de 2.559 kg ha-1.An experiment was carried out in order to evaluate effects of boron applied to soil on the morphophysiological characteristics of sunflower seed (achene. The experiment was installed on November 17, 2000 in an experimental area at São Paulo State University - UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, SP, in an oxisoil with the sunflower variety Embrapa V122-2000. The experimental design was a completely randomized block, with five doses of boron (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg ha-1 with four replications. After full bloom (80-90% of open flowers, the following characteristics were evaluated during seven weeks: length, width and thickness, seed dry mass, water concentration and content, first counting of germination, final germination and oil content. Seed yield was also evaluated. There was no significant effect of boron

  9. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE BORO, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA, NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BORAX RATES AND MANURE ON CABBAGE (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de boro na cultura do repolho, na presença e ausência de matéria orgânica, foi instalado na Escola de Agronomia da UFG um experimento em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições. A cultivar utilizada foi Matsukase. Os tratamentos com boro constaram da aplicação de 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg/ha de Bórax comercial, combinadas com doses de 0 e 75 t/ha de esterco de curral. A adubação orgânica aumentou o diâmetro, a altura e o peso de cabeça, mas as relações peso de cabeça/peso total e diâmetro/altura de cabeça não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A aplicação de boro apresentou respostas significativas, na ausência de adubação orgânica, para peso de cabeça, altura de cabeça e relação peso/diâmetro de cabeça. A produção física máxima foi estimada para uma dosagem de 101 kg/ha de bórax. Na presença de adubação orgânica, não houve efeito significativo da adubação com Bórax sobre a produção do repolho.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; boro; Brassica oleraceae var. captata; repolho.

    The experiment was carried out at Goiás Federal University (UFG, Brazil, in order to verify the effect of different borax levels in presence or absence of manure, for cabbage cv. Matsukase crop. Boron was applied at 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha of commercial Borax, combined to doses of 0 or 75 ton/ha corral manure. Organic fertilization increased head diameter, height and weight, but did not interfere on head weight/total weight nor head diameter/head height ratios. Boron application showed significant responses when organic fertilization was absent, regarding to head weight, head height and weight/head diameter ratio. The highest

  10. Design, Fabrication and Performance of Boron-Carbide Control Elements; Conception, Fabrication et Comportement de Lames de Commande en Carbure de Bore; Raschety, izgotovlenie i kharakteristiki reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej. Iz karbida Bora; Proyecto, Elaboracion y Rendimiento de Elementos de Control de Carburo de Boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, H. A.; Jacobson, J. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1964-06-15

    compartiments independants par tassement sur des supports spheriques situes a l'interieur des tubes. Les auteurs etudient la mise au point et l'utilisation des lames de commande en carbure de bore sous les cinq rubriques suivantes: 1. Apercu de l'experience acquise avec l'acier au bore et raisons de son remplacement par du carbure de bore. 2. Etudes de la lame en carbure de bore depuis le debut des experiences de mise au point, y compris les premieres mesures effectuees dans le cadre du ' Programme de mise au point de materiaux pour barres de controle' de la CEA au Laboratoire atomique de Vallecitos, et description de la configuration definitive de la lame de controle. 3. Fabrication des lames et methodes de controle de la qualite. 4. Resultats des essais confirmatoires avant mise en service (essais mecaniques et essais de reactivites). 5. Experience apres mise en service, y compris les resultats d'essais mecaniques et d'essais'de reactivites effectues apres deux annees d'utilisation dans le reacteur. (author) [Spanish] En abril de 1961 se comenzo a utilizar en los reactores de agua hirviente un nuevo modelo de elemento de control de carburo de boro (B{sub 4}C) en tubos de acero inoxidable. Desde entonces, este elemento se ha convertido en el elemento de control normal de referencia en los reactores de agua hirviente de la General Electric, y ha sustituido a las placas de acero inoxidable con 2% de boro que se utilizaban con anterioridad. Los nuevos elementos consisten en pequenos tubos verticales de acero inoxidable, dispuestos de manera cruciforme,, con un revestimiento, que estan llenos de polvo de carburo de boro compactado. El polvo de carburo de boro queda confinado longitudinalmente en varios compartimentos independientes estampandolo sobre bolas de acero de cojinetes situadas en el interior de los tubos. La memoria discute en cinco fases el perfeccionamiento, y el empleo de las barras de control de carburo de boro. 1. Resumen de los experimentos realizados con placas de

  11. Trace Analysis of Boron in Nuclear Graphite by Means of Gas Chromatography; Analyse de traces de bore dans le graphite nucleaire au moyen de la chromatographie gazeuse; Analiz metodom gazovoj khromatografii sledov bora v yadernom grafite; Analisis de vestigios de boro en el grafito nuclear por cromatografia de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zado, F. [Rudjer Boskovlc Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1963-11-15

    en raison de la sensibilite du trichlorure de bore a l'humidite. (author) [Spanish] Hasta ahora no se han publicado datos sobre la aplicacion de la cromatografia de gases a la valoracion de vestigios de boro en el grafito. El autor examina los siguientes metodos de transformacion del boro en compuestos volatiles: a) Ignicion del grafito en corriente de oxigeno y transformacion subsiguiente del acido de boro en borato de metilo volatil, que se analiza luego en un cromatografo de gases Dilkens Aerograph H, modelo 96, con columna de silicona e hidrogeno como portador (metodo de concentracion). b) Extraccion del boro presente en el grafito por medio de fluoruro de sodio a 2800{sup o}C con cloracion y retencion simultaneas del tricloruro de boro, que luego se analiza (metodo directo). El autor uso un cromatografo de gases fabricado por el mismo, con un detector de conductividad termica y nitrogeno como portador. La columna era de vidrio con 20% en peso de fluorocarburo aceitoso sobre kieselgur. En vista de la sensibilidad del tricloruro de boro frente a la humedad, fue preciso adoptar medidas de precaucion especiales. (author) [Russian] V literature otsutstvuet dannye o primenenii gazovoj khromatografii dlya analiza sledov bora v grafite. Obsukhdayutsya sleduyushchie metody prevrashcheniya bora v ego letuchie soedineniya: a) Prokalivanie grafita v potoke kisloroda s posleduyushchim prevrashcheniem okisi bora v letuchij bornometilovyj ehfir, kotoryj zatem issleduetsya metodom gazovoj khromatografii na aehrografe Dilkensa, model' H 96, s kremnievoj kolonkoj i vodorodom v kachestve nositelya (metod kontsentratsii); i b) Ehkstragirovanie bora iz grafita s pomoshch'yu ftoristogo natriya pri 2800{sup o}C s odnovremennym khlorirovaniem i ulavlivaniem trekhkhloristogo bora, kotoryj zatem podvergaetsya analizu (pryamoj metod). Ispol'zovalas' ustanovka dlya gazovoj khromatografii kustarnogo proizvodstva s teploprovodnym detektorom i azotom v kachestve nositelya. Kolonka byla

  12. Efecto de la temperatura de deposición en las características estructurales y ópticas de películas delgadas de nitruro de boro obtenidas por CVD

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    Essafti, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Boron nitride (BN thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by thermal CVD using mixtures of ammoniac and diborane. The effect of the deposition temperature (T on the structural and optical characteristics of the BN samples was studied in the temperature range of 500 – 1000 oC. The deposition rate reached its maximum (1600 Å/min at T = 900 oC. The activation energy (Ea of the reaction NH3 + B2H6, determined from the Arrhenius plot, is of 13.6 kcal/mol in the 500 – 900 oC range. The Infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of different bands corresponding to B-H, N-H and B-N bonds. The concentration of B-H and N-H species is below the detection limit of IR spectroscopy in the BN films deposited at T ≥ 800 oC. The chemical analysis by XPS spectroscopy showed the presence of B-B and B-N bonds. An increase of the deposition temperature lead to a decrease of B-B bonds, which favors the formation of quasi-stoichiometric BN at T = 1000 oC. At this temperature, the resulting BN films are highly transparent with a refractive index of 1.7. The BN films deposited at T ≤ 900 oC are amorphous, nevertheless at T = 1000 oC they are partially crystallized with a turbostratic structure.

    Se depositaron películas de nitruro de boro (BN sobre sustratos de silicio mediante CVD térmico utilizando mezclas de diborano y amoníaco. Se estudió el efecto de la temperatura de deposición (T, en el rango 500 – 1000 oC, sobre las características estructurales y ópticas de las muestras de BN. La velocidad de deposición alcanza su máximo (1600 Å/min a T = 900 oC. La energía de activación (Ea de la reacción NH3 + B2H6, determinada a partir de la representación de Arrhenius, es de 13.6 kcal/mol en el rango 500 – 900 oC. La espectroscopia IR reveló la existencia de diferentes bandas correspondientes a enlaces B‑H, N‑H y B-N. La concentración de especies B-H y N-H está por debajo del nivel de detección mediante IR en las pel

  13. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch cv Abbott tratadas com auxinas e boro Rooting of kiwi stem cuttings (Actinidia chinensis Planch. cv Abbott treated with auxins and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Ono

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como finalidade, estudar o efeito de várias auxinas sintéticas em formulações comerciais e do boro, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv Abbott.. As estacas utilizadas continham dois nós e duas folhas cortadas ao meio, com aproximadamente 10 cm de comprimento, onde o corte basal em bisel foi realizado logo abaixo de um nó e o apical acima do outro nó. O efeito das auxinas, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi foi verificado mediante os seguintes tratamentos, aplicados sobre as bases das estacas: T1 H(20; T2 (NAA 300 ppm; T3 (IBA 300 ppm; T4 (NAA 300 ppm + B; T5 (IBA 300 ppm + B; T6 (NAA 0,5%-pó e T7 (IBA 0,5%-pó. Após o tratamento das estacas, estas foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento, contendo vermiculita pura e colocadas em câmara de nebulização, onde permaneceram por 120 dias, até a sua coleta. Para a avaliação do efeito de auxinas e do ácido bórico, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi, foram realizadas as seguintes observações: 1. porcentagem de estacas enraizadas; 2. análise de açúcares redutores e açúcares totais (em g/100 g de matéria seca; 3. análise de triptofano (em µg/100 mg de matéria seca. Os resultados obtidos no processo de enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. variedade Abbott, levou a concluir que o inverno e outono foram as melhores épocas de coleta dos ramos de auxinas para a confecção das estacas. O processo de enraizamento foi ainda incrementado com a aplicação exógena na base das estacas, sendo que o alto teor de açúcares redutores e totais beneficiou a maior porcentagem de enraizamento.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of some synthetical auxins and boron trade formulations in the rooting of stem cuttings of some kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch varieties. The experiment was carried out in a misty nebulization chamber in the Botany

  14. Adubação foliar de boro em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura do amendoim Boron leaf application at different growth stages of peanut

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    João Paulo Machado Mantovani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A adubação boratada foliar, na cultura do amendoim, pode ser uma estratégia viável para fornecimento desse elemento à planta; porém, são poucos os conhecimentos sobre dosagens, épocas e efeitos de parcelamento das doses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de produção e a composição mineral foliar em diferentes doses, épocas de aplicação e parcelamentos da adubação boratada. O experimento foi conduzido na safra de verão 2010/2011, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em Rubiácea (SP. Foram estudadas as doses de zero; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 kg ha-1 de boro (B, aplicadas por via foliar, utilizando-se como fonte o ácido bórico. Os efeitos da adubação boratada foram testados em doses únicas nos estádios V1 ou R5, além do parcelamento da dose de 1,0 kg ha-1 (0,5 kg ha-1 em V1 e R5, de 1,5 (0,75 kg ha-1 em V1 e R5; 0,5 kg ha-1 em V1, R1 e R5 e de 2,0 kg ha-1 (1,0 kg ha-1 em V1 e R5; 0,5 kg ha-1 em V1, R1, R3 e R5. O aumento na produtividade de amendoim em casca ocorreu apenas com a dose de 1,5 kg ha-1, parcelada em três aplicações de 0,5 kg ha-1 em V1, R1 e R5. A utilização de 2,0 kg ha-1 de B foliar no amendoim causou efeito depressivo na produtividade, rendimento e número de vagens por planta.Boron leaf application to the peanut crop can be a viable strategy for supplying this element to the plant, however, knowledge os lacking on rate, time and dose split. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and the leaf mineral composition at different rates, application times and split of boron fertilization. The experiment was conducted in the summer harvest 2010/2011 in an Oxisol in Rubiácea (SP. Leaf applications of boron rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1 were tested using boric acid as source. The effects of boron fertilization were tested in single doses at the V1 and R5 growth stages, in addition to splitting the rate of 1 kg ha-1 ( 0.5 kg ha-1 at V1 and R5, 1.5 (0.75 kg ha-1 at V

  15. Disponibilidade de boro em substrato para produção de porta-enxertos de citros em fase de sementeira Boron availability in the growth media for production of citrus rootstock seedlings

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    Dirceu Mattos Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas cítricas em ambiente protegido, associada ao uso de substratos, requer estratégias adequadas de manejo no viveiro. Problemas de falta e/ou excesso de nutrientes freqüentemente causam prejuízos ao setor. Em citros ocorrem diferentes respostas à disponibilidade de boro (B para a planta e são comuns danos causados pela toxidez desse nutriente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da adição de B no substrato sobre a absorção e o crescimento de duas variedades de porta-enxertos de citros em fase de sementeira. O experimento foi desenvolvido em esquema fatorial, com limão 'Cravo' e citrumelo 'Swingle' e quatro doses de B misturadas ao substrato na forma de H3BO3 (0, 3, 6, e 12 g m-3 de B, em três repetições. Avaliaram-se os teores de B no substrato no início do experimento, aos 55 e 110 dias de sementeira, e o crescimento dos seedlings e a absorção de B pelas plantas nos mesmos intervalos. Os teores de B no substrato variaram entre 0,1 e 4,7 mg L-1. Aos 55 e 110 dias, houve decréscimo nos teores do nutriente nas plantas provavelmente devido às perdas do nutriente do substrato por lixiviação. Observaram-se sintomas visuais de fitotoxicidade de B nos porta-enxertos cultivados no substrato tratado com 3 g m-3 de B, quando o teor na planta foi >100 mg kg-1. O excesso de B causou redução no crescimento dos porta-enxertos. O maior crescimento e acúmulo de B na massa seca de plantas de citrumelo 'Swingle', comparado ao 'Cravo, indicam maior tolerância do primeiro à fitotoxicidade de B.The production of citrus nursery trees under protected environment using growth media requires healthy management practices. Problems associated with deficiency and/or nutrient excess have frequently caused economic losses in the nursery. Citrus grow differently depending on boron (B availability in the growth media, even tough B toxicity commonly cause damage to plants. This research aimed to evaluate the effects

  16. Características fisiológicas e crescimento de clones de eucalipto em resposta ao boro Physiological characteristics and dry matter production of eucalyptus in response to boron

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    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A exigência para boro (B varia largamente entre e dentro das espécies vegetais. Objetivando avaliar a resposta de clones de eucalipto ao B em solução nutritiva foi realizado ensaio em casa de vegetação com oito clones. As plantas cresceram em soluções nutritivas com 0, 10, 20, 50 e 100 µmol/L de B, durante 70 dias. Na finalização do ensaio determinaram-se características fisiológicas, produção de matéria seca e teores de B no tecido vegetal. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones à concentração de B na solução nutritiva, com máxima produção de matéria seca entre 28 e 69 µmol/L de B. Em baixas concentrações de B, pôde-se observar sintomas visuais de deficiência e, em altas concentrações, não foram observados sintomas de toxidez, porém houve redução na produção de matéria seca. A resposta do eucalipto ao B na solução nutritiva depende do clone, havendo diferenças entre eles na tolerância à deficiência e toxidez e na eficiência de utilização de B. Os clones 68 e 129 apresentaram as mais elevadas taxas de fotossíntese. O clone 3487 foi o mais responsivo ao B. Os clones 3487, 3336 e 68 foram mais sensíveis à deficiência e os clones 3281 e 1270 os mais tolerantes à deficiência. O clone 2486 foi o mais sensível à toxidez e o clone 3281 o mais tolerante. Os clones 3487, 2486 e 129 foram mais eficientes na utilização de B.Boron (B requirement for plant growth varies both within and among plant species. In order to evaluate the response of clones of eucalyptus to B in nutrient solution, an experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions, with eight clones. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions at B concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 µmol/L for 70 days, after which, physiological variables, dry matter production and boron content were determined. There was a differential response of the eucalyptus clones to the concentration of boron in nutrient solution with maximum dry matter

  17. Boro em solos de várzea do sul de Minas Gerais e a cultura do feijoeiro Boron in lowland soils from southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the common bean crop

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    Eduardo Dol'ava Mariano

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. à aplicação de B em solos de várzea, conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação com quatro solos (0-20cm, Glei Pouco Húmico (GP, Aluvial (A, Glei Húmico (GH e Orgânico (O, este último artificialmente drenado, coletados no município de Lavras (MG. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, arranjado num esquema fatorial 4x7, consistindo dos 4 solos e de 7 doses de B (0,0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0 e 10,0 mg dm-3 de solo. Os solos receberam calcário dolomítico, macro e micronutrientes e as respectivas doses de B, e foram incubados por 24 dias. Antes da semeadura, os solos foram amostrados e analisados para B (água quente. Foram cultivadas duas plantas por vaso de três dm³, colhidas na maturação de grãos, avaliando-se a matéria seca de grãos, o número de vagens por planta e o número de grãos por vagem. Os resultados mostraram respostas significativas do feijoeiro à aplicação de B nos solos estudados. As doses de B para atingir 90% da produção máxima variaram de 1,04 a 1,25 mg dm-3. Para a produção máxima, as doses variaram de 2,50 a 2,83 mg dm-3, enquanto que para causar redução de 10% na produção, devido a toxidez, a variação na dose de boro foi de 4,54 a 5,33 mg dm-3. O potencial produtivo dos solos para 90% da produção máxima, em ordem decrescente, foi a seguinte: Glei Húmico > Aluvial = Orgânico > Glei Pouco Húmico.Aiming to evaluate the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plant response to boron application in lowland soils, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions, involving four soils (0-20 cm, Low Humic Glei (LHG, Aluvial (A, Humic Gley (HG and Bog soil (O, the last being artificially drained, all collected in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The experimental design was totally randomized, with four replications, in a 4x7 factorial scheme, consisting of the 4 soils and of 7 B doses (0; 0

  18. Fertilização de cobertura com boro e potássio na nutrição e produtividade da batata-doce Fertilization with boron and potassium on sweet potato nutrition and yield

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    Fábio R Echer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Latossolos e Argissolos apresentam elevada taxa de intemperização dos seus materiais constituintes, com pouca ou nenhuma reserva mineral de potássio (K e normalmente, baixos teores de matéria orgânica do solo, principal fonte de boro (B às plantas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade da cultura da batatadoce em resposta à combinação de doses de adubação potássica e boratada. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de agosto de 2007 e janeiro de 2008, em lavoura comercial de batata-doce, cv. Canadense, em Presidente Prudente-SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 4x4: doses de adubação potássica (0; 50; 100 e 200 kg ha-1 de K2O e doses de adubação boratada (0; 1; 2 e 3 kg ha-1 de B, ambas aplicadas em cobertura. Os tratamentos foram aplicados aos 62 dias após o plantio. A maior produtividade obtida foi de 27,7 t ha-1, com a combinação das doses de 2 kg ha-1 de B aliada à aplicação de 200 kg ha-1 de K2O. O teor foliar de B aumentou conforme o aumento da dose de B e de K. Doses de 1 e 3 kg ha-1 de B não influenciaram o teor de Mg nas folhas, mas em doses de 0 e de 2 kg ha-1 de B o teor de Mg apresentou comportamento quadrático em função do aumento da adubação potássica.Most of Brazilian soils have little or no mineral reserve of potassium and, usually low content of organic matter in the soil, the most important source of boron for the plants. In this work we evaluated the yield of sweet potato, cultivar Canadense, in response to the combination of different rates of potassium fertilization and boron fertilization. The research was carried out from August 2007 to January 2008, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 4x4, with three repetitions: rates of potassium fertilization (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of K2O, and levels of boron

  19. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

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    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N (40 kg ha-1, fósforo (P (30 mg kg-1 suelo y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Multibiplot. Las variables respuesta correspondieron a la biomasa seca aérea y sus contenidos de N, P, Calcio (Ca y cenizas (cen. Se encontró que los tratamientos de P y N y las cepas nativas de Frankia spp. (UdeA902, UdeA904 y CUNMS502 combinados con hongos micorrizógenos (UdeA1905 y Glomus fistulosum respectivamente, favorecieron el rendimiento y contenido de N del aliso. La aplicación de B en algunos casos mejoró el rendimiento y en otros lo afectó negativamente; pero potenció la respuesta de algunas inoculaciones especialmente cuando estuvo presente G. fistulosum aún en el caso de estar acompañado de la cepa de Frankia (CUNMS502. Esta cepa, que presentó bajo rendimiento en otros tratamientos, se vio favorecida notablemente con la adición de B. La inoculación dual es efectiva para favorecer el manejo forestal del aliso siempre y cuando se haga la selección adecuada de las cepas, lo cual puede además condicionar la respuesta a algunos nutrientes como en el caso del B.Abstract. It was evaluated the response of alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth to the dual inoculation of strains of Frankia spp. and endomycorrhizal fungi with two levels of boron (B (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg-1 soil and the application of nitrogen (N (40 kg ha-1, phosphorus (P (30 mg kg-1 soil and a control without inoculation or chemical elements. The experimental design was completely randomized; it was composed kg-1of 41 treatments and 20 replications. The statistical analysis consisted

  20. Influência do boro no desenvolvimento e na composição mineral do pimentão Influence of boron application on sweet pepper development and mineral composition

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    Simone C. Mello

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no município de Piracicaba (SP, de fevereiro a junho de 1994, em solo classificado como Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica A moderado textura argilosa. Visou-se estudar a aplicação de boro no desenvolvimento e na composição mineral de plantas de pimentão cv. Magda. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro doses de bórax aplicadas nas covas de plantio (0; 5; 10 e 20 kg ha-1 equivalentes a 0; 0,6; 1,1 e 2,2 kg ha-1 de B e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o número de folhas e de flores, a área foliar, o peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e os teores de nutrientes nas folhas recém-maduras mais pecíolos, aos 45 dias após o transplante. Foram avaliados também, aos 40 dias após o transplante, o peso do material verde dos frutos e a composição mineral do pericarpo e das sementes dos mesmos. As doses de bórax não influenciaram as características avaliadas e os teores de macronutrientes e de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn nas folhas mais pecíolos. Entre as partes dos frutos, os teores de B foram superiores nas sementes em relação ao pericarpo, nas quatro doses utilizadas.An experiment was carried out in Piracicaba (Brazil from February to June 1994, to study the effects of boron application on the development and mineral composition of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L., cultivar Magda. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four levels of borax (0; 5; 10 and 20 kg ha-1 equivalent to 0; 0.6; 1.1 and 2.2 kg ha-1 of B and four replications. The plant height, number of leaves and flowers were evaluated, also the foliar area, dry weight of aerial part and nutrient contents in the leaves plus petioles at 45 days after transplanting date. In addition, fruit fresh weight; pericarp and seed mineral composition were evaluated 40 days after transplanting date. Different concentrations of borax did not affect the evaluated characteristics nor the macronutrient and

  1. Qualidade sensorial dos frutos do abacaxizeiro 'imperial' cultivado em deficiência de macronutrientes e de boro Sensorial quality of the fruits of 'imperial' pineapple cultivated in macronutrient and boron deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Mota Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A comercialização do abacaxi vem expandindo-se no mercado mundial principalmente por suas apreciáveis características de sabor, aroma e cor. A nutrição mineral da planta exerce uma influência acentuada na composição química do abacaxi. A inexistência de informações sobre a influência da deficiência nutricional na qualidade dos frutos do abacaxizeiro 'Imperial' motivou a realização de um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, no período de 2003 a 2005, para avaliar os efeitos das deficiências de macronutrientes e de boro na composição fisico-química e na qualidade sensorial dos frutos dessa cultivar. A unidade experimental constou de um vaso de plástico com 14 L de areia purificada e uma muda de abacaxizeiro. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: completo, - N, - P, - K, - Ca, - Mg, - S e - B, aplicados sob a forma de soluções nutritivas, em blocos casualizados completos, com seis repetições. As seguintes características foram obtidas nos frutos: firmeza, teor de suco, AT, SST, SST/AT, vitamina C, pH, coloração e a análise sensorial da polpa. As deficiências de N e de K aumentaram a firmeza da polpa, mas a de S a diminuiu. As deficiências de N e S aumentaram a AT e o teor de Vitamina C, mas diminuíram SST/AT, a coloração da polpa e o pH. A deficiência de K reduziu os SSTs e a de Ca e de S os aumentou. As deficiências de N e K reduziram a aceitação sensorial dos frutos. As deficiências de P, Mg e B não alteraram as propriedades sensoriais do abacaxi.The marketing of pineapple has been expanding in the world mainly by its appreciable characteristics of flavor, aroma and color. The mineral nutrition of the plant exert an accentuated influence on the chemical composition of pineapple. The inexistence of information on the influence of the mineral deficiency on the quality of the 'Imperial' pineapple fruits motivated the accomplishment

  2. Spectroscopic studies of silver boro tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Rao, B. Appa; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-01

    The FTIR absorption and Raman scattering studies were used to obtain the structural information of AgI-Ag2O-[(1-x)B2O3-xTeO2] (x=0 to 1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glasses. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. FTIR and Raman spectra were recorded for all samples at room temperature. FTIR spectra which provides the information about the change in bond structure of the glasses. Raman spectra provide the effect of TeO2 on SBT glass system is that as increasing the concentration of TeO2 the band intensity at 707 cm-1 increase.

  3. Spectroscopic studies of silver boro tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Ramesh, E-mail: apparao.bojja@gmail.com; Kumari, K. Rajani, E-mail: apparao.bojja@gmail.com; Rao, B. Appa, E-mail: apparao.bojja@gmail.com; Bhikshamaiah, G., E-mail: apparao.bojja@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500007 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The FTIR absorption and Raman scattering studies were used to obtain the structural information of AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to 1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glasses. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. FTIR and Raman spectra were recorded for all samples at room temperature. FTIR spectra which provides the information about the change in bond structure of the glasses. Raman spectra provide the effect of TeO{sub 2} on SBT glass system is that as increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} the band intensity at 707 cm{sup −1} increase.

  4. Irradiations effects on the structure of boro-silicated glasses: long term behaviour of nuclear waste glassy matrices; Effets d'irradiations sur la structure de verres borosilicates - comportement a long terme des matrices vitreuses de stockage des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfils, J. de

    2007-09-15

    This work deals with the long term behaviour of R7T7-type nuclear waste glasses and more particularly of non-active boro-silicated glasses made up of 3 or 5 oxides. Radioactivity of active glasses is simulated by multi energies ions implantations which reproduce the same defects. The damages due to the alpha particles are simulated by helium ions implantations and those corresponding to the recoil nucleus are obtained with gold ions ones. Minor actinides, stemming from the used fuel, is simulated by trivalent rare-earths (Eu{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+}). In a first part, we have shown by macroscopic experiments (Vickers hardness - swelling) and optical spectroscopies (Raman - ATR-IR) that the structure of the glassy matrices is modified under implantations until a dose of 2,3.10{sup 13} at.cm{sup -2}, which corresponds to a R7T7 storage time estimated at 300 years. Beyond this dose, no additional modifications have been observed. The second part concerns the local environment of the rare-earth ions in glasses. Two different environments were found and identified as follows: one is a silicate rich one and the other is attributed to a borate rich one. (author)

  5. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the

  6. Effectiveness of house dust mite acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate on carpets, fabrics and mattress foam: a standardization of methodology Eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico contra ácaros de poeira em carpetes, tecidos e espuma de colchão: padronização de metodologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiko Uehara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate, industrially applied to samples of carpets, mattress foam, and fabrics used for furniture upholstery, soft toys and shoe uppers. Approximately 100 adult house dust mites of the species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were inoculated into a Petri dish containing the sample (a piece of carpet, mattress foam, or fabric, treated with the acaricide, randomly collected. Mite-maintenance culture medium was added on top of each sample. After one, two, three, seven and 30 days of incubation at 25 ºC and 75% relative humidity, each dish was examined using a 40X stereoscopic microscope (40X. One hundred percent acaricide effectiveness was obtained in treated materials by the end of the 30th-day postinoculation period, under optimal conditions for mite maintenance.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico, aplicado industrialmente em amostras de carpetes, tecidos de revestimentos de móveis e de calçados, assim como de espumas de colchão. Aproximadamente 100 ácaros adultos da espécie Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus foram inoculados em placa de Petri contendo a amostra (pedaço de colchão, tecido ou carpete, tratada com o produto acaricida, coletados aleatoriamente. Foi acrescentado sobre a amostra, meio de cultivo para a manutenção dos ácaros. Cada placa foi examinada após 1, 2, 3, 7 e 30 dias de incubação a 25 ºC e 75% de U.R.A. (umidade relativa do ar, sob microscópio estereoscópico com 40X de aumento. O acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico apresentou 100% de eficácia acaricida após 30 dias da aplicação, em condições ótimas para a manutenção dos ácaros.

  7. Efeito da adubação com boro e esterco bovino sobre a produtividade da figueira e as propriedades químicas do solo Effect of boron and cattle manure fertilization on yield productivity fig tree and on soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos Caetano

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da adubação da cultura da figueira com boro e esterco bovino sobre a produtividade de figos verdes e as propriedades químicas do solo. Os tratamentos foram cinco doses de ácido bórico (0, 20, 40, 60 e 100g planta-1 combinadas com dois níveis de adubação de esterco (sem esterco e 10kg de esterco/planta. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. A adubação com ácido bórico não afetou a produtividade de figos, enquanto que o esterco bovino aumentou-a. Os teores de fósforo e potássio no solo aumentaram significativamente e o teor de alumínio diminuiu significativamente em função da adubação com esterco bovino. O teor de B no solo, extraído pelo método da água quente, aumentou linearmente em função das doses de ácido bórico.The objective of the present work was evaluate the effect of fig tree orchard fertilization with boron and cattle manure on the green fig yield and soil chemical properties. The treatments were five boric acid levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 100g plant-1 combined with two cattle manure fertilization levels (without cattle manure and 10kg of cattle manure/plant. The experimental design was that of randomized blocks in a split-plot scheme and four repetitions. The boric acid fertilization did not affect the fig productivity whereas the cattle manure one increased it. The P and K content increased significantly and the Al content decreased significantly in function of the cattle manure fertilization. The B soil content, extracted by hot water methodology increased linearly in function of the boric acid levels.

  8. Aplicação simultânea de dessecantes e boro no manejo de plantas daninhas e na nutrição mineral das culturas de soja e girassol Simultaneous application of desiccants and boron for weed control and mineral nutrition of soybean and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Brighenti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em pré-semeadura da soja (Glycine max e do girassol (Helianthus annuus, por meio de aplicações de herbicidas dessecantes, isolados ou em combinação com boro, bem como a resposta dessas culturas à aplicação desse micronutriente. Nas parcelas de soja, foram aplicados os tratamentos glyphosate (1,44 kg e.a. ha-1, glyphosate potássico (2,48 kg i.a. ha-1, diuron (0,2 kg i.a. ha-1 + paraquat (0,4 kg i.a. ha-1, e paraquat (0,400 kg i.a. ha-1. Nas parcelas de girassol, foram aplicados os tratamentos glyphosate (0,54 kg e.a. ha-1, glyphosate (0,72 kg e.a. ha-1, glyphosate potássico (1,24 kg i.a. ha-1, paraquat (0,4 kg i.a. ha-1, glyphosate (0,72 kg e.a. ha-1 + flumioxazin (0,025 kg i.a. ha-1 e glyphosate (0,72 kg e.a. ha-1 + carfentrazone (0,02 kg i.a. ha-1. Ambos os experimentos continham as testemunhas capinada e sem capina. As subparcelas dos dois experimentos foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença de B, junto à calda de pulverização, na fonte ácido bórico [H3BO3 - 17% B]. A adição de ácido bórico à calda de pulverização não prejudicou o controle das plantas daninhas pelos tratamentos dessecantes, exceto para a mistura formulada de paraquat + diuron. Houve aumento dos teores de boro no solo e nas folhas da cultura da soja e do girassol quando foram associados os tratamentos com herbicidas dessecantes e o ácido bórico. É viável a aplicação de herbicidas dessecantes e ácido bórico, controlando as plantas daninhas em présemeadura e aumentando o teor de B no solo e nas plantas de soja e de girassol.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate weed control in soybean (Glycine max and sunflower (Helianthus annuus pre-sowing by desiccant application alone or in combination with boron (B, as well as to evaluate the response of these crops to that micronutrient. The plots consisted of the desiccants glyphosate (1.44 kg a.e. ha-1

  9. Ferromagnetic Long Range Ordering in Copper(2) Maleate Monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-20

    thanks the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia for a partial fellowship. 10 References 1a) SYNTHECO, Inc., 1920 Industrial Pike, Gastonia, N.C...Philadelphia, 1966; Chapter 3. 14) D. B. Losee and W. E. Hatfield, Phs e.i Q 1122 (1974). 15) y . Yamamoto, M. Matsuura, and T. Haseda, J. Phys.-Soc...Mal in the solid state recorded at room temperature. 12 (0 Vj) N 4W +C +~ 13 4P4 CYC CS) (SG) CS + 0 (0 + C, S+ + 06 + + + 3 CC, (( Y ) uo p1 3ubA 00 CL

  10. High performance maleated lignocellulose epicarp fibers for copper ion removal

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,A. P.; Santana,S. A. A.; Bezerra,C. W. B.; Silva,H. A. S.; Santos,K. C. A.; Melo,J. C. P.; Silva Filho,E. C.; Airoldi,C.

    2014-01-01

    Natural lignocellulosic fiber epicarp extracted from the babassu coconut (Orbignya speciosa) was chemically modified through reaction with molten maleic anhydride without solvent, with incorporation of 189.34 mg g(-1) of carboxylic acid groups into the biopolymer structure. The success of this reaction was also confirmed by the presence of carboxylic acid bands at 1741 and 1164 cm(-1) in the infrared spectrum. Identically, the same group is observed through C-13 NMR CP/MAS in the solid state,...

  11. 21 CFR 522.2063 - Pyrilamine maleate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522... treating horses in conditions in which antihistaminic therapy may be expected to lead to alleviation of...

  12. Propagação vegetativa de Platanus acerifolia Ait: (II efeito da aplicação de zinco, boro e ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas Vegetative propagation of Platanus acerifolia Ait: (II effect of zinc,boron, and indolbutiric acid on rooting of cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação do zinco (Zn, boro (B e ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas de Platanus acerifolia Ait. Os tratamentos consistiram do condicionamento das estacas, coletadas em quatro épocas ao longo do ano e representando diferentes tipos fisiológicos, com: sulfato e cloreto de zinco (0, 2,5, 5, 10, 20 e 40mg l-1 Zn, ácido bórico (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250mg l-1 H3BO3 e ácido indolbutírico (0, 20 e 40mg l-1 AIB, através de solução aquosa, pela imersão de 3cm da base da estaca, com duas lesões laterais de 2cm, por 24 horas. A estaquia foi feita em vasos contendo como substrato uma mistura de areia média e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1, v/v, ambas lavadas. O experimento foi conduzido por 110 dias em casa de vegetação com aspersão intermitente. No encerramento do experimento, avaliaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: comprimento e número de raízes primárias por estaca, máteria seca de raízes por estaca e percentagem de enraizamento. A aplicação isolada de Zn e B não influencia o enraizamento das estacas. O condicionamento de estacas de ramos "do ano" basais finas com AIB afeta, negativamente, o percentual de enraizamento e, positivamente, o número de raízes por estaca.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of zinc (Zn, boron (B, and indolbutiric acid (IBA on rooting of Platanus acerifolia Ait. cuttings. The treatments of the cuttings, which were collected at four different times during the year and representing four physiological types of cuttings, were: zinc sulphate and chloride (0, 2,5, 5, 10, 20, and 40mg l-1 Zn, boric acid (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250mg l-1 H3BO3, and indolbutiric acid (0, 20, and 40mg l-1 IBA. The treatments with B, Zn and IBA were done through submersion of 3cm of the cutting basis, during 24 hours, in an aqueous solution. The cuttings were rooted in pots containing as substrate a mixture of medium sand + carbonised rice

  13. Crescimento e teores de clorofila em mudas de bananeira em função da supressão do pseudocaule, de doses de nitrogênio e de boro Growth and chlorophyll content of banana suckers in function of pseudostem suppression and doses of nitrogen and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a influência da eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e de doses de nitrogênio e boro, sobre a produção e o crescimento de mudas de bananeira. O experimento foi realizado no Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos da UFPB. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove plantas matrizes por parcela, sendo duas plantas úteis. Os fatores avaliados foram doses de N (0 a 240 g/planta e de B (0 a 2,2 g/planta combinados com a matriz experimental Composto Central de Box, originando nove combinações, arranjados fatorialmente com e sem eliminação da gema apical da planta matriz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. A supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com a eliminação da gema apical do rizoma aumentou o número de perfilhos, com maior crescimento, exceto do diâmetro do rizoma, o qual diminuiu. Os teores foliares de clorofila total e de B também foram diminuídos, nos perfilhos das bananeiras amputadas. Para a produção de mudas da bananeira ‘Pacovan’, recomenda-se a supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e aplicação do N.The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the removal in the pseudostem with elimination of the meristem apical of the rhizome and doses of nitrogen and boron, about the production and growth of banana suckers. The experiment was carried out at Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos - UFPB, State of Paraíba. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replications and nine mother plants for experimental unit, being two useful plants. The evaluated valued factors were doses of N (0 to 240 g plant-1 and of B (0 to 240 g plant-1 combined in agreement with the experimental matrix ‘Central Composite’, originating nine combinations, which were arranged factorially with suppression and without suppression of the pseudostem of the mother

  14. Differential behavioral profile induced by the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate within brain areas that project to the nucleus accumbens septi.

    OpenAIRE

    Llano López, Luis H.; Caif, Fernando; Fraile, Miriam; Tinnirello, Belén; Landa-Gargiulo, Adriana I.; Lafuente, José V.; Baiardi, Gustavo Carlos; Gargiulo, Pascual Angel

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the agonism on g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors was studied within medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) and ventral hipocampus (VH) in the plus-maze test in male rats bilaterally cannulated. These structures send glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS), in which interaction and integration between these afferent pathways has been described. In a previous study of our group, blockade of glutamatergic transmission within NAS induced an anxioly...

  15. Dipotassium tetraaquabis[3,5-bis(dicyanomethylenecyclopentane-1,2,4-trionato(1−-κN]cobaltate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Janczak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, K2[Co(C11N4O32(H2O4], is isotypic with K2[Fe(C11N4O32(H2O4]. The CoII atom is in a distorted octahedral CoN2O4 geometry, forming a dianionic mononuclear entity. Each dianionic unit is associated with two potassium cations and interacts with adjacent units through O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. Study of boro-tellurite glasses doped with neodymium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, Kishore, N.; Sheoran, M. S.; Devi, S.

    2018-05-01

    Borotellurite glasses doped with Nd2O3 [xB2O3(95-x)TeO25Nd2O3] have been prepared by the standard melt-quenching technique. Amorphous nature of the present system was estimated by XRD patterns. The thermal parameters like glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization (Tc) and melting (Tm) temperatures have been estimated from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces. Density and molar volume have been determined. It was found that Tg is increased due to increasing number of Te-O bonds were replaced by a number of stronger B-O bonds whereas density was decreased with an increase in B2O3 content is due to the higher degree of cross-bonding between the Boron and non-bridging oxygen ions resulting in a strengthening of glass network.

  17. Preparation and characterization of boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Nirmal; Khanna, Atul; Krishna, P. S. R.

    2014-04-01

    Glass samples of the system: xB2O3-(100-x) TeO2; x= 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were prepared by melt quenching and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the amorphous structure of all samples. Density of glasses decreased with increase in B2O3 concentration due to the replacement of heavier TeO2 with lighter B2O3 whereas the glass transition temperature increased from 339°C to 366°C; the later effect was due to increase in the concentration of stronger B-O bonds in the glass network. FTIR studies found that BO4 units convert into BO3 with the addition of B2O3.

  18. Lithium manganese(II) diaqua-boro-phosphate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Rong-Chuan; Chen, Xue-Yun; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2008-07-05

    The title compound, LiMn(H(2)O)(2)[BP(2)O(8)]·H(2)O, is built up of an open framework of helical borophosphate ribbons inter-connected by MnO(4)(H(2)O)(2) octa-hedra, forming one-dimensional channels along [001] occupied by Li(+) cations and disordered H(2)O mol-ecules (site occupancy 0.5). The Li cations reside in two partially occupied sites [occupancies = 0.42 (3) and 0.289 (13)] near the helices.

  19. Boro Silicate Glass: The proven Conditioning of RTR ultimate Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartagnon, O.; Petitjean, V.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility to dispose of the RTR spent fuel in a geological repository is neither internationally foreseen nor seems realistic. This due to degradation phenomena and possible criticality incidents. The conditioning by reprocessing is the only solution for back end management of TRT spent fuels

  20. Electrical properties of praseodymium oxide doped Boro-Tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesha Gowda, G.V. [Dept. of Physics, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bengaluru,India.Email:jagadeeshphy@rediffmail.com (India); Devaraja, C. [Dept.of Physics, Nagarjuna college of engineering and Technology, Bengaluru. India Email: deva.drr@rediffmail.com (India); Eraiah, B. [Dept.of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru,India.Email:eraiah@rediffmail.com (India)

    2016-05-06

    Glasses of the composition xPr{sub 6}O{sub 11}- (35-x)TeO{sub 2}-65B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0, 0.1 to 0.5 mol %) have been prepared using the melt quenching method. The ac and dc conductivity of glass have been measured over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. Experimental results indicate that the ac conductivity depend on temperature, frequency and Praseodymium content. The conductivity as a function of frequency exhibited two components: dc conductivity (σ{sub dc}), and ac conductivity (σ{sub ac}). The activation energies are estimated and found to be decreases with composition. The impedance plot at each temperature appeared as a semicircle passes through the origin.

  1. Preparation and characterization of boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Nirmal, E-mail: akphysics@yahoo.com; Khanna, Atul, E-mail: akphysics@yahoo.com [Glass Physics and Sensors Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005, Punjab (India); Krishna, P. S. R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-04-24

    Glass samples of the system: xB{sub 2}O{sub 3}−(100−x) TeO{sub 2}; x= 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were prepared by melt quenching and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the amorphous structure of all samples. Density of glasses decreased with increase in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration due to the replacement of heavier TeO{sub 2} with lighter B{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas the glass transition temperature increased from 339°C to 366°C; the later effect was due to increase in the concentration of stronger B-O bonds in the glass network. FTIR studies found that BO{sub 4} units convert into BO{sub 3} with the addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. Li ion conductivities in boro-tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nature of the added alkali-salt, changes in bonding features and also the equilibrium of ... (to remove water from LiBO2⋅2H2O) for 2 h. The mixture was then ..... particularly at higher temperatures. β and s do not bear out the relation β = 1-s.

  3. Electrical properties of praseodymium oxide doped Boro-Tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha Gowda G., V.; Devaraja, C.; Eraiah, B.

    2016-05-01

    Glasses of the composition xPr6O11- (35-x)TeO2-65B2O3 (x=0, 0.1 to 0.5 mol %) have been prepared using the melt quenching method. The ac and dc conductivity of glass have been measured over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. Experimental results indicate that the ac conductivity depend on temperature, frequency and Praseodymium content. The conductivity as a function of frequency exhibited two components: dc conductivity (σdc), and ac conductivity (σac). The activation energies are estimated and found to be decreases with composition. The impedance plot at each temperature appeared as a semicircle passes through the origin.

  4. Micropropagação de duas espécies frutíferas, em meio de cultura DSD1, modificado com fontes de boro e zinco Micropropagation of two fruit tree species on dsd1 culture medium modified with boric acid and zinc sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação de frutíferas de clima temperado pode gerar plantas livres de vírus e num curto espaço de tempo. Objetivando-se aprimorar técnicas de propagação in vitro de amoreira-preta e videira, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de boro e zinco, adicionados ao meio de cultivo. O meio foi constituído de sais DSD1, acrescido de 30 g L-1 de sacarose e 7 g L-1 de ágar, e o pH ajustado para 6,4 antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1 atm por 20 minutos. Os tratamentos consistiram de segmentos nodais de amoreira-preta cv. Tupy, do porta-enxerto de videira 'Kobber' e de concentrações de ácido bórico (0; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0 mg L-1 e sulfato de zinco hidratado (0; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0 mg L-1, em todas as combinações possíveis. Segmentos nodais de plantas preestabelecidas in vitro foram excisados e inoculados em tubo de ensaio, contendo 15 mL do meio de cultura. Posteriormente, os tubos de ensaio foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27 ± 1ºC, irradiância de 35 mmol.m-2.s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualisado, utilizando-se 4 repetições com 12 explantes cada. Após 70 dias de cultivo in vitro verificou-se que, melhores resultados na micropropagação de amoreira-preta cv. Tupy (Rubus sp. foram obtidos na ausência de ácido bórico e sulfato de zinco hidratado em meio de cultura DSD1. Com 4,0 mg L-1 de ácido bórico adicionado ao meio, verificou-se maior número de folhas e comprimento de raízes do porta-enxerto de videira 'Kobber' (Vitis sp..The micropropagation of temperate fruit trees may generate virus-free plants with the additional advantage of a shorter period of time compared to the traditional culture. Aiming to improve the in vitro propagation of blackberry and grapevine, different boron and zinc concentrations added to the culture medium were tested. The culture medium was constituted of DSD1 salts, added of 30 g L-1 sucrose and 7 g L-1 agar, and the p

  5. Boron and calcium sprayed on 'Fuyu' persimmon tree prevent skin cracks, groove and browning of fruit during cold storage Boro e cálcio pulverizado em árvores de caqui "Fuyu" previnem fissuras, estrias e escurecimento do fruto durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir Carlos Ferri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Flesh softening, skin browning and rotting are chief problems during cold storage (CS of 'Fuyu' Persimmon. We studied the effects of boron (B and calcium (Ca sprayed on the trees during three consecutive years, on the development of skin cracks, grooves and browning in persimmon fruit under CS in Farroupilha, RS, Brazil (29°31' south, 51°21' west, about 750 m altitude. A homogeneous orchard area of 0.5 ha was delimitated and three sets of five plants for each treatment were randomly selected. The persimmon trees were sprayed at a 20 day interval, from 15th January until harvest, for three consecutive years, with: T1 water; T2 calcium nitrate at 0.5% (m/v; T3 calcium chloride at 0.5% (m/v; and T4 boron at 0.3% (m/v. The fruit were harvest with orange-reddish colour; 18-20°Brix, pulp firmness of 45 to 60N, and kept under CS at 0±1°C for 45 days. The fruits were evaluated immediately before CS, after six hours at 23±2°C after removal from CS, and after four days at 23±2°C after removal from CS. Equally boron and calcium sprayed on the trees prevented skin cracks, skin grooves and skin browning. Besides, when boron was sprayed on the trees, the mentioned effects were additive in the following year.As principais alterações indesejáveis observadas no período pós-colheita de caquis em armazenamento refrigerado (AR são a perda de firmeza de polpa, e a ocorrência de escurecimento epidérmico e de podridões. Este trabalho teve por objetivo principal estudar as respostas da aplicação de boro (B e cálcio (Ca, em três safras sucessivas, na prevenção da ocorrência de fissuras, estrias e escurecimento epidérmico de caquis "Fuyu". No pomar (Farroupilha-RS-Brasil, 29°31' Sul, 51°21' Oeste, aproximadamente 750m altitude delimitou-se uma área homogênea de 0,5ha., marcando-se, ao acaso, três repetições de cinco plantas para cada tratamento: T1 - controle, caquizeiros não-pulverizados com B e Ca; T2 - pulverizações com Nitrato de

  6. Adsorção de boro em solos ácricos em função da variação do pH Boron adsorption in acric soils as a function of pH variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A adsorção de B pelo solo é o principal fenômeno que afeta sua disponibilidade e seu potencial de contaminação. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a investigar os efeitos do pH na adsorção de B em amostras superficiais e subsuperficiais de um Latossolo Vermelho Acriférrico (LVwf e de um Latossolo Amarelo Ácrico (LAw - ambos com balanço positivo de cargas no horizonte Bw - e de um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NVef; (b avaliar a adequação do modelo de Langmuir em simular os resultados experimentais de adsorção; e (c correlacionar os atributos químicos, físicos e mineralógicos dos solos com os valores de adsorção máxima (Ads máx e do coeficiente de afinidade (K L, derivados das isotermas. Experimentos do tipo "batch" foram realizados para determinação da quantidade de boro adsorvido, tendo como eletrólito-suporte soluções de NaCl 0,01 mol L-1 com 0,1; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; 1,2; 1,6; 2,0; e 4,0 µg mL-1 de B. Houve aumento da adsorção de B com a elevação do pH e da concentração inicial de B adicionado. Maiores quantidades de B foram adsorvidas na amostra superficial do NVef e nos horizontes Bw positivamente carregados dos Latossolos ácricos. A adsorção de B foi representada por isotermas dos tipos C (linear e L (exponencial e adequadamente ajustada pelo modelo de Langmuir. Os parâmetros Ads máx e K L estimados por regressão não-linear não se correlacionaram com o pH. No pH natural, teores de matéria orgânica (MO e de argila foram as variáveis que mais influenciaram a Ads máx nas camadas superficiais. Nas camadas subsuperficiais, a Ads máx correlacionou-se negativamente com os teores de MO e positivamente com os de gibbsita. Teores de (hidróxidos de Fe cristalinos e amorfos estiveram correlacionados aos valores de K L obtidos nas amostras subsuperficiais e ao pH natural, bem como à Ads máx das camadas superficiais após aumento do pH.Boron (B adsorption by soils affects its bioavailable contents and

  7. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os portugueses são dos maiores apreciadores mundiais de brássicas. A couve Tronchuda é cultivada em Portugal em área superior a 1000 ha. O seu consumo é sobretudo apreciado na quadra natalícia. Neste trabalho reportam-se resultados da fertilização com azoto e boro, na forma de adubos convencionais, e da utilização de Dix10 (com ˜10 % N total, um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em agricultura biológica. Plantas de raiz protegida foram transplantadas a 29 de Agosto de 2005 num compasso 0,8x0,5 m. O solo, de textura franca, continha 0,83 % matéria orgânica, 5,2 pH(H2O e teores em P e K médios e altos, respectivamente. Foram estabelecidas seis modalidades: sem adubação (SAd; Dix10, em dose equivalente a 80 kg N/ha; modalidades com 80 (NB e 160 (N+ kg N/ha, na forma de ureia; e modalidades sem B (B- e com aplicação de 2,2 (NB e 4,4 (B+ kg B/ha. Todas as modalidades de B foram fertilizadas com 80 kg N/ha e as de N com 2,2 kg B/ha, coincidindo na modalidade NB as doses médias de N e B. As plantas SAd produziram 13,7 Mg biomassa/ha e exportaram 33,9 kg N/ha e 40,9 g B/ha, valores significativamente inferiores às modalidades fertilizadas. Dix10 produziu 18,0 Mg de biomassa/ha e exportou 45,1 kg N/ha e 51,3 g B/ha. A modalidade NB originou maior produção de biomassa (38,6 Mg/ha e N exportado (107,9 kg/ha que as modalidades SAd e Dix10. A modalidade N+ não registou aumento de produção nem de N exportado comparativamente com NB. B+ não influenciou a produção de biomassa mas aumentou a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado. N+ reduziu significativamente a concentração de B nos tecidos e o B exportado, sugerindo um efeito de antagonismo da aplicação de N sobre a absorção de B. As produções obtidas e a recuperação aparente de nutrientes mostraram que a redução de produção de biomassa nas modalidades SAd e Dix10 se deveu à reduzida disponibilidade de N no solo durante a estação de crescimento

  8. RIGID THERMOSETTING LIQUID MOLDING RESINS FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES. II. COPOLYMERS OF SOYBEAN OIL MONOGLYCERIDE MALEATES WITH NEOPENTYL GLYCOL AND BISPHENOL A MALEATES. (R829576)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Production of D-malate by maleate hydratase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The biological activity of a chiral compound with respect to its pharmaceutical and agrochemical activity, flavour and taste can vary dramatically for the different enantiomers. Especially when using chiral compounds for pharmaceutical or agrochemical applications, the presence of the

  10. Processing and Characterization of a Polypropylene Biocomposite Compounded with Maleated and Acrylated Compatibilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A. Nerenz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP biocomposites containing 20 wt.% sunflower hull as a particulate reinforcement were compounded and tested under tensile, flexural, and impact loadings. The incorporation of the sunflower hull without compatibilizer resulted in diminished tensile strength and impact energy absorption but increased flexural strength and both tensile modulus and flexural modulus when compared to neat PP. Formulations containing three different chemical compatibilizers were tested to determine their effectiveness in improving the interfacial adhesion between the fiber surface and PP chains. Maleic anhydride grafted with PP (MA-g-PP achieved greater improvements in tensile strength but reduced impact strength in comparison to an acrylic-acid-grafted PP compatibilizer (AA-g-PP. The molecular weight, graft level, and the ability to affect strength, modulus, and absorbed impact energy were also investigated for the compatibilizers. A MA-g-PP having high molecular weight and low graft level was most effective in improving the investigated properties of a sunflower hull-reinforced polypropylene biocomposite.

  11. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    OpenAIRE

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties....

  12. Studies on the properties of rice-husk-filled-PP composites: effect of maleated PP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Leal Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is a by-product of rice milling process that usually finds inadequate final disposal (burning, land filling. Thermoplastics composites filled with rice husk flour are materials that offer an alternative for using this agricultural resource viewing the production of low dense materials with some specific properties. In this work composites of polypropylene (PP and rice husk flour (RHF were prepared by melt extrusion. Maleic anhydride-modified PP (MAPP was added as a coupling agent. It was verified that tensile strength decreased with filler loading. The presence of MAPP improved this property showing a strong dependence on the MAPP/RHF ratio (MAPP/RHF = 0.03 produced the best results. The density of the composites slightly increased with filler and coupling agent in comparison to pure PP. The presence of MAPP diminished more than 20% water uptake in highly-loaded composites.

  13. Crescimento de diamante dopado com Boro para eletrodos de uso em eletroquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leide Lili Gonçalves da Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films have been deposited over silicon substrate by hot-filament chemical-vapor-deposition process. A gas mixture of 0,5 vol. % methane and 1 vol. % methanol on hydrogen at a pressure of 50 Torr, have been used. Boric oxide dissolved in methanol have been used as the boron doping source during the diamond growth process. Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM have been performed on the samples. A change of Raman spectra with film doping was observed. The diamond characteristic line at 1333 cm-1 down shifted and its intensity decreased as the film resistivity decreased. On the other hand, a broad peak around 1220 cm-1 appeared and its intensity increased with decreasing film resistivity. No modifications on films morphology have been observed with different boron doping level. The grains were well-faceted with 2 mm average size

  14. Synovectomy by neutron capture in boron; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones en boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Ingenieria Electrica y Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, C.P. 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is an illness which affect approximately at 3% of the World population. This illness is characterized by the inflammation of the joints which reduces the quality of life and the productivity of the patients. Since, it is an autoimmune illness, the inflammation is due to the overproduction of synovial liquid by the increase in the quantity of synoviocytes. The rheumatoid arthritis does not have a definitive recovery and the patients have three options of treatment: the use of drugs, the surgery and the radio synovectomy. The synovectomy by neutron capture in Boron is a novel proposal of treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis that consists in using a charged compound with Boron 10 that is preferently incorporated in the synoviocytes and to a less extent in the rest of surrounding tissues of the joint. Then, the joint is exposed to a thermal neutron field that induces the reaction (n, {alpha}) in the {sup 10} B. the products of this reaction place their energy inside synoviocytes producing their reduction and therefore the reduction of the joint inflammation. Since it is a novel procedure, the synovectomy by neutron capture in boron has two problems: the source design and the design of the adequate drug. In this work it has been realized a Monte Carlo study with the purpose to design a moderating medium that with a {sup 239} Pu Be source in its center, produces a thermal neutron field. With the produced neutron spectra, the neutrons spectra and neutron doses were calculated in different sites inside a model of knee joint. In Monte Carlo studies it is necessary to know the elemental composition of all the joint components, for the case of synovia and the synovial liquid this information does not exist in such way that it is supposed that its composition is equal than the water. In this work also it has been calculated the kerma factors by neutrons of synovia and the synovial liquid supposing that their elemental composition are similar to the blood tissue, without iron and boron and with two boron concentrations. (Author)

  15. Radiosynoviorthesis of Knees by Means of 166Ho-Holmium-Boro-Macroaggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraft, O.; Kašpárek, R.; Ullmann, V.; Melichar, František; Kropáček, Martin; Mirzajevová, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2007), s. 296-302 ISSN 1084-9785 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiosynoviorthesis * radionuclide synovectomy * 166Ho Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2007

  16. Structural and Optical Properties of Lead-Boro-Tellurrite Glasses Induced by Gamma-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Abdul Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric studies of lead borotellurite glasses were carried out before and after gamma irradiation exposure. The increasing peak on the TeO4 bi-pyramidal arrangement and TeO3+1 (or distorted TeO4 is due to augmentation of irradiation dose which is attributed to an increase in degree of disorder of the amorphous phase. The structures of lead tellurate contain Pb3TeO6 consisting of TeO3 trigonal pyramid connected by PbO4 tetragonal forming a three-dimensional network. The decrease of glass rigidity is due to irradiation process which is supported by the XRD diffractograms results. The decreasing values of absorption edge indicate that red shift effect occur after irradiation processes. A shift in the optical absorption edge attributed to an increase of the conjugation length. The values of optical band gap, Eopt were calculated and found to be dependent on the glass composition and radiation exposure. Generally, an increase and decrease in Urbach’s energy can be considered as being due to an increase in defects within glass network.

  17. Boron steel. I Part. Preparation; Aceros al Boro Parte I. Preparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaraiz Franco, E; Esteban Hernandez, J A

    1960-07-01

    With the advent of the first nuclear reactors arise the need for control rods and shielding duties for some types of radiations. One of the materials used for this purpose has been the high boron steel. This paper describes the melting and casting procedures employed for the production, at laboratory scale, of steels with Boron content ranging from 1 to 4 per cent, as well as the metallographic and X-Ray techniques used for the identification of the present phases. The electrolytic technique employed for the isolation of the Fe{sub 2}B phase and its subsequent X-Ray identification has proved to be satisfactory. (Author) 11 refs.

  18. Lithium-Ion Mobility in Quaternary Boro-Germano-Phosphate Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguš-Milanković, Andrea; Sklepić, Kristina; Mošner, Petr; Koudelka, Ladislav; Kalenda, Petr

    2016-04-28

    Effect of the structural changes, electrical conductivity, and dielectric properties on the addition of a third glass-former, GeO2, to the borophosphate glasses, 40Li2O-10B2O3-(50 - x)P2O5-xGeO2, x = 0-25 mol %, has been studied. Introduction of GeO2 causes the structural modifications in the glass network, which results in a continuous increase in electrical conductivity. Glasses with low GeO2 content, up to 10 mol %, show a rapid increase in dc conductivity as a result of the interlinkage of slightly depolymerized phosphate chains and negatively charged [GeO4](-) units, which enhances the migration of Li(+) ions. The Li(+) ions compensate these delocalized charges connecting both phosphate and germanium units, which results in reduction of both bond effectiveness and binding energy of Li(+) ions and therefore enables their hop to the next charge-compensating site. For higher GeO2 content, the dc conductivity increases slightly, tending to approach a maximum in Li(+) ion mobility caused by the incorporation of GeO2 units into phosphate network combined with conversion of GeO4 to GeO6 units. The strong cross-linkage of germanium and phosphate units creates heteroatomic P-O-Ge bonds responsible for more effectively trapped Li(+) ions. A close correspondence between dielectric and conductivity parameters at high frequencies indicates that the increase in conductivity indeed is controlled by the modification of structure as a function of GeO2 addition.

  19. Structure and properties of alumino-boro-silicate glasses and melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    neuville, D. R.; Florian, P.; Cadars, S.; Massiot, D.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between physical properties and structure of glasses and melts in the system MO-T2O3-SiO2 (with M= Na2, Ca and T= Al, B) are technologically and geologically important, in particular to understand the microscopic origin of the configurational thermodynamic properties. The connection of these network former is fundamental to understand the physical properties of magmatic liquids. The configurational properties of melts and glasses provide fundamental information needed to characterize magmatic processes. A principal difficulty, however is to link the "macroscopic" configurational entropy with the structure of melts. This has been done by combining viscometry with Raman and NMR spectroscopy studies. From the viscosity measurements at low and high temperatures, we have obtained the configurational entropy, Sconf (log η = Ae + Be/TSconf, were η is the viscosity, T the temperature and Ae, Be two constants). Silicon, aluminum, and boron are 3 network formers playing different role on the silicate network, whereas Si is the strongest network former in coordination 4, 5 or 6 as a function of T, P; Al can play different function as a network former in 4- or 5-fold coordination and probably as a network modifier in 6 fold coordination. Boron observed in 3 or 4 fold coordination is always a network former but for very "fragile" glasses. For the glass the Al/B substitution produce a small decrease of the molar volume while this substitution produced a strong decrease of viscosity and glass transition temperature while the fragility of the network is less affected by this chemical change. Raman spectra show significant change in the D1 and D2 bands. NMR spectroscopies show also significant change as a function of chemical change and temperature. All this observations will be discussed and interpreted in order to link microscopic versus macroscopic changes.

  20. Near infrared and upconversion luminescence behaviour of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Arunkumar, S.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2014-04-01

    The broadband NIR and upconversion luminescence behavior in a new series of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped TeO2-B2O3-SrO-BaO-Li2O-LiF glasses have been studied exciting at a wavelength of 980 nm using semiconductor laser. A broadband emission is observed from 1450 to 1650 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) around 165 nm in 0.5wt% Yb3+ ion content E0.5YLTB glass. The radiative parameters such as transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σE), experimental and calculated branching ratios (βR), optical gain width (σp×FWHM) and radiative lifetime (τcal) have been calculated for the 4I13/2→4I15/2 NIR emission. Upconversion luminescence spectra of the prepared glasses have been studied and the ESA & ET processes have also been discussed and reported.

  1. Influence of heat treatment on structure and some physical properties of lithium boro-niobate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, I.; Sakr, E. M.; Soliman, A. A.; Ratep, A.

    2012-08-01

    The glass composition (90 mol% Li2B4O7-10 mol% Nb2O5) was prepared by the melt quenching technique. The quenched sample was heat treated at 480°C, 545°C and 630°C for 5 h and heat treated at 780°C with different time. The times were 5, 10, 15, 20, 28, and 36 h. The glass and glass ceramics were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dc conductivity as a function of temperature. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium diborate (Li2B4O7) were the main phases in glass ceramic addition to traces from LiNb3O8. Crystallite size of the main phases determined from the X-ray diffraction peaks are in the range <100 nm. The fraction of crystalline (LiNbO3) phase increases with increase the heat treatment temperature and time. The relation between physical properties and structure were studied.

  2. Structure and properties of barium tin boro-phosphate glass systems with very low photoelastic constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itadani, M.; Tricot, G.; Doumert, B.; Takebe, H.; Saitoh, A.

    2017-08-01

    Glasses in the BaO-SnO-P2O5-B2O3 system were prepared and evaluated in order to formulate preform glasses suitable for the fabrication of fiber cores with a very low photoelastic constant. A first glass system (I: xBaO-(60-x)SnO-40P2O5) was designed with a constant P2O5 content and various BaO contents (0-40 mol. %). Introduction of 3 mol. % of B2O3 to enhance the glass stability leads to the second glass system (II: x'BaO-(57-x')SnO-40P2O5-3B2O3) with 33-38 mol. % BaO. The structure of both systems was investigated by 1D/2D magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. 31P NMR showed the presence of Q2 and Q1 units in the first system and correlation 11B/31P NMR indicated that boron enters into the network as B(OP)4 structural units. The photoelastic constant was determined and the stability of the best formulations as well as their refractive index dispersion was established. The drawing temperature and isothermal heating time (without crystal precipitation) parameters were also accurately measured by using experimental time-temperature-transition. Considering that the refractive indices of the core and the cladding materials must match, detailed core and cladding compositions for a fiber enabling single-mode waveguide transmission were proposed.

  3. Elastic Properties and Structural Studies on Boro-Vanadate Glasses Containing Sulphate (SO42-) Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Sudhakar; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-12-01

    Elastic properties of xLi2SO4-16 Li2O-(84-x) [0.7 B2O3-0.3 V2O5] where (5≤x≥30) glasses have been prepared by melt quenching method and structural investigations were carried out using ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique at a frequency of 10 MHz and at 300 K. The molar volume increases and the density decreases with the increase of Li2SO4 concentration due to the incorporation of SO42- ions into the modified macromolecular network. The addition of Li2SO4 content leads to loose packing structure which is attributed to volume increasing effect and the reduction in the vibrations of borate and vanadate lattices. Increase in Li24SO results in decreasing cross link density which in turn decreases elastic moduli. The results are discussed in view of its network structure. The structural groups [VOO3/2]0 and [BO3/2]0 modify preferentially. This preference in modification is decided by the electronegativity (χ) of the structural groups.

  4. Electronic transport and relaxation studies in bismuth modified zinc boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankhar, Sunil; Kundu, R. S.; Parmar, R.; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2015-10-01

    The ac conductivity of tellurium based quaternary glasses having composition 60 TeO2 - 10 ZnO - (30 - x) B2O3 - xBi2O3; x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 has been investigated in the frequency range 10-1 Hz to 105 Hz and in the temperature range 483 K-593 K. The frequency and temperature dependent ac conductivity increase with increase in bismuth content and found to obey Jonscher's universal power law. The dc conductivity, crossover frequency and frequency exponent have been estimated from the fitting of the experimental data of conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. In the studied glasses the ac conduction may be described by overlapping of large polaron tunneling model. The activation energy is found to be decrease with increase in bismuth content and variable range hopping (VRH) proposed by Mott with some modification suggested by Punia et al. is more or less suitable to explain dc conduction. The value of the stretched exponent (β) obtained by fitting of M″ reveals the presence of non-Debye type of relaxation in the presently studied glass samples. Scaling spectra of electric modulus (M‧ and M″) collapse into a single master curve for all the compositions and temperatures. The values of activation energy of electric modulus (ER) and conduction (W) are nearly equal for all the studied glasses, indicating that the polaron have to overcome the same energy barrier during conduction as well as relaxation processes. The conduction and relaxation process in the presently studied glass samples are composition and temperature independent.

  5. Spectroscopic Properties of Erbium Ions Doped in Bismuth Boro-Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Sunil; Shukla, Rajni; Sanghi, Sujata; Agarwal, Ashish; Pal, Inder

    Glasses with composition 20B2O3.(79.5-x)Bi2O3.xSiO2 (10 ≤ x ≤ 40) containing 0.5mol% of Er3+ ions were prepared by melt-quench technique. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded at room temperature for all glass samples. Based on the Judd-Offelt theory, spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions are discussed by changing the host glass compositions. The intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6 are determined by applying least square analysis method. The variation of Ω2 and Ω6 with Bi2O3 content has been attributed to changes in the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and to the changes in the rare earth oxygen (RE-O) covalency. The variation of Ω4 with Bi2O3 content has been attributed to rigidity of the samples. Using these intensity parameters various radiative properties like spontaneous emission probability, branching ratio, radiative life time and stimulated emission cross-section of various emission lines have been evaluated. An intense green luminescence bands with maximum around 516 nm and 536 nm are assigned to the 2H11/2→ 4I15/2 and 4S3/2→ 4I15/2 transitions respectively has been obtained.

  6. Structural and optical properties of lead-boro-tellurrite glasses induced by gamma-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Yusoff, Wan Mohd Daud Wan; Aziz, Sidek Abdul; Rahman, Azhar Abdul

    2013-02-04

    Spectrophotometric studies of lead borotellurite glasses were carried out before and after gamma irradiation exposure. The increasing peak on the TeO(4) bi-pyramidal arrangement and TeO(3+1) (or distorted TeO(4)) is due to augmentation of irradiation dose which is attributed to an increase in degree of disorder of the amorphous phase. The structures of lead tellurate contain Pb(3)TeO(6) consisting of TeO(3) trigonal pyramid connected by PbO(4) tetragonal forming a three-dimensional network. The decrease of glass rigidity is due to irradiation process which is supported by the XRD diffractograms results. The decreasing values of absorption edge indicate that red shift effect occur after irradiation processes. A shift in the optical absorption edge attributed to an increase of the conjugation length. The values of optical band gap, E(opt) were calculated and found to be dependent on the glass composition and radiation exposure. Generally, an increase and decrease in Urbach's energy can be considered as being due to an increase in defects within glass network.

  7. Declining trends of water requirements of dry season Boro rice in the north-west Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharjee, Tapos Kumar; Halsema, van Gerardo; Ludwig, Fulco; Hellegers, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The drought prone North-West Bangladesh is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly because of less water availability in the dry period and high water requirement for crop production. Improved understanding of recent changes in crop water demand in the dry season is important

  8. Preparation and Quality Control of 166 Ho-boro -Macroaggregates for radiosynoviorthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáček, Martin; Melichar, František; Šrank, Jiří; Mirzajevová, Marcela; Klejzarová, M.; Kraft, O.; Kasparek, R.; Zahlava, J.; Chodacki, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 33, Supplement 2 (2006), S327-S327 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of European Association of Nuclear Medicine. 30.09.2006-04.10.2006, Athens] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : holmium * radiotherapy * synoviorthesa Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry

  9. Preparation and Quality Control of 166-Ho-Boro-Macroaggregates for Radiosynoviorthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáček, Martin; Šrank, Jiří; Mirzajevová, Marcela; Klejzarová, Michaela; Kraft, O.; Kašpárek, R.; Záhlava, J.; Chodacki, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 14 (2006), S327-S327 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. 30.9.2006-4.10.2006, Athens] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : holmium * radiotherapy Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  10. Hafnium in peralkaline and peraluminous boro-aluminosilicate glass, and glass subcomponents: a solubility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Linda L.; Darab, John G.; Qian, Maoxu; Zhao, Donggao; Palenik, Christopher S.; Li, Hong; Strachan, Denis M.; Li, Liyu

    2003-01-01

    A relationship between the solubility of hafnia (HfO2) and the host glass composition was explored by determining the solubility limits of HfO2 in peralkaline and peraluminous borosilicate glasses in the system SiO2-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O, and in glasses in the system SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3 in air at 1450 C. The only Hf-bearing phase to crystallize in the peralkaline borosilicate melts is hafnia, while in the boron-free melts sodium-hafnium silicates crystallize. All peraluminous borosilicate melts crystallize hafnia, but the slightly peraluminous glasses also have sector-zoned hafnia crystals that contain Al and Si. The more peraluminous borosilicate glasses also crystallize a B-containing mullite. The general morphology of the hafnia crystals changes as peralkalinity (Na2O/(Na2O+Al2O3)) decreases, as expected in melts with increasing viscosity. In all of the glasses with Na2O > Al2O3, the solubility of hafnia is linearly and positively correlated with Na2O/(Na2O + Al2O3) or Na2O - Al2O3 (excess sodium), despite the presence of 5 to 16 mol% B2O3. The solubility of hafnia is higher in the sodium-aluminum borosilicate glasses than in the sodium-aluminosilicate glasses, suggesting that the boron is enhancing the effect that excess sodium has on the incorporation of Hf into the glass structure. The results of this solubility study are compared to other studies of high-valence cation solubility in B-free silicate melts. From this, for peralkaline B-bearing glasses, it is shown that, although the solubility limits are higher, the solution behavior of hafnia is the same as in B-free silicate melts previously studied. By comparison, also, it is shown that in peraluminous melts, there must be a different solution mechanism for hafnia: different than for peralkaline sodium-aluminum borosilicate glasses and different than for B-free silicate melts studied by others

  11. Electrical conductivity and modulus formulation in zinc modified bismuth boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankhar, Sunil; Kundu, R. S.; Dult, Meenakshi; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2016-09-01

    The ac conductivity of zinc modified tellurium based quaternary glasses having composition 60 TeO2-10 B2O3-(30 - x) Bi2O3-x ZnO; x = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 has been investigated in the frequency range 10-1-105 Hz and in temperature range 483-593 K. Frequency and temperature dependent ac conductivity found to obey Jonscher power law modified by Almond-West. DC conductivity, crossover frequency and frequency exponent have been estimated from the fitting of the experimental data of conductivity with Jonscher power law modified by Almond-West. The ac conductivity and its frequency exponent have been analyzed by various theoretical models. In presently studied glasses ac conduction takes place via tunneling of overlapping large polaron tunneling. Activation energy is found to be increased with increase in zinc content and dc conduction takes place via variable range hopping proposed by Mott with some modification suggested by Punia et al. The value of the stretched exponent ( β) obtained by fitting of M^' ' }} reveals the presence of non-Debye type relaxation. Scaling spectra of ac conductivity and electric modulus collapse into a single master curve for all compositions and temperatures, reveals the presence of composition and temperature independent conduction and relaxation process in these glasses. Activation energy of conduction ( W) and electric modulus ( E R ) are nearly equal, indicating that polaron have to overcome the same energy barrier during conduction as well as relaxation processes.

  12. Triple modifier effect on physical, optical and structural properties of boro tellurite zinc lithium glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, P.; Srinivasu, D.; Narsimlu, N.; Ch. Srinivas, Kavitha, B.; Deshpandhe, Uday; Kumar, K. Siva

    2018-05-01

    To investigate physical, optical and structural properties of glass samples of the Quaternary system (60-x)B2O3-xTeO2-10ZnO-30Li2O with x=0,5,10,15, and 20 mol% were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. XRD confirmed the amorphous nature of all samples. Physical parameters like density, molar volume, Oxygen packing density and etc. calculated. Density of glass samples increased with the increase of TeO2 concentration due to the replacement of lighter B2O3 with heavier TeO2. Optical properties has studied with the help of UV-Visible spectra. Cut off wavelength is increases whereas Eopt and Urbache energies is decreased except intermediate mole fraction of TeO2 at which the triple modifier effect can be observed. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the network consists of TeO3 and TeO6 structural units along with BO3 and BO4 units.

  13. Effects of timolol maleate, levobunolol and apraclonidine on intraocular pressure, pupil size, blood pressure and heart rate in beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R.M. Padua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP, pupil size (PS, blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, and ECG variables (Pms wave PmV, PR interval, QRS complex, RMV wave and QT intervals over time during the instillation of 0.5% timolol, 0.5% levobunolol and 0.5% apraclonidine in clinically normal dogs. Ten adult beagles were used. Baseline values were measured at 8a.m., 2p.m. and 8p.m., for three consecutive days. A waiting period of 10 days between the administrations of each drug was established. For 15 consecutive days, the drug being tested was instilled in one eye of each dog twice a day (7a.m. and 7p.m.. The parameters were evaluated at the aforementioned times on days 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15. Data were statistically compared using the Bonferroni test and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (P<0.05. The Pearson test was used to evaluate any correlation between QT interval, HR and BP. The tested drugs did not find a decrease in IOP. A significant decreased in PS was observed in almost all dogs following levobunolol administration, relative to the control eye. A significant decrease in HR was observed on day 3 following levobunolol treatment, while apraclonidine induced an increase on day 15. Blood pressure was reduced in all measurement time points following apraclonidine treatment. A negative correlation between QT interval and HR was only observed in dogs treated with timolol. In conclusion, levobunolol was the only drug that induced significant alterations in PS. Apraclonidine was the only drug that induced systemic hypotension. Timolol was the only drug to that induced a negative correlation between QT and HR.

  14. Acute encephalopathy with concurrent respiratory and metabolic disturbances in first known parenteral human administration of flunixin meglumine and acepromazine maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Michael F; Wilson, Anwar C; Acquisto, Nicole M; Spillane, Linda; Schneider, Sandra M

    2013-08-01

    Flunexin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for veterinary use in horses and cattle. Acepromazine is a phenothiazine derivative used in horses, dogs, and cats. Human exposure to these substances is rare. We report a case of a human injection of two equine medications, flunixin and acepromazine, which resulted in altered mental status, respiratory alkalosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and elevation of liver transaminases in a 43-year-old woman who worked as a horse trainer. The patient intentionally self-injected these medications and subsequently presented to the Emergency Department with altered mental status and lethargy. The patient required hospitalization for metabolic abnormalities, including respiratory alkalosis, and suffered a gastrointestinal bleed requiring blood transfusion. The patient ultimately recovered with supportive measures. We believe this to be the first case of concomitant injection of flunixin and acepromazine in a human. This report explains a case of parenteral administration of two equine medications and the subsequent complications in a patient that presented to the Emergency Department. Human exposure to veterinary medications cannot be predicted by their effect in animals due to variations in absorption, distribution, and metabolism. Physicians should be aware that individuals who work with animals may have access to large quantities of veterinary medicine. This case also exemplifies the challenges that Emergency Physicians face on a daily basis, and generates additional consideration for overdoses and intoxications from medications that are not considered commonplace in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Solvent-free, catalyst-free aza-Michael addition of cyclohexylamine to diethyl maleate: reaction mechanism and kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Michal; Trhlíková, Olga; Podešva, Jiří; Abbrent, Sabina; Steinhart, Miloš; Dybal, Jiří; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2018), s. 58-67 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Aza-Michael addition * solvent-free * catalyst-free Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  16. Dipotassium cobalt(II) bis(hydrogen-phosphite) dihydrate, K.sub.2./sub.Co(HPO.sub.3./sub.).sub.2./sub..2H.sub.2./sub.O

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouarsal, R.; Essehli, R.; Lachkar, M.; Zenkouar, M.; Dušek, Michal; Fejfarová, Karla; El Bali, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 60, - (2004), i66-i68 ISSN 1600-5368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : crystal structure * phosphites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2004

  17. Neutron spectrum for neutron capture therapy in boron; Espectro de neutrones para terapia por captura de neutrones en boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Soto B, T. G. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Basicas, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Baltazar R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Programa de Doctorado en Ingenieria y Tecnologia Aplicada, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive of brain tumors and is difficult to treat by surgery, chemotherapy or conventional radiation therapy. One treatment alternative is the Neutron Capture Therapy in Boron, which requires a beam modulated in neutron energy and a drug with {sup 10}B able to be fixed in the tumor. When the patients head is exposed to the neutron beam, they are captured by the {sup 10}B and produce a nucleus of {sup 7}Li and an alpha particle whose energy is deposited in the cancer cells causing it to be destroyed without damaging the normal tissue. One of the problems associated with this therapy is to have an epithermal neutrons flux of the order of 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}-sec, whereby irradiation channels of a nuclear research reactor are used. In this work using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra obtained in the radial irradiation channel of the TRIGA Mark III reactor are calculated when inserting filters whose position and thickness have been modified. From the arrangements studied, we found that the Fe-Cd-Al-Cd polyethylene filter yielded a ratio between thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes of 0.006 that exceeded the recommended value (<0.05), and the dose due to the capture gamma rays is lower than the dose obtained with the other arrangements studied. (Author)

  18. Thermal analysis and vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the boro silicate mineral datolite - CaBSiO4(OH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes; Horta, Laura Frota Campos; Lopez, Andres

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the thermal stability and vibrational spectra of datolite CaBSiO4(OH) and relate these properties to the structure of the mineral. The thermal analysis of datolite shows a mass loss of 5.83% over a 700-775 °C temperature range. This mass loss corresponds to 1 water (H2O) molecules pfu. A quantitative chemical analysis using electron probe was undertaken. The Raman spectrum of datolite is characterized by bands at 917 and 1077 cm-1 assigned to the symmetric stretching modes of BO and SiO tetrahedra. A very intense Raman band is observed at 3498 cm-1 assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units in the structure of datolite. BOH out-of-plane vibrations are characterized by the infrared band at 782 cm-1. The vibrational spectra are based upon the structure of datolite based on sheets of four- and eight-membered rings of alternating SiO4 and BO3(OH) tetrahedra with the sheets bonded together by calcium atoms.

  19. Effect of Ga2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped boro-bismuth glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhou; Ya-Xun, Zhou; Shi-Xun, Dai; Tie-Feng, Xu; Qiu-Hua, Nie; Xiang, Shen

    2007-11-01

    The spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped Bi2O3-B2O3-Ga2O3 glasses are investigated experimentally. The effect of Ga2O3 content on absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters Omega t (t=2, 4, 6), fluorescence spectra and the lifetimes of Er3+:4I 13/2 level are also investigated, and the stimulated emission cross-section is calculated from McCumber theory. With the increasing of Ga2O3 content in the glass composition, the Omega t (t=2, 4, 6) parameters, fluorescence full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the 4I 13/2 lifetimes of Er3+ first increase, reach its maximum at Ga2O3=8 mol.%, and then decrease. The results show that Er3+-doped 50Bi2O3-42B2O3-8Ga2O3 glass has the broadest FWHM (81nm) and large stimulated emission cross-section (1.03 x1 0(-20)cm2) in these glass samples. Compared with other glass hosts, the gain bandwidth properties of Er+3-doped Bi2O3-B2O3-Ga2O3 glass is better than tellurite, silicate, phosphate and germante glasses. In addition, the lifetime of 4I 13/2 level of Er(3+) in bismuth-based glass, compared with those in other glasses, is relative low due to the high-phonon energy of the B-O bond, the large refractive index of the host and the existence of OH* in the glass. At the same time, the glass thermal stability is improved in which the substitution of Ga2O3 for B2O3 strengthens the network structure. The suitability of bismuth-based glass as a host for a Er3+-doped broadband amplifier and its advantages over other glass hosts are also discussed.

  20. Near infrared and upconversion luminescence behaviour of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshvaran, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University, Gandhigram - 624302, India and Department of Physics, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Trichengode - 637215 (India); Arunkumar, S., E-mail: mari-ram2000@yahoo.com; Vijayakumar, R., E-mail: mari-ram2000@yahoo.com; Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari-ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute − Deemed University, Gandhigram - 624302 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The broadband NIR and upconversion luminescence behavior in a new series of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped TeO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SrO-BaO-Li{sub 2}O-LiF glasses have been studied exciting at a wavelength of 980 nm using semiconductor laser. A broadband emission is observed from 1450 to 1650 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) around 165 nm in 0.5wt% Yb{sup 3+} ion content E0.5YLTB glass. The radiative parameters such as transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sup E}), experimental and calculated branching ratios (β{sub R}), optical gain width (σ{sub p}×FWHM) and radiative lifetime (τ{sub cal}) have been calculated for the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} NIR emission. Upconversion luminescence spectra of the prepared glasses have been studied and the ESA and ET processes have also been discussed and reported.

  1. Bismuth modified physical, structural and optical properties of mid-IR transparent zinc boro-tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, R.S.; Dhankhar, Sunil; Punia, R., E-mail: rajeshpoonia13@gmail.com; Nanda, Kirti; Kishore, N.

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Novel materials transmitting in mid-infrared spectral region. • Studied glasses may be good candidates for military and non-linear applications. • Hydrogenic excitonic model is applicable. • Transformation of TeO{sub 4} structural units into TeO{sub 3} units with increase in bismuth content. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3} exists in the both BO{sub 3} trigonal and BO{sub 4} tetrahedral structural units. -- Abstract: Tellurium oxide based quaternary glasses in the system TeO{sub 2}⋅B{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅ZnO have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of the samples has been ascertained by X-ray Diffractogram. The values of density and molar volume increase with increase in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. Theoretical calculations of crystalline volume (V{sub c}) have also been made. The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) has been determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and its value is observed to decrease with increase in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. IR and Raman spectra of the present glass system indicate that ZnO acts as network modifier and exists in ZnO{sub 4} units. TeO{sub 2} exists as TeO{sub 3}, TeO{sub 4}, and TeO{sub 6} structural units and the number of TeO{sub 4} groups decreases with increase in bismuth content except for the glass sample with x = 5, which shows maximum number of TeO{sub 4} structural units among all other studied glass samples and transformation of some of TeO{sub 4} structural units into TeO{sub 3} structural units is observed with increase in bismuth content. Bismuth plays the role of network modifier with BiO{sub 6} octahedral structural units for glass samples with x = 5, 10, and 15, whereas, exists in network forming BiO{sub 3} pyramidal structural units for glass sample with x = 20. B{sub 2}O{sub 3} exists in the form of BO{sub 3} trigonal and BO{sub 4} tetrahedral structural units. The transmittance of the present glasses is observed to be very high (up to 95%) in the spectral range (λ = 2.5–6.5 μm) which is of great technological importance. The percentage value of transmittance increases with increase in Bi concentration. The Hydrogenic excitonic model is applicable to the presently studied glasses and the optical band gap energies (E{sub g}) calculated from this model and Tauc’s plots for direct transitions are almost same. E{sub g} decreases with increase in bismuth content, however, the molar refractivity (R{sub m}) show the reverse trend. Metallization criterion for these materials shows that these glasses may be potential candidates for non linear applications.

  2. Deficiência de boro na cultura do abacaxi 'Pérola' Boron deficiency in pineapple 'Pérola'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cristine Siebeneichler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte plantas de abacaxi "Pérola" foram cultivadas em vasos de plástico de 10 L, em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de caracterizar os sintomas visuais de deficiência de B nas plantas e nos frutos. Os vasos continham areia de rio lavada cinco vezes com água comum e depois duas vezes com água desionizada. Dez plantas foram irrigadas com solução completa e, de outras dez, o B foi suprimido da solução cinco meses após o plantio. As plantas apresentaram crescimento vegetativo normal e formaram frutos normais. Após a colheita dos frutos, acompanhou-se a formação das mudas do tipo rebento e rebentão basal, onde se observou que as plantas cultivadas sem B formaram mais mudas do tipo rebento do que as plantas cultivadas com B. Na formação das mudas do tipo rebentão basal, não se observou o efeito da supressão do B. No cultivo da planta-soca e em rebentões basais, cultivados em solução nutritiva sem B, observaram-se sintomas de deficiência de B somente no período reprodutivo. Os sintomas de deficiência de B se caracterizaram por: frutos deformados e menores, com formação de excrescência cortiçosa ou secreção de goma entre os frutilhos, rachaduras entre estes preenchidas com excrescência cortiçosa. As mudas tipo filhote formadas nas plantas-soca apresentaram folhas com falhas na borda e pontas secas.Twenty pineapple "Pérola" plants were cultivated in 10L plastic pots in a greenhouse, with the objective of characterizing the visual symptoms of boron deficiency in the pineapple leaves and fruit. The pots contained river sand that was washed five times with common water and two times with deionized water. Ten plants were irrigated five months after planting with a complete nutrient solution and the other ten, without B in the solution. The plants presented regular vegetative growth and fruit formation. After the harvest of the fruit, the formation of shoot and suckers seedling types were accompanied, where it was possible to observe that plants were grown without B produced more seedling from the shoot type than from those ones grown with B. The formation of suckers was not affected by the suppression of B from the nutrient solution. Symptoms of boron deficiency were observed only in the fruiting period in plants in the second cycle of growth. Symptoms of B deficiency were characterized by deformed and smaller fruit, with formation of cork tissue or gum secretion among the fruitlets and cracks filled out with of cork tissue. Slip formed in second cycle plants had leaves with uneven borders and dry tips.

  3. Nanostructures based in boro nitride thin films deposited by PLD onto Si/Si3N4/DLC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, W S; Riascos, H; Caicedo, J C; Ospina, R; Tirado-MejIa, L

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon and boron nitride were deposited like nanostructered bilayer on Si/Si 3 N 4 substrate, both with (100) crystallographic orientation, these films were deposited through pulsed laser technique (Nd: YAG: 8 Jcm -2 , 9ns). Graphite (99.99%) and boron nitride (99.99%) targets used to growth the films in argon atmosphere. The thicknesses of bilayer were determined with a perfilometer, active vibration modes were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), finding bands associated around 1400 cm -1 for B - N bonding and bands around 1700 cm -1 associated with C=C stretching vibrations of non-conjugated alkenes and azometinic groups, respectively. The crystallites of thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determinated the h-BN (0002), α-Si 3 N 4 (101) phases. The aim of this study is to relate the dependence on physical and chemical characteristics of the system Si/Si 3 N 4 /DLC/BN with gas pressure adjusted at the 1.33, 2.67 and 5.33 Pa values.

  4. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  5. FONTES E DOSES DE BORO NA QUALIDADE DE SEMENTES DE FEIJÃO-COMUM E MAMONA SOB CONSÓRCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEUS LELES LIMA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated productivity of castor and common bean in intercropping is obtained with the use of quality seeds, where boron plays an important role in plant nutrition. The objective of the this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of the common bean and castor grown in intercropping syste ms, subject to different sources and levels of boron. A completely randomized design was used in a 2 x 5 + 2 facto- rial scheme with four replications. Treatments cons isted of two sources of boron (borax = 11% B and bo ric acid = 17% B, combined with five boron doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg ha -1 of B in the soil in intercropping of the common bean with castor, plus additional treatm ents of common bean and castor in monoculture. It w as concluded that boric acid permitted for acquisition of common bean seeds with the highest germination per- centage when intercropped with castor. Use of the d ose of 1.5 kg ha -1 of boron in the soil resulted in acquisition of seeds of the common bean with vigor of 79% when intercropped with castor, regardless of the boron s ource. Employing 2.3 kg ha -1 of boron, with the source being either boric acid or borax, influenced the vigor of castor seeds produced when intercropped with the common be an. The addition of boron by soil fertilization, in de- pendent of the source used, did not affect the phys iological quality of common bean seeds or castor se eds pro- duced in monoculture.

  6. Síntomas de deficiencia de macronutrientes y boro en plantas de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Fabio Ernesto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El desconocimiento de los signos y síntomas visibles de las deficiencias nutricionales no permite establecer oportunos correctivos para manejar plantas con suficiente vigor, producción y calidad de los frutos. Plantas de uchuva ecotipo Colombia, propagadas por semilla, se sembraron en sustrato de arena cuarcítica en materas de plástico (25 L, y se mantuvieron durante 135 días en condiciones de invernadero de plástico en Bogotá. Las deficiencias nutricionales se indujeron a través de soluciones nutritivas, usando el método del elemento faltante y empleando un diseño completamente al azar con ocho tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, a saber: T0. testigo con fertilización completa; T1. fertilización completa –N; T2. –P; T3. –K; T4. –Ca; T5. –Mg; T6. –B, y T7. agua potable únicamente. Solamente en el caso del nitrógeno se aplicó 15% del N de la fertilización completa. Quincenalmente se efectuó una descripción visual y se llevó un registro fotográfico de los síntomas manifestados. Las plantas con deficiencias de N, K y B presentaron los síntomas más severos, generando efectos negativos sobre la arquitectura y el deficiente porte de las plantas, además de causar una seria afección sobre el tejido vegetal. Las plantas deficientes en B tomaron una forma de roseta, típico síntoma hipoplástico. Las uchuvas que sufrieron deficiencias de P, Ca, Mg presentaron distorsiones en el color del follaje, observándose para la deficiencia de P, una coloración púrpura tanto en hojas de la zona reproductiva de la planta como en las del tallo principal. Las deficiencias de Mg y Ca, respectivamente, indujeron clorosis foliar intervenal y coloraciones anaranjadas.

  7. Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... was shown that freeze drying and precipitation of enzyme using ammonium sulphate were the best. Based on ... potassium sodium tartrate, di-potassium hydrogen phosphate anhy- ..... Cellulosomes from mesophilic bacteria.

  8. Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Pisodonophis boro (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Thailand, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Proleptinae Schulz, 1927

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Taraschewski, H.; Thairungroj Anantaphruti, M.; Maipanich, W.; Laoprasert, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2007), s. 73-80 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Heliconema * Pisodonophis * Thailand Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2007

  9. Synthesis and characterization of boron trifluoride (B F[sub 3]). Sintese e caracterizacao de trifluoreto de boro (BF[sub 3])

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, E T.R.; Umeda, K; Echternacht, M V; Silva, E.F. da.

    1994-08-01

    High purity boron trifluoride (B F[sub 3]) has been prepared from reaction of ammonium fluorborate and boron oxide in concentrated sulfuric acid. Fluorborate was synthesized by reaction of ammonium bi fluoride and boric acid produced from enrichment plant. (author).

  10. Obtención y caracterización mecánica de un acero bainítico aleado con boro (10 y 20 ppm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bainitic steels have become one of the metals most widely investigated in the last decade, due to the exceptional combination of mechanical properties. The advantage of such materials is to obtain free carbide structures that combine good mechanical strength with excellent toughness. In this work were established and properly controlled conditions to cast a bainitic steel with 10 and 20 ppm of boron, and subsequently thermomechanical treatment of rolling process between 1000 °C and 1200 °C. The microstructure characterization was carried out by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical characterization by hardness, strength-strain and toughness test at room temperature. The results show an ultimate strength of 1800 MPa and elongations of 16%. Also, it is noticeable increase in mechanical properties with increasing boron content in the steels. Probably boron acts as grain refiner and decrease the nucleation of the ferrite grain on austenite boundaries, improving the formation of Bainite.

  11. BCNT studies for application to the undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma; Estudios de terapia por captura neutronica en boro para su aplicacion al tratamiento del cancer indiferenciado de tiroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, Maria A; Viaggi, Mabel E; Cabrini, Romulo L; Juvenal, Guillermo J; Pisarev, Mario A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia; Garavaglia, Ricardo N; Farias, Silvia S [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Belli, Carolina; Larripa, Irene [Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Genetica; Gangitano, David [Policia Federal Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Quimica

    2000-07-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) lacks an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of {sup 10}B-boronated compounds by some tumours, followed by irradiation with an appropriate neutron beam. The radioactive boron originated ({sup 11}B) decays releasing {sup 7}Li, gamma rays and alpha particles, and these latter will destroy the tumour. In order to explore the possibility of applying BNCT to UTC we have studied the biodistribution of BPA. Animal Model: To develop an animal model of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC), which may be useful to study of BNCT. The UTC human cell line ARO was implanted into the back of the nude mice. We performed successive passages in mouse after tumor culturing in order to obtain an animal model similar to the human tumor. We studied the kinetics and the tumoral histology, the capability to induce metastasis, the biokinetics of in vitro growth, as well as cytogenetic and molecular aspects. Histological specimens of tumor showed extensive viability with high mitotic activity. At 117 days, the tumors reached a size of 1700 mm{sup 3} and showed a central necrotic portion with a thin layer of viable cells presence of micro metastasis could be observed in the lung. The kinetics of growth both in vivo and in vitro showed that when the number of passages in mouse increases the growth rate decreases. The cytogenetic and molecular studies did not show differences between the original line and the sublines that could explain this phenotypic change. Moreover, the cytogenetic studies proved that the ARO cell line and its sublines showed a complex clonal karyotype including structural alterations with deletions and translocations involving chromosomes 5, 7, 8, 9p, 11p, 17q 19p, and 20q that were consistent with earlier reported data in UTC. In vivo BNCT studies: ARO cells were transplanted into the scapular region of NIH nude mice, and after 2 weeks BPA (350 or 600 mg/kg bw) was injected via i.p. The animals were sacrificed between 30 and 150 min after the injection. With 350 mg, tumor uptake was highest after 60 min and the tumour/normal thyroid and tumour/blood ratios were 3 and 5, respectively. When 600 mg/kg bw BPA were administered, after 90 min. the tumor/ blood, tumor/ normal thyroid and tumor/ distal skin ratios for {sup 10}B concentrations/g tissue were approximately 3, showing a selective uptake by the tumor. Conclusions: This work provides an animal model of UTC pheno and geno typically similar to the original human tumor, which may be useful to explore BNCT. The present BNCT experimental results open the possibility of applying BNCT for the treatment of UTC. (author)

  12. Electrolyte influence on the Cu nanoparticles electrodeposition onto boron doped diamond electrode; Influencia do eletrolito na eletrodeposicao de nanoparticulas de Cu sobre eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Jorge Tadao; Santos, Laura Camila Diniz; Couto, Andrea Boldarini; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Neidenei Gomes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the electrolyte influence on deposition and dissolution processes of Cu nanoparticles on boron doped diamond electrodes (DDB). Morphological, structural and electrochemical analysis showed BDD films with good reproducibility, quality and reversible in a specific redox system. Electrodeposition of Cu nanoparticles on DDB electrodes in three different solutions was influenced by pH and ionic strength of the electrolytic medium. Analyzing the process as function of the scan rate, it was verified a better efficiency in 0,5 mol L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Under the influence of the pH and ionic strength, Cu nanoparticles on DDB may be obtained with different morphologies and it was important for defining the desired properties. (author)

  13. Sequence-based HLA-A, B, C, DP, DQ, and DR typing of 100 Luo infants from the Boro area of Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam; Copin, Richard; Leary, Shay; Mack, Steven J; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Sette, Alessandro; Blatner, Gretta; Siefers, Heather; Ernst, Joel D

    2017-04-01

    One hundred healthy infants enrolled as controls in a tuberculosis vaccine study in Nyanza Province, Kenya provided anonymized samples for DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, and -DRB3/4/5 loci. The purpose of the study was to characterize allele frequencies in the local population, to support studies of T cell immunity against pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are no detectable deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions for the HLA-B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. A minor deviation was detected at the HLA-A locus due to an excess of HLA-A*02:02, 29:02, 30:02, and 68:02 homozygotes. The genotype data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under identifier 3393. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Directed ortho metalation-based methodology. Halo-, nitroso-, and boro-induced ipso-desilylation. Link to an in situ Suzuki reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongdong; Snieckus, Victor

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] Treatment of DoM-derived silylated aromatics 2-4 under standard electrophilic halogenation conditions cleanly affords ipso-desilyation products 5-7, while nitration of methoxy-substituted analogues 8, 9 leads to non-ipso isomers 10, 12 and 11, 13, controlled by a silicon steric effect. Sequential ipso-borodesilylation of 2a, 3a, and 20 followed by treatment with aryl halides under Pd-catalyzed conditions constitutes an in situ Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling protocol to biaryls and heterobiaryls 23.

  15. Mapping and validation of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage in rice from an indica cultivar Habiganj Boro VI (Hbj.BVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Partha S; Khatun, Hasina; Das, Nomita; Sarker, Md Mahathir; Anisuzzaman, M

    2017-12-01

    Yellowing, stunting, and seedling death associated with cold stress is a common problem in many Asian countries for winter rice cultivation. Improvement of cultivars through marker-assisted selection of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage from locally adapted germplasm/cultivar is the most effective and sustainable strategy to resolve this problem. A study was undertaken to map QTLs from 151 F 2:3 progenies of a cross between a cold susceptible variety, BR1 and a locally adapted traditional indica cultivar, Hbj.BVI. A total of six significant QTLs were identified for two cold tolerance indices-cold-induced leaf discoloration and survival rate after a recovery period of seven days on chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and 12. Among these QTLs, qCTSL - 8 - 1 and qCTSS - 8 - 1 being co-localized into RM7027-RM339 on chromosome 8 and qCTSL - 12 - 1 and qCTSS - 12 - 1 into RM247-RM2529 on chromosome 12 showed 12.78 and 14.96% contribution, respectively, to the total phenotypic variation for cold tolerance. Validation of QTL effect in BC 1 F 3 population derived a cross between a cold susceptible BRRI dhan28 and Hbj.BVI showed dominating effect of qCTSL - 12 - 1 on cold tolerance at seedling stage and it became stronger when one or more other QTLs were co-segregated with it. These results suggest that the QTLs identified in this study are stable and effective on other genetic background also, which warrant the use of these QTLs for further study aiming to cultivar development for seedling stage cold tolerance.

  16. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency Anatomia de ramos e folhas de cafeeiro sob feficiência de boro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0.0 (deficient, 5.0 µM (adequate and 25.0 µM (high. At the first symptoms of deficiency, leaves were evaluated, the cell walls separated and assessed for B and Ca concentrations. Scanning electron micrographs were taken of cuts of young leaves and branch tips. The response of both coffee varieties to B was similar and toxicity symptoms were not observed. Boron concentrations in the cell walls increased with B solution while Ca concentrations were unaffected. The Ca/B ratio decreased with the increase of B in the nutrient solution. In deficiency of B, vascular tissues were disorganized and xylem walls thinner. B-deficient leaves had fewer and deformed stomata.A deficiência de B é muito comum nos cafezais brasileiros, mas as respostas do cafeeiro ao B têm sido erráticas, dependendo do ano, do modo e época de aplicação e, ainda, da fonte de B empregada. Um melhor entendimento dos efeitos do B na fisiologia e anatomia do cafeeiro é importante para o desenvolvimento de um programa racional de adubação boratada, uma vez que a anatomia da planta pode influenciar a translocação do nutriente. Neste experimento, plantas de dois cultivares foram cultivadas em soluções nutritivas com 0,0 (deficiente, 5,0 (adequado e 25,0 µM (alto de B. Quando os primeiros sintomas de deficiência apareceram, as folhas foram cortadas e tiveram suas paredes celulares isoladas e analisadas quanto aos teores de B e Ca. Cortes foram feitos em folhas novas e no ápice de ponteiros e fotografados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. A resposta dos dois cultivares ao B foi semelhante, não tendo sido observados sintomas de toxidez. O teor de B nas paredes celulares foi aumentado com o incremento da concentração desse elemento na solução, enquanto o teor de Ca não foi afetado. A relação Ca/B decresceu com o aumento da concentração de B na solução. Com deficiência de B, os tecidos vasculares foram desorganizados e as paredes do xilema ficaram mais finas. Folhas de café com deficiência deste nutriente apresentaram menos estômatos, os quais se encontravam.

  17. Transporte de boro no solo e sua absorção por eucalipto Transport of boron in soil and its uptake by eucalypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O mecanismo e a magnitude do transporte de B até as raízes das plantas dependem da umidade e do teor do nutriente no solo. As contribuições do fluxo de massa e da difusão para o transporte de B até as raízes de eucalipto foram avaliadas em resposta ao potencial de água do solo e às doses do nutriente. No ensaio, foram utilizados dois potenciais de água do solo (-10 e -40 kPa e seis doses de B (0, 0,5, 1, 2, 3 e 5 mg dm-3 de B. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade de 2,5 dm³ em casa de vegetação. O controle do potencial da água do solo foi efetuado pelo uso de um tensiômetro por vaso, e o ajuste por acréscimo de água destilada. A máxima produção de matéria seca de raízes foi obtida nas doses correspondentes a 0,98 e 2,38 mg dm-3 de B nos potenciais de água de -10 e -40 kPa, respectivamente. A máxima produção de matéria seca de parte aérea foi obtida nas doses correspondentes a 0,96 e 1,82 mg dm-3 de B nos potenciais de água de -10 e -40 kPa, respectivamente. Foram observadas relações positivas e altamente significativas (p The mechanism and magnitude of B transport to plant roots depend on both water and B soil contents. The contribution of mass flow and diffusion to the B transport in soil to eucalypt roots was evaluated in response to the water potential and B rates. Two water potentials (-10 and -40 kPa and six B levels (0; 0.5; 1; 2; 3 and 5 mg dm-3 of B were evaluated. The plants were grown in 2.5 dm³ plastic pots with soil, in a greenhouse. The water potential was controlled by a tensiometer in each pot and soil moisture adjusted with distilled water. The maximum root dry weight was produced at rates of 0.98 and 2.38 mg dm-3 of B, at potentials of -10 and -40 kPa, respectively, and the maximum shoot dry weight at rates of 0.96 and 1.82 mg dm-3 of B, at potentials of -10 and -40 kPa, respectively. Positive and highly significant relationships were observed between B rates, soil extractable B, B in soil solution and B plant content at both water potentials. Mass flow was the predominant mechanism for B transport in soil, supplying 100 % of the plant demand in the soils treated with the highest B rates. Diffusion was a complementary mechanism, but its relative increased substantially under conditions of low soil B and greater water deficit.

  18. Microstructural characterization aluminium alloys from the addition of boron; Caracterizacao microestrutural de ligas de aluminio a partir da adicao de boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.G.P.; Pipano, T.F.; Mota, M.A.; Mariano, N.A.; Ramos, E.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2014-07-01

    In the electrical industry, the aluminum becomes attractive because it has excellent characteristics for transmitting electricity. The liquid aluminum has in its composition transition elements (zirconium, titanium, vanadium and chromium) that interfere negatively on the quality of the product. The addition of aluminum-boron alloys have been used to remove transition metals through the formation of borides, enabling an increase in electrical conductivity. However, no detailed reports of reactions between boron, transition metals and primary aluminum engines. However, the objective is to determine the stoichiometric composition that enables an increase in electrical conductivity of an aluminum alloy. Samples with different concentrations of boron were characterized by optical emission spectrometry, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The addition of boron in excess reduces the time in the formation of borides, and enable an increase in electrical conductivity. (author)

  19. Nanostructures based in boro nitride thin films deposited by PLD onto Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/DLC substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, W S; Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma, Laser y Aplicaciones, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Caicedo, J C [Grupo de PelIculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Ospina, R [Laboratorio de Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Manizales (Colombia); Tirado-MejIa, L, E-mail: hriascos@utp.edu.c [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon and boron nitride were deposited like nanostructered bilayer on Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrate, both with (100) crystallographic orientation, these films were deposited through pulsed laser technique (Nd: YAG: 8 Jcm{sup -2}, 9ns). Graphite (99.99%) and boron nitride (99.99%) targets used to growth the films in argon atmosphere. The thicknesses of bilayer were determined with a perfilometer, active vibration modes were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), finding bands associated around 1400 cm{sup -1} for B - N bonding and bands around 1700 cm{sup -1} associated with C=C stretching vibrations of non-conjugated alkenes and azometinic groups, respectively. The crystallites of thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determinated the h-BN (0002), alpha-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (101) phases. The aim of this study is to relate the dependence on physical and chemical characteristics of the system Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/DLC/BN with gas pressure adjusted at the 1.33, 2.67 and 5.33 Pa values.

  20. Influence of Ga3+ ions on spectroscopic and dielectric features of multi component lithium lead boro bismuth silicate glasses doped with manganese ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh Babu, P.; Vijay, R.; Nageswara Rao, P.; Veeraiah, N.; Krishna Rao, D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The plots between ε″(ω)ω vs. ε′(ω) and ε″(ω)/ω vs. ε′(ω) yield straight lines with slope 1/τ and τ, respectively. Considerable deviation from the straight line is observed in the high frequency region. Such deviation suggests spreading of relaxation times and this is attributed to the presence of multiple type of dipoles in the glass matrix. Variation of the parameters ωε″(ω) and ε″(ω)/ω with ε′(ω) of glass Li 2 O–PbO–B 2 O 3 –SiO 2 –Bi 2 O 3 –MnO multi-component glasses mixed with 2.0 mol% of Ga 2 O 3 measured at 373 K. - Highlights: • A series of Li 2 O–PbO–B 2 O 3 –SiO 2 –Bi 2 O 3 –MnO:Ga 2 O 3 glasses have been synthesized. • A variety of spectroscopic and dielectric properties have been investigated. • Analysis of the results indicated that glasses with below 3.0 mol% Ga 2 O 3 are good conducting materials. - Abstract: Multi-component glasses of the chemical composition 19.5Li 2 O–20PbO–20B 2 O 3 –30SiO–(10 − x)Bi 2 O 3 –0.5MnO:xGa 2 O 3 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 5.0 have been synthesized. Spectroscopic (optical absorption, IR, Raman and ESR) and dielectric properties were investigated. Optical absorption and ESR spectral studies have indicated that managanese ions do exist in Mn 3+ state in addition to Mn 2+ state in the samples containing low concentration of Ga 2 O 3 . The IR and Raman studies indicated increasing degree of disorder in the glass network with the concentration of Ga 2 O 3 up to 3.0 mol%. The dielectric constant, loss and ac conductivity are observed to increase with the concentration of Ga 2 O 3 up to 3.0 mol%. The quantitative analysis of the results of dielectric properties has indicated an increase in the insulating strength of the glasses as the concentration of Ga 2 O 3 is raised beyond 3.0 mol%. This has been attributed to adaption of gallium ions from octahedral to tetrahedral coordination

  1. Abundancias químicas de las estrellas CP del grupo HgMn μ Leporis y 53 Tauri. II. Boro, Berilio, Carbono, Magnesio, Aluminio y Silicio

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Z.; Malaroda, S. M.; Faraggiana, R.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de los elementos más livianos presentes en dos estrellas CP del grupo HgMn, μ Lep y 53 Tau, utilizando espectros IUE de alta resolución y técnicas de cálculo de espectros sintéticos. Para el cálculo de las líneas se utiliza la lista mas completa de datos atómicos disponible y el programa SYNTHE. Para el cálculo de la abundancia de un elemento se comparan, para cada imagen, los perfiles observados del mayor número de líneas presentes con los perfiles calculados obtenidos por variación de las abundancias iniciales, reteniendo la abundancia para la cual el acuerdo entre las líneas observadas y calculadas es considerado visualmente el mejor. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los estimados por la teoría de la difusión.

  2. Effects of Antihistamine, Age, And Gender on Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilliland, Kirby

    1999-01-01

    This investigation was designed to study the effects of the antihistamine, chlorpheniramine maleate, as well as the influence of age and gender, singly and in combination with chlorpheniramine maleate...

  3. Regeneration of polyborazylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Gordon, John C.

    2010-12-07

    Method of producing ammonia borane, comprising providing polyborazylene; digesting the polyborazylene with a dithiol-containing agent to produce a boro-sulfide compound and a byproduct; converting the byproduct to the boro-sulfide product of step (b) by reaction with a first alkyl-tin hydride; and, converting the boro-sulfide compound produced in steps (b) and (c) to ammonia borane by reaction with a second alkyl-tin hydride.

  4. Use of the HRICP-MS technique for the evaluation of boron isotopes in Eucalitpus plants; Uso da tecnica HRICP-MS na avaliacao dos isotopos de boro em eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiello, Edson Marcio; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro da, E-mail: mattiello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The {sup 10}B isotope tracer technique is essential to study the B mobility in plants. Factors that can influence the quality of measured B isotope ratios were optimized experimentally using High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HRICP-MS). An isotopically certified standard (NIST SRM-951) was used. The best combination was obtained using a resolution of 400, a RF power of 1250 W, followed by 15 measurements over a 10-s integration period each (15*10). Utilizing this approach it was possible to obtain a precision of 0.3 % in standard material and 2z % in the experimental samples. The results show the importance of establishing optimized work conditions before carrying out the analytical series. (author)

  5. Tl and OSL dosimetry of diamond films CVD pure and unpurified with boron-carbon; Dosimetria Tl y OSL de peliculas de diamante CVD puras e impurificadas con boro-carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendrez, R.; Pedroza M, M.; Chernov, V.; Ochoa N, J.D.; Bernal, R.; Barboza F, M. [CIF, UNISON, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 1626, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Goncalves, J.A.N.; Sandonato, G.M. [Laboratorio Associado de Plasma, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais C.P. 515- 12201 -970, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cruz Z, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Preciado F, S.; Cruz V, C.; Brown, F. [Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales de la Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Schreck, M. [Universitaet Augsburg, Institut fuer Physik D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The diamond is a material that possesses extreme physical properties, such as its hardness to the radiation, its low chemical reactivity besides its equivalence to the human tissue, which qualify him as an ideal material for radiation dosimetry. In this work, it was studied the thermal and optically stimulated response (Tl and OSL) of polycrystalline diamond films grown by the technique of CVD pure and contaminated with Boron-carbon (B/C) with the intention of characterizing their efficiency like a dosemeter for radiation in a range of 0 - 3000 Gy. For the case of the films without impurities, the Tl curve presents four main peaks, two of them in an interval of temperatures of 150-200 C and other two additional around of 250-400 C. The dependence of the response of integrated Tl and that of OSL always maintained a lineal relationship with the exhibition dose up to 100 Gy. The behavior of the films contaminated with B/C (2000 - 20000 ppm) was established through experiments that involved the signal of OSL and their relationship with the Tl response. It was found that this processes are correlated, since the electrons caught in the traps of low temperature (50 - 250 C) of the Tl they are the electrons that recombining with more probability to provide the signal of OSL. According to these results it is possible to propose the diamond films as a good candidate for dosimetry to, using the traditional technique of Tl so much as well as the but recent of OSL. (Author)

  6. The labeling of unsaturated gamma-hydroxybutyric acid by heavy isotopes of hydrogen: iridium complex-mediated H/D exchange by C-H bond activation vs reduction by boro-deuterides/tritides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Pedersen, M. H. F.; Vogensen, S. B.; Clausen, R. P.; Frolund, B.; Elbert, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2016), s. 476-483 ISSN 0362-4803 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-H activation * borotritides * hydrogen/deuterium exchange * iridium catalyst * tritium-labeled gamma-hydroxybutyric acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2016

  7. Implementation of new capacities in TRAC-BF1/NEM for the simulation of transient with injection of boron; Implementacion de nuevas capacidades en TRAC-BF1/NEM para la simulacion de transitorios con inyeccion de Boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambrina, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.

    2011-07-01

    This article is a step in the simulation of the injection, transport and mixing of boron in the reactor, increasing the capabilities of the TRACBF1/NEM code. This article presents the changes in the source code for TRACBF1/NEM, to be able to simulate the injection of boron in a more realistic way.

  8. Determinação voltamétrica de amitriptilina em formulações farmacêuticas com eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro explorando medidas em meio ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and reliable voltammetric method is presented for the determination of amitriptyline using a boron-doped diamond electrode in 0.1 mol L-1 sulfuric acid solution as the support electrolyte. Under optimized differential pulse voltammetry conditions (modulation time 5 ms, scan rate 70 mV s-1, and pulse amplitude 120 mV, the electrode provides linear responses to amitriptyline in the concentration range 1.05 to 92.60 µmol L-1 and at a detection limit of 0.52 µmol L-1. The proposed method was successfully applied in pharmaceutical formulations, with results similar to those obtained using UV-vis spectrophotometric method as reference (at 95% confidence level, as recommended by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia.

  9. The use of halogen carriers and buffers in the spectrographic determination of boron in carbonaceous materials and their combustion products; Empleo de agentes halogenantes y reguladores en la determinacion espectrografica de Boro en carbones y productos derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucandio, M I; Martin, M; Roca, M

    1992-07-01

    For the determination of boron in carbonaceous materials (high purity graphite, coals and their processed products, such as ashes and slags from thermoelectric power plants) by atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic recording, the behaviour of the analyte in the presence of halide compounds or spectrochemical buffers has been studied. Among the halides, cupric fluoride at a low concentration (2%) becomes very suitable for the graphite analysis, and at a higher concentration (25 %) for coals, being necessary in this case to carry out a dilution of samples with graphite. Strontium carbonate as a spectrochemical buffer allows to analyse satisfactorily coals and their combustion products. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. The labeling of unsaturated γ-hydroxybutyric acid by heavy isotopes of hydrogen: iridium complex-mediated H/D exchange by C─H bond activation vs reduction by boro-deuterides/tritides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Aleš; Pedersen, Martin H F; Vogensen, Stine B; Clausen, Rasmus P; Frølund, Bente; Elbert, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic acid (HOCPCA (1)) is a potent ligand for high-affinity γ-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites in the central nervous system. Various approaches to the introduction of a hydrogen label onto the HOCPCA skeleton are reported. The outcomes of the feasible C─H activation of olefin carbon (C-2) by iridium catalyst are compared with the reduction of the carbonyl group (C-3) by freshly prepared borodeuterides. The most efficient iridium catalysts proved to be Kerr bulky phosphine N-heterocyclic species providing outstanding deuterium enrichment (up to 91%) in a short period of time. The highest deuterium enrichment (>99%) was achieved through the reduction of ketone precursor 2 by lithium trimethoxyborodeuteride. Hence, analogical conditions were used for the tritiation experiment. [ 3 H]-HOCPCA selectively labeled on the position C-3 was synthetized with radiochemical purity >99%, an isolated yield of 637 mCi and specific activity = 28.9 Ci/mmol. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Mo5VMo7VIO30(BPO4)2(O3P-Ph)6]5-: a phenyl-substituted molybdenum(V/VI) boro-phosphate polyoxometalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoye, Capucine; Norton, Kieran; Sevov, Slavi C

    2003-03-10

    The title polyanion is the first hybrid borophosphate-phenylphosphonate polyoxometalate. It was structurally characterized as its imidazolium salt, (C(3)N(2)H(5))(5)[Mo(12)O(30)(BPO(4))(2)(O(3)P-Ph)(6)].H(2)O (monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 22.120(3) A, b = 13.042(2) A, and c = 32.632(4) A, beta = 101.293(3) degrees ), which was synthesized hydrothermally from imidazole, molybdenum oxide and metal, and boric, phosphoric, and phenylphosphonic acids. The anion is the second example of a new class of polyoxometalates that resemble Dawson anions but where the two pole caps of three edge-sharing MoO(6) octahedra in the latter are replaced by other units, in this case tetrahedral borate sharing corners with three phenylphosphonic groups, [(OB)(O(3)P-Ph)(3)]. The 12 molybdenum atoms forming the two equatorial belts of the cluster are of mixed-valence, five are Mo(V) and seven are Mo(VI), and the resulting five electrons are delocalized. Four of these electrons are paired according to the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility. The new compound is soluble in a mixture of water and pyridine (in equal volumes) as well as in nitromethane, and the anions are intact in these solutions.

  12. Vegetable species for phytoextraction of boron, copper, lead, manganese and zinc from contaminated soil Espécies vegetais na fitoextração de boro, cobre, chumbo, manganês e zinco de solo contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive option to remove metal from contaminated soil since it is a simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly procedure. To better examine the phytoremediation potential of kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mustard (Brassica juncea, turnip (Raphunus sativus and amaranth (Amaranthus crentus plants, a greenhouse experiment was performed in which these species were grown on a soil contaminated with Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb and B. The translocation, the bioconcentration and the removal index, the transference factor and the time to reach 50% of element removal from soil, among other indicators, were used in order to identify a hyperaccumulator. Kenaf plants were more tolerant to the conditions tested, with the highest dry matter production and no visual toxicity symptoms. Amaranth would be the species chosen to remediate the soil under field conditions as it presented the higher indexes for decontamination of Zn and Mn and was also able to remove B. Turnip showed the best results for Pb removal. All species tested were able to remove B from soil. In spite, none of the plant species tested could be characterized as a hyperaccumulator.A fitorremediação é uma opção atraente na remoção de solos contaminados com metais por ser uma técnica simples, de baixo custo e ambientalmente aceitável. O potencial de fitorremediação da kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mostarda (Brassica juncea, rabanete (Raphunus sativus and amaranto (Amaranthus crentus foram examinadas num experimento usando solo contaminado por Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, cultivando as quatro espécies até o florescimento. Os índices de translocação, bioconcentração e remoção, o fator de transferência e o tempo necessário para atingir a remoção de 50% do elemento do solo, entre outros indicadores, foram empregados na tentativa de identificar uma espécie hiperacumuladora. A kenaf foi a espécie mais tolerante nas condições empregadas, com a maior produção de matéria seca e ausência de sintomas visuais de toxidez. O amaranto foi a espécie mais indicada na remediação do solo testado em condições de campo por apresentar os melhores índices de descontaminação para Zn e Mn entre as espécies testadas, além de também apresentar valores satisfatórios para remoção do B. Todas as espécies testadas foram capazes de remover B do solo. Apesar destes resultados, não foi possível identificar uma espécie hiperacumuladora.

  13. Effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5} substitution on the properties and structure of tin boro-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Akira, E-mail: asaito@ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 3 Bunkyo-cho (Japan); Tricot, Grégory [LASIR UMR-CNRS 8516, Université de Lille 1, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59655 (France); UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille 1, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59655 (France); Rajbhandari, Prashant [UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille 1, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59655 (France); Anan, Shoji; Takebe, Hiromichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 3 Bunkyo-cho (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5} substitution on the properties and structure of the ternary 67SnO–(33–x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–xB{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition line (from x = 0–33 mol%) are examined in this contribution. We show that density and glass transition temperature increase while molar volume and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. Density and thermal properties experience an original three-domain evolution with rapid (region I: 0 ≤ x < 5), substantial (II: 5 < x ≤ 15), and moderate (III: 15 < x ≤ 33) increase. In order to explain this unconventional behaviour, the glass structure has been investigated using high magnetic field 1 dimensional {sup 31}P and {sup 11}B MAS–NMR, micro-Raman and infrared spectroscopies. {sup 11}B MAS–NMR experiments allow to (i) monitor the 3- and 4-fold coordinated borate species proportion and (ii) highlight the presence of unreported 4-fold coordinated species in the region (III). Finally, it is shown that substitution of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} by B{sub 2}O{sub 3} induces an alteration of the dimeric phosphate network and formation of mixed anion structure that consists of Q{sup 0} phosphate units, 3- and 4-fold coordinated borate units and their combinations. - Highlights: • We examined B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5} substitution effect on the ternary SnO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses. • We show a three-domains evolution for density and thermal properties. • The structure was investigated by {sup 31}P and {sup 11}B NMR, Raman and IR spectroscopies. • 3 and 4-folded borate species and unreported 4-folded species are revealed. • Mixed anion structure consists of Q{sup 0} phosphate unit and 3- and 4-folded borate units.

  14. Boron fertilization on sweet potato: effect of sources, rates and application formAdubação com boro em batata-doce: efeito das fontes, doses e modos de aplicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Creste

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B fertilization can result in high yield and better sweet potato storage roots quality. However, there is few works about this subject. The objective was to evaluate the yield of sweet potato crops in response to B sources, rates and application form. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks, in factorial outline ((2x2x2+1, with three replications, which resulted of the combination of sources of B (boric acid and borax, application form (via soil and via foliar and doses of B (1 and 2 kg ha-1 and a control treatment (without B. There was no interaction between the factors studied for the commercial yield of sweet potato. No significant differences was found between B sources and application form, but they showed higher yield than the control treatment. Additionally, sweet potato yield increade with application of 2 kg ha-1 of B.A adubação boratada pode proporcionar aumentos na produtividade e na qualidade das raízes tuberosas de batata-doce, no entanto poucos trabalhos contemplam esse assunto. Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade da cultura da batata-doce em resposta a fontes, doses e modos de aplicação de B. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial ((2x2x2+1, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em cobertura, sendo resultados da combinação de fontes de B (ácido bórico e bórax, formas de aplicação (via solo e via foliar e doses de B (1 e 2 kg ha-1 mais uma testemunha. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados sobre a produtividade comercial de batata-doce. As formas de aplicação, via solo e via foliar bem como as fontes ácido bórico e bórax não apresentaram diferenças entre si, mas proporcionaram produtividades superiores ao tratamento sem B. A produtividade de batata-doce foi favorecida com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 de B.

  15. Design and construction of prompt-gamma spectroscopy facility applied to the boron determination; Diseno y construccion de una facilidad de espectrometria prompt-gamma aplicada a la determinacion de boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblete, Victor; Henriquez, Carlos; Klein, Juan; Navarro, Gustavo [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile). Centro de Estudios Nucleares La Reina, Comision Chis Nucleares La Reina, Comision Chi Reina

    1997-12-31

    A prompt-gamma spectroscopy facility was developed using the south tangential neutron beam of the RECH-1 research reactor for boron determination. The implementation of a thermal neutron beam was performed considering different aspects such as biological protection of working area and the beam collimation for a Ge detector, design and sample holder selection, standards and sample preparation. One ppm of Boron in different samples with counting-rate of 20 minutes and a good accuracy were determined. (author). 5 refs.

  16. Classification of waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate and boron/fluorine preservatives; Classificacao de residuos de madeira tratada com preservativos a base de arseniato de cobre cromatado e de boro/fluor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; Santos, Heldiane Souza dos; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla M.N.; Pires, Marcal J.R., E-mail: suzana.ferrarini@gmail.com [Faculdade de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Maia, Sandra Maria [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Classification of waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and boron/fluorine preservatives, according to NBR 10004, was investigated. The leaching test (ABNT NBR 10005) for As and Cr, and solubilization test (ABNT NBR 10006) for F, were applied to out-of-service wooden poles. Concentrations of As and Cr in leachates were determined by ICP-MS and of F by ESI. Values for As were higher than 1 mg L{sup -1} classifying the waste as hazardous material (Class I) whereas values for F (> 1.5 mg L{sup -1}) were non-hazardous but indicated non-inert material (Class IIA). (author)

  17. Optical properties of Eu3+ & Tb3+ ions doped alkali oxide (Li2O/ Na2O/ K2O) modified boro phosphate glasses for red, green lasers and display device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulika, G.; Sailaja, S.; Reddy, B. Naveen Kumar; Reddy, V. Sahadeva; Dhoble, S. J.; Reddy, B. Sudhakar

    2018-04-01

    In this article we report on alkali oxide modified borophosphate glasses doped with Eu3+and Tb3+ ions, with the chemical composition of 69.5 B2O3+10P2O5 + 10CaF2 + 5 Li2O+ 5ZnO+ R+ 0.5 Eu2O3 [where R = 5 (LiO2/Na2O/K2O)] have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique, and the spectroscopic properties of the prepared glasses have been studied by XRD, Optical absorption, excitation and emission spectral analysis. XRD spectrum of the glasses have shown the amorphous nature of the glasses. The red emission corresponding to 5D0 → 7F2 (613 nm) transition was observed under the excitation of 394 nm wavelength, corresponding to Eu3+ ions, for all the prepared glasses. For Eu3+ ion doped glasses, emission bands were observed, such as; 5D1→ 7F1 (538 nm), 5D0→ 7F0 (580 nm), 5D0→ 7F1 (592 nm), 5D0→ 7F2 (613 nm), 5D0→ 7F3 (613 nm) and 5D0→ 7F4 (702 nm) are identified. In the case of Tb3+ ion doped glasses, four emission lines were observed, such as 5D4→ (7F6, 7F5, 7F4), which are located at 489 nm, 545 nm and 585 nm, respectively, after the samples were excited with 376 nm ultraviolet source. The green emission corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 (543 nm) transition was observed under excitation wavelength 376 nm of the Tb3+ ions for all the prepared glasses. For all these emission bands, the decay curves were recorded to evaluate the emission life times. The mechanism underlying the observed emission from the glasses was explained in terms of energy levels.

  18. The labeling of unsaturated γ-hydroxybutyric acid by heavy isotopes of hydrogen: iridium complex-mediated H/D exchange by C─H bond activation vs reduction by boro-deuterides/tritides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Ales; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg; Vogensen, Stine B.

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic acid (HOCPCA ( 1 )) is a potent ligand for high-affinity γ-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites in the central nervous system. Various approaches to the introduction of a hydrogen label onto the HOCPCA skeleton are reported. The outcomes of the feasible C...

  19. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program; Digestion de matrices biologicas asistida por microondas para el analisis espectrometrico de boro en BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Silvia S; Di Santo, Norberto R; Garavaglia, Ricardo N; Pucci, Gladys N; Batistoni, Daniel A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Schwint, Amanda E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia

    1999-07-01

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in {sup 10}B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples. Digestion in open vessels may conduct to analyte losses due to vaporization of volatile compounds. The mineralization in closed vessels, at high pressure, does not allow this losses and increase the efficiency to destroy organic mater due to the combined action of pressure and temperature. This paper describes the development of analytical methodologies to determine boron at trace and ultra trace levels. (author)

  20. Viability study on using calcium carbonate for the boron adsorption process in waste waters; Estudio de viabilidad del proceso de adsorcion de boro de aguas residuales con carbonato calcico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Guerreiro, M. J.; Munoz Camacho, E.; Bernal Pita da Veiga, M. B.

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluates how viable it is to employ calcium carbonate for the boron adsorption process in waters that could be contaminated by this element. A residue form mussel shells-abundant in Galicia, northwestern Spain, was used. The data gathered from the experiments show that the performance of the boron adsorption within the sample is below 2%. Despite the inferior data obtained, the general aim was reached. An attempt was made to find solutions to the environmental problem caused by the residues mentioned above. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Boron in reverse osmosis water desalination: current situational and applying technologies for its removal; El boro en las aguas desaladas por osmosis inversa: situacion actual y tecnologias aplicables para su eliminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo Sanz, M.; Penate Suarez, B.

    2007-07-01

    In most of the seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants operating in one stage, the water produced presents values bordering or exceeding the limit established by the Spanish legislation for boron content of 1mg/l. As well as on the intrinsic features of the membrane elements, the boron removal in the desalination process depends on various factors. In this article the most relevant ones are described and a synopsis of the applied technologies and designs is introduced in order to fulfil current regulations. (Author)

  2. Nutrición de boro en aguacate cv. Hass: aspectos fisiológicos, morfológicos y ecológicos en un andosol de Michoacán

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Vega, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    El cultivo de aguacate cv. Hass es una actividad en constante expansión debido a la demanda de exportación del fruto. La nutrición con B es uno de los factores de producción determinantes para la obtención de frutos tanto en la cantidad como de la calidad requerida para cumplir con los estándares internacionales. La obtención de este fruto en huertos comerciales de Michoacán, principal región productora del mundo, no ha sido caracterizada en cuanto a nutrición con B englob...

  3. Nitroketene dithioacetal chemistry: Synthesis of coumarins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitroketene dithioacetals 2, prepared from carbon disul- fide, nitromethane and alkylating agents in a two-step process, are extremely useful two carbon synthons for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds incorporating diverse functional groups.1 We have been investigat- ing on the alkylation of dipotassium salt of ...

  4. The chemistry of 1,1-dithiolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars; Autrup, Herman

    1970-01-01

    The reaction of dipotassium 2-nitroethylene-1,1-dithiolate (III) with α-halogeno aldehydes or ketones leads to derivatives of 3-nitro-thiophene-2-thiols. These reactions proceed by an acid catalyzed cyclization of the initially formed 1-(acylmethylthio)-2-nitroethylene-1-thiolates (IV). The infra...

  5. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to ...

  6. Evaluation of Properties of Unidirectional Hemp/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Fiber Content and Fiber/Matrix Interface Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Lilholt, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites.......Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites....

  7. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize buccal transmucosal delivery system of enalapril maleate for overcoming its low bioavailability, and hence provide improved therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent ...

  8. Unexpected sneezing after a peribulbar injection in a patient for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... anaesthetic in awake patients. We present a case report of an awake elderly male who experienced unexpected continuous sneezing immediately after the removal of the needle used for the peribulbar block, which was subsequently relieved with pheniramine maleate. Keywords: peribulbar block, pheniramine maleate, ...

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals 141. Ashamanjari ... on reactively sputtered TiN coatings. 35 ... Li+ ion conductivities in boro-tellurite glasses. 189 .... Synthesis and dielectric properties of MXTi7O16 (M = Ba and. Sr; X ...

  10. A Mitigation Approach to Alleviate Arsenic Accumulation in Rice through Balanced Fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, S.M.I.; Sultana, S.; Chakraborty, G.; Chowdhury, M.T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Pot experiments with boro and aman season rice on the same soils treated with arsenic contaminated irrigation water and using balanced fertilizer or not revealed that balance fertilization could be a strategy to mitigate arsenic accumulation in rice grain. The study also revealed that there is a carryover effect of As applied through irrigation in the boro season to the subsequent aman season rice. This carryover effect too, could be minimized with balanced fertilization.

  11. A Mitigation Approach to Alleviate Arsenic Accumulation in Rice through Balanced Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imamul Huq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiments with boro and aman season rice on the same soils treated with arsenic contaminated irrigation water and using balanced fertilizer or not revealed that balance fertilization could be a strategy to mitigate arsenic accumulation in rice grain. The study also revealed that there is a carryover effect of As applied through irrigation in the boro season to the subsequent aman season rice. This carryover effect too, could be minimized with balanced fertilization.

  12. Genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region based on nucleotide sequences of the Waxy gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul I; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-12-29

    Indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India are traditionally classified into sali, boro and jum ecotypes based on geographical locality and the season of cultivation. In this study, we used DNA sequence data from the Waxy (Wx) gene to infer the genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India and to assess the genetic distinctiveness of ecotypes. The results of all three analyses (Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor Joining) were congruent and revealed two genetically distinct clusters of rice varieties in the region. The large group comprised several varieties of sali and boro ecotypes, and all agronomically improved varieties. The small group consisted of only traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties, which included one boro, few sali and all jum varieties. The fixation index analysis revealed a very low level of differentiation between sali and boro (F(ST) = 0.005), moderate differentiation between sali and jum (F(ST) = 0.108) and high differentiation between jum and boro (F(ST) = 0.230) ecotypes. The genetic relatedness analyses revealed that sali, boro and jum ecotypes are genetically heterogeneous, and the current classification based on cultivation type is not congruent with the genetic background of rice varieties. Indigenous rice varieties chosen from genetically distinct clusters could be used in breeding programs to improve genetic gain through heterosis, while maintaining high genetic diversity.

  13. Experimental Germ Tube Induction in Candida albicans: An Evaluation of the Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on Morphogenesis and Comparison with Pooled Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Matare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The potential of NaHCO3 versus human serum to induce germ tube formation in Candida albicans was investigated. Specimens. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from oral swabs of patients presenting with thrush. Approval for the study was granted by the Joint Research Ethics Committee (JREC/23/08. Method. Confirmed C. albicans isolates by routine methods were tested for germ tube induction using 5 different concentrations of Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 and Tris-maleate buffer control. Standard control strains included were C. albicans (ATCC 10231 and C. krusei (ATCC 6258. Microculture was done in 20 μL inoculums on microscope slides for 3 hours at 37°C. The rate of germ tube formation at 10-minute intervals was determined on 100 isolates using the optimum 20 mM Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 concentration. Parallel germ tube formation using human serum was done in test tubes. Results. The optimum concentration of NaHCO3 in Tris-maleate buffer for germ tube induction was 20 mM for 67% of isolates. Only 21% of isolates formed germ tubes in Tris-maleate buffer control. There was no significant difference in induction between human serum and Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3. Conclusion. Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 induced germ tube formation in C. albicans isolates at rates similar to human serum.

  14. 2,5-Bis[(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylsulfanyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H8F26N2S3, was obtained by double S-perfluorohexylethylation of dipotassium 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiolate in methanol. The molecule exhibits twofold rotational symmetry, with the S atom lying on the rotation axis. The fluorocarbon chains adopt helical conformations and the F atoms of the two terminal C atoms are disordered over two sets of sites. No directional intermolecular interactions occur in the crystal.

  15. Abiotic elicitors mediated elicitation of innate immunity in tomato: an ex vivo comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Sudeepa; Chandra, Swarnendu; Sengupta, Sarban; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of the host resistance by using hazard free chemical elicitors is emerging as an alternative approach in the field of plant disease management. In our present work, we have screened the efficacy and possible mechanism of abiogenic elicitors like Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate (K2HPO4), Oxalic acid?(OA), Isonicotinic acid (INA), Salicylic acid?(SA), Acetylsalicylate?(AS), Arachidonic acid (AA)?and Calcium chloride (CaCl2) to stimulate innate immune responses in Lycopersicum es...

  16. Dgroup: DG00116 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available litazone maleate (JAN/USAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agonist...44 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01683 ... Thiazolidinedione ATC code: A10BG02 Antidiabetic, th

  17. Dgroup: DG01639 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amine ... D07984 ... Fluvoxamine (INN) ... D00824 ... Fluvoxamine maleate (JP17/USAN) ... DG00947 ... Escitalopram ... D07913 ... Escitalopram... (INN) ... D02567 ... Escitalopram oxalate (JAN/USAN) ... DG00951 ... Mianserin

  18. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as screening technique for assessing compatibility between dika fat and drug substances. Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire ...

  19. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ) ... investigated for various drugs including protein.

  20. Development of Vanadometric System for Spectrophotometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rugged, and compares well with some complex methods for assay of timolol maleate in ... 3-[[4-(4-morpholinyl)-1, 2, 5-thiadiazol-3-yl] oxy]- ... preparation methods, costly reagents, expertise ..... chemical characterization, UV spectrophotometric.

  1. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid ..... nimesulide, phenylephrine. Hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form. Acta Pol.

  2. Dapsone versus corticosteroids in lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients with Lichen Planus (LP were enrolled from out-patient department for screening the therapeutic effect of dapsone. Patients were divided into two groups of 50 and 25. In regimen - 1 (RI 25 patients were given local corticosteroids and oral chlorpheniramine maleate. In regimen - 2 (R2 50 patients were given oral dapsone and chlorpheniramine maleate and topical coconut oil. It was found that total efficacy of R2 was 18% higher than R1.

  3. A comparative study of various therapeutic regimens in urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Amiyakumar

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available 127 patients of urticaria were treated with chlorpheniramine maleate alone and in combination with cyproheptadine hydrochloride, ranitidine and doxepin and levamisole. Chlorpheniramine and doxepin combination showed a satisfactory result in 88.46% of patients. Overall study showed that a combination regimen is better than the antihistaminics alone. Drowsiness was the commonest side effect. Levamisole and chlorpheniramine maleate combination was found to be more effective than the antihimstamine alone.

  4. Remote Sensing-Based Quantification of the Impact of Flash Flooding on the Rice Production: A Case Study over Northeastern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M Razu; Rahaman, Khan Rubayet; Kok, Aaron; Hassan, Quazi K

    2017-10-14

    The northeastern region of Bangladesh often experiences flash flooding during the pre-harvesting period of the boro rice crop, which is the major cereal crop in the country. In this study, our objective was to delineate the impact of the 2017 flash flood (that initiated on 27 March 2017) on boro rice using multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS data. Initially, we opted to use Landsat-8 OLI data for mapping the damages; however, during and after the flooding event the acquisition of cloud free images were challenging. Thus, we used this data to map the cultivated boro rice acreage considering the planting to mature stages of the crop. Also, in order to map the extent of the damaged boro area, we utilized MODIS data as their 16-day composites provided cloud free information. Our results indicated that both the cultivated and damaged boro area estimates based on satellite data had strong relationships while compared to the ground-based estimates (i.e., r ² values approximately 0.92 for both cases, and RMSE of 18,374 and 9380 ha for cultivated and damaged areas, respectively). Finally, we believe that our study would be critical for planning and ensuring food security for the country.

  5. Structural Changes of Bagasse dusring the Homogeneous Esterification with Maleic Anhydride in Ionic Liquid 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The maleation of bagasse could greatly increase the compatibility between bagasse and composite matrixes, and the percentage of substitution (PS of bagasse maleates could be regulated in the homogeneous system. However, due to the complicated components and the linkages of bagasse, it was difficult to control the reaction behaviors of each component. In this paper, the detailed structural changes of bagasse during the homogeneous maleation in ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl were comparatively investigated with the three main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin from bagasse. The PS of the maleated bagasse was 12.52%, and the PS of the maleated cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin were 13.50%, 10.89%, and 14.03%, respectively. Fourier translation infrared (FT-IR and NMR analyses confirmed that the three main components were all involved in the homogeneous maleation. 1H-13C HSQC analysis indicated that the predominant monoesterification of cellulose, diesterification of hemicelluloses and lignin, and the degradation of the three main components simultaneously occurred. Besides, the quantitative analysis from 1H-13C HSQC revealed the relative PS of reactive sites in each component. 31P NMR results showed that the reactivity of lignin aliphatic hydroxyls was higher than that of phenolic ones, and the reactivity of phenolic hydroxyls followed the order of p-hydroxyphenyl hydroxyls > guaiacyl hydroxyls > syringyl hydroxyls.

  6. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Enalapril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Roger K; Kanfer, Isadore; Löbenberg, Raimar; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Parr, Alan; Shah, Vinod P; Mehta, Mehul; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the marketing authorization of immediate-release, solid oral dosage forms containing enalapril maleate are reviewed. Enalapril, a prodrug, is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases to the active angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat. Enalapril as the maleate salt is shown to be highly soluble, but only 60%-70% of an orally administered dose of enalapril is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the enterocytes. Consequently, enalapril maleate is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class III substance. Because in situ conversion of the maleate salt to the sodium salt is sometimes used in production of the finished drug product, not every enalapril maleate-labeled finished product actually contains the maleate salt. Enalapril is not considered to have a narrow therapeutic index. With this background, a biowaiver-based approval procedure for new generic products or after major revisions to existing products is deemed acceptable, provided the in vitro dissolution of both test and reference preparation is very rapid (at least 85% within 15 min at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Additionally, the test and reference product must contain the identical active drug ingredient. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrographic determination of boron and silicon in uranium tetrafluoride: Study of the chemical reactions in the electrode cavity when ZnO is used as a uranium excitation suppressor; Determinacion espectrografica de Boro y Silicio en Tetrafluoruro de Unraio: Estudio de las reacciones quimicas que tienen lugar en el crater del electrodo al autilizar ZnO como supresor de la excitacion del Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduan, F. A.; Capdevila, C.; Rosa, M.

    1973-07-01

    A method has been developed for determining traces of boron and silicon in uranium tetrafluoride. Use is made of zinc oxide to decrease the volatilization of uranium and achieve high sensitivities. The thermochemical reactions which occur in the anode cavity during the arcing process have been investigated. UO{sub 2} and a uranium, zinc and fluorine compound, both less volatile than uranium tetrafluoride, are formed. (Author)

  8. Determination of boron by ICP-AES in normal and malignant cells incubated 'in vitro' with fructose {sup 10}BPA; Determinacion de boro por ICP-AES para el estudio de captacion por celulas malignas y normales incubadas 'in vitro' con fructosa-BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, Ricardo N; Farias, Silvia S; Rodriguez, Ruben E; Servant, Roberto E; Liberman, Sara; Pisarev, Mario A; Batistoni, Daniel A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the development and optimization of methodology for total boron concentration in cell cultures coming from fixation and accumulation of this element by normal and malignant cells. On account of sample mass and low volume resulting from dilution, generally about 1 mL, a procedure for automatic injection of micro volumes was designed, developed and optimized. Iron interference was carefully studied. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 50 to 2500 ng B/mL range. Determination limits were 10 and 20 ng B/mL for B 249.772 nm and 249.677 nm, respectively. Repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation was better than 5% for a 100 ng B/mL. Recovery of analyte added to real samples ranged between 95 and 103%. The method was applied to studies on F-98 cells (rat glioma) and normal glia in BNCT project frame. (author)

  9. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch; Agentes radioprotectores para reducir la mucositis inducida por la terapia por captura neutrónica en boro (BNCT) en la bolsa de la mejilla del hámster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, A. [Dpto. de Radiobiología, Gerencia de Química Nuclear y Ciencias de la Salud, GAATEN, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) (Argentina); Pozzi, E. C.C. [Gerencia de Reactores de Investigación y Producción, GAATEN, CNEA (Argentina); Thorp, S., E-mail: andrea.monti@cnea.gov.ar [Sub-Gerencia Instrumentación y Control, GAEN, CNEA(Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine “low” concentration did not affect BPA biodistribution. None of the irradiated animals exhibited radiotoxic effects during follow up. Thalidomide itself had severe systemic side effects. Histamine, JNJ7777120, JNJ10191584 and Flunixin exhibited only reversible local side effects. A high percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis were observed in the groups treated with Flunixin, Atorvastatine, Thalidomide and Histamine “high” concentration (100%; 83%; 100%; 50%, respectively). Histamine “high” concentration also promoted tumor development. Conversely, the groups treated with Histamine “low” concentration, JNJ7777120 and JNJ10191584 showed only a 17%, 20% and 0% of animals with severe mucositis respectively, without compromising BPA-BNCT therapeutic effect. Conclusion: This preliminary study would suggest the potential use of Histamine “low” concentration (1 mg/kg), JNJ7777120 and JNJ10191584 to prevent severe/unacceptable mucositis associated with BPA-BNCT, without compromising the therapeutic effect of BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose. (author)

  10. DETERMINAÇÃO RÁPIDA E SIMULTÂNEA DE SULFAMETOXAZOL E TRIMETOPRIMA UTILIZANDO ANÁLISE POR INJEÇÃO EM BATELADA COM DETECÇÃO AMPEROMÉTRICA E ELETRODO DE DIAMANTE DOPADO COM BORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Fernandes Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A fast, simple procedure for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX and trimethoprim (TMP was performed using batch injection analysis with multiple pulse amperometric detection (BIA-MPA. The sample aliquot (150 µL was directly injected onto the boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode (wall-jet configuration immersed in a BIA system. The analytical characteristics of the proposed method include high analytical frequency (up to 75 injections per hour, good stability (RSD < 2.9%; n = 10, low detection limits (0.227 and 0.173 mg L-1 for SMX and TMP, respectively and minimal waste generation. The proposed method yielded similar results to those obtained by liquid chromatography at a 95% confidence level.

  11. Efeito da aplicação foliar de boro e zinco sobre a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da Pereira-Japonesa e da pinheira Leaf spray fertilization of boron and zinc on production, SST and ATT in fruits of pear and sugar apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulverizações foliares com produtos contendo micronutrientes, dentre os quais os produtos quelatizados, são utilizadas com relativa freqüência em frutíferas, sem o embasamento científico adequado, principalmente entre os agricultores mais tecnificados. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da aplicação via foliar de B e Zn sobre a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da Pereira-Japonesa e da Pinheira. O experimento foi conduzido numa área irrigada, situada no cinturão verde do município de Ilha Solteira-SP. O solo da área foi classificado como Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro. Foram utilizadas plantas de Pereira-Japonesa, cultivar Okussankichi e de Pinheira. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1. apenas água; T2. ácido bórico; T3. sulfato de zinco; T4. T2 + T3; T5. ácido bórico + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA; T6. sulfato de zinco + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA; T7. T5 + T6; T8. ácido bórico + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA + molibdato de sódio + enxofre + cloreto de cálcio; T9. sulfato de zinco + ácido cítrico + EDTA + sulfato de Fe + sulfato de Mn + sulfato de Mg, e T10. T8+T9. Foram utilizadas doses de 110 g ha-1 de B e 250 g ha-1 de Zn, em cada aplicação. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e, para comparação de médias, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: 1 a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da pereira-japonesa e da pinheira não foram influenciados pela aplicação foliar de B e de Zn; b a mistura de ácido bórico com quelatos foi eficiente no fornecimento de B às plantas de pereira- japonesa, o mesmo não ocorrendo para pinheira, c o sulfato de zinco + produtos quelatizantes foram eficientes no aumento dos teores foliares de Zn somente na pereira.Leaf spray using liquid products with micronutrients, among them, quelates are usual in fruit trees. However, there is no research showing results on it. In this way, the aim of this study was to verify the effects of B and Zn applied on leaves on production, SST and ATT of pear fruit and sugar apple. The experiment was conducted on irrigated area in Ilha Solteira - SP, Brazil. A red brown Podzolic and plants of sugar apple and pear, Okussankichi cv. were used. The treatments were: T1. water, T2. boric acid, T3. zinc sulfate, T4. T2 + T3, T5. boric acid + urea + citric acid + EDTA, T6. zinc sulfate + urea + citric acid + EDTA, T7. T5 + T6, T8. boric acid + urea + citric acid + EDTA + sodium molibdate + sulfur + calcium chloride, T9. zinc sulfate + citric acid + EDTA + Fe sulfate + Mn sulfate + Mg sulfate and, T10. T8 +T9. It was used doses of 110 g ha-1 of B and 250 g ha-1 of Zn, in each application. A randomized blocks design was used and to compare the averages the Tukey test was applied. It can be concluded: a the production, SST and ATT of pear fruits and sugar apple fruits were not influenced by B and Zn leaf application, b boric acid plus quelates were efficient to supply B to pear plants but not to sugar apple plants, c Zn sulfate plus quelates caused an increase in Zn leaf content only in pear plants.

  12. Determinação de manganês em material particulado atmosférico de ambientes de trabalho utilizando eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro e voltametria de onda quadrada com redissolução catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fabiana da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A boron-doped diamond electrode is used for determination of Mn(II in atmospheric particulate matter by square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. The analytical curve was linear for Mn(II concentrations between 5.0 and 37.5 µg L-1, with quantification limit of 3.6 µg L-1. The precision was evaluated by the relative standard deviation, with values between 5.1% and 9.3%. The electrode is free of adsorption, minimizing memory effects. Samples collected in the workplace atmosphere of a foundry had Mn(II concentrations between 0.4 and 4 µg m-3. No significant differences were observed between the proposed method and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

  13. Preparação e caracterização espectroscópica de complexos de boro: uma proposta para uma prática integrada de química inorgânica Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of boron complexes: a proposal for an integrated inorganic laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Eberhard Bessler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a proposal for an undergraduate second or third year inorganic laboratory course, the present paper describes the preparation of three representative boron complexes: potassium tetrafluoroborate, pyridoxin boron complex and potassium bis(oxalatoborate. The complexes are characterised by infrared and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H, 11B and 19F where isotopic effects are demonstrated.

  14. Comportamento da alface americana em função do uso de doses e épocas de aplicação de boro em cultivo de inverno Behavior of crisp head lettuce as a result of doses and application times of boron in winter crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony E. Yuri

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de doses de bórax sobre o rendimento e qualidade pós-colheita da alface americana (Lactuca sativa L., em três ensaios distintos conduzidos de junho a agosto/2002, no município de Três Pontas (MG. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco doses de bórax (0,00; 0,75; 1,50; 2,25 e 3,00 kg ha-1 e quatro repetições, aplicadas em três diferentes épocas via foliar (14; 21 e 28 dias após o transplantio. A massa fresca total apresentou efeito quadrático no qual a dose de 1,58 kg ha-1 de bórax resultou em maior rendimento. Verificou-se variação de 795 a 829 g planta-1 entre as épocas de aplicação, sem diferirem estatisticamente entre si. A aplicação de 1,71 kg ha-1 de bórax possibilitou a obtenção de maior massa fresca comercial. O melhor resultado (563 g planta-1 foi obtido na aplicação aos 21 dias. Esta data também contribuiu na obtenção de maior circunferência da cabeça (41,7 cm, sendo significativamente superior à aplicação aos 28 dias (40,6 cm. Não foram observados efeitos significativos para o comprimento de caule entre os tratamentos. A dose de 1,55 kg ha-1 de bórax proporcionou uma melhor conservação da alface mantida durante 20 dias em câmara-fria.The influence of doses of borax on yield and post harvest quality of crisp head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was evaluated. Three distinct trials were conducted in Tres Pontas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from June to August 2002. The randomized block design with five doses of borax (0.00; 0.75; 1.50; 2.25 and 3.00 kg.ha-1 and four replicates, applied foliarly at different times (14; 21 and 28 days after transplanting was evaluated. The total fresh matter presented a quadratic effect, where the dose of 1.58 kg ha-1 of borax resulted in a greater yield. A range of 795 to 829 g plant-1 between different application times, with no statistical significant differences was observed. The application of 1.71 kg ha-1 of borax resulted in greater commercial fresh matter production. The best results (563 g plant-1 were obtained when the application was performed at 21 days. Applications at 21 days also resulted in greater head circumference (41.7 cm, being statistically superior to the applications at 28 days (40.6 cm. Stem length did not present any significant effects between treatments. The dose of 1.55 kg ha-1 of borax presented best lettuce conservation in cold-chamber (20 days.

  15. Contributions te the study of methods and factors affecting the spectrophotometric determination of boron traces with carmin uranium compounds; Contribucion al estudio del metodo y factores que afectan a la determinacion espectrofotometrica de trazas de boro con Carmin en compuestos de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Cellini, R; Gasco Sanchez, L

    1956-07-01

    The study of some factors affecting the spectrophotometric determination of boron traces with carmin is made; the influence of carmin from different origin, the stability of complex carmin-boric acid in relation with the sulphuric acid concentration, the interference produced by ion nitrate, and the ion uraline and light influence are discussed. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Investigation on 3H-labelled bilirubin for study of blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Rongzhen; Dong Mo; Zhang Yulong; Zhou Ruiju

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of 3 H-labelled bilirubin is described. 3 H-bilirubin is prepared by the reduction of biliverdin using sodium boro-[ 3 H]-hydride in methanol solvent. But biliverdin is synthesized through dehydrogenation of bilirubin with 2,3- dichloro-5, 6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) in dimethyl sulphoxide and sodium boro-[ 3 H]-hydride is produced by exchange of sodium boro-hydride with tritium gas using nickel catalyst at high temperature. The specific activity of obtained 3 H-bilirubin is 306 GBq/mmol, while the radiochemical purity is over 95% by HPLC and paper chromatography. The permeated profile of 3 H-labelled bilirubin in rat brain has been obtained in animal experiments

  17. Developmental testing of partially volatile neutron shields for high-performance shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Allen, G.C.; Rack, H.J.; Joseph, B.J.; Dupree, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the phase one tests have demonstrated that the neutron-shielding concept described in this paper is a viable design option for spent fuel shipping casks. The tests have shown that the Boro-silicone 236 shield is superior to the other shield materials considered. Repeated TGA, aging and fire tests demonstrated the reliability of the data. A second phase of the test program is now being pursued where the Boro-silicone 236 is injected into all-steel slab sections, and cured in place. 5 tables

  18. Heroes and Villains: Ijaw Nationalist Narratives of the Nigerian Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Ijaw. The fiscal centralization of oil resources that followed the war and the persistence of minority exclusion within the Nigerian polity have encouraged Ijaw elites, and other southern minorities, to review their commitment to Nigerian federalism. Conflicting tales of the Ijaw nationalist hero Isaac Boro testify to a growing ...

  19. Volatilização de amônia oriunda de ureia pastilhada com micronutrientes em ambiente controlado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bahiense Stafanato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Novas tecnologias com o intuito de minimizar as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização devem ser desenvolvidas para aumentar a eficiência de uso do N-ureia. A incorporação de boro e cobre na ureia pode reduzir esses efeitos por meio da inibição da atividade da urease. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde foram aplicados diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados (ureia pastilhada com e sem boro e cobre, sulfato de amônio, ureia com inibidor da urease NBPT, ureia granulada e ureia revestida com boro e cobre na superfície de um Planossolo Háplico contido em bandejas (0,1 m² de área e 10 cm de profundidade, em dose equivalente a 200 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização durante 18 dias, com o auxílio de um coletor semiaberto. A adição de cobre e boro no processo de pastilhamento da ureia reduziu as perdas de amônia por volatilização em até 54 %, quando comparado com a ureia granulada comercial, comprovando ser eficiente contra as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização.

  20. Elizabeth Belle’s Birth Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him. PMID:25364215

  1. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FRUIT AN Against Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    from Unguwan Boro of Chikun local Government. Area of Kaduna State Nigeria. The plant was identified with voucher number 602 at the herbarium of Biological Science Department. Faculty of Life Science Ahmadu Bello University. Zaria, kaduna State, Nigeria. Bacterial Isolates. The test organisms were obtained from the.

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard (Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    successfully cultivated between Aman and Boro rice rotation without affecting this popular cropping pattern. So, it is urgent to analyze the genetic diversity and its response for the selection of short duration mustard genotypes for increasing our cropping intensity. Diversity at marker loci is currently the most feasible strategy ...

  4. Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chapter 5: Annex 1 - Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus (as of December 2016). Crop. Micronutrient. Country. Variety. Year of Release. Origin. Type. Baseline. (ppm). Target increment. (ppm). Increment. (ppm). % Target. Increment. (ppm). Micronutrient. Content. (ppm). 11940. BRRI dhan64. 2014. BRRI. Boro.

  5. Wattled Crane ( Grus carunculatus ) research and monitoring in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows that the Okavango Delta holds the largest single population of Wattled Cranes in the world, containing over 16% of the global population estimate of <7 700 individuals. The main distribution of Wattled Cranes was the Jao/Boro, Nqoga and Khwai/Muanachira River systems, coinciding with the wettest and most ...

  6. A vegetation-based hierarchical classification for seasonally pulsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A classification scheme is presented for seasonal floodplains of the Boro-Xudum distributary of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. This distributary is subject to an annual flood-pulse, the inundated area varying from a mean low of 3 600 km2 to a mean high of 5 400 km2 between 2000 and 2006. A stratified random sample of ...

  7. Titanocene(III) chloride mediated radical induced addition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reduction of the aldehyde 10 with sodium boro- hydride in the presence of CeCl3.7H2O furnished the alcohol 11 which was finally brominated using PBr3 to yield the dibromo compound 12.13. Thus, a series of bromoepoxides were prepared and subjected to radical cyclization using titanocene(III) chloride and the results ...

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 35 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric characteristics of Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Đorđe Gatarić, Vojo Radić, Branko Đurić, Milenko Šarić, Zora Čolović, Boro Petković ...

  9. The Development of an Environmentally Compliant, Multi-Functional Aerospace Coating Using Molecular- and Nano-Engineering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    Chris Powers Praxair Plasma Processes Roy Christensen Boro Djordjevic Valimet JHU George Kim Herb Herman Perpetual Technologies SUNY - Stoneybrook Dan...array evaluated consisted of an array of Chromium Bowties manufactured in Taiwan using direct e-beam write. arra regeys d (Wratten 25) Green (Wratten 58

  10. Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... MORALES MM, MARTÍ P, LLOPIS A, CAMPOS L and SAGRADO ... métodos absorciométricos para la determinación de trazas de boro en agua. An. Asoc. Quím. Arg. 83 (1-2) 59-64. MUSSO H (2003) Impacto del Municipio de ...

  11. A Unified Model of Attention and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    paradigma deocribed boro. In confliot condition. In a facolitation condition GREEN Stroup sitnations signls are preented simultaneously o would be plinted In...and perforlao. paradigma similar to theae studied .. . .. ’ Attention and Problem solInS Page 65 Attention and Problem Solving Page 66 her.. Mis

  12. Dgroup: DG01152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01152 Chemical ... DGroup Edetate ... D00052 ... Edetic acid (NF/INN) D00571 ... Edetate calcium disodium... anhydrous (USP) D01802 ... Edetate disodium (USP); Disodium edetate hydrate (JP17) D03943 ... Edetate calcium disodium... (USP); Calcium sodium edetate hydrate (JP17); Sodium calcium edetate (INN) ... D03944 ... Ed...etate dipotassium (USAN) D03945 ... Disodium edetate D03946 ... Edetate sodium (USAN) D03947 ... Edetate trisodium... (USAN) D07934 ... Edetate calcium disodium D07935 ... Dicobalt edetate (INN) Other ... DG01692 ... Chelator ATC code: V03AB03 Antidotes, Chelating agents ...

  13. K2V2O2(AsO42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Roisnel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium oxide arsenate with formula K2V2O2(AsO42, dipotassium divanadium(IV dioxide diarsenate, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction in an evacuated silica ampoule. Its structure is isotypic with K2V2O2(PO42. The framework is built up from corner-sharing VO6 octahedra and AsO4 tetrahedra, creating an infinite [VAsO8]∞ chain running along the a- and c-axis directions. The K+ cations are located in hexagonal tunnels, which are delimited by the connection of the [VAsO8]∞ chains.

  14. Electrorecovery of tantalum in molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinola, A.; Dutra, A.J.B.; Silva, F.T. da

    1988-01-01

    Considering the privileged situation of Brazil as a productor of tantaliferous minerals, the authors have in view the development of a technology for production of metallic tantalum via molten salts electrolysis; this has the advantage of improving the aggregate value of exportation products, additionally to tantalum oxide and tantalum concentrates. Having in view the preliminary determintion of better conditions of temperature, electrolyte composition and current density for this process, electrolysis were conducted with a solvent composed of an eutetic mixture of lithium, sodium and potassium fluoride for dipotassium fluotantalate and occasionally for tantalum oxide. Current efficiencies as high as 83% were obtained in favoured conditions. (author) [pt

  15. Enhancement of carotenoid and chlorophyll content of an edible freshwater alga (Kai: Cladophora sp. by supplementary inorganic phosphate and investigation of its biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of the carotenoid and chlorophyll content of an edible freshwater alga (Kai:Cladophora sp. by supplementary inorganic phosphate in canteen wastewater was investigated. Themass cultivation of the alga was conducted at ambient temperature and light intensity in dilutedcanteen wastewater enhanced with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate at 5-20 mg L-1. An increase intotal carotenoid and chlorophyll was observed. However, it had no effect on biomass production. Asa result of the algal cultivation, there was a dramatic improvement in the quality of canteen wastewater.

  16. Determining vancomycin clearance in an overweight and obese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Julie V B; Boro, Maureen S; Winter, Michaele

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of calculating vancomycin clearance were compared to determine the best body weight measure to use when dosing vancomycin for overweight and obese patients. Hospitalized veterans weighing more than 120% of their ideal body weight (IBW) with serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) drawn between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, were eligible for study inclusion. Exclusion criteria included weight of more than 300% the IBW, unstable renal function, dialysis, uncertain vancomycin dosing or sampling times, and distribution-phase sampling. Data from January 1 through December 31, 2003 (phase 1) determined the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance for the Leonard and Boro method. The bias and precision of the modified Leonard and Boro method using the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance were then compared with those of the Rushing and Ambrose method for predicting SVCs from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005 (phase 2). Forty-eight patients were included in phase 1, with 67 SVCs for analysis. During phase 1, adjusted body weight (ABW), using the Leonard and Boro method, was superior in predicting vancomycin clearance and the resultant SVCs. A total of 96 patients were included in phase 2 of the study, with 160 SVCs for analysis. The modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting vancomycin clearance. Use of ABW proved to be superior compared with total body weight when estimating vancomycin clearance in overweight and obese patients. While there was no difference in bias between methods, the modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting SVCs when dosing vancomycin for obese patients.

  17. Modeling boron separation from water by activated carbon, impregnated and unimpregnated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M.; Grbavcic, Z. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy; Marinovic, V. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Ist. of Technical Science of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts

    2000-10-01

    The sorption of boron from boric acid water solution by impregnated activated carbon has been studied. Barium, calcium, mannitol, tartaric acid and citric acid were used as chemical active materials. All processes were performed in a chromatographic continuous system at 22{sup 0} C. Experimental results show that activated carbon impregnated with mannitol is effective in removing boron from water. The separation of boron from the wastewater from a factory for producing enameled dishes by activated carbon impregnated with mannitol was also performed. Two models have been applied to describe published and new data on boron sorption by impregnated activated carbon. Both of them are based on the analysis of boron concentration response to the step input function. This led to a mathematical model that quite successfully described impregnation effects on adsorption capacities. [Italian] E' stato studiato l'assorbimento del boro, mediante carbone attivo impregnato, da soluzioni acquose di acido borico. Quali materiali chimici attivi sono stati utilizzati: bario, calcio, mannitolo, acido tartarico ed acido citrico. Tutti i processi sono stati condotti in un sistema cromatografico continuo a 22{sup 0}C. I risultati sperimentali mostrano che il carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo e' efficace nella rimozione del boro dall'acqua. E' anche stata effettuata la separazione del boro da acque di scarico di un'industria per la produzione di piatti smaltati mediante carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo. Sono stati applicati due modelli per descrivere i risultati, pubblicati e nuovi, dell'assorbimento del boro mediante carbone attivo impregnato. Entrambi sono basati sull'analisi della risposta alla concentrazione di boro successivamente incrementata a stadi. Cio' porta ad un modello matematico che descrive abbastanza soddisfacentemente gli effetti dell'impregnazione sulla capacita' di assorbimento.

  18. Study on the biological activity of certain antihistamines subjected to radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Seham, H.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate solution the dose levels 15, 25 and 50 KGY on their antihistaminic activity has been investigated using the histamine aerosol and guinea pig ileum methods. From the results obtained it could be concluded that, the antihistaminic activity of both pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate was not significantly changed by radiation exposure at the dose levels 15, 25 and 50 KGY. Accordingly, both of the two drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma-irradiation without encountering deleterious effect on their antihistaminic activity

  19. Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of sulfonamides in blood by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongling; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanqi; Gu, Fanbin; Jin, Xiangqun

    2016-12-01

    Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction system was developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in blood. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of the analytes. The blood sample was centrifuged to obtain the serum. After the proteins in the serum were removed in the presence of acetonitrile, ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ionic liquid 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were added into the resulting solution. After the resulting mixture was ultrasonically shaken and centrifuged, the precipitate was separated. The acetonitrile was added in the precipitate and the analytes were extracted into the acetonitrile phase. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as volume of ionic liquid, amount of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, volume of dispersant, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection of sulfamethizole (STZ), sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Sulfisoxazole (SSZ) were 4.78, 3.99, 5.21 and 3.77μgL -1 , respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of real blood samples, the recoveries of analytes ranged from 90.0% to 113.0% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.2%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of water management, tillage options and phosphorus status on arsenic uptake in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, A S M H M; Meisner, C A; Sarkar, M A R; Islam, M S

    2011-05-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations in soil may lead to elevated concentrations of arsenic in agricultural products. Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water management (WM) and Phosphorus (P) rates on As uptake, rice growth, yield and yield attributes of winter (boro) and monsoon (aman) rice in an As contaminated soil-water at Gobindagonj, Gaibandha, Bangladesh in 2004 and 2005. Significantly, the highest average grain yields (6.88±0.07 t ha(-1) in boro 6.38±0.06 t ha(-1) in aman) were recorded in permanent raised bed (PRB; aerobic WM: Eh=+360 mV) plus 100% P amendment. There was a 12% yield increase over conventional till on flat (CTF; anaerobic WM: Eh=-56 mV) at the same P level. In boro, the As content in grain and As content in straw were about 3 and 6 times higher in CTF compared to PRB, respectively. The highest total As content (0.646±0.01 ppm in grain and 10.93±0.19 ppm in straw) was recorded under CTF, and the lowest total As content (0.247±0.01 and 1.554±0.09 ppm in grain and straw, respectively) was recorded under PRB (aerobic WM). The results suggest that grain and straw As are closely associated in boro rice. The furrow irrigation approach of the PRB treatments consistently reduced irrigation input by 29-31% for boro and 27-30% for aman rice relative to CTF treatments in 2004 and 2005, respectively, thus reducing the amount of As added to the soil from the As-contaminated irrigation water. Yearly, 30% less As was deposited to the soil compared to CTF system through irrigation water during boro season. High As concentrations in grain and straw in rice grown using CTF in the farmers' field, and the fact that using PRB reduced grain As concentrations to value less than half of the proposed food hygiene standard. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibutyl maleate is a perfumery ester used as an intermediate in the production of paints, adhesives, and copolymers. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol was studied in presence of acidic cation exchange resin as a catalyst. The objective of this work was to test the suitability and efficacy of heterogeneous catalystssuch ...

  2. Two Approaches to the Synthesis of Dimethyl Fumarate That Demonstrate Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brian E.; Bennett, Lisa J.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments are described which lead to the preparation of dimethyl fumarate, a compound currently used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Preparation of a compound with "real-world" applications is believed to increase student interest in the experiment. One experiment involves the isomerization of dimethyl maleate to the…

  3. The manometric determination of thiamine pyrophosphate and the inhibition of the acid yeast phosphatase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.

    1962-01-01

    Sodium molybdate is a powerful inhibitor of the acid yeast phosphatase in both fresh baker's yeast and dried brewer's yeast, provided that the yeast is suspended in a suitable buffer. It displays no action in citrate or phosphate buffers, but is active in acetate or maleate buffers, both at the

  4. 21 CFR 176.180 - Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the.... Monoethyl maleate. 5-Norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, mono-n-butyl ester. Styrene. Vinyl acetate. Vinyl butyrate. Vinyl chloride. Vinyl crotonate. Vinyl hexoate. Vinylidene chloride. Vinyl pelargonate. Vinyl...

  5. 21 CFR 172.826 - Sodium stearyl fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonyeast-leavened bakery products in an amount not to exceed 1 percent by weight of the flour used. (4) As... maleate. (b) The additive is used or intended for use: (1) As a dough conditioner in yeast-leavened bakery products in an amount not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of the flour used. (2) As a conditioning agent in...

  6. Tung oil-based unsaturated co-ester macromonomer for thermosetting polymers: Synergetic synthesis and copolymerization with styrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel unsaturated co-ester (co-UE) macromonomer containing both maleates and acrylates was synthesized from tung oil (TO) and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The monomer was synthesized via a new synergetic modification o...

  7. unilateral idiopathic dilated episcleral vein with secondary open

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TAIBAT OTULANA

    episcleral vessels in her left eye with no apparent cause. She later developed ... It can occur as a. 12 ... acetazolamide 250mg thrice daily and drops of 0.5% timolol maleate .... Grishaber MC, Dubler B, Knodel C, Killer HE, Flammer J,. Orgul S.

  8. Evaluation of Tropaeolin 000-1 as a Colorimetric Reagent for Assay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the application of tropaeolin 000-1 reagent for the rapid, precise and accurate determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX) and escitalopram maleate (ECT). Methods: Determination of DX and ECT was based on the formation of complexes between the dye, DX and ECT in 0.1 M HCl. The resulting ...

  9. Use of acepromazine and medetomidine in combination for sedation and handling of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Johnson, Heather E; Fisher, Mark C; Sirochman, Michael A; Kraft, Benjamin; Miller, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    We opportunistically evaluated a combination of acepromazine maleate and medetomidine HCl for use in sedating Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus) as an alternative to scheduled drug combinations. This combination was safe and effective with limitations inherent in its sedative rather than anesthetic properties.

  10. Dgroup: DG01634 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d hydrate (JP17) ... DG00946 ... Fluvoxamine ... D07984 ... Fluvoxamine (INN) ... D00824 ... Fluvoxamine maleate (JP17/USAN) ... DG00974 ... Caffeine... ... D00528 ... Caffeine (USP); Anhydrous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine

  11. Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Dexamethasone in the Presence of Parabens in ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Results: All the proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of raw materials and dosage form.

  12. Cypermethrin Poisoning and Anti-cholinergic Medication- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Sudip Parajuli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years old male was brought to emergency department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal with alleged history of consumption of pyrethroid compound ‘cypermethrin’. It was found to be newer insecticide poisoning reported in Nepal. We reported this case to show effectiveness of anti-cholinergic like hyosciane and chlorpheniramine maleate in the treatment of cypermethrin poisoning.

  13. QUANTITATIVE-DETERMINATION OF THE DOPAMINE AGONIST LISURIDE IN PLASMA USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH FLUORESCENCE DETECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTHERS, BG; KAMERBEEK, WDJV; VANBEUSEKOM, CM; ELSHOF, F; BUITENHUIS, AWD; BRUNT, EPR; LAKKE, JPWF

    1993-01-01

    An HPLC method for the determination of lisuride hydrogen maleate in plasma is described. After addition of ergotamine tartrate as internal standard, plasma is extracted with diethyl ether. Following evaporation of the solvent and redissolving in methanol the extract is injected on a silica HPLC

  14. Dgroup: DG00835 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thysergide maleate (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01483 ... 5-HT1A-receptor agonist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01982 ... Antimigraine...agonist ... DG01518 ... 5-HT1B/1D-receptor agonist ATC code: N02CA04 Vasoconstrictor, Antimigraine

  15. Dgroup: DG00877 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AB06 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ... ...rifluoperazine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... D01448 ... Trifluoperazine maleate (JAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01

  16. Dgroup: DG00874 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN/USP) ... D02163 ... Fluphenazine maleate (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychoti...ubstrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ATC code: N05AB02 Antipsychotic, Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Phenothiazine derivative DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...

  17. Preparation and properties of recycled HDPE/clay hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Lei; Qinglin Wu; Craig M. Clemons

    2007-01-01

    Hybrids based on recycled high density polyethylene (RHDPE) and organic clay were made by melt compounding. The influence of blending method, compatibilizers, and clay content on clay intercalation and exfoliation, RHDPE crystallization behavior, and the mechanical properties of RHDPE/clay hybrids were investigated. Both maleated polyethylene (MAPE) and titanate could...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iyawe, V. Vol 7, No 1-2 (2008) - Articles Preliminary study on the effect of medicinal mushroom extract and timolol maleate on dexamethasone induced ocular hypertension in feline's eye model. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-6941. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  19. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research - Vol 7, No 1-2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary study on the effect of medicinal mushroom extract and timolol maleate on dexamethasone induced ocular hypertension in feline's eye model · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AG Ayoakin, IV Eghosasere, AE Oluwadare, V Iyawe.

  20. Thermoreversible Vernetzung von mit Maleinsäure gepropftem EPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mee, van der M.A.J.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Duin, van M.

    2009-01-01

    Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymer (MAn-g-EPM) was thermoreversibly cross-linked using different routes, i. e. ionic interactions (ionomers), hydrogen bonding and a combination thereof. Microphase separation into polar MAn-rich aggregates occurs for MAn-g-EPM and all cross-linked materials, which

  1. Doing the math: A simple approach to topical timolol dosing for infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, Renata; Prindaville, Brea; Wiss, Karen

    2018-03-01

    Topical timolol maleate has recently gained popularity as a treatment for superficial infantile hemangiomas, but calculating a safe dose of timolol can be time consuming, which may limit the medication's use in fast-paced clinical environments. This report offers a simplified calculation of the maximum daily safe dosage as 1 drop of medication per kilogram of body weight. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synthesis and Properties of Reactive Interfacial Agents for Polycaprolactone-Starch Blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugih, Asaf K.; Drijfhout, Jan. P.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of two reactive interfacial agents for starch-polycaprolactone (PCL) blends, PCL-g-glycidyl methacrylate (PCL-g-GMA) and PCL-g-diethyl maleate (PCL-g-DEM) is described. The compounds were prepared by reacting a low molecular weight PCL. (M(w) 3000) with GMA or DEM in the presence of

  3. 76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... and 1962. FDA contracted with the National Academy of Science/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) to... Chlorpheniramine Maleate S.R. Capsules and Efedra-PA Tablets, and KV Pharmaceutical Co., 2503 South Hanley Rd., St.... On December 4, 2009, KV Pharmaceutical Co. also withdrew its hearing request. On February 15, 2010...

  4. Novel ceramic processing method for substitution of toxic plasticizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Teocoli, Francesca; Brodersen, K.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic screening of plasticisers for a polyvinyl butyral based binder system revealed that dibutyl maleate, dibutyl adipate and Pycal 94 are promising and less toxic alternatives to the very harmful but frequently used dibutyl phthalate. Pycal 94 seems especially promising as it unlike...

  5. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a...). Enalapril maleate is administered as conjunctive therapy with furosemide and digoxin in the treatment of...

  6. On the employment of lambda carrageenan in a matrix system. III. Optimization of a lambda carrageenan-HPMC hydrophilic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonferoni, MC; Rossi, S; Ferrari, F; Bertoni, M; Bolhuis, GK; Caramella, C

    1998-01-01

    The lambda carrageenan/HPMC ratio in matrix tablets has been optimized in order to obtain pH-independent release profiles of chlorpheniramine maleate, a freely soluble drug. Release profiles in acidic (pH 1.2) and neutral (pH 6.8) media were fitted according to the Weibull and the power law models.

  7. Effect of radiosterilization of some antihistamines on their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Naiema, M.; Seham, H.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of pgeniramine maleate and menhydrinate solutions at the radiation levels of 15,25 and 50KGY on their toxicity has been investigated. Irradiation of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate solutions at dose levels of 15,25 and 50KGY resulted in no significant change in neither the gross toxicity of the two drugs nor in their LD 50's on rats. Pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate whether irradiated or not, resulted in no significant increase in serum GPT or alkaline phosphatase activities when given at a dose of 15mg/Kg suggesting no significant alteration to liver function in rats. Higher doses of the two antihistaminics, namely, the minimal lethal doses and the LD 50's induced hydropic degeneration of liver cells, lymphocytic infiltration of the portal tract and focal areas of necrosis of hepatic cells mostly in the central lobule. Fatty infiltration was observed with dimenhydrinate. Radiation treatment of those antihistamines up to 50KGY resulting in no alteration in their toxicity projects the high radiation stability of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate and confirms gamma irradiation is a successful method for their sterilization

  8. Permeabilization and lysis of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes cells by triton X-100 for efficient production of D-malate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Hartmans, S.; Tweel, W.J.J. van den

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes can only form d-malate from maleate after incubation of the cells with a solvent or a detergent. The effect of the detergent Triton X-100 on d-malate production was studied in more detail. The longer the cells were incubated with Triton X-100, the higher was the

  9. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  10. Effects of pilocarpine and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przewlocka, B.; Labuz, D.; Machelska, H.; Przewlocki, R.; Turchan, J.; Lason, W. [Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smetna Street, 31-343 Krakow (Poland)

    1997-04-14

    The effects of pilocarpine- and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA and [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding were studied in the rat hippocampal formation. Pilocarpine- but not kainate-induced seizures decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in dentate gyrus at 24 and 72 h after drug injection. Both convulsants decreased the messenger RNA level in CA1 pyramidal cells at 24 and 72 h, the effects of kainate being more profound. Kainate also decreased the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in CA3 region after 24 and 72 h, whereas pilocarpine decreased the messenger RNA level at 72 h only. At 3 h after kainate, but not pilocarpine, an increased binding of [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate in several apical dendritic fields of pyramidal cells was found. Pilocarpine reduced the [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding in stratum lucidum only at 3 and 24 h after the drug injection. Pilocarpine but not kainate induced prolonged decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 gene expression in dentate gyrus. However, at the latest time measured, kainate had the stronger effect in decreasing both messenger RNA N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 and [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells. The latter changes corresponded, however, to neuronal loss and may reflect higher neurotoxic potency of kainate.These data point to some differences in hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor regulation in pilocarpine and kainate models of limbic seizures. Moreover, our results suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level is more susceptible to limbic seizures than is [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding in the rat hippocampal formation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Effects of pilocarpine and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewlocka, B.; Labuz, D.; Machelska, H.; Przewlocki, R.; Turchan, J.; Lason, W.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of pilocarpine- and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA and [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding were studied in the rat hippocampal formation. Pilocarpine- but not kainate-induced seizures decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in dentate gyrus at 24 and 72 h after drug injection. Both convulsants decreased the messenger RNA level in CA1 pyramidal cells at 24 and 72 h, the effects of kainate being more profound. Kainate also decreased the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in CA3 region after 24 and 72 h, whereas pilocarpine decreased the messenger RNA level at 72 h only. At 3 h after kainate, but not pilocarpine, an increased binding of [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate in several apical dendritic fields of pyramidal cells was found. Pilocarpine reduced the [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in stratum lucidum only at 3 and 24 h after the drug injection. Pilocarpine but not kainate induced prolonged decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 gene expression in dentate gyrus. However, at the latest time measured, kainate had the stronger effect in decreasing both messenger RNA N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 and [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells. The latter changes corresponded, however, to neuronal loss and may reflect higher neurotoxic potency of kainate.These data point to some differences in hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor regulation in pilocarpine and kainate models of limbic seizures. Moreover, our results suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level is more susceptible to limbic seizures than is [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in the rat hippocampal formation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Influencia de la molienda en la energía superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo, A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO2 by 5% of B2O3 and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID. By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A2 if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m-2 and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol-1. Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results.Se ha estudiado el proceso de molienda en dos fritas de la industria cerámica. Las dos fritas, de composiciones similares pero en una se ha sustituido parte de la sílice por 5% de óxido de boro, fueron molidas por vía seca o húmeda y se caracterizaron mediante FT-IR, valoración Karl-Fischer e IGC-ID. Mediante valoración se han determinado los contenidos en moléculas de agua e hidroxilos. El mayor contenido en hidroxilos lo posee la frita sin boro seguida de la de boro ambas molidas en húmedo, poseyendo 28 y 26 grupos OH por cada 100 A2, respectivamente. Estos resultados coinciden con IGC-ID, sin embargo es la frita sin boro molida en seco la de mayor energía superficial (44 mJ.m-2 y constante ácida (0.13 kJ.mol-1. Aunque las dos fritas tienen

  13. Contribuição ao desenvolvimento de tecnologia de fabricação de celulas solares utilizando "dopant papers"

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Guass Junior

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de um conjunto de processos de baixo custo para fabricação de células solares. As células solares foram fabricadas utilizando lâminas de silício monocristalino, com orientação cristalografica e resistividade típica de 4.1 à 9.0 ohm.cm, tipo p dopadas com boro. Ajunção n-p foi obtida por difusão usando papéis dopantes. Estes papéis são de dois tipos, os que possuem boro e os com fósforo.A montagem de um conjunto de lâminas de s...

  14. Stochastic Frontier Approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of Bangladeshi Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md. Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989–2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation. PMID:23077500

  15. Synthesis of tritium labelled phosphonate analogues of sphinganine-1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, Andreas; Schwarzmann, Guenter; Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    1997-01-01

    Tritiated phosphonate analogues 9 and 10 are prepared as analogues of sphinganine-1-phosphate 4. The key step in this synthesis is the catalytic tritiation of the triple bond in reduction of the protected diethyl-3-(S)-tert.-butoxycarbonylamino -4-hydroxy-5-tridecinyl-1-phosphonate by means of sodium boro[ 3 H]hydride as tritium source. These compounds are synthesized to study their metabolic stability and to evaluate their biological properties. (author)

  16. The feasibility of crop diversification in rice based cropping systems in haor ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Shopan, J.; Bhuiya, M.S.U.; Kader, M.A.; Hasan, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in five farmers’ field in Dingaputa haor of Purba Tetulia village, Mohangonj Upazila in Netrakona district during the period from 20 July 2010 to 15 May 2011. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of growing short duration vegetable and oil crops in seasonal fallow of Boro rice-Fallow-Fallow cropping patterns in terms of both combined yields and economic performance. Six short duration vegetables such as potato, red amaranth, stem amaranth, sp...

  17. etude de la résistance au flétrissement bactérien de lignées inter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    4p. Mew, T. W., Vera Cruz, C. M. and Reyes, R. C.. 1992. Interaction of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae and a resistance Rice Cultivar. Phytopathology 72: 786-789. Ouedraogo, S. L. Somda, I. Boro, F. et Seré, Y. 2004 Détection et caractérisation des bactéries phytopathogènes transmises par les semences du riz au ...

  18. Performance of Different Herbicides in Dry-Seeded Rice in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the boro season of 2011-12 and aman season of 2012 at Jessore, Bangladesh, to evaluate the performance of sequential applications of preemergence herbicides (oxadiargyl 80 g ai ha−1, pendimethalin 850 g ai ha−1, acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl 240 g ai ha−1, and pyrazosulfuron 15 g ai ha−1) followed by a postemergence herbicide (ethoxysulfuron 18 g ai ha−1) in dry-seeded rice. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. Among herbicides, pendimethalin, oxadiargyl, and acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl performed very well against grasses; pyrazosulfuron, on the other hand, was not effective. The best herbicide for broadleaf weed control was oxadiargyl (65–85% control); pendimethalin and acetachlor + bensulfuraonmethyl were not effective for this purpose. The best combination for weed control was oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron in the boro season and oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding in the aman season. Compared with the partial weedy plots (hand weeded once), oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron (4.13 t ha−1) provided a 62% higher yield in the boro season while oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding (4.08 t ha−1) provided a 37% higher yield in the aman season. PMID:24688423

  19. Silica based gel as a potential waste form for high level waste from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.E.; Dempster, T.J.; Melling, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    To assess the feasibility of safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste as synthetic clay, or material that would react with ground water to form clay, experiments have been carried out to determine the hydrothermal crystallisation and leaching behaviour of silica based gels fired at 900 deg C. Crystallisation rates at a pressure of 500 bars and at temperatures below 400 deg C are negligible and this more or less precludes pre-disposal production of synthetic clay on the scale required. Leaching experiments suggest that the leach rates of Cs from gels by distilled water are higher than those of boro-silicate glasses and SYNROC at the lower temperatures that would be preferred for geological storage. However, amounts of bulk dissolution of gels may be lower than those of boro-silicate glasses. The initial leaching behaviour of gels might be considerably improved by hot compaction at 900 to 1000 deg C. Consideration of likely waste form dissolution behaviour in a repository environment suggests that gels of appropriate composition might perform as well as, or better than, boro-silicate glasses. A novel hypothetical plant is described that could produce the gel waste form on the scale required on a more or less continuous basis. (author)

  20. Enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Rooting of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se os efeitos de auxilias exógenas e ácido bórico, no enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas foram uniformizadas, com 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade. Cerca de 2,5 cm da base das mesmas foi mergulhado nos tratamentos: H2O; Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 5.000 ppm, IBA 2.000 ppm; IBA 5.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 2.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 3.000 ppm; NAA 1.500 ppm; NAA 3.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 1.500 ppm + Boro 150 µ/g/ml. A estaquia foi realizada no mês de setembro (Hemisfério sul, sendo que as estacas foram colocadas em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o IBA 5.000 ppm por 1 minuto foi o tratamento mais efetivo, proporcionando 83,33% de estacas enraizadas em 120 dias, enquanto o tratamento testemunha (H2O, apresentou somente 16,67% de estacas enraizadas.The effects of exogen auxins and boric add were studied on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. Cuttings were standardized to twenty-five cm length, with four leaves, cut in half. The bases of the cuttings were dipped of 2,5 cm in water solutions, resulting in the following treatments: H2O; Boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 5,000 ppm; IBA 2,000 ppm; IBA 5,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 2,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 3,000 ppm; NAA 1,500 ppm; NAA 3,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml. Cutting was performed in September (southern hemisphere and the cuttings were place in styrofoam trays, using vermiculite as substratum and kept under intermittent mist It was concluded that 5,000 ppm IBA for one minute was the best treatment to improve rooting (83,33%, while the control (H2O showed only 16,67% of rooted cuttings.