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Sample records for dipolar hard sphere

  1. Statistical mechanics of molecular fluids. The RHNC theory applied to hard dipolar spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardero, M.; Lado, F.; Abascal, J.L.F.; Lago, S.; Enciso, E.

    1988-01-01

    The RHNC (reference hipernetted chain) equation, together with an optimization criterion which extremalizes the Helmholtz free energy, is used to obtain structural, thermodynamic, and dielectric properties of a system made up of hard dipolar spheres. The comparison with simulation results is made in the same boundary conditions and then the properties of an infinite system are evaluated for a variaty of states at different densities and dipolar moments. (Author)

  2. Low temperature structural transitions in dipolar hard spheres: The influence on magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.O.; Kantorovich, S.S.; Rovigatti, L.; Tavares, J.M.; Sciortino, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural chain-to-ring transition at low temperature in a gas of dipolar hard spheres (DHS). Due to the weakening of entropic contribution, ring formation becomes noticeable when the effective dipole–dipole magnetic interaction increases. It results in the redistribution of particles from usually observed flexible chains into flexible rings. The concentration (ρ) of DHS plays a crucial part in this transition: at a very low ρ only chains and rings are observed, whereas even a slight increase of the volume fraction leads to the formation of branched or defect structures. As a result, the fraction of DHS aggregated in defect-free rings turns out to be a non-monotonic function of ρ. The average ring size is found to be a slower increasing function of ρ when compared to that of chains. Both theory and computer simulations confirm the dramatic influence of the ring formation on the ρ-dependence of the initial magnetic susceptibility (χ) when the temperature decreases. The rings due to their zero total dipole moment are irresponsive to a weak magnetic field and drive to the strong decrease of the initial magnetic susceptibility. - Highlights: • Found structural chain-to-ring transition at low temperature sheds the light on the no-man's-land of the phase diagram of dipolar hard sphere gas. • Particle concentration plays a crucial part: at high dilution only chains and rings are observed, otherwise different branched structures occur. • The dramatic influence of the ring formation on the concentration dependence of the initial magnetic susceptibility when temperature decreases

  3. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  4. Hard Spheres on the Primitive Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently hierarchical structures associated with the gyroid in several soft-matter systems have been reported. One of fundamental questions is regular arrangement or tiling on minimal surfaces. We have found certain numbers of hard spheres per unit cell on the gyroid surface are entropically self-organized. Here, new results for the primitive surface are presented. 56/64/72 per unit cell on the primitive minimal surface are entropically self-organized. Numerical evidences for the fluid-solid transition as a function of hard sphere radius are obtained in terms of the acceptance ratio of Monte Carlo moves and order parameters. These arrangements, which are the extensions of the hexagonal arrangement on a flat surface, can be viewed as hyperbolic tiling on the Poincaré disk with a negative Gaussian curvature.

  5. Thermodynamics and vibrational modes of hard sphere colloidal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zargar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The central question that we address in this thesis is the thermodynamics of colloidal glasses. The thermodynamics of colloidal hard sphere glasses are directly related to the entropy of the system, since the phase behavior of hard sphere systems is dictated only by entropic contributions, and also

  6. Non-hard sphere thermodynamic perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2011-08-21

    A non-hard sphere (HS) perturbation scheme, recently advanced by the present author, is elaborated for several technical matters, which are key mathematical details for implementation of the non-HS perturbation scheme in a coupling parameter expansion (CPE) thermodynamic perturbation framework. NVT-Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for a generalized Lennard-Jones (LJ) 2n-n potential to obtain routine thermodynamic quantities such as excess internal energy, pressure, excess chemical potential, excess Helmholtz free energy, and excess constant volume heat capacity. Then, these new simulation data, and available simulation data in literatures about a hard core attractive Yukawa fluid and a Sutherland fluid, are used to test the non-HS CPE 3rd-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and give a comparison between the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT and other theoretical approaches. It is indicated that the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT is superior to other traditional TPT such as van der Waals/HS (vdW/HS), perturbation theory 2 (PT2)/HS, and vdW/Yukawa (vdW/Y) theory or analytical equation of state such as mean spherical approximation (MSA)-equation of state and is at least comparable to several currently the most accurate Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theories. It is discovered that three technical issues, i.e., opening up new bridge function approximation for the reference potential, choosing proper reference potential, and/or using proper thermodynamic route for calculation of f(ex-ref), chiefly decide the quality of the non-HS CPE TPT. Considering that the non-HS perturbation scheme applies for a wide variety of model fluids, and its implementation in the CPE thermodynamic perturbation framework is amenable to high-order truncation, the non-HS CPE 3rd-order or higher order TPT will be more promising once the above-mentioned three technological advances are established. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Simple heuristic for the viscosity of polydisperse hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Robert S.

    2014-12-01

    We build on the work of Mooney [Colloids Sci. 6, 162 (1951)] to obtain an heuristic analytic approximation to the viscosity of a suspension any size distribution of hard spheres in a Newtonian solvent. The result agrees reasonably well with rheological data on monodispserse and bidisperse hard spheres, and also provides an approximation to the random close packing fraction of polydisperse spheres. The implied packing fraction is less accurate than that obtained by Farr and Groot [J. Chem. Phys. 131(24), 244104 (2009)], but has the advantage of being quick and simple to evaluate.

  8. Hard sphere colloidal dispersions: Mechanical relaxation pertaining to thermodynamic forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, J.; de Kruif, C.G.; Blom, C.; Vrij, A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex viscosity of sterically stabilized (hard) silica spheres in cyclohexane has been measured between 80 Hz and 170 kHz with torsion pendulums and a nickel tube resonator. The observed relaxation behaviour can be attributed to the interplay of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic forces. The

  9. Simple liquids’ quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2016-01-01

    This topical review discusses the quasiuniversality of simple liquids' structure and dynamics and two possible justifications of it. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic physics. An alternative explanation argues t...

  10. Simple liquids' quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    This presentation reflects on the well-known quasiuniversality of simple liquids’ structure and dynamics [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. We discuss two possible justifications of it [6, 7]. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic ph...

  11. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  12. Crystallizing hard-sphere glasses by doping with active particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Ran; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization and vitrification are two different routes to form a solid. Normally these two processes suppress each other, with the glass transition preventing crystallization at high density (or low temperature). This is even true for systems of colloidal hard spheres, which are commonly used as

  13. Force distribution affects vibrational properties in hard-sphere glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeGiuli, E.; Lerner, E.; Brito, C.; Wyart, M.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the elastic properties of hard-sphere glasses and provide a real-space description of their mechanical stability. In contrast to repulsive particles at zero temperature, we argue that the presence of certain pairs of particles interacting with a small force f

  14. Fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere mixtures: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Hard-sphere systems are one of the fundamental model systems of statistical physics and represent an important reference system for molecular or colloidal systems with soft repulsive or attractive interactions in addition to hard-core repulsion at short distances. Density functional theory for classical systems, as one of the core theoretical approaches of statistical physics of fluids and solids, has to be able to treat such an important system successfully and accurately. Fundamental measure theory is up to date the most successful and most accurate density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures. Since its introduction fundamental measure theory has been applied to many problems, tested against computer simulations, and further developed in many respects. The literature on fundamental measure theory is already large and is growing fast. This review aims to provide a starting point for readers new to fundamental measure theory and an overview of important developments. (topical review)

  15. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  16. Elasticity of Hard-Spheres-And-Tether Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, O.; Kantor, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Physical properties of a large class of systems ranging from noble gases to polymers and rubber are primarily determined by entropy, while the internal energy plays a minor role. Such systems can be conveniently modeled and numerically studied using ''hard' (i.e., ''infinity-or-zero'') potentials, such as hard sphere repulsive interactions, or inextensible (''tether'') bonds which limit the distance between the bonded monomers, but have zero energy at all permitted distances. The knowledge of elastic constants is very important for understanding the behavior of entropy-dominated systems. Computational methods for determination of the elastic constants in such systems are broadly classified into ''strain'' methods and (fluctuation methods. In the former, the elastic constants are extracted from stress-strain relations, while in the latter they are determined from measurements of stress fluctuations. The fluctuation technique usually enables more accurate and well-controlled determination of the elastic constants since in this method the elastic constants are computed directly from simulations of the un strained system with no need to deform the simulation cell and perform numerical differentiations. For central forces systems, the original ''fluctuation'' formalism can be applied provided the pair potential is twice differentiable. We have extended this formalism to apply to hard-spheres-and-tether models in which this requirement is not fulfilled. We found that for such models the components of the tensor of elastic constants can be related to (two-, three- and four-point) probability densities of contacts between hard spheres and stretched bonds. We have tested our formalism on simple (phantom networks and three-dimensional hard spheres systems

  17. Random close packing of hard spheres and disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A simple definition of random close packing of hard spheres is presented, and the consequences of this definition are explored. According to this definition, random close packing occurs at the minimum packing fraction eta for which the median nearest-neighbor radius equals the diameter of the spheres. Using the radial distribution function at more dilute concentrations to estimate median nearest-neighbor radii, lower bounds on the critical packing fraction eta/sub RCP/ are obtained and the value of eta/sub RCP/ is estimated by extrapolation. Random close packing is predicted to occur for eta/sub RCP/ = 0.64 +- 0.02 in three dimensions and eta/sub RCP/ = 0.82 +- 0.02 in two dimensions. Both of these predictions are shown to be consistent with the available experimental data

  18. Supercooled liquid dynamics for the charged hard-sphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1994-08-01

    We study the dynamics of supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition by applying the mode coupling theory to the charged hard-sphere model. By exploiting the two independent parameters inherent in the charged hard-sphere system we examine structurally the subtle and competitive role played by the short-range hard-core correlation and the long-range Coulomb tail. It is found in this work that the long-range Coulombic charge factor effect is generally a less effective contribution to structure when the plasma parameter is less than 500 and becomes dominant when it is greater thereof. To extend our understanding of the supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition, an attempt is made to calculate and to give physical relevance to the mode-coupling parameters which are frequently used as mere fitting parameters in analysis of experiments on supercooled liquid systems. This latter information enables us to discuss the possible application of the model to a realistic system. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs

  19. The Enskog Equation for Confined Elastic Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynar, P.; García de Soria, M. I.; Brey, J. Javier

    2018-03-01

    A kinetic equation for a system of elastic hard spheres or disks confined by a hard wall of arbitrary shape is derived. It is a generalization of the modified Enskog equation in which the effects of the confinement are taken into account and it is supposed to be valid up to moderate densities. From the equation, balance equations for the hydrodynamic fields are derived, identifying the collisional transfer contributions to the pressure tensor and heat flux. A Lyapunov functional, H[f], is identified. For any solution of the kinetic equation, H decays monotonically in time until the system reaches the inhomogeneous equilibrium distribution, that is a Maxwellian distribution with a density field consistent with equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  20. Thermodynamic perturbation theory for fused hard-sphere and hard-disk chain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Stell, G.

    1995-01-01

    We find that first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1) which incorporates the reference monomer fluid used in the generalized Flory--AB (GF--AB) theory yields an equation of state for fused hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids that has accuracy comparable to the GF--AB and GF--dimer--AC theories. The new TPT1 equation of state is significantly more accurate than other extensions of the TPT1 theory to FHS chain fluids. The TPT1 is also extended to two-dimensional fused hard-disk chain fluids. For the fused hard-disk dimer fluid, the extended TPT1 equation of state is found to be more accurate than the Boublik hard-disk dimer equation of state. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nygård

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.

  2. Collective modes in simple melts: Transition from soft spheres to the hard sphere limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapak, Sergey; Klumov, Boris; Couëdel, Lénaïc

    2017-08-11

    We study collective modes in a classical system of particles with repulsive inverse-power-law (IPL) interactions in the fluid phase, near the fluid-solid coexistence (IPL melts). The IPL exponent is varied from n = 10 to n = 100 to mimic the transition from moderately soft to hard-sphere-like interactions. We compare the longitudinal dispersion relations obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with those calculated using the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA) and find that this simple theoretical approach becomes grossly inaccurate for [Formula: see text]. Similarly, conventional expressions for high-frequency (instantaneous) elastic moduli, predicting their divergence as n increases, are meaningless in this regime. Relations of the longitudinal and transverse elastic velocities of the QCA model to the adiabatic sound velocity, measured in MD simulations, are discussed for the regime where QCA is applicable. Two potentially useful freezing indicators for classical particle systems with steep repulsive interactions are discussed.

  3. New results for virial coefficients of hard spheres in D dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present new results for the virial coefficients Bk for k ≤ 10 for hard spheres in dimensions D ... for the hard sphere gas of particles of diameter σ in D dimensions defined by the two-body potential. U(r) = ..... [22] A J Guttmann, Asymptotic analysis of power-series expansions, in Phase transitions and critical phenomena ...

  4. Structure and dynamics of colloidal hard spheres in real-space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullens, Roel P.A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with various aspects of the structure and dynamics of colloidal hard spheres. A general introduction on colloids as experimental realization of hard spheres is presented in Chapter 1. The basic principles of confocal microscopy, the main technique used in this thesis, as well as

  5. Equilibrium distribution of hard-sphere systems and revised Enskog theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van

    1983-01-01

    A revised Enskog theory (RET) is shown to lead to a correct equilibrium distribution in hard-sphere systems in a stationary external potential, while the standard Enskog theory (SET) does not. Attention is given to the s-component hard-sphere mixture with constant external potential acting on

  6. Orientational Ordering and Phase Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of Hard Spheres and Hard Spherocylinders.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, L.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, G.; Muller, E.A.; Avendano, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 4 (2015), s. 044906 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/T17595; EPSRC(GB) GR/N35991; EPSRC(GB) EP/E016340; EPSRC(GB) EP/J014958; JREI(GB) GR/M94426 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : phase behaviour * liquid crystals * hard spheres Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2015

  7. Local order and crystallization of dense polydisperse hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslovich, Daniele; Ozawa, Misaki; Berthier, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    Computer simulations give precious insight into the microscopic behavior of supercooled liquids and glasses, but their typical time scales are orders of magnitude shorter than the experimentally relevant ones. We recently closed this gap for a class of models of size polydisperse fluids, which we successfully equilibrate beyond laboratory time scales by means of the swap Monte Carlo algorithm. In this contribution, we study the interplay between compositional and geometric local orders in a model of polydisperse hard spheres equilibrated with this algorithm. Local compositional order has a weak state dependence, while local geometric order associated to icosahedral arrangements grows more markedly but only at very high density. We quantify the correlation lengths and the degree of sphericity associated to icosahedral structures and compare these results to those for the Wahnström Lennard-Jones mixture. Finally, we analyze the structure of very dense samples that partially crystallized following a pattern incompatible with conventional fractionation scenarios. The crystal structure has the symmetry of aluminum diboride and involves a subset of small and large particles with size ratio approximately equal to 0.5.

  8. The effect of rotational and translational energy exchange on tracer diffusion in rough hard sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Olga; Thachuk, Mark

    2011-03-21

    A study is presented of tracer diffusion in a rough hard sphere fluid. Unlike smooth hard spheres, collisions between rough hard spheres can exchange rotational and translational energy and momentum. It is expected that as tracer particles become larger, their diffusion constants will tend toward the Stokes-Einstein hydrodynamic result. It has already been shown that in this limit, smooth hard spheres adopt "slip" boundary conditions. The current results show that rough hard spheres adopt boundary conditions proportional to the degree of translational-rotational energy exchange. Spheres for which this exchange is the largest adopt "stick" boundary conditions while those with more intermediate exchange adopt values between the "slip" and "stick" limits. This dependence is found to be almost linear. As well, changes in the diffusion constants as a function of this exchange are examined and it is found that the dependence is stronger than that suggested by the low-density, Boltzmann result. Compared with smooth hard spheres, real molecules undergo inelastic collisions and have attractive wells. Rough hard spheres model the effect of inelasticity and show that even without the presence of attractive forces, the boundary conditions for large particles can deviate from "slip" and approach "stick."

  9. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  10. Isotropic-nematic transition in a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders: scaled particle theory description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaled particle theory is developed for the description of thermodynamical properties of a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders. Analytical expressions for free energy, pressure and chemical potentials are derived. From the minimization of free energy, a nonlinear integral equation for the orientational singlet distribution function is formulated. An isotropic-nematic phase transition in this mixture is investigated from the bifurcation analysis of this equation. It is shown that with an increase of concentration of hard spheres, the total packing fraction of a mixture on phase boundaries slightly increases. The obtained results are compared with computer simulations data.

  11. Structure and effective interactions in three-component hard sphere liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A; Ashcroft, N W

    2001-04-01

    Complete and simple analytical expressions for the partial structure factors of the ternary hard sphere mixture are obtained within the Percus-Yevick approximation and presented as functions of relative packing fractions and relative hard sphere diameters. These solutions follow from the Laplace transform method as applied to multicomponent systems by Lebowitz [Phys. Rev. 133, A895 (1964)]. As an important application, we examine effective interactions in hard sphere liquid mixtures using the microscopic information contained in their partial structure factors. Thus the ensuring pair potential for an effective one-component system is obtained from the correlation functions by using an approximate inversion, and examples of effective potentials for three-component hard sphere mixtures are given. These mixtures may be of particular interest for the study of the packing aspects of melts that form glasses or quasicrystals, since noncrystalline solids often emerge from melts with at least three atomic constituents.

  12. Probing the equilibrium dynamics of colloidal hard spheres above the mode-coupling glass transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, G.; al Masri, J.H.M.; Pierno, M.; Berthier, L.; Cipelletti, L.

    2010-01-01

    We use dynamic light scattering and computer simulations to study equilibrium dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity in concentrated suspensions of colloidal hard spheres. Our study covers an unprecedented density range and spans seven decades in structural relaxation time, , including equilibrium

  13. Three-particle equilibrium correlations in dense hard-sphere fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffmans, A.F.E.M.; Schepper, I.M. de; Michels, J.P.J.; Beijeren, H. van

    1988-01-01

    We performed molecular-dynamics simulation experiments for a hard-sphere fluid at four high densities and determined the spatial Fourier transform of the three-particle equilibrium correlation function with two of the three particles at contact.

  14. Dynamical study of a polydisperse hard-sphere system

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, Tomoaki; Ito, Nobuyasu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay between the fluid-crystal transition and the glass transition of elastic sphere system with polydispersity using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the end point of the crystal-fluid transition

  15. Molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions between hard-sphere reference solutes are attractive and endothermic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Holleran, Sinead A; Ashbaugh, Henry S; Pratt, Lawrence R

    2013-12-17

    The osmotic second virial coefficients, B2, for atomic-sized hard spheres in water are attractive (B2 attractive with increasing temperature (ΔB2/ΔT attractive and endothermic at moderate temperatures. Hydrophobic interactions between atomic-sized hard spheres in water are more attractive than predicted by the available statistical mechanical theory. These results constitute an initial step toward detailed molecular theory of additional intermolecular interaction features, specifically, attractive interactions associated with hydrophobic solutes.

  16. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using

  17. Dynamical study of a polydisperse hard-sphere system

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, Tomoaki

    2010-08-10

    We study the interplay between the fluid-crystal transition and the glass transition of elastic sphere system with polydispersity using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the end point of the crystal-fluid transition line, which corresponds to the critical polydispersity above which the crystal state is unstable, is on the glass transition line. This means that crystal and fluid states at the melting point becomes less distinguishable as polydispersity increases and finally they become identical state, i.e., marginal glass state, at critical polydispersity. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  18. Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions

  19. Semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, R K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Dijk, W van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Srivastava, M K [Institute Instrumentation Center, IIT, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2006-11-01

    Quantum effects in statistical mechanics are important when the thermal wavelength is of the order of, or greater than, the mean interatomic spacing. This is examined in depth taking the example of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas. Using the virial expansion for the equation of state, it is shown that the interaction energy of a classical hard-sphere gas is exactly zero. When the (second) virial coefficient of such a gas is obtained quantum mechanically, however, the quantum contribution to the interaction energy is shown to be substantial. The importance of the semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy shows up dramatically in such a system.

  20. Semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, R K; Dijk, W van; Srivastava, M K

    2006-01-01

    Quantum effects in statistical mechanics are important when the thermal wavelength is of the order of, or greater than, the mean interatomic spacing. This is examined in depth taking the example of a hard-sphere Boltzmann gas. Using the virial expansion for the equation of state, it is shown that the interaction energy of a classical hard-sphere gas is exactly zero. When the (second) virial coefficient of such a gas is obtained quantum mechanically, however, the quantum contribution to the interaction energy is shown to be substantial. The importance of the semiclassical corrections to the interaction energy shows up dramatically in such a system

  1. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria

    2012-01-03

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle distribution function, with excluded-volume effects enhancing the overall collective diffusion rate. An expression for the effective (collective) diffusion coefficient is obtained. Stochastic simulations of the full particle system are shown to compare well with the solution of this equation for two examples. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  2. Towards an analytical theory for charged hard spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Blum

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion mixtures require an exclusion core to avoid collapse. The Debye Hueckel (DH theory, where ions are point charges, is accurate only in the limit of infinite dilution. The mean spherical approximation (MSA is the embedding of hard cores into DH, and is valid for higher densities. The properties of any ionic mixture can be represented by the single screening parameter Γ which for the equal ionic size restricted model is obtained from the Debye parameter κ. This Γ representation, the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA, is also valid for complex/associating systems, such as the general n-polyelectrolytes. The BIMSA is the only theory that satisfies the infinite dilution limit of the DH theory for any chain length. Furthermore, the contact pair distribution function calculated from our theory agrees with the Monte Carlo of Bresmeea. (Phys. Rev. E, 1995, 51, 289.

  3. Equation of state and jamming density for equivalent bi- and polydisperse, smooth, hard sphere systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.; Luding, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We study bi- and polydisperse mixtures of hard sphere fluids with extreme size ratios up to 100. Simulation results are compared with previously found analytical equations of state by looking at the compressibility factor, Z, and agreement is found with much better than 1% deviation in the fluid

  4. Crystalline and amorphous solid phases in the classical hard sphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Souza, R.F.T.; Llano, M. de; Mini, S.

    1984-01-01

    A qualitative crystalline, as well as amorphous, solid behavior is simultaneously extracted for a classical hard sphere system from its known virial power series expansion in the density augmented by only one further virial coefficient, taken from an extrapolated estimate of the Cauchy-Hadamard radius of convergence criterion. Results are compared with computer simulation data. (Author) [pt

  5. Brownian dynamics of aggregation kinetics of hard spheres with flexibele bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rzepiela, A.A.; Opheusden, van J.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations have been performed on the aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles within the context of a ball-and-string model. Particles are treated as hard spheres that can bind irreversibly through a string attached to their surface. The model is set up to mimic some

  6. Connecting structural relaxation with the low frequency modes in a hard-sphere colloidal glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.; Chikkadi, V.; Schall, P.; Bonn, D.

    2011-01-01

    Structural relaxation in hard-sphere colloidal glasses has been studied using confocal microscopy. The motion of individual particles is followed over long time scales to detect the rearranging regions in the system. We have used normal mode analysis to understand the origin of the rearranging

  7. Flexible equation of state for a hard sphere and Lennard–Jones fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equation of state; Lennard–Jones potential; hard-sphere potential; liquid mixture; computer simulation. ... deviation than Barker–Henderson BH2 for LJ fluids, and results are much closer to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations than expectations and reproduce the existing simulation data and present EoS for LJ potential, ...

  8. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  9. Hard sphere-like glass transition in eye lens α-crystallin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, Giuseppe; Savin, Gabriela; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Thurston, George M; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-11-25

    We study the equilibrium liquid structure and dynamics of dilute and concentrated bovine eye lens α-crystallin solutions, using small-angle X-ray scattering, static and dynamic light scattering, viscometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and mode-coupling theory. We find that a polydisperse Percus-Yevick hard-sphere liquid-structure model accurately reproduces both static light scattering data and small-angle X-ray scattering liquid structure data from α-crystallin solutions over an extended range of protein concentrations up to 290 mg/mL or 49% vol fraction and up to ca. 330 mg/mL for static light scattering. The measured dynamic light scattering and viscosity properties are also consistent with those of hard-sphere colloids and show power laws characteristic of an approach toward a glass transition at α-crystallin volume fractions near 58%. Dynamic light scattering at a volume fraction beyond the glass transition indicates formation of an arrested state. We further perform event-driven molecular dynamics simulations of polydisperse hard-sphere systems and use mode-coupling theory to compare the measured dynamic power laws with those of hard-sphere models. The static and dynamic data, simulations, and analysis show that aqueous eye lens α-crystallin solutions exhibit a glass transition at high concentrations that is similar to those found in hard-sphere colloidal systems. The α-crystallin glass transition could have implications for the molecular basis of presbyopia and the kinetics of molecular change during cataractogenesis.

  10. Exact equivalence between one-dimensional Bose gases interacting via hard-sphere and zero-range potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    We prove the equivalence between the hard-sphere Bose gas and a system with momentum-dependent zero-range interactions in one spatial dimension, which we call extended hard-sphere Bose gas. The two-body interaction in the latter model has the advantage of being a regular pseudopotential. The most...

  11. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; Kou, Binquan; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a 'hidden' polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleation process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. Our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.

  12. Parallelized event chain algorithm for dense hard sphere and polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampmann, Tobias A.; Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We combine parallelization and cluster Monte Carlo for hard sphere systems and present a parallelized event chain algorithm for the hard disk system in two dimensions. For parallelization we use a spatial partitioning approach into simulation cells. We find that it is crucial for correctness to ensure detailed balance on the level of Monte Carlo sweeps by drawing the starting sphere of event chains within each simulation cell with replacement. We analyze the performance gains for the parallelized event chain and find a criterion for an optimal degree of parallelization. Because of the cluster nature of event chain moves massive parallelization will not be optimal. Finally, we discuss first applications of the event chain algorithm to dense polymer systems, i.e., bundle-forming solutions of attractive semiflexible polymers

  13. Analytical expressions for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonho; Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid. A set of integral equations is obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with Percus-Yevick approximation. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of the individual correlation functions are obtained. By the inverse Laplace transformation, the radial distribution function (RDF) is obtained in closed form out to 3D (D is the segment diameter). The analytical expression for the RDF of the hard dimer should be useful in developing the perturbation theory of dimer fluids.

  14. Connecting structural relaxation with the low frequency modes in a hard-sphere colloidal glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Antina; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Schall, Peter; Bonn, Daniel

    2011-10-28

    Structural relaxation in hard-sphere colloidal glasses has been studied using confocal microscopy. The motion of individual particles is followed over long time scales to detect the rearranging regions in the system. We have used normal mode analysis to understand the origin of the rearranging regions. The low-frequency modes, obtained over short time scales, show strong spatial correlation with the rearrangements that happen on long time scales.

  15. Analytic methods for the Percus-Yevick hard sphere correlation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Henderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Percus-Yevick theory for hard spheres provides simple accurate expressions for the correlation functions that have proven exceptionally useful. A summary of the author's lecture notes concerning three methods of obtaining these functions are presented. These notes are original only in part. However, they contain some helpful steps and simplifications. The purpose of this paper is to make these notes more widely available.

  16. A linear programming algorithm to test for jamming in hard-sphere packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, Aleksandar; Torquato, Salvatore.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Connelly, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Jamming in hard-particle packings has been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. In a paper by Torquato and Stillinger [J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001)], a classification scheme of jammed packings into hierarchical categories of locally, collectively and strictly jammed configurations has been proposed. They suggest that these jamming categories can be tested using numerical algorithms that analyze an equivalent contact network of the packing under applied displacements, but leave the design of such algorithms as a future task. In this work, we present a rigorous and practical algorithm to assess whether an ideal hard-sphere packing in two or three dimensions is jammed according to the aforementioned categories. The algorithm is based on linear programming and is applicable to regular as well as random packings of finite size with hard-wall and periodic boundary conditions. If the packing is not jammed, the algorithm yields representative multi-particle unjamming motions. Furthermore, we extend the jamming categories and the testing algorithm to packings with significant interparticle gaps. We describe in detail two variants of the proposed randomized linear programming approach to test for jamming in hard-sphere packings. The first algorithm treats ideal packings in which particles form perfect contacts. Another algorithm treats the case of jamming in packings with significant interparticle gaps. This extended algorithm allows one to explore more fully the nature of the feasible particle displacements. We have implemented the algorithms and applied them to ordered as well as random packings of circular disks and spheres with periodic boundary conditions. Some representative results for large disordered disk and sphere packings are given, but more robust and efficient implementations as well as further applications (e.g., non-spherical particles) are anticipated for the future

  17. Electrostatic solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using molecular dynamics with density functional theory interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Timothy T.; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Chistopher J.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the solvation free energies of single ions in water is one of the most fundamental problems in physical chemistry and yet many unresolved questions remain. In particular, the ability to decompose the solvation free energy into simple and intuitive contributions will have important implications for models of electrolyte solution. Here, we provide definitions of the various types of single ion solvation free energies based on different simulation protocols. We calculate solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using density functional theory interaction potentials with molecular dynamics simulation and isolate the effects of charge and cavitation, comparing to the Born (linear response) model. We show that using uncorrected Ewald summation leads to unphysical values for the single ion solvation free energy and that charging free energies for cations are approximately linear as a function of charge but that there is a small non-linearity for small anions. The charge hydration asymmetry for hard spheres, determined with quantum mechanics, is much larger than for the analogous real ions. This suggests that real ions, particularly anions, are significantly more complex than simple charged hard spheres, a commonly employed representation.

  18. Thermodynamics and dynamics of the hard-sphere system: From stable to metastable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bomont@univ-lorraine.fr; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2014-08-17

    Highlights: • Three different scaling laws, devoted to transport properties of hard-sphere system, are investigated over a wide range of packing fractions. • A new semiempirical relation linking the transport properties to the excess pressure is derived. • The present relation allows to better understand the link between the thermodynamic and the dynamic properties of the hard-sphere system. - Abstract: A set of three different scaling laws is investigated, which are devoted to link the transport properties, i.e. diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity, to the thermodynamic properties for the athermal hard-sphere system, over the wider range of packing fraction covering the stable and metastable regimes. Except for the thermal conductivity, the Rosenfeld (1999) [15] relation is found to be applicable to the stable states while the Adam and Gibbs (1965) [24] relation holds well for the metastable states. In contrast, the modified Cohen and Turnbull (1959) [25] relation proposed here gives sound support for a universal scaling law connecting the dynamic and thermodynamic properties, over the domain of packing fraction including the stable and metastable states. In particular, it is found that the most relevant control parameter is not the excess entropy, but the logarithm derivative of the excess entropy with respect to the packing fraction. In the same context, the Stokes–Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity is also examined. The possible violation of the Stokes–Einstein relation is investigated over a large domain of packing fractions.

  19. Thermodynamics and dynamics of the hard-sphere system: From stable to metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different scaling laws, devoted to transport properties of hard-sphere system, are investigated over a wide range of packing fractions. • A new semiempirical relation linking the transport properties to the excess pressure is derived. • The present relation allows to better understand the link between the thermodynamic and the dynamic properties of the hard-sphere system. - Abstract: A set of three different scaling laws is investigated, which are devoted to link the transport properties, i.e. diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity, to the thermodynamic properties for the athermal hard-sphere system, over the wider range of packing fraction covering the stable and metastable regimes. Except for the thermal conductivity, the Rosenfeld (1999) [15] relation is found to be applicable to the stable states while the Adam and Gibbs (1965) [24] relation holds well for the metastable states. In contrast, the modified Cohen and Turnbull (1959) [25] relation proposed here gives sound support for a universal scaling law connecting the dynamic and thermodynamic properties, over the domain of packing fraction including the stable and metastable states. In particular, it is found that the most relevant control parameter is not the excess entropy, but the logarithm derivative of the excess entropy with respect to the packing fraction. In the same context, the Stokes–Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity is also examined. The possible violation of the Stokes–Einstein relation is investigated over a large domain of packing fractions

  20. Electronic transport properties of 4f shell elements of liquid metal using hard sphere Yukawa system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport properties are analyzed for 4f shell elements of liquid metals. To examine the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q), we used our own parameter free model potential with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system. The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been examined by using different screening functions like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar (S). The correlations of our resultsand other data with available experimental values are intensely promising. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable of explaining the above mentioned electronic transport properties.

  1. Free energy landscape and cooperatively rearranging region in a hard sphere glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshidome, Takashi; Yoshimori, Akira; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Exploiting the density functional theory, we calculate the free energy landscape (FEL) of the hard sphere glass in three dimensions. From the FEL, we estimate the number of the particles in the cooperatively rearranging region (CRR). We find that the density dependence of the number of the particles in the CRR is expressed as a power law function of the density. Analyzing the relaxation process in the CRR, we also find that the string motion is the elementary process for the structural relaxation, which leads to the natural definition of the simultaneously rearranging region as the particles displaced in the string motion.

  2. Charged hard spheres in a uniform neutralizing background: The role of thermodynamics selfconsistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badirkhan, Z.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-06-01

    Calculations of the thermodynamic properties and pair distribution function of a one-component classical fluid of charged hard spheres in a uniform neutralizing background are reported and compared with Monte Carlo results of Hansen and Weis. Thermodynamic selfconsistence between the virial pressure and the fluctuations formula for the isothermal compressibility is enforced in the calculations by various alternative approaches. The role of thermodynamic selfconsistence is crucial to obtain a satisfactory quantitative description of this model fluid, in view of its applications in the theory of liquid metals and of dispersions of charged colloidal particles. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  3. First-principle proof of the modified collision boundary conditions for the hard-sphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue lying at the foundation of classical statistical mechanics is the determination of the collision boundary conditions that characterize the dynamical evolution of multi-particle probability density functions (PDF) and are applicable to systems of hard-spheres undergoing multiple elastic collisions. In this paper it is proved that, when the deterministic N-body PDF is included in the class of admissible solutions of the Liouville equation, the customary form of collision boundary conditions adopted in previous literature becomes physically inconsistent and must actually be replaced by suitably modified collision boundary conditions.

  4. Analytical expression for the correlation function of a hard sphere chain fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of flexible hard sphere chain fluid. A set of integral equations obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with the polymer Percus-Yevick ideal chain approximation is considered. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of individual correlation functions are obtained. By inverse Laplace transformation the inter- and intramolecular radial distribution functions (RDFs) are obtained in closed forms up to 3D(D is segment diameter). These analytical expressions for the RDFs would be useful in developing the perturbation theory of chain fluids.

  5. Density fluctuations and the structure of a nonuniform hard sphere fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Katsov, Kirill; Weeks, John D.

    2000-01-01

    We derive an exact equation for density changes induced by a general external field that corrects the hydrostatic approximation where the local value of the field is adsorbed into a modified chemical potential. Using linear response theory to relate density changes self-consistently in different regions of space, we arrive at an integral equation for a hard sphere fluid that is exact in the limit of a slowly varying field or at low density and reduces to the accurate Percus-Yevick equation fo...

  6. Demixing and nematic behaviour of oblate hard spherocylinders and hard spheres mixtures: Monte Carlo simulation and Parsons-Lee theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Francisco; Acemel, Rafael D.; Cuetos, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    Parsons-Lee approach is formulated for the isotropic-nematic transition in a binary mixture of oblate hard spherocylinders and hard spheres. Results for the phase coexistence and for the equation of state in both phases for fluids with different relative size and composition ranges are presented. The predicted behaviour is in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in a qualitative fashion. The study serves to provide a rational view of how to control key aspects of the behaviour of these binary nematogenic colloidal systems. This behaviour can be tuned with an appropriate choice of the relative size and molar fractions of the depleting particles. In general, the mixture of discotic and spherical particles is stable against demixing up to very high packing fractions. We explore in detail the narrow geometrical range where demixing is predicted to be possible in the isotropic phase. The influence of molecular crowding effects on the stability of the mixture when spherical molecules are added to a system of discotic colloids is also studied.

  7. High-density fluid-perturbation theory based on an inverse 12th-power hard-sphere reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1979-01-01

    A variational theory is developed that is accurate at normal liquid densities and densities up to 4 times that of the argon triple point. This theory uses the inverse 12th-power potential as a reference system. The properties of this reference system are expressed in terms of hard-sphere packing fractions by using a modified form of hard-space variational theory. As a result of this ''bootstrapping,'' a variational procedure may be followed that employs the inverse 12th-power system as a reference but uses the hard-sphere packing fraction as the scaling parameter with which to minimize the Helmholtz free energy

  8. Macromolecular diffusion in crowded media beyond the hard-sphere model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo M; Garcés, Josep Lluís; Madurga, Sergio; Mas, Francesc

    2018-04-25

    The effect of macromolecular crowding on diffusion beyond the hard-core sphere model is studied. A new coarse-grained model is presented, the Chain Entanglement Softened Potential (CESP) model, which takes into account the macromolecular flexibility and chain entanglement. The CESP model uses a shoulder-shaped interaction potential that is implemented in the Brownian Dynamics (BD) computations. The interaction potential contains only one parameter associated with the chain entanglement energetic cost (Ur). The hydrodynamic interactions are included in the BD computations via Tokuyama mean-field equations. The model is used to analyze the diffusion of a streptavidin protein among different sized dextran obstacles. For this system, Ur is obtained by fitting the streptavidin experimental long-time diffusion coefficient Dlongversus the macromolecular concentration for D50 (indicating their molecular weight in kg mol-1) dextran obstacles. The obtained Dlong values show better quantitative agreement with experiments than those obtained with hard-core spheres. Moreover, once parametrized, the CESP model is also able to quantitatively predict Dlong and the anomalous exponent (α) for streptavidin diffusion among D10, D400 and D700 dextran obstacles. Dlong, the short-time diffusion coefficient (Dshort) and α are obtained from the BD simulations by using a new empirical expression, able to describe the full temporal evolution of the diffusion coefficient.

  9. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid alkali metals from the charged-hard-sphere reference fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Akinlade, O.; Tosi, M.P.

    1989-12-01

    The evaluation of thermodynamic properties of liquid alkali metals is re-examined in the approach based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and using the fluid of charged hard spheres in the mean spherical approximation as reference system, with a view to achieving consistency with the liquid structure factor. The perturbative variational calculation of the Helmholtz free energy is based on an ab initio and highly reliable nonlocal pseudopotential. Only limited improvement is found in the calculated thermodynamic functions, even when full advantage is taken of the two variational parameters inherent in this approach. The role of thermodynamic self-consistency between the equations of state of the reference fluid derived from the routes of the internal energy and of the virial theorem is then discussed, using previous results by Hoye and Stell. An approximate evaluation of the corresponding contribution to the free energy of liquid alkali metals yields appreciable improvements in both the thermodynamic functions and the liquid structure factor. It thus appears that an accurate treatment of thermodynamic self-consistency in the charged-hard-sphere system may help to resolve some of the difficulties that are commonly met in the evaluation of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid metals. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Packing simulation code to calculate distribution function of hard spheres by Monte Carlo method : MCRDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Shirai, Hiroshi.

    1996-03-01

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) employ spherical fuels named coated fuel particles (CFPs) consisting of a microsphere of low enriched UO 2 with coating layers in order to prevent FP release. There exist many spherical fuels distributed randomly in the cores. Therefore, the nuclear design of HTGRs is generally performed on the basis of the multigroup approximation using a diffusion code, S N transport code or group-wise Monte Carlo code. This report summarizes a Monte Carlo hard sphere packing simulation code to simulate the packing of equal hard spheres and evaluate the necessary probability distribution of them, which is used for the application of the new Monte Carlo calculation method developed to treat randomly distributed spherical fuels with the continuous energy Monte Carlo method. By using this code, obtained are the various statistical values, namely Radial Distribution Function (RDF), Nearest Neighbor Distribution (NND), 2-dimensional RDF and so on, for random packing as well as ordered close packing of FCC and BCC. (author)

  11. Aging of a hard-sphere glass: effect of the microscopic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, Antonio M

    2010-01-01

    We present simulations of the aging of a quasi-hard-sphere glass, with Newtonian and Brownian microscopic dynamics. The system is equilibrated at the desired density (above the glass transition in hard spheres) with short-range attractions, which are removed at t = 0. The structural part of the decay of the density correlation function can be time rescaled to collapse onto a master function independent of the waiting time, t w , and the timescale follows a power law with t w , with exponent z ∼ 0.89; the non-ergodicity parameter is larger than that of the glass transition point (the localization length is smaller) and oscillates in harmony with S q . The aging with both microscopic dynamics is identical, except for a scale factor from the age in Newtonian to the age in Brownian dynamics. This factor is approximately the same as that which scales the α-decay of the correlation function in fluids close to the glass transition.

  12. Hard-sphere fluid adsorbed in an annular wedge: The depletion force of hard-body colloidal physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A. R.; Henderson, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Many important issues of colloidal physics can be expressed in the context of inhomogeneous fluid phenomena. When two large colloids approach one another in solvent, they interact at least partly by the response of the solvent to finding itself adsorbed in the annular wedge formed between the two colloids. At shortest range, this fluid mediated interaction is known as the depletion force/interaction because solvent is squeezed out of the wedge when the colloids approach closer than the diameter of a solvent molecule. An equivalent situation arises when a single colloid approaches a substrate/wall. Accurate treatment of this interaction is essential for any theory developed to model the phase diagrams of homogeneous and inhomogeneous colloidal systems. The aim of our paper is a test of whether or not we possess sufficient knowledge of statistical mechanics that can be trusted when applied to systems of large size asymmetry and the depletion force in particular. When the colloid particles are much larger than a solvent diameter, the depletion force is dominated by the effective two-body interaction experienced by a pair of solvated colloids. This low concentration limit of the depletion force has therefore received considerable attention. One route, which can be rigorously based on statistical mechanical sum rules, leads to an analytic result for the depletion force when evaluated by a key theoretical tool of colloidal science known as the Derjaguin approximation. A rival approach has been based on the assumption that modern density functional theories (DFT) can be trusted for systems of large size asymmetry. Unfortunately, these two theoretical predictions differ qualitatively for hard sphere models, as soon as the solvent density is higher than about 2/3 that at freezing. Recent theoretical attempts to understand this dramatic disagreement have led to the proposal that the Derjaguin and DFT routes represent opposite limiting behavior, for very large size asymmetry

  13. Pseudo hard-sphere potential for use in continuous molecular-dynamics simulation of spherical and chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, J; Haslam, A J; Galindo, A; Jackson, G; Müller, E A

    2012-10-14

    We present a continuous pseudo-hard-sphere potential based on a cut-and-shifted Mie (generalized Lennard-Jones) potential with exponents (50, 49). Using this potential one can mimic the volumetric, structural, and dynamic properties of the discontinuous hard-sphere potential over the whole fluid range. The continuous pseudo potential has the advantage that it may be incorporated directly into off-the-shelf molecular-dynamics code, allowing the user to capitalise on existing hardware and software advances. Simulation results for the compressibility factor of the fluid and solid phases of our pseudo hard spheres are presented and compared both to the Carnahan-Starling equation of state of the fluid and published data, the differences being indistinguishable within simulation uncertainty. The specific form of the potential is employed to simulate flexible chains formed from these pseudo hard spheres at contact (pearl-necklace model) for m(c) = 4, 5, 7, 8, 16, 20, 100, 201, and 500 monomer segments. The compressibility factor of the chains per unit of monomer, m(c), approaches a limiting value at reasonably small values, m(c) theory. Simulation results are also presented for highly asymmetric mixtures of pseudo hard spheres, with diameter ratios of 3:1, 5:1, 20:1 over the whole composition range.

  14. Crystallization of hard spheres revisited. II. Thermodynamic modeling, nucleation work, and the surface of tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, David; Speck, Thomas

    2018-06-14

    Combining three numerical methods (forward flux sampling, seeding of droplets, and finite-size droplets), we probe the crystallization of hard spheres over the full range from close to coexistence to the spinodal regime. We show that all three methods allow us to sample different regimes and agree perfectly in the ranges where they overlap. By combining the nucleation work calculated from forward flux sampling of small droplets and the nucleation theorem, we show how to compute the nucleation work spanning three orders of magnitude. Using a variation of the nucleation theorem, we show how to extract the pressure difference between the solid droplet and ambient liquid. Moreover, combining the nucleation work with the pressure difference allows us to calculate the interfacial tension of small droplets. Our results demonstrate that employing bulk quantities yields inaccurate results for the nucleation rate.

  15. On the Boltzmann-Grad Limit for Smooth Hard-Sphere Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio; Mond, Michael; Asci, Claudio; Soranzo, Alessandro; Tironi, Gino

    2018-03-01

    The problem is posed of the prescription of the so-called Boltzmann-Grad limit operator (L_{BG}) for the N-body system of smooth hard-spheres which undergo unary, binary as well as multiple elastic instantaneous collisions. It is proved, that, despite the non-commutative property of the operator L_{BG}, the Boltzmann equation can nevertheless be uniquely determined. In particular, consistent with the claim of Uffink and Valente (Found Phys 45:404, 2015) that there is "no time-asymmetric ingredient" in its derivation, the Boltzmann equation is shown to be time-reversal symmetric. The proof is couched on the "ab initio" axiomatic approach to the classical statistical mechanics recently developed (Tessarotto et al. in Eur Phys J Plus 128:32, 2013). Implications relevant for the physical interpretation of the Boltzmann H-theorem and the phenomenon of decay to kinetic equilibrium are pointed out.

  16. Direct measurement of the free energy of aging hard sphere colloidal glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Rojman; Nienhuis, Bernard; Schall, Peter; Bonn, Daniel

    2013-06-21

    The nature of the glass transition is one of the most important unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. The difference between glasses and liquids is believed to be caused by very large free energy barriers for particle rearrangements; however, so far it has not been possible to confirm this experimentally. We provide the first quantitative determination of the free energy for an aging hard sphere colloidal glass. The determination of the free energy allows for a number of new insights in the glass transition, notably the quantification of the strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the free energy. A study of the local minima of the free energy reveals that the observed variations are directly related to the rearrangements of the particles. Our main finding is that the probability of particle rearrangements shows a power law dependence on the free energy changes associated with the rearrangements similar to the Gutenberg-Richter law in seismology.

  17. Fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations for inelastic hard spheres or disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J Javier; Maynar, P; de Soria, M I García

    2011-04-01

    Starting from the fluctuating Boltzmann equation for smooth inelastic hard spheres or disks, closed equations for the fluctuating hydrodynamic fields to Navier-Stokes order are derived. This requires deriving constitutive relations for both the fluctuating fluxes and the correlations of the random forces. The former are identified as having the same form as the macroscopic average fluxes and involving the same transport coefficients. On the other hand, the random force terms exhibit two peculiarities as compared with their elastic limit for molecular systems. First, they are not white but have some finite relaxation time. Second, their amplitude is not determined by the macroscopic transport coefficients but involves new coefficients. ©2011 American Physical Society

  18. Edwards' approach to horizontal and vertical segregation in a mixture of hard spheres under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, Annalisa; Nicodemi, Mario; Coniglio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of size segregation, observed in models of vibrated granular mixtures such as powders or sand. This consists of the de-mixing of the different components of the system under shaking. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. However, the criteria for predicting segregation in a mixture, an issue of great practical importance, are largely unknown. In the present paper we study a binary hard-sphere mixture under gravity on a three-dimensional lattice using Monte Carlo simulations. The vertical and horizontal segregation observed during the tap dynamics is interpreted in the framework of a statistical mechanics approach to granular media in the manner of Edwards. A phase diagram for the vertical segregation is derived, and compared with the simulation data

  19. The phase behavior of a hard sphere chain model of a binary n-alkane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanoski, A. P.; Monson, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to study the solid and fluid phase properties as well as phase equilibrium in a flexible, united atom, hard sphere chain model of n-heptane/n-octane mixtures. We describe a methodology for calculating the chemical potentials for the components in the mixture based on a technique used previously for atomic mixtures. The mixture was found to conform accurately to ideal solution behavior in the fluid phase. However, much greater nonidealities were seen in the solid phase. Phase equilibrium calculations indicate a phase diagram with solid-fluid phase equilibrium and a eutectic point. The components are only miscible in the solid phase for dilute solutions of the shorter chains in the longer chains. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Homogeneous Free Cooling State in Binary Granular Fluids of Inelastic Rough Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andrés

    2011-05-01

    In a recent paper [A. Santos, G. M. Kremer, and V. Garzó, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 184, 31-48 (2010)] the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational granular temperatures in a granular fluid mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres have been derived. In the present paper the energy production rates are explicitly decomposed into equipartition rates (tending to make all the temperatures equal) plus genuine cooling rates (reflecting the collisional dissipation of energy). Next the homogeneous free cooling state of a binary mixture is analyzed, with special emphasis on the quasi-smooth limit. A previously reported singular behavior (according to which a vanishingly small amount of roughness has a finite effect, with respect to the perfectly smooth case, on the asymptotic long-time translational/translational temperature ratio) is further elaborated. Moreover, the study of the time evolution of the temperature ratios shows that this dramatic influence of roughness already appears in the transient regime for times comparable to the relaxation time of perfectly smooth spheres.

  1. A Thermodynamically-Consistent Non-Ideal Stochastic Hard-Sphere Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, A; Alder, B J; Garcia, A L

    2009-08-03

    A grid-free variant of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is proposed, named the Isotropic DSMC (I-DSMC) method, that is suitable for simulating collision-dominated dense fluid flows. The I-DSMC algorithm eliminates all grid artifacts from the traditional DSMC algorithm and is Galilean invariant and microscopically isotropic. The stochastic collision rules in I-DSMC are modified to introduce a non-ideal structure factor that gives consistent compressibility, as first proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101:075902 (2008)]. The resulting Stochastic Hard Sphere Dynamics (SHSD) fluid is empirically shown to be thermodynamically identical to a deterministic Hamiltonian system of penetrable spheres interacting with a linear core pair potential, well-described by the hypernetted chain (HNC) approximation. We develop a kinetic theory for the SHSD fluid to obtain estimates for the transport coefficients that are in excellent agreement with particle simulations over a wide range of densities and collision rates. The fluctuating hydrodynamic behavior of the SHSD fluid is verified by comparing its dynamic structure factor against theory based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes equations. We also study the Brownian motion of a nano-particle suspended in an SHSD fluid and find a long-time power-law tail in its velocity autocorrelation function consistent with hydrodynamic theory and molecular dynamics calculations.

  2. Crystal nucleation in binary hard-sphere mixtures: the effect of order parameter on the cluster composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, R.; Smallenburg, F.; Filion, L.C.; Dijkstra, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study crystal nucleation in a binary mixture of hard spheres and investigate the composition and size of the (non)critical clusters using Monte Carlo simulations. In order to study nucleation of a crystal phase in computer simulations, a one-dimensional order parameter is usually defined to

  3. Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM): A Simplified Model for Silicate and Oxide Liquids at Mantle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent first-principles theoretical calculations (Stixrude 2009) and experimental shock-wave investigations (Mosenfelder 2009) indicate that melting perovskite requires significantly less energy than previously thought, supporting the idea of a deep-mantle magma ocean early in Earth's history. The modern-day solid Earth is thus likely the result of crystallization from an early predominantly molten state, a process that is primarily controlled by the poorly understood behavior of silicate melts at extreme pressures and temperatures. Probing liquid thermodynamics at mantle conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, and further challenges are posed by the large relevant compositional space including at least MgO, SiO2, and FeO. First-principles molecular dynamics has been used with great success to determine the high P-T properties of a small set of fixed composition silicate-oxide liquids including MgO (Karki 2006), SiO2 (Karki 2007), Mg2SiO4 (de Koker 2008), MgSiO3 (Stixrude 2005), and Fe2SiO4 (Ramo 2012). While extremely powerful, this approach has limitations including high computational cost, lower bounds on temperature due to relaxation constraints, as well as restrictions to length scales and time scales that are many orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to the Earth or experimental methods. As a compliment to accurate first-principles calculations, we have developed the Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM). We extend the standard hard sphere mixture model, recently applied to silicate liquids by Jing (2011), by accounting for the range of oxygen coordination states available to liquid cations. Utilizing approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, the method can predict complex liquid structure and thermodynamics while remaining computationally efficient. Requiring only minutes on standard desktop computers rather than months on supercomputers, the CHASM approach is well-suited to providing an approximate thermodynamic

  4. On the Brownian motion of a massive sphere suspended in a hard-sphere fluid. II. Molecular dynamics estimates of the friction coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.; Hansen, J.P.; Piasecki, J.

    1994-01-01

    The friction coefficient γ exerted by a hard-sphere fluid on an infinitely massive Brownian sphere is calculated for several size ratios Σ/σ where Σ and σ are the diameters of the Brownian and fluid spheres, respectively. The exact microscopic expression derived in part I of this work from kinetic theory is transformed and shown to be proportional to the time integral of the autocorrelation function of the momentum transferred from the fluid to the Brownian sphere during instantaneous collisions. Three different methods are described to extract the friction coefficient from molecular dynamics simulations carried out on finite systems. The three independent methods lead to estimates of γ which agree within statistical errors (typically 5%). The results are compared to the predictions of Enskog theory and of the hydrodynamic Stokes law. The former breaks down as the size ratio and/or the packing fraction of the fluid increase. Somewhat surprisingly, Stokes' law is found to hold with stick boundary conditions, in the range 1 ≤ Σ/σ ≤ 4.5 explored in the present simulations, with a hydrodynamic diameter d=Σ. The analysis of the molecular dynamics data on the basis of Stokes' law with slip boundary conditions is less conclusive, although the right trend is found as Σ/σ increases

  5. Kinetic Theory of a Confined Quasi-Two-Dimensional Gas of Hard Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Brey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a system of hard spheres enclosed between two parallel plates separated a distance smaller than two particle diameters is described at the level of kinetic theory. The interest focuses on the behavior of the quasi-two-dimensional fluid seen when looking at the system from above or below. In the first part, a collisional model for the effective two-dimensional dynamics is analyzed. Although it is able to describe quite well the homogeneous evolution observed in the experiments, it is shown that it fails to predict the existence of non-equilibrium phase transitions, and in particular, the bimodal regime exhibited by the real system. A critical revision analysis of the model is presented , and as a starting point to get a more accurate description, the Boltzmann equation for the quasi-two-dimensional gas has been derived. In the elastic case, the solutions of the equation verify an H-theorem implying a monotonic tendency to a non-uniform steady state. As an example of application of the kinetic equation, here the evolution equations for the vertical and horizontal temperatures of the system are derived in the homogeneous approximation, and the results compared with molecular dynamics simulation results.

  6. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-12-23

    Colloidal suspensions self-assemble into equilibrium structures ranging from face- and body-centered cubic crystals to binary ionic crystals, and even kagome lattices. When driven out of equilibrium by hydrodynamic interactions, even more diverse structures can be accessed. However, mechanisms underlying out-of-equilibrium assembly are much less understood, though such processes are clearly relevant in many natural and industrial systems. Even in the simple case of hard-sphere colloidal particles under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow-aligned strings, we observe log-rolling strings of particles normal to the plane of shear. By employing Stokesian dynamics simulations, we address the mechanism leading to this out-of-equilibrium structure and show that it emerges from a delicate balance between hydrodynamic and interparticle interactions. These results demonstrate a method for assembling large-scale particle structures using shear flows.

  7. Ionic pairing in binary liquids of charged hard spheres with non-additive diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Giaquinta, P.V.; Thakur, J.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    We examine types of short range order that arise in binary liquids from a combination of Coulombic interactions and non-additivity of excluded volumes, the initial motivation being observations of complex formation by hydrated ions in concentrated aqueous solutions. The model is a fluid of charged hard spheres with contact distances σsub(+-)not=1/2(σsub(++)+σsub(--)), its structural functions being evaluated in the mean spherical approximation and in the hypernetted chain approximation. Cation-anion pairing is clearly seen in the calculated structural functions for negative deviations from additivity (σsub(+-) σsub(++)=σsub(--)) favour long-wavelength concentration fluctuations and demixing in a neutral mixture: these are suppressed by Coulombic interactions in favour of microscopic intermixing of the two species in the local liquid structure, up to like-ion pairing. Contact is made with diffraction from concentrated aqueous solutions of cadmium sulphate and other instances of possible applicability of the model are pointed out. (author)

  8. Polydispersity effects in the crystallisation of hard-sphere colloidal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Bryant, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Colloidal particles mimicking hard-sphere behaviour have been shown to undergo the freezing and melting transition as predicted from computer simulations. Due to the large size and slow movement of the colloidal particles, it is possible to measure the time dependence of the growth of the main Bragg reflection using laser light scattering. The new data presented here was taken on a newly built crystallisation spectrometer which averages the Bragg reflections over the whole Debye-Scherrer cone, where previous work has mostly been done with the detector fixed in one plane. This new apparatus allows us to observe the crystallisation process at earlier times, on lower density samples than had previously been possible. Measurements have been made on samples made from colloidal particles with radii 320nm and 247 nm and polydispersities of ∼6.9% and >8% respectively. The results have been compared with other results from particles with >4% polydispersity. The results show that increasing the polydispersity in the particles increases the time lag before significant crystal growth occurs, but polydispersity doesn't appear to directly affect the rate of crystal growth

  9. Wave packet autocorrelation functions for quantum hard-disk and hard-sphere billiards in the high-energy, diffraction regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussev, Arseni; Dorfman, J R

    2006-07-01

    We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wavelength, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.

  10. Fused hard-sphere chain molecules: Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation for the bulk pressure and generalized Flory theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.A.; Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Carra, S.

    1995-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulation results for the bulk pressure of fused-hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids with bond-length-to-bead-diameter ratios ∼ 0.4 at chain lengths n=4, 8 and 16. We also report density profiles for FHS chain fluids at a hard wall. The results for the compressibility factor are compared to results from extensions of the Generalized Flory (GF) and Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theories proposed by Yethiraj et al. and by us. Our new GF theory, GF-AB, significantly improves the prediction of the bulk pressure of fused-hard-sphere chains over the GFD theories proposed by Yethiraj et al. and by us although the GFD theories give slightly better low-density results. The GFD-A theory, the GFD-B theory and the new theories (GF-AB, GFD-AB, and GFD-AC) satisfy the exact zero-bonding-length limit. All theories considered recover the GF or GFD theories at the tangent hard-sphere chain limit

  11. Preparation of micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres by controlling pollen as hard template and soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong; Song, Xiuqin; Chen, Rufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres were synthesized by a sunflower pollen induced and self-assembly mineralization process, in which a titania precursor and pollen reacted in one-pot at normal pressure. In this paper, the bio-template advantage, as hard and soft template is fully demonstrated. The superiority of our synthesis is that we not only can control pollen as hard template, but also can control it as soft template only by changing reactions temperature. Under 80 degrees C of water bath, TiO2 microspheres which replicated the morphology of pollen were prepared by controlling pollen as hard template. Under 100 degrees C, hierarchical TiO2 spheres with complicated morphology, different from pollen template, were synthesized by using pollen as soft template. At the same time, judicious choice of the amount of pollen affords the synthesis of hierarchical structures spheres with adjustable morphology and crystal structure. The morphology can be tuned from microspheres constructed from TiO2 nanorods to nanospheres constructed from TiO2 nanoparticles, and the crystal structure can be tuned from rutile to anatase. More over this anatase phase can be keep better even at high temperature of 1000 degrees C. The as-prepared micro/nano structure photocatalysts not only have high photocatalytic activities, but also have good separability and reuse performance.

  12. Structure of highly asymmetric hard-sphere mixtures: an efficient closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amokrane, S; Ayadim, A; Malherbe, J G

    2005-11-01

    A simple modification of the reference hypernetted chain (RHNC) closure of the multicomponent Ornstein-Zernike equations with bridge functions taken from Rosenfeld's hard-sphere bridge functional is proposed. Its main effect is to remedy the major limitation of the RHNC closure in the case of highly asymmetric mixtures--the wide domain of packing fractions in which it has no solution. The modified closure is also much faster, while being of similar complexity. This is achieved with a limited loss of accuracy, mainly for the contact value of the big sphere correlation functions. Comparison with simulation shows that inside the RHNC no-solution domain, it provides a good description of the structure, while being clearly superior to all the other closures used so far to study highly asymmetric mixtures. The generic nature of this closure and its good accuracy combined with a reduced no-solution domain open up the possibility to study the phase diagram of complex fluids beyond the hard-sphere model.

  13. Double layer for hard spheres with an off-center charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silvestre-Alcantara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations for the density and potential profiles of the ions in the planar electrical double layer of a model electrolyte or an ionic liquid are reported. The ions of a real electrolyte or an ionic liquid are usually not spheres; in ionic liquids, the cations are molecular ions. In the past, this asymmetry has been modelled by considering spheres that are asymmetric in size and/or valence (viz., the primitive model or by dimer cations that are formed by tangentially touching spheres. In this paper we consider spherical ions that are asymmetric in size and mimic the asymmetrical shape through an off-center charge that is located away from the center of the cation spheres, while the anion charge is at the center of anion spheres. The various singlet density and potential profiles are compared to (i the dimer situation, that is, the constituent spheres of the dimer cation are tangentially tethered, and (ii the standard primitive model. The results reveal the double layer structure to be substantially impacted especially when the cation is the counterion. As well as being of intrinsic interest, this off-center charge model may be useful for theories that consider spherical models and introduce the off-center charge as a perturbation.

  14. The correlation functions of hard-sphere chain fluids: Comparison of the Wertheim integral equation theory with the Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.; Sandler, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The correlation functions of homonuclear hard-sphere chain fluids are studied using the Wertheim integral equation theory for associating fluids and the Monte Carlo simulation method. The molecular model used in the simulations is the freely jointed hard-sphere chain with spheres that are tangentially connected. In the Wertheim theory, such a chain molecule is described by sticky hard spheres with two independent attraction sites on the surface of each sphere. The OZ-like equation for this associating fluid is analytically solved using the polymer-PY closure and by imposing a single bonding condition. By equating the mean chain length of this associating hard sphere fluid to the fixed length of the hard-sphere chains used in simulation, we find that the correlation functions for the chain fluids are accurately predicted. From the Wertheim theory we also obtain predictions for the overall correlation functions that include intramolecular correlations. In addition, the results for the average intermolecular correlation functions from the Wertheim theory and from the Chiew theory are compared with simulation results, and the differences between these theories are discussed

  15. Self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity of inverse power fluids: from hard- to soft-spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D M; Brańka, A C

    2008-07-21

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation has been used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient, D, and shear viscosity, eta(s), of soft-sphere fluids, in which the particles interact through the soft-sphere or inverse power pair potential, phi(r) = epsilon(sigma/r)(n), where n measures the steepness or stiffness of the potential, and epsilon and sigma are a characteristic energy and distance, respectively. The simulations were carried out on monodisperse systems for a range of n values from the hard-sphere (n --> infinity) limit down to n = 4, and up to densities in excess of the fluid-solid co-existence value. A new analytical procedure is proposed which reproduces the transport coefficients at high densities, and can be used to extrapolate the data to densities higher than accurately accessible by simulation or experiment, and tending to the glass transition. This formula, DX(c-1) proportional, variant A/X + B, where c is an adjustable parameter, and X is either the packing fraction or the pressure, is a development of one proposed by Dymond. In the expression, -A/B is the value of X at the ideal glass transition (i.e., where D and eta(s)(-1) --> 0). Estimated values are presented for the packing fraction and the pressure at the glass transition for n values between the hard and soft particle limits. The above expression is also shown to reproduce the high density viscosity data of supercritical argon, krypton and nitrogen. Fits to the soft-sphere simulation transport coefficients close to solid-fluid co-existence are also made using the analytic form, ln(D) = alpha(X)X, and n-dependence of the alpha(X) is presented (X is either the packing fraction or the pressure).

  16. Monte Carlo simulation and equation of state for flexible charged hard-sphere chain fluids: Polyampholyte and polyelectrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Adidharma, Hertanto

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic modeling of flexible charged hard-sphere chains representing polyampholyte or polyelectrolyte molecules in solution is considered. The excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyampholyte and the osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyelectrolytes are determined by performing canonical and isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations. A new equation of state based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory is also proposed for flexible charged hard-sphere chains. For the modeling of such chains, the use of solely the structure information of monomer fluid for calculating the chain contribution is found to be insufficient and more detailed structure information must therefore be considered. Two approaches, i.e., the dimer and dimer-monomer approaches, are explored to obtain the contribution of the chain formation to the Helmholtz energy. By comparing with the simulation results, the equation of state with either the dimer or dimer-monomer approach accurately predicts the excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of polyampholyte and polyelectrolyte solutions except at very low density. It also well captures the effect of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of these solutions

  17. Long-range weight functions in fundamental measure theory of the non-uniform hard-sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We introduce long-range weight functions to the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) of the non-uniform, single-component hard-sphere fluid. While the range of the usual weight functions is equal to the hard-sphere radius R , the modified weight functions have range 3 R . Based on the augmented FMT, we calculate the radial distribution function g (r) up to second order in the density within Percus’ test particle theory. Consistency of the compressibility and virial routes on this level allows us to determine the free parameter γ of the theory. As a side result, we obtain a value for the fourth virial coefficient B 4 which deviates by only 0.01% from the exact result. The augmented FMT is tested for the dense fluid by comparing results for g (r) calculated via the test particle route to existing results from molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement at large distances (r   >  6 R) is significantly improved when the FMT with long-range weight functions is used. In order to improve agreement close to contact (r   =  2 R) we construct a free energy which is based on the accurate Carnahan–Starling equation of state, rather than the Percus–Yevick compressibility equation underlying standard FMT. (paper)

  18. Polydispersity effect on solid-fluid transition in hard sphere systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, T.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, N.

    2010-01-01

    The solid-fluid transition of the hard elastic particle system with size polydispersity is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Using nonequilibrium relaxation from the mixed initial condition we determines the melting point where the first

  19. Crystallization of sheared hard spheres at 64.5% volume fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, H. L.; Rietz, F.; Schroeter, M.; Radin, C.

    2017-11-01

    A classic experiment by G.D. Scott Nature 188, 908, 1960) showed that pouring balls into a rigid container filled the volume to an upper limit of 64% of the container volume, which is well below the 74% volume fraction filled by spheres in a hexagonal close packed (HCP) or face center cubic (FCC) lattice. Subsequent experiments have confirmed a ``random closed packed'' (RCP) fraction of about 64%. However, the physics of the RCP limit has remained a mystery. Our experiment on a cubical box filled with 49400 weakly sheared glass spheres reveals a first order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state at a volume fraction of 64.5%. The ordered state consists of crystallites of mixed FCC and HCP symmetry that coexist with the amorphous bulk. The transition is initiated by homogeneous nucleation: in the shearing process small crystallites with about ten or fewer spheres dissolve, while larger crystallites grow. A movie illustrates the crystallization process. German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), German Research Foundation (DFG), NSF DMS, and R.A. Welch Foundation.

  20. Elasto-plastic impact of hemispherical shell impacting on hard rigid sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, D. D.; Spicer, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of plastic stress waves for cylindrical metallic projectile in impact is extended to an analysis of a hemispherical shell suffereing plastic deformation during the process of impact. It is assumed that the hemispherical shell with a prescribed launch velocity impinges a fixed rigid sphere of diameter equal to the internal diameter of the shell. The dynamic biaxial state of stress present in the shell during deformation is investigated. The analysis is valuable for studying the state of stress during large plastic deformation of a hemispherical shell.

  1. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, consuming classical MD calculations. This approach also sheds light on the universality

  2. Polydispersity effect on solid-fluid transition in hard sphere systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, T.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-fluid transition of the hard elastic particle system with size polydispersity is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Using nonequilibrium relaxation from the mixed initial condition we determines the melting point where the first order transition between the solid, fcc crystal, and fluid states occurs. It is found that the density gap between the bistable states decreases with increasing the strength of the polydispersity and continuously approaches to zero at the critical point. © 2010.

  3. Exact theory of dense amorphous hard spheres in high dimension. II. The high density regime and the Gardner transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchan, Jorge; Parisi, Giorgio; Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2013-10-24

    We consider the theory of the glass phase and jamming of hard spheres in the large space dimension limit. Building upon the exact expression for the free-energy functional obtained previously, we find that the random first order transition (RFOT) scenario is realized here with two thermodynamic transitions: the usual Kauzmann point associated with entropy crisis and a further transition at higher pressures in which a glassy structure of microstates is developed within each amorphous state. This kind of glass-glass transition into a phase dominating the higher densities was described years ago by Elisabeth Gardner, and may well be a generic feature of RFOT. Microstates that are small excitations of an amorphous matrix-separated by low entropic or energetic barriers-thus emerge naturally, and modify the high pressure (or low temperature) limit of the thermodynamic functions.

  4. Perturbation and variational approach for the equation of state for hard-sphere and Lennard—Jones fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasare, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    The present work uses the concept of a scaled particle along with the perturbation and variation approach, to develop an equation of state (EOS) for a mixture of hard sphere (HS), Lennard—Jones (LJ) fluids. A suitable flexible functional form for the radial distribution function G(R) is assumed for the mixture, with R as a variable. The function G(R) has an arbitrary parameter m and a different equation of state can be obtained with a suitable choice of m. For m = 0.75 and m = 0.83 results are close to molecular dynamics (MD) result for pure HS and LJ fluid respectively. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  5. Numerical simulations of granular dynamics: I. Hard-sphere discrete element method and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    We present a new particle-based (discrete element) numerical method for the simulation of granular dynamics, with application to motions of particles on small solar system body and planetary surfaces. The method employs the parallel N-body tree code pkdgrav to search for collisions and compute particle trajectories. Collisions are treated as instantaneous point-contact events between rigid spheres. Particle confinement is achieved by combining arbitrary combinations of four provided wall primitives, namely infinite plane, finite disk, infinite cylinder, and finite cylinder, and degenerate cases of these. Various wall movements, including translation, oscillation, and rotation, are supported. We provide full derivations of collision prediction and resolution equations for all geometries and motions. Several tests of the method are described, including a model granular “atmosphere” that achieves correct energy equipartition, and a series of tumbler simulations that show the expected transition from tumbling to centrifuging as a function of rotation rate.

  6. Inquiry into thermodynamic behavior of hard sphere plus repulsive barrier of finite height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Solana, J R

    2009-11-28

    A bridge function approximation is proposed to close the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation for fluids with purely repulsive potentials. The performance of the bridge function approximation is then tested by applying the approximation to two kinds of repulsive potentials, namely, the square shoulder potential and the triangle shoulder potential. An extensive comparison between simulation and the OZ approach is performed over a wide density range for the fluid phase and several temperatures. It is found that the agreement between the two routes is excellent for not too low temperatures and satisfactory for extremely low temperatures. Then, this globally trustworthy OZ approach is used to investigate the possible existence or not of a liquid anomaly, i.e., a liquid-liquid phase transition at low temperatures and negative values of the thermal expansion coefficient in certain region of the phase diagram. While the existence of the liquid anomaly in the square shoulder potential has been previously predicted by a traditional first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT), the present investigation indicates that the liquid-liquid phase transition disappears in the OZ approach, so that its prediction by the first-order TPT is only an artifact originating from the low temperature inadequacy of the first-order TPT. However, the OZ approach indeed predicts negative thermal expansion coefficients. The present bridge function approximation, free of adjustable parameters, is suitable to be used within the context of a recently proposed nonhard sphere perturbation scheme.

  7. Binary non-additive hard sphere mixtures: fluid demixing, asymptotic decay of correlations and free fluid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Paul; Schmidt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Using a fundamental measure density functional theory we investigate both bulk and inhomogeneous systems of the binary non-additive hard sphere model. For sufficiently large (positive) non-additivity the mixture phase separates into two fluid phases with different compositions. We calculate bulk fluid-fluid coexistence curves for a range of size ratios and non-additivity parameters and find that they compare well to simulation results from the literature. Using the Ornstein-Zernike equation, we investigate the asymptotic, r→∞, decay of the partial pair correlation functions, g ij (r). At low densities a structural crossover occurs in the asymptotic decay between two different damped oscillatory modes with different wavelengths corresponding to the two intra-species hard-core diameters. On approaching the fluid-fluid critical point there is a Fisher-Widom crossover from exponentially damped oscillatory to monotonic asymptotic decay. Using the density functional we calculate the density profiles for the planar free fluid-fluid interface between coexisting fluid phases. We show that the type of asymptotic decay of g ij (r) not only determines the asymptotic decay of the interface profiles, but is also relevant for intermediate and even short-ranged behaviour. We also determine the surface tension of the free fluid interface, finding that it increases with non-additivity, and that on approaching the critical point mean-field scaling holds.

  8. The power of hard-sphere models: explaining side-chain dihedral angle distributions of Thr and Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua; O'Hern, Corey S; Regan, Lynne

    2012-05-16

    The energy functions used to predict protein structures typically include both molecular-mechanics and knowledge-based terms. In contrast, our approach is to develop robust physics- and geometry-based methods. Here, we investigate to what extent simple hard-sphere models can be used to predict side-chain conformations. The distributions of the side-chain dihedral angle χ(1) of Val and Thr in proteins of known structure show distinctive features: Val side chains predominantly adopt χ(1) = 180°, whereas Thr side chains typically adopt χ(1) = 60° and 300° (i.e., χ(1) = ±60° or g- and g(+) configurations). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences, including interresidue steric clashes and hydrogen-bonding interactions. In contrast, we show that the observed side-chain dihedral angle distributions for both Val and Thr can be explained using only local steric interactions in a dipeptide mimetic. Our results emphasize the power of simple physical approaches and their importance for future advances in protein engineering and design. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transport coefficients of hard-sphere mixtures: Theory and Monte Carlo molecular-dynamics calculations for an isotopic mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal transport properties of mixtures can be formulated in a number of ways, depending on the choice of driving forces for the transport of heat and matter, without violating the Onsager conditions. Here we treat transport in mixtures based on the driving forces -del ln T and -T del(μ/sub a//T), with T the temperature and μ/sub a/ the specific chemical potential, to obtain the Green-Kubo expressions and the Enskog theory for the corresponding transport coefficients which seem most amenable to molecular-dynamics evaluation. The transport properties of a hard-sphere mixture (mass ratio of 0.1, diameter ratio of 1.0, at a volume of three times close-packed volume), calculated by a Monte Carlo, molecular-dynamics method based on the Green-Kubo formulas, are compared with the predictions of the Enskog theory. The long-time behavior of the Green-Kubo time-correlation functions for shear viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion, and mutual diffusion are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of mode-coupling theory. Except for viscosity, the contribution of the long-time tails to the transport coefficients is found to be significant. We obtain values, relative to Enskog, of 1.016 +- 0.007 for shear viscosity, 1.218 +- 0.009 for thermal conductivity, 1.267 +- 0.026 for thermal diffusion, and 1.117 +- 0.008 for mutual diffusion

  10. Structural relaxation of polydisperse hard spheres: comparison of the mode-coupling theory to a Langevin dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weysser, F; Puertas, A M; Fuchs, M; Voigtmann, Th

    2010-07-01

    We analyze the slow glassy structural relaxation as measured through collective and tagged-particle density correlation functions obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations for a polydisperse system of quasi-hard spheres in the framework of the mode-coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition. Asymptotic analyses show good agreement for the collective dynamics when polydispersity effects are taken into account in a multicomponent calculation, but qualitative disagreement at small q when the system is treated as effectively monodisperse. The origin of the different small-q behavior is attributed to the interplay between interdiffusion processes and structural relaxation. Numerical solutions of the MCT equations are obtained taking properly binned partial static structure factors from the simulations as input. Accounting for a shift in the critical density, the collective density correlation functions are well described by the theory at all densities investigated in the simulations, with quantitative agreement best around the maxima of the static structure factor and worst around its minima. A parameter-free comparison of the tagged-particle dynamics however reveals large quantitative errors for small wave numbers that are connected to the well-known decoupling of self-diffusion from structural relaxation and to dynamical heterogeneities. While deviations from MCT behavior are clearly seen in the tagged-particle quantities for densities close to and on the liquid side of the MCT glass transition, no such deviations are seen in the collective dynamics.

  11. Chord length distributions between hard disks and spheres in regular, semi-regular, and quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2008-01-01

    In binary stochastic media in two- and three-dimensions consisting of randomly placed impenetrable disks or spheres, the chord lengths in the background material between disks and spheres closely follow exponential distributions if the disks and spheres occupy less than 10% of the medium. This work demonstrates that for regular spatial structures of disks and spheres, the tails of the chord length distributions (CLDs) follow power laws rather than exponentials. In dilute media, when the disks and spheres are widely spaced, the slope of the power law seems to be independent of the details of the structure. When approaching a close-packed arrangement, the exact placement of the spheres can make a significant difference. When regular structures are perturbed by small random displacements, the CLDs become power laws with steeper slopes. An example CLD from a quasi-random distribution of spheres in clusters shows a modified exponential distribution

  12. Chord length distributions between hard disks and spheres in regular, semi-regular, and quasi-random structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gordon L. [Computer and Computational Sciences Division (CCS-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, 5 Foxglove Circle, Madison, WI 53717 (United States)], E-mail: olson99@tds.net

    2008-11-15

    In binary stochastic media in two- and three-dimensions consisting of randomly placed impenetrable disks or spheres, the chord lengths in the background material between disks and spheres closely follow exponential distributions if the disks and spheres occupy less than 10% of the medium. This work demonstrates that for regular spatial structures of disks and spheres, the tails of the chord length distributions (CLDs) follow power laws rather than exponentials. In dilute media, when the disks and spheres are widely spaced, the slope of the power law seems to be independent of the details of the structure. When approaching a close-packed arrangement, the exact placement of the spheres can make a significant difference. When regular structures are perturbed by small random displacements, the CLDs become power laws with steeper slopes. An example CLD from a quasi-random distribution of spheres in clusters shows a modified exponential distribution.

  13. The Wertheim integral equation theory with the ideal chain approximation and a dimer equation of state: Generalization to mixtures of hard-sphere chain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.; Sandler, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    We have extended the Wertheim integral equation theory to mixtures of hard spheres with two attraction sites in order to model homonuclear hard-sphere chain fluids, and then solved these equations with the polymer-Percus--Yevick closure and the ideal chain approximation to obtain the average intermolecular and overall radial distribution functions. We obtain explicit expressions for the contact values of these distribution functions and a set of one-dimensional integral equations from which the distribution functions can be calculated without iteration or numerical Fourier transformation. We compare the resulting predictions for the distribution functions with Monte Carlo simulation results we report here for five selected binary mixtures. It is found that the accuracy of the prediction of the structure is the best for dimer mixtures and declines with increasing chain length and chain-length asymmetry. For the equation of state, we have extended the dimer version of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to the hard-sphere chain mixture by introducing the dimer mixture as an intermediate reference system. The Helmholtz free energy of chain fluids is then expressed in terms of the free energy of the hard-sphere mixture and the contact values of the correlation functions of monomer and dimer mixtures. We compared with the simulation results, the resulting equation of state is found to be the most accurate among existing theories with a relative average error of 1.79% for 4-mer/8-mer mixtures, which is the worst case studied in this work. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. A Local Approximation of Fundamental Measure Theory Incorporated into Three Dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations to Account for Hard Sphere Repulsion Among Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Liu, Xuejiao; Chen, Minxin; Lu, Benzhuo

    2016-04-01

    The hard sphere repulsion among ions can be considered in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations by combining the fundamental measure theory (FMT). To reduce the nonlocal computational complexity in 3D simulation of biological systems, a local approximation of FMT is derived, which forms a local hard sphere PNP (LHSPNP) model. In the derivation, the excess chemical potential from hard sphere repulsion is obtained with the FMT and has six integration components. For the integrands and weighted densities in each component, Taylor expansions are performed and the lowest order approximations are taken, which result in the final local hard sphere (LHS) excess chemical potential with four components. By plugging the LHS excess chemical potential into the ionic flux expression in the Nernst-Planck equation, the three dimensional LHSPNP is obtained. It is interestingly found that the essential part of free energy term of the previous size modified model (Borukhov et al. in Phys Rev Lett 79:435-438, 1997; Kilic et al. in Phys Rev E 75:021502, 2007; Lu and Zhou in Biophys J 100:2475-2485, 2011; Liu and Eisenberg in J Chem Phys 141:22D532, 2014) has a very similar form to one term of the LHS model, but LHSPNP has more additional terms accounting for size effects. Equation of state for one component homogeneous fluid is studied for the local hard sphere approximation of FMT and is proved to be exact for the first two virial coefficients, while the previous size modified model only presents the first virial coefficient accurately. To investigate the effects of LHS model and the competitions among different counterion species, numerical experiments are performed for the traditional PNP model, the LHSPNP model, the previous size modified PNP (SMPNP) model and the Monte Carlo simulation. It's observed that in steady state the LHSPNP results are quite different from the PNP results, but are close to the SMPNP results under a wide range of boundary conditions. Besides, in both

  15. Liquid theory with high accuracy and broad applicability: Coupling parameter series expansion and non hard sphere perturbation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic and structural properties of liquids are of fundamental interest in physics, chemistry, and biology, and perturbation approach has been fundamental to liquid theoretical approaches since the dawn of modern statistical mechanics and remains so to this day. Although thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT is widely used in the chemical physics community, one of the most popular versions of the TPT, i.e. Zwanzig (Zwanzig, R. W. J. Chem. Phys. 1954, 22, 1420-1426 1st-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE TPT and its 2nd-order counterpart under a macroscopic compressibility approximation of Barker-Henderson (Barker, J. A.; Henderson, D. J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 2856-2861, have some serious shortcomings: (i the nth-order term of the HTSE is involved with reference fluid distribution functions of order up to 2n, and the higher-order terms hence progressively become more complicated and numerically inaccessible; (ii the performance of the HTSE rapidly deteriorates and the calculated results become even qualitatively incorrect as the temperature of interest decreases. This account deals with the developments that we have made over the last five years or so to advance a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE and a non hard sphere (HS perturbation strategy that has scored some of its greatest successes in overcoming the above-mentioned difficulties. In this account (i we expatiate on implementation details of our schemes: how input information indispensable to high-order truncation of the CPSE in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes is calculated by an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory; how high-order thermodynamic quantities, such as critical parameters and excess constant volume heat capacity, are extracted from the resulting excess Helmholtz free energy with irregular and inevitable numerical errors; how to select reference potential in the non HS perturbation scheme. (ii We give a quantitative analysis on why

  16. Attractive and repulsive interactions among methanol molecules in supercritical state investigated by Raman spectroscopy and perturbed hard-sphere theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitow, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Jungo

    2005-03-08

    The short-range structure of supercritical methanol (CH(3)OH) is investigated by measuring the spontaneous Raman spectra of the C-O stretching mode. The spectra are obtained at a reduced temperature, T(r)=T/T(c)=1.02 (522.9 K), which permits the neat fluid to be studied isothermally as a function of density. As the density increases, the spectral peaks shift toward the lower energy side and the spectra broaden. In the supercritical region, the amount of shifting shows nonlinear density dependence and the width becomes anomalously large. We use the perturbed hard-sphere model to analyze these density dependencies along the vibrational coordinate. The amount of shifting is decomposed into attractive and repulsive components, and the changes in attractive and repulsive energies are evaluated as functions of density and packing fraction, both of which are continuously varied by a factor of 120. Here we show that the shift amount consists principally of the attractive component at all densities, since the attractive energy is about eight times the repulsive energy. The density dependence of the widths is analyzed by calculating homogeneous and inhomogeneous widths as a function of density. The results show that, although vibrational dephasing and density inhomogeneity contribute similarly to the width at low and middle densities, at high density the main contributor turns out to be the vibrational dephasing. We estimate the local density enhancements of supercritical CH(3)OH as function of bulk density by two methods. The results of these analyses show common features, and both the estimated local density enhancements of CH(3)OH are considerably larger than the local density enhancements of simple fluids, i.e., those having nonhydrogen bonding. It is revealed that the local density of supercritical CH(3)OH is 40%-60% greater than the local densities of the simple fluids. We also estimate the local density fluctuation using the obtained values of attractive shift

  17. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  18. Microwave scattering coefficient of snow in MEMLS and DMRT-ML revisited: the relevance of sticky hard spheres and tomography-based estimates of stickiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Löwe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The description of snow microstructure in microwave models is often simplified to facilitate electromagnetic calculations. Within dense media radiative transfer (DMRT, the microstructure is commonly described by sticky hard spheres (SHS. An objective mapping of real snow onto SHS is however missing which prevents measured input parameters from being used for DMRT. In contrast, the microwave emission model of layered snowpacks (MEMLS employs a conceptually different approach, based on the two-point correlation function which is accessible by tomography. Here we show the equivalence of both electromagnetic approaches by reformulating their microstructural models in a common framework. Using analytical results for the two-point correlation function of hard spheres, we show that the scattering coefficient in both models only differs by a factor which is close to unity, weakly dependent on ice volume fraction and independent of other microstructural details. Additionally, our analysis provides an objective retrieval method for the SHS parameters (diameter and stickiness from tomography images. For a comprehensive data set we demonstrate the variability of stickiness and compare the SHS diameter to the optical equivalent diameter. Our results confirm the necessity of a large grain-size scaling when relating both diameters in the non-sticky case, as previously suggested by several authors.

  19. A variable hard sphere-based phenomenological inelastic collision model for rarefied gas flow simulations by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanth, P S; Kakkassery, Jose K; Vijayakumar, R, E-mail: y3df07@nitc.ac.in, E-mail: josekkakkassery@nitc.ac.in, E-mail: vijay@nitc.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode - 673 601, Kerala (India)

    2012-04-01

    A modified phenomenological model is constructed for the simulation of rarefied flows of polyatomic non-polar gas molecules by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. This variable hard sphere-based model employs a constant rotational collision number, but all its collisions are inelastic in nature and at the same time the correct macroscopic relaxation rate is maintained. In equilibrium conditions, there is equi-partition of energy between the rotational and translational modes and it satisfies the principle of reciprocity or detailed balancing. The present model is applicable for moderate temperatures at which the molecules are in their vibrational ground state. For verification, the model is applied to the DSMC simulations of the translational and rotational energy distributions in nitrogen gas at equilibrium and the results are compared with their corresponding Maxwellian distributions. Next, the Couette flow, the temperature jump and the Rayleigh flow are simulated; the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of nitrogen are numerically estimated and compared with experimentally measured values. The model is further applied to the simulation of the rotational relaxation of nitrogen through low- and high-Mach-number normal shock waves in a novel way. In all cases, the results are found to be in good agreement with theoretically expected and experimentally observed values. It is concluded that the inelastic collision of polyatomic molecules can be predicted well by employing the constructed variable hard sphere (VHS)-based collision model.

  20. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕc=e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕc and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  1. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕ c =e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕ c and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  2. A new dipolar potential for numerical simulations of polar fluids on the 4D hypersphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillol, Jean-Michel; Trulsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations of three-dimensional polar fluids. The simulation cell is defined to be the surface of the northern hemisphere of a four-dimensional (hyper)sphere. The point dipoles are constrained to remain tangent to the sphere and their interactions are derived from the basic laws of electrostatics in this geometry. The dipole-dipole potential has two singularities which correspond to the following boundary conditions: when a dipole leaves the northern hemisphere at some point of the equator, it reappears at the antipodal point bearing the same dipole moment. We derive all the formal expressions needed to obtain the thermodynamic and structural properties of a polar liquid at thermal equilibrium in actual numerical simulation. We notably establish the expression of the static dielectric constant of the fluid as well as the behavior of the pair correlation at large distances. We report and discuss the results of extensive numerical Monte Carlo simulations for two reference states of a fluid of dipolar hard spheres and compare these results with previous methods with a special emphasis on finite size effects

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of a piston driven shock wave in a hard sphere gas. Final Contractor ReportPh.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Myeung-Jouh; Greber, Isaac

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the piston driven shock wave at Mach 1.5, 3, and 10. A shock tube, whose shape is a circular cylinder, is filled with hard sphere molecules having a Maxwellian thermal velocity distribution and zero mean velocity. The piston moves and a shock wave is generated. All collisions are specular, including those between the molecules and the computational boundaries, so that the shock development is entirely causal, with no imposed statistics. The structure of the generated shock is examined in detail, and the wave speed; profiles of density, velocity, and temperature; and shock thickness are determined. The results are compared with published results of other methods, especially the direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. Property profiles are similar to those generated by direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. The shock wave thicknesses are smaller than the direct simulation Monte-Carlo results, but larger than those of the other methods. Simulation of a shock wave, which is one-dimensional, is a severe test of the molecular dynamics method, which is always three-dimensional. A major challenge of the thesis is to examine the capability of the molecular dynamics methods by choosing a difficult task.

  4. Density anomaly of charged hard spheres of different diameters in a mixture with core-softened model solvent. Monte Carlo simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hribar-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very recently the effect of equisized charged hard sphere solutes in a mixture with core-softened fluid model on the structural and thermodynamic anomalies of the system has been explored in detail by using Monte Carlo simulations and integral equations theory (J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 137, 244502 (2012. Our objective of the present short work is to complement this study by considering univalent ions of unequal diameters in a mixture with the same soft-core fluid model. Specifically, we are interested in the analysis of changes of the temperature of maximum density (TMD lines with ion concentration for three model salt solutes, namely sodium chloride, potassium chloride and rubidium chloride models. We resort to Monte Carlo simulations for this purpose. Our discussion also involves the dependences of the pair contribution to excess entropy and of constant volume heat capacity on the temperature of maximum density line. Some examples of the microscopic structure of mixtures in question in terms of pair distributions functions are given in addition.

  5. On the mechanical stability of the body-centered cubic phase and the emergence of a metastable cI16 phase in classical hard sphere solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshavsky, Vadim B.; Ford, David M.; Monson, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of the body-centered cubic (bcc) solid phase of classical hard spheres is of intrinsic interest and is also relevant to the development of perturbation theories for bcc solids of other model systems. Using canonical ensemble Monte Carlo, we simulated systems initialized in a perfect bcc lattice at various densities in the solid region. We observed that the systems rapidly evolved into one of four structures that then persisted for the duration of the simulation. Remarkably, one of these structures was identified as cI16, a cubic crystalline structure with 16 particles in the unit cell, which has recently been observed experimentally in lithium and sodium solids at high pressures. The other three structures do not exhibit crystalline order but are characterized by common patterns in the radial distribution function and bond-orientational order parameter distribution; we refer to them as bcc-di, with i ranging from 1 to 3. We found similar outcomes when employing any of the three single occupancy cell (SOC) restrictions commonly used in the literature. We also ran long constant-pressure simulations with box shape fluctuations initiated from bcc and cI16 initial configurations. At lower pressures, all the systems evolved to defective face-centered cubic (fcc) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures. At higher pressures, most of the systems initiated as bcc evolved to cI16 with some evolving to defective fcc/hcp. High pressure systems initiated from cI16 remained in that structure. We computed the chemical potential of cI16 using the Einstein crystal reference method and found that it is higher than that of fcc by ˜0.5kT-2.5kT over the pressure range studied, with the difference increasing with pressure. We find that the undistorted bcc solid, even with constant-volume and SOC restrictions applied, is so mechanically unstable that it is unsuitable for consideration as a metastable phase or as a reference system for studying bcc phases of other systems

  6. Simulating three dimensional self-assembly of shape modified particles using magnetic dipolar forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Laurens; Marsman, G.H. (Mathijs); Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of 3D self-assembly of milli-magnetic particles that interact via magnetic dipolar forces is investigated. Typically magnetic particles, such as isotropic spheres, self-organize in stable 2D configurations. By modifying the shape of the particles, 3D self-assembly may be enabled. The

  7. Equilibrium phases of dipolar lattice bosons in the presence of random diagonal disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Safavi-Naini, A.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.

    2018-01-01

    Ultracold gases offer an unprecedented opportunity to engineer disorder and interactions in a controlled manner. In an effort to understand the interplay between disorder, dipolar interactions, and quantum degeneracy, we study two-dimensional hard-core dipolar lattice bosons in the presence of on-site bound disorder. Our results are based on large-scale path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations by the worm algorithm. We study the ground-state phase diagram at a fixed half-integer filling factor for which the clean system is either a superfluid at a lower dipolar interaction strength or a checkerboard solid at a larger dipolar interaction strength. We find that, even for weak dipolar interactions, superfluidity is destroyed in favor of a Bose glass at a relatively low disorder strength. Interestingly, in the presence of disorder, superfluidity persists for values of the dipolar interaction strength for which the clean system is a checkerboard solid. At a fixed disorder strength, as the dipolar interaction is increased, superfluidity is destroyed in favor of a Bose glass. As the interaction is further increased, the system eventually develops extended checkerboard patterns in the density distribution. Due to the presence of disorder, though, grain boundaries and defects, responsible for a finite residual compressibility, are present in the density distribution. Finally, we study the robustness of the superfluid phase against thermal fluctuations.

  8. Cluster analysis in systems of magnetic spheres and cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyanzina, E. S.; Gudkova, A. V.; Donaldson, J. G.; Kantorovich, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    In the present work we use molecular dynamics simulations and graph-theory based cluster analysis to compare self-assembly in systems of magnetic spheres, and cubes where the dipole moment is oriented along the side of the cube in the [001] crystallographic direction. We show that under the same conditions cubes aggregate far less than their spherical counterparts. This difference can be explained in terms of the volume of phase space in which the formation of the bond is thermodynamically advantageous. It follows that this volume is much larger for a dipolar sphere than for a dipolar cube.

  9. Dipolar and spinor bosonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The main properties and methods of describing dipolar and spinor atomic systems, composed of bosonic atoms or molecules, are reviewed. The general approach for the correct treatment of Bose-condensed atomic systems with nonlocal interaction potentials is explained. The approach is applied to Bose-condensed systems with dipolar interaction potentials. The properties of systems with spinor interaction potentials are described. Trapped atoms and atoms in optical lattices are considered. Effective spin Hamiltonians for atoms in optical lattices are derived. The possibility of spintronics with cold atom is emphasized. The present review differs from the previous review articles by concentrating on a thorough presentation of basic theoretical points, helping the reader to better follow mathematical details and to make clearer physical conclusions.

  10. Dipolar quantum gases of erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the preparation of the first Bose-Einstein condensate about two decades ago and the first degenerate Fermi gas following four years later a plethora of fascinating quantum phenomena have been explored. The vast majority of experiments focused on quantum degenerate atomic gases with short-range contact interaction between particles. Atomic species with large magnetic dipole moments, such as chromium, dysprosium, and erbium, offer unique possibilities to investigate phenomena arising from dipolar interaction. This kind of interaction is not only long-range but also anisotropic in character and imprints qualitatively novel features on the system. Prominent examples are the d-wave collapse of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate of chromium atoms realized by the group in Stuttgart, the spin magnetization and demagnetization dynamics observed by groups in Stuttgart, Paris, and Stanford, and the deformation of the Fermi surface observed by our group in Innsbruck. This thesis reports on the creation and study of the first Bose-Einstein condensate and degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms. Erbium belongs to the lanthanide group of elements and has a large magnetic moment of seven Bohr magneton. In particular, this thesis describes the experimental apparatus and the sequence for producing a dipolar quantum gas. There is an emphasis on the production of the narrow-line magneto-optical trap of erbium since this represents a very efficient and robust laser-cooling scheme that greatly simplifies the experimental procedure. After describing the experimental setup this thesis focuses on several fundamental questions related to the dipolar character of erbium and to its lanthanide nature. A first set of studies centers on the scattering properties of ultracold erbium atoms, including the elastic and the inelastic cross section and the spectrum of Feshbach resonances. Specifically, we observe that identical dipolar fermions do collide and rethermalize even at low temperatures

  11. Scaling of the space-time correlation function of particle currents in a suspension of hard-sphere-like particles: exposing when the motion of particles is Brownian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Megen, W; Martinez, V A; Bryant, G

    2009-12-18

    The current correlation function is determined from dynamic light scattering measurements of a suspension of particles with hard spherelike interactions. For suspensions in thermodynamic equilibrium we find scaling of the space and time variables of the current correlation function. This finding supports the notion that the movement of suspended particles can be described in terms of uncorrelated Brownian encounters. However, in the metastable fluid, at volume fractions above freezing, this scaling fails.

  12. Cluster analysis in systems of magnetic spheres and cubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyanzina, E.S., E-mail: elena.pyanzina@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gudkova, A.V. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Donaldson, J.G. [University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria); Kantorovich, S.S. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-01

    In the present work we use molecular dynamics simulations and graph-theory based cluster analysis to compare self-assembly in systems of magnetic spheres, and cubes where the dipole moment is oriented along the side of the cube in the [001] crystallographic direction. We show that under the same conditions cubes aggregate far less than their spherical counterparts. This difference can be explained in terms of the volume of phase space in which the formation of the bond is thermodynamically advantageous. It follows that this volume is much larger for a dipolar sphere than for a dipolar cube. - Highlights: • A comparison of the degree of self-assembly in systems of magnetic spheres and cubes. • Spheres are more likely to form larger clusters than cubes. • Differences in microstructure will manifest in the magnetic response of each system.

  13. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  14. Dipolarization Fronts from Reconnection Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M. M.; Merkin, V. G.; Buzulukova, N.; Moore, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts observed in the magnetotail are often viewed as signatures of bursty magnetic reconnection. However, until recently spontaneous reconnection was considered to be fully prohibited in the magnetotail geometry because of the linear stability of the ion tearing mode. Recent theoretical studies showed that spontaneous reconnection could be possible in the magnetotail geometries with the accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the thin current sheet, a distinctive feature of the magnetotail prior to substorm onset. That result was confirmed by open-boundary full-particle simulations of 2D current sheet equilibria, where two magnetotails were separated by an equilibrium X-line and weak external electric field was imposed to nudge the system toward the instability threshold. To investigate the roles of the equilibrium X-line, driving electric field and other parameters in the reconnection onset process we performed a set of 2D PIC runs with different initial settings. The investigated parameter space includes the critical current sheet thickness, flux tube volume per unit magnetic flux and the north-south component of the magnetic field. Such an investigation is critically important for the implementation of kinetic reconnection onset criteria into global MHD codes. The results are compared with Geotail visualization of the magnetotail during substorms, as well as Cluster and THEMIS observations of dipolarization fronts.

  15. Designing Hysteresis with Dipolar Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andrés; Aguayo, David; Mellado, Paula

    2018-04-01

    Materials that have hysteretic response to an external field are essential in modern information storage and processing technologies. A myriad of magnetization curves of several natural and artificial materials have previously been measured and each has found a particular mechanism that accounts for it. However, a phenomenological model that captures all the hysteresis loops and at the same time provides a simple way to design the magnetic response of a material while remaining minimal is missing. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an elementary method to engineer hysteresis loops in metamaterials built out of dipolar chains. We show that by tuning the interactions of the system and its geometry we can shape the hysteresis loop which allows for the design of the softness of a magnetic material at will. Additionally, this mechanism allows for the control of the number of loops aimed to realize multiple-valued logic technologies. Our findings pave the way for the rational design of hysteretical responses in a variety of physical systems such as dipolar cold atoms, ferroelectrics, or artificial magnetic lattices, among others.

  16. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delorme

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA and blind source separation (BSS methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA; best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison.

  17. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization...... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  18. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.R.; Zinner, N.T.; Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects of the intralayer repulsion and quantum statistical requirements in systems with more than one chain. Specifically, we consider the case of two chains and solve the problem analytically within the harmonic Hamiltonian approach which is accurate for large dipole moments. The case of three chains is calculated numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments. (author)

  19. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  20. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  1. Evaluation of magnetic dipolar terms in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, R.B.; Brandi, H.S.; Maffeo, B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic dipolar parameter b for several values of the internuclear distance in the molecule F 2 - is evaluated. The difficulties appearing in the calculations are discussed and a manner to overcome them is presented [pt

  2. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  3. Free Volume of the Hard Spheres Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, P. M. E.; Martinez, J. C.; Springham, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The Enskog factor [chi] plays a central role in the theory of dense gases, quantifying how the finite size of molecules causes many physical quantities, such as the equation of state, the mean free path, and the diffusion coefficient, to deviate from those of an ideal gas. We suggest an intuitive but rigorous derivation of this fact by showing how…

  4. Free volume of the hard spheres gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutler, P M E; Martinez, J C; Springham, S V

    2007-01-01

    The Enskog factor χ plays a central role in the theory of dense gases, quantifying how the finite size of molecules causes many physical quantities, such as the equation of state, the mean free path, and the diffusion coefficient, to deviate from those of an ideal gas. We suggest an intuitive but rigorous derivation of this fact by showing how all these instances of χ amount to different ways of looking at the derivative of the free volume with respect to the packing density. We show how to compute the free volume explicitly for finitely many molecules in a finite box and demonstrate excellent agreement between its derivative and mean free paths obtained from computer simulations, where the number of molecules N varies from 1000 down to 2, and where the mean free paths vary from many times the molecular diameter at low density down to a small fraction of the molecular diameter at high density. Since the boundary corrections involved are relatively simple and intuitive this strengthens the link between the teaching of large N theory for real physical systems, and the running of small N simulations in undergraduate physics laboratories

  5. Longitudinal expansion of field line dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, O.; Hayashi, K.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the substorm expansions that started at 1155 UT 10 August 1994 in the midnight sector focusing on the longitudinal (eastward) expansion of field line dipolarization in the auroral zone. Eastward expansion of the dipolarization region was observed in all of the H, D, and Z components. The dipolarization that started at 1155 UT (0027 MLT) from 260° of geomagnetic longitude (CMO) expanded to 351°(PBQ) in about 48 min. The expansion velocity was 0.03-0.04°/s, or 1.9 km/s at 62°N of geomagnetic latitude. The dipolarization region expanding to the east was accompanied by a bipolar event at the leading edge of the expansion in latitudes equatorward of the westward electrojet (WEJ). In the midnight sector at the onset meridian, the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MAP) on board geosynchronous satellite L9 measured electrons and ions between 10 eV and 40 keV. We conclude from the satellite observations that this dipolarization was characterized by the evolution of temperature anisotropies, an increase of the electron and ion temperatures, and a rapid change in the symmetry axis of the temperature tensor. The field line dipolarization and its longitudinal expansion were interpreted in terms of the slow MHD mode triggered by the current disruption. We propose a new magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (MI-coupling) mechanism based on the scenario that transmitted westward electric fields from the magnetosphere in association with expanding dipolarization produced electrostatic potential (negative) in the ionosphere through differences in the mobility of collisional ions and collisionless electrons. The field-aligned currents that emerged from the negative potential region are arranged in a concentric pattern around the negative potential region, upward toward the center and downward on the peripheral.

  6. Dipolar ferromagnets and glasses (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, T.F.; Wu, W.; Ellman, B.; Yang, J.; Aeppli, G.; Reich, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    What is the ground state and what are the dynamics of 10 23 randomly distributed Ising spins? We have attempted to answer these questions through magnetic susceptibility, calorimetric, and neutron scattering studies of the randomly diluted dipolar-coupled Ising magnet LiHo x Y 1-x F 4 . The material is ferromagnetic for dipole concentrations at least as low as x=0.46, with a Curie temperature obeying mean-field scaling relative to that of pure LiHoF 4 . In the dilute spin limit, an x=0.045 crystal shows very unusual glassy properties characterized by decreasing barriers to relaxation as T→0. Its properties are consistent with a single low degeneracy ground state with a large gap for excitations. A slightly more concentrated x=0.167 sample, however, supports a complex ground state with no appreciable gap, in accordance with prevailing theories of spin glasses. The underlying causes of such disparate behavior are discussed in terms of random clusters as probed by neutron studies of the x=0.167 sample. In addition to tracing the evolution of the glassy and ferromagnetic states with dipole concentration, we investigate the effects of a transverse magnetic field on the Ising spin glass, LiHo 0.167 Y 0.833 F 4 . The transverse field mixes the eigenfunctions of the ground-state Ising doublet with the otherwise inaccessible excited-state levels. We observe a rapid decrease in the characteristic relaxation times, large changes in the spectral form of the relaxation, and a depression of the spin-glass transition temperature with the addition of quantum fluctuations

  7. Dipolar modulation of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mijin

    For the last two decades, we have seen a drastic development of modern cosmology based on various observations such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), type Ia supernovae, and baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). These observational evidences have led us to a great deal of consensus on the cosmological model so-called LambdaCDM and tight constraints on cosmological parameters consisting the model. On the other hand, the advancement in cosmology relies on the cosmological principle: the universe is isotropic and homogeneous on large scales. Testing these fundamental assumptions is crucial and will soon become possible given the planned observations ahead. Dipolar modulation is the largest angular anisotropy of the sky, which is quantified by its direction and amplitude. We measured a huge dipolar modulation in CMB, which mainly originated from our solar system's motion relative to CMB rest frame. However, we have not yet acquired consistent measurements of dipolar modulations in large-scale structure (LSS), as they require large sky coverage and a number of well-identified objects. In this thesis, we explore measurement of dipolar modulation in number counts of LSS objects as a test of statistical isotropy. This thesis is based on two papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals. In Chapter 2 [Yoon et al., 2014], we measured a dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE matched with 2MASS sources. In Chapter 3 [Yoon & Huterer, 2015], we investigated requirements for detection of kinematic dipole in future surveys.

  8. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  9. Ultracold Dipolar Gases in Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Trefzger, C.; Menotti, C.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Lewenstein, M.

    2011-01-01

    This tutorial is a theoretical work, in which we study the physics of ultra-cold dipolar bosonic gases in optical lattices. Such gases consist of bosonic atoms or molecules that interact via dipolar forces, and that are cooled below the quantum degeneracy temperature, typically in the nK range. When such a degenerate quantum gas is loaded into an optical lattice produced by standing waves of laser light, new kinds of physical phenomena occur. These systems realize then extended Hubbard-type m...

  10. Non-dipolar gauge links for transverse-momentum-dependent pion wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    I discuss the factorization-compatible definitions of transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) pion wave functions which are fundamental theory inputs entering QCD factorization formulae for many hard exclusive processes. I will first demonstrate that the soft subtraction factor introduced to remove both rapidity and pinch singularities can be greatly reduced by making the maximal use of the freedom to construct the Wilson-line paths when defining the TMD wave functions. I will then turn to show that the newly proposed TMD definition with non-dipolar Wilson lines is equivalent to the one with dipolar gauge links and with a complicated soft function, to all orders of the perturbative expansion in the strong coupling, as far as the infrared behavior is concerned. (author)

  11. Heterogeneous dipolar theory of the exponential pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, P.V.

    1981-01-01

    We present a heterogeneous theory of the exponential pile, closely related to NORDHEIM-SCALETTAR's. It is well adapted to lattice whose pitch is relatively large (D-2O, grahpite) and the dimensions of whose channels are not negligible. The anisotropy of neutron diffusion is taken into account by the introduction of dipolar parameters. We express the contribution of each channel to the total flux in the moderator by means of multipolar coefficients. In order to be able to apply conditions of continuity between the flux and their derivatives, on the side of the moderator, we develop in a Fourier series the fluxes found at the periphery of each channel. Using Wronski's relations of Bessel's functions, we express the multipolar coefficients of the surfaces of each channel, on the side of the moderator, by means of the harmonics of each flux and their derivatives. We retain only monopolar (A 0 sub(g)) and dipolar (A 1 sub(g)) coefficients; those of a higher order are ignored. We deduce from these coefficients the systems of homogeneous equations of the exponential pile with monopoles on their own and monopoles plus dipoles. It should be noted that the systems of homogeneous equations of the critical pile are contained in those of the exponential pile. In another article, we develop the calculation of monopolar and dipolar heterogeneous parameters. (orig.)

  12. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo; Sparber, Christof

    2011-01-01

    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  16. Specific surface area of overlapping spheres in the presence of obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D R

    2013-02-21

    This study considers the random placement of uniform sized spheres, which may overlap, in the presence of another set of randomly placed (hard) spheres, which do not overlap. The overlapping spheres do not intersect the hard spheres. It is shown that the specific surface area of the collection of overlapping spheres is affected by the hard spheres, such that there is a minimum in the specific surface area as a function of the relative size of the two sets of spheres. The occurrence of the minimum is explained in terms of the break-up of pore connectivity. The configuration can be considered to be a simple model of the structure of a porous composite material. In particular, the overlapping particles represent voids while the hard particles represent fillers. Example materials are pervious concrete, metallurgical coke, ice cream, and polymer composites. We also show how the material properties of such composites are affected by the void structure.

  17. Ultracold chromium: a dipolar quantum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, T.; Stuhler, J.; Griesmaier, A.; Fattori, M.; Koch, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our recent achievement of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a gas of chromium atoms. Peculiar electronic and magnetic properties of chromium require the implementation of novel cooling strategies. We observe up to ∼ 10 5 condensed 52 Cr atoms after forced evaporation within a crossed optical dipole trap. Due to its large magnetic moment (6μ B ), the dipole-dipole interaction strength in chromium is comparable with the one of the van der Waals interaction. We prove the anisotropic nature of the dipolar interaction by releasing the condensate from a cigar shaped trap and observe, in time of flight measurements, the change of the aspect-ratio for different in-trap orientations of the atomic dipoles. We also report on the recent observation of 14 Feshbach resonances in elastic collisions between polarized ultra-cold 52 Cr atoms. This is the first Ballistic expansion of a dipolar quantum gas: The anisotropic interaction leads to a different expansion dynamics for the case of the magnetic dipoles aligned with the symmetry axis of the cigar shaped trap as compared with the dipoles oriented perpendicular to the axis of the cigar. The straight lines correspond to the theoretical expectation according to mean field theory without free parameters. observation of collisional Feshbach resonances in an atomic species with more than one valence electron. Moreover, such resonances constitute an important tool towards the realization of a purely dipolar interacting gas because they can be used to change strength and sign of the van der Waals interaction. (author)

  18. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem in an isolated system of quantum dipolar bosons after a quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ehsan; Pupillo, Guido; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos

    2013-08-02

    We examine the validity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in isolated quantum systems taken out of equilibrium by a sudden quench. We focus on the dynamics of trapped hard-core bosons in one-dimensional lattices with dipolar interactions whose strength is changed during the quench. We find indications that fluctuation-dissipation relations hold if the system is nonintegrable after the quench, as well as if it is integrable after the quench if the initial state is an equilibrium state of a nonintegrable Hamiltonian. On the other hand, we find indications that they fail if the system is integrable both before and after quenching.

  19. Mechanism and regioselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition; sulphur-centred 1,3-dipoles; regioselectivity; DFT reactivity indices;. FMO theory. 1. Introduction. Five-membered heterocyclic compounds can be gene- rated by addition of a 1,3-dipole to a dipolarophile under a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (1,3-DC) reaction which is well known as pericyclic reaction.

  20. Critical Time Crystals in Dipolar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen Wei; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail D; Abanin, Dmitry A

    2017-07-07

    We analyze the quantum dynamics of periodically driven, disordered systems in the presence of long-range interactions. Focusing on the stability of discrete time crystalline (DTC) order in such systems, we use a perturbative procedure to evaluate its lifetime. For 3D systems with dipolar interactions, we show that the corresponding decay is parametrically slow, implying that robust, long-lived DTC order can be obtained. We further predict a sharp crossover from the stable DTC regime into a regime where DTC order is lost, reminiscent of a phase transition. These results are in good agreement with the recent experiments utilizing a dense, dipolar spin ensemble in diamond [Nature (London) 543, 221 (2017)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21426]. They demonstrate the existence of a novel, critical DTC regime that is stabilized not by many-body localization but rather by slow, critical dynamics. Our analysis shows that the DTC response can be used as a sensitive probe of nonequilibrium quantum matter.

  1. Cluster and Double Star observations of dipolarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nakamura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied two types of dipolarization events with different IMF conditions when Cluster and Double Star (TC-1 were located in the same local time sector: 7 August 2004, 18:00-24:00 UT, during a disturbed southward/northward IMF interval, and 14 August 2004, 21:00-24:00 UT, when the IMF was stably northward. Cluster observed dipolarization as well as fast flows during both intervals, but this was not the case for TC-1. For both events the satellites crossed near the conjugate location of the MIRACLE stations. By using multi-point analysis techniques, the direction/speed of the propagation is determined using Cluster and is then compared with the disturbances at TC-1 to discuss its spatial/temporal scale. The propagation direction of the BZ disturbance at Cluster was mainly dawnward with a tailward component for 7 August and with a significant Earthward component for 14 August associated with fast flows. We suggest that the role of the midtail fast flows can be quite different in the dissipation process depending on the condition of the IMF and resultant configuration of the tail.

  2. Perturbation theories for the dipolar fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.L.; Chung, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    We derive here four different perturbation equations for the calculation of the angular pair correlation functions of dipolar fluids; namely, the first order y-expansion, the modified Percus--Yevik (MPY) expansion, the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) expansion, and the modified linearized hypernetted chain (MLHNC) equation. Both the method of the functional expansion and the method of the cluster integrals are utilized. Comparison with other perturbation theories (e.g., the Melnyk--Smith equation) is made. While none of the theories is exact, as shown by the cluster diagrams, the MLHNC and the MHNC contain more diagrams than, say, the MPY and y-expansion. The y-expansion equation can be improved by including the correction terms to the Kirkwood superposition approximation for the triplet correlation function. For example, the inclusion of the correction term rho∫d4h(14)h(24)h(34) in a formula given by Henderson, is shown to improve substantially the y-expansion equation. We examine the performance of two of the theories: the y-expansion and the MLHNC equation for a Stockmayer (dipolar) fluid with a reduced dipole moment μ/sup asterisk2/ [ = μ 2 /(epsilonsigma 3 )] = 1.0. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results of Adams et al. and with other theories (e.g., the QHNC equation) shows that our results are reasonable. Further improvements of the equations are also pointed out

  3. Sound Scattering and Its Reduction by a Janus Sphere Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliya Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound scattering by a Janus sphere type is considered. The sphere has two surface zones: a soft surface of zero acoustic impedance and a hard surface of infinite acoustic impedance. The zones are arranged such that axisymmetry of the sound field is preserved. The equivalent source method is used to compute the sound field. It is shown that, by varying the sizes of the soft and hard zones on the sphere, a significant reduction can be achieved in the scattered acoustic power and upstream directivity when the sphere is near a free surface and its soft zone faces the incoming wave and vice versa for a hard ground. In both cases the size of the sphere’s hard zone is much larger than that of its soft zone. The boundary location between the two zones coincides with the location of a zero pressure line of the incoming standing sound wave, thus masking the sphere within the sound field reflected by the free surface or the hard ground. The reduction in the scattered acoustic power diminishes when the sphere is placed in free space. Variations of the scattered acoustic power and directivity with the sound frequency are also given and discussed.

  4. Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jixing

    1990-01-01

    Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)

  5. Characterizing Ion Flows Across a Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, H.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2017-12-01

    In light of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) moving to study predominately symmetric magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail, it is of interest to investigate various methods for determining the relative location of the satellites with respect to the x line or a dipolarization front. We use a 2.5 dimensional PIC simulation to explore the dependence of various characteristics of a front, or flux bundle, on the width of the front in the dawn-dusk direction. In particular, we characterize the ion flow in the x-GSM direction across the front. We find a linear relationship between the width of a front, w, and the maximum velocity of the ion flow in the x-GSM direction, Vxi, for small widths: Vxi/VA=w/di*1/2*(mVA2)/Ti*Bz/Bxwhere m, VA, di, Ti, Bz, and Bx are the ion mass, upstream Alfven speed, ion inertial length, ion temperature, and magnetic fields in the z-GSM and x-GSM directions respectively. However, once the width reaches around 5 di, the relationship gradually approaches the well-known theoretical limit for ion flows, the upstream Alfven speed. Furthermore, we note that there is a reversal in the Hall magnetic field near the current sheet on the positive y-GSM side of the front. This reversal is most likely due to conservation of momentum in the y-GSM direction as the ions accelerate towards the x-GSM direction. This indicates that while the ions are primarily energized in the x-GSM direction by the front, they transfer energy to the electromagnetic fields in the y-GSM direction. The former energy transfer is greater than the latter, but the reversal of the Hall magnetic field drags the frozen-in electrons along with it outside of the front. These simulations should better able researchers to determine the relative location of a satellite crossing a dipolarization front.

  6. A Powerful Public Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public......The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public...

  7. Exact solutions for chemical bond orientations from residual dipolar couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedemeyer, William J.; Rohl, Carol A.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2002-01-01

    New methods for determining chemical structures from residual dipolar couplings are presented. The fundamental dipolar coupling equation is converted to an elliptical equation in the principal alignment frame. This elliptical equation is then combined with other angular or dipolar coupling constraints to form simple polynomial equations that define discrete solutions for the unit vector(s). The methods are illustrated with residual dipolar coupling data on ubiquitin taken in a single anisotropic medium. The protein backbone is divided into its rigid groups (namely, its peptide planes and C α frames), which may be solved for independently. A simple procedure for recombining these independent solutions results in backbone dihedral angles φ and ψ that resemble those of the known native structure. Subsequent refinement of these φ-ψ angles by the ROSETTA program produces a structure of ubiquitin that agrees with the known native structure to 1.1 A C α rmsd

  8. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulov, S.B.; Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I.; Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10 16 -10 18 eV.

  9. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tkaczyk, W. [Department of Experimental Physics of University of Lodz (Poland); Finger, M. [Karlov University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sonsky, M. [COMPAS Consortium, Turnov (Czech Republic)

    2009-12-15

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  10. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  11. Asymptotic behavior of local dipolar fields in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.J., E-mail: gjb@phys.soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Stenning, G.B.G., E-mail: Gerrit.vanderlaan@diamond.ac.uk [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der, E-mail: gavin.stenning@stfc.ac.uk [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    A simple method, based on layer by layer direct summation, is used to determine the local dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films. The results show that the dipolar constants converge ~1/m where the number of spins in a square film is given by (2m+1){sup 2}. Dipolar field results for sc, bcc, fcc, and hexagonal lattices are presented and discussed. The results can be used to calculate local dipolar fields in films with either ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spiral, exponential decay behavior, provided the magnetic order only changes normal to the film. Differences between the atomistic (local fields) and macroscopic fields (Maxwellian) are also examined. For the latter, the macro B-field inside the film is uniform and falls to zero sharply outside, in accord with Maxwell boundary conditions. In contrast, the local field for the atomistic point dipole model is highly non-linear inside and falls to zero at about three lattice spacing outside the film. Finally, it is argued that the continuum field B (used by the micromagnetic community) and the local field B{sub loc}(r) (used by the FMR community) will lead to differing values for the overall demagnetization energy. - Highlights: • Point-dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films are characterized by just three numbers. • Maxwell's boundary condition is partially violated in the point-dipole approximation. • Asymptotic values of point dipolar fields in circular monolayers scale as π/r.

  12. The quantum coherence of disordered dipolar bosonic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiguo; Zhang Aixia; Tang Rongan; Gao Jimin; Xue Jukui

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the coherence of correlated dipolar gas in the presence of disorder within a three-site Bose–Hubbard model. We show that the interplay between the on-site interaction, the inter-site dipole–dipole interactions (DDI) and the disorder exhibits new and interesting coherence characters that cannot take place in a non-dipolar system. The ratio between the on-site interaction and DDI plays a dominant role in the phase coherence. The resonance character of the coherence against both disorder and interactions emerges. DDI can enhance the coherence at certain values of the disorder and on-site interaction. In the coherence region, the enhancement of the coherence by disorder in a dipolar system is more significant than that in a non-dipolar system. In particular, the on-site interaction and DDI together can enhance the coherence even in the clean dipolar system (i.e. a dipolar system without disorder). However, without the on-site interaction, disorder, DDI or both together suppress the coherence. Furthermore, the relationship between the coherence and the energy gap and the compressibility of the system is also discussed. (paper)

  13. Dipolar particles in a double-trap confinement: Response to tilting the dipolar orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerlin, J.; Bengtsson, J.; Deuretzbacher, F.; Kristinsdóttir, L. H.; Reimann, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    We analyze the microscopic few-body properties of dipolar particles confined in two parallel quasi-one-dimensional harmonic traps. In particular, we show that an adiabatic rotation of the dipole orientation about the trap axes can drive an initially nonlocalized few-fermion state into a localized state with strong intertrap pairing. With an instant, nonadiabatic rotation, however, localization is inhibited and a highly excited state is reached. This state may be interpreted as the few-body analog of a super-Tonks-Girardeau state, known from one-dimensional systems with contact interactions.

  14. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model

  15. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  16. The sphere-pac fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Nordstroem, L.A.; Hellwig, C.

    2001-01-01

    Sphere-pac fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-pac fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  17. Fe2O3 hollow sphere nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wen, Yang; Xu, Bing; Lu, Lu; Ren, Reiming

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low temperature water-bath method with carbon sphere as hard template. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Through hydrolysis mechanism, using ferric chloride direct hydrolysis, iron hydroxide coated on the surface of carbon sphere, after high temperature calcination can form the hollow spherical iron oxide materials. Electrochemical performances of the hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The Pure hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at the current density of 85 mA g-1. The results indicate that the uniform dispersion of hollow ball structure can effectively reduce the particle reunion in the process of charging and discharging.

  18. Graphs with Eulerian unit spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    d-spheres in graph theory are inductively defined as graphs for which all unit spheres S(x) are (d-1)-spheres and that the removal of one vertex renders the graph contractible. Eulerian d-spheres are geometric d-spheres which are d+1 colorable. We prove here that G is an Eulerian sphere if and only if the degrees of all the (d-2)-dimensional sub-simplices in G are even. This generalizes a Kempe-Heawood result for d=2 and is work related to the conjecture that all d-spheres have chromatic numb...

  19. Jet Dipolarity: Top Tagging with Color Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Jankowiak, Martin; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    A new jet observable, dipolarity, is introduced that can distinguish whether a pair of subjets arises from a color singlet source. This observable is incorporated into the HEPTopTagger and is shown to improve discrimination between top jets and QCD jets for moderate to high p{sub T}. The impressive resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors means that a typical QCD jet at the LHC deposits energy in {Omicron}(10-100) calorimeter cells. Such fine-grained calorimetry allows for jets to be studied in much greater detail than previously, with sophisticated versions of current techniques making it possible to measure more than just the bulk properties of jets (e.g. event jet multiplicities or jet masses). One goal of the LHC is to employ these techniques to extend the amount of information available from each jet, allowing for a broader probe of the properties of QCD. The past several years have seen significant progress in developing such jet substructure techniques. A number of general purpose tools have been developed, including: (i) top-tagging algorithms designed for use at both lower and higher p{sub T} as well as (ii) jet grooming techniques such as filtering, pruning, and trimming, which are designed to improve jet mass resolution. Jet substructure techniques have also been studied in the context of specific particle searches, where they have been shown to substantially extend the reach of traditional search techniques in a wide variety of scenarios, including for example boosted Higgses, neutral spin-one resonances, searches for supersymmetry, and many others. Despite these many successes, however, there is every reason to expect that there remains room for refinement of jet substructure techniques.

  20. Cluster Observations of Multiple Dipolarization Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyoung-Joo; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lee, Ensang; Pickett, Jolene S.

    2011-01-01

    We present Cluster observations of a series of dipolarization fronts (DF 1 to 6) at the central current sheet in Earth's magnetotail. The velocities of fast earthward flow following behind each DF 1-3, are comparable to the Alfven velocity, indicating that the flow bursts might have been generated by bursty reconnection that occurred tailward of the spacecraft. Based on multi-spacecraft timing analysis, DF normals are found to propagate mainly earthward at $160-335$ km/s with a thickness of 900-1500 km, which corresponds to the ion inertial length or gyroradius scale. Each DF is followed by significant fluctuations in the $x$ and $y$ components of the magnetic field whose peaks are found 1-2 minutes after the DF passage. These $(B_{x},B_{y} )$-fluctuations propagate dawnward (mainly) and earthward. Strongly enhanced field-aligned beams are observed coincidently with $(B_{x},B_{y})$ fluctuations, while an enhancement of cross-tail currents is associated with the DFs. From the observed pressure imbalance and flux-tube entropy changes between the two regions separated by the DF, we speculate that interchange instability destabilizes the DFs and causes the deformation of the mid-tail magnetic topology. This process generates significant field-aligned currents, and might power the auroral brightening in the ionosphere. However, this event is neither associated with the main substorm auroral breakup nor the poleward expansion, which might indicate that the observed multiple DFs have been dissipated before they reach the inner plasma sheet boundary.

  1. Magnetization behavior of ferrofluids with cryogenically imaged dipolar chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klokkenburg, M; Erne, B H; Mendelev, V; Ivanov, A O

    2008-01-01

    Theories and simulations have demonstrated that field-induced dipolar chains affect the static magnetic properties of ferrofluids. Experimental verification, however, has been complicated by the high polydispersity of the available ferrofluids, and the morphology of the dipolar chains was left to the imagination. We now present the concentration- and field-dependent magnetization of particularly well-defined ferrofluids, with a low polydispersity, three different average particle sizes, and with dipolar chains that were imaged with and without magnetic field using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. At low concentrations, the magnetization curves obey the Langevin equation for noninteracting dipoles. Magnetization curves for the largest particles strongly deviate from the Langevin equation but quantitatively agree with a recently developed mean-field model that incorporates the field-dependent formation and alignment of flexible dipolar chains. The combination of magnetic results and in situ electron microscopy images provides original new evidence for the effect of dipolar chains on the field-dependent magnetization of ferrofluids

  2. Spinning the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, David; Dzienkowski, Eric; Lashof-Regas, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We construct various exact analytical solutions of the SO(3) BMN matrix model that correspond to rotating fuzzy spheres and rotating fuzzy tori. These are also solutions of Yang Mills theory compactified on a sphere times time and they are also translationally invariant solutions of the N=1"∗ field theory with a non-trivial charge density. The solutions we construct have a ℤ_N symmetry, where N is the rank of the matrices. After an appropriate ansatz, we reduce the problem to solving a set of polynomial equations in 2N real variables. These equations have a discrete set of solutions for each value of the angular momentum. We study the phase structure of the solutions for various values of N. Also the continuum limit where N→∞, where the problem reduces to finding periodic solutions of a set of coupled differential equations. We also study the topology change transition from the sphere to the torus.

  3. Scissors Mode of Dipolar Quantum Droplets of Dysprosium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Langen, Tim; Isoard, Mathieu; Stringari, Sandro; Pfau, Tilman

    2018-04-01

    We report on the observation of the scissors mode of a single dipolar quantum droplet. The existence of this mode is due to the breaking of the rotational symmetry by the dipole-dipole interaction, which is fixed along an external homogeneous magnetic field. By modulating the orientation of this magnetic field, we introduce a new spectroscopic technique for studying dipolar quantum droplets. This provides a precise probe for interactions in the system, allowing us to extract a background scattering length for 164Dy of 69 (4 )a0 . Our results establish an analogy between quantum droplets and atomic nuclei, where the existence of the scissors mode is also only due to internal interactions. They further open the possibility to explore physics beyond the available theoretical models for strongly dipolar quantum gases.

  4. Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey

    2014-07-16

    We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.

  5. Quantum states with topological properties via dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, David

    2015-06-25

    This thesis proposes conceptually new ways to realize materials with topological properties by using dipole-dipole interactions. First, we study a system of ultracold dipolar fermions, where the relaxation mechanism of dipolar spins can be used to reach the quantum Hall regime. Second, in a system of polar molecules in an optical lattice, dipole-dipole interactions induce spin-orbit coupling terms for the rotational excitations. In combination with time-reversal symmetry breaking this leads to topological bands with Chern numbers greater than one.

  6. Computer simulations of a rough sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyklema, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is described on rough hard spheres with a continuously variable roughness parameter, including the limits of smooth and completely rough spheres. A system of 500 particles is simulated with a homogeneous mass distribution at 8 different densities and for 5 different values of the roughness parameter. For these 40 physically different situations the intermediate scattering function for 6 values of the wave number, the orientational correlation functions and the velocity autocorrelation functions have been calculated. A comparison has been made with a neutron scattering experiment on neopentane and agreement was good for an intermediate value of the roughness parameter. Some often made approximations in neutron scattering experiments are also checked. The influence of the variable roughness parameter on the correlation functions has been investigated and three simple stochastic models studied to describe the orientational correlation function which shows the most pronounced dependence on the roughness. (Auth.)

  7. Harmonically trapped dipolar fermions in a two-dimensional square lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Louise G.; Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We consider dipolar fermions in a two-dimensional square lattice and a harmonic trapping potential. The anisotropy of the dipolar interaction combined with the lattice leads to transitions between phases with density order of different symmetries. We show that the attractive part of the dipolar...

  8. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being completed by a societal dimension, the public sphere has extended and now we can talk about partial public spheres in an ever more commercial environment. The new rebuilding and communication technologies create a new type of public character: the visible sphere – non-located, non-dialogical and open. Information and communication are more and more involved in the restructuring of capitalism on an international scale and the reorganization of leadership and management systems. The reevaluation of the public sphere, public opinion, communication allows us to define public sphere according to the profound mutations from today’s democratic societies.

  9. Electron dynamics during substorm dipolarization in Mercury's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the nonlinear dynamics of electrons during the expansion phase of substorms at Mercury using test particle simulations. A simple model of magnetic field line dipolarization is designed by rescaling a magnetic field model of the Earth's magnetosphere. The results of the simulations demonstrate that electrons may be subjected to significant energization on the time scale (several seconds of the magnetic field reconfiguration. In a similar manner to ions in the near-Earth's magnetosphere, it is shown that low-energy (up to several tens of eV electrons may not conserve the second adiabatic invariant during dipolarization, which leads to clusters of bouncing particles in the innermost magnetotail. On the other hand, it is found that, because of the stretching of the magnetic field lines, high-energy electrons (several keVs and above do not behave adiabatically and possibly experience meandering (Speiser-type motion around the midplane. We show that dipolarization of the magnetic field lines may be responsible for significant, though transient, (a few seconds precipitation of energetic (several keVs electrons onto the planet's surface. Prominent injections of energetic trapped electrons toward the planet are also obtained as a result of dipolarization. These injections, however, do not exhibit short-lived temporal modulations, as observed by Mariner-10, which thus appear to follow from a different mechanism than a simple convection surge.

  10. Functionalization of Graphene via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino

  11. Dipolar fluid-wall systems. Beyond the image potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudh-hir, M.E.

    1989-02-01

    The case of dipolar fluid in front of an ideal wall is examined. The surface-fluid system is introduced as a limit case of a binary mixture Using the diagrammatic development, the expansion of the one-particle distribution function is given. 16 refs

  12. The hard-sphere model of strongly interacting fermion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mecca, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The formalism based on Correlated Basis Functions (CBF) and the cluster-expansion technique has been recently employed to derive an effective interaction from a realistic nuclear Hamiltonian. One of the main objectives of the work described in this Thesis is establishing the accuracy of this novel approach--that allows to combine the flexibility of perturbation theory in the basis of eigenstates of the noninteracting system with a realistic description of short-range correlations in coordinat...

  13. Theory of molecular crowding in Brownian hard-sphere liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2012-06-01

    We derive an analytical pair potential of mean force for Brownian molecules in the liquid state. Our approach accounts for many-particle correlations of crowding particles of the liquid and for diffusive transport across the spatially modulated local density of crowders in the dense environment. Focusing on the limit of equal-size particles, we show that this diffusive transport leads to additional density- and structure-dependent terms in the interaction potential and to a much stronger attraction (by a factor of ≈4 at average volume fraction of crowders φ{0}=0.25) than in the standard depletion interaction where the diffusive effects are neglected. As an illustration of the theory, we use it to study the size of a polymer chain in a solution of inert crowders. Even in the case of an athermal background solvent, when a classical chain should be fully swollen, we find a sharp coil-globule transition of the ideal chain collapsing at a critical value of the crowder volume fraction φ{c}≈0.145.

  14. Structural relaxation in dense hard-sphere fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.J.C.; Edward Alley, W.; Alder, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The long-time decay of the shear-stress autocorrelation function is shown to be quantitatively related to the decay of correlations between the orientation of ''bonds'' connecting colliding pairs of particles. Within computational uncertainties, we find that orientational correlations in high-density fluids decay as a ''stretched'' exponential in time, with an exponent that is independent of density. However, at low densities the decay is exponential. In two-dimensional systems the decay is exponential, even at high density

  15. Theorising Public and Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Remina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19th century saw an expression of women’s ardent desire for freedom, emancipation and assertion in the public space. Women hardly managed to assert themselves at all in the public sphere, as any deviation from their traditional role was seen as unnatural. The human soul knows no gender distinctions, so we can say that women face the same desire for fulfillment as men do. Today, women are more and more encouraged to develop their skills by undertaking activities within the public space that are different from those that form part of traditional domestic chores. The woman of the 19th century felt the need to be useful to society, to make her contribution visible in a variety of domains. A woman does not have to become masculine to get power. If she is successful in any important job, this does not mean that she thinks like a man, but that she thinks like a woman. Women have broken through the walls that cut them off from public life, activity and ambition. There are no hindrances that can prevent women from taking their place in society.

  16. Acceleration and Precipitation of Electrons during Substorm Dipolarization Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Richard, Robert; Donovan, Eric; Zhou, Meng; Goldstein, Mevlyn; El-Alaoui, Mostafa; Schriver, David; Walker, Raymond

    Observations and modeling have established that during geomagnetically disturbed times the Earth’s magnetotail goes through large scale changes that result in enhanced electron precipitation into the ionosphere and earthward propagating dipolarization fronts that contain highly energized plasma. Such events originate near reconnection regions in the magnetotail at about 20-30 R_E down tail. As the dipolarization fronts propagate earthward, strong acceleration of both ions and electrons occurs due to a combination of non-adiabatic and adiabatic (betatron and Fermi) acceleration, with particle energies reaching up to 100 keV within the dipolarization front. One consequence of the plasma transport that occurs during these events is direct electron precipitation into the ionosphere, which form auroral precipitation. Using global kinetic simulations along with spacecraft and ground-based data, causes of electron precipitation are determined during well-documented, disturbed events. It is found that precipitation of keV electrons in the pre-midnight sector at latitudes around 70(°) occur due to two distinct physical processes: (1) higher latitude (≥72(°) ) precipitation due to electrons that undergo relatively rapid non-adiabatic pitch angle scattering into the loss cone just earthward of the reconnection region at around 20 R_E downtail, and (2) lower latitude (≤72(°) ) precipitation due to electrons that are more gradually accelerated primarily parallel to the geomagnetic field during its bounce motion by Fermi acceleration and enter the loss cone much closer to the Earth at 10-15 R_E, somewhat tailward of the dipolarization front. As the dipolarization fronts propagate earthward, the electron precipitation shifts to lower latitudes and occurs over a wider region in the auroral ionosphere. Our results show a direct connection between electron acceleration in the magnetotail and electron precipitation in the ionosphere during disturbed times. The electron

  17. VMware vSphere Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes; Saidel-Keesing, Maish

    2011-01-01

    The only book focused on designing VMware vSphere implementations.VMware vSphere is the most widely deployed virtualization platform today. Considered the most robust and sophisticated hypervisor product, vSphere is the de facto standard for businesses, both large and small. This book is the only one of its kind to concisely explain how to execute a successful vSphere architecture, tailored to meet your company's needs. Expert authors share with you the factors that shape the design of a vSphere implementation. Learn how to make the right design decisions for your environment.Explores the late

  18. Torsional Alfvén Waves in a Dipolar Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, H. C.; Tigrine, Z.; Cardin, P.; Schaeffer, N.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of torsional Alfvén waves in the Earth's core (Gillet et al, 2010) is a strong motivation for investigating the properties of these waves. Here, we report on the first experimental study of such waves. Alfvén waves are difficult to excite and observe in liquid metals because of their high magnetic diffusivity. Nevertheless, we obtained clear signatures of such diffusive waves in our DTS experiment. In this setup, some 40 liters of liquid sodium are contained between a ro = 210 mm-radius stainless steel outer shell, and a ri = 74 mm-radius copper inner sphere. Both spherical boundaries can rotate independently around a common vertical axis. The inner sphere shells a strong permanent magnet, which produces a nearly dipolar magnetic field whose intensity falls from 175 mT at ri to 8 mT at ro in the equatorial plane. We excite Alfvén waves in the liquid sodium by applying a sudden jerk of the inner sphere. To study the effect of global rotation, which leads to the formation of geostrophic torsional Alfvén waves, we spin the experiment at rotation rates fo = fi up to 15 Hz. The Alfvén wave produces a clear azimuthal magnetic signal on magnetometers installed in a sleeve inside the fluid. We also probe the associated azimuthal velocity field using ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. Electric potentials at the surface of the outer sphere turn out to be very revealing as well. In parallel, we use the XSHELLS magnetohydrodynamics spherical code to model torsional Alfvén waves in the experimental conditions, and beyond. We explore both linear and non-linear regimes. We observe a strong excitation of inertial waves in the equatorial plane, where the wave transits from a region of strong magnetic field to a region dominated by rotation (see figure of meridian map of azimuthal velocity). These novel observations should help deciphering the dynamics of Alfvén waves in planetary cores.

  19. Dynamic effects of dipolar interactions on the magnetic behavior of magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allia, Paolo; Tiberto, Paola

    2011-12-01

    Isothermal magnetization and initial dc susceptibility of spheroidal, nearly monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles (typical diameter: 8 nm) prepared by a standard thermo-chemical route have been measured between 10 and 300 K. The samples contained magnetite nanoparticles in the form of either a dried powder (each nanoparticle being surrounded by a stable oleic acid shell as a result of the preparation procedure) or a solid dispersion in PEGDA-600 polymer; different nanoparticle (NP) concentrations in the polymer were studied. In all samples the NPs were not tightly agglomerated nor their ferromagnetic cores were directly touching. The high-temperature inverse magnetic susceptibility is always found to follow a linear law as a function of T, crossing the horizontal axis at negative temperatures ranging from 175 to about 1,000 K. The deviation from the standard superparamagnetic behavior is related to dipolar interaction among NPs; however, a careful analysis makes it hard to conclude that such a behavior originates from a dominant antiferromagnetic character of the interaction. The results are well explained considering that the studied samples are in the interacting superparamagnetic (ISP) regime. The ISP model is basically a mean field theory which allows one to straightforwardly account for the role of magnetic dipolar interaction in a NP system. The model predicts the existence of specific scaling laws for the reduced magnetization which have been confirmed in all studied samples. The interaction of each magnetic dipole moment with the local, random dipolar field produced by the other dipoles results in the presence of a large fluctuating energy term whose magnitude is comparable to the static barrier for magnetization reversal/rotation related to magnetic anisotropy. On the basis of the existing theories on thermal crossing of a barrier whose height randomly fluctuates in time it is predicted that the rate of barrier crossing is substantially driven by the rate

  20. Beyond fuzzy spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindarajan, T R; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Shreecharan, T

    2010-01-01

    We study polynomial deformations of the fuzzy sphere, specifically given by the cubic or the Higgs algebra. We derive the Higgs algebra by quantizing the Poisson structure on a surface in R 3 . We find that several surfaces, differing by constants, are described by the Higgs algebra at the fuzzy level. Some of these surfaces have a singularity and we overcome this by quantizing this manifold using coherent states for this nonlinear algebra. This is seen in the measure constructed from these coherent states. We also find the star product for this non-commutative algebra as a first step in constructing field theories on such fuzzy spaces.

  1. Falling-sphere radioactive viscometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R. de.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the falling sphere viscometric method was studies experimentally using a sphere tagged with 198 Au radiosotopo, the objective being the demosntration of the advantages of this technique in relation to the traditional method. The utilisation of the falling radioactive sphere permits the point-point monitoring of sphere position as a function of count rate. The fall tube wall and end effects were determined by this technique. Tests were performed with spheres of different diameters in four tubes. The application of this technique demosntrated the wall and end effects in sphere speed. The case of sphere fall in the steady slow regime allowed the determination of the terminal velocity, showing the increase of botton end effect as the sphere approaches the tube base. In the case the transient slow regime, the sphere was initially in a state of respose near the top surface. The data obtained show the influence of the free surface and wall on the sphere acceleration. These experimental data were applied to the Basset equation on order to verify the behaviour of the terms in this equation. (author) [pt

  2. Thermal entanglement and teleportation in a dipolar interacting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.S., E-mail: ccastro@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoatá, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Centro de Formação de Professores, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Av. Nestor de Mello Pita, n. 535, 45.300-000 Amargosa, BA (Brazil); Duarte, O.S.; Pires, D.P.; Soares-Pinto, D.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, São Carlos, 13560-970 SP (Brazil); Reis, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoatá, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-04-22

    Quantum teleportation, which depends on entangled states, is a fascinating subject and an important branch of quantum information processing. The present work reports the use of a dipolar spin thermal system as a noisy quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation. Non-locality, tested by violation of Bell's inequality and thermal entanglement, measured by negativity, shows that for the present model all entangled states, even those that do not violate Bell's inequality, are useful for teleportation. - Highlights: • The effects of a dipolar interaction between two spins on their degree of entanglement and non-locality is reported. • The model presents some degree of non-locality and entanglement at a given coupling parameters. • It is shown how the magnetic anisotropies can influence the fidelity of teleportation.

  3. Coherent manipulation of dipolar coupled spins in an anisotropic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibekov, E. I.; Gafurov, M. R.; Zverev, D. G.; Kurkin, I. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Barbara, B.

    2014-11-01

    We study coherent dynamics in a system of dipolar coupled spin qubits diluted in a solid and subjected to a driving microwave field. In the case of rare earth ions, an anisotropic crystal background results in anisotropic g tensor and thus modifies the dipolar coupling. We develop a microscopic theory of spin relaxation in a transient regime for the frequently encountered case of axially symmetric crystal field. The calculated decoherence rate is nonlinear in the Rabi frequency. We show that the direction of a static magnetic field that corresponds to the highest spin g factor is preferable in order to obtain a higher number of coherent qubit operations. The results of calculations are in excellent agreement with our experimental data on Rabi oscillations recorded for a series of CaW O4 crystals with different concentrations of N d3 + ions.

  4. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo-Kai; Ma Yu-Qiang; Li Jian; Chen Kang; Tian Wen-De

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. (rapid communication)

  5. Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, B P; Zillich, R E; Whaley, K B

    2018-03-14

    The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.

  6. Dipolar and quadrupolar defects in a transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleux, G.; Nghiem, P.

    1991-01-01

    The defects on a transport line of linear accelerator are studied. A transport line where the elements are influenced by the design or position defects is analyzed. Only dipolar and quadrupolar defects are considered, and the coupling betwen transversal motions are excluded. The data from the literature and those calculated by transfer matrices are compared. The defects on a line are considered from an analytical point of view. Closed optical structures are also studied [fr

  7. Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, B. P.; Zillich, R. E.; Whaley, K. B.

    2018-03-01

    The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.

  8. Analytic functionals on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Morimoto, Mitsuo

    1998-01-01

    This book treats spherical harmonic expansion of real analytic functions and hyperfunctions on the sphere. Because a one-dimensional sphere is a circle, the simplest example of the theory is that of Fourier series of periodic functions. The author first introduces a system of complex neighborhoods of the sphere by means of the Lie norm. He then studies holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the complex sphere. In the one-dimensional case, this corresponds to the study of holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the annular set in the complex plane, relying on the Laurent series expansion. In this volume, it is shown that the same idea still works in a higher-dimensional sphere. The Fourier-Borel transformation of analytic functionals on the sphere is also examined; the eigenfunction of the Laplacian can be studied in this way.

  9. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  10. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  11. Ground state configurations in antiferromagnetic ultrathin films with dipolar anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, H.

    2013-01-01

    The formalism developed in a previous work to calculate the dipolar energy in quasi-two-dimensional crystals with ferromagnetic order is now extended to collinear antiferromagnetic order. Numerical calculations of the dipolar energy are carried out for systems with tetragonally distorted fcc [001] structures, the case of NiO and MnO ultrathin film grown in non-magnetic substrates, where the magnetic phase is a consequence of superexchange and dipolar interactions. The employed approximation allows to demonstrate that dipolar coupling between atomic layers is responsible for the orientation of the magnetization when it differs from the one in a single layer. The ground state energy of a given NiO or MnO film is found to depend not only on the strain, but also on how much the interlayer separation and the 2D lattice constant are changed with respect to the ideal values corresponding to the non-distorted cubic structure. Nevertheless, it is shown that the orientation of the magnetization in the magnetic phase of any of these films is determined by the strain exclusively. A striped phase with the magnetization along the [112 ¯ ] direction appears as the ground state configuration of NiO and MnO ultrathin films. In films with equally oriented stripes along the layers this magnetic phase is twofold degenerate, while in films with multidomain layers it is eightfold degenerate. These results are not in contradiction with experimentally observed out-of-plane or in-plane magnetization of striped phases in NiO and MnO ultrathin films. - Highlights: ► Dipolar energy in collinear antiferromagnetic ultrathin films is calculated. ► Numerical results are presented for distorted fcc [001] structures. ► The lowest energy of a system depends on how the tetragonal distortion is achieved. ► A striped phase with magnetization in the [112 ¯ ] direction is the ground state. ► In multidomain NiO and MnO films it is eightfold degenerate.

  12. Pele's tears and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Quane, S.; Russell, K.

    2011-12-01

    Pele's tears are a well known curiosity commonly associated with low viscosity basaltic explosive eruptions. However, these pyroclasts are rarely studied in detail and there is no full explanation for their formation. These intriguing pyroclasts have smooth glassy surfaces, vesiculated interiors, and fluidal morphologies tending towards droplets and then spheres as they decrease in size to Pele's tears from the 1959 fire-fountaining eruption of Kilauea Iki involving size and density measurements. Using thin section and SEM analysis we also consider their internal and external morphologies, porosity and bubble size distributions, and surface textures. Finally we consider the mechanisms of magma fragmentation, timescales of relaxation, and cooling rates that are responsible for their formation.

  13. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  14. A General Synthesis Strategy for Hierarchical Porous Metal Oxide Hollow Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hierarchical porous TiO2 hollow spheres were successfully prepared by using the hydrothermally synthesized colloidal carbon spheres as templates and tetrabutyl titanate as inorganic precursors. The diameter and wall thickness of hollow TiO2 spheres were determined by the hard templates and concentration of tetrabutyl titanate. The particle size, dispersity, homogeneity, and surface state of the carbon spheres can be easily controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal conditions and adding certain amount of the surfactants. The prepared hollow spheres possessed the perfect spherical shape, monodispersity, and hierarchically pore structures, and the further experiment verified that the present approach can be used to prepare other metal oxide hollow spheres, which could be used as catalysis, fuel cells, lithium-air battery, gas sensor, and so on.

  15. Spherical Approximation on Unit Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Samir Bhaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a Jackson type theorem for functions in LP spaces on sphere And study on best approximation of  functions in  spaces defined on unit sphere. our central problem is to describe the approximation behavior of functions in    spaces for  by modulus of smoothness of functions.

  16. A new approach for applying residual dipolar couplings as restraints in structure elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiler, Jens; Blomberg, Niklas; Nilges, Michael; Griesinger, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings are useful global structural restraints. The dipolar couplings define the orientation of a vector with respect to the alignment tensor. Although the size of the alignment tensor can be derived from the distribution of the experimental dipolar couplings, its orientation with respect to the coordinate system of the molecule is unknown at the beginning of structure determination. This causes convergence problems in the simulated annealing process. We therefore propose a protocol that translates dipolar couplings into intervector projection angles, which are independent of the orientation of the alignment tensor with respect to the molecule. These restraints can be used during the whole simulated annealing protocol

  17. Propagation of Dipolarization Signatures Observed by the Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dipolarization, the change of the local magnetic field from a stretched to a more dipolar configuration, is one of the most fundamental processes of magnetospheric physics. It is especially critical for the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. The associated electric field accelerates ions and electrons and transports them closer to Earth. Such injected ions intensify the ring current, and electrons constitute the seed population of the radiation belt. Those ions and electrons may also excite various waves that play important roles in the enhancement and loss of the radiation belt electrons. Despite such critical consequences, the general characteristics of dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere still remain to be understood. The Van Allen Probes mission, which consists of two probes that orbit through the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere, provides an ideal opportunity to examine dipolarization signatures in the core of the ring current. In the present study we investigate the spatial expansion of the dipolarization region by examining the correlation and time delay of dipolarization signatures observed by the two probes. Whereas in general it requires three-point measurements to deduce the propagation of a signal on a certain plane, we statically examined the observed time delays and found that dipolarization signatures tend to propagate radially inward as well as away from midnight. In this paper we address the propagation of dipolarization signatures quantitatively and compare with the propagation velocities reported previously based on observations made farther away from Earth. We also discuss how often and under what conditions the dipolarization region expands.

  18. Complete devil's staircase and crystal-superfluid transitions in a dipolar XXZ spin chain: a trapped ion quantum simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M; Lewenstein, Maciej; Mueller-Hermes, Alexander; Banuls, Mari-Carmen; Ignacio Cirac, J

    2010-01-01

    Systems with long-range interactions show a variety of intriguing properties: they typically accommodate many metastable states, they can give rise to spontaneous formation of supersolids, and they can lead to counterintuitive thermodynamic behavior. However, the increased complexity that comes with long-range interactions strongly hinders theoretical studies. This makes a quantum simulator for long-range models highly desirable. Here, we show that a chain of trapped ions can be used to quantum simulate a one-dimensional (1D) model of hard-core bosons with dipolar off-site interaction and tunneling, equivalent to a dipolar XXZ spin-1/2 chain. We explore the rich phase diagram of this model in detail, employing perturbative mean-field theory, exact diagonalization and quasi-exact numerical techniques (density-matrix renormalization group and infinite time-evolving block decimation). We find that the complete devil's staircase-an infinite sequence of crystal states existing at vanishing tunneling-spreads to a succession of lobes similar to the Mott lobes found in Bose-Hubbard models. Investigating the melting of these crystal states at increased tunneling, we do not find (contrary to similar 2D models) clear indications of supersolid behavior in the region around the melting transition. However, we find that inside the insulating lobes there are quasi-long-range (algebraic) correlations, as opposed to models with nearest-neighbor tunneling, that show exponential decay of correlations.

  19. Excess Properties of Aqueous Solutions: Hard Spheres versus Pseudo-Hard Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouha, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2011), s. 613-617 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : partial molar volume * primitive models * thermodynamic properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.819, year: 2011

  20. The effect of dipolar interaction on the magnetic isotope effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden; Lukzen, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel kinetic description is used to study the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) in zero magnetic field. The maximal isotope effect is equal to the number of channels, two for the hyperfine interaction but four for the electron spin dipole–dipole interaction of the intermediate radical pair....... Quantum mechanical calculations agree with these conclusion and show that large MIE may be obtained even in the presence of a strong exchange interaction. The observed magnesium isotope effect on the rate of enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is approximately 3 implying that the dipolar...... interaction is responsible for the effect. Our calculations provide support for the proposed mechanism....

  1. Magnetic holes in the dipolarized magnetotail: ion and electron anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, P.; Artemyev, A.; Zhang, X. J.; Yushkov, E.; Petrukovich, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    We conduct statistics on magnetic holes observed by THEMIS spacecraft in the near-Earth magnetotail. Groups of holes are detected after dipolarizations in the quiet, equatorial plasma sheet. Magnetic holes are characterized by significant magnetic field depressions (up to 50%) and strong electron currents ( 10-50 nA/m2), with spatial scales much smaller than the ion gyroradius. These magnetic holes are populated by hot (>10 keV), transversely anisotropic electrons supporting the pressure balance. We present statistical properties of these sub-ion scale magnetic holes and discuss possible mechanisms on the hole formation.

  2. Dipolar interaction in arrays of magnetic nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez-Galván, Y; Martínez-Huerta, J M; Encinas, A; De La Torre Medina, J; Danlée, Y; Piraux, L

    2014-01-01

    The dipolar interaction field in arrays of nickel nanotubes has been investigated on the basis of expressions derived from the effective demagnetizing field of the assembly as well as magnetometry measurements. The model incorporates explicitly the wall thickness and aspect ratio, as well as the spatial order of the nanotubes. The model and experiment show that the interaction field in nanotubes is smaller than that in solid nanowires due to the packing fraction reduction in tubes related to their inner cavity. Finally, good agreement between the model and experiment is found for the variation of the interaction field as a function of the tube wall thickness. (paper)

  3. Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M

    2004-07-01

    We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory.

  4. Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Wu, Jong-Ching; Horng, Lance; Lee, Ching-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chang, Jui-Hang

    2014-01-01

    In an array of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that combine a perpendicular polarized fixed layer with strong in-plane anisotropy in the free layers, magnetic dipolar interactions can effectively phase-lock the array, thus further enhancing the power of the output microwave signals. We perform a qualitative analysis of the synchronization of an array based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, with a spin-transfer torque that assumes strong in-plane anisotropy. Finally, we present the numerical results for four coupled STNOs to provide further evidence for the proposed theory

  5. Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hao-Hsuan, E-mail: d95222014@ntu.edu.tw; Wu, Jong-Ching, E-mail: phjcwu@cc.ncue.edu.tw; Horng, Lance [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Lee, Ching-Ming [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, 64002, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ching-Ray, E-mail: crchang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Chang, Jui-Hang [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Sciences and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-07

    In an array of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that combine a perpendicular polarized fixed layer with strong in-plane anisotropy in the free layers, magnetic dipolar interactions can effectively phase-lock the array, thus further enhancing the power of the output microwave signals. We perform a qualitative analysis of the synchronization of an array based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, with a spin-transfer torque that assumes strong in-plane anisotropy. Finally, we present the numerical results for four coupled STNOs to provide further evidence for the proposed theory.

  6. Of spheres and squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrydstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how different visions and values of science translate into different architectural shapes. I bring Peter Sloterdijk’s ‘spherology’ to bear on my ethnographic fieldwork at the NEEM ice core base in Greenland, a significant node in the global infrastructure of climate science. I...... argue that the visual form of the geodesic dome of the camp materializes specific values and visions of this branch of paleoclimate science, which I elaborate vis-a-vis the pragmatic claims of the scientists/designers and the particular architectural history of Danish ice core drilling in Greenland. I...... as the lab space is rectangular and the recreational space is spherical. Third, I argue that NEEM scientists and Sloterdijk are essentially engaged in a common project: the scientists work hard to align air bubbles in the cores with atmospheric fluctuations in the hemisphere on the evidentiary terrain of ice...

  7. Visualization of magnetic dipolar interaction based on scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Miyamoto, Noritaka; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), in this report we visualized the magnetic dipolar interactions in nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and imaged their magnetization distributions at various applied fields. We calculated the magnetic dipolar interaction by analyzing the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image.

  8. Evidence for several dipolar quasi-invariants in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, C. J.; González, C. E.; Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    The quasi-equilibrium states of an observed quantum system involve as many constants of motion as the dimension of the operator basis which spans the blocks of all the degenerate eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian that drives the system dynamics, however, the possibility of observing such quasi-invariants in solid-like spin systems in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is not a strictly exact prediction. The aim of this work is to provide experimental evidence of several quasi-invariants, in the proton NMR of small spin clusters, like nematic liquid crystal molecules, in which the use of thermodynamic arguments is not justified. We explore the spin states prepared with the Jeener-Broekaert pulse sequence by analyzing the time-domain signals yielded by this sequence as a function of the preparation times, in a variety of dipolar networks, solids, and liquid crystals. We observe that the signals can be explained with two dipolar quasi-invariants only within a range of short preparation times, however at longer times liquid crystal signals show an echo-like behaviour whose description requires assuming more quasi-invariants. We study the multiple quantum coherence content of such signals on a basis orthogonal to the z-basis and see that such states involve a significant number of correlated spins. Therefore, we show that the NMR signals within the whole preparation time-scale can only be reconstructed by assuming the occurrence of multiple quasi-invariants which we experimentally isolate.

  9. Observation of roton mode population in a dipolar quantum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomaz, L.; van Bijnen, R. M. W.; Petter, D.; Faraoni, G.; Baier, S.; Becher, J. H.; Mark, M. J.; Wächtler, F.; Santos, L.; Ferlaino, F.

    2018-05-01

    The concept of a roton, a special kind of elementary excitation forming a minimum of energy at finite momentum, has been essential for the understanding of the properties of superfluid 4He (ref. 1). In quantum liquids, rotons arise from the strong interparticle interactions, whose microscopic description remains debated2. In the realm of highly controllable quantum gases, a roton mode has been predicted to emerge due to magnetic dipole-dipole interactions despite their weakly interacting character3. This prospect has raised considerable interest4-12; yet roton modes in dipolar quantum gases have remained elusive to observations. Here we report experimental and theoretical studies of the momentum distribution in Bose-Einstein condensates of highly magnetic erbium atoms, revealing the existence of the long-sought roton mode. Following an interaction quench, the roton mode manifests itself with the appearance of symmetric peaks at well-defined finite momentum. The roton momentum follows the predicted geometrical scaling with the inverse of the confinement length along the magnetization axis. From the growth of the roton population, we probe the roton softening of the excitation spectrum in time and extract the corresponding imaginary roton gap. Our results provide a further step in the quest towards supersolidity in dipolar quantum gases13.

  10. Finite-size corrections in simulation of dipolar fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Luc; Puibasset, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of dipolar fluids are performed at different numbers of particles N = 100-4000. For each size of the cubic cell, the non-spherically symmetric pair distribution function g(r,Ω) is accumulated in terms of projections gmnl(r) onto rotational invariants. The observed N dependence is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions for the finite-size corrections of different origins: the explicit corrections due to the absence of fluctuations in the number of particles within the canonical simulation and the implicit corrections due to the coupling between the environment around a given particle and that around its images in the neighboring cells. The latter dominates in fluids of strong dipolar coupling characterized by low compressibility and high dielectric constant. The ability to clean with great precision the simulation data from these corrections combined with the use of very powerful anisotropic integral equation techniques means that exact correlation functions both in real and Fourier spaces, Kirkwood-Buff integrals, and bridge functions can be derived from box sizes as small as N ≈ 100, even with existing long-range tails. In the presence of dielectric discontinuity with the external medium surrounding the central box and its replica within the Ewald treatment of the Coulombic interactions, the 1/N dependence of the gmnl(r) is shown to disagree with the, yet well-accepted, prediction of the literature.

  11. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From......), and subjectivity (agency). This changed the public sphere into an assemblage consisting of both human and non-human actors interactingin a highly dynamic, networked environment. This paper proposes a framework for considering this new materiality in the field of the public sphere: the assemblage and complexity...

  12. When Ethyl Isocyanoacetate Meets Isatins: A 1,3-Dipolar/Inverse 1,3-Dipolar/Olefination Reaction for Access to 3-Ylideneoxindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen-Kui; Cui, Tao; Liu, Wei; Wen, Li-Rong; Li, Ming

    2018-03-16

    A new CuI/1,10-phen-catalyzed reaction for the synthesis of 3-ylideneoxindoles from readily available isatins and ethyl isocyanoacetate, in which ethyl isocyanoacetate acts as a latent two-carbon donor like the Wittig reagent, is reported. A tandem procedure including 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition/inverse 1,3-dipolar ring opening/olefination allows the preparation of 3-ylideneoxindoles with broad functional group tolerance.

  13. Differential Calculus on Quantum Spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Welk, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We study covariant differential calculus on the quantum spheres S_q^2N-1. Two classification results for covariant first order differential calculi are proved. As an important step towards a description of the noncommutative geometry of the quantum spheres, a framework of covariant differential calculus is established, including a particular first order calculus obtained by factorization, higher order calculi and a symmetry concept.

  14. Quantum Fluctuations in Quasi-One-Dimensional Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, D; Mishra, C; Wächtler, F; Nath, R; Sinha, S; Santos, L

    2017-08-04

    Recent experiments have revealed that beyond-mean-field corrections are much more relevant in weakly interacting dipolar condensates than in their nondipolar counterparts. We show that in quasi-one-dimensional geometries quantum corrections in dipolar and nondipolar condensates are strikingly different due to the peculiar momentum dependence of the dipolar interactions. The energy correction of the condensate presents not only a modified density dependence, but it may even change from attractive to repulsive at a critical density due to the surprising role played by the transversal directions. The anomalous quantum correction translates into a strongly modified physics for quantum-stabilized droplets and dipolar solitons. Moreover, and for similar reasons, quantum corrections of three-body correlations, and hence of three-body losses, are strongly modified by the dipolar interactions. This intriguing physics can be readily probed in current experiments with magnetic atoms.

  15. Quantum simulation and quantum information processing with molecular dipolar crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortner, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis interactions between dipolar crystals and neutral atoms or separated molecules have been investigated. They were motivated to realize new kinds of lattice models in mixtures of atoms and polar molecules where an MDC functions as an underlying periodic lattice structure for the second species. Such models bring out the peculiar features of MDC's, that include a controllable, potentially sub-optical wavelength periodicity and strong particle phonon interactions. Only stable collisional configurations have been investigated, excluding chemical reactions between the substituents, and crystal distortions beyond the scope of perturbation theory. The system was treated in the polaron picture where particles of the second species are dressed by surrounding crystal phonons. To describe the competition between coherent and incoherent dynamics of the polarons, a master equation in the Brownian motion limit was used with phonons treated as a thermal heat bath. It was shown analytically that in a wide range of realistic parameters the corrections to the coherent time evolution are small, and that the dynamics of the dressed particles can be described by an effective extended Hubbard model with controllable system parameters. The last chapter of this thesis contains a proposal for QIP with cold polar molecules that, in contrast to previous works, uses an MDC as a quantum register. It was motivated by the unique features of dipolar molecules and to exploit the peculiar physical conditions in dipolar crystals. In this proposal the molecular dipole moments were tailored by non-local fields to include a small, switchable, state-dependent dipole moment in addition to the large internal state independent moment that stabilizes the crystal. It was shown analytically that a controllable, non-trivial phonon-mediated interaction can be generated that exceeds non-trivial, direct dipole-dipole couplings. The addressability problem due to high crystal densities was overcome by

  16. Layers of Cold Dipolar Molecules in the Harmonic Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the N-body problem in a layered geometry containing cold polar molecules with dipole moments that are polarized perpendicular to the layers. A harmonic approximation is used to simplify the hamiltonian and bound state properties of the two-body inter-layer dipolar potential are used...... to adjust this effective interaction. To model the intra-layer repulsion of the polar molecules, we introduce a repulsive inter-molecule potential that can be parametrically varied. Single chains containing one molecule in each layer, as well as multi-chain structures in many layers are discussed...... and their energies and radii determined. We extract the normal modes of the various systems as measures of their volatility and eventually of instability, and compare our findings to the excitations in crystals. We find modes that can be classified as either chains vibrating in phase or as layers vibrating against...

  17. Electron Jet Detected by MMS at Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. M.; Fu, H. S.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Gershman, D. J.; Hwang, K.-J.; Chen, Z. Z.; Cao, D.; Xu, Y.; Yang, J.; Peng, F. Z.; Huang, S. Y.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Ergun, R. E.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Le Contel, O.

    2018-01-01

    Using MMS high-resolution measurements, we present the first observation of fast electron jet (Ve 2,000 km/s) at a dipolarization front (DF) in the magnetotail plasma sheet. This jet, with scale comparable to the DF thickness ( 0.9 di), is primarily in the tangential plane to the DF current sheet and mainly undergoes the E × B drift motion; it contributes significantly to the current system at the DF, including a localized ring-current that can modify the DF topology. Associated with this fast jet, we observed a persistent normal electric field, strong lower hybrid drift waves, and strong energy conversion at the DF. Such strong energy conversion is primarily attributed to the electron-jet-driven current (E ṡ je ≈ 2 E ṡ ji), rather than the ion current suggested in previous studies.

  18. Synthesis of Spiroisoxazolines by 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ertl

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The cycloaddition of the chiral nitrile oxide 1 to 1-R-substituted 3,3-methylene-5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidinones 2 (where R is H, n-butyl-, 1,1-dimethylethoxycarbonyl-, 1-methylethenyl- and acetyl- proceeds regioselectively under the formation of spiroisoxazolines, namely 7-R-substituted-6-oxo-8,8-dimethyl-1-oxa-2,7-diazaspiro[4,4]non-2-enes 5 and 6. The asymmetric induction expected by the a-chiral centre of the nitrile oxide 1 was not very effective, diastereoisomers 5 and 6 were formed in an approximate 50:50 ratio. The stereoselectivity of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the arylnitrile oxide 7 with the chiral lactam 3 and the achiral lactone 4 are investigated. The attack of the 1,3-dipole occurred from the less hindered face of the dipolarophile 3 and 4, giving the major isomer 8 and 10, respectively.

  19. Nuclear dipolar magnetism around one microkelvin in calciumhydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to a study of dipolar magnetism of the proton spins in Ca(OH) 2 . First, cooling techniques are described. The energy of different spin configurations are calculated in the Weiss-field approximation. Crystallographic characteristics of Ca(OH) 2 are described, as well as a method to produce monocrystals and a method for crystal doping using 1.5 MeV electron beams. It is shown that the polarization mechanism of the proton spins in Ca(OH) 2 doped with O 2 - centra is the 'Solid Effect'. Susceptibility measurements are presented as a function of the polarization. Results imply that both at positive and at negative temperatures state ordering sets in, characterized by a plateau in the susceptibility. (Auth/G.J.P.)

  20. Hidden magnetism in periodically modulated one dimensional dipolar fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzini, S.; Montorsi, A.; Roncaglia, M.; Barbiero, L.

    2017-12-01

    The experimental realization of time-dependent ultracold lattice systems has paved the way towards the implementation of new Hubbard-like Hamiltonians. We show that in a one-dimensional two-components lattice dipolar Fermi gas the competition between long range repulsion and correlated hopping induced by periodically modulated on-site interaction allows for the formation of hidden magnetic phases, with degenerate protected edge modes. The magnetism, characterized solely by string-like nonlocal order parameters, manifests in the charge and/or in the spin degrees of freedom. Such behavior is enlighten by employing Luttinger liquid theory and numerical methods. The range of parameters for which hidden magnetism is present can be reached by means of the currently available experimental setups and probes.

  1. Drag Effect in Double-Layer Dipolar Fermi Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanatar, B; Renklioglu, B; Oktel, M O

    2014-01-01

    We consider two parallel layers of two-dimensional spin-polarized dipolar Fermi gas without any tunneling between the layers. The effective interactions describing screening and correlation effects between the dipoles in a single layer (intra-layer) and across the layers (interlayer) are modeled within the Hubbard approximation. We calculate the rate of momentum transfer between the layers when the gas in one layer has a steady flow. The momentum transfer induces a steady flow in the second layer which is assumed initially at rest. This is the drag effect familiar from double-layer semiconductor and graphene structures. Our calculations show that the momentum relaxation time has temperature dependence similar to that in layers with charged particles which we think is related to the contributions from the collective modes of the system

  2. Structure refinement of flexible proteins using dipolar couplings: Application to the protein p8MTCP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demene, Helene; Ducat, Thierry; Barthe, Philippe; Delsuc, Marc-Andre; Roumestand, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The present study deals with the relevance of using mobility-averaged dipolar couplings for the structure refinement of flexible proteins. The 68-residue protein p8 MTCP1 has been chosen as model for this study. Its solution state consists mainly of three α-helices. The two N-terminal helices are strapped in a well-determined α-hairpin, whereas, due to an intrinsic mobility, the position of the third helix is less well defined in the NMR structure. To further characterize the degrees of freedom of this helix, we have measured the dipolar coupling constants in the backbone of p8 MTCP1 in a bicellar medium. We show here that including D HN dip dipolar couplings in the structure calculation protocol improves the structure of the α-hairpin but not the positioning of the third helix. This is due to the motional averaging of the dipolar couplings measured in the last helix. Performing two calculations with different force constants for the dipolar restraints highlights the inconstancy of these mobility-averaged dipolar couplings. Alternatively, prior to any structure calculations, comparing the values of the dipolar couplings measured in helix III to values back-calculated from an ideal helix demonstrates that they are atypical for a helix. This can be partly attributed to mobility effects since the inclusion of the 15 N relaxation derived order parameter allows for a better fit

  3. Particle-in-cell Simulation of Dipolarization Front Associated Whistlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Scales, W.; Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are dipolarized magnetic field embedded in the Earthward propagating bursty bulk flows (BBFs), which separates the hot, tenuous high-speed flow from the cold, dense, and slowly convecting surrounding plasma [Runov et al. 2011]. Broadband fluctuations have been observed at DFs including the electromagnetic whistler waves and electrostatic lower hybrid waves in the Very Low Frequency (VLF) range [e.g., Zhou et al. 2009, Deng et al. 2010]. There waves are suggested to be able heat electrons and play a critical role in the plasma sheet dynamics [Chaston et al., 2012, Angelopoulos et al., 2013]. However, their generation mechanism and role in the energy conversion are still under debate. The gradient scale of magnetic field, plasma density at DFs in the near-Earth magnetotail is comparable to or lower than the ion gyro radius [Runov et al., 2011, Fu et al., 2012, Breuillard et al., 2016]. Such strongly inhomogeneous configuration could be unstable to the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, which arises from strongly sheared transverse flow and is in the VLF range [Ganguli et al. 1988, Ganguli et al. 2014]. The equilibrium of the EIH theory implies an anisotropy of electron temperature, which are likely to drive the whistler waves observed in DFs [Deng et al., 2010, Gary et al., 2011]. In order to better understand how the whistler waves are generated in DFs and whether the EIH theory is applicable, a fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EMPIC) model is used to simulate the EIH instability with similar equilibrium configurations in DF observations. The EMPIC model deals with three dimensions in the velocity space and two dimensions in the configuration space, which is quite ready to include the third configuration dimension. Simulation results will be shown in this presentation.

  4. Tuning the bridging attraction between large hard particles by the softness of small microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Yuan, Guangcui; Han, Charles C

    2016-09-20

    In this study, the attraction between large hard polystyrene (PS) spheres is studied by using three types of small microgels as bridging agents. One is a purely soft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel, the other two have a non-deformable PS hard core surrounded by a soft PNIPAM shell but are different in the core-shell ratio. The affinity for bridging the large PS spheres is provided and thus affected by the PNIPAM constituent in the microgels. The bridging effects caused by the microgels can be indirectly incorporated into their influence on the effective attraction interaction between the large hard spheres, since the size of the microgels is very small in comparison to the size of the PS hard spheres. At a given volume fraction of large PS spheres, they behave essentially as hard spheres in the absence of small microgels. By gradually adding the microgels, the large spheres are connected to each other through the bridging of small particles until the attraction strength reaches a maximum value, after which adding more small particles slowly decreases the effective attraction strength and eventually the large particles disperse individually when saturated adsorption is achieved. The aggregation and gelation behaviors triggered by these three types of small microgels are compared and discussed. A way to tune the strength and range of the short-range attractive potential via changing the softness of bridging microgels (which can be achieved either by using core-shell microgels or by changing the temperature) is proposed.

  5. Energetic Electron Acceleration and Injection During Dipolarization Events in Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Ryan M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; Baker, Daniel N.; Lawrence, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Energetic particle bursts associated with dipolarization events within Mercury's magnetosphere were first observed by Mariner 10. The events appear analogous to particle injections accompanying dipolarization events at Earth. The Energetic Particle Spectrometer (3 s resolution) aboard MESSENGER determined the particle bursts are composed entirely of electrons with energies ≳ 300 keV. Here we use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer high-time-resolution (10 ms) energetic electron measurements to examine the relationship between energetic electron injections and magnetic field dipolarization in Mercury's magnetotail. Between March 2013 and April 2015, we identify 2,976 electron burst events within Mercury's magnetotail, 538 of which are closely associated with dipolarization events. These dipolarizations are detected on the basis of their rapid ( 2 s) increase in the northward component of the tail magnetic field (ΔBz 30 nT), which typically persists for 10 s. Similar to those at Earth, we find that these dipolarizations appear to be low-entropy, depleted flux tubes convecting planetward following the collapse of the inner magnetotail. We find that electrons experience brief, yet intense, betatron and Fermi acceleration during these dipolarizations, reaching energies 130 keV and contributing to nightside precipitation. Thermal protons experience only modest betatron acceleration. While only 25% of energetic electron events in Mercury's magnetotail are directly associated with dipolarization, the remaining events are consistent with the Near-Mercury Neutral Line model of magnetotail injection and eastward drift about Mercury, finding that electrons may participate in Shabansky-like closed drifts about the planet. Magnetotail dipolarization may be the dominant source of energetic electron acceleration in Mercury's magnetosphere.

  6. Chiral-glass transition in a diluted dipolar-interaction Heisenberg system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaicheng; Liu Guibin; Zhu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, numerical simulations reveal that a spin-glass transition can occur in the three-dimensional diluted dipolar system. By defining the chirality of triple spins in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg spin glass, we study the chiral ordering in the system using parallel tempering algorithm and heat bath method. The finite-size scaling analysis reveals that the system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: → We define the chirality in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg system. → The system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. → We extract the critical exponents of the chiral-glass transition.

  7. Many-body formation and dissociation of a dipolar chain crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jhih-Shih; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2014-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to effectively assemble chains of dipolar gases with a uniform length in a multi-layer system. The obtained dipolar chains can form a chain crystal with the system temperature easily controlled by the initial lattice potential and the external field strength during processing. When the density of chains increases, we further observe a second order quantum phase transition for the chain crystal to be dissociated toward layers of 2D crystal, where the quantum fluctuation dominates the classical energy and the compressibility diverges at the phase boundary. The experimental implication of such a dipolar chain crystal and its quantum phase transition is also discussed. (paper)

  8. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  9. Visualization of Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Single Sphere using the Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The natural convective flows on outer sphere rise along surface. At top of sphere, the flows are lifted-up plume shape. For laminar flows, the local heat transfer shows maximum at the bottom of sphere and a monotonic decreases as flows approached to the top. The laminar natural convection heat transfer on a single sphere has been studied experimentally and numerically by several researchers. However, relatively less study has been performed for turbulent flows as it requires large facilities to achieve high Rayleigh numbers. The flows, which occur transition, is hard to experiment because of unstable. This study tried measurement of heat transfer and visualization external natural convection on a single sphere. The basic idea is that the plating patterns of copper on the sphere in mass transfer system will reveal the amount of heat transfer according to angular distance from the bottom. This study simulated natural convection on a single sphere and performed a mass transfer experiment using heat and mass transfer analogy concept. For visualization experiment, streak form plating pattern was observed. In this case, it seems that turbulence sets on the top of sphere and increases local heat transfer.

  10. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  11. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroscience in the Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-01-01

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere.

  13. Regio- and stereochemistry of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to alkenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinovskaya, Raisa P; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2001-01-01

    The published data on the chemistry of intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to different types of alkene derivatives are systematised. Various aspects of stereo- and regiochemistry of this reaction are considered. The bibliography includes 182 references.

  14. Structures and dynamics in a two-dimensional dipolar dust particle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. N.; Liu, Y. H.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Lapushkina, T. A.; Azarova, O. A.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, F.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of electric dipole moment, the number of dipolar particles, and system temperature on the structures and dynamics of a dipolar dust particle system are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the larger electric dipole moment is favorable for the formation of a long-chain structure, the larger number of dipolar dust particles promotes the formation of the multi-chain structure, and the higher system temperature can cause higher rotation frequency. The trajectories, mean square displacement (MSD), and the corresponding spectrum functions of the MSDs are also calculated to illustrate the dynamics of the dipolar dust particle system, which is also closely related to the growth of dust particles. Some simulations are qualitatively in agreement with our experiments and can provide a guide for the study on dust growth, especially on the large-sized particles.

  15. Cluster-cluster aggregation of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise

    KAUST Repository

    Suzuki, Masaru; Kun, Ferenc; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2009-01-01

    The cluster-cluster aggregation processes of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise are investigated in the dilute condition. As the temperature increases, changes in the typical structures of clusters are observed from chainlike (D1

  16. The phase transition in the anisotropic Heisenberg model with long range dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mól, L.A.S.; Costa, B.V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have used extensive Monte Carlo calculations to study the planar to paramagnetic phase transition in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model with dipolar interactions (AHd) considering the true long-range character of the dipolar interactions by means of the Ewald summation. Our results are consistent with an order–disorder phase transition with unusual critical exponents in agreement with our previous results for the Planar Rotator model with dipolar interactions. Nevertheless, our results disagree with the Renormalization Group results of Maier and Schwabl [Phys. Rev. B, 70, 134430 (2004)] [13] and the results of Rapini et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 75, 014425 (2007)] [12], where the AHd was studied using a cut-off in the evaluation of the dipolar interactions. We argue that besides the long-range character of dipolar interactions their anisotropic character may have a deeper effect in the system than previously believed. Besides, our results show that the use of a cut-off radius in the evaluation of dipolar interactions must be avoided when analyzing the critical behavior of magnetic systems, since it may lead to erroneous results. - Highlights: • The anisotropic Heisenberg model with dipolar interactions is studied. • True long-range interactions were considered by means of Ewald summation. • We found an order–disorder phase transition with unusual critical exponents. • Previous results show a different behavior when a cut-off radius is introduced. • The use of a cut-off radius must be avoided when dealing with dipolar systems

  17. Energetic electron injections and dipolarization events in Mercury's magnetotail: Substorm dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Imber, S.; Baker, D. N.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Despite its small size, Mercury's terrestrial-like magnetosphere experiences brief, yet intense, substorm intervals characterized by features similar to at Earth: loading/unloading of the tail lobes with open magnetic flux, dipolarization of the magnetic field at the inner edge of the plasma sheet, and, the focus of this presentation, energetic electron injection. We use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer's high-time resolution (10 ms) energetic electron measurements to determine the relationship between substorm activity and energetic electron injections coincident with dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail. These dipolarizations were detected on the basis of their rapid ( 2 s) increase in the northward component of the tail magnetic field (ΔBz 30 nT), which typically persists for 10 s. We estimate the typical flow channel to be 0.15 RM, planetary convection speed of 750 km/s, cross-tail potential drop of 7 kV, and flux transport of 0.08 MWb for each dipolarization event, suggesting multiple simultaneous and sequential dipolarizations are required to unload the >1 MWb of magnetic flux typically returned to the dayside magnetosphere during a substorm interval. Indeed, while we observe most dipolarization-injections to be isolated or in small chains of events (i.e., 1-3 events), intervals of sawtooth-like injections with >20 sequential events are also present. The typical separation between dipolarization-injection events is 10 s. Magnetotail dipolarization, in addition to being a powerful source of electron acceleration, also plays a significant role in the substorm process at Mercury.

  18. AC susceptibility as a tool to probe the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Gabriel T., E-mail: gtlandi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil); Arantes, Fabiana R. [Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil); Cornejo, Daniel R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Bakuzis, Andris F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900 Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Andreu, Irene; Natividad, Eva [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The dipolar interaction is known to substantially affect the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. This is particularly important when the particles are kept in a fluid suspension or packed within nano-carriers. In addition to its usual long-range nature, in these cases the dipolar interaction may also induce the formation of clusters of particles, thereby strongly modifying their magnetic anisotropies. In this paper we show how AC susceptibility may be used to obtain information regarding the influence of the dipolar interaction in a sample. We develop a model which includes both aspects of the dipolar interaction and may be fitted directly to the susceptibility data. The usual long-range nature of the interaction is implemented using a mean-field approximation, whereas the particle-particle aggregation is modeled using a distribution of anisotropy constants. The model is then applied to two samples studied at different concentrations. One consists of spherical magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in oil and the other of cubic magnetite nanoparticles embedded on polymeric nanospheres. We also introduce a simple technique to address the presence of the dipolar interaction in a given sample, based on the height of the AC susceptibility peaks for different driving frequencies. - Highlights: We discuss the importance of the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticle samples. It is shown that AC susceptibility may be used to estimate the extent of this interaction. We develop a model that accounts for particle aggregation. The theoretical model is then fitted to distinct magnetite samples.

  19. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  20. Multi-template synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon spheres with potential application in supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Weizheng; Lin, Zhixing; Tong, Gangsheng; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Yan, Deyue; Mai, Yiyong; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    A new and simple multi-template approach towards hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials was reported. HPC spheres were prepared by using hierarchical silica capsules (HSCs) as the hard template and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the soft template. Three types of pores were tunably

  1. New Developments in Spin Labels for Pulsed Dipolar EPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J. Fielding

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spin labelling is a chemical technique that enables the integration of a molecule containing an unpaired electron into another framework for study. Given the need to understand the structure, dynamics, and conformational changes of biomacromolecules, spin labelling provides a relatively non-intrusive technique and has certain advantages over X-ray crystallography; which requires high quality crystals. The technique relies on the design of binding probes that target a functional group, for example, the thiol group of a cysteine residue within a protein. The unpaired electron is typically supplied through a nitroxide radical and sterically shielded to preserve stability. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR techniques allow small magnetic couplings to be measured (e.g., <50 MHz providing information on single label probes or the dipolar coupling between multiple labels. In particular, distances between spin labels pairs can be derived which has led to many protein/enzymes and nucleotides being studied. Here, we summarise recent examples of spin labels used for pulse EPR that serve to illustrate the contribution of chemistry to advancing discoveries in this field.

  2. Testing physical models for dipolar asymmetry with CMB polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, D.; Zibin, J. P.; Scott, D.; Banday, A. J.; Górski, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies exhibit a large-scale dipolar power asymmetry. To determine whether this is due to a real, physical modulation or is simply a large statistical fluctuation requires the measurement of new modes. Here we forecast how well CMB polarization data from Planck and future experiments will be able to confirm or constrain physical models for modulation. Fitting several such models to the Planck temperature data allows us to provide predictions for polarization asymmetry. While for some models and parameters Planck polarization will decrease error bars on the modulation amplitude by only a small percentage, we show, importantly, that cosmic-variance-limited (and in some cases even Planck) polarization data can decrease the errors by considerably better than the expectation of √{2 } based on simple ℓ-space arguments. We project that if the primordial fluctuations are truly modulated (with parameters as indicated by Planck temperature data) then Planck will be able to make a 2 σ detection of the modulation model with 20%-75% probability, increasing to 45%-99% when cosmic-variance-limited polarization is considered. We stress that these results are quite model dependent. Cosmic variance in temperature is important: combining statistically isotropic polarization with temperature data will spuriously increase the significance of the temperature signal with 30% probability for Planck.

  3. Phase transitions in random uniaxial systems with dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The critical behaviour of random uniaxial ferromagnetic (ferroelectric) systems with both short range and long range dipolar interactions is investigated, using the field theoretic renormalization method of Brezin et al. for the free energy above and below transition point Tsub(c). The randomness is due to externally introduced fluctuations in the short range interactions (quenched case) or (and) magneto-elastic coupling to the lattice (annealed case). Strong deviations in the critical behaviour with respect to the pure systems are found. In the quenched case, e.g., the specific heat C and the coefficient f 2 (of M 3 in the equation of state, where M is the magnetization) change from C proportional to abs ln abs t abs abssup(1/3), f 2 proportional to abs ln abs t abs abs sup(1/3), f 2 proportional to abs ln abs t abs abs -1 in the pure system to C = A+- + C+-exp[-4√ 3 106 abs ln abs t abs abs], f 2 proportional to abs ln abs t abs abs sup(-1/2) (where t = (T-Tsub(c)) / Tsub(c) is the reduced temperature and A+-, C+- are constants) in the random situation. (orig.) [de

  4. Focal mechanism of seismic events with a dipolar component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Console

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we model the geometry of a seismic source as a dislocation occurring on an elemental flat fault in an arbitrary direction with respect to the fault plane. This implies the use of a fourth parameter in addition to the three usual ones describing a simple double couple mechanism. We applied the radiation pattern obtained from the theory to a computer code written for the inversion of the observation data (amplitudes and polarities of the first onsets recorded by a network of stations. It allows the determination of the fault mechanism gener- alized in the above mentioned way. The computer code was verified on synthetic data and then applied to real data recorded by the seismic network operated by the Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (ENEL, monitoring the geothermal field of Larderello. The experimental data show that for some events the source mechanism exhibits a significant dipolar component. However, due to the high standard deviation of the amplitude data, F-test applied to the results of the analysis shows that only for two events the confidence level for the general- ized model exceeds 90%.

  5. Classical and quantum phases of low-dimensional dipolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartarius, Florian

    2016-09-22

    In this thesis we present a detailed study of the phase diagram of ultracold bosonic atoms confined along a tight atomic wave guide, along which they experience an optical lattice potential. In this quasi-one dimensional model we analyse the interplay between interactions and quantum fluctuations in (i) determining the non-equilibrium steady state after a quench and (ii) giving rise to novel equilibrium phases, when the interactions combine the s-wave contact interaction and the anisotropic long range dipole-dipole interactions. In detail, in the first part of the thesis we study the depinning of a gas of impenetrable bosons following the sudden switch of of the optical lattice. By means of a Bose-Fermi mapping we infer the exact quantum dynamical evolution and show that in the thermodynamic limit the system is in a non-equilibrium steady state without quasi-long range order. In the second part of the thesis, we study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the linear-zigzag instability in the ground state of ultracold dipolar bosons, as a function of the strength of the transverse confinement. We first analyse the linear-zigzag instability in the classical regime, and then use our results to develop a multi-mode Bose-Hubbard model for the system. We then develop several numerical methods, to determine the ground state.

  6. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  7. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  8. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education......, the allocation of (or selection into) learning places, teaching–learning practices, teachers’ treatment of students, and student evaluations of grade distribution. We discuss the literature on the beliefs by students and teachers about the just distribution of educational goods in these five domains......, and on the practices used in the actual allocation of these goods. In line with normative ‘spheres of justice’ arguments in social theory, we conclude that the ideals of social justice within schools vary strongly according to the particular resource to be distributed. Moreover, these ideals often do not correspond...

  9. The optical levitation of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosen, G.

    1979-01-01

    In this article we are dealing with optical levitation, that is the possibility of maintaining particles in a stable equilibrium position in air or vacuum by means of laser beams. In the first part, we review the methods used to calculate the force exerted on a sphere by a laser beam. The axial and transverse force components could be obtained either by applying Debye theory to laser beams which have a non-uniform energy distribution or by using, in the case of large spheres, a geometrical optics approach. From the results achieved with the geometrical optics approach, we derive, in a second part, the required stable equilibrium conditions for a sphere placed either in a vertical beam or in two horizontal ones having the same axis but opposite direction. In the last part, we describe in detail the levitation experiments carried out using either a vertical or two horizontal beams. In conclusion, we point out some applications of optical levitation, emphasizing especially the suspension by optical levitation of the targets used in laser fusion experiments. (author) [fr

  10. Mastering VMware vSphere 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new and updated edition of bestselling Mastering VMware vSphere 4 Written by leading VMware expert, this book covers all the features and capabilities of VMware vSphere. You'll learn how to install, configure, operate, manage, and secure the latest release.Covers all the new features and capabilities of the much-anticipated new release of VMware vSphereDiscusses the planning, installation, operation, and management for the latest releaseReviews migration to the latest vSphere softwareOffers hands-on instruction and clear explanations with real-world examples Mastering VMware vSphere is the

  11. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, H

    2000-07-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  12. Response of energetic particles to local magnetic dipolarization inside geosynchronous orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field dipolarization and energetic particle injections are the most distinct phenomena observed in the inner magnetosphere during the substorm expansion phase. Compared to a wealth of knowledge about the phenomenology of magnetic dipolarizations and particle injections at/outside geosynchronous orbit (GEO), our understanding of them inside GEO remains incomplete because of a very limited number of previous studies. In the present study, we statistically examine the response of 1-1000 keV energetic particles to local magnetic dipolarization by performing a superposed epoch analysis of energetic particle fluxes with the zero epoch defined as the dipolarization onset times. Based on data from the Van Allen Probes tail seasons in 2012-2016, we identified a total of 97 magnetic dipolarization events which occurred closer to the magnetic equator (i.e., BH, which is antiparallel to the Earth's dipole axis, is the dominant component of the local magnetic field at least for 5 min before the onset). For major ion species (hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions), the relative flux intensity to the pre-onset level increases at > 50 keV and decreases at inverse energy dispersion. For dipolarizations with strong impulsive westward electric fields, the relative electron flux intensity increases up to 5-10 times, in particular most significant at several tens of keV. This result suggests that the impulsive electric field acts as an efficient factor in the rapid energization of the tens-of-keV electrons. We also discuss how the response of energetic particles to dipolarization depends on MLT, radial distance, and pitch angle.

  13. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SPHERE OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bota Anton Florin

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses his financial affairs sphere, looking at this issue under a double aspect: analysis of the financial relations sphere and analyzing the financial activity sphere. Analysis of the financial relations sphere is made on the basis of fou

  14. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-06-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.

  15. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-01-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild's 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star--a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density--the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres

  16. Fusion breeder sphere - PAC blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Palmer, B.J.F.

    1987-11-01

    There is a considerable world-wide effort directed toward the production of materials for fusion reactors. Many ceramic fabrication groups are working on making lithium ceramics in a variety of forms, to be incorporated into the tritium breeding blanket which will surround the fusion reactor. Current blanket designs include ceramic in either monolithic or packed sphere bed (sphere-pac) forms. The major thrust at AECL is the production of lithium aluminate spheres to be incorporated in a sphere-pac bed. Contemporary studies on breeder blanket design offer little insight into the requirements on the sizes of the spheres. This study examined the parameters which determine the properties of pressure drop and coolant requirements. It was determined that an optimised sphere-pac bed would be composed of two diameters of spheres: 75 weight % at 3 mm and 25 weight % at 0.3 mm

  17. Understanding the anisotropic ion distributions within magnetotail dipolarizing flux bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Birn, J.

    2017-12-01

    Dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs), earthward-propagating structures with enhanced northward magnetic field (Bz) component, are usually believed to carry a different plasma population from that in the ambient magnetotail plasma sheet. The ion distribution functions within the DFB, however, are recently found to be largely controlled by the ion adiabaticity parameter κ in the ambient plasma sheet outside the DFBs. According to these observations, the ambient κ values of 2-3 usually correspond to a strong perpendicular anisotropy of suprathermal ions within the DFBs, whereas for lower κ values the ions inside the DFBs become more isotropic. Here we utilize a simple, test-particle model to explore the nature of the anisotropy and its dependence on the ambient κ values. We find that the ion anisotropy originates from successive ion reflections and reentries to the DFBs, during which the ions can be consecutively accelerated in the perpendicular direction by the DFB-carried electric field. This acceleration process may be interrupted, however, when the magnetic field lines are highly curved in the ambient plasma sheet. In this case, the ion trajectories are most stochastic outside the DFB region, which makes the reflected ions less likely to return to the DFBs for another cycle of acceleration; as a consequence, the perpendicular ion anisotropy does not appear. Given that the DFB ions are a free energy source for instabilities when they are injected towards Earth, our simple model (that reproduces most observational features on the anisotropic DFB ion distributions) may shed new lights on the coupling process between the magnetotail and the inner magneosphere.

  18. Physics of Substorm Growth Phase, Onset, and Dipolarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.Z. Cheng

    2003-10-22

    A new scenario of substorm growth phase, onset, and depolarization during expansion phase and the corresponding physical processes are presented. During the growth phase, as a result of enhanced plasma convection, the plasma pressure and its gradient are continued to be enhanced over the quiet-time values in the plasma sheet. Toward the late growth phase, a strong cross-tail current sheet is formed in the near-Earth plasma sheet region, where a local magnetic well is formed, the plasma beta can reach a local maximum with value larger than 50 and the cross-tail current density can be enhanced to over 10nA/m{sup 2} as obtained from 3D quasi-static magnetospheric equilibrium solutions for the growth phase. The most unstable kinetic ballooning instabilities (KBI) are expected to be located in the tailward side of the strong cross-tail current sheet region. The field lines in the most unstable KBI region map to the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents in the ionosphere, which is consistent with the observed initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the intense proton precipitation region. The KBI explains the AMPTE/CCE observations that a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited about 2-3 minutes prior to substorm onset and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption (or current reduction). At the current disruption onset higher frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field fluctuations form a strong turbulent state. Plasma transport takes place due to the strong turbulence to relax the ambient plasma pressure profile so that the plasma pressure and current density are reduced and the ambient magnetic field intensity increases by more than a factor of 2 in the high-beta(sub)eq region and the field line geometry recovers from tail-like to dipole-like dipolarization.

  19. Physics of Substorm Growth Phase, Onset, and Dipolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    2003-01-01

    A new scenario of substorm growth phase, onset, and depolarization during expansion phase and the corresponding physical processes are presented. During the growth phase, as a result of enhanced plasma convection, the plasma pressure and its gradient are continued to be enhanced over the quiet-time values in the plasma sheet. Toward the late growth phase, a strong cross-tail current sheet is formed in the near-Earth plasma sheet region, where a local magnetic well is formed, the plasma beta can reach a local maximum with value larger than 50 and the cross-tail current density can be enhanced to over 10nA/m 2 as obtained from 3D quasi-static magnetospheric equilibrium solutions for the growth phase. The most unstable kinetic ballooning instabilities (KBI) are expected to be located in the tailward side of the strong cross-tail current sheet region. The field lines in the most unstable KBI region map to the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents in the ionosphere, which is consistent with the observed initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the intense proton precipitation region. The KBI explains the AMPTE/CCE observations that a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited about 2-3 minutes prior to substorm onset and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption (or current reduction). At the current disruption onset higher frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field fluctuations form a strong turbulent state. Plasma transport takes place due to the strong turbulence to relax the ambient plasma pressure profile so that the plasma pressure and current density are reduced and the ambient magnetic field intensity increases by more than a factor of 2 in the high-beta(sub)eq region and the field line geometry recovers from tail-like to dipole-like dipolarization

  20. Sampling from a polytope and hard-disk Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C; Krauth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The hard-disk problem, the statics and the dynamics of equal two-dimensional hard spheres in a periodic box, has had a profound influence on statistical and computational physics. Markov-chain Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics were first discussed for this model. Here we reformulate hard-disk Monte Carlo algorithms in terms of another classic problem, namely the sampling from a polytope. Local Markov-chain Monte Carlo, as proposed by Metropolis et al. in 1953, appears as a sequence of random walks in high-dimensional polytopes, while the moves of the more powerful event-chain algorithm correspond to molecular dynamics evolution. We determine the convergence properties of Monte Carlo methods in a special invariant polytope associated with hard-disk configurations, and the implications for convergence of hard-disk sampling. Finally, we discuss parallelization strategies for event-chain Monte Carlo and present results for a multicore implementation

  1. The structure of the interface in the solvent mediated interaction of dipolar surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhavakhidze, P.G.; Levadny, V.G.

    1987-08-01

    Interaction of two dipolar surfaces separated by a polar medium is considered within the framework of nonlocal electrostatics. The dipolar surface layers are modelled as regular lattices with fixed orientation of dipoles which are immersed into the solvent; solvent response is characterized by nonlocal dielectric function. The model is elaborated in order to reveal the role of the dipolar layer discreteness in the electric field produced by one surface and the interaction between two surfaces (which gives rise to the so called ''hydration'' or ''structural'' force acting between mineral surfaces and phospholipid bilayers). The discreteness effects are present only for commensurate lattices. Their special mutual arrangement then may lead to considerable reduction of structural forces, viz. the usual repulsion regime may change at short distances to attraction. Conditions are considered when repulsion is entirely replaced by attraction, i.e. the ''hydration barrier'' disappears. In appended note we discuss the role of solvation of surface dipolar groups. We propose an explanation of why two modes of decay (one with oscillative fine structure) may be present in the dependence of the force upon distance if the surface dipolar groups are immersed deep enough in the solvent and how the long-range oscillative mode disappears when the surface is but weakly solvated. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  2. VMware vSphere design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes

    2013-01-01

    Achieve the performance, scalability, and ROI your business needs What can you do at the start of a virtualization deployment to make things run more smoothly? If you plan, deploy, maintain, and optimize vSphere solutions in your company, this unique book provides keen insight and solutions. From hardware selection, network layout, and security considerations to storage and hypervisors, this book explains the design decisions you'll face and how to make the right choices. Written by two virtualization experts and packed with real-world strategies and examples, VMware v

  3. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics of soft sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yajun; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-07-14

    We use computer simulations to test the freezing-point scaling relationship between equilibrium transport coefficients (self-diffusivity, viscosity) and thermodynamic parameters for soft sphere fluids. The fluid particles interact via the inverse-power potential (IPP), and the particle softness is changed by modifying the exponent of the distance-dependent potential term. In the case of IPP fluids, density and temperature are not independent variables and can be combined to obtain a coupling parameter to define the thermodynamic state of the system. We find that the rescaled coupling parameter, based on its value at the freezing point, can approximately collapse the diffusivity and viscosity data for IPP fluids over a wide range of particle softness. Even though the collapse is far from perfect, the freezing-point scaling relationship provides a convenient and effective way to compare the structure and dynamics of fluid systems with different particle softness. We further show that an alternate scaling relationship based on two-body excess entropy can provide an almost perfect collapse of the diffusivity and viscosity data below the freezing transition. Next, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the shear-dependent viscosity and to identify the distinct role of particle softness in underlying structural changes associated with rheological properties. Qualitatively, we find a similar shear-thinning behavior for IPP fluids with different particle softness, though softer particles exhibit stronger shear-thinning tendency. By investigating the distance and angle-dependent pair correlation functions in these systems, we find different structural features in the case of IPP fluids with hard-sphere like and softer particle interactions. Interestingly, shear-thinning in hard-sphere like fluids is accompanied by enhanced translational order, whereas softer fluids exhibit loss of order with shear. Our results provide a systematic evaluation

  4. Poisson denoising on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.; Starck, J. L.; Fadili, J.; Grenier, I.; Casandjian, J. M.

    2009-08-01

    In the scope of the Fermi mission, Poisson noise removal should improve data quality and make source detection easier. This paper presents a method for Poisson data denoising on sphere, called Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on Sphere (MS-VSTS). This method is based on a Variance Stabilizing Transform (VST), a transform which aims to stabilize a Poisson data set such that each stabilized sample has an (asymptotically) constant variance. In addition, for the VST used in the method, the transformed data are asymptotically Gaussian. Thus, MS-VSTS consists in decomposing the data into a sparse multi-scale dictionary (wavelets, curvelets, ridgelets...), and then applying a VST on the coefficients in order to get quasi-Gaussian stabilized coefficients. In this present article, the used multi-scale transform is the Isotropic Undecimated Wavelet Transform. Then, hypothesis tests are made to detect significant coefficients, and the denoised image is reconstructed with an iterative method based on Hybrid Steepest Descent (HST). The method is tested on simulated Fermi data.

  5. Tunnel-induced Dipolar Resonances in a Double-well Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Bruno; Saenz, Alejandro

    2016-11-18

    A system of two dipolar particles that are confined in a double-well potential and interact via a realistic isotropic interaction potential is investigated as a protoype for ultracold atoms with a magnetic dipole moment or ultracold dipolar heteronuclear diatomic molecules in double-well traps or in optical lattices. The resulting energy spectrum is discussed as a function of the dipole-dipole interaction strength. The variation of the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is found to lead to various resonance phenomena. Among those are the previously discussed inelastic confinement-induced resonances as well as the dipole-induced resonances. It is found that the double-well potential gives rise to a new type of resonances, tunnel-induced dipolar ones. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dipolar Antiferromagnetism and Quantum Criticality in LiErF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, Conradin; Nikseresht, Neda; Piatek, Julian; Tsyrulin, Nikolay; Piazza, Bastien; Kiefer, Klaus; Klemke, Bastian; Rosenbaum, Thomas; Aeppli, Gabriel; Gannarelli, Che; Prokes, Karel; Straessle, Thierry; Keller, Lukas; Zaharko, Oksana; Kraemer, Karl; Ronnow, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Magnetism has been predicted to occur in systems in which dipolar interactions dominate exchange. We present neutron scattering, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility data for LiErF 4 , establishing it as a model dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet with planar spin-anisotropy and a quantum phase transition in applied field H c# parallel# = 4.0 ± 0.1 kilo-oersteds. We discovered non-mean-field critical scaling for the classical phase transition at the antiferromagnetic transition temperature that is consistent with the two-dimensional XY/h 4 universality class; in accord with this, the quantum phase transition at H c exhibits three-dimensional classical behavior. The effective dimensional reduction may be a consequence of the intrinsic frustrated nature of the dipolar interaction, which strengthens the role of fluctuations.

  7. Multiple and dependent scattering by densely packed discrete spheres: Comparison of radiative transfer and Maxwell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.X.; Tan, J.Y.; Zhao, J.M.; Wang, F.Q.; Wang, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus–Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus–Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied. - Highlights: • The Muller matrix of randomly distributed, densely packed spheres are investigated. • The effects of multiple scattering and dependent scattering are analyzed. • The accuracy of radiative transfer theory for densely packed spheres is discussed. • Dependent scattering correction takes effect at medium size parameter or smaller. • Performance of dependent scattering correction

  8. Communication: Proton NMR dipolar-correlation effect as a method for investigating segmental diffusion in polymer melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozovoi, A.; Mattea, C.; Stapf, S.; Herrmann, A.; Rössler, E. A.; Fatkullin, N.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and fast method for the investigation of segmental diffusion in high molar mass polymer melts is presented. The method is based on a special function, called proton dipolar-correlation build-up function, which is constructed from Hahn Echo signals measured at times t and t/2. The initial rise of this function contains additive contributions from both inter- and intramolecular magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. The intermolecular contribution depends on the relative mean squared displacements (MSDs) of polymer segments from different macromolecules, while the intramolecular part reflects segmental reorientations. Separation of both contributions via isotope dilution provides access to segmental displacements in polymer melts at millisecond range, which is hardly accessible by other methods. The feasibility of the method is illustrated by investigating protonated and deuterated polybutadiene melts with molecular mass 196 000 g/mol at different temperatures. The observed exponent of the power law of the segmental MSD is close to 0.32 ± 0.03 at times when the root MSD is in between 45 Å and 75 Å, and the intermolecular proton dipole-dipole contribution to the total proton Hahn Echo NMR signal is larger than 50% and increases with time.

  9. Photoinduced Bioorthogonal 1,3-Dipolar Poly-cycloaddition Promoted by Oxyanionic Substrates for Spatiotemporal Operation of Molecular Glues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Junichi; Okuro, Kou; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-04

    PGlue(PZ), a pyrazoline (PZ)-based fluorescent adhesive which can be generated spatiotemporally in living systems, was developed. Since PGlue(PZ) carries many guanidinium ion (Gu(+)) pendants, it strongly adheres to various oxyanionic substrates through a multivalent salt-bridge interaction. PGlue(PZ) is given by bioorthogonal photopolymerization of a Gu(+)-appended monomer (Glue(TZ)), bearing tetrazole (TZ) and olefinic termini. Upon exposure to UV light, Glue(TZ) transforms into a nitrileimine (NI) intermediate (Glue(NI)), which is eligible for 1,3-dipolar polycycloaddition. However, Glue(NI) in aqueous media can concomitantly be deactivated into Glue(WA) by the addition of water, and the polymerization hardly occurs unless Glue(NI) is concentrated. We found that, even under high dilution, Glue(NI) is concentrated on oxyanionic substrates to a sufficient level for the polymerization, so that their surfaces can be point-specifically functionalized with PGlue(PZ) by the use of a focused beam of UV light. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Pitch angle distributions of electrons at dipolarization sites during geomagnetic activity: THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiti; Lin, Ching-Huei; Wang, Lu-Yin; Hada, Tohru; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Turner, Drew L.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-12-01

    Changes in pitch angle distributions of electrons with energies from a few eV to 1 MeV at dipolarization sites in Earth's magnetotail are investigated statistically to determine the extent to which adiabatic acceleration may contribute to these changes. Forty-two dipolarization events from 2008 and 2009 observed by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes covering the inner plasma sheet from 8 RE to 12 RE during geomagnetic activity identified by the AL index are analyzed. The number of observed events with cigar-type distributions (peaks at 0° and 180°) decreases sharply below 1 keV after dipolarization because in many of these events, electron distributions became more isotropized. From above 1 keV to a few tens of keV, however, the observed number of cigar-type events increases after dipolarization and the number of isotropic events decreases. These changes can be related to the ineffectiveness of Fermi acceleration below 1 keV (at those energies, dipolarization time becomes comparable to electron bounce time). Model-calculated pitch angle distributions after dipolarization with the effect of betatron and Fermi acceleration tested indicate that these adiabatic acceleration mechanisms can explain the observed patterns of event number changes over a large range of energies for cigar events and isotropic events. Other factors still need to be considered to assess the observed increase in cigar events around 2 keV. Indeed, preferential directional increase/loss of electron fluxes, which may contribute to the formation of cigar events, was observed. Nonadiabatic processes to accelerate electrons in a parallel direction may also be important for future study.

  11. The structure of ions and zwitterionic lipids regulates the charge of dipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Or; Steiner, Ariel; Szekely, Pablo; Amit, Einav; Asor, Roi; Tamburu, Carmen; Raviv, Uri

    2011-06-21

    In pure water, zwitterionic lipids form lamellar phases with an equilibrium water gap on the order of 2 to 3 nm as a result of the dominating van der Waals attraction between dipolar bilayers. Monovalent ions can swell those neutral lamellae by a small amount. Divalent ions can adsorb onto dipolar membranes and charge them. Using solution X-ray scattering, we studied how the structure of ions and zwitterionic lipids regulates the charge of dipolar membranes. We found that unlike monovalent ions that weakly interact with all of the examined dipolar membranes, divalent and trivalent ions adsorb onto membranes containing lipids with saturated tails, with an association constant on the order of ∼10 M(-1). One double bond in the lipid tail is sufficient to prevent divalent ion adsorption. We suggest that this behavior is due to the relatively loose packing of lipids with unsaturated tails that increases the area per lipid headgroup, enabling their free rotation. Divalent ion adsorption links two lipids and limits their free rotation. The ion-dipole interaction gained by the adsorption of the ions onto unsaturated membranes is insufficient to compensate for the loss of headgroup free-rotational entropy. The ion-dipole interaction is stronger for cations with a higher valence. Nevertheless, polyamines behave as monovalent ions near dipolar interfaces in the sense that they interact weakly with the membrane surface, whereas in the bulk their behavior is similar to that of multivalent cations. Advanced data analysis and comparison with theory provide insight into the structure and interactions between ion-induced regulated charged interfaces. This study models biologically relevant interactions between cell membranes and various ions and the manner in which the lipid structure governs those interactions. The ability to monitor these interactions creates a tool for probing systems that are more complex and forms the basis for controlling the interactions between dipolar

  12. Stepwise π-extension of meso-alkylidenyl porphyrins through sequential 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dowoo; Jeong, Seung Doo; Ishida, Masatoshi; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2014-08-25

    Several regioselectively π-extended, pyrrole fused porphyrinoids have been synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of meso-alkylidene-(benzi)porphyrins. Pd(II) complexes gave oxidation resistant, bis-pyrrole fused adducts. The repeated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition followed by oxidation-reduction of pentaphyrin analogs afforded π-extended porphyrin analogs.

  13. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  14. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2015-01-01

    calls for new reflections on the possible relationship between media, public sphere and democracy. This paper argues that we should change the questions that are raised when we try to assess the public sphere. It is argued that the traditional (Enlightenment) focus upon negative liberties and the truth-value......The relationship between democracy and the media since the appearance of Habermas' major texts in the 1960s has been articulated through theories of the public sphere. The structure of the public sphere is significantly influenced by the communicative media, and the emergence of the internet thus...

  15. Diazo Compounds as Highly Tunable Reactants in 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions with Cycloalkynes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Diazo compounds, which can be accessed directly from azides by deimidogenation, are shown to be extremely versatile dipoles in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions with a cyclooctyne. The reactivity of a diazo compound can be much greater or much less than its azide analog, and is enhanced markedly in polar-protic solvents. These reactivities are predictable from frontier molecular orbital energies. The most reactive diazo compound exhibited the highest known second-order rate constant to date for a dipolar cycloaddition with a cycloalkyne. These data provide a new modality for effecting chemoselective reactions in a biological context. PMID:23227302

  16. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Diazo Compounds in the Presence of Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Matthew R; Gold, Brian; Raines, Ronald T

    2016-04-01

    The diazo group has untapped utility in chemical biology. The tolerance of stabilized diazo groups to cellular metabolism is comparable to that of azido groups. However, chemoselectivity has been elusive, as both groups undergo 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions with strained alkynes. Removing strain and tuning dipolarophile electronics yields diazo group selective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions that can be performed in the presence of an azido group. For example, diazoacetamide but not its azido congener react with dehydroalanine residues, as in the natural product nisin.

  17. Simulation of transverse beam splitting using time-dependent dipolar or quadrupolar kicks

    CERN Document Server

    Capoani, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Two simple systems with high relevance for accelerator physics have been studied in detail in the context of this Summer Student Project. These systems describe the motion under the influence of detuning with amplitude due to non-linear magnets and an external, time-dependent force of dipolar or quadrupolar nature.Two simple systems with high relevance for accelerator physics have been studied in detail in the context of this Summer Student Project. These systems describe the motion under the influence of detuning with amplitude due to non-linear magnets and an external, time-dependent force of dipolar or quadrupolar nature.

  18. A liquid crystalline medium for measuring residual dipolar couplings over a wide range of temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Eberstadt, Matthias; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories (United States)

    1998-10-15

    A mixture of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and 3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-2-hydroxyl-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPSO) in water forms disc shaped bicelles that become ordered at high magnetic fields over a wide range of temperatures. As illustrated for the FK506 binding protein (FKBP), large residual dipolar couplings can be measured for proteins dissolved in low concentrations (5% w/v) of a DLPC/CHAPSO medium at a molar ratio of 4.2:1. This system is especially useful for measuring residual dipolar couplings for molecules that are only stable at low temperatures.

  19. An initial boundary value problem for modeling a piezoelectric dipolar body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marin; Öchsner, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the first initial boundary value problem in elasticity of piezoelectric dipolar bodies. We consider the most general case of an anisotropic and inhomogeneous elastic body having a dipolar structure. For two different types of restrictions imposed on the problem data, we prove two results regarding the uniqueness of solution, by using a different but accessible method. Then, the mixed problem is transformed in a temporally evolutionary equation on a Hilbert space, conveniently constructed based on the problem data. With the help of a known result from the theory of semigroups of operators, the existence and uniqueness of the weak solution for this equation are proved.

  20. Dipolar Quinoidal Acene Analogues as Stable Isoelectronic Structures of Pentacene and Nonacene

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xueliang

    2015-10-08

    Quinoidal thia-acene analogues, as the respective isoelectronic structures of pentacene and nonacene, were synthesized and an unusual 1,2-sulfur migration was observed during the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. The analogues display a closed-shell quinoidal structure in the ground state with a distinctive dipolar character. In contrast to their acene isoelectronic structures, both compounds are stable because of the existence of more aromatic sextet rings, a dipolar character, and kinetic blocking. They exhibit unique packing in single crystals resulting from balanced dipole-dipole and [C-H⋯π]/[C-H⋯S] interactions.

  1. Ground-state candidate for the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Canals, B.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet using Monte Carlo simulations, in the quest for the ground-state manifold. In spite of the limitations of a single-spin-flip approach, we managed to identify certain ordering patterns in the low-temperature regime and we propose a candidate for this unknown state. This configuration presents some intriguing features and is fully compatible with the extrapolations of the at-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior sampled so far, making it a very likely choice for the dipolar long-range ordered state of the classical kagome Ising antiferromagnet.

  2. Sphere Rényi entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I give some scalar field theory calculations on a d-dimensional lune of arbitrary angle, evaluating, numerically, the effective action which is expressed as a simple quadrature, for conformal coupling. Using this, the entanglement and Rényi entropies are computed. Massive fields are also considered and a renormalization to make the (one-loop) effective action vanish for infinite mass is suggested and used, not entirely successfully. However a universal coefficient is derived from the large mass expansion. From the deformation of the corresponding lune result, I conjecture that the effective action on all odd manifolds with a simple conical singularity has an extremum when the singularity disappears. For the round sphere, I show how to convert the quadrature form of the conformal Laplacian determinant into the more usual sum of Riemann ζ-functions (and log 2). (paper)

  3. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Kai; Li, Jian; Chen, Kang; Tian, Wen-De; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21374073 and, 21574096).

  4. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Vutha, Amar C.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  5. Reversible thermal gelation in soft spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapnistos, M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Fytas, G.

    2000-01-01

    Upon heating, concentrated solutions of star polymers and block copolymer micelles in a good solvent, representing soft spheres, undergo a reversible gelation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of clusters causing a partial dynamic arrest of the swollen interpenetrating spheres at hi...

  6. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutha, Amar C

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic and molecular physics. (paper)

  7. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  8. Wave Vector Dependent Susceptibility at T>Tc in a Dipolar Ising Ferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Holmes, L. M:; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The wave-vector-dependent susceptibility of LiTbF4 has been investigated by means of neutron scattering. The observations show a singularity of the susceptibility near wave vector Q=0 which is characteristic of the dipolar Coulomb interaction and good agreement with theory is obtained...

  9. A kinetic study of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in micellar media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, T; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions (DC) of benzonitrile oxide with a series of N-substituted maleimides in micellar media have been investigated. Surfactants studied include anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate, cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and a series of nonionic alkyl

  10. Electron dynamics during substorm dipolarization in Mercury's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the nonlinear dynamics of electrons during the expansion phase of substorms at Mercury using test particle simulations. A simple model of magnetic field line dipolarization is designed by rescaling a magnetic field model of the Earth's magnetosphere. The results of the simulations demonstrate that electrons may be subjected to significant energization on the time scale (several seconds of the magnetic field reconfiguration. In a similar manner to ions in the near-Earth's magnetosphere, it is shown that low-energy (up to several tens of eV electrons may not conserve the second adiabatic invariant during dipolarization, which leads to clusters of bouncing particles in the innermost magnetotail. On the other hand, it is found that, because of the stretching of the magnetic field lines, high-energy electrons (several keVs and above do not behave adiabatically and possibly experience meandering (Speiser-type motion around the midplane. We show that dipolarization of the magnetic field lines may be responsible for significant, though transient, (a few seconds precipitation of energetic (several keVs electrons onto the planet's surface. Prominent injections of energetic trapped electrons toward the planet are also obtained as a result of dipolarization. These injections, however, do not exhibit short-lived temporal modulations, as observed by Mariner-10, which thus appear to follow from a different mechanism than a simple convection surge.

  11. On the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for trapped dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Carles, Ré mi; Markowich, Peter A; Sparber, Christof

    2008-01-01

    We study the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensation of trapped dipolar quantum gases. Existence and uniqueness as well as the possible blow-up of solutions are studied. Moreover, we discuss the problem of dimension reduction for this nonlinear and nonlocal Schrödinger equation. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd and London Mathematical Society.

  12. Exploring strain-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of end functionalized polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledin, Petr A; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Hudlikar, Manish S; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strain-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of cyclooctynes with 1,3-dipoles such as azides, nitrones, and nitrile oxides, are of interest for the functionalization of polymers. In this study, we have explored the use of a 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO)-containing chain transfer agent in reversible

  13. Residual dipolar couplings : a new technique for structure determination of proteins in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lune, Frouktje Sapke

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate how residual dipolar couplings can be used to resolve or refine the three-dimensional structure of one of the proteins of the phosphoenol-pyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS), the main transport system for carbohydrates in

  14. Inclusion Compound Based Approach to Arrays of Artificial Dipolar Molecular Rotors. A Surface Inclusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, K.; Comotti, A.; Bracco, S.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Sozzani, P.; Clark, N.A.; Price, J. C.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 24 (2012), s. 10122-10131 ISSN 0002-7863 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : controlled rotary motion * solid-state dynamics * aromatic nanochannels * NMR-spectroscopy * single-molecule Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.677, year: 2012

  15. Inclusion Compound Based Approach to Arrays of Artificial Dipolar Molecular Rotors: Bulk Inclusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, Y.; Polívková, Kateřina; Shoemaker, R. K.; Clark, N.A.; Price, J. C.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 5 (2013), s. 1768-1777 ISSN 0022-3263 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : solid-state dynamics * phosphonitrilic compounds * aromatic nanochannels * triethylamine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.638, year: 2013

  16. Tris-o-phenylenedioxycyclotriphosphazene (TPP) Inclusion Compounds Containing a Dipolar Molecular Rotor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, Y.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2014), s. 559-568 ISSN 1528-7483 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : aromatic nanochannels * single-molecule * dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.891, year: 2014

  17. Numerical simulation of trapped dipolar quantum gases: Collapse studies and vortex dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sparber, Christof; Markowich, Peter; Huang, Zhongyi

    2010-01-01

    We numerically study the three dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation for dipolar quantum gases using a time-splitting algorithm. We are mainly concerned with numerical investigations of the possible blow-up of solutions, i.e. collapse of the condensate, and the dynamics of vortices. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  18. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Naether, Uta; Delgado, Aldo; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  19. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: srojas@cefop.cl [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  20. The structure of the interface in the solvent-mediated interaction of dipolar surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhavakhidze, P.G.; Kornyshev, A.A.; Levadny, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    Interaction of two dipolar surfaces separated by a polar medium is considered within the framework of nonlocal electrostatics. The dipolar-surface layers are modelled as regular lattices with fixed orientation of dipoles which are immersed into the solvent; solvent response is characterized by nonlocal dielectric function. The model is elaborated in order to reveal the role of the dypolar-layer discreteness in the electric field produced by one surface and the interaction between two surfaces (which gives rise to the so-called ''hydration'' or ''structural'' force acting between mineral surfaces and phospholipid bilayers). The discreteness effects are present only for commensurate lattices. Their special mutual arrangement then may lead to considerable reduction of structural forces, viz. the usual repulsion regime may change at short distances to attraction. Conditions are considered when repulsion is entirely replaced by attraction, i.e. the ''hydration barrier'' disappears. In appended note it is discussed the role of solvation of surface dipolar groups. It is proposed an explanation of why two modes of decay (one with oscillative fine structure) may be present in the dependence of the force upon distance, if the surface dipolar groups are immersed deep enough in the solvent, and how the long-range oscillative mode disappears when the surface is but weakly solvated

  1. On the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for trapped dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Carles, Rémi

    2008-09-29

    We study the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensation of trapped dipolar quantum gases. Existence and uniqueness as well as the possible blow-up of solutions are studied. Moreover, we discuss the problem of dimension reduction for this nonlinear and nonlocal Schrödinger equation. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd and London Mathematical Society.

  2. Anisotropic relaxation dynamics in a dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aikawa, K.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the observation of a large anisotropy in the rethermalization dynamics of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium. Our system consists of an ultracold sample of strongly magnetic $^{167}$Er fermions, spin-polarized in the lowest Zeeman sublevel. In this system, elastic...

  3. Micellar dipolar rearrangement is sensitive to hydrophobic chain length: Implication for structural switchover of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, Dasaratha; Chakraborty, Hirak

    2016-10-01

    The interfacial properties of the membrane are exceptionally vital in drug-membrane interaction. They not only select out a particular prototropic form of the drug molecule for incorporation, but are also potent enough to induce structural switchover of these drugs in several cases. In this work, we quantitatively monitored the change in dipolar rearrangement of the micellar interface (as a simplified membrane mimic) by measuring the dielectric constant and dipole potential with the micellization of SDS at pH 3.6. The dielectric constant and dipole potential were measured utilizing the fluorescence of polarity sensitive probe, pyrene and potential-sensitive probe, di-8-ANEPPS, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the change in dipolar rearrangement directly influences the switchover equilibrium between the anionic and neutral from of piroxicam. We have further extended our work to evaluate the effect of hydrophobic chain length of the surfactants on the dipolar rearrangement and its effect on the structural switchover of piroxicam. It is interesting that the extent of switchover of piroxicam is directly correlated with the dipolar rearrangement induced bythe varying hydrophobic chain length of the surfactants. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report to show the dependence of dipole potential on the hydrophobic chain length of the surfactant and demonstrate that the dipolar rearrangement directly tunes the extent of structural switchover of piroxicam, which was so far only intuitive. We consider that this new finding would have promising implication in drug distribution and drug efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Plasma Sheet as Natural Symmetry Plane for Dipolarization Fronts in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauff, D.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, observations of multispacecraft mission Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms are used for statistical investigation of dipolarization fronts in the near-Earth plasma sheet of the magnetotail. Using very stringent criteria, 460 events are detected in almost 10 years of mission data. Minimum variance analysis is used to determine the normal directions of the phase fronts, providing evidence for the existence of a natural symmetry of these phenomena, given by the neutral sheet of the magnetotail. This finding enables the definition of a local coordinate system based on the Tsyganenko model, reflecting the intrinsic orientation of the neutral sheet and, therefore, the dipolarization fronts. In this way, the comparison of events with very different background conditions is improved. Through this study, the statistical results of Liu, Angelopoulos, Runov, et al. (2013) are both confirmed and extended. In a case study, the knowledge of this plane of symmetry helps to explain the concave curvature of dipolarization fronts in the XZ plane through phase propagation speeds of magnetoacoustic waves. A second case study is presented to determine the central current system of a passing dipolarization front through a constellation of three spacecraft. With this information, a statistical analysis of spacecraft observations above and below the neutral sheet is used to provide further evidence for the neutral sheet as the symmetry plane and the central current system. Furthermore, it is shown that the signatures of dipolarization fronts are under certain conditions closely related to that of flux ropes, indicating a possible relationship between these two transient phenomena.

  5. Characterization of maximally random jammed sphere packings. III. Transport and electromagnetic properties via correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Michael A.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    In the first two papers of this series, we characterized the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales by computing a variety of different correlation functions, spectral functions, hole probabilities, and local density fluctuations. From the remarkable structural features of the MRJ packings, especially its disordered hyperuniformity, exceptional physical properties can be expected. Here we employ these structural descriptors to estimate effective transport and electromagnetic properties via rigorous bounds, exact expansions, and accurate analytical approximation formulas. These property formulas include interfacial bounds as well as universal scaling laws for the mean survival time and the fluid permeability. We also estimate the principal relaxation time associated with Brownian motion among perfectly absorbing traps. For the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the long-wavelength limit, we show that a dispersion of dielectric MRJ spheres within a matrix of another dielectric material forms, to a very good approximation, a dissipationless disordered and isotropic two-phase medium for any phase dielectric contrast ratio. We compare the effective properties of the MRJ sphere packings to those of overlapping spheres, equilibrium hard-sphere packings, and lattices of hard spheres. Moreover, we generalize results to micro- and macroscopically anisotropic packings of spheroids with tensorial effective properties. The analytic bounds predict the qualitative trend in the physical properties associated with these structures, which provides guidance to more time-consuming simulations and experiments. They especially provide impetus for experiments to design materials with unique bulk properties resulting from hyperuniformity, including structural-color and color-sensing applications.

  6. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hsin, Po-Shen [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany)

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space M is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail N=(2,2) and N=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d=2 and N=2 supersymmetric theories in d=4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For N=(2,2) theories in d=2 and N=2 theories in d=4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of M follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  7. TWO FERROMAGNETIC SPHERES IN HOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Krasnitsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of two spherical conductors is studied quite in detail with bispherical coordinates usage and has numerous appendices in an electrostatics. The boundary-value problem about two ferromagnetic spheres enclosed on homogeneous and infinite environment in which the lack of spheres exists like homogeneous magnetic field is considered. The solution of Laplace's equation in the bispherical system of coordinates allows us to find the potential and field distribution in all spaces, including area between spheres. The boundary conditions in potential continuity and in ordinary density constituent of spheres surfaces induction flux are used. It is supposed that spheres are identical, and magnetic permeability of their material is expressed in  >> 0. The problem about falling of electromagnetic plane wave on the system of two spheres, which possesses electrically small sizes, can be considered as quasistationary. The scalar potentials received as a result of Laplace's equation solution are represented by the series containing Legendre polynomials. The concept of two spheres system effective permeability is introduced. It is equal to the advantage in magnitude of magnetic induction flux vector through a certain system’s section arising due to its magnetic properties. Necessary ratios for the effective permeability referred to the central system’s section are obtained. Particularly, the results can be used during the analysis of ferroxcube core clearance, which influences on the magnetic antenna properties. 

  8. Unsteady flow over a decelerating rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmazoglu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Unsteady flow analysis induced by a decelerating rotating sphere is the main concern of this paper. A revolving sphere in a still fluid is supposed to slow down at an angular velocity rate that is inversely proportional to time. The governing partial differential equations of motion are scaled in accordance with the literature, reducing to the well-documented von Kármán equations in the special circumstance near the pole. Both numerical and perturbation approaches are pursued to identify the velocity fields, shear stresses, and suction velocity far above the sphere. It is detected that an induced flow surrounding the sphere acts accordingly to adapt to the motion of the sphere up to some critical unsteadiness parameters at certain latitudes. Afterward, the decay rate of rotation ceases such that the flow at the remaining azimuths starts revolving freely. At a critical unsteadiness parameter corresponding to s = -0.681, the decelerating sphere rotates freely and requires no more torque. At a value of s exactly matching the rotating disk flow at the pole identified in the literature, the entire flow field around the sphere starts revolving faster than the disk itself. Increasing values of -s almost diminish the radial outflow. This results in jet flows in both the latitudinal and meridional directions, concentrated near the wall region. The presented mean flow results will be useful for analyzing the instability features of the flow, whether of a convective or absolute nature.

  9. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  10. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  11. Formal Variability of Terms in the Sphere of Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Viktorovich Deniko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of formal variability of terms in the sphere of network terminology in the Russian language. The research is based on data from the Internet communication in the sphere of network technologies. Such formal variability types as graphical, phonemic, word building and complex (graphic and phonetic, morphologic and accentual are discussed in this article. The authors reveal the reasons for graphic variability of foreign origin terms making up the international terminological fund. These reasons cover such aspects as the use of graphics of source language and recipient language; the presence or absence of hyphenation, etc. It is determined that the phonemic variants of terms appear as a result of oral or written borrowings. The existence of such variants is also connected with the stage of their adaptation in the Russian language after borrowing. In this case the variants are related with soft or hard pronunciation of consonants. There are also some cases of phonemic variability on the graphic level. The complex variability is regarded as a part of active processes taking place in the modern Russian language, and these processes involve both native and foreign origin terms. The particular attention is paid to the word-building variants – word-building affixes the variability of which is peculiar of network technologies. The results of the research show that the variability of professional units belonging to the network technologies sublanguage is caused by the active process of borrowing of specialpurpose vocabulary into the Russian language. The process is due to the intensification of intercultural communication in the professional spheres.

  12. Finding a source inside a sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitsas, N L; Martin, P A

    2012-01-01

    A sphere excited by an interior point source or a point dipole gives a simplified yet realistic model for studying a variety of applications in medical imaging. We suppose that there is an exterior field (transmission problem) and that the total field on the sphere is known. We give analytical inversion algorithms for determining the interior physical characteristics of the sphere as well as the location, strength and orientation of the source/dipole. We start with static problems (Laplace’s equation) and then proceed to acoustic problems (Helmholtz equation). (paper)

  13. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  14. Contrasting dynamics of electrons and protons in the near-Earth plasma sheet during dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, Andrey Y.; Grigorenko, Elena E.; Kronberg, Elena A.; Koleva, Rositza; Ganushkina, Natalia Y.; Kozak, Ludmila; Daly, Patrick W.

    2018-05-01

    The fortunate location of Cluster and the THEMIS P3 probe in the near-Earth plasma sheet (PS) (at X ˜ -7-9 RE) allowed for the multipoint analysis of properties and spectra of electron and proton injections. The injections were observed during dipolarization and substorm current wedge formation associated with braking of multiple bursty bulk flows (BBFs). In the course of dipolarization, a gradual growth of the BZ magnetic field lasted ˜ 13 min and it was comprised of several BZ pulses or dipolarization fronts (DFs) with duration ≤ 1 min. Multipoint observations have shown that the beginning of the increase in suprathermal ( > 50 keV) electron fluxes - the injection boundary - was observed in the PS simultaneously with the dipolarization onset and it propagated dawnward along with the onset-related DF. The subsequent dynamics of the energetic electron flux was similar to the dynamics of the magnetic field during the dipolarization. Namely, a gradual linear growth of the electron flux occurred simultaneously with the gradual growth of the BZ field, and it was comprised of multiple short ( ˜ few minutes) electron injections associated with the BZ pulses. This behavior can be explained by the combined action of local betatron acceleration at the BZ pulses and subsequent gradient drifts of electrons in the flux pile up region through the numerous braking and diverting DFs. The nonadiabatic features occasionally observed in the electron spectra during the injections can be due to the electron interactions with high-frequency electromagnetic or electrostatic fluctuations transiently observed in the course of dipolarization. On the contrary, proton injections were detected only in the vicinity of the strongest BZ pulses. The front thickness of these pulses was less than a gyroradius of thermal protons that ensured the nonadiabatic acceleration of protons. Indeed, during the injections in the energy spectra of protons the pronounced bulge was clearly observed in a

  15. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  16. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Bernassau, Anne L. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-030 (Brazil)

    2016-07-25

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  17. Spheres of SA Government, responsibilities and delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework for government in South Africa was established in 1996 with the adoption of the first democratic Constitution. National, provincial and local government was established as three elected spheres of government, each...

  18. Gender, Diversity and the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to....

  19. Hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Ding, Yang; Xu, Xinliang

    2017-11-01

    Understanding hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere is important for identifying rheological properties of bacterial and colloidal suspension. Over the past few years, scientists mainly focused on bacterial influences on tracer particle diffusion or hydrodynamic capture of a bacteria around stationary boundary. Here, we use superposition of singularities and regularized method to study changes in bacterial swimming velocity and passive sphere diffusion, simultaneously. On this basis, we present a simple two-bead model that gives a unified interpretation of passive sphere diffusion and bacterial swimming. The model attributes both variation of passive sphere diffusion and changes of speed of bacteria to an effective mobility. Using the effective mobility of bacterial head and tail as an input function, the calculations are consistent with simulation results at a broad range of tracer diameters, incident angles and bacterial shapes.

  20. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  1. 1-Public sphere Ambadiang.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\376\\377\\000s\\000e\\000r\\000i\\000a\\000n\\000e\\000.\\000c\\000a\\000m\\000a\\000r\\000a

    2011-03-09

    Mar 9, 2011 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2010 .... Ambadiang: Public Sphere, Linguistic Sphericules and Discourse Communities in Africa ...... eds., Media, Ritual, Identity, London: Routledge, pp.

  2. Higher-dimensional relativistic-fluid spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, L. K.; Ahmedabad, Gujarat Univ.

    1997-01-01

    They consider the hydrostatic equilibrium of relativistic-fluid spheres for a D-dimensional space-time. Three physically viable interior solutions of the Einstein field equations corresponding to perfect-fluid spheres in a D-dimensional space-time are obtained. When D = 4 they reduce to the Tolman IV solution, the Mehra solution and the Finch-Skea solution. The solutions are smoothly matched with the D-dimensional Schwarzschild exterior solution at the boundary r = a of the fluid sphere. Some physical features and other related details of the solutions are briefly discussed. A brief description of two other new solutions for higher-dimensional perfect-fluid spheres is also given

  3. Elastic spheres can walk on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C; Jandron, Michael A; Bower, Allan F; Truscott, Tadd T

    2016-02-04

    Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys.

  4. which spheres of government are responsible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XXX

    basic guidelines for a land use management system in the municipality. 38. The issue ... property in Linden to permit the establishment of a restaurant and gift shop. 40. The .... spheres of government do not operate in sealed compartments. 65.

  5. Scintillation forward spectrometer of the SPHERE setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, Yu.S.; Afanas'ev, S.V.; Bondarev, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of the forward spectrometer for the 4π SPHERE setup to study multiple production of particles in nucleus-nucleus interactions is described. The measured parameters of the spectrometer detectors are presented. 7 refs.; 14 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Geometrical Dynamics in a Transitioning Superconducting Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claycomb J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical works have concentrated on calculating the Casimir effect in curved spacetime. In this paper we outline the forward problem of metrical variation due to the Casimir effect for spherical geometries. We consider a scalar quantum field inside a hollow superconducting sphere. Metric equations are developed describing the evolution of the scalar curvature after the sphere transitions to the normal state.

  7. New trends in the ICRU sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morstin, K.; Kawecka, B.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    A space transformation has been applied that enables the transport equation to be efficiently solved for spheres exposed to radiations of almost arbitrary angular distribution. Depth dose distributions in the ICRU sphere have been calculated with the 1-D ANISN transport code for neutron energies from thermal up to 20 MeV and for photons up to 15 MeV. Several irradiation geometries are considered. For deep-penetrating radiations, maximum possible dose equivalent index significantly exceeds Hsub(10) star

  8. Hardy type inequalities on the sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the L p $L^{p}$ -Hardy inequalities on the sphere. By the divergence theorem, we establish the L p $L^{p}$ -Hardy inequalities on the sphere. Furthermore, we also obtain their best constants. Our results can be regarded as the extension of Xiao’s (J. Math. Inequal. 10:793-805, 2016.

  9. vSphere virtual machine management

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzhugh, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step tutorial approach with some real-world scenarios that vSphere businesses will be required to overcome every day. This book also discusses creating and configuring virtual machines and also covers monitoring virtual machine performance and resource allocation options. This book is for VMware administrators who want to build their knowledge of virtual machine administration and configuration. It's assumed that you have some experience with virtualization administration and vSphere.

  10. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  11. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition reactions of nitrile oxides in the synthesis of natural compounds and their analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotyatkina, Anna I; Zhabinsky, Vladimir N; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2001-01-01

    The published data on the use of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of nitrile oxides in the synthesis of natural compounds and their analogues are systematised and reviewed. The bibliography includes 145 references.

  12. Multicomponent synthesis of spiropyrrolidine analogues derived from vinylindole/indazole by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Narayanarao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new series of spiropyrrolidine compounds containing indole/indazole moieties as side chains have been accomplished via a one-pot multicomponent synthesis. The method uses the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between N-alkylvinylindole/indazole and azomethine ylides, prepared in situ from cyclic/acyclic amino acids. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition proceeds efficiently under thermal conditions to afford the regio- and stereospecific cyclic adducts.

  13. Determination of protein global folds using backbone residual dipolar coupling and long-range NOE restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Alexander W.; Homans, Steve W.; Brown, Jonathan Miles

    2003-01-01

    We report the determination of the global fold of human ubiquitin using protein backbone NMR residual dipolar coupling and long-range nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data as conformational restraints. Specifically, by use of a maximum of three backbone residual dipolar couplings per residue (N i -H N i , N i -C' i-1 , H N i - C' i-1 ) in two tensor frames and only backbone H N -H N NOEs, a global fold of ubiquitin can be derived with a backbone root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 A with respect to the crystal structure. This degree of accuracy is more than adequate for use in databases of structural motifs, and suggests a general approach for the determination of protein global folds using conformational restraints derived only from backbone atoms

  14. Two dimensional dipolar coupling in monolayers of silver and gold nanoparticles on a dielectric substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoît P; Leuvrey, Cedric; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Rastei, Mircea; Schmerber, Guy; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean Yves

    2014-10-21

    The dimensionality of assembled nanoparticles plays an important role in their optical and magnetic properties, via dipolar effects and the interaction with their environment. In this work we develop a methodology for distinguishing between two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional collective interactions on the surface plasmon resonance of assembled metal nanoparticles. Towards that goal, we elaborate different sets of Au and Ag nanoparticles as suspensions, random 3D arrangements and well organized 2D arrays. Then we model their scattering cross-section using effective field methods in dimension n, including interparticle as well as particle-substrate dipolar interactions. For this modelling, two effective field medium approaches are employed, taking into account the filling factors of the assemblies. Our results are important for realizing photonic amplifier devices.

  15. Arrays of dipolar molecular rotors in Tris(o-phenylenedioxy) cyclotriphosphazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Dron, Paul I; Kaleta, Jiří; Rogers, Charles T; Michl, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Regular two-dimensional or three-dimensional arrays of mutually interacting dipolar molecular rotors represent a worthy synthetic objective. Their dielectric properties, including possible collective behavior, will be a sensitive function of the location of the rotors, the orientation of their axes, and the size of their dipoles. Host-guest chemistry is one possible approach to gaining fine control over these factors. We describe the progress that has been achieved in recent years using tris (o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a host and a series of rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors as guests. Structures of both surface and bulk inclusion compounds have been established primarily by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Low-temperature dielectric spectroscopy revealed rotational barriers as low as 1.5 kcal/mol, but no definitive evidence for collective behavior has been obtained so far.

  16. Strongly scale-dependent CMB dipolar asymmetry from super-curvature fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: C.Byrnes@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We reconsider the observed CMB dipolar asymmetry in the context of open inflation, where a supercurvature mode might survive the bubble nucleation. If such a supercurvature mode modulates the amplitude of the curvature power spectrum, it would easily produce an asymmetry in the power spectrum. We show that current observational data can be accommodated in a three-field model, with simple quadratic potentials and a non-trivial field-space metric. Despite the presence of three fields, we believe this model is so far the simplest that can match current observations. We are able to match the observed strong scale dependence of the dipolar asymmetry, without a fine tuning of initial conditions, breaking slow roll or adding a feature to the evolution of any field.

  17. Low-loss metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetic, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.

  18. Quantum-well exciton dipolar interaction: Polarization-dependence and Z-LT splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An.

    1996-12-01

    We calculate the exciton dipolar interaction in a semiconductor quantum well. The explicit polarization-dependence, i.e, the dependence on both the exciton dipole moment μ-vector and its inplane wavevector k-vector is derived. The obtained results for the three modes (L, T and Z modes) of the long-range part of the dipolar interaction satisfy the polarization sum rule for any parameters. In the long wavelength limit there is a Z-LT splitting which decreases as the well width increases reflecting a crossover from strict 2D to quasi-2D. A rough crossover from quasi-2D to 3D is also described. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs

  19. Critical behaviour of nanocrystalline gadolinium: evidence for random uniaxial dipolar universality class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand, A; Probst, A-C; Birringer, R; Michels, A; Kaul, S N

    2014-01-01

    We report on how nanocrystal size affects the critical behaviour of the rare-earth metal Gd near the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. The asymptotic critical behaviour of the coarse-grained polycrystalline sample (with an average crystallite size of L≅100 μm) is that of a (pure) uniaxial dipolar ferromagnet, as is the case with single crystal Gd, albeit the width of the asymptotic critical region (ACR) is reduced. As the grain size approaches ∼30 nm, the ACR is so narrow that it could not be accessed in the present experiments. Inaccessibly narrow ACR for L ∼ 30 nm and continuous increase in the width of the ACR as L decreases from 16 to 9.5 nm basically reflect a crossover to the random uniaxial dipolar fixed point caused by the quenched random exchange disorder prevalent at the internal interfaces (grain boundaries). (paper)

  20. Partial alignment and measurement of residual dipolar couplings of proteins under high hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yinan; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@mail.med.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Johnson Research Foundation (United States)

    2013-08-15

    High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling.

  1. A facile regioselective synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrafi, Yaghoub; Asghari, Asieh; Sadatshahabi, Marzieh; Hamzehloueian, Mahshid; Alimohammadi, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    An efficient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines with high regioselectivity is described. These compounds were prepared from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide generated from acenaphthenequinone and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline via [1,5]-H shift, with chalcone and nitrostyrene derivatives as dipolarophiles. The structure and stereochemistry of the cycloadducts have been established by single crystal X-ray structure and spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  2. Scaling parallels in the non-Debye dielectric relaxation of ionic glasses and dipolar supercooled liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidebottom, D.L.; Green, P.F.; Brow, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    We compare the dielectric response of ionic glasses and dipolar liquids near the glass transition. Our work is divided into two parts. In the first section we examine ionic glasses and the two prominent approaches to analyzing the dielectric response. The conductivity of ion-conducting glasses displays a power law dispersion σ(ω)∝ω n , where n∼0.67, but frequently the dielectric response is analyzed using the electrical modulus M * (ω)=1/var-epsilon * (ω), where var-epsilon * (ω)=var-epsilon(ω)-iσ(ω)/ω is the complex permittivity. We reexamine two specific examples where the shape of M * (ω) changes in response to changes in (a) temperature and (b) ion concentration, to suggest fundamental changes in ion dynamics are occurring. We show, however, that these changes in the shape of M * (ω) occur in the absence of changes in the scaling properties of σ(ω), for which n remains constant. In the second part, we examine the dielectric relaxation found in dipolar liquids, for which var-epsilon * (ω) likewise exhibits changes in shape on approach to the glass transition. Guided by similarities of M * (ω) in ionic glasses and var-epsilon * (ω) in dipolar liquids, we demonstrate that a recent scaling approach proposed by Dixon and co-workers for var-epsilon * (ω) of dipolar relaxation also appears valid for M * (ω) in the ionic case. While this suggests that the Dixon scaling approach is more universal than previously recognized, we demonstrate how the dielectric response can be scaled in a linear manner using an alternative data representation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of diazoacetates with electron-deficient olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Stanley, Levi M; Soeta, Takahiro

    2007-04-12

    [reaction: see text] A general strategy for highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of diazoesters to beta-substituted, alpha-substituted, and alpha,beta-disubstituted alpha,beta-unsaturated pyrazolidinone imides is described. Cycloadditions utilizing less reactive alpha,beta-disubstituted dipolarophiles require elevated reaction temperatures, but still provide the corresponding pyrazolines with excellent enantioselectivities. Finally, an efficient synthesis of (-)-manzacidin A employing this cycloaddition methodology as a key step is illustrated.

  4. NMR studies on 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to norbornenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gucma, Mirosław; Gołębiewski, W. Marek; Krawczyk, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides to norbornenes substituted with an acrylate-derived moiety was examined. Only adducts to norbornene system were formed with a good exo selectivity and complete site-selectivity. Structures of the products were elucidated by an extensive application of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 2D 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  5. On nonlinear dynamics of a dipolar exciton BEC in two-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, O.L.; Kezerashvili, R.Ya.; Kolmakov, G.V.

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) of dipolar excitons in two-layer graphene is studied. It is demonstrated that a steady turbulent state is formed in this system. A comparison between the dynamics of the exciton BEC in two-layer graphene and those in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells shows that turbulence is a general effect in a BEC.

  6. The role of magnetic field fluctuations in nonadiabatic acceleration of ions during dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Y.; Nosé, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T. Y.

    2009-05-01

    We statistically examine changes in the composition of two different ion species, proton and oxygen ions, in the near-Earth plasma sheet (X = -16 R E ˜ -6 R E ) during substorm-associated dipolarization. We use 10 years of energetic (9-212 keV/e) ion data obtained by the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS) sensor of the energetic particles and ion composition (EPIC) instrument on board the Geotail spacecraft. The results are as follows: (1) Although the percentage increase in the energy density of O+ ions before and after a dipolarization exceeds that of H+ ions in the low-energy range (9-36 keV/e), this property is not evident in the high-energy range (56-212 keV/e); (2) the energy spectrum of H+ and that of O+ become harder after dipolarization in almost all events; and (3) in some events the energy spectrum of O+ becomes harder than that of H+ as reported by previous studies, and, importantly, in other events, the spectrum of H+ becomes harder than that of O+. In order to investigate what mechanism causes these observational results, we focus on magnetic field fluctuations during dipolarization. It is found that the increase of the spectrum slope is positively correlated with the power of waves whose frequencies are close to the gyrofrequency of H+ or O+, respectively (the correlation coefficient is 0.48 for H+ and 0.68 for O+). In conclusion, ions are nonadiabatically accelerated by the electric field induced by the magnetic field fluctuations whose frequencies are close to their gyrofrequencies.

  7. Long-range dipolar order and dispersion forces in polar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Christofferson, Andrew Joseph; Liu, Maoyuan; Yarovsky, Irene

    2017-11-01

    Complex solvation phenomena, such as specific ion effects, occur in polar liquids. Interpretation of these effects in terms of structure and dispersion forces will lead to a greater understanding of solvation. Herein, using molecular dynamics, we probe the structure of polar liquids through specific dipolar pair correlation functions that contribute to the potential of mean force that is "felt" between thermally rotating dipole moments. It is shown that unique dipolar order exists at separations at least up to 20 Å for all liquids studied. When the structural order is compared with a dipolar dispersion force that arises from local co-operative enhancement of dipole moments, a strong agreement is found. Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces was compared with the structural order, where the theory is validated for all liquids that do not have significant local dipole correlations. For liquids that do have significant local dipole correlations, specifically liquid water, Lifshitz theory underestimates the dispersion force by a factor of 5-10, demonstrating that the force that leads to the increased structure in liquid water is missed by Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. We apply similar correlation functions to an ionic aqueous system, where long-range order between water's dipole moment and a single chloride ion is found to exist at 20 Å of separation, revealing a long-range perturbation of water's structure by an ion. Furthermore, we found that waters within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd solvation shells of a chloride ion exhibit significantly enhanced dipolar interactions, particularly with waters at larger distances of separation. Our results provide a link between structures, dispersion forces, and specific ion effects, which may lead to a more robust understanding of solvation.

  8. NMR studies on 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to norbornenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucma, Miroslaw; Golebiewski, W. Marek; Krawczyk, Maria, E-mail: golebiewski@ipo.waw.pl [Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides to norbornenes substituted with an acrylate-derived moiety was examined. Only adducts to norbornene system were formed with a good exo selectivity and complete site-selectivity. Structures of the products were elucidated by an extensive application of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 2D {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  9. Observation of plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding mode in silver nanoring structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jian; Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf; Maes, Guido

    2009-01-01

    We report on a clear experimental observation of the plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding resonance in silver nanorings. The data can be explained effectively by the plasmon hybridization model, which is confirmed by the numerical calculations of the electromagnetic field and surface charge distribution profiles. The experimental demonstration of the plasmon hybridization model indicates its usefulness as a valuable tool to understand, design and predict optical properties of metallic nanostructures.

  10. Observation of plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding mode in silver nanoring structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Jian; Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC), Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Maes, Guido, E-mail: Jian.Ye@imec.b [Chemistry Department, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-11-18

    We report on a clear experimental observation of the plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding resonance in silver nanorings. The data can be explained effectively by the plasmon hybridization model, which is confirmed by the numerical calculations of the electromagnetic field and surface charge distribution profiles. The experimental demonstration of the plasmon hybridization model indicates its usefulness as a valuable tool to understand, design and predict optical properties of metallic nanostructures.

  11. Observation of plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding mode in silver nanoring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet; Maes, Guido; Borghs, Gustaaf

    2009-11-01

    We report on a clear experimental observation of the plasmonic dipolar anti-bonding resonance in silver nanorings. The data can be explained effectively by the plasmon hybridization model, which is confirmed by the numerical calculations of the electromagnetic field and surface charge distribution profiles. The experimental demonstration of the plasmon hybridization model indicates its usefulness as a valuable tool to understand, design and predict optical properties of metallic nanostructures.

  12. A facile regioselective synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrafi, Yaghoub; Asghari, Asieh; Sadatshahabi, Marzieh, E-mail: ysarrafi@umz.ac.ir [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamzehloueian, Mahshid [Department of Chemistry, Jouybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Shariati Branch, University of Farhangian, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    An efficient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines with high regioselectivity is described. These compounds were prepared from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide generated from acenaphthenequinone and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline via [1,5]-H shift, with chalcone and nitrostyrene derivatives as dipolarophiles. The structure and stereochemistry of the cycloadducts have been established by single crystal X-ray structure and spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  13. Absence of Long-Range Order in a Triangular Spin System with Dipolar Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Ahmet; Zhao, Erhai

    2018-05-01

    The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice is perhaps the best known example of frustrated magnets, but it orders at low temperatures. Recent density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations find that the next nearest neighbor interaction J2 enhances the frustration, and it leads to a spin liquid for J2/J1∈(0.08 ,0.15 ). In addition, a DMRG study of a dipolar Heisenberg model with longer range interactions gives evidence for a spin liquid at a small dipole tilting angle θ ∈[0 ,1 0 ° ). In both cases, the putative spin liquid region appears to be small. Here, we show that for the triangular lattice dipolar Heisenberg model, a robust quantum paramagnetic phase exists in a surprisingly wide region, θ ∈[0 ,5 4 ° ) , for dipoles tilted along the lattice diagonal direction. We obtain the phase diagram of the model by functional renormalization group (RG), which treats all magnetic instabilities on equal footing. The quantum paramagnetic phase is characterized by a smooth continuous flow of vertex functions and spin susceptibility down to the lowest RG scale, in contrast to the apparent breakdown of RG flow in phases with stripe or spiral order. Our finding points to a promising direction to search for quantum spin liquids in ultracold dipolar molecules.

  14. Topological defect formation in rotating binary dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Han, Wei; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Wu-Ming; Saito, Hiroki; Zhang, Shou-Gang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the topological defects and spin structures of a rotating binary Bose–Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms confined in spin-dependent optical lattices, for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles with respect to their plane of motion. Our results show that the tunable dipolar interaction, especially the orientation of the dipoles, can be used to control the direction of stripe phase and its related half-vortex sheets. In addition, it can also be used to obtain a regular arrangement of various topological spin textures, such as meron, circular and cross disgyration spin structures. We point out that such topological defects and regular arrangement of spin structures arise primarily from the long-range and anisotropic nature of dipolar interaction and its competition with the spin-dependent optical lattices and rotation. - Highlights: • Effects of both strength and orientation of the dipoles are discussed. • Various topological defects can be formed in different parameter regions. • Present one possible way to obtain regular arrangements of spin textures.

  15. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Roux, A.; Jacquey, C.; Robert, P.; Berthomier, M.; Chust, T.; Grison, B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D.; Chaston, C. C.; Cully, C. M.; Ergun, B.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, U.; McFadden, J.; Carlson, C.; Larson, D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mende, S.; Russell, C. T.; Donovan, E.; Mann, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-06-01

    We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure) as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996). Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  16. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  17. Luttinger hydrodynamics of confined one-dimensional Bose gases with dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citro, R; Palo, S De; Orignac, E; Pedri, P; Chiofalo, M-L

    2008-01-01

    Ultracold bosonic and fermionic quantum gases confined to quasi-one-dimensional (1D) geometry are promising candidates for probing fundamental concepts of Luttinger liquid (LL) physics. They can also be exploited for devising applications in quantum information processing and precision measurements. Here, we focus on 1D dipolar Bose gases, where evidence of super-strong coupling behavior has been demonstrated by analyzing the low-energy static and dynamical structures of the fluid at zero temperature by a combined reptation quantum Monte Carlo (RQMC) and bosonization approach. Fingerprints of LL behavior emerge in the whole crossover from the already strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau at low density to a dipolar density wave regime at high density. We have also shown that a LL framework can be effectively set up and utilized to describe this strongly correlated crossover physics in the case of confined 1D geometries after using the results for the homogeneous system in LL hydrodynamic equations within a local density approximation. This leads to the prediction of observable quantities such as the frequencies of the collective modes of the trapped dipolar gas under the more realistic conditions that could be found in ongoing experiments. The present paper provides a description of the theoretical framework in which the above results have been worked out, making available all the detailed derivations of the hydrodynamic Luttinger equations for the inhomogeneous trapped gas and of the correlation functions for the homogeneous system

  18. Bose-Einstein condensation and study of inelastic collisions due to dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufils, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Its large magnetic moment in the ground state makes chromium a good candidate for the study of dipolar interactions in a degenerate gas. We have built an experimental setup for trapping and cooling atoms of "5"2Cr down to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). Evaporative cooling takes place in a purely optical trap, which is loaded from the magneto-optical trap using a novel process of continuous accumulation of metastable states. We produce a condensate of typically 15000 atoms in a time of 15 s. We have studied the possibility to bring all the Zeeman substates of a chromium BEC to degeneracy in a non-zero static magnetic field, using a radiofrequency (rf) magnetic field, and demonstrated a new process of rf-assisted dipolar relaxation. We have also studied a narrow Feshbach resonance induced by dipolar interaction, which implies a d-wave collisional channel. We analyzed this resonance in the presence of a rf magnetic field and we reinterpreted rf association of molecules as a mere Feshbach resonance between rf dressed states. Finally, we have set up an optical lattice in the perspective of studying the effects of dipole-dipole interactions in reduced dimension. (author)

  19. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Rojas, S.; Vicencio, R. A.; Molina, M. I.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Modulational instability and discrete matter wave solitons in dipolar BECs, loaded into a deep optical lattice, are investigated analytically and numerically. The process of modulational instability of nonlinear plane matter waves in a dipolar nonlinear lattice is studied and the regions of instability are established. The existence and stability of bulk discrete solitons are analyzed analytically and confirmed by numerical simulations. In marked contrast with the usual discrete nonlinear Schroedinger behavior (no dipolar interactions), we found a region where the two fundamental modes are simultaneously unstable, allowing enhanced mobility across the lattice for large norm values. To study the existence and properties of surface discrete solitons, an analysis of the dimer configuration is performed. The properties of symmetric and antisymmetric modes including stability diagrams and bifurcations are investigated in closed form. For the case of a bulk medium, properties of fundamental on-site and intersite localized modes are analyzed. On-site and intersite surface localized modes are studied, and we find that they do not exist when nonlocal interactions predominate with respect to local ones.

  20. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, M., E-mail: Mikko.Saarela@oulu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  1. Tuning dipolar magnetic interactions by controlling individual silica coating of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Rojas, P. C.; Tancredi, P.; Moscoso Londoño, O.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Single and fixed size core, core-shell nanoparticles of iron oxides coated with a silica layer of tunable thickness were prepared by chemical routes, aiming to generate a frame of study of magnetic nanoparticles with controlled dipolar interactions. The batch of iron oxides nanoparticles of 4.5 nm radii, were employed as cores for all the coated samples. The latter was obtained via thermal decomposition of organic precursors, resulting on nanoparticles covered with an organic layer that was subsequently used to promote the ligand exchange in the inverse microemulsion process, employed to coat each nanoparticle with silica. The amount of precursor and times of reaction was varied to obtain different silica shell thicknesses, ranging from 0.5 nm to 19 nm. The formation of the desired structures was corroborated by TEM and SAXS measurements, the core single-phase spinel structure was confirmed by XRD, and superparamagnetic features with gradual change related to dipolar interaction effects were obtained by the study of the applied field and temperature dependence of the magnetization. To illustrate that dipolar interactions are consistently controlled, the main magnetic properties are presented and analyzed as a function of center to center minimum distance between the magnetic cores.

  2. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high T_c superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2017-01-01

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  3. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  4. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  5. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  6. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SPHERE OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota Anton Florin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses his financial affairs sphere, looking at this issue under a double aspect: analysis of the financial relations sphere and analyzing the financial activity sphere. Analysis of the financial relations sphere is made on the basis of fou

  7. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  8. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Miller

    Full Text Available Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  9. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L.; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals’ endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology. PMID:26800454

  10. Structure and dynamics of concentrated dispersions of polystyrene latex spheres in glycerol: Static and dynamic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumma, D.; Lurio, L. B.; Borthwick, M. A.; Falus, P.; Mochrie, S. G. J.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering measurements are applied to characterize the dynamics and structure of concentrated suspensions of charge-stabilized polystyrene latex spheres dispersed in glycerol, for volume fractions between 2.7% and 52%. The static structures of the suspensions show essentially hard-sphere behavior. The short-time dynamics shows good agreement with predictions for the wave-vector-dependent collective diffusion coefficient, which are based on a hard-sphere model [C. W. J. Beenakker and P. Mazur, Physica A 126, 349 (1984)]. However, the intermediate scattering function is found to violate a scaling behavior found previously for a sterically stabilized hard-sphere suspension [P. N. Segre and P. N. Pusey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 771 (1996)]. Our measurements are parametrized in terms of a viscoelastic model for the intermediate scattering function [W. Hess and R. Klein, Adv. Phys. 32, 173 (1983)]. Within this framework, two relaxation modes are predicted to contribute to the decay of the dynamic structure factor, with mode amplitudes depending on both wave vector and volume fraction. Our measurements indicate that, for particle volume fractions smaller than about 0.30, the intermediate scattering function is well described in terms of single-exponential decays, whereas a double-mode structure becomes apparent for more concentrated systems

  11. Spin Diffusion and Spin Lattice Relaxation of Dipolar Order in Solids Containing Paramagnetic Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G.B.; Panich, A.M.; Goren, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomena of spin diffusion and spin lattice relaxation of nuclear dipolar order in solids containing paramagnetic impurities (PI) is considered. We show that at the beginning of the relaxation process the diffusion vanishing regime realizes with non-exponential time dependence, R(t) ∼ exp [- (t/T 1d ) α ], where T 1d ∼ C p -1/α , C p is PI's concentration. For a homogeneous distribution of Pis and nuclear spins, α=Q/6, where Q is the sample dimensionality; for an inhomogeneous distribution, the sample is divided into q-dimensional subsystems, each containing one PI, yield- ing α= (Q + q) /6. This result coincides with experimental data for CaF 2 doped with 0.8 - 10 -3 ωt % of Mn 2+ , where the non-exponential decay of the dipolar signal with α= 0.83 has been observed [3]. Fitting the experimental data yields a good agreement with T 1d = 66 ms . For another independent check of the obtained results we use dependence of the relaxation time on impurities concentration. In accordance that 1/α=1.2 , we have T 1d ∼ C p -1 '. 2 . Exactly this dependence on impurity concentration of the relaxation time has been found in the experiment. Then the relaxation regime starts as a non-exponential time dependent, proceed asymptotically to an to an exponential function of time, to so called diffusion limited relaxation regime with relaxation time T 1d D is inversely depends on impurities concentration. This kind of relaxation behavior of the dipolar order takes place in the experiment [2]. Using experimental results [2] from this two regime we can estimate the diffusion coefficient of the nuclear dipolar order in CaF 2 , which gives for typical values of impurity concentration C p ∼ 10 18 cm 3 the diffusion coefficient of dipolar order in the interval D ∼ 10 -11 -i- 10 -12 cm 2 /sec which is coincide to the case of Zeeman energy spin diffusion

  12. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  13. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  14. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  15. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  16. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  17. The thermal conductivity of beds of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Shapiro, M.; Longest, A.W.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal conductivities (k) of beds of solid and hollow microspheres were measured using two radial heat flow techniques. One technique provided k-data at 300 K for beds with the void spaces between particles filled with argon, nitrogen, or helium from 5 kPa to 30 MPa. The other technique provided k-data with air at atmospheric pressure from 300 to 1000 K. The 300 K technique was used to study bed systems with high k-values that can be varied by changing the gas type and gas pressure. Such systems can be used to control the operating temperature of an irradiation capsule. The systems studied included beds of 500 μm dia solid Al 2 O 3 , the same Al 2 O 3 spheres mixed with spheres of silica--alumina or with SiC shards, carbon spheres, and nickel spheres. Both techniques were used to determine the k-value of beds of hollow spheres with solid shells of Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 /center dot/7 w/o Cr 2 O 3 , and partially stabilized ZrO 2 . The hollow microspheres had diameters from 2100 to 3500 μm and wall thicknesses from 80 to 160 μm. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Instability of extremal relativistic charged spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Peter; Rothman, Tony

    2002-01-01

    With the question 'Can relativistic charged spheres form extremal black holes?' in mind, we investigate the properties of such spheres from a classical point of view. The investigation is carried out numerically by integrating the Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for relativistic charged fluid spheres and finding interior Reissner-Nordstroem solutions for these objects. We consider both constant density and adiabatic equations of state, as well as several possible charge distributions, and examine stability by both a normal mode and an energy analysis. In all cases, the stability limit for these spheres lies between the extremal (Q=M) limit and the black hole limit (R=R + ). That is, we find that charged spheres undergo gravitational collapse before they reach Q=M, suggesting that extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes produced by collapse are ruled out. A general proof of this statement would support a strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, excluding not only stable naked singularities, but stable extremal black holes. The numerical results also indicate that although the interior mass-energy m(R) obeys the usual m/R + as Q→M. In the Appendix we also argue that Hawking radiation will not lead to an extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. All our results are consistent with the third law of black hole dynamics, as currently understood

  19. Fuzzy spheres from inequivalent coherent states quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Huguet, Eric; Lachieze-Rey, Marc; Renaud, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The existence of a family of coherent states (CS) solving the identity in a Hilbert space allows, under certain conditions, to quantize functions defined on the measure space of CS parameters. The application of this procedure to the 2-sphere provides a family of inequivalent CS quantizations based on the spin spherical harmonics (the CS quantization from usual spherical harmonics appears to give a trivial issue for the Cartesian coordinates). We compare these CS quantizations to the usual (Madore) construction of the fuzzy sphere. Due to these differences, our procedure yields new types of fuzzy spheres. Moreover, the general applicability of CS quantization suggests similar constructions of fuzzy versions of a large variety of sets

  20. Glass transition in soft-sphere dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic equivalence among mono-disperse soft-sphere fluids is employed in the framework of the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics to calculate the ideal glass transition phase diagram of model soft-sphere colloidal dispersions in the softness-concentration state space. The slow dynamics predicted by this theory near the glass transition is compared with available experimental data for the decay of the intermediate scattering function of colloidal dispersions of soft-microgel particles. Increasing deviations from this simple scheme occur for increasingly softer potentials, and this is studied here using the Rogers-Young static structure factor of the soft-sphere systems as the input of the SCGLE theory, without assuming a priori the validity of the equivalence principle above.

  1. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  2. Willmore energy estimates in conformal Berger spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Ferrandez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Willmore energy is computed in a wide class of surfaces. → Isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori are obtained. → The best possible lower bound is achieved on isoareal Hopf tori. - Abstract: We obtain isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori in a wide class of conformal structures on the three sphere. This class includes, on the one hand, the family of conformal Berger spheres and, on the other hand, a one parameter family of Lorentzian conformal structures. This allows us to give the best possible lower bound of Willmore energies concerning isoareal Hopf tori.

  3. Does Negative Type Characterize the Round Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the measure theoretic metric invariants extent, mean distance and symmetry ratio and their relation to the concept of negative type of a metric space. A conjecture stating that a compact Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be a round sphere, was put forward in a previous paper....... We resolve this conjecture in the class of Riemannian symmetric spaces by showing, that a Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be of negative type and that the only compact Riemannian symmetric spaces of negative type are the round spheres....

  4. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S{sub 3C}. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  5. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S 3C . The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  6. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    of suspended sediments. The scattering properties of single regular-shaped particles have been studied in depth by several authors in the past. However, single particle scattering cannot explain all features of scattering by suspended sediment. When the concentration of particles exceeds a certain limit...... on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  7. vSphere design best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Bolander, Brian

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of hands-on examples of real-world design best practices. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive, there are more details on the concepts used.If you wish to learn about vSphere best practices and how to apply them when designing virtual, high performance, reliable datacenters that support business critical applications to work more efficiently and to prepare for official certifications, this is the book for you. Readers should possess a good working knowledge of vSphere as well as servers, storage, and networking.

  8. Electro-Optomechanical Transduction & Quantum Hard-Sphere Model for Dissipative Rydberg-EIT Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Emil

    by two key parameters, the signal transfer efficiency and added noise temperature. In terms of these, we may evaluate its performance in various tasks ranging from classical signal detection to quantum state conversion between, e.g., superconducting circuitry and traveling optical signals. Having...... transduction functionality into the well-established framework of electrical engineering, thereby facilitating its implementation in potential applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and radio astronomy. We consider such optomechanical sensing of weak electrical signals and discuss how...... in a cold, optically dense cloud with light fields propagating under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). This can lead to strong and non-linear dissipative dynamics at the quantum level that prevent slow-light polaritons from coexisting within a blockade radius of one another...

  9. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.; Xu, X.; Rice, S. A.; Dinner, A. R.; Cohen, I.

    2011-01-01

    under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow

  10. Periodic and Aperiodic Close Packing: A Spontaneous Hard-Sphere Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waal, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how to make close-packed models from balloons and table tennis balls to illustrate structural features of clusters and organometallic cluster-compounds (which are of great interest in the study of chemical reactions). These models provide a very inexpensive and tactile illustration of the organization of matter for concrete operational…

  11. Fluid of Hard Spheres with a Modified Dipole: Simulation and Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, Jan; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2008), s. 541-557 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400720409; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : molecular simulation * monte carlo method * perturbation theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  12. Free cooling of hard-spheres with short and long range interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Briones, Sebastián; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Luding, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability, the clustering and the phase-diagram of free cooling granular gases. The systems consist of mono-disperse particles with additional non-contact (long-range) interactions, and are simulated here by the event-driven molecular dynamics algorithm with discrete (short-range

  13. Flexible equation of state for a hard sphere and Lennard–Jones fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where λ is a suitable density- and temperature-dependent function. kc(ηc, α) is a suitable constant and it is arbitrarily found out. Case (m = m1 = 0.5, α6 = 1). In order to get root mean square deviation (RMSD) to be minimum selecting kc(ηc, α) = kc1 = 0.1142022080, we obtained kc(ηc, α) by numerical technique yielding.

  14. New results for virial coefficients of hard spheres in D dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nathan Clisby1 Barry M McCoy2. ARC Centre of Excellence for Mathematics and Statistics of Complex Systems, 139 Barry Street, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia; C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840, USA ...

  15. Gelation in a model 1-component system with adhesive hard-sphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min; Eberle, Aaron; Fang, Jun; Wagner, Norman

    2012-02-01

    Colloidal dispersions can undergo a dynamical arrest of the disperse phase leading to a system with solid-like properties when either the volume fraction or the interparticle potential is varied. Systems that contain low to moderate particulate concentrations form gels whereas higher concentrations lead to glassy states in which caging by nearest neighbors can be a significant contributor to the arrested long-time dynamics. Colloid polymer mixtures have been the prevalent model system for studying the effect of attraction, where attractions are entropically driven by depletion effects, in which gelation has been shown to be a result of phase separation [1]. Using the model 1-component octadecyl coated silica nanoparticle system, Eberle et al. [2] found the gel-line to intersect the spinodal to the left of the critical point, and at higher concentrations extended toward the mode coupling theory attractive driven glass line. . We continue this study by varying the particle diameter and find quantitative differences which we explain by gravity. 1. Lu, P.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 453(7194): p. 499-504.2. Eberle, A.P.R., N.J. Wagner, and R. Castaneda-Priego, Physical Review Letters, 2011. 106(10).

  16. Swimming trajectories of a three-sphere microswimmer near a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah; Lisicki, Maciej; Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2018-04-01

    The hydrodynamic flow field generated by self-propelled active particles and swimming microorganisms is strongly altered by the presence of nearby boundaries in a viscous flow. Using a simple model three-linked sphere swimmer, we show that the swimming trajectories near a no-slip wall reveal various scenarios of motion depending on the initial orientation and the distance separating the swimmer from the wall. We find that the swimmer can either be trapped by the wall, completely escape, or perform an oscillatory gliding motion at a constant mean height above the wall. Using a far-field approximation, we find that, at leading order, the wall-induced correction has a source-dipolar or quadrupolar flow structure where the translational and angular velocities of the swimmer decay as inverse third and fourth powers with distance from the wall, respectively. The resulting equations of motion for the trajectories and the relevant order parameters fully characterize the transition between the states and allow for an accurate description of the swimming behavior near a wall. We demonstrate that the transition between the trapping and oscillatory gliding states is first order discontinuous, whereas the transition between the trapping and escaping states is continuous, characterized by non-trivial scaling exponents of the order parameters. In order to model the circular motion of flagellated bacteria near solid interfaces, we further assume that the spheres can undergo rotational motion around the swimming axis. We show that the general three-dimensional motion can be mapped onto a quasi-two-dimensional representational model by an appropriate redefinition of the order parameters governing the transition between the swimming states.

  17. Nuclear reactor using fuel sphere for combustion and fuel spheres for breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a pebble bed-type reactor which can efficiently convert parent nuclides to fission nuclides. Fuel spheres for combustion having fission nuclides as main fuels, and fuel spheres for breeding having parent nuclides as main fuels are used separately, in the pebble bed-type reactor. According to the present invention, fuel spheres for breeding can be stayed in a reactor core for a long period of time, so that parent nuclides can be sufficiently converted into fission nuclides. In addition, since fuel spheres for breeding are loaded repeatedly, the amount thereof to be used is reduced. Therefore, the amount of the fuel spheres for breeding is small even when they are re-processed. On the other hand, since the content of the fission nuclides in the fuel spheres for breeding is not great, they can be put to final storage. This is attributable that although the fuel spheres for breeding contain fission nuclides generated by conversion, the fission nuclides are annihilated by nuclear fission reactions at the same time with the generation thereof. (I.S.)

  18. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  19. Computing variational bounds for flow through random aggregates of Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Known formulas for variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow flow through porous media depend on two-point and three-poiint spatial correlation functions. Certain bounds due to Prager and Doi depending only a two-point correlation functions have been calculated for the first time for random aggregates of spheres with packing fractions (eta) up to eta = 0.64. Three radial distribution functions for hard spheres were tested for eta up to 0.49: (1) the uniform distribution or ''well-stirred approximation,'' (2) the Percus Yevick approximation, and (3) the semi-empirical distribution of Verlet and Weis. The empirical radial distribution functions of Benett andd Finney were used for packing fractions near the random-close-packing limit (eta/sub RCP/dapprox.0.64). An accurate multidimensional Monte Carlo integration method (VEGAS) developed by Lepage was used to compute the required two-point correlation functions. The results show that Doi's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10 while Prager's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10. The ''upper bounds'' computed using the well-stirred approximation actually become negative (which is physically impossible) as eta increases, indicating the very limited value of this approximation. The other two choices of radial distribution function give reasonable results for eta up to 0.49. However, these bounds do not decrease with eta as fast as expected for large eta. It is concluded that variational bounds dependent on three-point correlation functions are required to obtain more accurate bounds on Darcy's constant for large eta

  20. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  1. New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two ...

  2. 1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness...

  3. Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Wiegmink

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.

  4. On the torus cobordant cohomology spheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let a compact Lie group G act on a smooth integral cohomology sphere with G = .... is a compact connected Lie group, (X, A) is a G space and H. ∗ ..... [15] Hsiang W-Y, Cohomology theory of topological transformation groups (New York,.

  5. Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Wiegmink

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pia Wiegmink’s timely examination of the transforming transnational spaces of protest in a globalizing and technologically mediated public sphere in “Performance and Politics in the Public Sphere” offers a well-researched review of contemporary theory surrounding ideas of the political (Chantal Mouffe, the public sphere (Jürgen Habermas, the transnational public sphere (Nancy Fraser, and the reterritorialized transnational public sphere (Markus Schroer as the basis for her analysis of how the performance of political action in public—virtual or physical—is transformed by the capacity of the local to be played on a global stage, thus turning the citizen-actor into a cosmopolitan, transnational force. Tracing examples from the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization meetings in 1999 by the Global Justice Movement to the work of the Electronic Disturbance Theater, from the civil rights movement to the subject matter of her larger study, “The Church of Life After Shopping,” “Billionaires for Bush,” and “The Yes Men,” Wiegmink provides an important analysis of the “alternative aesthetics” of the counterpublics’ formation, dissent, and action in and against hegemony. This selection is taken from her monograph, Protest EnACTed: Activist Performance in the Contemporary United States, a strong, cultural studies–focused contribution to transnational American Studies.

  6. Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks

    KAUST Repository

    Marti, P.; Schaeffer, N.; Hollerbach, R.; Cebron, D.; Nore, C.; Luddens, F.; Guermond, J.- L.; Aubert, J.; Takehiro, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.- Y.; Simitev, R.; Busse, F.; Vantieghem, S.; Jackson, A.

    2014-01-01

    of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions

  7. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  8. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  9. TEACHING PHYSICS: Biking around a hollow sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    1999-11-01

    The conditions required for a cyclist riding a motorbike in a horizontal circle on or above the equator of a hollow sphere are derived using concepts of equilibrium and the condition for uniform circular motion. The result is compared with an empirical analysis based on a video show. Some special cases of interest derived from the general solution are elaborated.

  10. The Dirac operator on the Fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce the Fuzzy analog of spinor bundles over the sphere on which the non-commutative analog of the Dirac operator acts. We construct the complete set of eigenstates including zero modes. In the commutative limit we recover known results. (authors)

  11. Institutional change and spheres of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    institutioner. Denne tilgang bidrager til at udvikle global governance begrebet "spheres of authority" Det forklarer hvordan transnational lederskab kan bevares, selv om magten spredes i en globaliseret verden. Gennem en illustrativ case om microcredit, viser artiklen hvordan en tilgang baseret på institutional...

  12. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  13. The Nationalisation of the Domestic Sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Banal forms of nationalism permeate our everyday life. However, it is not very clear when all kinds of banal objects and practices became nationalised. In this article, I focus on the domestic sphere by analysing how around 1900 a small group of activists began to propagate the nationalisation of

  14. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  15. Pious Entertainment: Hizbullah's Islamic Cultural Sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagha, J.E.; Nieuwkerk, K. van

    2011-01-01

    Alagha’s chapter on Hezbollah’s Islamic cultural sphere is sure to generate some of the most interesting discussion. Lebanon and Hezbollah in particular are among the hottest topics in the studies of contemporary Islam, but few people actually have the appropriate levels of both access to and

  16. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=Te/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  17. Different approaches to analyze the dipolar interaction effects on diluted and concentrated granular superparamagnetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso-Londoño, O., E-mail: omoscoso@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Tancredi, P. [Laboratorio de Sólidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), CONICET, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Muraca, D. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. Dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Mendoza Zélis, P.; Coral, D.; Fernández van Raap, M.B. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), CONICET, CC.67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wolff, U.; Neu, V.; Damm, C. [IFW Dresden, Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Oliveira, C.L.P. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05314970 (Brazil); Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); and others

    2017-04-15

    Controlled magnetic granular materials with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles immersed in a non-conducting polymer matrix were synthesized and, their macroscopic magnetic observables analyzed in order to advance towards a better understanding of the magnetic dipolar interactions and its effects on the obtained magnetic parameters. First, by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption fine structure an accurate study of the structural properties was carried out. Then, the magnetic properties were analyzed by means of different models, including those that consider the magnetic interactions through long-range dipolar forces as: the Interacting Superparamagnetic Model (ISP) and the Vogel-Fulcher law (V-F). In systems with larger nanoparticle concentrations, magnetic results clearly indicate that the role played by the dipolar interactions affects the magnetic properties, giving rise to obtaining magnetic and structural parameters without physical meaning. Magnetic parameters as the effective anisotropic constant, magnetic moment relaxation time and mean blocking temperature, extracted from the application of the ISP model and V-F Law, were used to simulate the zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling curves (FC). A comparative analysis of the simulated, fitted and experimental ZFC/FC curves suggests that the current models depict indeed our dilute granular systems. Notwithstanding, for concentrated samples, the ISP model infers that clustered nanoparticles are being interpreted as single entities of larger magnetic moment and volume, effect that is apparently related to a collective and complex magnetic moment dynamics within the cluster. - Highlights: • Nanoparticle architecture into matrices determines the composite magnetic response. • Magnetically diluted or compacted systems are useful to study magnetism at nanoscale. • Particle aggregation into the matrices was examined

  18. Ultrafast responses of dipolar and octupolar compounds with dipicolinate as an electron acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaochuan, E-mail: ycwang@dlmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Siyuan; Liu, Dajun; Wang, Guiqiu [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Xiao, Haibo [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Two dipolar compounds with dipicolinate as electron acceptor group named trans-dimethyl-4-[4’-(N,N-dimethylamino)-styry1]-pyridin-2,6-dicarboxylate (M-1), trans-dimethyl-4-[4'-(N,N-diphenylamino)-styry1]-pyridin-2,6-dicarboxylate (P-1) as well as a P-1 based multi-branched octupolar compound {4-[(E)-2-(2,6-dimethoxycarbonylpyridin-4-yl) vinyl]}-N,N-bis{4-[(E)-2-(2,6-dimethoxycarbonylpyridin-4-yl)vinylphenyl]} aniline (P-3) with intense two-photon fluorescence emission properties are systematically investigated by using steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, Z-scan, and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF) method. The two-photon absorption cross section of octupolar compound P-3 in THF solution is determined to be 376 GM, which is approximately 12 times greater than that of dipolar counterpart P-1 (32 GM). Transient absorption spectroscopy is employed to investigate the excited state dynamics of the dipolar and octupolar compounds. The formation and relaxation lifetimes of the intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) state are determined to be in the ranges of several picoseconds and several-hundreds of picoseconds, respectively, for all the three compounds in THF solutions. An extended π-conjugated system and increased intra-molecular cooperative effect are responsible for the observed large two-photon absorption character. - Highlights: • Octupolar compound gain 12-fold enhancement of two photon absorption. • Dynamic properties of intra-molecular charge transfer state are determined. • Cooperative effect is responsible for great increase of two photon character.

  19. Off-equatorial current-driven instabilities ahead of approaching dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Angelopoulos, V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Liu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Recent kinetic simulations have revealed that electromagnetic instabilities near the ion gyrofrequency and slightly away from the equatorial plane can be driven by a current parallel to the magnetic field prior to the arrival of dipolarization fronts. Such instabilities are important because of their potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion near dipolarization fronts. Of the several instabilities that may be consistent with such waves, the most notable are the current-driven electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability and the current-driven kink-like instability. To confirm the existence and characteristics of these instabilities, we used observations by two Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites, one near the neutral sheet observing dipolarization fronts and the other at the boundary layer observing precursor waves and currents. We found that such instabilities with monochromatic signatures are rare, but one of the few cases was selected for further study. Two different instabilities, one at about 0.3 Hz and the other at a much lower frequency, 0.02 Hz, were seen in the data from the off-equatorial spacecraft. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexisted with the waves. Our instability analysis attributes the higher-frequency instability to a current-driven ion cyclotron instability and the lower frequency instability to a kink-like instability. The current-driven kink-like instability we observed is consistent with the instabilities observed in the simulation. We suggest that the currents needed to excite these low-frequency instabilities are so intense that the associated electron beams are easily thermalized and hence difficult to observe.

  20. Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks

    KAUST Repository

    Marti, P.

    2014-01-26

    Convection in planetary cores can generate fluid flow and magnetic fields, and a number of sophisticated codes exist to simulate the dynamic behaviour of such systems. We report on the first community activity to compare numerical results of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions that alloweasy comparison, since they are either steady, slowly drifting or perfectly periodic. The first two benchmarks are defined based on uniform internal heating within the sphere under the Boussinesq approximation with boundary conditions that are uniform in temperature and stress-free for the flow. Benchmark 1 is purely hydrodynamic, and has a drifting solution. Benchmark 2 is a magnetohydrodynamic benchmark that can generate oscillatory, purely periodic, flows and magnetic fields. In contrast, Benchmark 3 is a hydrodynamic rotating bubble benchmark using no slip boundary conditions that has a stationary solution. Results from a variety of types of code are reported, including codes that are fully spectral (based on spherical harmonic expansions in angular coordinates and polynomial expansions in radius), mixed spectral and finite difference, finite volume, finite element and also a mixed Fourier-finite element code. There is good agreement between codes. It is found that in Benchmarks 1 and 2, the approximation of a whole sphere problem by a domain that is a spherical shell (a sphere possessing an inner core) does not represent an adequate approximation to the system, since the results differ from whole sphere results. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

  1. Absolute carrier phase effects in the two-color excitation of dipolar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Alex; Meath, W.J.; Kondo, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The pump-probe excitation of a two-level dipolar (d≠0) molecule, where the pump frequency is tuned to the energy level separation while the probe frequency is extremely small, is examined theoretically as an example of absolute phase control of excitation processes. The state populations depend on the probe field's absolute carrier phase but are independent of the pump field's absolute carrier phase. Interestingly, the absolute phase effects occur for pulse durations much longer and field intensities much weaker than those required to see such effects in single pulse excitation

  2. Synthesis and 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Chiral Maleimides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubor Fisera

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available New routes to the synthesis of various novel chiral maleimides are described. The oxabicyclic anhydride 2 readily available exo-Diels-Alder adduct of furan and maleic anhydride was used as a vehicle, which in turn reacted with hydrochlorides of amino acids 3a-f in the presence of Et3N with release of furan to give the requisite novel chiral imides 4a-f in good to moderate yields. The stereoselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides with prepared chiral imides 4a-f is investigated.

  3. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3 or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4 it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic. This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1. First, we synthesized the 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2, yield 98% by using Br2 and CH3CO2H, and then used it to obtain 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3, yield 62% from compound 1, along with ethanolic solution (reflux and NaN3. Finally, we prepared 1,2,3-triazole compounds (4a, b by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, involving compound (3 and terminal acetylenes (phenylacetylene, a and glycoside (b using Cu(OAc2 and ascorbate, under argon atmosphere. During the second step, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone was prepared using Br2/CH2Cl2 at room temperature. From compound (5 it was possible to synthesize (6, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2/CuI/Et3N, under argon atmosphere, in 40% yield. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3 and alkynes (a, yield 23% and b, yield 30% were conducted using the solvent system, (1:1 terc-BuOH/H2O/r.t/ 20 mol% of Cu(OAc2 and sodium ascorbate, under stirring during 24 hours. The reaction involving 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (5, yield 65% and phenylacetylene was prepared using the solvent mixture (2:1 DMSO/CHCl3 and catalytic amount of CuI/Pd(PPh32Cl2. The final products were characterized by elemental analysis and spectrometric techniques (IR, NMR 1H and 13C. Two novel triazole compounds were synthesized from naphthoquinones by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition from suitable 1,4-naphthoquinones obtained by Sonogashira couplings.

  4. Triazol-substituted titanocenes by strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gansäuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An operationally simple, convenient, and mild strategy for the synthesis of triazole-substituted titanocenes via strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between azide-functionalized titanocenes and cyclooctyne has been developed. It features the first synthesis of titanocenes containing azide groups. These compounds constitute ‘second-generation’ functionalized titanocene building blocks for further synthetic elaboration. Our synthesis is modular and large numbers of the complexes can in principle be prepared in short periods of time. Some of the triazole-substituted titanocenes display high cyctotoxic activity against BJAB cells. Comparison of the most active complexes allows the identification of structural features essential for biological activity.

  5. Characteristics of ion distribution functions in dipolarizing flux bundles: Event studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemyev, A.; Birn, J.; Pritchett, P. L.; Zhou, X.-Z.

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of multipoint observations from a repeating configuration of the five Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probes separated by 1 to 2 Earth radii (RE) along X, Y, and Z in the geocentric solar magnetospheric system (GSM), we study ion distribution functions collected by the probes during three dipolarizing flux bundle (DFB) events observed at geocentric distances 9 energy and twice the thermal energy, although the distribution in the ambient plasma sheet was isotropic. The anisotropic ion distribution in DFBs injected toward the inner magnetosphere may provide the free energy for waves and instabilities, which are important elements of particle energization.

  6. Characterization of surfactant liquid crystal phases suitable for molecular alignment and measurement of dipolar couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, Laura G.; Dolan, Caroline; Gronenborn, Angela M.

    2000-01-01

    Media employed for imparting partial alignment onto solute molecules have recently attracted considerable attention, since they permit the measurement of NMR parameters for solute biomolecules commonly associated with solid state NMR. Here we characterize a medium which is based on a quasi-ternary surfactant system comprising cetylpyridinium bromide/hexanol/sodium bromide. We demonstrate that dilute solutions of this system can exist in liquid crystalline phases which orient in the magnetic field and allow the measurement of residual dipolar couplings under a variety of conditions. The present system is extremely versatile and robust, tolerating different buffer conditions, temperature ranges and concentrations

  7. Dipolar oscillations in a quantum degenerate Fermi-Bose atomic mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlaino, F; Brecha, R J; Hannaford, P; Riboli, F; Roati, G; Modugno, G; Inguscio, M

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled dipolar oscillations in a Fermi-Bose mixture of 40 K and 87 Rb atoms. This low-energy collective mode is strongly affected by the interspecies interactions. Measurements are performed in the classical and quantum degenerate regimes and reveal the crucial role of the statistical properties of the mixture. At the onset of quantum degeneracy, we investigate the role of Pauli blocking and superfluidity for K and Rb atoms, respectively, resulting in a change in the collisional interactions

  8. Fluctuation and dipolar interaction effects on the pinning of domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the effect of the dipolar interaction on the pinning of domain walls. Domain walls are usually pinned near the boundaries between grains. Magnetic charges accumulated at the domain wall make the wall more unstable and easier to depin. We discuss how the grain-orientation and thermal fluctuations affect these magnetic charges and hence the depinning of the domain walls. Our results are illustrated by finite temperature Monte Carlo simulation on periodic arrays of large cells separated by walls consisting of faces of pyramids

  9. New fluorescent dipolar pyrazine derivatives for non-doped red organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baoxiang; Zhou Quanguo; Geng Yanhou; Cheng Yanxiang; Ma Dongge; Xie Zhiyuan; Wang Lixiang; Wang Fosong

    2006-01-01

    Dipolar fluorescent compounds containing electron-accepting pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitrile and electron-donating arylamine moiety have been designed and synthesized. The optical and electrochemical properties of these compounds can be adjusted by changing π-bridge length and the donor (D) strength. Organic light-emitting devices based on these compounds are fabricated. Saturated red emission of (0.67, 0.33) and the external quantum efficiency as high as 1.41% have been demonstrated for one of these compounds

  10. Anisotropic properties of phase separation in two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jinbin

    2018-03-01

    Using Crank-Nicolson method, we calculate ground state wave functions of two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and show that, due to dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), the condensate mixture displays anisotropic phase separation. The effects of DDI, inter-component s-wave scattering, strength of trap potential and particle numbers on the density profiles are investigated. Three types of two-component profiles are present, first cigar, along z-axis and concentric torus, second pancake (or blood cell), in xy-plane, and two non-uniform ellipsoid, separated by the pancake and third two dumbbell shapes.

  11. VMware vSphere PowerCLI Reference Automating vSphere Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Dekens, Luc; Sizemore, Glenn; van Lieshout, Arnim; Medd, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Your One-Stop Reference for VMware vSphere Automation If you manage vSphere in a Windows environment, automating routine tasks can save you time and increase efficiency. VMware vSphere PowerCLI is a set of pre-built commands based on Windows PowerShell that is designed to help you automate vSphere processes involving virtual machines, datacenters, storage, networks, and more. This detailed guide-using a practical, task-based approach and real-world examples-shows you how to get the most out of PowerCLI's handy cmdlets. Learn how to: Automate vCenter Server and ESX/ESX(i) Server deployment and

  12. Phase behaviour of charged colloidal sphere dispersions with added polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, Andrea; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Tuinier, Remco

    2005-01-01

    We study the stability of mixtures of highly screened repulsive charged spheres and non-adsorbing ideal polymer chains in a common solvent using free volume theory. The effective interaction between charged colloids in an aqueous salt solution is described by a screened Coulomb pair potential, which supplements the pure hard-sphere interaction. The ideal polymer chains are treated as spheres that are excluded from the colloids by a hard-core interaction, whereas the interaction between two ideal chains is set to zero. In addition, we investigate the phase behaviour of charged colloid-polymer mixtures in computer simulations, using the two-body (Asakura-Oosawa pair potential) approximation to the effective one-component Hamiltonian of the charged colloids. Both our results obtained from simulations and from free volume theory show similar trends. We find that the screened Coulomb repulsion counteracts the effect of the effective polymer-mediated attraction. For mixtures of small polymers and relatively large charged colloidal spheres, the fluid-crystal transition shifts to significantly larger polymer concentrations with increasing range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. For relatively large polymers, the effect of the screened Coulomb repulsion is weaker. The resulting fluid-fluid binodal is only slightly shifted towards larger polymer concentrations upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. In conclusion, our results show that the miscibility of dispersions containing charged colloids and neutral non-adsorbing polymers increases upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion, or upon lowering the salt concentration, especially when the polymers are small compared to the colloids

  13. Simulation of rotary-drum and repose tests for frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The effects of rotation rate and interparticle friction on the bulk flow behavior in rotating horizontal cylinders are studied via particle-dynamic simulations. Assemblies of inelastic, frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters are utilized, and rotation rates from quasistatic to centrifuging are examined. Flow phenomena explored include size segregation, avalanching, slumping and centrifuging. Simulated drum flows with two sizes of frictional spheres showed very rapid segregation of species perpendicular to the drum axis; however, simulations of up to 10 revolutions, utilizing periodic-boundary ends, did not exhibit the experimentally observed axial segregation into stripes. Angles of repose for uniform-sized spheres in slowly rotating cylinders varied from 13 to 31 degrees as the friction coefficient varied from 0.02 to 1.0. For simulated rotation rates higher than the threshold to obtain uniform flow conditions, the apparent angle of repose increases as the rotation rats increases, consistent with experiments. Also, simulations with rigid clusters of 4 spheres in a tetrahedral shape or 8 spheres in a cubical arrangement, demonstrate that particle shape strongly influences the repose angle. Simulations of cubical 8-sphere clusters, with a surface coefficient of friction of 0.1, produced apparent angles of repose exceeding 35 degrees, compared to 23 degrees for assemblies of single spheres interacting with the same force model parameters. Centrifuging flows at very high rotation rates exist as stationary beds moving exactly as the outer rotating wall. At somewhat slower speeds the granular bed remains in contact with the wall but exhibits surface sliding down the rising inner bed surface, moving a short distance on each revolution. At still slower speeds particles rain from the surface of the upper half of the rotating bed.

  14. Residual dipolar couplings in sup 3 sup 1 P MAS spectra of PPh sub 3 substituted cobalt complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Szalontai, G

    2002-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings between sup 3 sup 1 P- sup 5 sup 9 Co spin pairs were studied in sup 3 sup 1 P MAS spectra of mono- and dinuclear cobalt-triphenylphosphine complexes. These spectra can provide important information such as the scalar coupling between the dipolar phosphorus and the quadrupolar cobalt nuclei normally not available from solution phase studies. In case of complementary (NQR or x-ray) data even the relative orientation of the interacting shielding, dipolar, scalar couplings, and electric field gradient tensors or internuclear distances can be determined. Examples are shown both for well resolved and practically unresolved cases, factors which possibly control the spectral resolution are discussed in detail. (author)

  15. Induced alignment and measurement of dipolar couplings of an SH2 domain through direct binding with filamentous phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlke Ojennus, Deanna; Mitton-Fry, Rachel M.; Wuttke, Deborah S.

    1999-01-01

    Large residual 15 N- 1 H dipolar couplings have been measured in a Src homology II domain aligned at Pf1 bacteriophage concentrations an order of magnitude lower than used for induction of a similar degree of alignment of nucleic acids and highly acidic proteins. An increase in 1 H and 15 N protein linewidths and a decrease in T 2 and T 1 ρ relaxation time constants implicates a binding interaction between the protein and phage as the mechanism of alignment. However, the associated increased linewidth does not preclude the accurate measurement of large dipolar couplings in the aligned protein. A good correlation is observed between measured dipolar couplings and predicted values based on the high resolution NMR structure of the SH2 domain. The observation of binding-induced protein alignment promises to broaden the scope of alignment techniques by extending their applicability to proteins that are able to interact weakly with the alignment medium

  16. Cavity formation by the impact of Leidenfrost spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of cavity formation and subsequent collapse when a heated sphere impacts onto a liquid pool. When the sphere temperature is much greater than the boiling point of the liquid, we observe an inverted Leidenfrost effect where the sphere is encompassed by a vapour layer that prevents physical contact with the liquid. This creates the ultimate non-wetting scenario during sphere penetration through a free surface, producing very smooth cavity walls. In some cases during initial entry, however, the liquid contacts the sphere at the equator, leading to the formation of a dual cavity structure. For cold sphere impacts, where a contact line is observed, we reveal details of the contact line pinning, which initially forms a sawtooth pattern. We also observe surface waves on the cavity interface for cold spheres. We compare our experimental results to previous studies of cavity dynamics and, in particular, the influence of hydrophobicity on the entry of the sphere. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  17. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2014-01-01

    societies, China and Denmark. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed entrepreneurs in China, Denmark and elsewhere. Analyses reconfirm the global tendencies and show that, China in contrast to Denmark, public sphere networking is sparser, but private sphere networking is denser. Innovation...

  18. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  19. Dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dipolar (m=±1) modes travelling along a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  20. Energy conversion and dissipation at dipolarization fronts: Theory, modeling and MMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Motoba, T.; Merkin, V. G.; Ohtani, S.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B.; Vines, S. K.; Anderson, B. J.; Moore, T. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is one of the most important energy conversion mechanisms in space plasmas. In the classical picture it converts the energy of antiparallel magnetic fields into the kinetic and thermal energy of accelerated plasma particles in reconnection exhausts. It also involves energy dissipation near the X-line. This classical picture may be substantially modified in real space plasma configurations, such as the dayside magnetopause and the magnetotail. In particular, in the magnetotail the flows of accelerated particles may be strongly asymmetric along the tail with the domination of earthward flows. At the same time, strong energy conversion and even dissipation may occur away from the X-line, in particular, at dipolarization fronts. Here we present a theoretical picture of spontaneous magnetotail reconnection based on 3-D PIC simulations with the focus on plasma bulk flows, energy conversion and dissipation. This picture is compared with some observations from the MMS tail season. An important finding from these observations is that dipolarizations fronts may not only be regions of the total energy conversion with jE>0, but they may also be the sites of energy dissipation, both positive (jE'>0, E' is the electric field E in the system moving with one of the plasma species) and negative (jE'braking).

  1. Dipolar flow theory of the universe in relation to astronomical observations and universe axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullick, U.P.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt has been made to establish Dipolar continuous flow theory of the universe through corroborations from astronomical observations of the positions of nebulae made earlier by astronomers. It is shown that the line through groups of nebulae in Nubecula Major in Southern Sky Region 5, passing through Earth points towards the near side pole A of the universe. Also the angles the plane parallel to universe polar plane x-x and passing through Earth, makes with the Milky Way disc is about 70 0 towards universe pole B, and about 110 0 towards nearside universe pole A. It is also shown that the two nebulae M 31 and M 33 and the groups of nebulae in Megallenic clouds, in Nebecula Major are between planes passing through universe equatorial axis y-y and plant Ysub(E)-Ysub(E) passing through Earth and parallel to universe equatorial plane Y-Y. Besides, the huge red star Betelgeux and the great Nebula in Orion in sky Region 9 are also between these two planes. These observations the author claims accord with his Dipolar Theory. (author)

  2. Ground-state and dynamical properties of two-dimensional dipolar Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinpour, Saeed H.; Asgari, Reza; Tanatar, B.; Polini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional spin-polarized fluid of dipolar fermions within the Euler–Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation. Our method is based on the solution of a scattering Schrödinger equation for the “pair amplitude” √(g(r)), where g(r) is the pair distribution function. A key ingredient in our theory is the effective pair potential, which includes a bosonic term from Jastrow–Feenberg correlations and a fermionic contribution from kinetic energy and exchange, which is tailored to reproduce the Hartree–Fock limit at weak coupling. Very good agreement with recent results based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations is achieved over a wide range of coupling constants up to the liquid-to-crystal quantum phase transition. Using the fluctuation–dissipation theorem and a static approximation for the effective inter-particle interactions, we calculate the dynamical density–density response function, and furthermore demonstrate that an undamped zero-sound mode exists for any value of the interaction strength, down to infinitesimally weak couplings. -- Highlights: •We have studied the ground state properties of a strongly correlated two-dimensional fluid of dipolar fermions. •We have calculated the effective inter-particle interaction and the dynamical density–density response function. •We have shown that an undamped zero sound mode exists at any value of the interaction strength

  3. Dipolar local field in homogeneously magnetized quasi-two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Estevez-Rams, E

    2009-01-01

    A formalism to calculate the dipolar local field in homogeneously magnetized quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) crystals is comprehensively presented. Two fundamental tests for this formalism are accomplished: the transition from the Q2D quantities to the corresponding 3D ones; and the recovering of the macroscopic quantities of the 3D continuum theory. The additive separation between lattice and shape contributions to the local field allows an unambiguous interpretation of the respective effects. Calculated demagnetization tensors for square and circular lateral geometries of dipole layers show that for a single crystal layer an extremely thin film, but still with a finite thickness, is a better physical representation than a strictly 2D plane. Distinct close-packed structures are simulated and calculations of the local field at the nodes of the stacked 2D lattices allow one to establish the number of significantly coupled dipole layers, depending on the ratio between the interlayer distance and the 2D lattice constant. The conclusions drawn are of interest for the study of the dipolar interaction in magnetic ultrathin films and other nanostructured materials, where magnetic nanoparticles are embedded in non-magnetic matrices.

  4. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baul, Upayan, E-mail: upayanb@imsc.res.in; Anishetty, Ramesh, E-mail: ramesha@imsc.res.in; Vemparala, Satyavani, E-mail: vani@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep, E-mail: jmpkanth@gmail.com [Vectra LLC, Mount Road, Chennai 600006 (India)

    2016-03-14

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  5. Effect of Dipolar Interactions on the Magnetization of Single-Molecule Magnets in a cubic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2005-03-01

    Since the one-body tunnel picture of single-molecule magnets (SMM) is not always sufficient to explain the fine structure of experimental hysteresis loops, the effect of intermolecular dipolar interactions has been investigated on an ensemble of 100 3D-systems of 5X5X4 particles, each with spin S = 5, arranged in a cubic lattice. We have solved the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for several values of the damping constant, the field sweep rate and the lattice constant. We find that the smaller the damping constant is, the stronger the maximum field needs to be to produce hysteresis. Furthermore, the shape of the hysteresis loops also depends on the damping constant. We also find that the system magnetizes and demagnetizes faster with decreasing sweep rates, resulting in smaller hysteresis loops. Variations of the lattice constant within realistic values (1.5nm and 2.5nm) show that the dipolar interaction plays an important role in magnetic hysteresis by controlling the relaxation process. Examination of temperature dependencies (0.1K and 0.7K) of the above will be presented and compared with recent experimental data on SMM.

  6. Characteristics of high-latitude precursor flows ahead of dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Zheng; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Runov, Andrei; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Dong-Xiao; Zong, Qiu-Gang

    2017-05-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs), earthward propagating structures in the magnetotail current sheet characterized by sharp enhancements of northward magnetic field, are capable of converting electromagnetic energy into particle kinetic energy. The ions previously accelerated and reflected at the DFs can contribute to plasma flows ahead of the fronts, which have been identified as DF precursor flows in both the near-equatorial plasma sheet and far from it, near the plasma sheet boundary. Using observations from the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft, we show that the earthward particle and energy flux enhancements ahead of DFs are statistically larger farther away from the neutral sheet (at high latitudes) than in the near-equatorial region. High-latitude particle and energy fluxes on the DF dawnside are found to be significantly greater than those on the duskside, which is opposite to the dawn-dusk asymmetries previously found near the equatorial region. Using forward and backward tracing test-particle simulations, we then explain and reproduce the observed latitude-dependent characteristics of DF precursor flows, providing a better understanding of ion dynamics associated with dipolarization fronts.

  7. Supra Arcade Downflows with XRT Informed by Dipolarization Fronts with THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelski, Adam; Savage, Sabrina L.; Malaspina, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection can rapidly reconfigure the magnetic field of the corona, accelerating plasma through the site of reconnection. Ambiguities due to the nature of remote sensing have complicated the interpretation of observations of the inflowing and outflowing plasma in reconnecting regions. In particular, the interpretation of sunward moving density depletions above flare arcades (known as Supra Arcade Downflows - SADs) is still debated. Hinode/XRT has provided a wealth of observations for SADs and helped inform our current understanding of these structures. SADs have been interpreted as wakes behind newly reconnected and outflowing loops (Supra Arcade Downflowing Loops - SADLs). Models have shown the plausibility of this interpretation, though this interpretation has not yet been fully accepted. We present here observations of newly reconnected outflowing loops observed via in situ instruments in the magnetosphere. These observations, provided by five THEMIS spacecraft, show that around retracting loops (dipolarization fronts in this context) similar dynamic temperature and density structures are found as seen in SADs. We compare data from multiple SADs and dipolarization fronts to show that the observational signatures implied in the corona can be directly observed in similar plasma regimes in the magnetosphere, strongly favoring the interpretation of SADs as wakes behind retracting loops.

  8. Scaling in soft spheres: fragility invariance on the repulsive potential softness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Cristiano De; Sciortino, Francesco; Coniglio, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of the dependence of the fragility of glass forming supercooled liquids on the 'softness' of an interacting potential by performing numerical simulation of a binary mixture of soft spheres with different power n of the interparticle repulsive potential. We show that the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients for various n collapses onto a universal curve, supporting the unexpected view that fragility is not related to the hard core repulsion. We also find that the configurational entropy correlates with the slowing down of the dynamics for all studied n. (letter to the editor)

  9. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Truscott, T. T.; Speirs, N. B.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates

  10. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  11. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  12. Criticality of a 237Np sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Loaiza, David J.; Kimpland, Robert H.; Hayes, David K.; Cappiello, Charlene C.; Myers, William L.; Jaegers, Peter J.; Clement, Steven D.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.

    2003-01-01

    A critical mass experiment using a 6-kg 237 Np sphere has been performed. The purpose of the experiment is to get a better estimate of the critical mass of 237 Np. To attain criticality, the 237 Np sphere was surrounded with 93 wt% 235 U shells. A 1/M as a function of uranium mass was performed. An MCNP neutron transport code was used to model the experiment. The MCNP code yielded a k eff of 0.99089 ± 0.0003 compared with a k eff 1.0026 for the experiment. Based on these results, it is estimated that the critical mass of 237 Np ranges from kilogram weights in the high fifties to low sixties. (author)

  13. Coated sphere scattering by geometric optics approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengran, Zhai; Qieni, Lü; Hongxia, Zhang; Yinxin, Zhang

    2014-10-01

    A new geometric optics model has been developed for the calculation of light scattering by a coated sphere, and the analytic expression for scattering is presented according to whether rays hit the core or not. The ray of various geometric optics approximation (GOA) terms is parameterized by the number of reflections in the coating/core interface, the coating/medium interface, and the number of chords in the core, with the degeneracy path and repeated path terms considered for the rays striking the core, which simplifies the calculation. For the ray missing the core, the various GOA terms are dealt with by a homogeneous sphere. The scattering intensity of coated particles are calculated and then compared with those of Debye series and Aden-Kerker theory. The consistency of the results proves the validity of the method proposed in this work.

  14. Mesoporous hollow spheres from soap bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianglin; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2012-02-01

    The smaller and more stable bubbles can be generated from the large parent bubbles by rupture. In the presence of a bubble blowing agent, hollow spheres can be prepared by bubbling a silica sol. Herein, the trapped gas inside the bubble acts as a template. When the porogen, i.e., other surfactant, is introduced, a mesostructured shell forms by the co-assembly with the silica sol during sol-gel process. Morphological evolution emphasizes the prerequisite of an intermediate interior gas flow rate and high exterior gas flow rate for hollow spheres. The method is valid for many compositions from inorganic, polymer to their composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  16. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  17. Ceramica sphere production by a gel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Prado, M.A.S.; Miranda, O.; Drumond, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The technology of (Th,U)O 2 microspheres production by gel casting and subsequente thermal treatment has been transferred from NUKEM GmbH assisted by Kraftwerk Union A.G., both West Germany, to NUCLEBRAS, where it was jointly adapted to produce microspheres suitable for pressing. As a result, there are now available various possibilities to produce ceramic spheres with different characteristics that can be used in different applications. Examples of these characteristics are the range of gel sphere diameters (200 to 5000 μmm) and the value of the specific surface (about 50m 2 /g for calcined (Th, U)O 2 and potentially higher than m 2 /g for other ceramic materials) (Author) [pt

  18. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  19. Ensemble-average versus suspension-scale Cauchy continuum-mechanical definitions of stress in polarized suspensions: Global homogenization of a dilute suspension of dipolar spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Y.; Brenner, H.

    1999-01-01

    The macroscale rheological properties of a dilute suspension exposed to a uniform external field and composed of identical, rigid, inhomogeneous, dipolar, spherical particles dispersed in an incompressible Newtonian fluid and possessing the same mean density as the latter fluid are derived from knowledge of its microscale properties by applying a global ensemble-averaging technique. Each dipole, which is permanently embedded in the particle, is assumed to be generated by the presence of an inhomogeneous external body-force field in the particle interior resulting from the action of the uniform external field on an inhomogeneous distribution of interior matter. It is shown that although the ensemble-average stress tensor is symmetric, the suspension nevertheless behaves macroscopically as if it possessed an asymmetric stress tensor. This seeming contradiction can be traced to the fact that the average body force acting on the contents of any arbitrarily drawn volume lying in the interior of the suspension does not vanish despite the fact that each particle is 'neutrally buoyant'. That this force is not zero stems from the fact that some particles necessarily straddle the closed surface bounding that volume, and that the distribution of external body forces over the interiors of these particles is nonuniform. As such, that portion of the spherical particle lying outside of the surface enclosing the domain exerts a force on the remaining portion of the sphere lying within that domain. We then demonstrate that the natural macroscopic model, which is derived by equating the divergence of the suspension-scale stress appearing in that model to the ensemble-average external body-force field, and which predicts a symmetric stress tensor, is macroscopically deficient with respect to the more intuitive asymmetric stress model usually proposed by continuum mechanicians for such a suspension. It is shown that the latter, continuum-mechanical model recovers all the physically

  20. White Dwarf Stars as Polytropic Gas Spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Nouh, M. I.; Saad, A. S.; Elkhateeb, M. M.; Korany, B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the highly degeneracy of electrons in white dwarf stars, we expect that the relativistic effects play very important role in these stars. In the present article, we study the properties of the condensed matter in white dwarfs using Newtonian and relativistic polytropic fluid sphere. Two polytropic indices (namely n=3 and n=1.5) are proposed to investigate the physical characteristics of the models. We solve the Lane-Emden equations numerically.. The results show that the relativistic e...

  1. Log Gaussian Cox processes on the sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Francisco Andrés Cuevas; Møller, Jesper

    We define and study the existence of log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) for the description of inhomogeneous and aggregated/clustered point patterns on the d-dimensional sphere, with d = 2 of primary interest. Useful theoretical properties of LGCPs are studied and applied for the description of sky...... positions of galaxies, in comparison with previous analysis using a Thomas process. We focus on simple estimation procedures and model checking based on functional summary statistics and the global envelope test....

  2. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMA REMINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.

  3. On the revolution of heavenly spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Copernicus, Nicolaus

    1995-01-01

    The Ptolemaic system of the universe, with the earth at the center, had held sway since antiquity as authoritative in philosophy, science, and church teaching. Following his observations of the heavenly bodies, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) abandoned the geocentric system for a heliocentric model, with the sun at the center. His remarkable work, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, stands as one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of all time, and profoundly influenced, among others, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.

  4. Locating a circle on a sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a spherical circle with respect to existing facilities on a sphere, such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, or such that the maximum weighted distance is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and we...... give solution procedures. When the circle to be located is restricted to be a great circle, some simplifications are possible....

  5. Sphere and dot product representations of graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Kang (Ross); T. Müller (Tobias)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA graph $G$ is a $k$-sphere graph if there are $k$-dimensional real vectors $v_1,\\dots,v_n$ such that $ij\\in E(G)$ if and only if the distance between $v_i$ and $v_j$ is at most $1$. A graph $G$ is a $k$-dot product graph if there are $k$-dimensional real vectors $v_1,\\dots,v_n$ such

  6. Gravitational wave reception by a sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, N.; Dreitlein, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reception of gravitational waves by an elastic self-gravitating spherical detector is studied in detail. The equations of motion of a detector driven by a gravitational wave are presented in the intuitively convenient coordinate system of Fermi. An exact analytic solution is given for the homogeneous isotropic sphere. Nonlinear effects of a massive self-gravitating system are computed for a body of mass equal to that of the earth, and are shown to be numerically important

  7. The sea - landfill or sphere of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Information Agency held its third seminar for journalists, entitled 'The sea - landfill or sphere of life' in Hamburg on July 18, 1989. Some 40 journalists - radio journalists and journalists from the staff of dailies and the technical press - took the opportunity to listen for a day to short lectures on selected subjects and submit their questions concerning sea pollution to scientists of diverse disciplines. (orig.) [de

  8. Nonstatic radiating spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Borgohain, P.; Sarma, R.

    1985-01-01

    The method of Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri of obtaining nonstatic solutions of Einstein's field equations to study the evolution of stellar bodies is applied to obtain two models of nonstatic radiating spheres from two well-known static solutions of field equations, viz., Tolman's solutions IV and V. Whereas Tolman's type-IV model is found to be contracting for the period under investigation, Tolman's type-V model shows a bounce after attaining a minimum radius

  9. Modeling of steel spheres impacting polyethylene; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serduke, F; Gerassimenko, M

    1999-01-01

    The effect of shrapnel on target chamber components and experiments at large lasers such as the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and the Megajoule Laser at CESTA in France is an important issue in fielding targets and exposure samples. Modeling calculations are likely to be an important component of this effort. Some work in this area has been performed by French workers, who are collaborating with the LLNL on many issues relating to target chamber, experiment-component, and diagnostics survival. Experiments have been performed at the Phebus laser in France to measure shrapnel produced by laser-driven targets; among these shots were experiments that accelerated spheres of a size characteristic of some of the more damaging shrapnel. These spheres were stopped in polyethylene witness plates. The penetration depth is characteristic of the velocity of the shrapnel. Experimental calibration of steel sphere penetration into polyethylene was performed at the CESTA facility. The penetration depth has been reported (ref. 1) and comparisons with modeling calculations have been made (ref. 2). There was interest in a comparison study of the modeling of these experiments to provide independent checks of the calculations. This work has been approved both by DOE headquarters and by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); it is task number 99-3.2 of the 1999 ICF agreement between the DOE and the CEA. Daniel Gogny of the CEA who is on a long-term assignment to LLNL catalyzed this collaboration. This report contains the initial results of our modeling effort

  10. Bidispersed Sphere Packing on Spherical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mascioli, Andrew; Burke, Christopher

    Packing problems on spherical surfaces have a long history, originating in the classic Thompson problem of finding the ground state configuration of charges on a sphere. Such packings contain a minimal number of defects needed to accommodate the curvature; this is predictable using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem from knowledge of the topology of the surface and the local symmetry of the ordering. Famously, the packing of spherical particles on a sphere contains a 'scar' transition, where additional defects over those required by topology appear above a certain critical number of particles and self-organize into chains or scars. In this work, we study the packing of bidispersed packings on a sphere, and hence determine the interaction of bidispersity and curvature. The resultant configurations are nearly crystalline for low values of bidispersity and retain scar-like structures; these rapidly become disordered for intermediate values and approach a so-called Appollonian limit at the point where smaller particles can be entirely accommodated within the voids left by the larger particles. We connect our results with studies of bidispersed packings in the bulk and on flat surfaces from the literature on glassy systems and jamming. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  11. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  12. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  13. Agglomeration techniques for the production of spheres for packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    One attractive fusion-breeder-blanket design features a lithium bearing ceramic in the form of spheres packed into a random array. The spheres have diameters of 3 mm and 0.3 mm. This report surveys techniques used to produce ceramic spheres on an industrial scale. The methods examined include tumbling and mixing granulation, extrusion, briquetting and pelletizing. It is concluded that the required quantities of 0.3 mm diameter spheres can be produced by the tumbling agglomeration of a feed powder. The 3 mm diameter spheres will be made using a process of extrusion, chopping and rolling

  14. Surface modes of two spheres embedded into a third medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1990-07-01

    Surface modes of two spheres embedded into a third medium are studied. We obtain a result which relates the dependence of frequency on the distance between the two spheres. The derived expression reproduces previous results in the limit where the separation between the spheres is very large. Two surface mode branches are shown to exist for each order n. We apply the theory to three cases of practical interest: first, two similar metallic spheres in vacuum; secondly, two similar metallic spheres embedded into a different metal; thirdly, two spherical voids embedded into a metal. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  15. The quantum 2-sphere as a complex quantum manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Chongsun; Ho Peiming; Zumino, B.

    1996-01-01

    We describe the quantum sphere of Podles for c=0 by means of a stereographic projection which is analogous to that which exibits the classical sphere as a complex manifold. We show that the algebra of functions and the differential calculus on the sphere are covariant under the coaction of fractional transformations with SU q (2) coefficients as well as under the action of SU q (2) vector fields. Going to the classical limit we obtain the Poisson sphere. Finally, we study the invariant integration of functions on the sphere and find its relation with the translationally invariant integration on the complex quantum plane. (orig.)

  16. Production of graphite spheres with a high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherry, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is possible to obtain small spheres with a diameter of approximately 1,000 μm with the help of an automated press fitted with a profiled plunger. The spheres consist of graphite and a binder. Depending on the size of the plunger, 1 + 6 Σn (n = 0,1,2,...) spheres of equivalent diameter may be pressed with one stroke of the plunger. The spheres are bound to each other by a thin burr. The green end product is obtained by breaking the sheets of spheres and deburring them. (orig.) [de

  17. Ni hollow spheres as catalysts for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changwei [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hu, Yonghong; Rong, Jianhua; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we successfully synthesized Ni hollow spheres consisting of needle-like nickel particles by using silica spheres as template with gold nanoparticles seeding method. The Ni hollow spheres are applied to methanol and ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show that the Ni hollow spheres give a very high activity for alcohol electrooxidation at a very low nickel loading of 0.10 mg cm{sup -2}. The current on Ni hollow spheres is much higher than that on Ni particles. The onset potential and peak potential on Ni hollow spheres are more negative than that on Ni particles for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation. The Ni hollow spheres may be of great potential in alcohol sensor and direct alcohol fuel cells. (author)

  18. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  19. Asymmetric 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions to 5-(R)-Menthyloxy-2(5H)-Furanone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Minze T.; Keller, Erik; Lange, Ben de; Zijlstra, Robert W.J.; Feringa, Bernard

    Various diazo compounds, nitrile oxides, nitrones and azomethine ylides were examined in 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to enantiomerically pure 5-(R)-menthyloxy-2(5H)-furanone 1a. Pyrazoline 9 was obtained in 100% c.y. as a mixture of 2 diastereoisomers in ratios up to 72 : 28, whereas pyrazoline 16

  20. Minute splitting of magnetic excitations in CsFeCl{sub 3} due to dipolar interaction observed by polarised neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, B [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Baehr, M [HMI, Berlin (Germany); Petitgrand, D [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-04-01

    Using inelastic neutron scattering with polarisation analysis it was possible, for the first time, to observe simultaneously the two magnetic modes split due to dipolar interaction. This would not have been possible with energy resolution only. An analysis of eigenvectors was also performed. (author). 4 refs.