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Sample records for dipolar correlation effect

  1. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baul, Upayan; Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep; Anishetty, Ramesh; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH4) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  2. On the theory of the proton dipolar-correlation effect as a method for investigation of segmental displacement in polymer melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoi, A.; Petrova, L.; Mattea, C.; Stapf, S.; Rössler, E. A.; Fatkullin, N.

    2017-08-01

    A thorough theoretical description of the recently suggested method [A. Lozovoi et al. J. Chem. Phys. 144, 241101 (2016)] based on the proton NMR dipolar-correlation effect allowing for the investigation of segmental diffusion in polymer melts is presented. It is shown that the initial rise of the proton dipolar-correlation build-up function, constructed from Hahn Echo signals measured at times t and t/2, contains additive contributions from both inter- and intramolecular magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. The intermolecular contribution depends on the relative mean-squared displacement of polymer segments from different macromolecules, which provides an opportunity for an experimental study of segmental translational motions at the millisecond range that falls outside the typical range accessible by other methods, i.e., neutron scattering or NMR spin echo with the magnetic field gradients. A comparison with the other two proton NMR methods based on transverse spin relaxation phenomena, i.e., solid echo and double quantum resonance, shows that the initial rise of the build-up functions in all the discussed methods is essentially identical and differs only in numerical coefficients. In addition, it is argued that correlation functions constructed in the same manner as the dipolar-correlation build-up function can be applied for an experimental determination of a mean relaxation rate in the case of systems possessing multi-exponential magnetization decay.

  3. Communication: Proton NMR dipolar-correlation effect as a method for investigating segmental diffusion in polymer melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoi, A.; Mattea, C.; Herrmann, A.; Rössler, E. A.; Stapf, S.; Fatkullin, N.

    2016-06-01

    A simple and fast method for the investigation of segmental diffusion in high molar mass polymer melts is presented. The method is based on a special function, called proton dipolar-correlation build-up function, which is constructed from Hahn Echo signals measured at times t and t/2. The initial rise of this function contains additive contributions from both inter- and intramolecular magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. The intermolecular contribution depends on the relative mean squared displacements (MSDs) of polymer segments from different macromolecules, while the intramolecular part reflects segmental reorientations. Separation of both contributions via isotope dilution provides access to segmental displacements in polymer melts at millisecond range, which is hardly accessible by other methods. The feasibility of the method is illustrated by investigating protonated and deuterated polybutadiene melts with molecular mass 196 000 g/mol at different temperatures. The observed exponent of the power law of the segmental MSD is close to 0.32 ± 0.03 at times when the root MSD is in between 45 Å and 75 Å, and the intermolecular proton dipole-dipole contribution to the total proton Hahn Echo NMR signal is larger than 50% and increases with time.

  4. Observations and Effects of Dipolarization Fronts Observed in Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    . Such studies provide insights into the particle acceleration mechanisms associated with substorm dipolarization, and, in turn, the effects of those acceleration mechanisms on the structure and evolution of dipolarization fronts.

  5. The effect of dipolar interaction on the magnetic isotope effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden; Lukzen, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel kinetic description is used to study the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) in zero magnetic field. The maximal isotope effect is equal to the number of channels, two for the hyperfine interaction but four for the electron spin dipole–dipole interaction of the intermediate radical pair....... Quantum mechanical calculations agree with these conclusion and show that large MIE may be obtained even in the presence of a strong exchange interaction. The observed magnesium isotope effect on the rate of enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is approximately 3 implying that the dipolar...

  6. Relaxation spectra and dipolar correlations for flexible polymers with bulky side groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Calleja, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Riande, E.; Roman, J.S. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    1992-08-06

    This paper discusses how relaxation spectra and dipolar correlations for flexible polymers with bulky side groups (PBPA chains) suggest that intermolecular correlations are not very important in this polymer and that {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} absorptions exist. TSDC techniques reveal that the {gamma} peak has a smaller activation energy than the {beta}, and the coupling scheme is used to interpret the complex dielectric and mechanical {alpha} relaxations. The anomalous temperature dependence of the glass-rubber relaxation is discussed in terms of the bulkiness of the side group. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Magnetic dipolar interaction between correlated triplets created by singlet fission in tetracene crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Singlet fission (SF) can potentially break the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit in single-junction solar cells by splitting one photo-excited singlet exciton (S1) into two triplets (2T1) in organic semiconductors. A dark multi-exciton (ME) state has been proposed as the intermediate connecting S1 to 2T1. However, the exact nature of this ME state, especially how the doubly-excited triplets interact, remains elusive. Here, we report a quantitative study on the magnetic dipolar interaction between SF-induced correlated triplets in tetracene crystals by monitoring quantum beats relevant to the ME sublevels at room temperature. The resonances of ME sublevels approached by tuning an external magnetic field are observed to be avoided, which agrees well with the theoretical predictions considering a magnetic dipolar interaction of ~ 0.008 GHz. Our work paves a way to quantify the magnetic dipolar interaction in organic materials and marks an important step towards understanding the underlying physics of the ME sta...

  8. Collisional effects in the dynamics of a dipolar gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this talk, we discuss the role of collisions in dipolar gases which are far from equilibrium. We compare and contrast collisional mechanisms with mean-field effects. We consider several cases of dynamical behaviour. We begin with cross-dimensional relaxation, where the time-scale of equilibration is studied following a quench in the trap parameters. We also discuss the damping of monopole and quadrupole excitations. Finally we discuss time-of-flight expansion dynamics. Our results demonstrate that collisions can play a significant role. We use these results to extract an estimate of the deca-heptuplet s-partial-wave scattering length of bosonic dysprosium, and to improve the accuracy of experimental time-of-flight expansion imaging. Financial support from the Marie Sklodowska-Curie H2020 framework program.

  9. Probing motions between equivalent RNA domains using magnetic field induced residual dipolar couplings: accounting for correlations between motions and alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Throolin, Rachel; Pitt, Stephen W; Serganov, Alexander; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M

    2003-09-03

    Approaches developed thus for extracting structural and dynamical information from RDCs have rested on the assumption that motions do not affect molecular alignment. However, it is well established that molecular alignment in ordered media is dependent on conformation, and slowly interconverting conformational substates may exhibit different alignment properties. Neglecting these correlation effects can lead to aberrations in the structural and dynamical analysis of RDCs and diminish the utility of RDCs in probing motions between domains having similar alignment propensities. Here, we introduce a new approach based on measurement of magnetic field induced residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acids which can explicitly take into account such correlations and demonstrate measurements of motions between two "magnetically equivalent" domains in the transactivation response element (TAR) RNA.

  10. Cross correlations between {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H dipolar interactions and {sup 15}N chemical shift anisotropy in nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranathan, Sapna [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, BCH (Switzerland); Kim, Chul-Hyun [University of California, Department of Chemistry (United States); Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, BCH (Switzerland)], E-mail: Geoffrey.Bodenhausen@ens.fr

    2003-12-15

    Two sets of cross-correlated relaxation rates involving chemical shift anisotropy and dipolar interactions have been measured in an RNA kissing complex. In one case, both the CSA and dipolar interaction tensors are located on the same nucleotide base and are rigidly fixed with respect to each other. In the other case, the CSA tensor is located on the nucleotide base whereas the dipolar interaction is located on the adjoining ribose unit. Analysis of the measured rates in terms of isotropic or anisotropic rotational diffusion has been carried out for both cases. A marked difference between the two models is observed for the cross-correlation rates involving rigidly fixed spin interactions. The influence of internal motions about the glycosidic linkage between the nucleotide base and the ribose unit on cross-correlated relaxation rates has been estimated by applying a model of restricted rotational diffusion. Local motions seem to have a more pronounced effect on cross-correlated relaxation rates when the two spin interactions are not rigidly fixed with respect to each other.

  11. Dispersion of Soluble Matters in Newton—dipolar Stratified fluid and Effects of Peripheral Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJiLU; ShoushengDONG; 等

    1998-01-01

    In the paper,the dispersion law and the concentration distributions of soluble matters in ewton-dipolar fluids flowing through a circular tube have been investigated.Main results are:(1) for the dependence of M on λ(or H),the completely opposite trends are obtained in the cases with and without the peripheral layer.(2) effects of δ on M have the minimum values near δ=0.85-0.9,(3) various models such as couple stress,micropolar,dipolar,Newton-newtonican,Newton-couple stress and Newton-micropolar model etc.are all special cases of Newton-dipolar fluid(where Mz=0).When Mz≠0,however,there are evident differences between the Newton-dipolar fluid and the Newton-couple stress fluid,the Newton-micropoloar fluid.

  12. Dipolar modulation in the size of galaxies: The effect of Doppler magnification

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvin, Camille; Bacon, David; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Moloi, Teboho; Bull, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Objects falling into an overdensity appear larger on its near side and smaller on its far side than other objects at the same redshift. This produces a dipolar pattern of magnification, primarily as a consequence of the Doppler effect. At low redshift this Doppler magnification completely dominates the usual integrated gravitational lensing contribution to the lensing magnification. We show that one can optimally observe this pattern by extracting the dipole in the cross-correlation of number counts and galaxy sizes. This dipole allows us to almost completely remove the contribution from gravitational lensing up to redshift 0.5, and even at high redshift z~1 the dipole picks up the Doppler magnification predominantly. Doppler magnification should be easily detectable in current and upcoming optical and radio surveys; by forecasting for telescopes such as the SKA, we show that this technique is competitive with using peculiar velocities via redshift-space distortions to constrain dark energy. It produces simil...

  13. Studies of linear correlation factor of dielectric polarization and excess dipolar free energies of amides in apolar solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Malathi; R Sabesan; S Krishnan

    2005-09-01

    The Kirkwood–Frohlich correlation factor (), Eyring's parameters and * and the dipolar excess free energies of dilute solutions of formamide, acetamide, -methyl acetamide, , -dimethyl formamide and , -dimethyl acetamide in 1,4-dioxan/benzene were obtained from a measurement of their static dielectric permittivities at 308 K. The fluid structure of these amides is discussed. Both in formamide and acetamide a dimeric linear chain with the individual dipoles more or less parallely oriented is preferred. In -methyl acetamide, the antiparallel orientation of dipoles at lower concentrations turns into a parallel orientation with increase of concentration. In tertiary amides, with increase of concentration, parallel orientation of dipoles with global value of tending to unity is observed. The dipolar excess free energy of mixing in a given solvent is of the order primary amide > secondary amide > tertiary amide.

  14. Dissipative effects in dipolar, quantum many-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    We use Quantum Monte Carlo simulations, by the Worm algorithm, to study the ground state phase diagram of two-dimensional, dipolar lattice bosons where each site is coupled, via density operators, to an external reservoir. A recent related study of the XXZ model with ohmic coupling to an external reservoir reported the existence of a bath-induced Bose metal phase in the ground state phase diagram away from half filling, and a Luttinger liquid and a charge density wave at half-filling. Our work extends this methodology to higher dimensional systems with long-range interactions. In the case of hard-core bosons, our method can be applied to experimental systems featuring dipolar fermionic molecules in the presence of losses. This work utilized the Janus supercomputer, which is supported by the NSF (award number CNS-0821794) and the University of Colorado Boulder, and is a joint effort with the University of Colorado Denver and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, as well as OU Supercomputing Center for Education and Research (OSCER) at the University of Oklahoma. NIST, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, NSF-PHY11-25915, ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  15. Carrier-envelope phase effects for a dipolar molecule interacting with ultrashort laser pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ke; Li Hong-Yu; Liu Ji-Cai; Wang Chuan-Kui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the phase-dependent features of ultrashort laser pulse resonant propagation in a two-level dipolar molecule are demonstrated by solving full Maxwell-Bloch equations. The electronic properties of dipolar molecule 4-trans-[p-(N, N-Di-n-butylamino)-p -stilbenylvinyl] pyridine (DBASVP) molecule, one-dimensional asymmetric organic molecule, is calculated by density functional theory at ab initio level. The numerical results show that the carrier propagation and the spectrum evolution of the pulse are sensitive to its initial phase and the phase sensitivity is more obvious for larger area pulse. The phase-dependent feature is more evident in dipolar molecule because the permanent dipole moment makes the nonlinear effects stronger.

  16. Effect of dipolar ions on the entropy-driven polymerization of tobacco mosaic virus protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, M A; Shalaby, R A

    1985-11-01

    The effect of the dipolar ions, glycine, glycylglycine, and glycylglycylglycine on the polymerization of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) protein has been studied by the methods of light scattering and ultracentrifugation. All three dipolar ions promote polymerization. The major reaction in the early stage is transition from the 4 S to the 20 S state. As in the absence of dipolar ions, the polymerization is enhanced by an increase in temperature; it is endothermic and therefore entropy-driven. The effect of the dipolar ions can be understood in terms of their action as salting-out agents; they increase the activity coefficient of TMV A protein, the 4 S material, and thus shift the equilibrium toward the 20 S state. The salting-out constants, K, for the reaction in 0.10 ionic strength phosphate buffer at pH 6.7 was found by the light scattering method to be 1.6 for glycine, 2.5 for glycylglycine, and 2.5 for glycylglycylglycine. A value of 2.7 was obtained by the ultracentrifugation method for glycylglycine in phosphate buffer at 0.1 ionic strength and pH 6.8 at 10 degrees C. For both glycine and glycylglycine, K increases when the ionic strength of the phosphate buffer is decreased. This result suggests that electrolytes decrease the activity coefficient of the dipolar ions, a salting-in phenomenon. However, the salting-in constants evaluated from these results are substantially higher than those previously determined by solubility measurements. The effect of glycine and glycylglycine on polymerization was studied at pH values between 6.2 and 6.8. The effectiveness of both dipolar ions is approximately 50% greater at pH 6.8 than at pH 6.2. The variation of the extent of polymerization with pH in the presence of the dipolar ions is consistent with the interpretation that approximately one hydrogen ion is bound for half of the polypeptide units in the polymerized A protein.

  17. Dipolar field effects on the critical current for spin transfer switch of iron and permalloy nanoelements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L. L.; Dantas, J. T. S.; Souza, R. M.; Carriço, A. S., E-mail: ascarrico@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Dantas, Ana L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210 Mossoró, RN (Brazil)

    2014-05-07

    We report a theoretical study of dipolar effects on the switching current density of soft ferromagnetic elliptical nanoelements. Relevant changes on the critical current value are found according to the orientation of the magnetization and the spin polarization with the major axis. We show that the critical current density may be reduced by as much as 92% for thin nanoelements magnetized along the minor axis direction, using in-plane spin polarization parallel to the magnetization.

  18. Dipolar interaction effects in the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of ordered nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechrakos, D; Trohidou, K N

    2008-06-01

    Assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles exhibit interesting physical properties arising from the competition of intraparticle dynamics and interparticle interactions. In ordered arrays of magnetic nanoparticles magnetostatic interparticle interactions introduce collective dynamics acting competitively to random anisotropy. Basic understanding, characterization and control of dipolar interaction effects in arrays of magnetic nanoparticles is an issue of central importance. To this end, numerical simulation techniques offer an indispensable tool. We report on Monte Carlo studies of the magnetic hysteresis and spin-dependent transport in thin films formed by ordered arrays of magnetic nanoparticles. Emphasis is given to the modifications of the single-particle behavior due to interparticle dipolar interactions as these arise in quantities of experimental interest, such as, the magnetization, the susceptibility and the magnetoresistance. We investigate the role of the structural parameters of an array (interparticle separation, number of stacked monolayers) and the role of the internal structure of the nanoparticles (single phase, core-shell). Dipolar interactions are responsible for anisotropic magnetic behavior between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions of the sample, which is reflected on the investigated magnetic properties (magnetization, transverse susceptibility and magnetoresistance) and the parameters of the array (remanent magnetization, coercive field, and blocking temperature). Our numerical results are compared to existing measurements on self-assembled arrays of Fe-based and Co nanoparticles is made.

  19. Persistent Superfluid Flow Arising from the He-McKellar-Wilkens Effect in Molecular Dipolar Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. A.; McKellar, B. H. J.; Martin, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect can induce a persistent flow in a Bose-Einstein condensate of polar molecules confined in a toroidal trap, with the dipolar interaction mediated via an electric dipole moment. For Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with a magnetic dipole moment, we show that although it is theoretically possible to induce persistent flow via the Aharonov-Casher effect, the strength of the electric field required is prohibitive. We also outline an experimental geometry tailored specifically for observing the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect in toroidally trapped condensates.

  20. Persistent superfluid flow arising from the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect in molecular dipolar condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, A A; Martin, A M

    2016-01-01

    We show that the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect can induce a persistent flow in a Bose-Einstein condensate of polar molecules confined in a toroidal trap, with the dipolar interaction mediated via an electric dipole moment. For Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with a magnetic dipole moment, we show that although it is theoretically possible to induce persistent flow via the Aharonov-Casher effect, the strength of electric field required is prohibitive. We also outline an experimental geometry tailored specifically for observing the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect in toroidally-trapped condensates.

  1. Effect of dipolar-angle on phospholipid assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Tanay

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of lipid head-group dipole orientation on phase behaviour of phospholipid assembly. The work explains molecular-scale mechanism of ion-lipid, anesthetic-lipid interactions where reorientation of dipoles play important role in membrane potential modification. Molecular Dynamics simulations are performed to analyse structure-property relationship and dynamical behaviour of lipid biomembranes considering coarse-grained model interactions.

  2. Different approaches to analyze the dipolar interaction effects on diluted and concentrated granular superparamagnetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso-Londoño, O.; Tancredi, P.; Muraca, D.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Coral, D.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Wolff, U.; Neu, V.; Damm, C.; de Oliveira, C. L. P.; Pirota, K. R.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.

    2017-04-01

    Controlled magnetic granular materials with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles immersed in a non-conducting polymer matrix were synthesized and, their macroscopic magnetic observables analyzed in order to advance towards a better understanding of the magnetic dipolar interactions and its effects on the obtained magnetic parameters. First, by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption fine structure an accurate study of the structural properties was carried out. Then, the magnetic properties were analyzed by means of different models, including those that consider the magnetic interactions through long-range dipolar forces as: the Interacting Superparamagnetic Model (ISP) and the Vogel-Fulcher law (V-F). In systems with larger nanoparticle concentrations, magnetic results clearly indicate that the role played by the dipolar interactions affects the magnetic properties, giving rise to obtaining magnetic and structural parameters without physical meaning. Magnetic parameters as the effective anisotropic constant, magnetic moment relaxation time and mean blocking temperature, extracted from the application of the ISP model and V-F Law, were used to simulate the zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling curves (FC). A comparative analysis of the simulated, fitted and experimental ZFC/FC curves suggests that the current models depict indeed our dilute granular systems. Notwithstanding, for concentrated samples, the ISP model infers that clustered nanoparticles are being interpreted as single entities of larger magnetic moment and volume, effect that is apparently related to a collective and complex magnetic moment dynamics within the cluster.

  3. Beyond Molecular Wires: Design Molecular Electronic Functions Based on Dipolar Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wai-Yip; Zhang, Na; Cai, Zhengxu; Li, Lianwei; Yu, Luping

    2016-09-20

    investigated the rectification effect of different types of p-n junction diodes and its modification by structural and external effects. Through a combination of structural modifications, low temperature study, and quantum mechanical calculations, we showed that the origin of the rectification in these molecules can be attributed to the effect of dipolar field. Further studies on charge transport through transition metal complexes and anchoring group effect supported this conclusion. Most recently, a model system of molecular transistor was synthesized and demonstrated by STM-BJ technique. The gating effect in the molecular wire originated from the tuning of the energy levels via dipolar field and can be turned on/off by dipolar field and chemical stimulation. This is the first example of gated charge transport in molecular electronics.

  4. Sequential backbone assignment based on dipolar amide-to-amide correlation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, ShengQi; Grohe, Kristof; Rovó, Petra; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus

    2015-07-01

    Proton detection in solid-state NMR has seen a tremendous increase in popularity in the last years. New experimental techniques allow to exploit protons as an additional source of information on structure, dynamics, and protein interactions with their surroundings. In addition, sensitivity is mostly improved and ambiguity in assignment experiments reduced. We show here that, in the solid state, sequential amide-to-amide correlations turn out to be an excellent, complementary way to exploit amide shifts for unambiguous backbone assignment. For a general assessment, we compare amide-to-amide experiments with the more common (13)C-shift-based methods. Exploiting efficient CP magnetization transfers rather than less efficient INEPT periods, our results suggest that the approach is very feasible for solid-state NMR.

  5. Sequential backbone assignment based on dipolar amide-to-amide correlation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, ShengQi; Grohe, Kristof; Rovó, Petra; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus, E-mail: rali@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department for NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Proton detection in solid-state NMR has seen a tremendous increase in popularity in the last years. New experimental techniques allow to exploit protons as an additional source of information on structure, dynamics, and protein interactions with their surroundings. In addition, sensitivity is mostly improved and ambiguity in assignment experiments reduced. We show here that, in the solid state, sequential amide-to-amide correlations turn out to be an excellent, complementary way to exploit amide shifts for unambiguous backbone assignment. For a general assessment, we compare amide-to-amide experiments with the more common {sup 13}C-shift-based methods. Exploiting efficient CP magnetization transfers rather than less efficient INEPT periods, our results suggest that the approach is very feasible for solid-state NMR.

  6. Temperature dependent quantum correlations in three dipolar coupled two-level atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Shaik

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermal entanglement characteristics of three dipole-coupled two-level atoms arranged in two different configurations - in a line with nearest neighbour coupling and in a closed loop with each atom interacting with both its neighbours. It is observed that in loop configuration, any one of the three atoms is indeed entangled with the other two atoms in the system, which are not mutually entangled, and further that this feature is specific to only the loop configuration, which is markedly absent in the line configuration. A detailed study of the quantum correlations demonstrated how these can be tuned by varying the temperature and the dipole dipole coupling strength, in both the configurations.

  7. Magnetic dipolar coupling and collective effects for binary information codification in cost-effective logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Allia, Paolo; Graziano, Mariagrazia

    2012-09-01

    Physical limitations foreshadow the eventual end to traditional Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) scaling. Therefore, interest has turned to various materials and technologies aimed to succeed to traditional CMOS. Magnetic Quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) are one of these technologies. Working MQCA arrays require very complex techniques and an excellent control on the geometry of the nanomagnets and on the quality of the magnetic thin film, thus limiting the possibility for MQCA of representing a definite solution to cost-effective, high density and low power consumption device demand. Counter-intuitively, moving towards bigger sizes and lighter technologies it is still possible to develop multi-state logic devices, as we demonstrated, whose main advantage is cost-effectiveness. Applications may be seen in low cost logic devices where integration and computational power are not the main issue, eventually using flexible substrates and taking advantage of the intrinsic mechanical toughness of systems where long range interactions do not need wirings. We realized cobalt micrometric MQCA arrays by means of Electron Beam Lithography, exploiting cost-effective processes such as lift-off and RF sputtering that usually are avoided due to their low control on array geometry and film roughness. Information relative to the magnetic configuration of MQCA elements including their eventual magnetic interactions was obtained from Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM) images, enhanced by means of a numerical procedure and presented in differential maps. We report the existence of bi-stable magnetic patterns, as detected by MFM while sampling the z-component of magnetic induction field, arising from dipolar inter-element magnetostatic coupling, able to store and propagate binary information. This is achieved despite the array quality and element magnetic state, which are low and multi-domain, respectively. We discuss in detail shape, inter-element spacing and dot profile

  8. Cross-Correlated Relaxation of Dipolar Coupling and Chemical-Shift Anisotropy in Magic-Angle Spinning R1ρ NMR Measurements: Application to Protein Backbone Dynamics Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurauskas, Vilius; Weber, Emmanuelle; Hessel, Audrey; Ayala, Isabel; Marion, Dominique; Schanda, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Transverse relaxation rate measurements in magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance provide information about molecular motions occurring on nanosecond-to-millisecond (ns-ms) time scales. The measurement of heteronuclear ((13)C, (15)N) relaxation rate constants in the presence of a spin-lock radiofrequency field (R1ρ relaxation) provides access to such motions, and an increasing number of studies involving R1ρ relaxation in proteins have been reported. However, two factors that influence the observed relaxation rate constants have so far been neglected, namely, (1) the role of CSA/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) and (2) the impact of fast proton spin flips (i.e., proton spin diffusion and relaxation). We show that CSA/D CCR in R1ρ experiments is measurable and that the CCR rate constant depends on ns-ms motions; it can thus provide insight into dynamics. We find that proton spin diffusion attenuates this CCR due to its decoupling effect on the doublet components. For measurements of dynamics, the use of R1ρ rate constants has practical advantages over the use of CCR rates, and this article reveals factors that have so far been disregarded and which are important for accurate measurements and interpretation.

  9. Effects of inter- and intra-aggregate magnetic dipolar interactions on the magnetic heating efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, J G; Cabrera, D; Carrey, J; Valdivielso, T; Salas, G; Teran, F J

    2016-04-28

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have found an increasing number of biomedical applications as sensing or trapping platforms and therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. Most of these applications are based on their magnetic properties, which may vary depending on the nanoparticle aggregation state and/or concentration. In this work, we assess the effect of the inter- and intra-aggregate magnetic dipolar interactions on the heat dissipation power and AC hysteresis loops upon increasing the nanoparticle concentration and the hydrodynamic aggregate size. We observe different effects produced by inter- (long distance) and intra-aggregate (short distance) interactions, resulting in magnetizing and demagnetizing effects, respectively. Consequently, the heat dissipation power under alternating magnetic fields strongly reflects such different interacting phenomena. The intra-aggregate interaction results were successfully modeled by numerical simulations. A better understanding of magnetic dipolar interactions is mandatory for achieving a reliable magnetic hyperthermia response when nanoparticles are located into biological matrices.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of quadrupolar nuclei and dipolar field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffry Todd

    2004-12-21

    Experimental and theoretical research conducted in two areas in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented: (1) studies of the coherent quantum-mechanical control of the angular momentum dynamics of quadrupolar (spin I > 1/2) nuclei and its application to the determination of molecular structure; and (2) applications of the long-range nuclear dipolar field to novel NMR detection methodologies.The dissertation is organized into six chapters. The first two chapters and associated appendices are intended to be pedagogical and include an introduction to the quantum mechanical theory of pulsed NMR spectroscopy and the time dependent theory of quantum mechanics. The third chapter describes investigations of the solid-state multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) NMR experiment applied to I = 5/2 quadrupolar nuclei. This work reports the use of rotary resonance-matched radiofrequency irradiation for sensitivity enhancement of the I = 5/2 MQMAS experiment. These experiments exhibited certain selective line narrowing effects which were investigated theoretically.The fourth chapter extends the discussion of multiple quantum spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to a mostly theoretical study of the feasibility of enhancing the resolution of nitrogen-14 NMR of large biomolecules in solution via double-quantum spectroscopy. The fifth chapter continues to extend the principles of multiple quantum NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to make analogies between experiments in NMR/nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) and experiments in atomic/molecular optics (AMO). These analogies are made through the Hamiltonian and density operator formalism of angular momentum dynamics in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.The sixth chapter investigates the use of the macroscopic nuclear dipolar field to encode the NMR spectrum of an analyte nucleus indirectly in the magnetization of a sensor nucleus. This technique could potentially serve as an

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of quadrupolar nuclei and dipolar field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffry Todd [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research conducted in two areas in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented: (1) studies of the coherent quantum-mechanical control of the angular momentum dynamics of quadrupolar (spin I > 1/2) nuclei and its application to the determination of molecular structure; and (2) applications of the long-range nuclear dipolar field to novel NMR detection methodologies.The dissertation is organized into six chapters. The first two chapters and associated appendices are intended to be pedagogical and include an introduction to the quantum mechanical theory of pulsed NMR spectroscopy and the time dependent theory of quantum mechanics. The third chapter describes investigations of the solid-state multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) NMR experiment applied to I = 5/2 quadrupolar nuclei. This work reports the use of rotary resonance-matched radiofrequency irradiation for sensitivity enhancement of the I = 5/2 MQMAS experiment. These experiments exhibited certain selective line narrowing effects which were investigated theoretically.The fourth chapter extends the discussion of multiple quantum spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to a mostly theoretical study of the feasibility of enhancing the resolution of nitrogen-14 NMR of large biomolecules in solution via double-quantum spectroscopy. The fifth chapter continues to extend the principles of multiple quantum NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to make analogies between experiments in NMR/nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) and experiments in atomic/molecular optics (AMO). These analogies are made through the Hamiltonian and density operator formalism of angular momentum dynamics in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.The sixth chapter investigates the use of the macroscopic nuclear dipolar field to encode the NMR spectrum of an analyte nucleus indirectly in the magnetization of a sensor nucleus. This technique could potentially serve as an

  12. Effects of a perpendicular magnetic field in the dipolar Heisenberg model with dominant exchange interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Labdeh, A M; MacIsaac, A B; De'Bell, K

    2011-07-27

    The effects of a uniform magnetic field on the phase diagram of the dipolar Heisenberg model with a dominant antiferromagnetic exchange interaction have been investigated. The model consists of a square lattice of classical spin vectors, where the spins interact through an antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of strength J and a dipole-dipole interaction of strength g. The spins couple to a magnetic surface anisotropy of strength κ and to an applied external magnetic field of strength H. The external field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the lattice. From extensive Monte Carlo simulations, representative magnetic phase diagrams have been determined as a function of the ratios κ/g and T/g, where T is temperature, and at three different ratios of H/g (H/g = 10, 20, 27). These results are compared to the previously investigated case of H/g = 0 and to analytic calculations for the ground state energies. The nature of the equilibrium phases and order of the phase boundaries separating them are considered and changes due to the strength of the applied field are highlighted.

  13. Effect of long- and short-range interactions on the thermodynamics of dipolar spin ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Yuriy, E-mail: shevchenko.ya@dvfu.ru [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Makarov, Aleksandr, E-mail: makarov.ag@dvfu.ru [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Nefedev, Konstantin, E-mail: nefedev.kv@dvfu.ru [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Mathematics of Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, 7 Radio Str, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-05

    The thermodynamic properties of dipolar spin ice on square, honeycomb and shakti lattices in the long-range and short-range dipole interaction models are studied. Exact solutions for the density of states, temperature dependencies of heat capacity, and entropy are obtained for these lattices with a finite number of point dipoles by means of complete enumeration. The magnetic susceptibility and average size of the largest low-energy cluster are calculated for square spin ice by means of Wang–Landau and Metropolis methods. We show that the long-range interaction leads to a blurring of the energy spectrum for all considered lattices. The inclusion of the long-range interaction leads to a significant change in the thermodynamic behaviour. An additional peak of heat capacity appears in the case of the honeycomb lattice. The critical temperature shifts in the direction of low or high temperatures; the direction depends on the lattice geometry. The critical temperature of the phase transition of square spin ice in the long-range model with frustrated ground states is obtained with the Wang–Landau and Metropolis methods independently. - Highlights: • The long-range and short-range dipole interaction effects are compared. • Differences are showed for Honeycomb, Shakti and Square spin ice lattices. • The additional heat capacity peaks appear for long-range interaction. • The temperature of heat capacity peak shifts while changing the interaction range.

  14. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  15. Influence of static and dynamic dipolar fields in bulk YIG/thin film NiFe systems probed via spin rectification effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Tay, Z. J.; Yakovlev, N. L.; Peng, Bin; Ong, C. K.

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of the static and dynamic components of the dipolar fields originating from a bulk polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate are probed by depositing a NiFe (Permalloy) layer on it, which acts as a detector. By measuring dc voltages generated via spin rectification effect (SRE) within the NiFe layer under microwave excitation, we characterize the influence of dipolar fields from bulk YIG on the NiFe layer. It is found that the dynamic YIG dipolar fields modify the self-SRE of NiFe, driving its own rectification voltages within the NiFe layer, an effect we term as non-local SRE. This non-local SRE only occurs near the simultaneous resonance of both YIG and NiFe. On the other hand, the static dipolar field from YIG manifests itself as a negative anisotropy in the NiFe layer which shifts the latter's ferromagnetic resonance frequency.

  16. Kinetic solvent effects on 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of benzonitrile oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, T; Engberts, JBFN

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of benzonitrile oxide with a series of N-substituted maleimides and with cyclopentene are reported for water, a wide range of organic solvents and binary solvent mixtures. The results indicate the importance of both solvent polarity and specific hydrogen-bo

  17. Rotational ratchets with dipolar interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2012-12-01

    We report results from a computer simulation study on the rotational ratchet effect in systems of magnetic particles interacting via dipolar interactions. The ratchet effect consists of directed rotations of the particles in an oscillating magnetic field, which lacks a net rotating component. Our investigations are based on Brownian dynamics simulations of such many-particle systems. We investigate the influence of both the random and deterministic contributions to the equations of motion on the ratchet effect. As a main result, we show that dipolar interactions can have an enhancing as well as a dampening effect on the ratchet behavior depending on the dipolar coupling strength of the system under consideration. The enhancement is shown to be caused by an increase in the effective field on a particle generated by neighboring magnetic particles, while the dampening is due to restricted rotational motion in the effective field. Moreover, we find a nontrivial influence of the short-range, repulsive interaction between the particles.

  18. Magnetostriction and exchange effects in trapped dipolar Bose and Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Baillie, D; Blakie, P. B.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the magnetostrictive position and momentum space distortions that occur in harmonically confined dipolar Bose and Fermi gases. Direct interactions give rise to position space magnetostriction and exchange interactions give rise to momentum space magnetostriction. While the position space magnetostriction is similar in Bose and Fermi systems, the momentum space magnetostriction is markedly different: the Bose gas momentum distribution distorts in the opposite sense to that of the Fe...

  19. A refined model of the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacterium chlorobium tepidum from proton chemical shift constraints obtained with high-field 2-D and 3-D MAS NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van B.E.J.; Steengaard, D.B.; Boender, G.J.; Schaffner, K.; Holzwarth, A.R.; Groot, de H.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Heteronuclear 2-D and 3-D magic-angle spinning NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy was applied to determine solid-state 1H shifts for aggregated bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) in uniformly 13C-enriched light harvesting chlorosomes of the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. A complete

  20. A refined model of the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacterium chlorobium tepidum from proton chemical shift constraints obtained with high-field 2-D and 3-D MAS NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van B.E.J.; Steengaard, D.B.; Boender, G.J.; Schaffner, K.; Holzwarth, A.R.; Groot, de H.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Heteronuclear 2-D and 3-D magic-angle spinning NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy was applied to determine solid-state 1H shifts for aggregated bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) in uniformly 13C-enriched light harvesting chlorosomes of the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. A complete

  1. Spin correlations in Ho2Ti2O7: A dipolar spin ice system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramwell, S.T.; Harris, M.J.; Hertog, B.C. den

    2001-01-01

    described by a nearest neighbor spin ice model and very accurately described by a dipolar spin ice model. The heat capacity is well accounted for by the sum of a dipolar spin ice contribution and an expected nuclear spin contribution, known to exist in other Ho(3+) salts. These results settle the question...

  2. Effect of long- and short-range interactions on the thermodynamics of dipolar spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yuriy; Makarov, Aleksandr; Nefedev, Konstantin

    2017-02-01

    The thermodynamic properties of dipolar spin ice on square, honeycomb and shakti lattices in the long-range and short-range dipole interaction models are studied. Exact solutions for the density of states, temperature dependencies of heat capacity, and entropy are obtained for these lattices with a finite number of point dipoles by means of complete enumeration. The magnetic susceptibility and average size of the largest low-energy cluster are calculated for square spin ice by means of Wang-Landau and Metropolis methods. We show that the long-range interaction leads to a blurring of the energy spectrum for all considered lattices. The inclusion of the long-range interaction leads to a significant change in the thermodynamic behaviour. An additional peak of heat capacity appears in the case of the honeycomb lattice. The critical temperature shifts in the direction of low or high temperatures; the direction depends on the lattice geometry. The critical temperature of the phase transition of square spin ice in the long-range model with frustrated ground states is obtained with the Wang-Landau and Metropolis methods independently.

  3. Accurate determination of order parameters from 1H,15N dipolar couplings in MAS solid-state NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevelkov, Veniamin; Fink, Uwe; Reif, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    A reliable site-specific estimate of the individual N-H bond lengths in the protein backbone is the fundamental basis of any relaxation experiment in solution and in the solid-state NMR. The N-H bond length can in principle be influenced by hydrogen bonding, which would result in an increased N-H distance. At the same time, dynamics in the backbone induces a reduction of the experimental dipolar coupling due to motional averaging. We present a 3D dipolar recoupling experiment in which the (1)H,(15)N dipolar coupling is reintroduced in the indirect dimension using phase-inverted CP to eliminate effects from rf inhomogeneity. We find no variation of the N-H dipolar coupling as a function of hydrogen bonding. Instead, variations in the (1)H,(15)N dipolar coupling seem to be due to dynamics of the protein backbone. This is supported by the observed correlation between the H(N)-N dipolar coupling and the amide proton chemical shift. The experiment is demonstrated for a perdeuterated sample of the alpha-spectrin SH3 domain. Perdeuteration is a prerequisite to achieve high accuracy. The average error in the analysis of the H-N dipolar couplings is on the order of +/-370 Hz (+/-0.012 A) and can be as small as 150 Hz, corresponding to a variation of the bond length of +/-0.005 A.

  4. Dipolar Dark Matter and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Luc; Tiec, Alexandre Le; Marsat, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenology of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can be recovered from a mechanism of "gravitational polarization" of some dipolar medium playing the role of dark matter. We review a relativistic model of dipolar dark matter (DDM) within standard general relativity to describe, at some effective level, a fluid polarizable in a gravitational field. At first order in cosmological perturbation theory, this model is equivalent to the concordance cosmological scenario, or Lambda-cold dark matter (CDM) model. At second order, however, the internal energy of DDM modifies the curvature perturbation generated by CDM. This correction, which depends quadratically on the dipole, induces a new type of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation with respect to standard CDM. Recent observations by the Planck satellite impose stringent constraints on the primordial value of the dipole field.

  5. The Effect of Combined Magnetic Geometries on Thermally Driven Winds. I. Interaction of Dipolar and Quadrupolar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Adam J.; Matt, Sean P.

    2017-08-01

    Cool stars with outer convective envelopes are observed to have magnetic fields with a variety of geometries, which on large scales are dominated by a combination of the lowest-order fields such as the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole modes. Magnetized stellar wind outflows are primarily responsible for the loss of angular momentum from these objects during the main sequence. Previous works have shown the reduced effectiveness of the stellar wind braking mechanism with increasingly complex but singular magnetic field geometries. In this paper, we quantify the impact of mixed dipolar and quadrupolar fields on the spin-down torque using 50 MHD simulations with mixed fields, along with 10 each of the pure geometries. The simulated winds include a wide range of magnetic field strength and reside in the slow-rotator regime. We find that the stellar wind braking torque from our combined geometry cases is well described by a broken power-law behavior, where the torque scaling with field strength can be predicted by the dipole component alone or the quadrupolar scaling utilizing the total field strength. The simulation results can be scaled and apply to all main-sequence cool stars. For solar parameters, the lowest-order component of the field (dipole in this paper) is the most significant in determining the angular momentum loss.

  6. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  7. Dipolar and chain-linking effects on the rheology of grafted chains in a nanopore under shear at different grafting densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2001-01-01

    this modification of the interfacial region could specifically control the mechanical properties. By considering two different grafting densities, the effect of dipolar forces across the nanopore with increasing load was addressed. In general, it was found that interfacial viscosities and friction forces increase......Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to probe structural and dynamical properties of tail-grafted, amphiphilic chains under shear at different grafting densities. Emphasis was put on the modification of the head groups in order to investigate to which extent...

  8. Correlational effect size benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Spin-selective correlation experiment for measurement of long-range J couplings and for assignment of (R/S) enantiomers from the residual dipolar couplings and DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nilamoni; Suryaprakash, N

    2011-06-02

    We report the C-HETSERF experiment for determination of long- and short-range homo- and heteronuclear scalar couplings ((n)J(HH) and (n)J(XH), n ≥ 1) of organic molecules with a low sensitivity dilute heteronucleus in natural abundance. The method finds significant advantage in measurement of relative signs of long-range heteronuclear total couplings in chiral organic liquid crystal. The advantage of the method is demonstrated for the measurement of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in enantiomers oriented in the chiral liquid crystal with a focus to unambiguously assign R/S designation in a 2D spectrum. The alignment tensor calculated from the experimental RDCs and with the computed structures of enantiomers obtained by DFT calculations provides the size of the back-calculated RDCs. Smaller root-mean-square deviations (rmsd) between experimental and calculated RDCs indicate better agreement with the input structure and its correct designation of the stereogenic center.

  10. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delorme

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA and blind source separation (BSS methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA; best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison.

  11. Effect of an external field on the structure and the phase transitions of a confined mixture of neutral and dipolar hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S.; Malherbe, J. G.; Amokrane, S.

    2015-11-01

    We study by Monte Carlo simulation the model of a binary mixture of neutral and dipolar hard spheres confined between two widely separated planar walls and subjected to a uniform external field. The goal is to investigate the structural response and the phase transitions of a fluid of hard-sphere-like colloids dispersed in a low-permittivity solvent under the combined effect of geometrical confinement and applied field. In a wide slab, the direction of the field, either normal or perpendicular to the walls, remains one of the most important factors that govern the response of the mixture: in normal field, a wide variety of structural effects are evidenced, including partial wetting or drying of the wall; in parallel field, phase separation is favoured with a specific population of the region close to the wall and a clear separation of the two species. These results suggest possible means to modulate the response of the confined fluid for specific needs.

  12. Deconfinement and quantum liquid crystalline states of dipolar fermions in optical lattices

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple model of fermions in quasi-one dimension that features interaction induced deconfinement (a phase transition where the effective dimensionality of the system increases as interactions are turned on) and which can be realised using dipolar fermions in an optical lattice. The model provides a relisation of a "soft quantum matter" phase diagram of strongly-correlated fermions, featuring meta-nematic, smectic and crystalline states, in addition to the normal Fermi liquid. In ...

  13. Lanthanide-binding peptides for NMR measurements of residual dipolar couplings and paramagnetic effects from multiple angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xun-Cheng; McAndrew, Kerry; Huber, Thomas; Otting, Gottfried

    2008-02-06

    Lanthanide-binding peptide tags (LBTs) containing a single cysteine residue can be attached to proteins via a disulfide bond, presenting a flexible means of tagging proteins site-specifically with a lanthanide ion. Here we show that cysteine residues placed in different positions of the LBT can be used to expose the protein to different orientations of the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (delta chi) tensor and to generate different molecular alignments in a magnetic field. Delta chi tensors determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for LBT complexes with Yb3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ suggest a rational way of producing alignment tensors with different orientations. In addition, knowledge of the delta chi tensor of LBT allows modeling of the protein-LBT structures. Despite evidence for residual mobility of the LBTs with respect to the protein, the pseudocontact shifts and residual dipolar couplings displayed by proteins disulfide-bonded to LBTs are greater than those achievable with most other lanthanide binding tags.

  14. Dielectric relaxation in ionic liquid/dipolar solvent binary mixtures: A semi-molecular theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit

    2016-03-01

    A semi-molecular theory is developed here for studying dielectric relaxation (DR) in binary mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common dipolar solvents. Effects of ion translation on DR time scale, and those of ion rotation on conductivity relaxation time scale are explored. Two different models for the theoretical calculations have been considered: (i) separate medium approach, where molecularities of both the IL and dipolar solvent molecules are retained, and (ii) effective medium approach, where the added dipolar solvent molecules are assumed to combine with the dipolar ions of the IL, producing a fictitious effective medium characterized via effective dipole moment, density, and diameter. Semi-molecular expressions for the diffusive DR times have been derived which incorporates the effects of wavenumber dependent orientational static correlations, ion dynamic structure factors, and ion translation. Subsequently, the theory has been applied to the binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) with water (H2O), and acetonitrile (CH3CN) for which experimental DR data are available. On comparison, predicted DR time scales show close agreement with the measured DR times at low IL mole fractions (xIL). At higher IL concentrations (xIL > 0.05), the theory over-estimates the relaxation times and increasingly deviates from the measurements with xIL, deviation being the maximum for the neat IL by almost two orders of magnitude. The theory predicts negligible contributions to this deviation from the xIL dependent collective orientational static correlations. The drastic difference between DR time scales for IL/solvent mixtures from theory and experiments arises primarily due to the use of the actual molecular volume ( Vmol dip ) for the rotating dipolar moiety in the present theory and suggests that only a fraction of Vmol dip is involved at high xIL. Expectedly, nice agreement between theory and experiments appears when experimental

  15. Dielectric relaxation in ionic liquid/dipolar solvent binary mixtures: A semi-molecular theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit

    2016-03-14

    A semi-molecular theory is developed here for studying dielectric relaxation (DR) in binary mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common dipolar solvents. Effects of ion translation on DR time scale, and those of ion rotation on conductivity relaxation time scale are explored. Two different models for the theoretical calculations have been considered: (i) separate medium approach, where molecularities of both the IL and dipolar solvent molecules are retained, and (ii) effective medium approach, where the added dipolar solvent molecules are assumed to combine with the dipolar ions of the IL, producing a fictitious effective medium characterized via effective dipole moment, density, and diameter. Semi-molecular expressions for the diffusive DR times have been derived which incorporates the effects of wavenumber dependent orientational static correlations, ion dynamic structure factors, and ion translation. Subsequently, the theory has been applied to the binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) with water (H2O), and acetonitrile (CH3CN) for which experimental DR data are available. On comparison, predicted DR time scales show close agreement with the measured DR times at low IL mole fractions (x(IL)). At higher IL concentrations (x(IL) > 0.05), the theory over-estimates the relaxation times and increasingly deviates from the measurements with x(IL), deviation being the maximum for the neat IL by almost two orders of magnitude. The theory predicts negligible contributions to this deviation from the x(IL) dependent collective orientational static correlations. The drastic difference between DR time scales for IL/solvent mixtures from theory and experiments arises primarily due to the use of the actual molecular volume (V(mol)(dip)) for the rotating dipolar moiety in the present theory and suggests that only a fraction of V(mol)(dip) is involved at high x(IL). Expectedly, nice agreement between theory and experiments appears when

  16. Artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets: a frozen dipolar spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemaille, N; Montaigne, F; Canals, B; Duluard, A; Lacour, D; Hehn, M; Belkhou, R; Fruchart, O; El Moussaoui, S; Bendounan, A; Maccherozzi, F

    2011-02-04

    Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets are investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Spin configurations of demagnetized networks reveal unambiguous signatures of long range, dipolar interaction between the nanomagnets. As soon as the system enters the spin ice manifold, the kagome dipolar spin ice model captures the observed physics, while the short range kagome spin ice model fails.

  17. Artificial Kagome Arrays of Nanomagnets: A Frozen Dipolar Spin Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Rougemaille, N.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Duluard, A.; D. Lacour; Hehn, M.; Belkhou, R.; Fruchart, O.; Moussaoui, S. El; Bendounan, A.; Maccherozzi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets are investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Spin configurations of demagnetized networks reveal unambiguous signatures of long range, dipolar interaction between the nanomagnets. As soon as the system enters the spin ice manifold, the kagome dipolar spin ice model captures the observed physics, while the short range kagome spin ice model fails.

  18. Stokes shift dynamics in (non-dipolar ionic liquid + dipolar solvent) binary mixtures: A semi-molecular theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tamisra; Biswas, Ranjit

    2014-10-01

    A semi-molecular theory for studying composition dependent Stokes shift dynamics of a dipolar solute in binary mixtures of (non-dipolar ionic liquid + common dipolar solvent) is developed here. The theory provides microscopic expressions for solvation response functions in terms of static and dynamic structure factors of the mixture components and solute-solvent static correlations. In addition, the theory provides a framework for examining the interrelationship between the time dependent solvation response in and frequency dependent dielectric relaxation of a binary mixture containing electrolyte. Subsequently, the theory has been applied to predict ionic liquid (IL) mole fraction dependent dynamic Stokes shift magnitude and solvation energy relaxation for a dipolar solute, C153, in binary mixtures of an ionic liquid, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride ([P14,666][Cl]) with a common dipolar solvent, methanol (MeOH). In the absence of suitable experimental data, necessary input parameters have been obtained from approximate methods. Dynamic shifts calculated for these mixtures exhibit a linear increase with IL mole fraction for the most part of the mixture composition, stressing the importance of solute-IL dipole-ion interaction. Average solvation rates, on the other hand, show a nonlinear IL mole fraction dependence which is qualitatively similar to what has been observed for such binary mixtures with imidazolium (dipolar) ILs. These predictions should be re-examined in suitable experiments.

  19. Dipolar Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because the two types of dark matter interact through the vector field, a ghostly degree of fre...

  20. Columnar domains and anisotropic growth laws in dipolar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupathy, Arunkumar; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic and dielectric solids are well-represented by the Ising model with dipolar interactions (IM+DI). The latter are long-ranged, fluctuating in sign, and anisotropic. Equilibrium studies have revealed novel consequences of these complicated interactions, but their effect on nonequilibrium behavior is not explored. We perform a deep temperature quench to study the kinetics of domain growth in the d =3 IM+DI. Our main observations are (i) the emergence of columnar domains along the z axis (Ising axis) with a transient periodicity in the x y plane; (ii) anisotropic growth laws: ℓρ(t ) ˜tϕ ; ℓz(t ) ˜tψ , where ρ ⃗=(x ,y ) and ℓ is the characteristic length scale; (iii) generalized dynamical scaling for the correlation function: C (ρ ,z ;t ) =g (ρ /ℓρ,z /ℓz) ; and (iv) an asymptotic Porod tail in the corresponding structure factor: S (kρ,0 ;t ) ˜kρ-3 ; S (0 ,kz;t ) ˜kz-2 . Our results explain the experimentally observed columnar morphologies in a wide range of dipolar systems, and they have important technological implications.

  1. Hexatic, Wigner Crystal, and Superfluid Phases of Dipolar Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Kaushik; Williams, C J; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá

    2009-01-01

    The finite temperature phase diagram of two-dimensional dipolar bosons versus dipolar interaction strength is discussed. We identify the stable phases as dipolar superfluid (DSF), dipolar Wigner crystal (DWC), dipolar hexatic fluid (DHF), and dipolar normal fluid (DNF). We also show that other interesting phases like dipolar supersolid (DSS) and dipolar hexatic superfluid (DHSF) are at least metastable, and can potentially be reached by thermal quenching. In particular, for large densities or...

  2. Characterization of slow conformational dynamics in solids: dipolar CODEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenbo; McDermott, Ann E. [Columbia University, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: aem5@columbia.edu

    2009-09-15

    A solid state NMR experiment is introduced for probing relatively slow conformational exchange, based on dephasing and refocusing dipolar couplings. The method is closely related to the previously described Centerband-Only Detection of Exchange or CODEX experiment. The use of dipolar couplings for this application is advantageous because their values are known a priori from molecular structures, and their orientations and reorientations relate in a simple way to molecular geometry and motion. Furthermore the use of dipolar couplings in conjunction with selective isotopic enrichment schemes is consistent with selection for unique sites in complex biopolymers. We used this experiment to probe the correlation time for the motion of {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N enriched urea molecules within their crystalline lattice.

  3. Characterization of slow conformational dynamics in solids: dipolar CODEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; McDermott, Ann E

    2009-09-01

    A solid state NMR experiment is introduced for probing relatively slow conformational exchange, based on dephasing and refocusing dipolar couplings. The method is closely related to the previously described Centerband-Only Detection of Exchange or CODEX experiment. The use of dipolar couplings for this application is advantageous because their values are known a priori from molecular structures, and their orientations and reorientations relate in a simple way to molecular geometry and motion. Furthermore the use of dipolar couplings in conjunction with selective isotopic enrichment schemes is consistent with selection for unique sites in complex biopolymers. We used this experiment to probe the correlation time for the motion of (13)C, (15)N enriched urea molecules within their crystalline lattice.

  4. Effect of spatial confinement on magnetic hyperthermia via dipolar interactions in Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, M E [University of Cincinnati; Patel, Ronak [University of Cincinnati; Sookoor, Jason [University of Cincinnati; Bud' ko, Sergey L [Ames Laboratory; Ewing, Rodney C [Stanford University; Zhang, Jiaming [Stanford University; Xu, Hong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Wang, Yilong [Tongji University School of Medicine; Pauletti, Giovanni M [University of Cincinnati; Mast, David B [University of Cincinnati; Shi, Donglu [University of Cincinnati

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the effect of nanoparticle confinement on the magnetic relaxation of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NP) was investigated by measuring the hyperthermia heating behavior in high frequency alternating magnetic field. Three different Fe3O4 nanoparticle systems having distinct nanoparticle configurations were studied in terms of magnetic hyperthermia heating rate and DC magnetization. All magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) systems were constructed using equivalent ~10nm diameter NP that were structured differently in terms of configuration, physical confinement, and interparticle spacing. The spatial confinement was achieved by embedding the Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the matrices of the polystyrene spheres of 100 nm, while the unconfined was the free Fe3O4 nanoparticles well-dispersed in the liquid via PAA surface coating. Assuming the identical core MNPs in each system, the heating behavior was analyzed in terms of particle freedom (or confinement), interparticle spacing, and magnetic coupling (or dipole-dipole interaction). DC magnetization data were correlated to the heating behavior with different material properties. Analysis of DC magnetization measurements showed deviation from classical Langevin behavior near saturation due to dipole interaction modification of the MNPs resulting in a high magnetic anisotropy. It was found that the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of the unconfined nanoparticle systems were significantly higher than those of confined (the MNPs embedded in the polystyrene matrix). This increase of SAR was found to be attributable to high Néel relaxation rate and hysteresis loss of the unconfined MNPs. It was also found that the dipole-dipole interactions can significantly reduce the global magnetic response of the MNPs and thereby decrease the SAR of the nanoparticle systems.

  5. Effect of spatial confinement on magnetic hyperthermia via dipolar interactions in Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, M E; Patel, Ronak; Sookoor, Jason; Bud'ko, Sergey L; Ewing, Rodney C; Zhang, Jiaming; Xu, Hong; Wang, Yilong; Pauletti, Giovanni M; Mast, David B; Shi, Donglu

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the effect of nanoparticle confinement on the magnetic relaxation of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NP) was investigated by measuring the hyperthermia heating behavior in high frequency alternating magnetic field. Three different Fe3O4 nanoparticle systems having distinct nanoparticle configurations were studied in terms of magnetic hyperthermia heating rate and DC magnetization. All magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) systems were constructed using equivalent ~10nm diameter NP that were structured differently in terms of configuration, physical confinement, and interparticle spacing. The spatial confinement was achieved by embedding the Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the matrices of the polystyrene spheres of 100 nm, while the unconfined was the free Fe3O4 nanoparticles well-dispersed in the liquid via PAA surface coating. Assuming the identical core MNPs in each system, the heating behavior was analyzed in terms of particle freedom (or confinement), interparticle spacing, and magnetic coupling (or dipole-dipole interaction). DC magnetization data were correlated to the heating behavior with different material properties. Analysis of DC magnetization measurements showed deviation from classical Langevin behavior near saturation due to dipole interaction modification of the MNPs resulting in a high magnetic anisotropy. It was found that the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of the unconfined nanoparticle systems were significantly higher than those of confined (the MNPs embedded in the polystyrene matrix). This increase of SAR was found to be attributable to high Néel relaxation rate and hysteresis loss of the unconfined MNPs. It was also found that the dipole-dipole interactions can significantly reduce the global magnetic response of the MNPs and thereby decrease the SAR of the nanoparticle systems.

  6. Quantum Fluctuations in Quasi-One-Dimensional Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, D.; Mishra, C.; Wächtler, F.; Nath, R.; Sinha, S.; Santos, L.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that beyond-mean-field corrections are much more relevant in weakly interacting dipolar condensates than in their nondipolar counterparts. We show that in quasi-one-dimensional geometries quantum corrections in dipolar and nondipolar condensates are strikingly different due to the peculiar momentum dependence of the dipolar interactions. The energy correction of the condensate presents not only a modified density dependence, but it may even change from attractive to repulsive at a critical density due to the surprising role played by the transversal directions. The anomalous quantum correction translates into a strongly modified physics for quantum-stabilized droplets and dipolar solitons. Moreover, and for similar reasons, quantum corrections of three-body correlations, and hence of three-body losses, are strongly modified by the dipolar interactions. This intriguing physics can be readily probed in current experiments with magnetic atoms.

  7. Adhesion of Photon-Driven Molecular Motors to Surfaces via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions : Effect of Interfacial Interactions on Molecular Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Gregory T.; London, Gabor; Fernández Landaluce, Tatiana; Rudolf, Petra; Feringa, Ben L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the attachment of altitudinal light-driven molecular motors to surfaces using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. Molecular motors were designed containing azide or alkyne groups for attachment to alkyne- or azide-modified surfaces. Surface attachment was characterized by UV-vis, IR, XPS,

  8. Switching Behaviour of Magnetic Particles with Dipolar Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chen; HUI Pak-Ming; CHOW Chow-Wang; LI Zhen-Ya

    2005-01-01

    We study the switching in the magnetic moments of interacting magnetic particles. The dynamics of the magneticmoments is governed by a coupled set of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations. The magnetic particles are assumed to be spherical in shape, single domain, and have uniaxial anisotropy. Effects of dipolar interaction between the particles, anisotropy energy, an applied switching field with finite spatial extent and a small bias field are considered. When the separation between the particles is small, the dipolar field is significant and it affects the reversal of the magnetic moments. The final configuration attained depends sensitively on the decaying length of the switching field, the inter-particle separation, and the initial configuration. A bias field tends to suppress the effects of a spatially decaying switching field and dipolar interaction between neighbouring particles.

  9. Entangling Gate of Dipolar Molecules Coupled to a Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Peng

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid entangling gate is proposed by using the coherent interaction between dipolar molecules and a photonic crystal microcavity, which is effected by virtual electric dipole transitions. Noise is included in the present model and high feasibility of the scheme with current experimental conditions is shown.%@@ A hybrid entangling gate is proposed by using the coherent interaction between dipolar molecules and a photonic crystal microcavity,which is effected by virtual electric dipole transitions.Noise is included in the present model and high feasibility of the scheme with current experimental conditions is shown.

  10. Anisotropic expansion of a thermal dipolar Bose gas

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yijun; Burdick, Nathaniel Q; DiSciacca, Jack M; Petrov, Dmitry S; Lev, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the post-expansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases, reducing error in expansion thermometry from tens of percent to only a few percent. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.

  11. Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Sykes, A G; Burdick, N Q; DiSciacca, J M; Petrov, D S; Lev, B L

    2016-10-07

    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.

  12. Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Sykes, A. G.; Burdick, N. Q.; DiSciacca, J. M.; Petrov, D. S.; Lev, B. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.

  13. Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey

    2014-07-16

    We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.

  14. Two-Level Dipolar System in a Heat Bath: High-Pump Power Effects in the Nonlinear Optical Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, J. L.; León-Torres, J. R.; Lascano, Luis; Alvarado, Ysaias J.; Costa-Vera, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Using the four-wave mixing spectroscopy, we analyze the nonlinear optical properties in a strongly driven two-level system, using a perturbative treatment where, the pump field is considered at all orders, second order in the probe, and first order for the signal field, when the stochastic effects of the solvent are considered. Significant variations in the nonlinear optical properties due mainly to changes in the probe intensity, chemical concentrations, and transversal relaxation times are observed.

  15. Influence of the black hole spin on the chaotic particle dynamics within a dipolar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sankhasubhra; Sinha, Siddhartha; Ananda, Deepika B.; Das, Tapas K.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the role of the spin angular momentum of astrophysical black holes in controlling the special relativistic chaotic dynamics of test particles moving under the influence of a post-Newtonian pseudo-Kerr black hole potential, along with a perturbative potential created by an asymmetrically placed (dipolar) halo. Proposing a Lyapunov-like exponent to be the effective measure of the degree of chaos observed in the system under consideration, it has been found that black hole spin anti-correlates with the degree of chaos for the aforementioned dynamics. Our findings have been explained applying the general principles of dynamical systems analysis.

  16. Influence of the black hole spin on the chaotic particle dynamics within a dipolar halo

    CERN Document Server

    Nag, Sankhasubhra; Ananda, Deepika B; Das, Tapas K

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of the spin angular momentum of astrophysical black holes in controlling the special relativistic chaotic dynamics of test particles moving under the influence of a post-Newtonian pseudo-Kerr black hole potential, along with a perturbative potential created by a asymmetrically placed (dipolar) halo. Proposing a Lyapunov-like exponent to be the effective measure of the degree of chaos observed in the system under consideration, it has been found that black hole spin anti-correlates with the degree of chaos for the aforementioned dynamics. Our findings have been explained applying the general principles of dynamical systems analysis.

  17. Charge renormalization and other exact coupling corrections to the dipolar effective interaction in an electrolyte near a dielectric wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqua, J-N; Cornu, F

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the renormalizations of the charge and screening length that appear in the large-distance behavior of the effective pairwise interaction w(alphaalpha') between two charges e(alpha) and e(alpha') in a dilute electrolyte solution, both along a dielectric wall and in the bulk. The electrolyte is described by the so-called primitive model in the framework of classical statistical mechanics and the electrostatic response of the wall is characterized by its dielectric constant. In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. E 68, 022133 (2003)] a graphic reorganization of resummed Mayer diagrammatics has been devised in order to exhibit the general structure of the 1/y3 leading tail of w(alphaalpha') (x,x',y) for two charges located at distances x and x' from the wall and separated by a distance y along the wall. When all species have the same closest approach distance b to the wall, the coefficient of the 1/y3 tail is the product Dalpha(x)Dalpha'(x') of two effective dipoles. Here we use the same graphic reorganization in order to systematically investigate the exponential large-distance behavior of w(alphaalpha') in the bulk. (We show that the reorganization also enables one to derive the basic screening rules in both cases.) Then, in a regime of high dilution and weak coupling, the exact analytical corrections to the leading tail of w(alphaalpha'), both in the bulk or along the wall, are calculated at first order in the coupling parameter epsilon and in the limit where b becomes negligible with respect to the Debye screening length. (Epsilon is proportional to the so-called plasma parameter.) The structure of corrections to the terms of order epsilon is exhibited, and the scaling regime for the validity of the Debye limit is specified. In the vicinity of the wall, we use the density profiles calculated previously [J. Stat. Phys. 105, 211 (2001)] up to order epsilon and a method devised [J. Stat. Phys. 105, 245 (2001)] for the determination of the

  18. REDCAT: a residual dipolar coupling analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valafar, Homayoun; Prestegard, James H

    2004-04-01

    Recent advancements in the utilization of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) as a means of structure validation and elucidation have demonstrated the need for, not only a more user friendly, but also a more powerful RDC analysis tool. In this paper, we introduce a software package named REsidual Dipolar Coupling Analysis Tool (REDCAT) designed to address the above issues. REDCAT is a user-friendly program with its graphical-user-interface developed in Tcl/Tk, which is highly portable. Furthermore, the computational engine behind this GUI is written in C/C++ and its computational performance is therefore excellent. The modular implementation of REDCAT's algorithms, with separation of the computational engine from the graphical engine allows for flexible and easy command line interaction. This feature can be utilized for the design of automated data analysis sessions. Furthermore, this software package is portable to Linux clusters for high throughput applications. In addition to basic utilities to solve for order tensors and back calculate couplings from a given order tensor and proposed structure, a number of improved algorithms have been incorporated. These include the proper sampling of the Null-space (when the system of linear equations is under-determined), more sophisticated filters for invalid order-tensor identification, error analysis for the identification of the problematic measurements and simulation of the effects of dynamic averaging processes.

  19. Anomalous negative electrocaloric effect in a relaxor/normal ferroelectric polymer blend with controlled nano- and meso-dipolar couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoshi; Yang, Tiannan; Zhang, Tian; Chen, Long-Qing; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-04-01

    In general, a dielectric material will eject (or absorb) heat when an electric field is applied and absorb (or eject) heat when the field is removed, under isothermal condition, which is known as the normal (or negative) electrocaloric (EC) effect. For some applications, it is highly desired that an EC material will absorb heat (cooling the surrounding) without subsequent heating under an electric pulse. Here, we show that such an EC material can be realized in a properly designed hybrid normal ferroelectric/relaxor ferroelectric polymer blend in which the normal ferroelectric component induces dipole ordering in the relaxor polymer in the poled state, which can be switched to a de-poled state by an external field. More importantly, the de-poled state can be maintained by the relaxor component when the de-poling field is removed. Consequently, the hybrid blend exhibits a large cooling (an isothermal entropy change ΔS = 11.5 J kg-1 K-1) without the subsequent heating upon the application of an electric pulse.

  20. Coherent zero-field magnetization resonance in a dipolar spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxian; Yi, S.; Chapman, M. S.; You, J. Q.

    2015-08-01

    With current magnetic-field shielding and high-precision detection in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates, it is possible to experimentally detect the low- or zero-field nonsecular dipolar dynamics. Here we analytically investigate the zero-field nonsecular magnetic dipolar interaction effect, with an emphasis on magnetization dynamics in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate under the single spatial mode approximation within the mean-field theory. Due to the biaxial nature of the dipolar interaction, a novel resonance occurs in the condensate magnetization oscillation, in contrast to the previous assumption of a conserved magnetization in strong magnetic fields. Furthermore, we propose a dynamical-decoupling detection method for such a resonance, which cancels the stray magnetic fields in experiment but restores the magnetization dynamics. Our results shed light on the dipolar systems and may find potential applications beyond cold atoms.

  1. Topological flat bands from dipolar spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gorshkov, A V; Bennett, S D; Demler, E; Zoller, P; Lukin, M D

    2012-12-28

    We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S=1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hard-core bosons, namely, the dressed spin flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose band gap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultracold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered.

  2. Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.

    2009-03-01

    Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.

  3. Probing crystal packing of uniformly (13)C-enriched powder samples using homonuclear dipolar coupling measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Giulia; Dekhil, Myriam; Ziarelli, Fabio; Thureau, Pierre; Viel, Stéphane

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between the crystal packing of powder samples and long-range (13)C-(13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings is presented and illustrated for the case of uniformly (13)C-enriched L-alanine and L-histidine·HCl·H2O. Dipolar coupling measurement is based on the partial reintroduction of dipolar interactions by spinning the sample slightly off-magic-angle, while the coupling of interest for a given spin pair is isolated with a frequency-selective pulse. A cost function is used to correlate the so-derived dipolar couplings to trial crystal structures of the samples under study. This procedure allowed for the investigation of the l-alanine space group and L-histidine·HCl·H2O space group and unit-cell parameters.

  4. Effect of the alkyl chain length on the rotational dynamics of nonpolar and dipolar solutes in a series of N-alkyl-N-methylmorpholinium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Dinesh Chandra; Kumar, Jaini Praveen; Mondal, Navendu; Samanta, Anunay

    2013-05-01

    Rotational dynamics of two dipolar solutes, 4-aminophthalimide (AP) and 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN), and a nonpolar solute, anthracene, have been studied in N-alkyl-N-methylmorpholinium (alkyl = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl) bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) ionic liquids as a function of temperature and excitation wavelength to probe the microheterogeneous nature of these ionic liquids, which are recently reported to be more structured than the imidazolium ionic liquids (Khara and Samanta, J. Phys. Chem. B2012, 116, 13430-13438). Analysis of the measured rotational time constants of the solutes in terms of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory reveals that with increase in the alkyl chain length attached to the cationic component of the ionic liquids, AP shows stick to superstick behavior, PRODAN rotation lies between stick and slip boundary conditions, whereas anthracene exhibits slip to sub slip behavior. The contrasting rotational dynamics of these probe molecules is a reflection of their location in distinct environments of the ionic liquids thus demonstrating the heterogeneity of these ionic liquids. The microheterogeneity of these media, in particular, those with the long alkyl chain, is further evidence from the excitation wavelength dependence study of the rotational diffusion of the dipolar probe molecules.

  5. Demixing in binary mixtures of apolar and dipolar hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, N G; Lomba, E; Martín, C; Gallardo, A

    2008-12-21

    We study the demixing transition of mixtures of equal size hard spheres and dipolar hard spheres using computer simulation and integral equation theories. Calculations are carried out at constant pressure, and it is found that there is a strong correlation between the total density and the composition. The critical temperature and the critical total density are found to increase with pressure. The critical mole fraction of the dipolar component on the contrary decreases as pressure is augmented. These qualitative trends are reproduced by the theoretical approaches that on the other hand overestimate by far the value of the critical temperature. Interestingly, the critical parameters for the liquid-vapor equilibrium extrapolated from the mixture results in the limit of vanishing neutral hard sphere concentration agree rather well with recent estimates based on the extrapolation of charged hard dumbbell phase equilibria when dumbbell elongation shrinks to zero [G. Ganzenmuller and P. J. Camp, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 191104 (2007)].

  6. Structure refinement of flexible proteins using dipolar couplings: application to the protein p8MTCP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déméné, Hélène; Ducat, Thierry; Barthe, Philippe; Delsuc, Marc-André; Roumestand, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The present study deals with the relevance of using mobility-averaged dipolar couplings for the structure refinement of flexible proteins. The 68-residue protein p8MTCP1 has been chosen as model for this study. Its solution state consists mainly of three alpha-helices. The two N-terminal helices are strapped in a well-determined alpha-hairpin, whereas, due to an intrinsic mobility, the position of the third helix is less well defined in the NMR structure. To further characterize the degrees of freedom of this helix, we have measured the dipolar coupling constants in the backbone of p8MTCP1 in a bicellar medium. We show here that including D(dip)HN dipolar couplings in the structure calculation protocol improves the structure of the alpha-hairpin but not the positioning of the third helix. This is due to the motional averaging of the dipolar couplings measured in the last helix. Performing two calculations with different force constants for the dipolar restraints highlights the inconstancy of these mobility-averaged dipolar couplings. Alternatively, prior to any structure calculations, comparing the values of the dipolar couplings measured in helix III to values back-calculated from an ideal helix demonstrates that they are atypical for a helix. This can be partly attributed to mobility effects since the inclusion of the 15N relaxation derived order parameter allows for a better fit.

  7. EXACT SOLUTIONS OF A DIPOLAR FLUID FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. HAYAT

    2003-01-01

    Exact solutions for three canonical flow problems of a dipolar fluid are obtained: (i)The flow of a dipolar fluid due to a suddenly accelerated plate, (ii) The flow generated by periodic oscillation of a plate, (iii) The flow due to plate oscillation in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The solutions of some interesting flows caused by an arbitrary velocity of the plate and of certain special oscillations are also obtained.

  8. Correlation Effects in Biological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bagdasaryan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of the complex network theory is presented and classification of such networks in accordance with the main statistical characteristics is considered. For the adjacency matrix of a real neural network the shortest distances for each pair of nodes as well as the node degree distribution and cluster coefficients are calculated. Comparison of the main statistical parameters with the random network is performed, and based on this, the conclusions about the correlation phenomena in biological system are made.

  9. Properties of strongly dipolar Bose gases beyond the Born approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ołdziejewski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Strongly dipolar Bose gases can form liquid droplets stabilized by quantum fluctuations. In theoretical description of this phenomenon, low energy scattering amplitude is utilized as an effective potential. We show that for magnetic atoms corrections with respect to Born approximation arise, and derive modified pseudopotential using realistic interaction model. We discuss the resulting changes in collective mode frequencies and droplet stability diagram. Our results are relevant for recent experiments with erbium and dysprosium atoms.

  10. Compensation of Dipolar-Exciton Spin Splitting in Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetoluminescence of spatially indirect dipolar excitons collected in 25 nm GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well within a lateral potential trap has been studied in perpendicular magnetic field in Faraday geometry. The paramagnetic spin splitting of the luminescence line of the heavy-hole excitons in the trap centre is completely compensated at magnetic fields below critical value, around 2 Tesla. The effect of spin-splitting compensation is caused by the exchange interaction in dense exciton Bo...

  11. Thermal entanglement and teleportation in a dipolar interacting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.S., E-mail: ccastro@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoatá, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Centro de Formação de Professores, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Av. Nestor de Mello Pita, n. 535, 45.300-000 Amargosa, BA (Brazil); Duarte, O.S.; Pires, D.P.; Soares-Pinto, D.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, São Carlos, 13560-970 SP (Brazil); Reis, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoatá, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-04-22

    Quantum teleportation, which depends on entangled states, is a fascinating subject and an important branch of quantum information processing. The present work reports the use of a dipolar spin thermal system as a noisy quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation. Non-locality, tested by violation of Bell's inequality and thermal entanglement, measured by negativity, shows that for the present model all entangled states, even those that do not violate Bell's inequality, are useful for teleportation. - Highlights: • The effects of a dipolar interaction between two spins on their degree of entanglement and non-locality is reported. • The model presents some degree of non-locality and entanglement at a given coupling parameters. • It is shown how the magnetic anisotropies can influence the fidelity of teleportation.

  12. The phase transition in the anisotropic Heisenberg model with long range dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mól, L.A.S., E-mail: lucasmol@fisica.ufmg.br; Costa, B.V., E-mail: bvc@fisica.ufmg.br

    2014-03-15

    In this work we have used extensive Monte Carlo calculations to study the planar to paramagnetic phase transition in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model with dipolar interactions (AHd) considering the true long-range character of the dipolar interactions by means of the Ewald summation. Our results are consistent with an order–disorder phase transition with unusual critical exponents in agreement with our previous results for the Planar Rotator model with dipolar interactions. Nevertheless, our results disagree with the Renormalization Group results of Maier and Schwabl [Phys. Rev. B, 70, 134430 (2004)] [13] and the results of Rapini et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 75, 014425 (2007)] [12], where the AHd was studied using a cut-off in the evaluation of the dipolar interactions. We argue that besides the long-range character of dipolar interactions their anisotropic character may have a deeper effect in the system than previously believed. Besides, our results show that the use of a cut-off radius in the evaluation of dipolar interactions must be avoided when analyzing the critical behavior of magnetic systems, since it may lead to erroneous results. - Highlights: • The anisotropic Heisenberg model with dipolar interactions is studied. • True long-range interactions were considered by means of Ewald summation. • We found an order–disorder phase transition with unusual critical exponents. • Previous results show a different behavior when a cut-off radius is introduced. • The use of a cut-off radius must be avoided when dealing with dipolar systems.

  13. Adhesion of photon-driven molecular motors to surfaces via 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions: effect of interfacial interactions on molecular motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gregory T; London, Gábor; Landaluce, Tatiana Fernández; Rudolf, Petra; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-25

    We report the attachment of altitudinal light-driven molecular motors to surfaces using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. Molecular motors were designed containing azide or alkyne groups for attachment to alkyne- or azide-modified surfaces. Surface attachment was characterized by UV-vis, IR, XPS, and ellipsometry measurements. Surface-bound motors were found to undergo photochemical and thermal isomerizations consistent with unidirectional rotation in solution. Confinement at a surface was found to reduce the rate of the thermal isomerization process. The rate of thermal isomerization was also dependent on the surface coverage of the motors. In solution, changes in the UV-vis signal that accompany thermal isomerization can be fit with a single monoexponential decay. In contrast, thermal isomerization of the surface-bound motors does not follow a single monoexponential decay and was found to fit a biexponential decay. Both one- and two-legged motors were attached to surfaces. The kinetics of thermal isomerization was not affected by the valency of attachment, indicating that the changes in kinetics from solution to surface systems are related to interactions between the surface-bound motors.

  14. Threshold-Voltage Shifts in Organic Transistors Due to Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Dielectric: Evidence for Electronic Coupling and Dipolar Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Mahdieh; Rödel, Reinhold; Zschieschang, Ute; Ocal, Carmen; Boschker, Hans; Weitz, R Thomas; Barrena, Esther; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-10-21

    The mechanisms behind the threshold-voltage shift in organic transistors due to functionalizing of the gate dielectric with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are still under debate. We address the mechanisms by which SAMs determine the threshold voltage, by analyzing whether the threshold voltage depends on the gate-dielectric capacitance. We have investigated transistors based on five oxide thicknesses and two SAMs with rather diverse chemical properties, using the benchmark organic semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene. Unlike several previous studies, we have found that the dependence of the threshold voltage on the gate-dielectric capacitance is completely different for the two SAMs. In transistors with an alkyl SAM, the threshold voltage does not depend on the gate-dielectric capacitance and is determined mainly by the dipolar character of the SAM, whereas in transistors with a fluoroalkyl SAM the threshold voltages exhibit a linear dependence on the inverse of the gate-dielectric capacitance. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements indicate this behavior is attributed to an electronic coupling between the fluoroalkyl SAM and the organic semiconductor.

  15. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  16. The sum rule for dipolar absorptions and rotational kinetic energy of wate and some dipolar molecules in condensed phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Shun-ichi; Yamazaki, Shuichi; Kimura, Masao

    1981-06-01

    Another form of the sum rule for dipolar absorptions has been derived by means of quantum statistics. The difference between this and usually used form results from a quantum effect on the molecular rotational motion. By the joint use of the two forms, average rotational kinetic energies of water molec in the liquid and solid phases and some dipolar molecules in solutions have been estimated. It has been shown that the average rotational kinetic energ larger than the value expected from the classical equipartition rule, with an increase in the hindering potential for the rotational motion of the mole The dipole moments of water molecules in liquid and solid water have been estimated. These are considerably smaller than the gas-phase value.

  17. Continuum model for dipolar coupled planar lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Miguel D.; Pogorelov, Yuri G. E-mail: ypogorel@fc.up.pt

    2003-03-01

    In an effective continuum approach alike the phenomenological Landau theory, we study low energy excitations in a square lattice of dipolar coupled magnetic moments {mu}, over continuously degenerate microvortex (MV) ground states defined by an arbitrary angle 0<{theta}<{pi}/2. We consider two vector order parameters: the MV vector v={mu} (cos {theta}, sin {theta}) and the ferromagnetic (FM) vector f=((1)/(2)) ({partial_derivative}{sub y}v{sub x}, -{partial_derivative}{sub x}v{sub y}). The excitation energy density {approx}f{sup 2} leads to a non-linear Euler equation. It allows, besides common linear waves of small amplitude, also non-linear excitations with unlimited (but slow) variation of {theta}(r). For plane wave excitations {theta}(r)={theta}(n{center_dot}r) propagating along n=(cos phi (cursive,open) Greek, sin phi (cursive,open) Greek), exact integrals of Euler equation are found. The density of excitation states turns anisotropic in {theta}, conforming to the enhanced occurrence of MV-like states with {theta} close to 0 or {pi}/2 in our Monte Carlo simulations of this system at low excitation energies.

  18. Effective capacity of correlated MISO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an analytical performance investigation of the capacity limits of correlated multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels in the presence of quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. Exact closed-form expression for the effective capacity of correlated MISO channels is derived. In addition, simple expressions are obtained at the asymptotic high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes, which provide insights into the impact of various system parameters on the effective capacity of the system. Also, a complete characterization of the impact of spatial correlation on the effective capacity is provided with the aid of a majorization theory result. The findings suggest that antenna correlation reduce the effective capacity of the channels. Moreover, a stringent QoS requirement causes a significant reduction in the effective capacity but this can be effectively alleviated by increasing the number of antennas. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Micromechanics of Dipolar Chains Using Optical Tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Eric M.; Gast, Alice P.

    1999-01-01

    Here we present our initial study of the micromechanical properties of dipolar chains and columns in a magnetorheological (MR) suspension. Using dual-trap optical tweezers, we are able to directly measure the deformation of the dipolar chains parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. We observe the field dependence of the mechanical properties such as resistance to deformation, chain reorganization, and rupturing of the chains. These forms of energy dissipation are important for understanding and tuning the yield stress and rheological behavior of an MR suspension.

  20. Dipolar order by disorder in the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Moessner, R

    2013-02-15

    Ever since the experiments which founded the field of highly frustrated magnetism, the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has been the archetypical setting for the study of fluctuation induced exotic ordering. To this day the nature of its classical low-temperature state has remained a mystery: the nonlinear nature of the fluctuations around the exponentially numerous harmonically degenerate ground states has not permitted a controlled theory, while its complex energy landscape has precluded numerical simulations at low temperature, T. Here we present an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm which removes the latter obstacle. Our simulations detect a low-temperature regime in which correlations asymptote to a remarkably small value as T→0. Feeding these results into an effective model and analyzing the results in the framework of an appropriate field theory implies the presence of long-range dipolar spin order with a tripled unit cell.

  1. Dipolar magnetism in ordered and disordered low-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varón, M.; Beleggia, M; Kasama, T

    2013-01-01

    Magnetostatic (dipolar) interactions between nanoparticles promise to open new ways to design nanocrystalline magnetic materials and devices if the collective magnetic properties can be controlled at the nanoparticle level. Magnetic dipolar interactions are sufficiently strong to sustain magnetic...... order at ambient temperature in assemblies of closely-spaced nanoparticles with magnetic moments of ≥ 100 μ(B). Here we use electron holography with sub-particle resolution to reveal the correlation between particle arrangement and magnetic order in self-assembled 1D and quasi-2D arrangements of 15 nm...... cobalt nanoparticles. In the initial states, we observe dipolar ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and local flux closure, depending on the particle arrangement. Surprisingly, after magnetic saturation, measurements and numerical simulations show that overall ferromagnetic order exists in the present...

  2. Redundant correlation effect on personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Han, Teng-Yue; Zhong, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The high-order redundant correlation effect is investigated for a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), through both heat conduction biased (HCB) and mass diffusion biased (MDB) correlation redundancy elimination processes. The HCB and MDB algorithms do not introduce any additional tunable parameters, but keep the simple character of the original HHM. Based on two empirical datasets, the Netflix and MovieLens, the HCB and MDB are found to show better recommendation accuracy for both the overall objects and the cold objects than the HHM algorithm. Our work suggests that properly eliminating the high-order redundant correlations can provide a simple and effective approach to accurate recommendation.

  3. Dipolar structures in colloidal magnetite dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klokkenburg, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dipolar structures in liquid colloidal dispersions comprising well-defined magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a permanent magnetic dipole moment are analyzed on a single-particle level by in situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (2D). Compared to conventional ferrofluids, these dispersio

  4. Dipolar structures in colloidal magnetite dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klokkenburg, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dipolar structures in liquid colloidal dispersions comprising well-defined magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a permanent magnetic dipole moment are analyzed on a single-particle level by in situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (2D). Compared to conventional ferrofluids, these dispersio

  5. Field-induced layer formation in dipolar nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2008-07-18

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the layering of confined colloidal particles with dipolar interactions, such as ferrofluids, in slablike geometries can be controlled by homogeneous external fields. For suitable surface separations, strong fields directed perpendicular to the film plane do not only align the particles but create additional layers in the system. The reverse effect occurs with an in-plane field which can induce a collapse of layers. Both effects are accompanied by pronounced particle rearrangements in lateral directions. Our simulation results are consistent with recent experiments of ferrofluids at surfaces.

  6. Effect of noise correlations on randomized benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Harrison; Stace, Thomas M.; Flammia, Steven T.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2016-02-01

    Among the most popular and well-studied quantum characterization, verification, and validation techniques is randomized benchmarking (RB), an important statistical tool used to characterize the performance of physical logic operations useful in quantum information processing. In this work we provide a detailed mathematical treatment of the effect of temporal noise correlations on the outcomes of RB protocols. We provide a fully analytic framework capturing the accumulation of error in RB expressed in terms of a three-dimensional random walk in "Pauli space." Using this framework we derive the probability density function describing RB outcomes (averaged over noise) for both Markovian and correlated errors, which we show is generally described by a Γ distribution with shape and scale parameters depending on the correlation structure. Long temporal correlations impart large nonvanishing variance and skew in the distribution towards high-fidelity outcomes—consistent with existing experimental data—highlighting potential finite-sampling pitfalls and the divergence of the mean RB outcome from worst-case errors in the presence of noise correlations. We use the filter-transfer function formalism to reveal the underlying reason for these differences in terms of effective coherent averaging of correlated errors in certain random sequences. We conclude by commenting on the impact of these calculations on the utility of single-metric approaches to quantum characterization, verification, and validation.

  7. Experimental quantification of decoherence via the Loschmidt echo in a many spin system with scaled dipolar Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljubasich, Lisandro; Sánchez, Claudia M; Dente, Axel D; Levstein, Patricia R; Chattah, Ana K; Pastawski, Horacio M

    2015-10-28

    We performed Loschmidt echo nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to study decoherence under a scaled dipolar Hamiltonian by means of a symmetrical time-reversal pulse sequence denominated Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt (PRL) echo. The many-spin system represented by the protons in polycrystalline adamantane evolves through two steps of evolution characterized by the secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian, scaled down with a factor |k| and opposite signs. The scaling factor can be varied continuously from 0 to 1/2, giving access to a range of complexity in the dynamics. The experimental results for the Loschmidt echoes showed a spreading of the decay rates that correlate directly to the scaling factors |k|, giving evidence that the decoherence is partially governed by the coherent dynamics. The average Hamiltonian theory was applied to give an insight into the spin dynamics during the pulse sequence. The calculations were performed for every single radio frequency block in contrast to the most widely used form. The first order of the average Hamiltonian numerically computed for an 8-spin system showed decay rates that progressively decrease as the secular dipolar Hamiltonian becomes weaker. Notably, the first order Hamiltonian term neglected by conventional calculations yielded an explanation for the ordering of the experimental decoherence rates. However, there is a strong overall decoherence observed in the experiments which is not reflected by the theoretical results. The fact that the non-inverted terms do not account for this effect is a challenging topic. A number of experiments to further explore the relation of the complete Hamiltonian with this dominant decoherence rate are proposed.

  8. Experimental quantification of decoherence via the Loschmidt echo in a many spin system with scaled dipolar Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buljubasich, Lisandro; Dente, Axel D.; Levstein, Patricia R.; Chattah, Ana K.; Pastawski, Horacio M. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG-CONICET), Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Sánchez, Claudia M. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina)

    2015-10-28

    We performed Loschmidt echo nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to study decoherence under a scaled dipolar Hamiltonian by means of a symmetrical time-reversal pulse sequence denominated Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt (PRL) echo. The many-spin system represented by the protons in polycrystalline adamantane evolves through two steps of evolution characterized by the secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian, scaled down with a factor |k| and opposite signs. The scaling factor can be varied continuously from 0 to 1/2, giving access to a range of complexity in the dynamics. The experimental results for the Loschmidt echoes showed a spreading of the decay rates that correlate directly to the scaling factors |k|, giving evidence that the decoherence is partially governed by the coherent dynamics. The average Hamiltonian theory was applied to give an insight into the spin dynamics during the pulse sequence. The calculations were performed for every single radio frequency block in contrast to the most widely used form. The first order of the average Hamiltonian numerically computed for an 8-spin system showed decay rates that progressively decrease as the secular dipolar Hamiltonian becomes weaker. Notably, the first order Hamiltonian term neglected by conventional calculations yielded an explanation for the ordering of the experimental decoherence rates. However, there is a strong overall decoherence observed in the experiments which is not reflected by the theoretical results. The fact that the non-inverted terms do not account for this effect is a challenging topic. A number of experiments to further explore the relation of the complete Hamiltonian with this dominant decoherence rate are proposed.

  9. Correlation effects and turbulent diffusion scalings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakunin, O G [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica ' Rijnhuizen' , Associate Euroatom-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    A significant deviation of turbulent transport from conventional diffusion necessitates a search for new types of equations and scalings. Long-range correlations are responsible for anomalous transport. An investigation of correlation effects and correlation functions, which are fairly universal tools, plays an important role. This review deals with the methods of direct calculations, diffusive approximation, and the scaling representation of correlation effects. In this paper, we consider different methods for constructing transport equations, ranging from those in the quasi-linear approximation to those with fractional derivatives. The topics to be discussed include renormalized quasi-linear equations, Levy-Khintchine distributions, and continuous time random walk. A variety of instabilities leads to the development of different turbulence types. This variety of forms requires not only special description methods, but also an analysis of the general mechanisms. One such mechanism is percolation transport. Its description is based on the ideas of long-range correlations, borrowed from the theory of phase transitions, and fractality. A detailed analysis of the more important results obtained in this field is presented in this paper. We will focus on scaling arguments that play an important role in obtaining estimates of transport effects.

  10. Effective action for strongly correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, A., E-mail: aferraz.iccmp@gmail.com [International Institute of Physics - UFRN, Department of Experimental and Theoretical Physics - UFRN, Natal (Brazil); Kochetov, E.A. [International Institute of Physics - UFRN, Natal (Brazil); Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-21

    The su(2|1) coherent-state path-integral representation of the partition function of the t-J model of strongly correlated electrons is derived at finite doping. The emergent effective action is compared to the one proposed earlier on phenomenological grounds by Shankar to describe holes in an antiferromagnet [R. Shankar, Nucl. Phys. B 330 (1990) 433]. The t-J model effective action is found to have an important 'extra' factor with no analogue in Shankar's action. It represents the local constraint of no double electron occupancy and reflects the rearrangement of the underlying phase-space manifold due to the presence of strong electron correlation. This important ingredient is shown to be essential to describe the physics of strongly correlated electron systems.

  11. Critical Time Crystals in Dipolar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen Wei; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Abanin, Dmitry A.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the quantum dynamics of periodically driven, disordered systems in the presence of long-range interactions. Focusing on the stability of discrete time crystalline (DTC) order in such systems, we use a perturbative procedure to evaluate its lifetime. For 3D systems with dipolar interactions, we show that the corresponding decay is parametrically slow, implying that robust, long-lived DTC order can be obtained. We further predict a sharp crossover from the stable DTC regime into a regime where DTC order is lost, reminiscent of a phase transition. These results are in good agreement with the recent experiments utilizing a dense, dipolar spin ensemble in diamond [Nature (London) 543, 221 (2017), 10.1038/nature21426]. They demonstrate the existence of a novel, critical DTC regime that is stabilized not by many-body localization but rather by slow, critical dynamics. Our analysis shows that the DTC response can be used as a sensitive probe of nonequilibrium quantum matter.

  12. The Chiral Dipolar Hard Sphere Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazars, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A simple molecular model of chiral molecules is presented in this paper : the chiral dipolar hard sphere model. The discriminatory interaction between enantiomers is represented by electrostatic (or magnetic) dipoles-dipoles interactions : short ranged steric repulsion are represented by hard sphere potential and, in each molecule, two point dipoles are located inside the sphere. The model is described in detail and some of its elementary properties are given ; in particul...

  13. Characterization of ionic, dipolar and molecular mobility in polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenrong

    Changes in the ionic and dipolar molecular mobility in a polymer system are the basis for the changes in the dielectric mechanical properties of polymer materials. Frequency Dependent Dielectric Measurements (FDEMS) and Ion Time-of-Flight (ITOF) are two important techniques to investigate ionic and dipolar molecular mobility in polymer systems. The results can be related to the macro- and molecular dielectric, electrical and dynamic properties of polymeric materials. The combination of these two methods provides a full view of electric, dielectric and dynamic behavior for the systems as they undergo chemical and/or physical changes during polymerization crystallization, vitrification, and/or phase separation. The research on microscopic mass mobility in polymer systems was done on three aspects: (1) ion mobility in an epoxy-amine reaction system; (2) dipolar mobility and relaxation during dimethacrylate resin cure and (3) dye molecule migration and diffusion in polymer films. In the ion mobility study, we separately monitor the changes in the ion mobility and the number of charge carriers during the epoxy-amine polymerization with FDEMS and ITOF measurements. The isolation of the number of carriers and their mobility allows significant improvement in monitoring changes in the state and structure of a material as it cures. For the dipolar mobility and relaxation study, FDEMS measurements were used to detect structural evolution and spatial heterogeneity formation during the polymerization process of dimethacrylate resins. The dielectric spectra, glass transition (Tg) profiles and dynamic mechanical measurements were used to investigate the existence of two cooperative regions of sufficient size to create two alpha-relaxation processes representing oligomer rich and polymer microgel regions during the polymerization. For the dye migration research, we tried to develop a visually color changing paper (VCP) due to dye molecule migration in polymer films. The mobility

  14. Dipolar interactions in magnetic thin films: perpendicular to in-plane ordering transition

    CERN Document Server

    Santamarina-Rios, C

    2000-01-01

    We study by extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations magnetic properties of very thin films with Heisenberg spin model on a BCC lattice with (0 0 1) surfaces, taking into account long-range dipolar interactions and single-ion anisotropy. In a range of parameters, a transition from perpendicular to in-plane ordering at a finite temperature is found. A phase diagram is shown. We interpret this magnetization reorientation as an entropy effect generated by dipolar interaction. Discussion in connection with experiments is given.

  15. Synthesis of isoxazolidines by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and their bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Chunsheng; Li Zhinian; Shu Jinyan; Li Tao; Zhang Baoyan

    2006-01-01

    A series of new isoxazolidines was prepared by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of different mono-substituted styrenes with 1,3-dipolar compounds that were prepared by the reaction of N-methylhydroxylamine sulfate with aromatic carbonyl substances.This synthetic pathway for the preparation of isoxazolidines was an ideal process of green chemistry.The synthetic products were 5-substituted isoxazolidines and their structures were characterized by mass and NMR (1H-,13C-,COSY,HSQC,and DEPT) spectrometry,and their bioactivity was investigated indicating that some new compounds inhibited Botrytis cinerea effectively.

  16. Dynamical memory effects in correlated quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Carole; Karpat, Göktuǧ; Macchiavello, Chiara; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-09-01

    Memory effects play a fundamental role in the study of the dynamics of open quantum systems. There exist two conceptually distinct notions of memory discussed for quantum channels in the literature. In quantum information theory quantum channels with memory are characterized by the existence of correlations between successive applications of the channel on a sequence of quantum systems. In open quantum systems theory memory effects arise dynamically during the time evolution of quantum systems and define non-Markovian dynamics. Here we relate and combine these two different concepts of memory. In particular, we study the interplay between correlations between multiple uses of quantum channels and non-Markovianity as nondivisibility of the t -parametrized family of channels defining the dynamical map.

  17. Short range correlations and the EMC effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Higinbotham, D W; Gomez, J; Hen, O; Shneor, R

    2011-02-04

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate x(B), 0.35≤x(B)≤0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at x(B)≥1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F(2)(n)/F(2)(p), the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  18. Improved Narrowband Dipolar Recoupling for Homonuclear Distance Measurements in Rotating Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobes, G.; Vega, S.

    2002-02-01

    Recovery of the magnetic dipolar interaction between nuclei bearing the same gyromagnetic ratio in rotating solids can be promoted by synchronous rf irradiation. Determination of the dipolar interaction strength can serve as a tool for structural elucidation in polycrystalline powders. Spinning frequency dependent narrow-band (nb) RFDR and SEDRA experiments are utilized as simple techniques for the determination of dipolar interactions between the nuclei in coupled homonuclear spin pairs. The magnetization exchange and coherence dephasing due to a fixed number of rotor-synchronously applied π-pulses is monitored at spinning frequencies in the vicinity of the rotational resonance (R2) conditions. The powder nbRFDR and nbSEDRA decay curves of spin magnetizations and coherences, respectively, as a function of the spinning frequency can be measured and analyzed using simple rate equations providing a quantitative measure of the dipolar coupling. The effects of the phenomenological relaxation parameters in these rate equations are discussed and an improved methodology is suggested for analyzing nbRFDR data for small dipolar couplings. The distance between the labeled nuclei in the 1,3-13C2-hydroxybutyric acid molecule is rederived using existing nbRFDR results and the new simulation procedure. A nbSEDRA experiment has been performed successfully on a powder sample of singly labeled 1-13C-L-leucine measuring the dipolar interaction between the labeled carboxyl carbon and the natural abundant β-carbon. Both narrowband techniques are employed for the determination of the nuclear distances between the side-chain carbons of leucine and its carbonyl carbon in a tripeptide Leu-Gly-Phe that is singly 13C-labeled at the leucine carbonyl carbon position.

  19. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heteronuclear dipolar coupling in spin-1 NQR pulsed spin locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, M. W.; Sauer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the role of broadening due to heteronuclear dipolar coupling in spin-1 nuclear quadrupole resonance pulsed spin locking. We find the experimental conditions where heteronuclear dipolar coupling is refocused by a standard multipulse sequence. This experimental condition allows us to extend our previously reported ability to measure the homonuclear dipolar coupling of powder samples to include substances that have heteronuclear coupling. These results are useful for designing substance detection algorithms, and for performing sample characterization.

  1. Low-Density Fluid Phase of Dipolar Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, Richard P.

    1996-03-01

    Unexpectedly, recent computer simulation studies [Weis and Levesque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2729 (1993); Leeuwen and Smit, ibid. 71, 3991 (1993)] failed to find a liquid phase for dipolar hard spheres. We argue that the liquid was not observed because the dipolar spheres form long chains which interact only weakly. To support this argument we derive a simple theory for noninteracting chains of dipolar spheres and show that it provides a reasonable description of the low-density fluid phase.

  2. MAGNETIC-X-RAY DICHROISM - GENERAL FEATURES OF DIPOLAR AND QUADRUPOLAR SPECTRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CARRA, P; KONIG, H; THOLE, BT; ALTARELLI, M

    1993-01-01

    Sum rules are derived for dipolar linear and quadrupolar circular dichroism in the X-ray region. They relate the intensity of the dichroic signal to the ground state expectation values of orbital and spin dependent effective operators, which act on the valence electrons. The results obtained are

  3. Unconventional Disorder Effects in Correlated Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastiasoro, Maria N.; Bernardini, Fabio; Andersen, Brian M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the effects of disorder on unconventional superconductors in the presence of correlations, and explore a novel correlated disorder paradigm dominated by strong deviations from standard Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory due to generation of local bound states and cooperative impurity behavior driven by Coulomb interactions. Specifically we explain under which circumstances magnetic disorder acts as a strong poison destroying high-Tc superconductivity at the sub-1% level, and when nonmagnetic disorder, counterintuitively, hardly affects the unconventional superconducting state while concomitantly inducing an inhomogeneous full-volume magnetic phase. Recent experimental studies of Fe-based superconductors have discovered that such unusual disorder behavior seems to be indeed present in those systems.

  4. Nanorod optical antennas for dipolar transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Taminiau, Tim H; van Hulst, Niek F

    2009-01-01

    Optical antennas link objects to light. Here, we analyze metal nanorod antennas as cavities with variable reflection coefficients to derive the interaction of dipolar transitions with radiation through the antenna modes. The presented analytical model accurately describes the complete emission process, and is summarized in a phase-matching equation. We show how antenna modes evolve as they become increasingly more bound, i.e. plasmonic. The results illustrate why efficient antennas should not be too plasmonic, and how subradiant even modes can evolve into weakly-interacting dark modes. Our description is valid for the interaction of nanorods with light in general, and is thus widely applicable.

  5. Finslerian dipolar modulation of the CMB power spectra at scales 2 < l < 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Lin, Hai-Nan [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2017-05-15

    A common explanation for the CMB power asymmetry is to introduce a dipolar modulation at the stage of inflation, where the primordial power spectrum is spatially varying. If the universe in the stage of inflation is Finslerian, and if the Finsler spacetime is non-reversible under parity flip, x → -x, then a three dimensional spectrum which is a function of wave vector and direction is valid. In this paper, a three dimensional primordial power spectrum with preferred direction is derived in the framework of Finsler spacetime. It is found that the amplitude of dipolar modulation is related to the Finslerian parameter, which in turn is a function of wave vector. The angular correlation coefficients are presented, and the numerical results for the anisotropic correlation coefficients over the multipole range 2 < l < 600 are given. (orig.)

  6. Coherence Transfer in Dipolar-Coupled Homonuclear Spin Systems in Solids Rotating at the Magic Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, O.; Vega, S.; Hoelger, C.; Limbach, H. H.

    Two routes for the exploitation of the t-SEDRA pulse scheme, which induces coherence transfer in dipolar-coupled homonuclear spin systems in rotating samples, are demonstrated and discussed. This sequence is utilized to deduce intramolecular connectivities by creating an initial coherence of one spin only, applying the t-SEDRA sequence, and monitoring the signal enhancement of the coupled spin. Probing the signal amplitude variations of the two spins and comparing them to simulations can also yield molecular distances. Using 2D spectroscopy, t-SEDRA can also be utilized to establish spin correlations. In this case, the t-SEDRA sequence is applied during the mixing time of a 2D dipolar-correlation experiment. These two approaches are demonstrated by performing 15N CPMAS NMR experiments on a 15N-doubly labeled sample of 3(5)-methyl-5(3)-phenylpyrazole.

  7. Correlation effects in the iron pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jian-xin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Si, Qimiao [RICE UNIV; Abrahams, Elihu [RUTGERS UNIV; Dai, Jianhui [ZHEJIANG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    One of the central questions about the iron pnictides concerns the extent to which their electrons are strongly correlated. Here we address this issue through the phenomenology of the charge transport and dynamics, single-electron excitation spectrum, and magnetic ordering and dynamics. We outline the evidence that the parent compounds, while metallic, have electron interactions that are sufficiently strong to produce incipient Mott physics. In other words, in terms of the strength of electron correlations compared to the kinetic energy, the iron pnictides are closer to intermediately-coupled systems lying at the boundary between itinerancy and localization, such as V{sub 2}O{sub 3} a or Se-doped NiS{sub 2} , rather than to simple antiferromagnetic metals like Cr. This level of electronic correlations produces a new small parameter for controlled theoretical analyses, namely the fraction of the single-electron spectral weight that lies in the coherent part. Using this expansion parameter, we construct the effective low-energy Hamiltonian and discuss its implications for the magnetic order and magnetic quantum criticality. Finally, this approach sharpens the notion of magnetic frustration for such a metallic system, and brings about a multi band matrix t-J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} model for the carrier-doped iron pnictides.

  8. Correlated Uncertainties in Radiation Shielding Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin Maung; Blattnig, Steve R.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    The space radiation environment is composed of energetic particles which can deliver harmful doses of radiation that may lead to acute radiation sickness, cancer, and even death for insufficiently shielded crew members. Spacecraft shielding must provide structural integrity and minimize the risk associated with radiation exposure. The risk of radiation exposure induced death (REID) is a measure of the risk of dying from cancer induced by radiation exposure. Uncertainties in the risk projection model, quality factor, and spectral fluence are folded into the calculation of the REID by sampling from probability distribution functions. Consequently, determining optimal shielding materials that reduce the REID in a statistically significant manner has been found to be difficult. In this work, the difference of the REID distributions for different materials is used to study the effect of composition on shielding effectiveness. It is shown that the use of correlated uncertainties allows for the determination of statistically significant differences between materials despite the large uncertainties in the quality factor. This is in contrast to previous methods where uncertainties have been generally treated as uncorrelated. It is concluded that the use of correlated quality factor uncertainties greatly reduces the uncertainty in the assessment of shielding effectiveness for the mitigation of radiation exposure.

  9. Magnetism of One-Dimensional Dipolar-Interaction Spin Chains with Perpendicular Anisotropy*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai-Cheng; ZHU Yan

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetism of one-dimensional dipolar-interaction spin chains with perpendicular anisotropy by simulation.The behaviors of the magnetizations and the orientation correlations change dramatically as the anisotropy increases to the critical value.The domain length can be controlled by adjusting the temperature and the external field as well as the anisotropy.These properties are interesting and arise from the competition between the anisotropy and the interaction along the chain.

  10. Magnetization behavior of ferrofluids with cryogenically imaged dipolar chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Mendelev, V.; Ivanov, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Theories and simulations have demonstrated that field-induced dipolar chains affect the static magnetic properties of ferrofluids. Experimental verification, however, has been complicated by the high polydispersity of the available ferrofluids, and the morphology of the dipolar chains was left to th

  11. Magnetization behavior of ferrofluids with cryogenically imaged dipolar chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Mendelev, V.; Ivanov, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Theories and simulations have demonstrated that field-induced dipolar chains affect the static magnetic properties of ferrofluids. Experimental verification, however, has been complicated by the high polydispersity of the available ferrofluids, and the morphology of the dipolar chains was left to th

  12. Critical Time Crystals in Dipolar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen Wei; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail D; Abanin, Dmitry A

    2017-07-07

    We analyze the quantum dynamics of periodically driven, disordered systems in the presence of long-range interactions. Focusing on the stability of discrete time crystalline (DTC) order in such systems, we use a perturbative procedure to evaluate its lifetime. For 3D systems with dipolar interactions, we show that the corresponding decay is parametrically slow, implying that robust, long-lived DTC order can be obtained. We further predict a sharp crossover from the stable DTC regime into a regime where DTC order is lost, reminiscent of a phase transition. These results are in good agreement with the recent experiments utilizing a dense, dipolar spin ensemble in diamond [Nature (London) 543, 221 (2017)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21426]. They demonstrate the existence of a novel, critical DTC regime that is stabilized not by many-body localization but rather by slow, critical dynamics. Our analysis shows that the DTC response can be used as a sensitive probe of nonequilibrium quantum matter.

  13. Cluster and Double Star observations of dipolarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nakamura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied two types of dipolarization events with different IMF conditions when Cluster and Double Star (TC-1 were located in the same local time sector: 7 August 2004, 18:00-24:00 UT, during a disturbed southward/northward IMF interval, and 14 August 2004, 21:00-24:00 UT, when the IMF was stably northward. Cluster observed dipolarization as well as fast flows during both intervals, but this was not the case for TC-1. For both events the satellites crossed near the conjugate location of the MIRACLE stations. By using multi-point analysis techniques, the direction/speed of the propagation is determined using Cluster and is then compared with the disturbances at TC-1 to discuss its spatial/temporal scale. The propagation direction of the BZ disturbance at Cluster was mainly dawnward with a tailward component for 7 August and with a significant Earthward component for 14 August associated with fast flows. We suggest that the role of the midtail fast flows can be quite different in the dissipation process depending on the condition of the IMF and resultant configuration of the tail.

  14. Charm mass effects in bulk channel correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Burnier, Y

    2013-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of thermalized QCD matter at temperatures above a few hundred MeV could be significantly influenced by charm quarks because their contribution arises four perturbative orders before purely gluonic effects. In an attempt to clarify the challenges of a lattice study, we determine the relevant imaginary-time correlator (of massive scalar densities) up to NLO in perturbation theory, and compare with existing data. We find discrepancies much larger than in the vector channel; this may hint, apart from the importance of taking a continuum limit, to larger non-perturbative effects in the scalar channel. We also recall how a transport peak related to the scalar density spectral function encodes non-perturbative information concerning the charm quark chemical equilibration rate close to equilibrium.

  15. Assessment of zinc finger orientations by residual dipolar coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Vickie; Zhu Leiming; Huang, T.-H.; Wright, Peter E.; Case, David A. [Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States)

    2000-01-15

    Residual dipolar coupling constants measured in anisotropic solution contain information on orientations between internuclear vectors and the magnetic field, providing long-range information that may help determine the relative orientations of distinct domains in biomolecules. Here we describe the measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling restraints in the refinement of the structure of the complex of DNA with three zinc fingers of transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), measured in a DMPC/DHPC bicelle solution. These dipolar restraints were applied on a variety of orientations of the zinc finger domains (derived from crystallography, previous NMR studies, and systematic modeling) in order to examine the validity and sensitivity of using residual dipolar splittings to study interdomain orientations. The spread in interdomain angles between zinc fingers is reduced from 24 deg. to 9 deg. upon incorporation of dipolar restraints. However, the results also show that the ability to determine relative orientations is strongly dependent on the structural accuracy of the local domain structures.

  16. Specific heat anomaly in relaxor ferroelectrics and dipolar glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutnjak, Z.; Pirc, R.

    2017-03-01

    The temperature and electric field dependence of the specific heat of relaxor ferroelectrics and dipolar glasses is investigated by means of a Landau-type theoretical model. It is shown that the dipolar specific heat, which is due to the randomly interacting polar nanoregions in relaxors and electric dipoles in dipolar glasses, is negative in a temperature region below the permittivity maximum. Also, it follows that for sufficiently low values of the field, where the induced polarization shows a quasi linear field dependence, the dipolar specific heat is proportional to the second temperature derivative of the dielectric polarization. This quantity can be extracted from the experimental temperature profile of the polarization, thus enabling an indirect experimental estimate of the negative specific heat, which is demonstrated for a set of representative relaxor and dipolar glass systems.

  17. Acousto-exciton interaction in a gas of 2D indirect dipolar excitons in the presence of disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V., E-mail: chaplik@isp.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    A theory for the linear and quadratic responses of a 2D gas of indirect dipolar excitons to an external surface acoustic wave perturbation in the presence of a static random potential is considered. The theory is constructed both for high temperatures, definitely greater than the exciton gas condensation temperature, and at zero temperature by taking into account the Bose–Einstein condensation effects. The particle Green functions, the density–density correlation function, and the quadratic response function are calculated by the “cross” diagram technique. The results obtained are used to calculate the absorption of Rayleigh surface waves and the acoustic exciton gas drag by a Rayleigh wave. The damping of Bogoliubov excitations in an exciton condensate due to theirs scattering by a random potential has also been determined.

  18. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: srojas@cefop.cl [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  19. Correlates of baclofen effectiveness in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhansh Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201 or Baclofen (348. ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75 and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19; t (547 = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables - dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ′dose of baclofen′ and ′average alcohol intake′ explain a significant amount of variance in ′time to first drink′. [F (1, 345 = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2 adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier.

  20. Observation of a Sharp Negative Dipolarization Front in the Reconnection Outflow Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Meng; HUANG Shi-Yong; DENG Xiao-Hua; PANG Ye

    2011-01-01

    A sharp dipolarization front (DF) has recently been detected in the Earth's magnetotail and is associated with complex kinetic effects. We present one event where a tailward propagating negative DF (with Bz decreasing sharply to negative value) was observed near a reconnection region. The thickness of the negative DF is comparable with the local ion gyro-radius/inertial length. There is a strong field-aligned current at the front. Electromagnetic whistler wave enhancements are observed around the front, associated with counter-streaming electron beams. We further compare the features of the observed negative DF with the recent kinetic simulation results, as well as the Earthward propagating DFs observed by the THEMIS spacecraft.%A sharp dipolarization front (DF) has recently been detected in the Earth's magnetotail and is associated with complex kinetic effects.We present one event where a tailward propagating negative DF (with Bz decreasing sharply to negative value) was observed near a reconnection region.The thickness of the negative DF is comparable with the local ion gyro-radius/inertial length.There is a strong field-aligned current at the front.Electromagnetic whistler wave enhancements are observed around the front,associated with counter-streaming electron beams.We further compare the features of the observed negative DF with the recent kinetic simulation results,as well as the Earthward propagating DFs observed by the THEMIS spacecraft.A substorm is an explosive energy release process that occurs in the magnetosphere of many planets.Magnetic field dipolarization is believed to be an essential ingredient of the substorm process,each of which is generally associated with dipolarization.Traditionally,dipolarization was believed to be associated with a decrease in the cross-tail current in the nearEarth region,which might be caused by cross-tail current instability[1] or the dawnward inertial current due to fast-flow braking.[2

  1. Shielding $^2\\Sigma$ ultracold dipolar molecular collisions with electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Quéméner, Goulven

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for shielding ultracold, paramagnetic, dipolar molecules from inelastic and chemical collisions are investigated. Molecules placed in their first rotationally excited states are found to exhibit effective long-range repulsion for applied electric fields above a certain critical value, as previously shown for non-paramagnetic molecules. This repulsion can safely allow the molecules to scatter while reducing the risk of inelastic or chemically reactive collisions. Several molecular species of $^2\\Sigma$ molecules of experimental interest -- RbSr, SrF, BaF, and YO -- are considered, and all are shown to exhibit orders of magnitude suppression in quenching rates in a sufficiently strong laboratory electric field. It is further shown that, for these molecules described by Hund's coupling case b, electronic and nuclear spins play the role of spectator with respect to the shielding.

  2. Synthesis of Spiroisoxazolines by 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ertl

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The cycloaddition of the chiral nitrile oxide 1 to 1-R-substituted 3,3-methylene-5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidinones 2 (where R is H, n-butyl-, 1,1-dimethylethoxycarbonyl-, 1-methylethenyl- and acetyl- proceeds regioselectively under the formation of spiroisoxazolines, namely 7-R-substituted-6-oxo-8,8-dimethyl-1-oxa-2,7-diazaspiro[4,4]non-2-enes 5 and 6. The asymmetric induction expected by the a-chiral centre of the nitrile oxide 1 was not very effective, diastereoisomers 5 and 6 were formed in an approximate 50:50 ratio. The stereoselectivity of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the arylnitrile oxide 7 with the chiral lactam 3 and the achiral lactone 4 are investigated. The attack of the 1,3-dipole occurred from the less hindered face of the dipolarophile 3 and 4, giving the major isomer 8 and 10, respectively.

  3. Shielding ultracold dipolar molecular collisions with electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John

    2016-05-01

    The prospect for shielding ultracold dipolar molecules from inelastic and reactive collisions is investigated. Molecules placed in their first rotationally excited states are found to exhibit effective long-range repulsion for applied electric fields above a certain critical value. This repulsion can safely allow the molecules to scatter while reducing the risk of inelastic or chemically reactive collisions. Several molecular species of molecules of experimental interest such as NaRb, NaK, RbSr, SrF, BaF, and YO, are considered and all are shown to exhibit orders of magnitude suppression in quenching rates in a sufficiently strong laboratory electric field. We acknowledge the financial support of the COPOMOL project (ANR-13-IS04-0004) from Agence Nationale de la Recherche and the ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476.

  4. Axial dipolar dynamo action in the Taylor-Green vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Giorgio; Thorner, Gentien; Vest, Julien-Piera; Fauve, Stephan; Brachet, Marc

    2011-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the magnetic field generated by the Taylor-Green vortex. We show that periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic realistic boundary conditions by prescribing the symmetries of the velocity and magnetic fields. This gives insight into some problems of central interest for dynamos: the possible effect of velocity fluctuations on the dynamo threshold, and the role of boundary conditions on the threshold and on the geometry of the magnetic field generated by dynamo action. In particular, we show that an axial dipolar dynamo similar to the one observed in a recent experiment can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the symmetries of the magnetic field. The nonlinear saturation is studied and a simple model explaining the magnetic Prandtl number dependence of the super- and subcritical nature of the dynamo transition is given.

  5. Structure-performance correlations in vapor phase deposited self-assembled nanodielectrics for organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetto, Sara A; Frattarelli, David L; Facchetti, Antonio; Ratner, Mark A; Marks, Tobin J

    2009-08-12

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFETs) are fabricated using thin, vapor-deposited films of both the gate dielectric (vapor-deposited self-assembled nanodielectric, v-SAND) and the organic semiconductor. The nanoscopic self-assembled gate dielectrics are structurally organized via molecular precursor hydrogen-bonding interactions, followed by planarization with a vapor-deposited inorganic SiO(x) film. It is shown here that the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) and OFET device electrical properties are sensitive to the v-SAND molecular dipolar orientation. In addition, alternating (organic/inorganic/organic/...) and nonalternating (1 organic layer + 1 inorganic layer) v-SAND microstructural arrangements are investigated, and the microstructures are correlated with MIS and OFET device characteristics. Films with alternating microstructures have larger capacitances than nonalternating films of the same thickness. However, they also have larger leakage currents, associated with the enhanced polarization of well-ordered dipolar films. For pentacene OFETs, the largest mobilities (approximately 3 cm(2)/(V s)) are associated with the high-capacitance nonalternating microstructure, and the lowest mobilities (approximately 0.5 cm(2)/(V s)) are associated with the alternating microstructure. v-SAND gated ambient-stable, n-type organic semiconductors show the opposite trends, where slightly greater OFET performance is observed with the lower-capacitance gate dielectric. For the p-type and one of the n-type v-SAND-based OFETs, the performance (under vacuum and ambient) is comparable to, or surpasses, that of previously reported devices using conventional SiO(2) as the gate dielectric. More importantly, the devices fabricated here operate at far lower voltages. These results indicate that v-SAND dielectrics are promising for future flexible organic electronics requiring low-temperature, solvent-free deposition conditions.

  6. Solvents effect on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of 7-diethylamino-3-thenoylcoumarin: evaluation and correlation between solvatochromism and solvent polarity parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraja, Jana; Inamdar, S R; Suresh Kumar, H M

    2015-02-25

    Effect of solvents of varying polarities on absorption and fluorescence spectra and dipole moment of laser dye: 7-diethylamino-3-thenoylcoumarin (DETC) has been investigated. A small band shift is obtained in the absorption spectra compared to emission spectra. The spectral shifts were correlated with Catalan's parameters using linear solvation energy relationship. It reveals that non-specific interaction measured by solvent polarity has more influence on absorption and solvent dipolarity contribution is significant in case of fluorescence. A bathochromic shift observed in absorption and emission spectra with increasing solvent polarity, which implied that the transition involved is π→π(∗). The solvatochromic correlations were used to estimate the excited state dipole moment using experimentally determined ground state dipole moment. The observed single-state excited state dipole moment is found to be greater than the ground state.

  7. Temperature dependence of contact and dipolar NMR chemical shifts in paramagnetic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bob; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-02-07

    Using a recently proposed equation for NMR nuclear magnetic shielding for molecules with unpaired electrons [A. Soncini and W. Van den Heuvel, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 021103 (2013)], equations for the temperature (T) dependent isotropic shielding for multiplets with an effective spin S equal to 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 in terms of electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian parameters are derived and then expanded in powers of 1/T. One simplifying assumption used is that a matrix derived from the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor and the Zeeman coupling matrix (g-tensor) share the same principal axis system. The influence of the rhombic ZFS parameter E is only investigated for S = 1. Expressions for paramagnetic contact shielding (from the isotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) and pseudo-contact or dipolar shielding (from the anisotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) are considered separately. The leading order is always 1/T. A temperature dependence of the contact shielding as 1/T and of the dipolar shielding as 1/T(2), which is sometimes assumed in the assignment of paramagnetic chemical shifts, is shown to arise only if S ≥ 1 and zero-field splitting is appreciable, and only if the Zeeman coupling matrix is nearly isotropic (Δg = 0). In such situations, an assignment of contact versus dipolar shifts may be possible based only on linear and quadratic fits of measured variable-temperature chemical shifts versus 1/T. Numerical data are provided for nickelocene (S = 1). Even under the assumption of Δg = 0, a different leading order of contact and dipolar shifts in powers of 1/T is not obtained for S = 3/2. When Δg is not very small, dipolar and contact shifts both depend in leading order in 1/T in all cases, with sizable contributions in order 1/T(n) with n = 2 and higher.

  8. Correlation effects in double rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, P. (Lab. Aime Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2, 91 Orsay (France))

    1994-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the recent advances performed in alkaline-earth atoms by the selective laser preparation of autoionizing asymmetrical double Rydberg states which have, so far, not been observed in natural environments. Because the great amount of flexibility achieved by the sequential laser electron excitations, a wide choice of two-electron situations have been investigated and analyzed which exhibit spectral features due to long-range effects of the Coulomb electron-electron repulsion. To overcome the autoionization broadening of the lines, double Rydberg states with a non-core penetrating high-l outer electron were produced by combining temporal laser excitation technique with the electric-field switching method. The study of the spectral correlation signatures in N snl double Rydberg states versus l allow to understand their evolution from simple spectra (l [>=] 10) due to long-range dipole interaction to more complex data (l [<=] 7) induced by short-range multipole effects when two electrons start to influence more each other. (orig.).

  9. Ground-state and dynamical properties of two-dimensional dipolar Fermi liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedinpour, Saeed H.; Asgari, Reza; Tanatar, B.; Polini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional spin-polarized fluid of dipolar fermions within the Euler-Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation. Our method is based on the solution of a scattering Schrödinger equation for the "pair amplitude" g(r), where g(r) is the pair distribution function. A key ingredient in our theory is the effective pair potential, which includes a bosonic term from Jastrow-Feenberg correlations and a fermionic contribution from kinetic energy and exchange, which is tailored to reproduce the Hartree-Fock limit at weak coupling. Very good agreement with recent results based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations is achieved over a wide range of coupling constants up to the liquid-to-crystal quantum phase transition. Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and a static approximation for the effective inter-particle interactions, we calculate the dynamical density-density response function, and furthermore demonstrate that an undamped zero-sound mode exists for any value of the interaction strength, down to infinitesimally weak couplings.

  10. Enhanced dipolar transport in one-dimensional waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cantillano, Camilo; Real, Bastián; Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Delgado, Aldo; Szameit, Alexander; Vicencio, Rodrigo A

    2016-01-01

    We study the transport properties of fundamental and dipolar (first-excited) modes on one-dimensional coupled waveguide arrays. By modulating an optical beam, we are able to generate fundamental and dipolar modes to study discrete diffraction (single-site excitation) and gaussian beam propagation (multi-site excitation \\& phase gradient). We find that dipolar modes experience a coupling constant more than two times larger than the one for fundamental modes. This implies an enhanced transport of energy for dipoles in a tight-binding lattice. Additionally, we study disordered systems and find that while fundamental modes are already trapped in a weakly disorder array, dipoles still diffract across the lattice.

  11. Resolution-optimized NMR measurement of (1)D(CH), (1)D(CC) and (2)D(CH) residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acid bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisbouvier, Jérôme; Bryce, David L; O'neil-Cabello, Erin; Nikonowicz, Edward P; Bax, Ad

    2004-11-01

    New methods are described for accurate measurement of multiple residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acid bases. The methods use TROSY-type pulse sequences for optimizing resolution and sensitivity, and rely on the E.COSY principle to measure the relatively small two-bond (2)D(CH) couplings at high precision. Measurements are demonstrated for a 24-nt stem-loop RNA sequence, uniformly enriched in (13)C, and aligned in Pf1. The recently described pseudo-3D method is used to provide homonuclear (1)H-(1)H decoupling, which minimizes cross-correlation effects and optimizes resolution. Up to seven (1)H-(13)C and (13)C-(13)C couplings are measured for pyrimidines (U and C), including (1)D(C5H5), (1)D(C6H6), (2)D(C5H6), (2)D(C6H5), (1)D(C5C4), (1)D(C5C6), and (2)D(C4H5). For adenine, four base couplings ((1)D(C2H2), (1)D(C8H8), (1)D(C4C5), and (1)D(C5C6)) are readily measured whereas for guanine only three couplings are accessible at high relative accuracy ((1)D(C8H8), (1)D(C4C5), and (1)D(C5C6)). Only three dipolar couplings are linearly independent in planar structures such as nucleic acid bases, permitting cross validation of the data and evaluation of their accuracies. For the vast majority of dipolar couplings, the error is found to be less than +/-3% of their possible range, indicating that the measurement accuracy is not limiting when using these couplings as restraints in structure calculations. Reported isotropic values of the one- and two-bond J couplings cluster very tightly for each type of nucleotide.

  12. Two dimensional dipolar coupling in monolayers of silver and gold nanoparticles on a dielectric substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoît P; Leuvrey, Cedric; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Rastei, Mircea; Schmerber, Guy; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean Yves

    2014-10-21

    The dimensionality of assembled nanoparticles plays an important role in their optical and magnetic properties, via dipolar effects and the interaction with their environment. In this work we develop a methodology for distinguishing between two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional collective interactions on the surface plasmon resonance of assembled metal nanoparticles. Towards that goal, we elaborate different sets of Au and Ag nanoparticles as suspensions, random 3D arrangements and well organized 2D arrays. Then we model their scattering cross-section using effective field methods in dimension n, including interparticle as well as particle-substrate dipolar interactions. For this modelling, two effective field medium approaches are employed, taking into account the filling factors of the assemblies. Our results are important for realizing photonic amplifier devices.

  13. Backbone resonance assignment and order tensor estimation using residual dipolar couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, Paul; Liu, Yizhou; Simin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    An NMR investigation of proteins with known X-ray structures is of interest in a number of endeavors. Performing these studies through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) requires the costly step of resonance assignment. The prevalent assignment strategy does not make use of existing structural information and requires uniform isotope labeling. Here we present a rapid and cost-effective method of assigning NMR data to an existing structure—either an X-ray or computationally modeled structure. The presented method, Exhaustively Permuted Assignment of RDCs (EPAR), utilizes unassigned residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data that can easily be obtained by NMR spectroscopy. The algorithm uses only the backbone N–H RDCs from multiple alignment media along with the amino acid type of the RDCs. It is inspired by previous work from Zweckstetter and provides several extensions. We present results on 13 synthetic and experimental datasets from 8 different structures, including two homodimers. Using just two alignment media, EPAR achieves an average assignment accuracy greater than 80%. With three media, the average accuracy is higher than 94%. The algorithm also outputs a prediction of the assignment accuracy, which has a correlation of 0.77 to the true accuracy. This prediction score can be used to establish the needed confidence in assignment accuracy. PMID:21667298

  14. Bose-Einstein condensation of dipolar excitons in quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, V B; Gorbunov, A V, E-mail: timofeev@issp.ac.r [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-01

    The experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dipolar (spatially-indirect) excitons in the lateral traps in GaAs/AlGaAs Schottky-diode heterostructures with double and single quantum wells are presented. The condensed part of dipolar excitons under detection in the far zone is placed in k-space in the range which is almost two orders of magnitude less than thermal exciton wave vector. BEC occurs spontaneously in a reservoir of thermalized excitons. Luminescence images of Bose-condensate of dipolar excitons exhibit along perimeter of circular trap axially symmetrical spatial structures of equidistant bright spots which strongly depend on excitation power and temperature. By means of two-beam interference experiments with the use of cw and pulsed photoexcitation it was found that the state of dipolar exciton Bose-condensate is spatially coherent and the whole patterned luminescence configuration in real space is described by a common wave function.

  15. Cross-correlated spin relaxation effects in methyl {sup 1}H CPMG-based relaxation dispersion experiments: Complications and a simple solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhnev, Dmitry M.; Mittermaier, Anthony K.; Kay, Lewis E. [University of Toronto, Contribution from the Protein Engineering Network Centers of Excellence and the Departments of Medical Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)], E-mail: kay@pound.med.utoronto.ca

    2005-04-15

    Artifacts associated with the measurement of methyl {sup 1}H single quantum CPMG-based relaxation dispersion profiles are described. These artifacts arise due to the combination of cross-correlated spin relaxation effects involving intra-methyl {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H dipolar interactions and imperfections in {sup 1}H refocusing pulses that are applied during CPMG intervals that quantify the effects of chemical exchange on measured transverse relaxation rates. As a result substantial errors in extracted exchange parameters can be obtained. A simple 'work-around' is presented where the {sup 1}H chemical shift difference between the exchanging states is extracted from a combination of {sup 13}C single quantum and {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H multiple quantum dispersion profiles. The approach is demonstrated with an application to a folding/unfolding reaction involving a G48M mutant Fyn SH3 domain.

  16. Correlated Noise Effects on Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先菊; 艾保全; 刘国涛; 刘良钢

    2003-01-01

    Based on the model describing the regulation of the PRM operator region of λ phage proposed by Hasty et al.[Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97(2000)2075], we study the steady-state probability distribution properties of the model in the presence of correlated Gaussian white noise. We find that the degree of correlation of the noises can affect the form of the steady-state probability distribution. When the degree of correlation of the noises increases, the form of the steady-state probability distribution changes from a bimodal into a unimodal structure.The steady-state probability distribution extrema have also been investigated. We find that noise correlation can change the positions of the extreme value of the steady-state probability distribution of the model greatly.

  17. Dipolar relaxation of cold sodium atoms in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Zygelman, B

    2002-01-01

    A quantum mechanical close coupling theory of spin relaxation in the stretched hyperfine level of sodium is presented. We calculate the dipolar relaxation rate of magnetically trapped cold sodium atoms in the magnetic field. The influence of shape resonances and the anisotropy of the dipolar interaction on the collision dynamics are explored. We examine the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections on the choice of asymptotic atomic state basis.

  18. Asymptotic behavior of local dipolar fields in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.J., E-mail: gjb@phys.soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Stenning, G.B.G., E-mail: Gerrit.vanderlaan@diamond.ac.uk [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der, E-mail: gavin.stenning@stfc.ac.uk [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    A simple method, based on layer by layer direct summation, is used to determine the local dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films. The results show that the dipolar constants converge ~1/m where the number of spins in a square film is given by (2m+1){sup 2}. Dipolar field results for sc, bcc, fcc, and hexagonal lattices are presented and discussed. The results can be used to calculate local dipolar fields in films with either ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spiral, exponential decay behavior, provided the magnetic order only changes normal to the film. Differences between the atomistic (local fields) and macroscopic fields (Maxwellian) are also examined. For the latter, the macro B-field inside the film is uniform and falls to zero sharply outside, in accord with Maxwell boundary conditions. In contrast, the local field for the atomistic point dipole model is highly non-linear inside and falls to zero at about three lattice spacing outside the film. Finally, it is argued that the continuum field B (used by the micromagnetic community) and the local field B{sub loc}(r) (used by the FMR community) will lead to differing values for the overall demagnetization energy. - Highlights: • Point-dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films are characterized by just three numbers. • Maxwell's boundary condition is partially violated in the point-dipole approximation. • Asymptotic values of point dipolar fields in circular monolayers scale as π/r.

  19. Self-replication with magnetic dipolar colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Joshua M; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal self-replication represents an exciting research frontier in soft matter physics. Currently, all reported self-replication schemes involve coating colloidal particles with stimuli-responsive molecules to allow switchable interactions. In this paper, we introduce a scheme using ferromagnetic dipolar colloids and preprogrammed external magnetic fields to create an autonomous self-replication system. Interparticle dipole-dipole forces and periodically varying weak-strong magnetic fields cooperate to drive colloid monomers from the solute onto templates, bind them into replicas, and dissolve template complexes. We present three general design principles for autonomous linear replicators, derived from a focused study of a minimalist sphere-dimer magnetic system in which single binding sites allow formation of dimeric templates. We show via statistical models and computer simulations that our system exhibits nonlinear growth of templates and produces nearly exponential growth (low error rate) upon adding an optimized competing electrostatic potential. We devise experimental strategies for constructing the required magnetic colloids based on documented laboratory techniques. We also present qualitative ideas about building more complex self-replicating structures utilizing magnetic colloids.

  20. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchet, Luc [GRECO Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris - UMR 7095 du CNRS,Université Pierre & Marie Curie,98" b" i" s boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Heisenberg, Lavinia [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics & The Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova University Centre,Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-12-14

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  1. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  2. Unusual Cycloadducts from the Dipolar Cycloaddition of Allenyl Perfluoroalkyl Sulfones to Nitrones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Xiao-Jin; LIU,Jin-Tao

    2007-01-01

    The dipolar cycloaddition reaction of allenyl perfluoroalkyl sulfones (1) to nitrones (2) was described. Unlike nonfluorine-containing allenyl sulfones, 1 reacted readily with 2 in ether at room temperature and unusual zwitterionic cycloadducts (3) were obtained in good yields due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of perfluoroalkyl groups. The structure of 3 was characterized by spectral analyses and X-ray crystallography.

  3. COMPOZER-based longitudinal cross-polarization via dipolar coupling under MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Takayuki; Murakami, Miwa; Noda, Yasuto; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K

    2014-08-01

    We propose a cross polarization (CP) sequence effective under magic-angle spinning (MAS) which is tolerant to RF field inhomogeneity and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch. Its key feature is that spin locking is not used, as CP occurs among the longitudinal (Z) magnetizations modulated by the combination of two pulses with the opposite phases. We show that, by changing the phases of the pulse pairs synchronized with MAS, the flip-flop term of the dipolar interaction is restored under MAS.

  4. Refocused continuous-wave decoupling: A new approach to heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Joachim Møllesøe; Nielsen, Anders B.; Bjerring, Morten

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy is presented, which eliminates residual static high-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian originating from interactions between oscillating dipolar and anisotropic shielding tensors...... rCW decoupling sequences are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art decoupling methods. The rCW decoupling sequences benefit from extreme broadbandedness, tolerance towards rf inhomogeneity, and improved potential for decoupling at relatively low average rf field strengths...

  5. Sudden Transition between Quantum Correlation and Classical Correlation: the Effect of Interaction between Subsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun-Yan; WANG Lin-Cheng; YI Xue-Xi

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum discord dynamics of a bipartite composite system in the presence of a dissipative environment and investigate the effect of the interaction between the two subsystems. The results show that the interaction can influence the sudden transition between the quantum correlation and the classical correlation and for the maximally mixed marginals initial states, the sudden transition regime will always exist. The entanglements are also discussed in comparison to the quantum discord in describing the quantum correlations.%@@ We study the quantum discord dynamics of a bipartite composite system in the presence of a dissipative envi- ronment and investigate the effect of the interaction between the two subsystems.The results show that the interaction can influence the sudden transition between the quantum correlation and the classical correlation and for the maximally mixed marginals initial states, the sudden transition regime will always exist.The entangle- ments are also discussed in comparison to the quantum discord in describing the quantum correlations.

  6. Dynamical effects and ergodicity in the dipolar glass phase: evidence from time-domain EPR and phase memory time studies of AsO{sub 4}{sup 4-} in Rb{sub 1-x}(NH{sub 4}){sub x}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (x = 0,0.5,1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, M D [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Gustafsson, H [Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, S-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Danilczuk, M [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Lund, A [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-05-03

    Three-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM), hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy (HYSCORE) investigations and two-pulse electron spin echo (ESE) measurements of phase memory time T{sub M}, were carried out, in the 20-200 K temperature range, on an AsO{sub 4}{sup 4-} paramagnetic probe stabilized in RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (RDP), NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (ADP), and dipolar glass Rb{sub 0.5}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.5}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (RADP). The results obtained on ADP revealed hyperfine interaction of the probe ion with the {sup 14}N of the ammonium ion, the coupling constant satisfying the condition of 'cancellation' at a field of 480 mT. The ammonium ion was found to be in two different sites in ADP, which became indistinguishable on the formation of dipolar glass RADP. These results were confirmed by HYSCORE spectral measurements. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra of three-pulse ESEEM decays have clearly revealed the interaction with protons in the O-H----O bond both in ADP and RDP; and in RADP with an averaged coupling constant. The phase memory times in RADP exhibited strong temperature dependence and were found to be dependent on the nuclear spin quantum number m{sub I} of {sup 75}As. The temperature dependence of T{sub M} exhibited a well-defined maximum around 90 K, coinciding with the temperature of onset of 'freezing' in Rb{sub 0.5}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.5}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. This is symptomatic of dynamic fluctuations in the dipolar glass phase, with onset around 150 K, going through a maximum around 90 K and slowing down on further cooling. These results suggest that in RADP, a dynamical mechanism with progressive slowing down below 90 K is operative in the glass formation. This implies that the RADP system, with x = 0.5, exists in an ergodic relaxor (R)-state in the 20-200 K temperature range wherein every fluctuating monodomain can be viewed as statistically representative of the whole sample.

  7. Collective excitations of dipolar gases based on local tunneling in ultracold superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, L; Deng, X; Schmelcher, P

    2016-01-01

    The collective dynamics of a dipolar fermionic quantum gas confined in a one-dimensional double-well superlattice is explored. The fermionic gas resides in a paramagnetic-like ground state in the weak interaction regime, upon which a new type of collective dynamics is found when applying a local perturbation. This dynamics is composed of the local tunneling of fermions in separate supercells, and is a pure quantum effect, with no classical counterpart. Due to the presence of the dipolar interactions the local tunneling transports through the entire superlattice, giving rise to a collective dynamics. A well-defined momentum-energy dispersion relation is identified in the ab-initio simulations demonstrating the phonon-like behavior. The phonon-like characteristic is also confirmed by an analytical description of the dynamics within a semiclassical picture.

  8. H-ferrierite zeolite: As an effective and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of 1,5-benzothiazepine under solvent free condition and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoraya A. Farghaly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of new derivatives of 1,5-benzothiazepine has been developed by the reaction of various chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propenones with 2-amino-thiophenol in the presence of H-ferrierite zeolite as acidic catalyst without solvent. In addition, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of hydrazonoyl chlorides on CN bond of 1,5-benzothiazepines in water in the presence of Na2CO3/THAC as a base catalyst afforded 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-d][1,5]benzothiazepines. The structure of all the newly synthesized compounds was established on the basis of spectral data (Mass, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis.

  9. Auroral counterpart of magnetic field dipolarizations in Saturn's tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, C. M.; Badman, S. V.; Achilleos, N.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Dougherty, M. K.; Pryor, W.

    2012-04-01

    Following magnetic reconnection in a planetary magnetotail, newly closed field lines can be rapidly accelerated back towards the planet, becoming "dipolarized" in the process. At Saturn, dipolarizations can be initially identified in magnetometer data by looking for a southward turning of the magnetic field, indicating the transition from a radially stretched configuration to a more dipolar field topology. The highly stretched geometry of the kronian magnetotail lobes gives rise to a tail current which flows eastward (dusk to dawn) in the near equatorial plane across the centre of the tail. During reconnection and associated dipolarization of the field, the inner edge of this tail current can be diverted through the ionosphere, in a situation analogous to the substorm current wedge picture at Earth. We present a picture of the current circuit arising from this tail reconfiguration, and outline the equations which govern the field-current relationship. We show an example of a dipolarization identified in the Cassini magnetometer data and use this formalism to constrain the ionospheric current density that would arise for this example and the implications for auroral electron acceleration in regions of upward directed field-aligned current. We then present a separate example of data from the Cassini UVIS instrument where we observe small 'spots' of auroral emission lying near the main oval; features thought to be associated with dipolarizations in the tail. In the example shown, such auroral spots are the precursor to more intense activity associated with recurrent energisation via particle injections from the tail following reconnection. We conclude that dipolarizations in Saturn's magnetotail have an observable auroral counterpart, opening up the possibility to search for further examples and to use this auroral property as a remote proxy for tail reconnection.

  10. Hysteresis of the Magnetic Particle in a Dipolar Ising Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yin-Zhong; LI Zhen-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Zero-temperature Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the hysteresis of a magnetic particle ina dipolarIsing model. The magnetic particle is described in a system of permanent dipoles, and the dipoles are locatedin a cubic lattice site. The effects of the shape and the size of the particle on the hysteresis loop at zero temperatureare obtained. For strong exchange interactions, the shapes of magnetic hysteresis loops approach rectangle. For weakexchange interactions, the effects of the size and the shape of the particle on the loops are more remarkable than thoseof strong exchange interactions case. The slope of the hysteresis loop decreases with the increase of the ratio of thesemi major axis to the semi minor axis of the ellipsoidal magnetic particle, and there is an increase of the slope of thehysteresis with the decrease of the size of the magnetic particle. The effects of the shape and size of the particle on thecoercive force at zero temperature are also investigated.

  11. Refocused continuous-wave decoupling: A new approach to heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Joachim M.; Nielsen, Anders B.; Bjerring, Morten; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2012-12-01

    A novel strategy for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented, which eliminates residual static high-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian originating from interactions between oscillating dipolar and anisotropic shielding tensors. The method, called refocused continuous-wave (rCW) decoupling, is systematically established by interleaving continuous wave decoupling with appropriately inserted rotor-synchronized high-power π refocusing pulses of alternating phases. The effect of the refocusing pulses in eliminating residual effects from dipolar coupling in heteronuclear spin systems is rationalized by effective Hamiltonian calculations to third order. In some variants the π pulse refocusing is supplemented by insertion of rotor-synchronized π/2 purging pulses to further reduce the residual dipolar coupling effects. Five different rCW decoupling sequences are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art decoupling methods. The rCW decoupling sequences benefit from extreme broadbandedness, tolerance towards rf inhomogeneity, and improved potential for decoupling at relatively low average rf field strengths. In numerical simulations, the rCW schemes clearly reveal superior characteristics relative to the best decoupling schemes presented so far, which we to some extent also are capable of demonstrating experimentally. A major advantage of the rCW decoupling methods is that they are easy to set up and optimize experimentally.

  12. Accurate measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings by phase-alternating R-symmetry (PARS) sequences in magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Guangjin, E-mail: hou@udel.edu, E-mail: tpolenov@udel.edu; Lu, Xingyu, E-mail: luxingyu@udel.edu, E-mail: lexvega@comcast.net; Vega, Alexander J., E-mail: luxingyu@udel.edu, E-mail: lexvega@comcast.net; Polenova, Tatyana, E-mail: hou@udel.edu, E-mail: tpolenov@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA and Pittsburgh Center for HIV Protein Interactions, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 1051 Biomedical Science Tower 3, 3501 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We report a Phase-Alternating R-Symmetry (PARS) dipolar recoupling scheme for accurate measurement of heteronuclear {sup 1}H-X (X = {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, {sup 31}P, etc.) dipolar couplings in MAS NMR experiments. It is an improvement of conventional C- and R-symmetry type DIPSHIFT experiments where, in addition to the dipolar interaction, the {sup 1}H CSA interaction persists and thereby introduces considerable errors in the dipolar measurements. In PARS, phase-shifted RN symmetry pulse blocks applied on the {sup 1}H spins combined with π pulses applied on the X spins at the end of each RN block efficiently suppress the effect from {sup 1}H chemical shift anisotropy, while keeping the {sup 1}H-X dipolar couplings intact. Another advantage over conventional DIPSHIFT experiments, which require the signal to be detected in the form of a reduced-intensity Hahn echo, is that the series of π pulses refocuses the X chemical shift and avoids the necessity of echo formation. PARS permits determination of accurate dipolar couplings in a single experiment; it is suitable for a wide range of MAS conditions including both slow and fast MAS frequencies; and it assures dipolar truncation from the remote protons. The performance of PARS is tested on two model systems, [{sup 15}N]-N-acetyl-valine and [U-{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N]-N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe tripeptide. The application of PARS for site-resolved measurement of accurate {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N dipolar couplings in the context of 3D experiments is presented on U-{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-enriched dynein light chain protein LC8.

  13. Accurate measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings by phase-alternating R-symmetry (PARS) sequences in magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guangjin; Lu, Xingyu; Vega, Alexander J; Polenova, Tatyana

    2014-09-14

    We report a Phase-Alternating R-Symmetry (PARS) dipolar recoupling scheme for accurate measurement of heteronuclear (1)H-X (X = (13)C, (15)N, (31)P, etc.) dipolar couplings in MAS NMR experiments. It is an improvement of conventional C- and R-symmetry type DIPSHIFT experiments where, in addition to the dipolar interaction, the (1)H CSA interaction persists and thereby introduces considerable errors in the dipolar measurements. In PARS, phase-shifted RN symmetry pulse blocks applied on the (1)H spins combined with π pulses applied on the X spins at the end of each RN block efficiently suppress the effect from (1)H chemical shift anisotropy, while keeping the (1)H-X dipolar couplings intact. Another advantage over conventional DIPSHIFT experiments, which require the signal to be detected in the form of a reduced-intensity Hahn echo, is that the series of π pulses refocuses the X chemical shift and avoids the necessity of echo formation. PARS permits determination of accurate dipolar couplings in a single experiment; it is suitable for a wide range of MAS conditions including both slow and fast MAS frequencies; and it assures dipolar truncation from the remote protons. The performance of PARS is tested on two model systems, [(15)N]-N-acetyl-valine and [U-(13)C,(15)N]-N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe tripeptide. The application of PARS for site-resolved measurement of accurate (1)H-(15)N dipolar couplings in the context of 3D experiments is presented on U-(13)C,(15)N-enriched dynein light chain protein LC8.

  14. Jet Dipolarity: Top Tagging with Color Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Jankowiak, Martin; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    A new jet observable, dipolarity, is introduced that can distinguish whether a pair of subjets arises from a color singlet source. This observable is incorporated into the HEPTopTagger and is shown to improve discrimination between top jets and QCD jets for moderate to high p{sub T}. The impressive resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors means that a typical QCD jet at the LHC deposits energy in {Omicron}(10-100) calorimeter cells. Such fine-grained calorimetry allows for jets to be studied in much greater detail than previously, with sophisticated versions of current techniques making it possible to measure more than just the bulk properties of jets (e.g. event jet multiplicities or jet masses). One goal of the LHC is to employ these techniques to extend the amount of information available from each jet, allowing for a broader probe of the properties of QCD. The past several years have seen significant progress in developing such jet substructure techniques. A number of general purpose tools have been developed, including: (i) top-tagging algorithms designed for use at both lower and higher p{sub T} as well as (ii) jet grooming techniques such as filtering, pruning, and trimming, which are designed to improve jet mass resolution. Jet substructure techniques have also been studied in the context of specific particle searches, where they have been shown to substantially extend the reach of traditional search techniques in a wide variety of scenarios, including for example boosted Higgses, neutral spin-one resonances, searches for supersymmetry, and many others. Despite these many successes, however, there is every reason to expect that there remains room for refinement of jet substructure techniques.

  15. Dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann approach to ionic solutions: a mean field and loop expansion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Amir; Andelman, David; Orland, Henri

    2013-10-28

    We study the variation of the dielectric response of ionic aqueous solutions as function of their ionic strength. The effect of salt on the dielectric constant appears through the coupling between ions and dipolar water molecules. On a mean-field level, we account for any internal charge distribution of particles. The dipolar degrees of freedom are added to the ionic ones and result in a generalization of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation called the Dipolar PB (DPB). By looking at the DPB equation around a fixed point-like ion, a closed-form formula for the dielectric constant is obtained. We express the dielectric constant using the "hydration length" that characterizes the hydration shell of dipoles around ions, and thus the strength of the dielectric decrement. The DPB equation is then examined for three additional cases: mixture of solvents, polarizable medium, and ions of finite size. Employing field-theoretical methods, we expand the Gibbs free-energy to first order in a loop expansion and calculate self-consistently the dielectric constant. For pure water, the dipolar fluctuations represent an important correction to the mean-field value and good agreement with the water dielectric constant is obtained. For ionic solutions we predict analytically the dielectric decrement that depends on the ionic strength in a nonlinear way. Our prediction fits rather well a large range of concentrations for different salts using only one fit parameter related to the size of ions and dipoles. A linear dependence of the dielectric constant on the salt concentration is observed at low salinity, and a noticeable deviation from linearity can be seen for ionic strength above 1 M, in agreement with experiments.

  16. Asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to chiral acryloyl esters bearing glucofuranose as auxiliary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Ao; KAN, Ying; JIANG, Biao

    2000-01-01

    Asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to an acryloyl ester (1) derived from 1,2: 5,6-di- O-isopropylidene glucose (6) was studied. Solvent and temperature effect was discussed. The single diastereoisomer was isolated with high diastereoselective excess.

  17. Probing the Scale Invariance of the Inflationary Power Spectrum in Expanding Dipolar Condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Chä, Seok-Yeong

    2016-01-01

    We consider an analogue de Sitter cosmos in an expanding quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate, with dominant dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms or molecules in the ultracold gas. It is demonstrated that a hallmark signature of inflationary cosmology, the scale invariance of the power spectrum of inflaton field correlations, experiences strong modifications when at the initial stage of expansion the excitation spectrum displays a roton minimum. Dipolar quantum gases thus furnish a viable laboratory tool to experimentally investigate, with well-defined and controllable initial conditions, whether primordial oscillation spectra deviating from Lorentz invariance at trans-Planckian momenta violate standard predictions of inflationary cosmology.

  18. A conformational study of N -acetyl glucosamine derivatives utilizing residual dipolar couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Markus; Kleinpeter, Erich

    2011-09-01

    The conformational analyses of six non-rigid N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) derivatives employing residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and NOEs together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented. Due to internal dynamics we had to consider different conformer ratios existing in solution. The good quality of the correlation between theoretically and experimentally obtained RDCs show the correctness of the calculated conformers even if the ratios derived from the MD simulations do not exactly meet the experimental data. If possible, the results were compared to former published data and commented.

  19. Residual Dipolar Couplings in Zero-to-Ultra-Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, John W; King, Jonathan P; Ledbetter, Micah P; Levine, Emma H; Bajaj, Vikram S; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Zero-to-ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (ZULF-NMR) provides a new regime for the measurement of nuclear spin-spin interactions free from effects of large magnetic fields, such as truncation of terms that do not commute with the Zeeman Hamiltonian. One such interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling, is a valuable source of spatial information in NMR, though many terms are unobservable in high-field NMR, and the interaction averages to zero under isotropic molecular tumbling. Under partial orientational ordering, this information is retained in the form of so-called residual dipolar couplings. We report zero-to-ultra-low-field NMR measurements of residual dipolar couplings in acetonitrile-2-$^{13}$C aligned in stretched polyvinyl acetate gels. This represents the first investigation of dipolar couplings as a perturbation on the indirect spin-spin $J$-coupling in the absence of an applied magnetic field. As a consequence of working at zero magnetic field, we observe terms of the dipole-dipole c...

  20. Topological defect formation in rotating binary dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei, E-mail: xfzhang@ntsc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Han, Wei [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600 (China); Jiang, Hai-Feng [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wu-Ming [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Saito, Hiroki [Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Zhang, Shou-Gang [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the topological defects and spin structures of a rotating binary Bose–Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms confined in spin-dependent optical lattices, for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles with respect to their plane of motion. Our results show that the tunable dipolar interaction, especially the orientation of the dipoles, can be used to control the direction of stripe phase and its related half-vortex sheets. In addition, it can also be used to obtain a regular arrangement of various topological spin textures, such as meron, circular and cross disgyration spin structures. We point out that such topological defects and regular arrangement of spin structures arise primarily from the long-range and anisotropic nature of dipolar interaction and its competition with the spin-dependent optical lattices and rotation. - Highlights: • Effects of both strength and orientation of the dipoles are discussed. • Various topological defects can be formed in different parameter regions. • Present one possible way to obtain regular arrangements of spin textures.

  1. Dipolar condensates with tilted dipoles in a pancake-shaped confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Chinmayee; Nath, Rejish

    2016-09-01

    The effect of dipolar orientation with respect to the condensate plane on the mean-field dynamics of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in a pancake-shaped confinement is discussed. The stability of a quasi-two-dimensional condensate, with respect to the tilting angle, is found to be different from a two-dimensional layer of dipoles, indicating the relevance of the transverse extension while characterizing two-dimensional dipolar systems. An anisotropic excitation spectrum exhibiting a highly tunable, rotonlike minimum can arise entirely from the dipole-dipole interactions, by tilting the dipoles. At the magic angle and in the absence of contact interactions, the long-wavelength excitations are not phononlike and always unstable. The post-roton-instability dynamics, in contrast to phonon instability, in a uniform condensate, is featured by a transient, defect-free, stripe pattern, which eventually undergoes local collapses, and driving the condensate back into the stable regime can make them sustained for longer. Hopping between stripes has been observed before it melts into a uniform state in the presence of dissipation. Finally, we discuss a class of solutions, in which a quasi-two-dimensional condensate is self-trapped in one direction, as well as a regime of interaction parameters, including attractive short-range interactions, at which a two-dimensional anisotropic soliton can be stabilized, and we show that a chromium condensate with a relatively small number of atoms is well suited for this.

  2. Robust and efficient 19F heteronuclear dipolar decoupling using refocused continuous-wave rf irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Joachim M.; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2013-01-01

    Refocused continuous wave (rCW) decoupling is presented as an efficient and robust means to obtain well-resolved magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectra of low-γ spins, such as 13C dipolar coupled to fluorine. The rCW decoupling sequences, recently introduced for 1H decoupling, are very robust towards large isotropic and anisotropic shift ranges as often encountered for 19F spins. In rCW decoupling, the so-called refocusing pulses inserted into the CW irradiation eliminate critical residual second- and third-order dipolar coupling and dipolar-coupling against chemical shielding anisotropy cross-terms in the effective Hamiltonian through time-reversal (i.e. refocusing). As important additional assets, the rCW decoupling sequences are robust towards variations in rf amplitudes, operational at low to high spinning speeds, and easy to set-up for optimal performance experimentally. These aspects are demonstrated analytically/numerically and experimentally in comparison to state-of-the-art decoupling sequences such as TPPM, SPINAL-64, and frequency-swept variants of these.

  3. The 3D Kasteleyn transition in dipolar spin ice: a numerical study with the conserved monopoles algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, M. L.; Borzi, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    We study the three-dimensional Kasteleyn transition in both nearest neighbours and dipolar spin ice models using an algorithm that conserves the number of excitations. We first limit the interactions range to nearest neighbours to test the method in the presence of a field applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] , and then focus on the dipolar spin ice model. The effect of dipolar interactions, which is known to be greatly self screened at zero field, is particularly strong near full polarization. It shifts the Kasteleyn transition to lower temperatures, which decreases  ≈0.4 K for the parameters corresponding to the best known spin ice materials, \\text{D}{{\\text{y}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} and \\text{H}{{\\text{o}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} . This shift implies effective dipolar fields as big as 0.05 T opposing the applied field, and thus favouring the creation of ‘strings’ of reversed spins. We compare the reduction in the transition temperature with results in previous experiments, and study the phenomenon quantitatively using a simple molecular field approach. Finally, we relate the presence of the effective residual field to the appearance of string-ordered phases at low fields and temperatures, and we check numerically that for fields applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] there are only three different stable phases at zero temperature.

  4. Coherence of Bose-Einstein condensates of dipolar excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments relating to studies of the coherence of Bose condensates of dipolar excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with a wide, single quantum well and a Schottky gate are analyzed. Dipolar excitons were excited by light in an annular trap formed along the perimeter of a window in a metal gate with an applied electric voltage. A dual-beam interference technique involving interference combination of the amplitudes of the luminescence light field, together with subsequent analysis of first order correlators, is used to study the temporal (longitudinal) and spatial (transverse) coherence of the exciton condensates. It is found that the transverse coherence length of an exciton condensate is considerably longer than its thermal De Broglie wavelength. Experimental studies of the luminescence intensity correlator also confirm the coherence of the exciton Bose condensate.

  5. Classical and quantum phases of low-dimensional dipolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartarius, Florian

    2016-09-22

    In this thesis we present a detailed study of the phase diagram of ultracold bosonic atoms confined along a tight atomic wave guide, along which they experience an optical lattice potential. In this quasi-one dimensional model we analyse the interplay between interactions and quantum fluctuations in (i) determining the non-equilibrium steady state after a quench and (ii) giving rise to novel equilibrium phases, when the interactions combine the s-wave contact interaction and the anisotropic long range dipole-dipole interactions. In detail, in the first part of the thesis we study the depinning of a gas of impenetrable bosons following the sudden switch of of the optical lattice. By means of a Bose-Fermi mapping we infer the exact quantum dynamical evolution and show that in the thermodynamic limit the system is in a non-equilibrium steady state without quasi-long range order. In the second part of the thesis, we study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the linear-zigzag instability in the ground state of ultracold dipolar bosons, as a function of the strength of the transverse confinement. We first analyse the linear-zigzag instability in the classical regime, and then use our results to develop a multi-mode Bose-Hubbard model for the system. We then develop several numerical methods, to determine the ground state.

  6. Structural assembly of molecular complexes based on residual dipolar couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Konstantin; O'Leary, Dianne P; Fushman, David

    2010-07-07

    We present and evaluate a rigid-body molecular docking method, called PATIDOCK, that relies solely on the three-dimensional structure of the individual components and the experimentally derived residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) for the complex. We show that, given an accurate ab initio predictor of the alignment tensor from a protein structure, it is possible to accurately assemble a protein-protein complex by utilizing the RDCs' sensitivity to molecular shape to guide the docking. The proposed docking method is robust against experimental errors in the RDCs and computationally efficient. We analyze the accuracy and efficiency of this method using experimental or synthetic RDC data for several proteins, as well as synthetic data for a large variety of protein-protein complexes. We also test our method on two protein systems for which the structure of the complex and steric-alignment data are available (Lys48-linked diubiquitin and a complex of ubiquitin and a ubiquitin-associated domain) and analyze the effect of flexible unstructured tails on the outcome of docking. The results demonstrate that it is fundamentally possible to assemble a protein-protein complex solely on the basis of experimental RDC data and the prediction of the alignment tensor from 3D structures. Thus, despite the purely angular nature of RDCs, they can be converted into intermolecular distance/translational constraints. Additionally, we show a method for combining RDCs with other experimental data, such as ambiguous constraints from interface mapping, to further improve structure characterization of protein complexes.

  7. Dipolar and Non-Dipolar Interactions in LiTbF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, L. M.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic interactions in LiTbF4 have been studied in measurements of the quasielastic scattering of neutrons from the paramagnetic crystal. Scattering data have been collected at a temperature T=18.6 K, which is 6.5 times the Curie temperature of LiTbF4, and have been least-squares fitted...... with an expression for the scattering cross section which includes, in addition to the dominant dipolar coupling, two exchange parameters J1 and J2 describing the nondipolar coupling between nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor Tb3+ ions, respectively. The derived exchange parameters are J1/k=-0.26±0.09 K and J2/k=+0...

  8. Quantum phases of dipolar soft-core bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, D.; Safavi-Naini, A.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Söyler, Ş. G.

    2014-10-01

    We study the phase diagram of a system of soft-core dipolar bosons confined to a two-dimensional optical lattice layer. We assume that dipoles are aligned perpendicular to the layer such that the dipolar interactions are purely repulsive and isotropic. We consider the full dipolar interaction and perform path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations using the worm algorithm. Besides a superfluid phase, we find various solid and supersolid phases. We show that, unlike what was found previously for the case of nearest-neighbor interaction, supersolid phases are stabilized by doping the solids not only with particles but with holes as well. We further study the stability of these quantum phases against thermal fluctuations. Finally, we discuss pair formation and the stability of the pair checkerboard phase formed in a bilayer geometry, and we suggest experimental conditions under which the pair checkerboard phase can be observed.

  9. Second virial coefficient for the dipolar hard sphere fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Douglas

    2011-07-28

    The dipolar hard sphere fluid is a useful model for a polar fluid. Some years ago, the second virial coefficient, B(2), of this fluid was obtained as a series expansion in the inverse temperature or (dipole strength) by Keesom. Little work on this problem seems to have been done since that time. Using a result of Chan and Henderson for the spherical average of the Boltzmann factor of this fluid, more complete results are obtained for B(2). The more complete results are more negative than the Keesom series, as one would expect, but his expansion is remarkably accurate. This method can be used to obtain the second virial coefficient of the dipolar Lennard-Jones (Stockmayer) or dipolar Yukawa fluids.

  10. Wavefront manipulation with a dipolar metasurface under coherent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ming; Wang, Hui-Tian; Zhu, Weiren

    2017-07-01

    Full phase manipulation with equal amplitude is critical for optical wavefront engineering in various systems. Here we theoretically explore a general approach for optical wavefront manipulation using dipolar metasurfaces under the coherent control. From the microscopic perspective, we theoretically show that the dispersion of a dipolar metasurface under the coherent control can provide the phase manipulation within a full range of [0, 2π] and retain an equal amplitude simultaneously. As an example, such a dipolar metasurface can be constructed by compensatory H-shaped unit resonators to avoid polarization conversion. Specifically, we confirm the feasibility of designed metasurfaces for achieving the beam bending and the vortex-phase beam by the full-wave simulation. The proposed approach enriches the well-established wavefront engineering for extending the functionality of metasurface under the coherent control.

  11. Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Three-spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2016-07-01

    In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have developed a non-perturbative theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole couplings, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we implement the general dipolar EMOR theory for a macromolecule-bound three-spin system, where one, two, or all three spins exchange with the bulk solution phase. In contrast to the previously studied two-spin system with a single dipole coupling, there are now three dipole couplings, so relaxation is affected by distinct correlations as well as by self-correlations. Moreover, relaxation can now couple the magnetizations with three-spin modes and, in the presence of a static dipole coupling, with two-spin modes. As a result of this complexity, three secondary dispersion steps with different physical origins can appear in the longitudinal relaxation dispersion profile, in addition to the primary dispersion step at the Larmor frequency matching the exchange rate. Furthermore, and in contrast to the two-spin system, longitudinal relaxation can be significantly affected by chemical shifts and by the odd-valued ("imaginary") part of the spectral density function. We anticipate that the detailed studies of two-spin and three-spin systems that have now been completed will provide the foundation for developing an approximate multi-spin dipolar EMOR theory sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to allow quantitative molecular-level interpretation of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation data from biophysical model systems and soft biological tissue.

  12. Quantum states with topological properties via dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, David

    2015-06-25

    This thesis proposes conceptually new ways to realize materials with topological properties by using dipole-dipole interactions. First, we study a system of ultracold dipolar fermions, where the relaxation mechanism of dipolar spins can be used to reach the quantum Hall regime. Second, in a system of polar molecules in an optical lattice, dipole-dipole interactions induce spin-orbit coupling terms for the rotational excitations. In combination with time-reversal symmetry breaking this leads to topological bands with Chern numbers greater than one.

  13. Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves.

  14. Infrared Behavior of Dipolar Bose Systems at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    We rigorously discuss the infrared behavior of the uniform three-dimensional dipolar Bose systems. In particular, it is shown that low-temperature physics of the system is controlled by two parameters, namely isothermal compressibility and intensity of the dipole-dipole interaction. By using a hydrodynamic approach, we calculate the spectrum and damping of low-lying excitations and analyze the infrared behavior of the one-particle Green's function. The low-temperature corrections to the anisotropic superfluid density as well as condensate depletion are found. Additionally, we derive equations of the two-fluid hydrodynamics for dipolar Bose systems and calculate velocities of first and second sound.

  15. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  16. Kondo effect in molecules with strong correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, Tetyana [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: tetyana@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Kikoin, Konstantin [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Avishai, Yshai [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2005-04-30

    A theory of Kondo tunneling through molecules adsorbed on metallic substrate is constructed and the underlying physics is exposed. It is shown that in the case of weak chemisorption the sandwich-type molecules manifest a novel type of Kondo effect that has not been observed in magnetically doped bulk metals. The exchange Hamiltonian of these molecules unveils unusual dynamical SO(n) symmetries instead of conventional SU(2) symmetry. These symmetries can be experimentally realized and the specific value of n can be controlled by gate voltage.

  17. {sup 13}C NMR hyperfine couplings, {ital T}{sub 1} anisotropy, and Korringa relations in Rb{sub 2}CsC{sub 60}: Search for effects of strong correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, C.H.; Stenger, V.A.; Recchia, C.H.; Hahm, C.; Gorny, K.; Nandor, V. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 174 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Buffinger, D.R.; Lee, S.M.; Ziebarth, R.P. [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, 120 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Initial considerations lead one to suspect that effects of strong correlation might be present in the alkali fulleride superconductors. We report {ital direct} measurements of {sup 13}C {ital T}{sub 1} anisotropy at 80 K in Rb{sub 2}CsC{sub 60} and compare, in the context of the Korringa relation, the inferred spin-dipolar contribution to 1/{ital T}{sub 1} with the widths of the measured powder pattern line shape. The results demonstrate that the Korringa relation, valid in the limit of noninteracting electrons, holds in this case. Taken together with other normal-state NMR behavior this result makes important effects of strong correlation appear unlikely. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Furtado, C.; Bakke, K. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) correlations are discussed. From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation and write an effective metric for the Minkowski spacetime. Then we obtain the Wigner rotation angle via the Fermi-Walker transport of spinors and consider the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation in order to study the influence of Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on the relativistic EPR correlations. (orig.)

  19. Vapor-liquid transitions of dipolar fluids in disordered porous media: Performance of angle-averaged potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spöler, C.; Klapp, S. H. L.

    2004-11-01

    Using replica integral equations in the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) approximation we calculate vapor-liquid spinodals, chemical potentials, and compressibilities of fluids with angle-averaged dipolar interactions adsorbed to various disordered porous media. Comparison with previous RHNC results for systems with true angle-dependent Stockmayer (dipolar plus Lennard-Jones) interactions [C. Spöler and S. H. L. Klapp, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3628 (2003); ibid.120, 6734 (2004)] indicate that, for a dilute hard sphere matrix, the angle-averaged fluid-fluid (ff) potential is a reasonable alternative for reduced fluid dipole moments m*2=μ2/(ɛ0σ3)⩽2.0. This range is comparable to that estimated in bulk fluids, for which RHNC results are presented as well. Finally, results for weakly polar matrices suggest that angle-averaged fluid-matrix (fm) interactions can reproduce main features observed for true dipolar (fm) interactions such as the shift of the vapor-liquid spinodals towards lower temperatures and higher densities. However, the effective attraction induced by dipolar (fm) interaction is underestimated rather than overestimated as in the case of angle-averaged ff interactions.

  20. Disorder effects in correlated topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Barr, Aaron; Prodan, Emil; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2016-12-01

    Using exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo calculations we investigate the effects of disorder on the phase diagram of both noninteracting and interacting models of two-dimensional topological insulators. In the fermion sign problem-free interacting models we study, electron-electron interactions are described by an on-site repulsive Hubbard interaction and disorder is included via the one-body hopping operators. In both the noninteracting and interacting models we make use of recent advances in highly accurate real-space numerical evaluation of topological invariants to compute phase boundaries and in the noninteracting models determine critical exponents of the transitions. We find different models exhibit distinct stability conditions of the topological phase with respect to interactions and disorder. We provide a general analytical theory that accurately predicts these trends.

  1. Correlations and anomalous transport effects related to stochastic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakunin, O G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66044 (United States); Nuclear Fusion Institute, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , pl. Kurchatova 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica ' Rijnhuizen' , Associate Euroatom-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    In this paper, we analyse turbulent transport in the framework of the correlation approach to obtain the effective diffusion coefficient and characteristic increment in the scaling form. Such factors as anisotropy, seed diffusion mechanisms and reconstruction of flow topology significantly have an impact on the effective diffusivity. We consider the different aspects of stochastic instability such as the decorrelation mechanism to estimate characteristic correlation times and correlation scales in the framework of the scaling approach. The topics to be discussed include the Rechester-Rosenbluth correlation scalings, percolation transport in time dependent flows, anisotropic MHD spectra and a multi-scale approach to the analysis of anomalous transport. To treat long-range correlation effects, the percolation renormalization is analysed in time-dependent regimes. In the framework of the multiscale approach, a scaling for an increment of the stochastic instability in two-dimensional random flow is suggested.

  2. Realized Bond-Stock Correlation: Macroeconomic Announcement Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Ranaldo, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of macroeconomic announcements on the realized correlation between bond and stock returns. Our results deliver insights into the dominating drivers of bond-stock comovements. We find that it is not so much the surprise component of the announcement, but the mere fact...... that an announcement occurs that influences the realized bond-stock correlation. The impact of macroeconomic announcements varies across the business cycle. Announcement effects are highly dependent on the sign of the realized bond-stock correlation which has recently gone from positive to negative. Macroeconomic...... announcement effects on realized bond and stock volatilities are also investigated....

  3. Theoretical studies of the properties of magnetic resonance signal formed under the influence of distant dipolar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chung Ki

    This dissertation studies the properties of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of biological samples formed under the influence of distant dipolar field (DDF). The use of DDF effect for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has aroused substantial research interests in recent years because of the unique contrast features of DDF signal. The main research activities on this topic are to improve the DDF signal level, and to characterize the use of DDF effect on probing tissue structures and functional MRI in brain studies. Issues of both directions are addressed in this dissertation. After a brief introduction to basic spin dynamics related to MR, the classical Bloch equation with the nonlinear DDF effect incorporated is solved analytically. The mechanism of separating the DDF signal from the whole signal of the sample based on the correlation spectroscopy revamped by asymmetric z-gradient echo detection (CRAZED) is first reviewed. That the sensitivity of the signal to physical parameters such as static magnetic field and transverse relaxation time are examined, and parameters for optimal signal-to-noise and contrast are obtained. The technique of multiple spin-echo acquisition to increase the signal magnitude and time efficiency is analyzed, and optimal conditions are found. Finally the problem of the sensitivity of DDF signal to variations in local magnetic field on a particular length scale is treated using a perturbation method. The results suggest that such sensitivity exists in a simple field distribution.

  4. Energy momentum conservation effects on two-particle correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Two particle correlations are used to extract information about the characteristic size of the system in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. The size of the system can be extracted from the Bose-Einstein quantum mechanical effect for identical particles. However there are also long range correlations that shift the baseline of the correlation function from the expected flat behavior. A possible source of these correlations is the conservation of energy and momentum, especially for small systems, where the energy available for particle production is limited. A new technique, first used by the STAR collaboration, of quantifying these long range correlations using energy-momentum conservation considerations is presented in this talk. Using Monte Carlo simulations of proton-proton collisions at 900 GeV, it is shown that the baseline of the two particle correlation function can be described using this technique.

  5. Layers of Cold Dipolar Molecules in the Harmonic Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the N-body problem in a layered geometry containing cold polar molecules with dipole moments that are polarized perpendicular to the layers. A harmonic approximation is used to simplify the hamiltonian and bound state properties of the two-body inter-layer dipolar potential are used...

  6. Dipolar interactions and structural coherence in iron nanoparticle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Dorothy; Cheng Yuhang; Ding Yi; Yamamuro, Saeki; Sanchez-Hanke, Cecilia; Kao, C.-C.; Majetich, Sara A. E-mail: sara@cmu.edu

    2004-11-01

    Self-assembled arrays of iron nanoparticles are characterized structurally by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and magnetically by low-temperature hysteresis loops and magnetic relaxation. The differences in the magnetic properties are related to the strength of magnetic dipolar interactions and to the degree of structural ordering in the arrays.

  7. Functionalization of Graphene via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino

  8. Functionalization of Graphene via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino group

  9. Effect of anisotropy on small magnetic clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hucht, Alfred; Sil, Shreekantha; Entel, Peter; 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.104438

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dipolar interaction and local uniaxial anisotropy on the magnetic response of small spin clusters where spins are located on the vertices of icosahedron, cuboctahedron, tetrahedron and square geometry have been investigated. We consider the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 and spin-1 Heisenberg model with uniaxial anisotropy and dipolar interaction and apply numerical exact diagonalization technique in order to study the influence of frustration and anisotropy on the ground state properties of the spin-clusters. The ground state magnetization, spin-spin correlation and several thermodynamic quantities such as entropy and specific heat are calculated as a function of temperature and magnetic field.

  10. Electron--electron double resonance study of magnetic energy transfer between trapped electrons and radicals in organic glasses: Relation between dipolar cross relaxation times and dipolar interaction distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.P.; Feng, D.F.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Kevan, L.

    1976-11-15

    Electron--electron double resonance (ELDOR) has been used to measure cross-relaxation times between trapped electrons and trapped radicals produced by ..gamma.. irradiation of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and 3-methylhexane organic glasses. The cross-relaxation times are measured as a function of temperature, radiation dose, and the frequency difference ..delta..f of the microwave frequencies used. The cross-relaxation times are nearly temperature independent and depend on ..delta..f/sup 2/ at doses where the spin concentrations approach uniformity; these features indicate the dominance of single step over multistep cross-relaxation processes. Equations have been derived to relate the dipolar cross-relaxation distance to the measured cross-relaxation times, and it is suggested that the cross-relaxation line shape is Lorentzian in magnetically dilute systems. Typical electron--radical correlation distances in these organic glasses are 10 A. (AIP)

  11. Realized Bond-Stock Correlation: Macroeconomic Announcement Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Ranaldo, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of macroeconomic announcements on the realized correlation between bond and stock returns. Our results deliver insights into the dominating drivers of bond-stock comovements. We find that it is not so much the surprise component of the announcement, but the mere fact that an announcement occurs that influences the realized bond-stock correlation. The impact of macroeconomic announcements varies across the business cycle. Announcement effects are highly dependent on ...

  12. Existence of a Thermodynamic Spin-Glass Phase in the Zero-Concentration Limit of Anisotropic Dipolar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Juan Carlos; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Oganesyan, Vadim; Schechter, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    The nature of ordering in dilute dipolar interacting systems dates back to the work of Debye and is one of the most basic, oldest and as-of-yet unsettled problems in magnetism. While spin-glass order is readily observed in several RKKY-interacting systems, dipolar spin glasses are the subject of controversy and ongoing scrutiny, e.g., in LiHoxY1 -xF4, a rare-earth randomly diluted uniaxial (Ising) dipolar system. In particular, it is unclear if the spin-glass phase in these paradigmatic materials persists in the limit of zero concentration or not. We study an effective model of LiHoxY1 -xF4 using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that combine parallel tempering with a special cluster algorithm tailored to overcome the numerical difficulties that occur at extreme dilutions. We find a paramagnetic to spin-glass phase transition for all Ho+ ion concentrations down to the smallest concentration numerically accessible, 0.1%, and including Ho+ ion concentrations that coincide with those studied experimentally up to 16.7%. Our results suggest that randomly diluted dipolar Ising systems have a spin-glass phase in the limit of vanishing dipole concentration, with a critical temperature vanishing linearly with concentration. The agreement of our results with mean-field theory testifies to the irrelevance of fluctuations in interactions strengths, albeit being strong at small concentrations, to the nature of the low-temperature phase and the functional form of the critical temperature of dilute anisotropic dipolar systems. Deviations from linearity in experimental results at the lowest concentrations are discussed.

  13. Dipolar energy of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnets in magnetization reversal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira; Ono, Kanta

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed the dipolar energy of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnets in magnetization reversal process through visualizing magnetic dipolar interaction. We obtained magnetization distribution images experimentally by using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The magnetic dipolar interaction was calculated by the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image. We showed the dipolar energy in the nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and compared it with the exchange energy at various applied fields. Our results indicated the significance of the dipolar energy in magnetization reversal process.

  14. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide from Phtaloylimidophenylalanyl-2-hydroxymethylaziridine1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide from Phtaloylimidophenylalanyl-2-hydroxymethylaziridine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Assia Keniche; Wassila Drici; Mohamed Zakaria Slimani; Abdelmoumen Mezrai; Joseph Kajima Mulengi

    2013-01-01

    Phtaloylimidophenylalanyl-2-hydroxymethylaziridine has been used as a starting material to yield azomethine ylide through thermal opening and was then involved into 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions...

  15. Angular dependence of dipole-dipole-Curie-spin cross-correlation effects in high-spin and low-spin paramagnetic myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintacuda, Guido; Hohenthanner, Karin; Otting, Gottfried; Müller, Norbert

    2003-10-01

    The (15)N-HSQC spectra of low-spin cyano-met-myoglobin and high-spin fluoro-met-myoglobin were assigned and dipole-dipole-Curie-spin cross-correlated relaxation rates measured. These cross-correlation rates originating from the dipolar (1)H-(15)N interaction and the dipolar interaction between the (1)H and the Curie spin of the paramagnetic center contain long-range angular information about the orientation of the (1)H-(15)N bond with respect to the iron-(1)H vector, with information measurable up to 11 A from the metal for the low-spin complex, and between 10 to 25 A for the high-spin complex. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions from crystal structure data showed that the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility tensor in low spin cyano-met-myoglobin significantly influences the cross-correlated dipole-dipole-Curie-spin relaxation rates.

  16. Effective capacity of multiple antenna channels: Correlation and keyhole

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors derive the effective capacity limits for multiple antenna channels which quantify the maximum achievable rate with consideration of link-layer delay-bound violation probability. Both correlated multiple-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output keyhole channels are studied. Based on the closed-form exact expressions for the effective capacity of both channels, the authors look into the asymptotic high and low signal-to-noise ratio regimes, and derive simple expressions to gain more insights. The impact of spatial correlation on effective capacity is also characterised with the aid of a majorisation theory result. It is revealed that antenna correlation reduces the effective capacity of the channels and a stringent quality-of-service requirement causes a severe reduction in the effective capacity but can be alleviated by increasing the number of antennas. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  17. Effects of Exponential Trends on Correlations of Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Jing Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA is a scaling analysis method used to estimate long-range power-law correlation exponents in time series. In this paper, DFA is employed to discuss the long-range correlations of stock market. The effects of exponential trends on correlations of Hang Seng Index (HSI are investigated with emphasis. We find that the long-range correlations and the positions of the crossovers of lower order DFA appear to have no immunity to the additive exponential trends. Further, our analysis suggests that an increase in the DFA order increases the efficiency of eliminating on exponential trends. In addition, the empirical study shows that the correlations and crossovers are associated with DFA order and magnitude of exponential trends.

  18. Theoretical Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Hydrazoic Acid to Substituted Ynamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang Chen; Kun Yang; Keli Han

    2009-01-01

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various substituted ynamines with hydrazoic acid were theoretically investigated with the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method. Two regioisomers,4-amine, and 5-amine substituted adducts, were obtained, with the former as the preferred yield. This regioselectivity is rationalized by the frontier molecular orbital theory. The reactivity and synchronicity are enhanced with the increase of the electron-withdrawing character of the substitute on ynamine fragment. The calculations also show that the effect of solvent increases the activation energy, and the reaction becomes even harder in polar solvent.

  19. Theoretical Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Hydrazoic Acid to Substituted Ynamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-fang; Yang, Kun; Han, Ke-li

    2009-04-01

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various substituted ynamines with hydrazoic acid were theoretically investigated with the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method. Two regioisomers, 4-amine, and 5-amine substituted adducts, were obtained, with the former as the preferred yield. This regioselectivity is rationalized by the frontier molecular orbital theory. The reactivity and synchronicity are enhanced with the increase of the electron-withdrawing character of the substitute on ynamine fragment. The calculations also show that the effect of solvent increases the activation energy, and the reaction becomes even harder in polar solvent.

  20. Three-body interacting dipolar bosons and the fate of lattice supersolidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Mishra, Tapan

    2016-12-01

    We investigate a system of dipolar bosons in an optical lattice with local two- and three-body interactions. Using the mean-field-theory approach, we obtain the ground-state phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model with both repulsive and attractive three-body interactions. We show that the additional three-body on-site interaction has strong effects on the phase diagram, especially on the supersolid phase. Positive values of the three-body interaction lead to the enhancement of the gapped phases at densities larger than unity by reducing the supersolid region. However, a small attractive three-body interaction enhances the supersolid phase.

  1. Mie Plasmons: Modes Volumes, Quality Factors, and Coupling Strengths (Purcell Factor to a Dipolar Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Colas des Francs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using either quasistatic approximation or exact Mie expansion, we characterize the localized surface plasmons supported by a metallic spherical nanoparticle. We estimate the quality factor Qn and define the effective volume Vn of the nth mode in such a way that coupling strength with a neighbouring dipolar emitter is proportional to the ratio Qn/Vn (Purcell factor. The role of Joule losses, far-field scattering, and mode confinement in the coupling mechanism is introduced and discussed with simple physical understanding, with particular attention paid to energy conservation.

  2. Mie plasmons: modes volumes, quality factors and coupling strengths (Purcell factor) to a dipolar emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Francs, G Colas des; Vincent, R; Bouhelier, A; Dereux, A

    2011-01-01

    Using either quasi-static approximation or exact Mie expansion, we characterize the localized surface plasmons supported by a metallic spherical nanoparticle. We estimate the quality factor $Q_n$ and define the effective volume $V_n$ of the $n^{th}$ mode in a such a way that coupling strength with a neighbouring dipolar emitter is proportional to the ratio $Q_n/V_n$ (Purcell factor). The role of Joule losses, far-field scattering and mode confinement in the coupling mechanism are introduced and discussed with simple physical understanding, with particular attention paid to energy conservation.

  3. The effect of domain growth on spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert J. H.; Yates, C. A.; Baker, R. E.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models describing cell movement and proliferation are important tools in developmental biology research. In this work we present methods to include the effects of domain growth on the evolution of spatial correlations between agent locations in a continuum approximation of a one-dimensional lattice-based model of cell motility and proliferation. This is important as the inclusion of spatial correlations in continuum models of cell motility and proliferation without domain growth has previously been shown to be essential for their accuracy in certain scenarios. We include the effect of spatial correlations by deriving a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the expected evolution of individual and pair density functions for agents on a growing domain. We then demonstrate how to simplify this system of ordinary differential equations by using an appropriate approximation. This simplification allows domain growth to be included in models describing the evolution of spatial correlations between agents in a tractable manner.

  4. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  5. Induced alignment and measurement of dipolar couplings of an SH2 domain through direct binding with filamentous phage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlke Ojennus, Deanna; Mitton-Fry, Rachel M.; Wuttke, Deborah S. [University of Colorado, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    1999-06-15

    Large residual {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H dipolar couplings have been measured in a Src homology II domain aligned at Pf1 bacteriophage concentrations an order of magnitude lower than used for induction of a similar degree of alignment of nucleic acids and highly acidic proteins. An increase in {sup 1} H and {sup 15}N protein linewidths and a decrease in T{sub 2} and T{sub 1}{rho} relaxation time constants implicates a binding interaction between the protein and phage as the mechanism of alignment. However, the associated increased linewidth does not preclude the accurate measurement of large dipolar couplings in the aligned protein. A good correlation is observed between measured dipolar couplings and predicted values based on the high resolution NMR structure of the SH2 domain. The observation of binding-induced protein alignment promises to broaden the scope of alignment techniques by extending their applicability to proteins that are able to interact weakly with the alignment medium.

  6. Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1985-01-01

    A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds. The the......A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds....... The theory gives explicitly a temperature dependent renormalization of both the crystal field and the interactions, and a damping of the excitations and in addition a central park component. The general theory is illustrated by a discussion of the singlet-doublet system. The correlation effects...... on the susceptibility, the first and second moment frequencies and the line shape are calculated self-consistently....

  7. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=Te/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  8. Unconventional symmetries of Fermi liquid and Cooper pairing properties with electric and magnetic dipolar fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun

    2014-12-10

    The rapid experimental progress of ultra-cold dipolar fermions opens up a whole new opportunity to investigate novel many-body physics of fermions. In this article, we review theoretical studies of the Fermi liquid theory and Cooper pairing instabilities of both electric and magnetic dipolar fermionic systems from the perspective of unconventional symmetries. When the electric dipole moments are aligned by the external electric field, their interactions exhibit the explicit d(r(2)-3z(2)) anisotropy. The Fermi liquid properties, including the single-particle spectra, thermodynamic susceptibilities and collective excitations, are all affected by this anisotropy. The electric dipolar interaction provides a mechanism for the unconventional spin triplet Cooper pairing, which is different from the usual spin-fluctuation mechanism in solids and the superfluid (3)He. Furthermore, the competition between pairing instabilities in the singlet and triplet channels gives rise to a novel time-reversal symmetry breaking superfluid state. Unlike electric dipole moments which are induced by electric fields and unquantized, magnetic dipole moments are intrinsic proportional to the hyperfine-spin operators with a Lande factor. Its effects even manifest in unpolarized systems exhibiting an isotropic but spin-orbit coupled nature. The resultant spin-orbit coupled Fermi liquid theory supports a collective sound mode exhibiting a topologically non-trivial spin distribution over the Fermi surface. It also leads to a novel p-wave spin triplet Cooper pairing state whose spin and orbital angular momentum are entangled to the total angular momentum J = 1 dubbed the J-triplet pairing. This J-triplet pairing phase is different from both the spin-orbit coupled (3)He-B phase with J = 0 and the spin-orbit decoupled (3)He-A phase.

  9. Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and √3 × √3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional √3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.

  10. Critical superfluid velocity in a trapped dipolar gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan M; Ronen, Shai; Bohn, John L

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the superfluid properties of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a fully three-dimensional trap. Specifically, we estimate a superfluid critical velocity for this system by applying the Landau criterion to its discrete quasiparticle spectrum. We test this critical velocity by direct numerical simulation of condensate depletion as a blue-detuned laser moves through the condensate. In both cases, the presence of the roton in the spectrum serves to lower the critical velocity beyond a critical particle number. Since the shape of the dispersion, and hence the roton minimum, is tunable as a function of particle number, we thereby propose an experiment that can simultaneously measure the Landau critical velocity of a dipolar BEC and demonstrate the presence of the roton in this system.

  11. Quantum filaments in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, F.; Santos, L.

    2016-06-01

    Collapse in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates may be arrested by quantum fluctuations. Due to the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interactions, the dipole-driven collapse induced by soft excitations is compensated by the repulsive Lee-Huang-Yang contribution resulting from quantum fluctuations of hard excitations, in a similar mechanism as that recently proposed for Bose-Bose mixtures. The arrested collapse results in self-bound filamentlike droplets, providing an explanation for the intriguing results of recent dysprosium experiments. Arrested instability and droplet formation are general features directly linked to the nature of the dipole-dipole interactions, and should hence play an important role in all future experiments with strongly dipolar gases.

  12. Noncommutative geometry and the primordial dipolar imaginary power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Pankaj; Rath, Pranati K. [Indian Institue of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India)

    2015-03-01

    We argue that noncommutative space-times lead to an anisotropic dipolar imaginary primordial power spectrum. We define a new product rule, which allows us to consistently extract the power spectrum in such space-times. The precise nature of the power spectrum depends on the model of noncommutative geometry. We assume a simple dipolar model which has a power dependence on the wave number, k, with a spectral index, α. We show that such a spectrum provides a good description of the observed dipole modulation in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) data with α ∼ 0. We extract the parameters of this model from the data. The dipole modulation is related to the observed hemispherical anisotropy in the CMBR data, which might represent the first signature of quantum gravity. (orig.)

  13. Noncommutative geometry and the primordial dipolar imaginary power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pankaj; Rath, Pranati K.

    2015-03-01

    We argue that noncommutative space-times lead to an anisotropic dipolar imaginary primordial power spectrum. We define a new product rule, which allows us to consistently extract the power spectrum in such space-times. The precise nature of the power spectrum depends on the model of noncommutative geometry. We assume a simple dipolar model which has a power dependence on the wave number, , with a spectral index, . We show that such a spectrum provides a good description of the observed dipole modulation in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) data with . We extract the parameters of this model from the data. The dipole modulation is related to the observed hemispherical anisotropy in the CMBR data, which might represent the first signature of quantum gravity.

  14. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borman, V. D., E-mail: vdborman@mephi.ru; Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation); Lisichkin, G. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  15. An interpretation of staggering effects by correlation observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiocco G.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactions 32S+58,64Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for odd-even effects in isotopic observables of the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique, showing that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  16. An interpretation of staggering effects by correlation observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad. R.

    2012-07-01

    The reactions 32S+58,64Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for odd-even effects in isotopic observables of the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique, showing that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  17. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Balogh, Zoltan Imre

    2017-01-01

    that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken......-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations....

  18. Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: eira.seppala@nokia.co [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.

  19. Noncommutative Geometry and the Primordial Dipolar Imaginary Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, P

    2014-01-01

    We argue that an anisotropic dipolar imaginary primordial power spectrum is possible within the framework of noncommutative space-times. We show that such a spectrum provides a good description of the observed dipole modulation in CMBR data. We extract the corresponding power spectrum from data. The dipole modulation is related to the observed hemispherical anisotropy in CMBR data, which might represent the first signature of quantum gravity.

  20. Dipolar Excitations of a Trapped Bose-Fermi Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUXiao-Wei; LIUXia-Ji; HUHui; LIShi-Qun

    2004-01-01

    We study the dipolar excitation of a trapped Bose-Fermi mixture at zero temperature, by using a scalingansatz formalism and Thomas-Fermi approximation at mean-field level. We show that both frequencies of the low-lying and high-lying modes are strongly affected by the Bose-Fermi interaction. Possible implication of our results to the recent experiment has been commented.

  1. Dipolar Excitations of a Trapped Bose-Fermi Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-Wei; LIU Xia-Ji; HU Hui; LI Shi-Qun

    2004-01-01

    We study the dipolar excitation of a trapped Bose-Fermi mixture at zero temperature, by using a scaling ansatz formalism and Thomas-Fermi approximation at mean-field level. We show that both frequencies of the low-lying and high-lying modes are strongly affected by the Bose-Fermi interaction. Possible implication of our results to the recent experiment has been commented.

  2. Cross-tail current evolution during substorm dipolarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine evolution of the cross-tail current during substorm current disruption/dipolarization using observations from two satellites in the near-Earth magnetotail at the downtail distances of 8–9 RE. By choosing times when these two satellites are separated, mainly in the north–south distance in the tail current sheet, precise determination of current density in the layer embedded between these satellites can be obtained with Ampère's law. Two such events are examined and several common features are found. The current densities in the layer embedded by the two satellites were reduced by ~ 40–70% during substorm dipolarization. The changes in current densities have the fast kinetic timescale, i.e., in seconds, implying a kinetic process for current disruption/dipolarization. The estimated power within the current layer was mainly dissipative in the dawn–dusk direction and mainly dynamo in the Sun–tail direction that is needed to drive the north–south substorm current system in the ionosphere. Remote sensing of the energization site with the ion sounding technique shows that the energization site was initially earthward of the satellite and moved down the tail at later times. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurred intermittently during the disturbance interval. These features provide important clues to the substorm onset process.

  3. The Effect of Error Correlation on Interfactor Correlation in Psychometric Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Peter H.; Henning, Kevin S. S.; Howell, Roy D.

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how interfactor correlation is affected by error correlations. Theoretical and practical justifications for error correlations are given, and a new equivalence class of models is presented to explain the relationship between interfactor correlation and error correlations. The class allows simple, parsimonious modeling of error…

  4. Effective quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for modeling strongly correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashurnikov, V. A.; Krasavin, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    A new effective Monte Carlo algorithm based on principles of continuous time is presented. It allows calculating, in an arbitrary discrete basis, thermodynamic quantities and linear response of mixed boson-fermion, spin-boson, and other strongly correlated systems which admit no analytic description

  5. Realized Bond-Stock Correlation: Macroeconomic Announcement Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Ranaldo, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of macroeconomic announcements on the realized correlation between bond and stock returns. Our results deliver insights into the dominating drivers of bond-stock comovements. We find that it is not so much the surprise component of the announcement, but the mere fact th...

  6. Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Ray

    1988-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the results of 562 studies illustrates the nature, effect, and treatment of academic test anxiety (TA). TA correlated inversely to students' self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Ability, gender, and school grade level also affect TA. (TJH)

  7. Correlation effects in double-K-vacancy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, J.P.; Chevallier, P.; Chetioui, A.; Rozet, J.P.; Tavernier, M.; Touati, A.

    1981-01-01

    The probability of double-K-vacancy production accompanying internal conversion in three different atoms. In (Z=49), Ba (Z=56), and Tl (Z=81) has been measured in coincidence experiments. The comparison of our experimental results with various theoretical approaches exhibits the importance of correlation effects between the two K electrons.

  8. Dipolar interaction and the Manning formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto Mercado-Escalante,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we want to show that the mathematical model of quantum mechanics, led to its classical approach, is able to reproduce as close macroscopic experimental results captured by the Manning formula, sufficiently verified through their diverse applications in hydraulics. Molecular interaction between the fluid and the wall of the vessel is studied decomposing the Hamiltonian in two parts: free, and interacting. Scaling process is considered from molecular to hydraulic. Participation of the symmetries of Saint-Venant equation in the hydraulic gradient is taken into account. Correlations between different variables are set. The magnitude of scale change is estimated. We conclude that the Compton wavelength induces to the Boussinesq viscosity concept and the characteristic length of the viscous sublayer.

  9. Magnetic properties of dipolar chains in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avgin, I., E-mail: ihavgin@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ege University, Izmir (Turkey); Huber, D.L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We have investigated the dipole interaction energies per particle and the local dipole field distributions in a frozen magnetization model of a ferrofluid chain in a saturating magnetic field. A lognormal distribution of particle diameters was assumed. The interaction energies were calculated for one dimensional arrays of dipoles with moments parallel to the chain. We have computed the energies by various approximations related to the hard sphere particle diameter distribution. A similar approach was followed for the local field distributions. It was found that the energy per particle and mean local field were largely determined by the mean particle diameter, but the distribution of local fields was sensitive to both the mean diameter and the assumptions about spatial correlations between particles of different size. Detailed results are presented for water-soluble Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PAA (polyacrylic acid). (author)

  10. Effect of correlations on controllability transition in network control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Sen; Wang, Xu-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong; Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2016-04-11

    The network control problem has recently attracted an increasing amount of attention, owing to concerns including the avoidance of cascading failures of power-grids and the management of ecological networks. It has been proven that numerical control can be achieved if the number of control inputs exceeds a certain transition point. In the present study, we investigate the effect of degree correlation on the numerical controllability in networks whose topological structures are reconstructed from both real and modeling systems, and we find that the transition point of the number of control inputs depends strongly on the degree correlation in both undirected and directed networks with moderately sparse links. More interestingly, the effect of the degree correlation on the transition point cannot be observed in dense networks for numerical controllability, which contrasts with the corresponding result for structural controllability. In particular, for directed random networks and scale-free networks, the influence of the degree correlation is determined by the types of correlations. Our approach provides an understanding of control problems in complex sparse networks.

  11. Explicit inclusion of electronic correlation effects in molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Jean-Pierre; Kress, Joel D.; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2017-07-01

    We design a quantum molecular dynamics method for strongly correlated electron metals. The strong electronic correlation effects are treated within a real-space version of the Gutzwiller variational approximation (GA), which is suitable for the inhomogeneity inherent in the process of quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We also propose an efficient algorithm based on the second-moment approximation to the electronic density of states for the search of the optimal variation parameters, from which the renormalized interatomic MD potentials are fully determined. By considering a minimal one-correlated-orbital Anderson model with parameterized spatial dependence of tight-binding hopping integrals, this fast GA-MD method is benchmarked with that using exact diagonalization to solve the GA variational parameters. The efficiency and accuracy are illustrated. We have demonstrated the effect of temperature coupled with electronic correlation on structural properties simulated with MD. This method will open up an unprecedented opportunity enabling large-scale quantum MD simulations of strongly correlated electronic materials.

  12. Ground state configurations in antiferromagnetic ultrathin films with dipolar anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, H., E-mail: hleon@imre.oc.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana, Zapata e/ Mazon y G. Vedado, 10400 La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-02-15

    The formalism developed in a previous work to calculate the dipolar energy in quasi-two-dimensional crystals with ferromagnetic order is now extended to collinear antiferromagnetic order. Numerical calculations of the dipolar energy are carried out for systems with tetragonally distorted fcc [001] structures, the case of NiO and MnO ultrathin film grown in non-magnetic substrates, where the magnetic phase is a consequence of superexchange and dipolar interactions. The employed approximation allows to demonstrate that dipolar coupling between atomic layers is responsible for the orientation of the magnetization when it differs from the one in a single layer. The ground state energy of a given NiO or MnO film is found to depend not only on the strain, but also on how much the interlayer separation and the 2D lattice constant are changed with respect to the ideal values corresponding to the non-distorted cubic structure. Nevertheless, it is shown that the orientation of the magnetization in the magnetic phase of any of these films is determined by the strain exclusively. A striped phase with the magnetization along the [112{sup Macron }] direction appears as the ground state configuration of NiO and MnO ultrathin films. In films with equally oriented stripes along the layers this magnetic phase is twofold degenerate, while in films with multidomain layers it is eightfold degenerate. These results are not in contradiction with experimentally observed out-of-plane or in-plane magnetization of striped phases in NiO and MnO ultrathin films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipolar energy in collinear antiferromagnetic ultrathin films is calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical results are presented for distorted fcc [001] structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest energy of a system depends on how the tetragonal distortion is achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A striped phase with magnetization in the [112{sup Macron }] direction is the

  13. Correlation effects in strain-induced quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, R.; DeVittorio, M.; Cingolani, R.; Molinari, E. [Ist. Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia (INFM) and Dipt. di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Univ. Lecce (Italy); Hohenester, U. [INFM and Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Modena e Reggio E. (Italy); Lipsanen, H.; Tulkki, J. [Optoelectronics Lab. and Lab. of Computational Engineering, Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ahopelto, J. [VTT Electronics (Finland); Uchida, K.; Miura, N. [Inst. for Solid State Physics, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Arakawa, Y. [Inst. of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-08

    We report on Coulomb correlation effects in the luminescence of strain-induced quantum dots. In single dots, under low power excitation, we observe the rising of sharp lines associated to the formation of excitonic molecules. In the grand-ensemble, in magnetic fields up to 45 T, we observe Darwin-Fock states of the dots to merge into a unique Landau level, with a considerable reduction in the total diamagnetic shift due to the enhanced electron-hole correlation caused by the increased degeneracy of the state. (orig.)

  14. Entanglement Measures for Single- and Multi-Reference Correlation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Legeza, Örs; Reiher, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are essential for an accurate ab initio description of molecules. A quantitative a priori knowledge of the single- or multi-reference nature of electronic structures as well as of the dominant contributions to the correlation energy can facilitate the decision regarding the optimum quantum chemical method of choice. We propose concepts from quantum information theory as orbital entanglement measures that allow us to evaluate the single- and multi-reference character of any molecular structure in a given orbital basis set. By studying these measures we can detect possible artifacts of small active spaces.

  15. Correlation effects driven by reduced dimensionality in magnetic surface alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Manju

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of electronic properties and correlation effects in manganese-based two-dimensional magnetic surface alloys are discussed. Enhanced correlations resulting from the reduced dimensionality of the surface alloys lead to the modification of the core level and valence band electronic structures resulting in the appearance of distinct satellite features. Apart from this, surface alloying-induced strong modifications in the substrate surface states arising from charge reorganization and electron transfer to the surface states as well as band-gap openings are also discussed.

  16. Ion and electron kinetic physics associated with magnetotail dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jonathan; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; Zhang, Xiao-Jia; Hietala, Heli; Krupar, Vratislav; Mistry, Rishi; Lapenta, Giovanni; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in controlling the dynamics of the Earth's magnetotail. In particular, a dipolarization front (DF) may form at the leading edge of the reconnection exhaust as a consequence of its interaction with the pre-existing plasma sheet. Earthward moving DFs typically exhibit a rapid increase in the northward component of the magnetic field which divides the pre-existing plasma sheet from the hotter, high speed and lower density reconnection exhaust. Extensive observations have been made of DFs at Earth with multi-point missions such as Cluster, THEMIS/ARTEMIS and now Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS). In this invited contribution we will first review previous work showing that DFs are often relatively thin and locations where significant particle acceleration and heating can occur in a variety of ways. The dynamics and kinematics of ions and electrons at DFs are very different, as a result of their different particle masses. The reflection of ions by DFs leads to acceleration and heating, and we show that via kinetic effects, some part of the pre-existing plasma sheet ion population is entrained and accelerated into the exhaust. This interaction in fact occurs over a macroscopic region, rather than simply being limited to the thin DF interface. This leads to a more general consequence which is that reconnection exhausts are not necessarily simply fed by plasma inflow across the separatrices, but also by plasma from the region into which the jet is propagating; the implications of this finding are discussed. In contrast, electron acceleration and thermalisation is more related to the presence of instabilities in particular associated with temperature anisotropy and the growth of whistler waves. We discuss the observational evidence and also explore the possibility of the role that Cherenkov emission of whistlers by electron holes could play in this process. Finally we will briefly highlight recent new work in this area, and

  17. Theoretical studies of excited state 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluccci, Michael A.

    The 1,3 dipolar photocycloaddition reaction between 3-hydroxy-4',5,7-trimethoxyflavone (3-HTMF) and methyl cinnamate is investigated in this work. Since its inception in 2004 [JACS, 124, 13260 (2004)], this reaction remains at the forefront in the synthetic design of the rocaglamide natural products. The reaction is multi-faceted in that it involves multiple excited states and is contingent upon excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in 3-HTMF. Given the complexity of the reaction, there remain many questions regarding the underlying mechanism. Consequently, throughout this work we investigate the mechanism of the reaction along with a number of other properties that directly influence it. To investigate the photocycloaddition reaction, we began by studying the effects of different solvent environments on the ESIPT reaction in 3-hydroxyflavone since this underlying reaction is sensitive to the solvent environment and directly influences the cycloaddition. To study the ESIPT reaction, we developed a parallel multi-level genetic program to fit accurate empirical valence bond (EVB) potentials to ab initio data. We found that simulations with our EVB potentials accurately reproduced experimentally determined reaction rates, fluorescence spectra, and vibrational frequency spectra in all solvents. Furthermore, we found that the ultrafast ESIPT process results from a combination of ballistic transfer and intramolecular vibrational redistribution. To investigate the cycloaddition reaction mechanism, we utilized the string method to obtain minimum energy paths on the ab initio potential. These calculations demonstrated that the reaction can proceed through formation of an exciplex in the S1 state, followed by a non-adiabatic transition to the ground state. In addition, we investigated the enantioselective catalysis of the reaction using alpha,alpha,alpha',alpha'-tetraaryl-1,3-dioxolan-4,5-dimethanol alcohol (TADDOL). We found that TADDOL lowered the energy

  18. Correlating toxicological effects of ionic liquids on Daphnia magna with in silico calculated linear free energy relationship descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul-Woong; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-06-01

    In silico prediction model for toxicological effects of ionic liquids (ILs) is useful to understand ILs' toxicological interactions and to design environmentally benign IL structures. Actually, it is essential since the types of ILs are extremely numerous. Accordingly, prediction models were developed in this study. For the modelling, well-defined linear free energy relationship (LFER) descriptors - i.e. excess molar refraction (E), dipolarity/polarizability (S), H-bonding acidity (A), H-bonding basicity (B), McGowan volume (V), cation interaction (J(+)) and anion interaction (J(-)) - were in silico calculated using density functional theory and conductor-like screening model. These descriptors were then correlated with the toxicological values of ILs to Daphnia magna. First, a model established by Hoover et al. (2007) using measured LFER descriptors of 97 neutral compounds was applied to the prediction of ILs' toxicity. As expected, the model by Hoover et al. (2007) needs to be amended for ILs. To that end, the difference in toxicological interactions between neutral compounds and ILs was addressed by additional single J(+) or five LFER descriptors of cation i.e. Ec, Sc, Bc, Vc, and J(+). Secondly, a prediction model for only ILs was developed by using the three LFER descriptors Ec, Bc, and J(+). The model had a reasonable predictability and robustness of R(2) = 0.880 for the training set, 0.848 for the test set, and 0.867 for the overall set. The established models can be used to design environmentally benign IL structures and to reduce labour, danger, time, and materials compared to the experiment-based study.

  19. Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Soonwon; Landig, Renate; Kucsko, Georg; Zhou, Hengyun; Isoya, Junichi; Jelezko, Fedor; Onoda, Shinobu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Yao, Norman Y; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding quantum dynamics away from equilibrium is an outstanding challenge in the modern physical sciences. It is well known that out-of-equilibrium systems can display a rich array of phenomena, ranging from self-organized synchronization to dynamical phase transitions. More recently, advances in the controlled manipulation of isolated many-body systems have enabled detailed studies of non-equilibrium phases in strongly interacting quantum matter. As a particularly striking example, the interplay of periodic driving, disorder, and strong interactions has recently been predicted to result in exotic "time-crystalline" phases, which spontaneously break the discrete time-translation symmetry of the underlying drive. Here, we report the experimental observation of such discrete time-crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of $\\sim 10^6$ dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room-temperature. We observe long-lived temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, experi...

  20. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR2 2p 1 with p = 1, 2, 3, … . While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (ωnut =ωr / 2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (≳50 kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of 13C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-13C2 ]alanine, [1,3-13C2 ]alanine, diammonium [1,4-13C2 ]fumarate, and [U-13 C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR2p 1 sequences with p ⩾ 3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR2p 1 schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions.

  1. Adaptation and performance of the fast multipole method for dipolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorn, N.L. E-mail: db@innovent-jena.de; Berkov, D.V

    2004-05-01

    We have developed a new specialized version of the fast multipole method (FMM) for dipolar systems. For this purpose we have derived general expressions of the multipole expansion coefficients (in spherical coordinates) for a system of point dipoles with the potential phi (cursive,open) Greek{sub dip}{approx}1/r{sup 2}. Our version is especially useful for simulations of fine magnetic particle systems (magnetic nanocomposites, ferrofluids), molecular dipolar fluids or electric dipolar glasses.

  2. The effects of degree correlations on network topologies and robustness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jing; Tao Lin; Yu Hong; Luo Jian-Hua; Cao Zhi-Wei; Li Yi-Xue

    2007-01-01

    Complex networks have been applied to model numerous interactive nonlinear systems in the real world. Knowledge about network topology is crucial to an understanding of the function, performance and evolution of complex systems. In the last few years, many network metrics and models have been proposed to investigate the network topology, dynamics and evolution. Since these network metrics and models are derived from a wide range of studies, a systematic study is required to investigate the correlations among them. The present paper explores the effect of degree correlation on the other network metrics through studying an ensemble of graphs where the degree sequence (set of degrees) is fixed.We show that to some extent, the characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, modular extent and robustness of networks are directly influenced by the degree correlation.

  3. Correlation effects in focused transmission through disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Goetschy, Arthur; Cao, Hui; Stone, A Douglas

    2016-01-01

    By controlling the many degrees of freedom in the incident wavefront, one can manipulate wave propagation in complex structures. Such wavefront-shaping methods have been used extensively for controlling light transmitted into wavelength-scale regions (speckles), a property that is insensitive to correlations in the speckle pattern. Extending coherent control to larger regions should reveal correlation effects and is of great interest for several applications. Here we show with optical wavefront-shaping experiments that long-range correlations substantially increase the dynamic range of control over light transmitted onto larger target regions, when the number of targeted speckles, $M_2$, exceeds the dimensionless conductance $g$. Using a filtered random matrix ensemble appropriate for describing coherent diffusion in an open geometry, we show analytically that $M_2/g$ appears as the controlling parameter in universal scaling laws for several statistical properties of interest--predictions that we quantitative...

  4. Study of size effect using digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. A. SANTOS

    Full Text Available Size effect is an important issue in concrete structures bearing in mind that it can influence many aspects of analysis such as strength, brittleness and structural ductility, fracture toughness and fracture energy, among others. Further this, ever more new methods are being developed to evaluate displacement fields in structures. In this paper an experimental evaluation of the size effect is performed applying Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique to measure displacements on the surface of beams. Three point bending tests were performed on three different size concrete beams with a notch at the midspan. The results allow a better understanding of the size effect and demonstrate the efficiency of Digital Image Correlation to obtain measures of displacements.

  5. Shape and magnetic moment dependence of the dipolar field in Mn12-acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There is a small fraction of fast-relaxation species in Mn12-acetate, which is utilized to determine the dipolar field of Mn12. Here we report an easier way to precisely obtain the dipolar field by measuring the M-H curves above the blocking temperature of fastrelaxation species. We found that there is a simple linear relationship between the magnetic moment and dipolar field; besides the dipolar field is also dependent on the sample shape, which is consistent with the numerical calculation.

  6. Induced spectral gap and pairing correlations from superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Cole, William S.; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically consider superconducting proximity effect, using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) theory, in heterostructure sandwich-type geometries involving a normal s -wave superconductor and a nonsuperconducting material with the proximity effect being driven by Cooper pairs tunneling from the superconducting slab to the nonsuperconducting slab. Applications of the superconducting proximity effect may rely on an induced spectral gap or induced pairing correlations without any spectral gap. We clarify that in a nonsuperconducting material the induced spectral gap and pairing correlations are independent physical quantities arising from the proximity effect. This is a crucial issue in proposals to create topological superconductivity through the proximity effect. Heterostructures of three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) slabs on conventional s -wave superconductor (SC) substrates provide a platform, with proximity-induced topological superconductivity expected to be observed on the "naked" top surface of a thin TI slab. We theoretically study the induced superconducting gap on this naked surface. In addition, we compare against the induced spectral gap in heterostructures of SC with a normal metal or a semiconductor with strong spin-orbit coupling and a Zeeman splitting potential (another promising platform for topological superconductivity). We find that for any model for the non-SC metal (including metallic TI) the induced spectral gap on the naked surface decays as L-3 as the thickness (L ) of the non-SC slab is increased in contrast to the slower 1 /L decay of the pairing correlations. Our distinction between proximity-induced spectral gap (with its faster spatial decay) and pairing correlation (with its slower spatial decay) has important implications for the currently active search for topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions in various superconducting heterostructures.

  7. Solid state 13C NMR of unlabeled phosphatidylcholine bilayers: spectral assignments and measurement of carbon-phosphorus dipolar couplings and 13C chemical shift anisotropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C R

    1993-01-01

    The direct measurement of 13C chemical shift anisotropies (CSA) and 31P-13C dipolar splitting in random dispersions of unlabeled L alpha-phase phosphatidylcholine (PC) has traditionally been difficult because of extreme spectral boradening due to anisotropy. In this study, mixtures of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with three different detergents known to promote the magnetic orientation of DMPC were employed to eliminate the powder-pattern nature of signals without totally averaging out spectral anisotropy. The detergents utilized were CHAPSO, Triton X-100, and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC). Using such mixtures, many of the individual 13C resonances from DMPC were resolved and a number of 13C-31P dipolar couplings were evident. In addition, differing line widths were observed for the components of some dipolar doublets, suggestive of dipolar/chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation interference effects. Oriented sample resonance assignments were made by varying the CHAPSO or DHPC to DMPC ratio to systematically scale overall bilayer order towards the isotropic limit. In this manner, peaks could be identified based upon extrapolation to their isotropic positions, for which assignments have previously been made (Lee, C.W.B., and R.G. Griffin. 1989. Biophys. J. 55:355-358; Forbes, J., J. Bowers, X. Shan, L. Moran, E. Oldfield, and M.A. Moscarello. 1988. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday, Trans. 1 84:3821-3849). It was observed that the plots of CSA or dipolar coupling versus overall bilayer order obtained from DHPC and CHAPSO titrations were linear. Estimates of the intrinsic dipolar couplings and chemical shift anisotropies for pure DMPC bilayers were made by extrapolating shifts and couplings from the detergent titrations to zero detergent. Both detergent titrations led to similar "intrinsic" CSAs and dipolar couplings. Results extracted from an oriented Triton-DMPC mixture also led to similar estimates for the detergent-free DMPC shifts and couplings. The

  8. Probing the Scale Invariance of the Inflationary Power Spectrum in Expanding Quasi-Two-Dimensional Dipolar Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chä, Seok-Yeong; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2017-03-01

    We consider an analogue de Sitter cosmos in an expanding quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate with dominant dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms or molecules in the ultracold gas. It is demonstrated that a hallmark signature of inflationary cosmology, the scale invariance of the power spectrum of inflaton field correlations, experiences strong modifications when, at the initial stage of expansion, the excitation spectrum displays a roton minimum. Dipolar quantum gases thus furnish a viable laboratory tool to experimentally investigate, with well-defined and controllable initial conditions, whether primordial oscillation spectra deviating from Lorentz invariance at trans-Planckian momenta violate standard predictions of inflationary cosmology.

  9. Quadrupole--octopole alignment of CMB related to primordial power spectrum with dipolar modulation in anisotropic spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Wang, Sai

    2013-01-01

    The WMAP and Planck observations show that the quadrupole and octopole orientations of the CMB might align with each other. We reveal that the quadrupole--octopole alignment is a natural implication of the primordial power spectrum in an anisotropic spacetime. The primordial power spectrum is presented with a dipolar modulation. We obtain the privileged plane by employing the "power tensor" technique. At this plane, there is the maximum correlation between quadrupole and octopole. The probability for the alignment is much larger than what in the isotropic universe. We find that this model would lead to deviations from the statistical isotropy only for low--\\(\\ell\\) multipoles.

  10. Observation of proximities between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar nuclei: Which heteronuclear dipolar recoupling method is preferable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.; Lafon, O.; Trebosc, J.; Tricot, G.; Delevoye, L.; Mear, F.; Montagne, L.; Amoureux, J. P. [UCCS (CNRS-8181), Lille North of France University, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59652 (France)

    2012-10-14

    We have recently shown that the dipolar-mediated heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) method allows observing through-space proximities between spin-1/2 ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P Horizontal-Ellipsis ) and quadrupolar ({sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al Horizontal-Ellipsis ) nuclei. However, the D-HMQC effectiveness depends on the choice of the heteronuclear dipolar recoupling sequence. Here, we compare the efficiency and the robustness of four rotor-synchronized sequences: the symmetry-based ones, R4{sub 1}{sup 2}R4{sub 1}{sup -2} and its super-cycled version, SR4{sub 1}{sup 2}, and two schemes based on simultaneous amplitude and frequency modulations, denoted SFAM-1 and SFAM-2. For the SFAM methods, we point out efficient recoupling conditions that facilitate their experimental optimization and we introduce analytical expressions for the buildup of D-HMQC signal in the case of an isolated spin pair. We show that the main differences between these four sequences lie in the number of adjustable parameters and in their robustness with respect to chemical shift and homonuclear dipolar interactions. The relative performances of these four recoupling sequences are analyzed using average Hamiltonian theory, numerical simulations, and {sup 27}Al-{l_brace}{sup 31}P{r_brace} D-HMQC experiments on crystalline aluminophosphate.

  11. Direct prediction of residual dipolar couplings of small molecules in a stretched gel by stochastic molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andreas O; Freudenberger, J Christoph; Shaytan, Alexey K; Kessler, Horst; Luy, Burkhard

    2015-03-01

    Residual dipolar couplings are highly useful NMR parameters for calculating and refining molecular structures, dynamics, and interactions. For some applications, however, it is inevitable that the preferred orientation of a molecule in an alignment medium is calculated a priori. Several methods have been developed to predict molecular orientations and residual dipolar couplings. Being beneficial for macromolecules and selected small-molecule applications, such approaches lack sufficient accuracy for a large number of organic compounds for which the fine structure and eventually the flexibility of all involved molecules have to be considered or are limited to specific, well-studied liquid crystals. We introduce a simplified model for detailed all-atom molecular dynamics calculations with a polymer strand lined up along the principal axis as a new approach to simulate the preferred orientation of small to medium-sized solutes in polymer-based, gel-type alignment media. As is shown by a first example of strychnine in a polystyrene/CDCl3 gel, the simulations potentially enable the accurate prediction of residual dipolar couplings taking into account structural details and dynamic averaging effects of both the polymer and the solute.

  12. Structural phase transition in perovskite metal-formate frameworks: a Potts-type model with dipolar interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimėnas, Mantas; Balčiūnas, Sergejus; Ma Combining Cedilla Czka, Mirosław; Banys, Jūras; Tornau, Evaldas E

    2016-07-21

    We propose a combined experimental and numerical study to describe an order-disorder structural phase transition in perovskite-based [(CH3)2NH2][M(HCOO)3] (M = Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) dense metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The three-fold degenerate orientation of the molecular (CH3)2NH2(+) (DMA(+)) cation implies a selection of the statistical three-state model of the Potts type. It is constructed on a simple cubic lattice where each lattice point can be occupied by a DMA(+) cation in one of the available states. In our model the main interaction is the nearest-neighbor Potts-type interaction, which effectively accounts for the H-bonding between DMA(+) cations and M(HCOO)3(-) cages. The model is modified by accounting for the dipolar interactions which are evaluated for the real monoclinic lattice using density functional theory. We employ the Monte Carlo method to numerically study the model. The calculations are supplemented with the experimental measurements of electric polarization. The obtained results indicate that the three-state Potts model correctly describes the phase transition order in these MOFs, while dipolar interactions are necessary to obtain better agreement with the experimental polarization. We show that in our model with substantial dipolar interactions the ground state changes from uniform to the layers with alternating polarization directions.

  13. Temperature dependent electronic correlation effects in GdN

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A; Nolting, W.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate temperature dependent electronic correlation effects in the conduction bands of Gadolinium Nitride (GdN) based on the combination of many body analysis of the multi-band Kondo lattice model and the first principles TB-LMTO bandstructure calculations. The physical properties like the quasi-particle density of states (Q-DOS), spectral density (SD) and quasi-particle bandstructure (Q-BS) are calculated and discussed. The results can be compared with spin and angle resolved inverse...

  14. Quantum dust magnetosonic waves with spin and exchange correlation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroof, R.; Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-15

    Dust magnetosonic waves are studied in degenerate dusty plasmas with spin and exchange correlation effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, spin magnetization energy, and exchange correlation, a generalized dispersion relation is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. The exchange-correlation potentials are used, based on the adiabatic local-density approximation, and can be described as a function of the electron density. For three different values of angle, the dispersion relation is reduced to three different modes under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effects of quantum corrections in the presence of dust concentration significantly modify the dispersive properties of these modes. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets) and in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, etc.)

  15. Distribution of relaxation times of relaxors: comparison with dipolar glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banys, Juras; Grigalaitis, Robertas; Mikonis, Andrejus; Keburis, Povilas [Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Macutkevic, Jan [Semiconductor Physics Institute, A. Gostauto 11, 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-12-15

    In the present publication we report the results of dielectric spectroscopy investigations of two classes of materials - relaxor and dipolar glasses. As model relaxor was chosen (Pb{sub 1-x}La{sub x})(Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1-y})O{sub 3} (PLZT 100(x/y/1-y)). The real distribution function of the relaxation times f ({tau}) of the relaxor ferroelectric ceramics PLZT 8/65/35 and 9.5/65/35 was calculated from the dielectric measurements results in the wide frequency range (10{sup 1}-10{sup 12} Hz). Below the Burns temperature T{sub B} {approx_equal} 620 K, when the clusters begin to appear on cooling, the distribution function of the relaxation times is symmetrically shaped. On cooling the dispersion and loss spectra strongly broaden and slow down, the f ({tau}) function becomes asymmetrically shaped and the second maximum appears. The width of the f ({tau}) function was calculated at different temperatures. The longest relaxation times diverge according to the Vogel-Fulcher law with the freezing temperature 299 K and 252 K for the 8/65/35 and 9.5/65/35 samples, respectively. The shortest relaxation time is about 10{sup -12} s and it remains almost temperature independent. Similar behaviour was observed in dipolar glasses betaine phosphate betaine phosphite (BP/BPI). Much more information was obtained from two dimensional distribution of the relaxation times. This confirmed Meyer-Neldel law in relaxors and dipolar glasses. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Markel, V.A.; Coello, V.;

    1998-01-01

    spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement by one to two orders of magnitude. These bright light spots are found to be sensitive to the light wavelength, polarization, and angle of incidence. We relate the observed phenomenon to the localization of resonant dipolar excitations in random......Using a photon scanning tunneling microscope (operating alternatively at the wavelengths of 594 and 633 nm) with shear-force feedback we image the topography of silver colloid fractals simultaneously with a near-field intensity distribution. We observe that near-field optical images exhibit...

  17. Dipolar Rings of Microscopic Ellipsoids: Magnetic Manipulation and Cell Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Cebers, Andrejs; Tierno, Pietro

    2016-09-01

    We study the formation and the dynamics of dipolar rings composed by microscopic ferromagnetic ellipsoids, which self-assemble in water by switching the direction of the applied field. We show how to manipulate these fragile structures and control their shape via the application of external static and oscillating magnetic fields. We introduce a theoretical framework which describes the ring deformation under an applied field, allowing us to understand the underlying physical mechanism. Our microscopic rings are finally used to capture, entrap, and later release a biological cell via a magnetic command, i.e., performing a simple operation which can be implemented in other microfluidic devices which make use of ferromagnetic particles.

  18. Spherical Couette flow in a dipolar magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Hollerbach, R; Fournier, A; Hollerbach, Rainer; Canet, Elisabeth; Fournier, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    We consider numerically the flow of an electrically conducting fluid in a differentially rotating spherical shell, in a dipolar magnetic field. For infinitesimal differential rotation the flow consists of a super-rotating region, concentrated on the particular field line C just touching the outer sphere, in agreement with previous results. Finite differential rotation suppresses this super-rotation, and pushes it inward, toward the equator of the inner sphere. For sufficiently strong differential rotation the outer boundary layer becomes unstable, yielding time-dependent solutions. Adding an overall rotation suppresses these instabilities again. The results are in qualitative agreement with the DTS liquid sodium experiment.

  19. Heisenberg-scaled magnetometer with dipolar spin-1 condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haijun; Wang, Anbang; Tan, Qing-Shou; Zhang, Wenxian; Yi, Su

    2016-04-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a Heisenberg-scaled magnetometer using dipolar spin-1 condensates. The input state of magnetometer is prepared by slowly sweeping a transverse magnetic field to zero, which yields a highly entangled spin state of N atoms. We show that this process is protected by a parity symmetry such that the state preparation time is within the reach of the current experiment. We also propose a parity measurement with a Stern-Gerlach apparatus which is shown to approach the optimal measurement in the large atom number limit. Finally, we show that the phase estimation sensitivity of the proposed scheme roughly follows the Heisenberg scaling.

  20. Confocal shift interferometry of coherent emission from trapped dipolar excitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repp, J. [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, Am Coulombwall 4a, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 München (Germany); Center for NanoScience and Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 München (Germany); Schinner, G. J.; Schubert, E. [Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 München (Germany); Center for NanoScience and Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 München (Germany); Rai, A. K.; Wieck, A. D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Reuter, D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Wurstbauer, U.; Holleitner, A. W. [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, Am Coulombwall 4a, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 München (Germany); and others

    2014-12-15

    We introduce a confocal shift-interferometer based on optical fibers. The presented spectroscopy allows measuring coherence maps of luminescent samples with a high spatial resolution even at cryogenic temperatures. We apply the spectroscopy onto electrostatically trapped, dipolar excitons in a semiconductor double quantum well. We find that the measured spatial coherence length of the excitonic emission coincides with the point spread function of the confocal setup. The results are consistent with a temporal coherence of the excitonic emission down to temperatures of 250 mK.

  1. Model independence in two dimensions and polarized cold dipolar molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosniev, A G; Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S; Zinner, N T

    2011-06-24

    We calculate the energy and wave functions of two particles confined to two spatial dimensions interacting via arbitrary anisotropic potentials with negative or zero net volume. The general rigorous analytic expressions are given in the weak coupling limit where universality or model independence are approached. The monopole part of anisotropic potentials is crucial in the universal limit. We illustrate the universality with a system of two arbitrarily polarized cold dipolar molecules in a bilayer. We discuss the transition to universality as a function of polarization and binding energy and compare analytic and numerical results obtained by the stochastic variational method. The universal limit is essentially reached for experimentally accessible strengths.

  2. Time of Flight Transients in the Dipolar Glass Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulation we investigated time of flight current transients predicted by the dipolar glass model for a random spatial distribution of hopping centers. Behavior of the carrier drift mobility was studied at room temperature over a broad range of electric field and sample thickness. A flat plateau followed by $j\\propto t^{-2}$ current decay is the most common feature of the simulated transients. Poole-Frenkel mobility field dependence was confirmed over 5 to 200 V/$\\mu$m as we...

  3. Resolution and measurement of heteronuclear dipolar couplings of a noncrystalline protein immobilized in a biological supramolecular assembly by proton-detected MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Ho; Yang, Chen; Opella, Stanley J.; Mueller, Leonard J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional 15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift and three-dimensional 1H-15N dipolar coupling/15N chemical shift/1H chemical shift MAS solid-state NMR correlation spectra of the filamentous bacteriophage Pf1 major coat protein show single-site resolution in noncrystalline, intact-phage preparations. The high sensitivity and resolution result from 1H detection at 600 MHz under 50 kHz magic angle spinning using ∼0.5 mg of perdeuterated and uniformly 15N-labeled protein in which the exchangeable amide sites are partially or completely back-exchanged (reprotonated). Notably, the heteronuclear 1H-15N dipolar coupling frequency dimension is shown to select among 15N resonances, which will be useful in structural studies of larger proteins where the resonances exhibit a high degree of overlap in multidimensional chemical shift correlation spectra.

  4. The neural correlates of endowment effect without economic transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votinov, Mikhail; Mima, Tatsuya; Aso, Toshihiko; Abe, Mitsunari; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Shinozaki, Jun; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-09-01

    People always concern about what they have and what they might lose even it is just imaginary property. According to Prospect Theory, the losses might be weighted by subjects higher than gain, which would cause the disparity between the willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) compensation in economic valuation. Using functional MRI, we investigated neural correlates of this inconsistent value estimation, known as the endowment effect, during a simple pricing task without economic transaction. Brain activation associated with this price discrepancy was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), where voxel-based morphometry of MRI revealed the positive correlation between gray matter concentration and WTA/WTP ratio. These findings suggest the functional relevance of IFG in WTA/WTP discrepancy for pricing without any actual gain and loss, where an integration of loss aversion-related signals from insula and expected value signals may occur.

  5. Assembling Ellipsoidal Particles at Fluid Interfaces Using Switchable Dipolar Capillary Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.B.; Krüger, T.; Coveney, P.V.; Harting, J.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    How to dynamically tune an assembly of anisotropic colloidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces using dipolar capillary interactions is demonstrated. A previously discovered first-order phase transition is exploited and it is shown how to spontaneously turn off these dipolar capillary inte

  6. Coexistence of density wave and superfluid order in a dipolar Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhigang; Block, Jens Kusk; Bruun, Georg M.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the coexistence of superfluid and density wave (stripe) order in a quasi-two-dimensional gas of dipolar fermions aligned by an external field. Remarkably, the anisotropic nature of the dipolar interaction allows for such a coexistence in a large region of the zero temperature phase dia...

  7. Zero field entanglement in dipolar coupling spin system at negative temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    A dipolar coupled spin system can achieve internal thermodynamic equilibrium states at negative absolute temperature. We study analytically and numerically the temperature dependence of the concurrence in a dipolar coupled spin-1/2 system in both non-zero and zero fields and show that, at negative temperatures, entangled states can exist even in zero magnetic field.

  8. Visualization of magnetic dipolar interaction based on scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Takeichi, Yasuo; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Miyamoto, Noritaka; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira; Ono, Kanta

    2014-04-01

    Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), in this report we visualized the magnetic dipolar interactions in nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and imaged their magnetization distributions at various applied fields. We calculated the magnetic dipolar interaction by analyzing the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image.

  9. Testing physical models for dipolar asymmetry: from temperature to k space to lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Zibin, J P

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intriguing hints of a departure from the standard cosmological model is a large-scale dipolar power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If not a statistical fluke, its origins must lie in the modulation of the position-space fluctuations via a physical mechanism, which requires the observation of new modes to confirm or refute. We introduce an approach to describe such a modulation in k space and calculate its effects on the CMB temperature and lensing. We fit the k-space modulation parameters to Planck 2015 temperature data and show that CMB lensing will not provide us with enough independent information to confirm or refute such a mechanism. However, our approach elucidates some poorly understood aspects of the asymmetry, in particular that it is weakly constrained. Also, it will be particularly useful in predicting the effectiveness of polarization in testing a physical modulation.

  10. Asynchronous symmetry-based sequences for homonuclear dipolar recoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: madhu@tifr.res.in, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Rajeswari, M. [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Madhu, P. K., E-mail: madhu@tifr.res.in, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsingi, Hyderabad 500 075 (India)

    2015-02-14

    We show a theoretical framework, based on triple-mode Floquet theory, to analyze recoupling sequences derived from symmetry-based pulse sequences, which have a non-vanishing effective field and are not rotor synchronized. We analyze the properties of one such sequence, a homonuclear double-quantum recoupling sequence derived from the C7{sub 2}{sup 1} sequence. The new asynchronous sequence outperforms the rotor-synchronized version for spin pairs with small dipolar couplings in the presence of large chemical-shift anisotropy. The resonance condition of the new sequence is analyzed using triple-mode Floquet theory. Analytical calculations of second-order effective Hamiltonian are performed to compare the efficiency in suppressing second-order cross terms. Experiments and numerical simulations are shown to corroborate the results of the theoretical analysis.

  11. Toroidal Dipolar Excitation in Metamaterials Consisting of Metal nanodisks and a Dielectrc Spacer on Metal Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaojun; Yan, Bo; Wang, Qiugu; Chen, Jing; Yan, Zhendong; Liu, Fanxin; Chen, Naibo; Sui, Chenghua

    2017-04-03

    We have investigated numerically toroidal dipolar excitation at optical frequency in metamaterials whose unit cell consists of three identical Ag nanodisks and a SiO2 spacer on Ag substrate. The near-field plasmon hybridization between individual Ag nanodisks and substrate forms three magnetic dipolar resonances, at normal incidence of plane electromagnetic waves. The strong coupling among three magnetic dipolar resonances leads to the toroidal dipolar excitation, when space-inversion symmetry is broke along the polarization direction of incident light. The influences of some geometrical parameters on the resonance frequency and the excitation strength of toroidal dipolar mode are studied in detail. The radiated power from toroidal dipole is also compared with that from conventional electric and magnetic multipoles.

  12. Offset-free Measurement of Dipolar Couplings in a Single Crystal and Determination of Molecular Orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Jayanthi, S

    2010-01-01

    Dipolar couplings are an important source of structure as they provide site specific dipolar splittings for aligned samples and hence are extensively used for the study of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, liquid crystals and single crystals. Of the many Separated Local Field (SLF) techniques existing to avail this information for static oriented systems, PISEMA (Polarization Inversion Spin Exchange at Magic Angle) has found to have wide application due to its many favorable characteristics. However the pulse sequence suffers from its inherent sensitivity to proton resonance frequency offset. We have recently proposed a sequence named DAPT (Dipolar Assisted Polarization Transfer: S. Jayanthi et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. 439, 407, 2007.) for dipolar coupling measurement which is found to be insensitive to proton offsets over wide range. In this presentation, we report the first implementation of the sequence on rigid systems. Experiments were done on a single crystal of N-Acetyl DL-Valine (NAV). Dipolar couplin...

  13. Effective rotational correlation times of proteins from NMR relaxation interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghan; Hilty, Christian; Wider, Gerhard; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the effective rotational correlation times, τc, for the modulation of anisotropic spin-spin interactions in macromolecules subject to Brownian motion in solution is of key interest for the practice of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. The value of τc enables an estimate of the NMR spin relaxation rates, and indicates possible aggregation of the macromolecular species. This paper reports a novel NMR pulse scheme, [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT, which is based on transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy and permits to determine τc for 15N- 1H bonds without interference from dipole-dipole coupling of the amide proton with remote protons. [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT is highly efficient since only a series of one-dimensional NMR spectra need to be recorded. Its use is suggested for a quick estimate of the rotational correlation time, to monitor sample quality and to determine optimal parameters for complex multidimensional NMR experiments. Practical applications are illustrated with the 110 kDa 7,8-dihydroneopterin aldolase from Staphylococcus aureus, the uniformly 15N-labeled Escherichia coli outer membrane protein X (OmpX) in 60 kDa mixed OmpX/DHPC micelles with approximately 90 molecules of unlabeled 1,2-dihexanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), and the 16 kDa pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx mori, which cover a wide range of correlation times.

  14. Effects of short range correlations on Ca isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lalazissis, G A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Short Range Correlations (SRC) on Ca isotopes is studied using a simple phenomenological model. Theoretical expressions for the charge (proton) form factors, densities and moments of Ca nuclei are derived. The role of SRC in reproducing the empirical data for the charge density differences is examined. Their influence on the depletion of the nuclear Fermi surface is studied and the fractional occupation probabilities of the shell model orbits of Ca nuclei are calculated. The variation of SRC as function of the mass number is also discussed.

  15. Quantum statistical correlations in thermal field theories: boundary effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, A; de Carvalho, C A A; Fraga, E S

    2010-01-01

    We show that the one-loop effective action at finite temperature for a scalar field with quartic interaction has the same renormalized expression as at zero temperature if written in terms of a certain classical field $\\phi_c$, and if we trade free propagators at zero temperature for their finite-temperature counterparts. The result follows if we write the partition function as an integral over field eigenstates (boundary fields) of the density matrix element in the functional Schr\\"{o}dinger field-representation, and perform a semiclassical expansion in two steps: first, we integrate around the saddle-point for fixed boundary fields, which is the classical field $\\phi_c$, a functional of the boundary fields; then, we perform a saddle-point integration over the boundary fields, whose correlations characterize the thermal properties of the system. This procedure provides a dimensionally-reduced effective theory for the thermal system. We calculate the two-point correlation as an example.

  16. Effects of strong disorder in strongly correlated superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of strong disorder on a system with strong electronic repulsion. In the absence of disorder, the system has a d-wave superconducting ground state with strong non-BCS features due to its proximity to a Mott insulator. We find that while strong correlations make superconductivity in this system immune to weak disorder, superconductivity is destroyed efficiently when disorder strength is comparable to the effective bandwidth. The suppression of charge motion in regions of strong potential fluctuation leads to the formation of Mott insulating patches, which anchor a larger nonsuperconducting region around them. The system thus breaks into islands of Mott insulating and superconducting regions, with Anderson insulating regions occurring along the boundary of these regions. Thus, electronic correlation and disorder, when both are strong, aid each other in destroying superconductivity, in contrast to their competition at weak disorder. Our results shed light on why zinc impurities are efficient in destroying superconductivity in cuprates, even though it is robust to weaker impurities.

  17. Correlation and symmetry effects in transport through an artificial molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. [Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Cota, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada-UNAM, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Ulloa, S.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Condensed Matter and Surface Sciences Program, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Spectral weights and current-voltage characteristics of an artificial diatomic molecule are calculated, considering cases where the dots connected in series are in general different. The spectral weights allow us to understand the effects of correlations, their connection with selection rules for transport, and the role of excited states in the experimental conductance spectra of these coupled double dot systems (DDS). An extended Hubbard Hamiltonian with varying interdot tunneling strength is used as a model, incorporating quantum confinement in the DDS, interdot tunneling as well as intra- and interdot Coulomb interactions. We find that interdot tunneling values determine to a great extent the resulting eigenstates and corresponding spectral weights. Details of the state correlations strongly suppress most of the possible conduction channels, giving rise to effective selection rules for conductance through the molecule. Most states are found to make insignificant contributions to the total current for finite biases. We find also that the symmetry of the structure is reflected in the I-V characteristics, and is in qualitative agreement with experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Controlling electric, magnetic, and chiral dipolar emission with PT-symmetric potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaeian, Hadiseh; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effect of parity-time (PT) symmetric optical potentials on the radiation of achiral and chiral dipole sources. Two properties unique to PT-symmetric potentials are observed. First, the dipole can be tuned to behave as a strong optical emitter or absorber based on the non-Hermiticity parameter and the dipole location. Second, exceptional points give rise to new system resonances that lead to orders-of-magnitude enhancements in the dipolar emitted or absorbed power. Utilizing these properties, we show that enantiomers of chiral molecules near PT-symmetric metamaterials exhibit a 4.5-fold difference in their emitted power and decay rate. The results of this work could enable new atom-cavity interactions for quantum optics, as well as all-optical enantioselective separation.

  19. Coherence factor effects in the antisymmetrized LDOS correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Marianna; Coleman, P.

    2009-03-01

    Recent scanning tunneling experiments on underdoped cuprates by Hanaguri et al [1] show the appearance of coherence factor effects. Unlike conventional observables, we show that the tunneling density of states in a superconductor does not have a well defined coherence factor. However, by extracting the component that is either even, or odd in the bias voltage, we show that these separate components have well-defined coherence factors. These results are used to understand the appearance of coherence factor effects in the antisymmetrized local density of states correlators in recent scanning tunneling experiments. [3pt] [1] T. Hanaguri, Y. Kohsaka, M. Ono, M. Maltseva, P. Coleman, I. Yamada, M. Azuma, M. Takano, K. Ohishi and H. Takagi, to be published (2009).

  20. Emergent Gauge Fields and Their Nonperturbative Effects in Correlated Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Tanaka, Akihiro

    The history of modern condensed matter physics may be regarded as the competition and reconciliation between Stoner's and Anderson's physical pictures, where the former is based on momentum-space descriptions focusing on long wave-length fluctuations while the latter is based on real-space physics emphasizing emergent localized excitations. In particular, these two view points compete with each other in various nonperturbative phenomena, which range from the problem of high Tc superconductivity, quantum spin liquids in organic materials and frustrated spin systems, heavy-fermion quantum criticality, metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems such as doped silicons and two-dimensional electron systems, the fractional quantum Hall effect, to the recently discussed Fe-based superconductors. An approach to reconcile these competing frameworks is to introduce topologically nontrivial excitations into the Stoner's description, which appear to be localized in either space or time and sometimes both, where scattering between itinerant electrons and topological excitations such as skyrmions, vortices, various forms of instantons, emergent magnetic monopoles, and etc. may catch nonperturbative local physics beyond the Stoner's paradigm. In this review article we discuss nonperturbative effects of topological excitations on dynamics of correlated electrons. First, we focus on the problem of scattering between itinerant fermions and topological excitations in antiferromagnetic doped Mott insulators, expected to be relevant for the pseudogap phase of high Tc cuprates. We propose that nonperturbative effects of topological excitations can be incorporated within the perturbative framework, where an enhanced global symmetry with a topological term plays an essential role. In the second part, we go on to discuss the subject of symmetry protected topological states in a largely similar light. While we do not introduce itinerant fermions here, the nonperturbative

  1. Magnetic-dipolar-mode Fano resonances for microwave spectroscopy of high absorption matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, G.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between high absorption matter and microwave radiated energy is a subject of great importance. In particular, this concerns the microwave spectroscopic characterization of biological liquids. The use of effective testing methods to obtain information about physical properties of different liquids on the molecular level is one of the most important problems in biophysics. However, the standard methods based on microwave resonant techniques are not sufficiently suitable for biological liquids because the resonance peak in a resonator with high-loss liquids is so broad that the material parameters cannot be measured correctly. Although molecular vibrations of biomolecules may have microwave frequencies, it is not thought that such resonant coupling is significant due to their low energy compared with thermal energy and the strongly dampening aqueous environment. This paper presents an innovative microwave sensing technique for different types of lossy materials, including biological liquids. The technique is based on the combination of the microwave perturbation method and the Fano resonance effects observed recently in microwave structures with embedded magnetic-dipolar quantum dots. When the frequency of the magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) resonance is not equal to the cavity resonance frequency, one gets Fano transmission intensity. When the MDM resonance frequency is tuned to the cavity resonance frequency, by a bias magnetic field, one observes a Lorentzian line shape. Use of an extremely narrow Lorentzian peak allows exact probing of the resonant frequency of a cavity loaded by a highly lossy material sample. For different kinds of samples, one has different frequencies of Lorentzian peaks. This presents a picture of precise spectroscopic characterization of high absorption matter in microwaves.

  2. Effect of Cross-Correlation on Geomagnetic Forecast Accuracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Wei, Zigang; Tangborn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Surface geomagnetic observation can determine up to degree L = 14 time-varying spherical harmonic coefficients of the poloidal magnetic field. Assimilation of these coefficients to numerical dynamo simulation could help us understand better the dynamical processes in the Earth's outer core, and to provide more accurate forecast of geomagnetic secular variations (SV). In our previous assimilation studies, only the poloidal magnetic field in the core is corrected by the observations in the analysis. Unobservable core state variables (the toroidal magnetic field and the core velocity field) are corrected via the dynamical equations of the geodynamo. Our assimilation experiments show that the assimilated core state converges near the CMB, implying that the dynamo state is strongly constrained by surface geomagnetic observations, and is pulled closer to the truth by the data. We are now carrying out an ensemble of assimilation runs with 1000 years of geomagnetic and archeo/paleo magnetic record. In these runs the cross correlation between the toroidal and the poloidal magnetic fields is incorporated into the analysis. This correlation is derived from the physical boundary conditions of the toroidal field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The assimilation results are then compared with those of the ensemble runs without the cross-correlation, aiming at understanding two fundamental issues: the effect of the crosscorrelation on (1) the convergence of the core state, and (2) the SV prediction accuracies. The constrained dynamo solutions will provide valuable insights on interpreting the observed SV, e.g. the near-equator magnetic flux patches, the core-mantle interactions, and possibly other geodynamic observables.

  3. Cross-correlation between thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    CERN Document Server

    Creque-Sarbinowski, Cyril; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect and Compton-y distortions from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect are both due to line-of-sight density perturbations. Here we calculate the cross-correlation between these two signals. Measurement of this cross-correlation can be used to test the redshift distribution of the tSZ distortion. We also evaluate the detectability of a yT cross-correlation from exotic early-Universe sources in the presence of this late-time effect.

  4. Nonequilibrium condensation and coarsening of field-driven dipolar colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2012-07-01

    In colloidal suspensions, self-organization processes can be easily fueled by external fields. Here we consider monolayers of particles with permanent dipole moments that are driven by rotating external fields. In recent experiments, it has been shown that the particles in such systems self-organize into two-dimensional clusters. Here we report results from a computer simulation study of these pattern forming systems. Specifically, we employ Langevin dynamics simulations, Brownian dynamics simulations that include hydrodynamic interactions, and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo simulations of soft spheres interacting via dipolar potentials. We investigate at which field strengths and frequencies clusters form and explore the influence of hydrodynamic interactions. We also examine the phase behavior of the equilibrium system resulting from a time average of the colloidal interactions in the rotating field. In this way we demonstrate that the clustering described in the driven system arises from a first-order phase transition between a vapor and a condensed phase.

  5. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-05-13

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.

  6. Optical Force and Torque on Dipolar Dual Chiral Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimzadegan, Aso; Alaee, Rasoul; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, electromagnetic dual particles preserve the helicity of light upon interaction. On the other hand, chiral particles respond differently to light of opposite helicity. These two properties on their own constitute a source of fascination. Their combined action, however, is less explored. Here, we study on analytical grounds the force and torque as well as the optical cross sections of dual chiral particles in dipolar approximation exerted by a wave of well-defined helicity, i.e. a circularly polarized plane wave. We put emphasis on particles that possess a maximally electromagnetic chiral and hence dual response. Besides the analytical insights, we also investigate the exerted optical force and torque on a real particle at the example of a metallic helix that is designed to approach the maximal electromagnetic chirality condition. Various applications in the context of optical sorting but also nanorobotics can be perceived considering the particles studied in this contribution.

  7. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.

  8. Dipolar bilayer with antiparallel polarization: A self-bound liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenstreit, Martin; Rader, Michael; Zillich, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar bilayers with antiparallel polarization, i.e., opposite polarization in the two layers, exhibit liquidlike rather than gaslike behavior. In particular, even without external pressure, a self-bound liquid droplet of constant density will form. We investigate the symmetric case of two identical layers, corresponding to a two-component Bose system with equal partial densities. The zero-temperature equation of state E (ρ )/N , where ρ is the total density, has a minimum, with an equilibrium density that can be adjusted by the distance d between the layers (decreasing with increasing d ). The attraction necessary for a self-bound liquid comes from the interlayer dipole-dipole interaction that leads to a mediated intralayer attraction. We investigate the regime of negative pressure towards the spinodal instability, where the bilayer is unstable against infinitesimal fluctuations of the total density, confirmed by calculations of the speed of sound of total density fluctuations.

  9. Magnetic Orders and Fluctuations in the Dipolar Pyrochlore Antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepas, Olivier; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2005-03-01

    While the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice does not order, we will discuss, from a theoretical standpoint, possible magnetic phases induced by the dipole-dipole interactions. Such interactions play a role in systems such as Gd2Ti2O7 or Gd2Sn2O7 in stabilizing exotic forms of magnetic order, a subject of current debate. We will also argue that the external magnetic field induces multiple transitions, one of which is associated with no obvious broken symmetry, but can be characterized by a disorder parameter. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations and Landau-Ginzburg expansion show that the dipolar Heisenberg model exhibits a fluctuation-induced first-order transition, thanks to the frustration and a continuous set of soft modes.

  10. Electronic structure of NiO: Correlation and band effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Z. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA)); List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA)); Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA)); Jepsen, O. (Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, D-7000 Stuttgart 80 (Federal Republic of Germany)); Arko, A.J.; Barttlet, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA)); Shih, C.K. (Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas (USA)); Parmigiani, F. (IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California (USA)); Huang, J.C.; Lindberg, P.A.P. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA))

    1991-08-15

    We have performed angle-resolved-photoemission experiments and local-density-functional (LDA) band calculations on NiO to study correlation and band effects of this conceptually important compound. Our experimental result suggests a dual nature of the electronic structure of NiO. On the one hand, the LDA band calculation has some relevance to the electronic structure of NiO, and the inclusion of the antiferromagnetic order is essential. For the lower O 2{ital p} bands, the LDA calculation agrees almost perfectly with experimental energy positions and dispersion relations. On the other hand, discrepancies between the experiment and the LDA calculation do exist, especially for the Ni 3{ital d} bands and the O 2{ital p} bands that are heavily mixed with the Ni 3{ital d} bands. It appears that the main discrepancies between the experimental results and the LDA calculation are concentrated in the regions of the insulating gap and the valence-band satellite. In addition to these results, we also report the interesting angle and photon-energy dependence of the satellite emission. The above results show that the angle-resolved-photoemission studies can provide much additional information about the electronic structure of correlated materials like NiO.

  11. Sign determination of dipolar couplings in field-oriented bicelles by variable angle sample spinning (VASS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, F.; Losonczi, J.A.; Fischer, M.W.F.; Prestegard, J.H. [University of Georgia, Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (United States)

    1999-10-15

    Residual dipolar couplings are being increasingly used as structural constraints for NMR studies of biomolecules. A problem arises when dipolar coupling contributions are larger than scalar contributions for a given spin pair, as is commonly observed in solid state NMR studies, in that signs of dipolar couplings cannot easily be determined. Here the sign ambiguities of dipolar couplings in field-oriented bicelles are resolved by variable angle sample spinning (VASS) techniques. The director behavior of field-oriented bicelles (DMPC/DHPC, DMPC/CHAPSO) in VASS is studied by {sup 31}P NMR. A stable configuration occurs when the spinning angle is smaller than the magic angle, 54.7 deg., and the director (or bicelle normal) of the disks is mainly distributed in a plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. Since the dipolar couplings depend on how the bicelles are oriented with respect to the magnetic field, it is shown that the dipolar interaction can be scaled to the same order as the J-coupling by moving the spinning axis from 0 deg. toward 54.7 deg. Thus the relative sign of dipolar and scalar couplings can be determined.

  12. Zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wei; Tycko, Robert

    2012-09-14

    We present the theoretical description and experimental demonstration of a zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling (ZQ-SDR) technique for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of (13)C-labeled molecules, including proteins, under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The ZQ-SDR technique combines zero-quantum recoupling pulse sequence blocks with randomly varying chemical shift precession periods to create randomly amplitude- and phase-modulated effective homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. To a good approximation, couplings between different (13)C spin pairs become uncorrelated under ZQ-SDR, leading to spin dynamics (averaged over many repetitions of the ZQ-SDR sequence) that are fully described by an orientation-dependent N × N polarization transfer rate matrix for an N-spin system, with rates that are inversely proportional to the sixth power of internuclear distances. Suppression of polarization transfers due to non-commutivity of pairwise couplings (i.e., dipolar truncation) does not occur under ZQ-SDR, as we show both analytically and numerically. Experimental demonstrations are reported for uniformly (13)C-labeled L-valine powder (at 14.1 T and 28.00 kHz MAS), uniformly (13)C-labeled protein GB1 in microcrystalline form (at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS), and partially labeled (13)C-labeled protein GB1 (at 14.1 T and 40.00 kHz MAS). The experimental results verify that spin dynamics under ZQ-SDR are described accurately by rate matrices and suggest the utility of ZQ-SDR in structural studies of (13)C-labeled solids.

  13. Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Multi-spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2017-08-01

    In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissues, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have previously developed a rigorous EMOR relaxation theory for dipole-coupled two-spin and three-spin systems. Here, we extend the stochastic Liouville theory to four-spin systems and use these exact results as a guide for constructing an approximate multi-spin theory, valid for spin systems of arbitrary size. This so-called generalized stochastic Redfield equation (GSRE) theory includes the effects of longitudinal-transverse cross-mode relaxation, which gives rise to an inverted step in the relaxation dispersion profile, and coherent spin mode transfer among solid-like spins, which may be regarded as generalized spin diffusion. The GSRE theory is compared to an existing theory, based on the extended Solomon equations, which does not incorporate these phenomena. Relaxation dispersion profiles are computed from the GSRE theory for systems of up to 16 protons, taken from protein crystal structures. These profiles span the range from the motional narrowing limit, where the coherent mode transfer plays a major role, to the ultra-slow motion limit, where the zero-field rate is closely related to the strong-collision limit of the dipolar relaxation rate. Although a quantitative analysis of experimental data is beyond the scope of this work, it is clear from the magnitude of the predicted relaxation rate and the shape of the relaxation dispersion profile that the dipolar EMOR mechanism is the principal cause of water-1H low-field longitudinal relaxation in aqueous systems of immobilized macromolecules, including soft biological tissues. The relaxation theory developed here therefore provides a basis for molecular-level interpretation of endogenous soft

  14. Effects of decoherence on entanglement in a correlated emission laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfa, Sintayehu [Physics Department, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2007-06-28

    We present the analysis of the effects of decoherence on quantum features of the cavity radiation of the two-photon-correlated emission laser, employing the stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. We study how a thermal noise entering the cavity affects the squeezing, entanglement amplification, mean number of photon pairs and intensity difference in the cavity radiation. It turns out that the generated light exhibits a two-mode squeezing and entanglement when initially there are more atoms at the lower level, even when the cavity is coupled to a thermal reservoir. It is also found that though the thermal noise entering the cavity degrades the squeezing and entanglement, it significantly increases the mean number of photon pairs of the superimposed radiation.

  15. Non-Stationary Effects and Cross Correlations in Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    In this paper within the framework of the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) we consider the dynamic properties of the solar activity by analyzing the Zurich sunspot numbers. As is well-known astrophysics objects are the non-stationary open systems, whose evolution are the quite individual and have the alternation effects. The main difference of FNS compared to other related methods is the separation of the original signal reflecting the dynamics of solar activity into three frequency bands: system-specific "resonances" and their interferential contributions at lower frequencies, chaotic "random walk" ("irregularity-jump") components at larger frequencies, and chaotic "irregularity-spike" (inertial) components in the highest frequency range. Specific parameters corresponding to each of the bands are introduced and calculated. These irregularities as well as specific resonance frequencies are considered as the information carriers on every hierarchical level of the evolution of a complex natural system with intermittent behavior, consecutive alternation of rapid chaotic changes in the values of dynamic variables on small time intervals with small variations of the values on longer time intervals ("laminar" phases). The jump and spike irregularities are described by power spectra and difference moments (transient structural functions) of the second order. FNS allows revealing the most crucial points of the solar activity dynamics by means of "spikiness" factor. It is shown that this variable behaves as the predictor of crucial changes of the sunspot number dynamics, particularly when the number comes up to maximum value. The change of averaging interval allows revealing the non-stationary effects depending by 11-year cycle and by inside processes in a cycle. To consider the cross correlations between the different variables of solar activity we use the Zurich sunspot numbers and the sequence of corona's radiation energy. The FNS-approach allows extracting the

  16. Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwon; Choi, Joonhee; Landig, Renate; Kucsko, Georg; Zhou, Hengyun; Isoya, Junichi; Jelezko, Fedor; Onoda, Shinobu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Yao, Norman Y.; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding quantum dynamics away from equilibrium is an outstanding challenge in the modern physical sciences. Out-of-equilibrium systems can display a rich variety of phenomena, including self-organized synchronization and dynamical phase transitions. More recently, advances in the controlled manipulation of isolated many-body systems have enabled detailed studies of non-equilibrium phases in strongly interacting quantum matter; for example, the interplay between periodic driving, disorder and strong interactions has been predicted to result in exotic ‘time-crystalline’ phases, in which a system exhibits temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, breaking the discrete time-translational symmetry of the underlying drive. Here we report the experimental observation of such discrete time-crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of about one million dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room temperature. We observe long-lived temporal correlations, experimentally identify the phase boundary and find that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions. This order is remarkably stable to perturbations, even in the presence of slow thermalization. Our work opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many-body systems.

  17. Working Correlation Structures: Application in Liver Cirrhosis Therapeutic Effect Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. VISHWAKARMA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Correlated responses are common in repeatedly measured clinical trial data. The generalized estimating equations (GEE method is popular for analyzing correlated responses. It is important to select a proper working correlation matrix because an inappropriate choice will lead to inefficient parameter estimation. In this paper, we examine criterion of quasi-likelihood information criterion (QIC for selecting a working correlation structure, and have compared with the performance of the correlation information criteria (CIC of the correlation structures on liver cirrhosis patients. Material and Methods: The computation code for CIC is performed into open source software R. The covariates like therapy and visit are used to predict Meld scores (It is continuous disease severities scale with highly predictive of the risk of dying from liver cirrhosis in GEE model to examine the performance of QIC and CIC after considering three different working correlation structures. Results: The GEE model has been performed to compare QIC and CIC after considering three working correlation structure. In case of AR (1 correlation structure, it is found that similar regression arameter estimates are observed for both information criteria techniques. Conclusion: The study indicates that the CIC is useful for selecting appropriate correlation structures for liver cirrhosis data from phase III clinical trial.

  18. 1, 3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction between Vinyl Acetate and N-Alkyl Hydroxypyridinium Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1, 3 Dipolar cycloaddition reaction between vinyl acetate and 3-hydroxypyridiniun betaine was performed under solid-liquid phase transfer catalytic condition. This reaction has been successfully used on the synthesis of an analogue of Bao-Gong-Teng A.

  19. Solvent-free one-pot 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of dihydropyran derived nitrone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Chakraborty; Prawin Kumar Sharma; Neelam Rai; Chiran Devi Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Microwave-induced 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of dihydropyran derived nitrone with various activated alkenes have been studied in situ and found to afford new isoxazolidine derivatives with moderate selectivity.

  20. Inter-domain dipolar repulsion in lipid monolayers with phase coexistence

    CERN Document Server

    Fiori, Elena Rufeil; Banchio, Adolfo J

    2015-01-01

    A great variety of biologically relevant monolayers present phase coexistence characterized by domains formed by lipids in a long-range ordered phase state dispersed in a continuous, disordered phase. Because of the difference in surface densities the domains possess an excess dipolar density with respect to the surrounding liquid phase. In this work we propose an alternative method to measure the dipolar repulsion for neutral lipid monolayers. The procedure is based on the comparison of the radial distribution function, g(r), from experiments and Brownian dynamic (BD) simulations. The domains were modeled as disks with surface dipolar density, whose strength was varied to best describe the experimentally determined monolayer structure. For comparison, the point dipole approximation was also studied. As an example, we applied the method for mixed monolayers with different proportions of distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and obtained the excess dipolar density, whic...

  1. Long-range coherence of interacting Bose gas of dipolar excitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, V B; Gorbunov, A V; Larionov, A V [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-25

    Experiments connected with dipolar exciton Bose condensation in lateral traps are reviewed. Observations of long-range coherence of condensate in ring electrostatic traps in Schottky-diode heterostructures with double and single quantum wells are presented and discussed.

  2. Van Allen Probes observations of dipolarization and its associated O+ flux variations in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, M.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent study employing the MDS-1 satellite reveals that magnetic field dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere is not unusual. When the MDS-1 satellite was located at L=3.5-5.0 near the auroral onset longitude (MLT difference of ≤2.5 h), the occurrence probability of local dipolarization was about 16%. Surprisingly, an event was found at L~3.6, far inside the geosynchronous altitude. It was also shown that after the dipolarization, the oxygen ENA flux in the nightside ring current region measured by the IMAGE satellite was predominantly enhanced by a factor of 2-5 and stayed at an enhanced level for more than 1 h, while clear enhancement was scarcely seen in the hydrogen ENA flux. To better understand mechanisms of the selective acceleration of O+ ions during dipolarization, an in-situ measurement of ion fluxes is needed. However, there are few studies investigating H+ and O+ flux variations during dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere. In this study we investigate magnetic field dipolarization and its associated ion flux variations in the deep inner magnetosphere, using magnetic field and ion flux data obtained by the Van Allen Probes. From the magnetic field data recorded on the nightside (1800-0600 MLT) in the inner magnetosphere (L=3.0-6.6) in VDH coordinates, we select substorm-related dipolarization events in which the H component increases by more than 20 nT and the absolute value of the V component decreases by more than 8 nT in 5 minutes. About 150 dipolarization events are identified from 1 October 2012 to 30 June 2015. We find that the dipolarization mostly occurs at L=4.5-6.5 in the premidnight sector (2100-0000 MLT). No events are found at Levents are accompanied by O+ flux enhancements in the energy range higher than a few keV, which have the pitch angle distribution peaked around 45 or 135 degrees. We also find that low energy O+ ions often appear after dipolarization with an energy dispersion starting from around keV down to a few

  3. Overcoming artificial broadening in Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance distributions arising from dipolar pseudo-secular terms in DEER experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marie Ramirez; Frydman, Veronica; Milko, Petr; Iron, Mark A; Abdelkader, Elwy H; Lee, Michael D; Swarbrick, James D; Raitsimring, Arnold; Otting, Gottfried; Graham, Bim; Feintuch, Akiva; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2016-05-14

    By providing accurate distance measurements between spin labels site-specifically attached to bio-macromolecules, double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy provides a unique tool to probe the structural and conformational changes in these molecules. Gd(3+)-tags present an important family of spin-labels for such purposes, as they feature high chemical stability and high sensitivity in high-field DEER measurements. The high sensitivity of the Gd(3+) ion is associated with its high spin (S = 7/2) and small zero field splitting (ZFS), resulting in a narrow spectral width of its central transition at high fields. However, under the conditions of short distances and exceptionally small ZFS, the weak coupling approximation, which is essential for straightforward DEER data analysis, becomes invalid and the pseudo-secular terms of the dipolar Hamiltonian can no longer be ignored. This work further explores the effects of pseudo-secular terms on Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) DEER measurements using a specifically designed ruler molecule; a rigid bis-Gd(3+)-DOTA model compound with an expected Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance of 2.35 nm and a very narrow central transition at the W-band (95 GHz). We show that the DEER dipolar modulations are damped under the standard W-band DEER measurement conditions with a frequency separation, Δν, of 100 MHz between the pump and observe pulses. Consequently, the DEER spectrum deviates considerably from the expected Pake pattern. We show that the Pake pattern and the associated dipolar modulations can be restored with the aid of a dual mode cavity by increasing Δν from 100 MHz to 1.09 GHz, allowing for a straightforward measurement of a Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance of 2.35 nm. The increase in Δν increases the contribution of the |-5/2〉→|-3/2〉 and |-7/2〉→|-5/2〉 transitions to the signal at the expense of the |-3/2 〉→|-1/2〉 transition, thus minimizing the effect of dipolar pseudo-secular terms and restoring the validity of the weak

  4. Monte-Carlo simulations of strongly interacting dipolar fluids between two conducting walls

    OpenAIRE

    Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We report Monte-Carlo simulation results for a strongly interacting dipolar soft-sphere (DSS) fluid confined between two conducting, planar walls. The long-range dipolar interactions, including contributions from the ``image dipoles'' in the metal, are handled by mapping onto a problem with three-dimensional periodicity which can be treated by conventional Ewald summation methods. Considering two different wall separationsour results indicate the occurence of wall...

  5. AC susceptibility as a tool to probe the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Landi, Gabriel T.; Arantes, Fabiana R; Cornejo, Daniel R.; Bakuzis, Andris F.; Andreu, Irene; Natividad, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The dipolar interaction is known to substantially affect the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. This is particularly important when the particles are kept in a fluid suspension or packed inside nano-carriers. In addition to its usual long-range nature, in these cases the dipolar interaction may also induce the formation of clusters of particles, thereby strongly modifying their magnetic anisotropies. In this paper we show how AC susceptibility may be used to obtain important information re...

  6. Parity effects in eigenvalue correlators, parametric and crossover correlators in random matrix models: Application to mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Deo

    2002-02-01

    This paper summarizes some work that I have been doing on eigenvalue correlators of random matrix models which show some interesting behavior. First we consider matrix models with gaps in their spectrum or density of eigenvalues. The density–density correlators of these models depend on whether , where is the size of the matrix, takes even or odd values. The fact that this dependence persists in the large thermodynamic limit is an unusual property and may have consequences in the study of one electron effects in mesoscopic systems. Secondly, we study the parametric and cross correlators of the Harish Chandra–Itzykson–Zuber matrix model. The analytic expressions determine how the correlators change as a parameter (e.g. the strength of a perturbation in the Hamiltonian of the chaotic system or external magnetic field on a sample of material) is varied. The results are relevant for the conductance fluctuations in disordered mesoscopic systems.

  7. Low-temperature spin-glass behavior in a diluted dipolar Ising system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan J.

    2015-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the character of the spin-glass (SG) state of a site-diluted dipolar Ising model. We consider systems of dipoles randomly placed on a fraction x of all L3 sites of a simple cubic lattice that point up or down along a given crystalline axis. For x ≲0.65 these systems are known to exhibit an equilibrium spin-glass phase below a temperature Tsg∝x . At high dilution and very low temperatures, well deep in the SG phase, we find spiky distributions of the overlap parameter q that are strongly sample dependent. We focus on spikes associated with large excitations. From cumulative distributions of q and a pair correlation function averaged over several thousands of samples we find that, for the system sizes studied, the average width of spikes, and the fraction of samples with spikes higher than a certain threshold, does not vary appreciably with L . This is compared with the behavior found for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  8. Analysis of electron correlation effects and contributions of NMR J-couplings from occupied localized molecular orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarycz, Natalia; Aucar, Gustavo A

    2012-02-02

    NMR J-coupling calculations at the second-order of polarization propagator approach, SOPPA, are among the most reliable. They include a high percentage of the total electron correlation effects in saturated and unsaturated molecular systems. Furthermore, J-couplings are quite sensitive to the whole electronic molecular framework. We present in this article the first study of all three response mechanisms, Fermi contact, FC, spin-dipolar, SD and paramagnetic spin-orbital, PSO, for J-couplings with occupied localized molecular orbitals at the SOPPA level of approach. Even though SOPPA results are not invariant under unitary transformations, the difference between results obtained with canonical and localized molecular orbitals, LMOs, are small enough to permit its application with confidence. The following small-size saturated and unsaturated compounds were analyzed: CH(4), CH(3)F, C(2)H(6), NH(3), C(2)H(4), CH(2)NH, H(2)C═CHF, and FHC═CHF. The local character of the FC mechanism that appears in J-couplings of these molecular models is shown through the analysis of contributions from LMOs. The importance of including the electron correlation on the engaged bonding orbitals for one-bond couplings is emphasized. Almost all electron correlation effects are included in such orbitals. Interesting findings were the large contributions by s-type LMOs to the C-H and C-C J-couplings; they are responsible for the variation of (1)J(C-C) when going from ethane to ethene and to 1,2-difluoroethene. The previously proposed hyperconjugative transfer mechanism has been tested. Among other tests we found the difference anti-syn of one-bond (1)J(C-H) in imine as due to both the corresponding σ(C-H) and the lone-pair, LP, contribution. Geminal and vicinal J-couplings were also analyzed. Our findings are in accord with a previous work by Pople and Bothner-by, who considered results taken from calculations or empirical data. For all geminal couplings the pattern of J-couplings, like

  9. Focal mechanism of seismic events with a dipolar component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Console

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we model the geometry of a seismic source as a dislocation occurring on an elemental flat fault in an arbitrary direction with respect to the fault plane. This implies the use of a fourth parameter in addition to the three usual ones describing a simple double couple mechanism. We applied the radiation pattern obtained from the theory to a computer code written for the inversion of the observation data (amplitudes and polarities of the first onsets recorded by a network of stations. It allows the determination of the fault mechanism gener- alized in the above mentioned way. The computer code was verified on synthetic data and then applied to real data recorded by the seismic network operated by the Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (ENEL, monitoring the geothermal field of Larderello. The experimental data show that for some events the source mechanism exhibits a significant dipolar component. However, due to the high standard deviation of the amplitude data, F-test applied to the results of the analysis shows that only for two events the confidence level for the general- ized model exceeds 90%.

  10. Quantum dynamics and topological excitations in interacting dipolar particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Ana

    2016-05-01

    Dipole-dipole interactions, long-range and anisotropic interactions that arise due to the virtual exchange of photons, are of fundamental importance in optical physics, and are enabling a range of new quantum technologies including quantum networks and optical lattice atomic clocks. In this talk I will first discuss how arrays of dipolar particles with a simple J = 0- J = 1 internal level structure can naturally host topological and chiral excitations including Weyl quasi-particles. Weyl fermions were first predicted to exist in the context of high energy physics but only recently have been observed in solid state systems. I will discuss a proposal of using Mott insulators of Sr atoms to observe and probe the Weyl excitation spectrum and its non-trivial chirality. Finally I will report on a recent experiment done at JILA which validates the underlying microscopic model that predicts the existence of these excitations. The experiment measured the collective emission from a coherently driven gas of ultracold 88 Sr atoms and observed a highly directional and anisotropic emission intensity and a substantial broadening of the atomic spectral lines. All of the measurements are well reproduced by the theoretical model. These investigations open the door for the exploration of novel quantum many-body systems involving strongly interacting atoms and photons, and are useful guides for further developments of optical atomic clocks and other applications involving dense atomic ensembles. AFOSR, MURI-AFOSR, ARO,NSF-PHY-1521080, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844.

  11. New Developments in Spin Labels for Pulsed Dipolar EPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J. Fielding

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spin labelling is a chemical technique that enables the integration of a molecule containing an unpaired electron into another framework for study. Given the need to understand the structure, dynamics, and conformational changes of biomacromolecules, spin labelling provides a relatively non-intrusive technique and has certain advantages over X-ray crystallography; which requires high quality crystals. The technique relies on the design of binding probes that target a functional group, for example, the thiol group of a cysteine residue within a protein. The unpaired electron is typically supplied through a nitroxide radical and sterically shielded to preserve stability. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR techniques allow small magnetic couplings to be measured (e.g., <50 MHz providing information on single label probes or the dipolar coupling between multiple labels. In particular, distances between spin labels pairs can be derived which has led to many protein/enzymes and nucleotides being studied. Here, we summarise recent examples of spin labels used for pulse EPR that serve to illustrate the contribution of chemistry to advancing discoveries in this field.

  12. Characteristics of DC electric fields at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, Philippe; Masson, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the characteristics of DC electric field at dipolarization fronts and BBF's using multi-point Cluster observations. There are plenty of important issues that are considered, such as what kind of DC electric fields exist in such events and what are their spatial scales. One can also recognize if electrons and ions perform ExB drift motions in these events. To investigate this, we take an advantage of five different DC electric field measurements in the plasma sheet available from the EFW double probe experiment, EDI electron drift instrument, CODIF and HIA ion spectrometers, and PEACE electron spectrometer. The calibrated observations of the three spectrometers are used to determine the proton and electron drift velocity and furthermore the DC electric field, assuming that the electron and proton velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field is dominated by the ExB drift motion. Naturally when ions and electrons do not perform a proper drift motion, which can happen in the plasma sheet, the estimated DC electric field from ion and electron motion is not correct. However, surprisingly often the DC electric fields estimated from electron and ion motions are identical suggesting that this field is a real DC electric field around the measurement point. This investigation also helps understand how well different measurements are calibrated.

  13. Pollux: a stable weak dipolar magnetic field but no planet ?

    CERN Document Server

    Auriere, Michel; Espagnet, Olivier; Petit, Pascal; Roudier, Thierry; Charbonnel, Corinne; Donati, Jean-Francois; Wade, Gregg A

    2013-01-01

    Pollux is considered as an archetype of a giant star hosting a planet: its radial velocity (RV) presents sinusoidal variations with a period of about 590 d, which have been stable for more than 25 years. Using ESPaDOnS and Narval we have detected a weak (sub-gauss) magnetic field at the surface of Pollux and followed up its variations with Narval during 4.25 years, i.e. more than for two periods of the RV variations. The longitudinal magnetic field is found to vary with a sinusoidal behaviour with a period close to that of the RV variations and with a small shift in phase. We then performed a Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) investigation from the Stokes V and Stokes I least-squares deconvolution (LSD) profiles. A rotational period is determined, which is consistent with the period of variations of the RV. The magnetic topology is found to be mainly poloidal and this component almost purely dipolar. The mean strength of the surface magnetic field is about 0.7 G. As an alternative to the scenario in which Pollux h...

  14. Conformational analysis of a flexible oligosaccharide using residual dipolar couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F; Al-Hashimi, H M; Craighead, J L; Prestegard, J H

    2001-01-24

    We present a new approach to the analysis of the conformational and the motional properties of an oligosaccharide, methyl 3,6-di-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The approach relies on an order matrix analysis of residual dipolar couplings in the solution state. By combining a number of different types of couplings, (1)D(CH), (2)D(CH), and D(HH), an order matrix is solved for each ring of the trimannoside. The resulting order parameters indicate the internal motion at the alpha (1,3) linkage to be limited, while significant motion is suggested at the alpha (1,6) linkage. Two structures for the trimannoside were determined by aligning the order tensor principal axes obtained from two different orienting media, bicelles and phage. The very similar conformations at the alpha (1,3) linkage of these two structures confirm that the internal motion at the alpha (1,3) linkage is small and the conformation is a good representation of a single preferred structure. The different conformations at the alpha (1,6) linkage suggest that the motional amplitudes are large and the conformations must be viewed as virtual conformers. Compared with traditional NMR methods, data acquisition is easy and data analysis is straightforward.

  15. Dynamics of the fast solar tachocline I. Dipolar field

    CERN Document Server

    Forgács-Dajka, E

    2002-01-01

    One possible scenario for the origin of the solar tachocline, known as the "fast tachocline", assumes that the turbulent diffusivity exceeds eta> 10^9 cm^2/s. In this case the dynamics will be governed by the dynamo-generated oscillatory magnetic field on relatively short timescales. Here, for the first time, we present detailed numerical models for the fast solar tachocline with all components of the magnetic field calculated explicitly, assuming axial symmetry and a constant turbulent diffusivity eta and viscosity nu. We find that a sufficiently strong oscillatory poloidal field with dipolar latitude dependence at the tachocline-convective zone boundary is able to confine the tachocline. Exploring the three-dimensional parameter space defined by the viscosity in the range log(nu)=9-11, the magnetic Prandtl number in the range Prm=0.1-10, and the meridional flow amplitude (-3 to +3 cm/s), we also find that the confining field strength B_conf, necessary to reproduce the observed thickness of the tachocline, i...

  16. Cross-correlation between thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creque-Sarbinowski, Cyril; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background temperature induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and Compton-y distortions from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect are both due to line-of-sight density perturbations. Here we calculate the cross-correlation between these two signals. Measurement of this cross-correlation can be used to test the redshift distribution of the tSZ distortion, which has implications for the redshift at which astrophysical processes in clusters begin to operate. We also evaluate the detectability of a y T cross-correlation from exotic early-Universe sources in the presence of this late-time effect.

  17. Field correlations and effective two level atom-cavity systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rebic, S; Tan, S M

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the properties of the second order correlation functions of the electromagnetic field in atom-cavity systems that approximate two-level systems. It is shown that a recently-developed polariton formalism can be used to account for all the properties of the correlations, if the analysis is extended to include two manifolds - corresponding to the ground state and the states excited by a single photon - rather than just two levels.

  18. Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations and the Quarks Within - Relating the EMC Effect and Short-Range Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Piasetzky, E; Weinstein, L B

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews our current understanding of how the internal quark structure of a nucleon bound in nuclei differs from that of a free nucleon. We focus on the interpre- tation of measurements of the EMC effect for valence quarks, a reduction in the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) cross-section ratios for nuclei relative to deuterium, and its possible connection to nucleon-nucleon Short-Range Correlations (SRC) in nuclei. Our review of the available experimental and theoretical evidence shows that there is a phe- nomenological relation between between the EMC effect and the effects of SRC that is not an accident. There is an underlying cause of both effects: the influence of strongly correlated neutron-proton pairs is largely responsible. This conclusion needs to be so- lidified by the future experiments and improved theoretical analyses that are discussed herein.

  19. Inverse Dipolar Magnetic Anomaly Over the Volcanic Cone Linked to Reverse Polarity Magnetizations in Lavas and Tuffs - Implications for the Conduit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Trigo-Huesca, A.

    2012-12-01

    A combined magnetics and paleomagnetic study of Toluquilla monogenetic volcano and associated lavas and tuffs from Valsequillo basin in Central Mexico provides evidence on a magnetic link between lavas, ash tuffs and the underground volcanic conduit system. Paleomagnetic analyses show that lavas and ash tuffs carry reverse polarity magnetizations, which correlate with the inversely polarized dipolar magnetic anomaly over the volcano. The magnetizations in the lava and tuff show similar southward declinations and upward inclinations, supporting petrological inferences that the tuff was emplaced while still hot and indicating a temporal correlation for lava and tuff emplacement. Conduit geometry is one of the important controlling factors in eruptive dynamics of basaltic volcanoes. However volcanic conduits are often not, or only partly, exposed. Modeling of the dipolar anomaly gives a reverse polarity source magnetization associated with a vertical prismatic body with southward declination and upward inclination, which correlates with the reverse polarity magnetizations in the lava and tuff. The study documents a direct correlation of the paleomagnetic records with the underground magmatic conduit system of the monogenetic volcano. Time scale for cooling of the volcanic plumbing system involves a longer period than the one for the tuff and lava, suggesting that magnetization for the source of dipolar anomaly may represent a long time average as compared to the spot readings in the lava and tuff. The reverse polarity magnetizations in lava and tuff and in the underground source body for the magnetic anomaly are interpreted in terms of eruptive activity of Toluquilla volcano at about 1.3 Ma during the Matuyama reverse polarity C1r.2r chron.

  20. Dipolar and Quadrupolar Modes of Si02/Au Nanoshell Enhanced Light Trapping in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yi-Ming; WANG Jun; CHEN Nuo-Fu; YAO Jian-Xi; ZHANG Xing-Wang; YIN Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Han; HUANG Tian-Mao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dipolar and quadrupolar resonance wavelengths of SiO2/Au nanoshell surface plasmons are designed at 560nm to enhance the light trapping in thin film solar cells.In order to quantitatively describe the light trapping effect,the forward-scattering efficiency(FSE)and the light trapping efficiency(LTE) are proposed by considering the light scattering direction of SiO2/Au nanoshells.Based on the Mie theory, the FSE and the LTE are calculated for SiO2/Au nanoshells of different dimensions, and the contributions of the dipolar and quadrupolar modes to the light trapping effect are analyzed in detail.When the surface coverage of nanoshells is 5%, the LTEs are 21.7% and 46.9% for SiO2/Au nanoshells with sizes of(31 nm, 69nm) and(53nm, 141 nm), respectively.The results indicate that the SiO2/Au nanoshell whose quadrupolar mode peak is designed to the strongest solar energy flux density of the solar spectrum facilitates the further enhancement of light harvesting in thin film solar cells.

  1. Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.

  2. Effect of noise correlations on information transmission in sensory receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai; Neiman, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Peripheral receptors in many sensory systems are organized in a limited scale feed-forward networks passing information thru a series of network layers, then ultimately to the CNS. Often peripheral receptors are characterized by spontaneous noisy oscillatory activity which may introduce temporal and spatial correlations in neuronal spike trains. Examples include spontaneous stochastic oscillations in hair cells and primary sensory afferents in auditory, vestibular and electro sensory receptors. We study the influence of this correlated noise on spontaneous activity and information transmission in a model of limited-scale networks of electroreceptors. In this model a few (2 - 5) sensory neurons innervate several (10 - 30) clusters of epithelial receptor cells producing stochastic oscillations. We show how noise correlations are transferred by small networks of sensory neurons and how these correlations affect information transmission. While coherent epithelial oscillations may enhance information transmission for a single sensory neuron, the presence of spatially correlated noise introduces redundancy reducing stimulus coding efficiency and information rate on the network level.

  3. Apparent diffusion behaviour of intermolecular double-quantum coherence modulated by a distant dipolar field in solution NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Gui-Ping; Cai Cong-Bo; Cai Shu-Hui; Chen Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A modified correlated spectroscopy (COSY) revamped with asymmetric Z-gradient echo detection sequence was designed to investigate the influence of diffusion behaviour on intermolecular double-quantum coherence signal attenuation during the pre-acquisition period. Theoretical formulas were deduced and experimental measurements and simulations were performed. It is found that the diffusion behaviour of intermolecular double-quantum coherence in the pre-acquisition period may be different from that of conventional single-quantum coherence, depending on the relative orientation of diffusion weighting gradients to coherence selection gradients. When the orientation of the diffusion weighting gradients is parallel or anti-parallel to the orientation of the coherence selection gradients, the diffusion is modulated by the distant dipolar field. This study is helpful for understanding the signal properties in intermolecular double-quantum coherence magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Effective information spreading based on local information in correlated networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Pan, Liming; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Using network-based information to facilitate information spreading is an essential task for spreading dynamics in complex networks, which will benefit the promotion of technical innovations, healthy behaviors, new products, etc. Focusing on degree correlated networks, we propose a preferential contact strategy based on the local network structure and local informed density to promote the information spreading. During the spreading process, an informed node will preferentially select a contact target among its neighbors, basing on their degrees or local informed densities. By extensively implementing numerical simulations in synthetic and empirical networks, we find that when only consider the local structure information, the convergence time of information spreading will be remarkably reduced if low-degree neighbors are favored as contact targets. Meanwhile, the minimum convergence time depends non-monotonically on degree-degree correlation, and moderate correlation coefficients result in most efficient info...

  5. Effective information spreading based on local information in correlated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Liming; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Using network-based information to facilitate information spreading is an essential task for spreading dynamics in complex networks. Focusing on degree correlated networks, we propose a preferential contact strategy based on the local network structure and local informed density to promote the information spreading. During the spreading process, an informed node will preferentially select a contact target among its neighbors, basing on their degrees or local informed densities. By extensively implementing numerical simulations in synthetic and empirical networks, we find that when only consider the local structure information, the convergence time of information spreading will be remarkably reduced if low-degree neighbors are favored as contact targets. Meanwhile, the minimum convergence time depends non-monotonically on degree-degree correlation, and a moderate correlation coefficient results in the most efficient information spreading. Incorporating the local informed density information into contact strategy, the convergence time of information spreading can be further reduced, and be minimized by an moderately preferential selection.

  6. Strong electronic correlation effects in coherent multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, M E; Kavousanaki, E G; Dani, K M; Fromer, N A; Perakis, I E

    2011-05-12

    We discuss a many-body theory of the coherent ultrafast nonlinear optical response of systems with a strongly correlated electronic ground state that responds unadiabatically to photoexcitation. We introduce a truncation of quantum kinetic density matrix equations of motion that does not rely on an expansion in terms of the interactions and thus applies to strongly correlated systems. For this we expand in terms of the optical field, separate out contributions to the time-evolved many-body state due to correlated and uncorrelated multiple optical transitions, and use "Hubbard operator" density matrices to describe the exact dynamics of the individual contributions within a subspace of strongly coupled states, including "pure dephasing". Our purpose is to develop a quantum mechanical tool capable of exploring how, by coherently photoexciting selected modes, one can trigger nonlinear dynamics of strongly coupled degrees of freedom. Such dynamics could lead to photoinduced phase transitions. We apply our theory to the nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field. We coherently photoexcite the two lowest Landau level (LL) excitations using three time-delayed optical pulses. We identify some striking temporal and spectral features due to dynamical coupling of the two LLs facilitated by inter-Landau-level magnetoplasmon and magnetoroton excitations and compare to three-pulse four-wave-mixing (FWM) experiments. We show that these features depend sensitively on the dynamics of four-particle correlations between an electron-hole pair and a magnetoplasmon/magnetoroton, reminiscent of exciton-exciton correlations in undoped semiconductors. Our results shed light into unexplored coherent dynamics and relaxation of the quantum Hall system (QHS) and can provide new insight into non-equilibrium co-operative phenomena in strongly correlated systems.

  7. Effect of correlated inputs on DO (dissolved oxygen) uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.; Song, Q.

    1988-06-01

    Although uncertainty analysis has been discussed in recent water-quality-modeling literature, much of the work has assumed that all input variables and parameters are mutually independent. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the importance of correlation among the model inputs in the study of model-output uncertainty. The model used for demonstrating the influence of input-variable correlation is the Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen equation. The model forms the basis of many of the water-quality models currently in use and the relationships between model inputs and output-state variables are well understood.

  8. Finite correlation time effects in kinematic dynamo problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schekochihin, A.A.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    2000-02-11

    One-point statistics of the magnetic fluctuations in kinematic regime with large Prandtl number and non delta-correlated in time advecting velocity field are studied. A perturbation expansion in the ratio of the velocity correlation time to the dynamo growth time is constructed in the spirit of the Kliatskin-Tatarskii functional method and carried out to first order. The convergence properties are improved compared to the commonly used van Kampen-Terwiel method. The zeroth-order growth rate of the magnetic energy is estimated to be reduced (in three dimensions) by approximately 40%. This reduction is quite close to existing numerical results.

  9. Uncertain Dynamics, Correlation Effects, and Robust Investment Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Hesel, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a firm's investment problem when the dynamics of project value and investment cost are uncertain. We provide an explicit solution using a robust method for an ambiguity averse firm taking this into account. Ambiguity aversion regarding a common risk factor impacts differently than...... ambiguity aversion regarding investment cost residual risk. Correlation between project value and investment cost matters; ambiguity aversion regarding common risk can decrease the investment probability only if correlation is positive. Ambiguity aversion regarding residual risk always increases...... the investment probability. When only project value is risky, volatility can monotonically decrease the investment threshold; this does not hold with the multiple prior method....

  10. Re-creation of Dipolarization fronts observed by Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Tielong; Volwerk, Martin; Schmid, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are an important structure ahead of busty bulk flows (BBFs) and can accelerate electrons and ions in the plasma sheet, is. The evolution of two DFs, observed by four Cluster satellites, are studied. One DF is observed on 9 July 2002 at ~0417 UT when Cluster is located near [-9.0, -15.0, 4.6] RE in GSM. The inter-satellite separation is ~4000 km, while the ion initial length is ~447 km. C1 and C2 are mainly separated along the X direction, observe similar profiles of BZ. The DF is first observed by C2, and then observed by C1. Interestingly, the front observed by C1 displays wave profiles on the ion initial length scale, which are observed by C2 just ahead of the front. Another DF is observed on 14 September 2004 at ~2042 UT when Cluster is located near [-17.4, 1.8, 0.9] RE. The ion initial length is ~646 km, and the inter-spacecraft separation distance is ~1000 km. The distance between C1, C3 and C4 is less than 500 km along Y direction, and we find that these three satellites observe similar magnetic profiles behind the DF, and a waves with period ~2.5 s ahead of DF. The amplitude of the waves ahead of the DF becomes larger as time increases. This suggests that waves of ion initial length scale ahead of a DF can become larger in amplitude and may re-create the DF, while the previous DF can be found as large magnetic oscillations behind the new DF.

  11. Effects of model-based physiological noise correction on default mode network anti-correlations and correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Catie; Glover, Gary H

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have reported that the spontaneous, resting-state time course of the default-mode network is negatively correlated with that of the "task-positive network", a collection of regions commonly recruited in demanding cognitive tasks. However, all studies of negative correlations between the default-mode and task-positive networks have employed some form of normalization or regression of the whole-brain average signal ("global signal"); these processing steps alter the time series of voxels in an uninterpretable manner as well as introduce spurious negative correlations. Thus, the extent of negative correlations with the default mode network without global signal removal has not been well characterized, and it is has recently been hypothesized that the apparent negative correlations in many of the task-positive regions could be artifactually induced by global signal pre-processing. The present study aimed to examine negative and positive correlations with the default-mode network when model-based corrections for respiratory and cardiac noise are applied in lieu of global signal removal. Physiological noise correction consisted of (1) removal of time-locked cardiac and respiratory artifacts using RETROICOR (Glover, G.H., Li, T.Q., Ress, D., 2000. Image-based method for retrospective correction of physiological motion effects in fMRI: RETROICOR. Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 162-167), and (2) removal of low-frequency respiratory and heart rate variations by convolving these waveforms with pre-determined transfer functions (Birn et al., 2008; Chang et al., 2009) and projecting the resulting two signals out of the data. It is demonstrated that negative correlations between the default-mode network and regions of the task-positive network are present in the majority of individual subjects both with and without physiological noise correction. Physiological noise correction increased the spatial extent and magnitude of negative correlations, yielding negative

  12. Manipulation and control of the interfacial polarization in organic light-emitting diodes by dipolar doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Lars; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Most of the commonly used electron transporting materials in organic light-emitting diodes exhibit interfacial polarization resulting from partially aligned permanent dipole moments of the molecules. This property modifies the internal electric field distribution of the device and therefore enables an earlier flat band condition for the hole transporting side, leading to improved charge carrier injection. Recently, this phenomenon was studied with regard to different materials and degradation effects, however, so far the influence of dilution has not been investigated. In this paper we focus on dipolar doping of the hole transporting material 4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) with the polar electron transporting material tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) aluminum (Alq3). Impedance spectroscopy reveals that changes of the hole injection voltage do not scale in a simple linear fashion with the effective thickness of the doped layer. In fact, the measured interfacial polarization reaches a maximum value for a 1:1 blend. Taking the permanent dipole moment of Alq3 into account, an increasing degree of dipole alignment is found for decreasing Alq3 concentration. This observation can be explained by the competition between dipole-dipole interactions leading to dimerization and the driving force for vertical orientation of Alq3 dipoles at the surface of the NPB layer.

  13. Effects of diffuse layer electrostatic correlations on electrokinetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Storey, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Classical theory of the electric double layer is based on the fundamental assumption of a dilute solution of point ions. There are a number of situations such as high applied voltages, high concentration of electrolytes, systems with multivalent ions, or solvent-free ionic liquids where the classical theory is often applied but the fundamental assumptions cannot be justified. Perhaps the most basic assumption underlying continuum models in electrokinetics is the mean-field approximation, that the electric field acting on each discrete ion is self-consistently determined by the local mean charge density. This paper considers situations where the mean-field approximation breaks down and electrostatic correlations become important. A fourth-order modified Poisson equation is developed that accounts for electrostatic correlations and captures the essential features in a simple continuum framework. The theory is derived variationally as a gradient approximation for non-local electrostatics, in which the dielectric...

  14. Coulomb correlation effects in YBaCuO system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Munoz, J.S.; Sanchez, A. (Dept. de Fisica, Grupo de Electromagnetismo, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Balle, S. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain))

    1989-12-01

    In this work, we apply a mean field potential deduced from the multiband Hubbard hamiltonian in order to obtain the lower and upper strongly correlated bands. We have obtained the total and partial density of states for U{sub d} = 0 and U{sub d} = 4 eV. The results show that the density of states calculated with U{sub d} = 4 eV at E{sub F} is lesser than that obtained with U{sub d} = 0. A small peak above E{sub F} arising from the strong correlated bands appears in the dDOS calculated with U{sub d} = 4 eV and this is in agreement with the experimental data. (orig.).

  15. University students' psychopathology: correlates and the examiner's potential bias effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo

    2015-02-01

    Aims: the main objective was to verify if there is a difference on psychopathological symptoms between two groups questioned by two different examiners, controlling for the potential role of social desirability, and other potential covariates. Additionally, we want to assess the level of psychopathology and its socio-demographic correlates.Methods: 185 Coimbra's university students completed the Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In one group the examiner was of the same age and academic status as the students, while in the other group the examiner was older and a teacher. We studied the psychopathological correlates with Pearson, point-biserial correlations, and qui-square analyses, and we controlled the potential role of covariates through Quade non-parametric ANCOVAs. Results: The level of distress was lower in comparison with other investigations. Women had higher level of distress and more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsion, and depression. The students that live a higher distance from home had more anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The group assessed by the younger examiner scored higher in distress and in some BSI factors, and had lower levels on social desirability. Conclusions: Sex and distance from home seem important factors for university students' mental health. However, the examiner does have an influence in the evaluation, probably because of social desirability, suggesting that the examiner's characteristics should be given in investigations involving university students.

  16. Performance of RINEPT is amplified by dipolar couplings under ultrafast MAS conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-06-01

    The refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique is commonly used for heteronuclear polarization transfer in solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Suppression of dipolar couplings, either by fast molecular motions in solution or by a combination of MAS and multiple pulse sequences in solids, enables the polarization transfer via scalar couplings. However, the presence of unsuppressed dipolar couplings could alter the functioning of RINEPT, particularly under fast/ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we demonstrate, through experiments on rigid solids complemented by numerical simulations, that the polarization transfer efficiency of RINEPT is dependent on the MAS frequency. In addition, we show that heteronuclear dipolar coupling is the dominant factor in the polarization transfer, which is strengthened by the presence of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. In fact, the simultaneous presence of homonuclear and heteronuclear dipolar couplings is the premise for the polarization transfer by RINEPT, whereas the scalar coupling plays an insignificant role under ultrafast MAS conditions on rigid solids. Our results additionally reveal that the polarization transfer efficiency decreases with the increasing duration of RF pulses used in the RINEPT sequence.

  17. Effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect in strongly correlated oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuegang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoshan; Hong, Xia

    We present a systematic study of the effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect modulation of various strongly correlated oxide materials. We have fabricated high quality epitaxial heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate and a correlated oxide channel, including Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO), La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), SNNO/LSMO bilayers, and NiCo2O4 (NCO). The Hall effect measurements reveal a carrier density of ~4 holes/u.c. (0.4 cm2V-1s-1) for SNNO to ~2 holes/u.c. (27 cm2V-1s-1) for NCO. We find the magnitude of the field effect is closely related to both the intrinsic carrier density and carrier mobility of the channel material. For devices employing the SNNO/LSMO bilayer channel, we believe the charge transfer between the two correlated oxides play an important role in the observed resistance modulation. The screening capacitor of the channel materials and the interfacial defect states also have significant impact on the retention characteristics of the field effect. Our study reveals the critical role of charge in determining the interfacial coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic oxides, and has important implications in developing ferroelectric-controlled Mott memory devices.

  18. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, C; Filinov, A; Piel, A; Bonitz, M

    2007-01-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile \\cite{henning.pre06}. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principle simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals we demonstrate that both approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.

  19. Dimensions of Organizational Influence and Their Effectiveness Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Johannes M.

    1976-01-01

    In this study participativeness, centralization, and organizational autonomy were analyzed conceptually and operationally, and subsequently related to five indicators of organizational effectiveness. Participative, decentralized, and autonomous organizations are more effective. (Author)

  20. Strong light-field effects in correlated oraganic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yohei; Naitoh, Yota; Itoh, Hirotake; Ishihara, Sumio; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    Optical responses of organic conductors have attracted much attentions, because they exhibit ultrafast solid-state phase transitions in the conducting and/or dielectric natures upon photo-excitations. In this decade, photoinduced melting of correlated insulators with clear charge gap have been extensively investigated. On the other hand, optical rsponses of correlated metal has not been studied well. Here, we describe a charge localization induced by the 9.3 MV/cm instantaneous electric field of a 1.5 cycle (7 fs) infrared pulse in an organic conductor alpha- (bis[ethylenedithio]-tetrathiafulvelene)2I3. A large reflectivity change of 30 percent and a coherent charge oscillation along the time axis reflect the opening of the charge ordering gap in the metallic phase. This optical freezing of charges, which is the reverse of the photoinduced melting of electronic orders, is attributed to the 10 percent reduction of t driven by the strong, high-frequency electric field. Furthermore, the contribution of Coulomb repulsion will be discussed on the basis of the polarization dependence of the pump light and the theory.

  1. Correlated effects of sperm competition and postmating female mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, A; Clark, A G

    2000-11-21

    Adaptations in one sex may impair fitness in the opposite sex. Experiments with Drosophila melanogaster have shown that seminal fluid from the male accessory gland triggers a series of postmating responses in the female, including increased egg laying rate and lower remating propensity, but that accessory gland proteins also increase female death rate. Here, we tested the relationships among the longevity of females mated to males from 51 chromosome-extracted D. melanogaster lines, male-mating ability, and sperm-competitive ability. We found significant differences in longevity of females mated to males of different genotypes, and all mated females showed a higher death rate than control virgin females shortly after mating. Both the age-independent mortality parameter (the intercept of the female's survival function) and the slope of the mortality rate curve were significantly correlated with the proportion of progeny sired by the first male to mate relative to tester males (sperm-defense ability, P1). No significant correlation was found between the proportion of progeny sired by the second-mating male relative to tester males (sperm-offense ability, P2) and any mortality parameter. Our results support the hypothesis of a tradeoff between defensive sperm-competitive ability of males and life-history parameters of mated females.

  2. Assessment of molecular structure using frame-independent orientational restraints derived from residual dipolar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrynnikov, Nikolai R.; Kay, Lewis E. [University of Toronto, Protein Engineering Network Centers of Excellence and Departments of Medical Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)

    2000-11-15

    Residual dipolar couplings measured in weakly aligning liquid-crystalline solvent contain valuable information on the structure of biomolecules in solution. Here we demonstrate that dipolar couplings (DCs) can be used to derive a comprehensive set of pairwise angular restraints that do not depend on the orientation of the alignment tensor principal axes. These restraints can be used to assess the agreement between a trial protein structure and a set of experimental dipolar couplings by means of a graphic representation termed a 'DC consistency map'. Importantly, these maps can be used to recognize structural elements consistent with the experimental DC data and to identify structural parameters that require further refinement, which could prove important for the success of DC-based structure calculations. This approach is illustrated for the 42 kDa maltodextrin-binding protein.

  3. Exploring Few- and Many-Body Dipolar Quantum Phenomena with Ultracold Erbium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlaino, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Given their strong magnetic moment and exotic electronic configuration, rare-earth atoms disclose a plethora of intriguing phenomena in ultracold quantum physics with dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we report on the first degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms, based on direct cooling of identical fermions via dipolar collisions. We reveal universal scattering laws between identical dipolar fermions close to zero temperature, and we demonstrate the long-standing prediction of a deformed Fermi surface in dipolar gas. Finally, we present the first experimental study of an extended Bose-Hubbard model using bosonic Er atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice and we report on the first observation of nearest-neighbor interactions.

  4. Effect of Inter-particle Interactions on Pair Correlations of One-Dimensional Anyon Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; He, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    The pair correlation function of the one-dimensional interacting anyonic system in its ground state is investigated based on the exact Bethe ansatz solution for arbitrary coupling constant () and statistics parameter (). We discuss the effects of the inter-particle interactions and the fractional statistics on the pair correlations in both position and momentum spaces. The pair correlations of anyons with coupling constant c and statistical parameter in position space are identical to that of the Lieb-Liniger Bose model with effective coupling constant . Besides the effect of renormalized coupling, the correlations in momentum space reveal more effects induced by the statistics parameter. The anyonic statistics results in the nonsymmetric correlation when the statistics parameter deviates from 0 (Bose statistics) and (Fermi statistics) for any coupling constant c. The correlations display peaks and dips, representing the bunching and antibunching of atoms, respectively. The correlations show crossover from bunching behavior of bosons to antibunching behavior of fermions as varies from 0 to for arbitrary coupling constant. Besides the fractional effect, we also observe the effects induced by the inter-particle interactions in the momentum correlations. With the increase of the coupling constant, the bunching effect between particles weakens and the antibunching points in the correlations shift.

  5. Dipolar nuclear spin relaxation in liquids and plane fluids undergoing chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, P. H.

    We describe the correlated translational and rotational relative brownian motions of two reacting groups of atoms, alternatively bound and free, by the normalized solutions of a set of coupled diffusion equations. Under equilibrium conditions we calculate the spectral densities j(ω) characteristic of the fluctuations of the intermolecular dipolar coupling between spins of these diffusing groups of atoms. When ωτ density j2(ω) in three-dimensional liquids is j2(0) - α3ω1/2. The coefficient α3 is independent of the molecular local order, of the diffusional rotation speed of the spin-carrying groups of atoms and of their association and dissociation rates. In plane fluids, when ωτ density j(0)(ω) may be written as -a2 ln (ωτ) where the dependence of a2 on the average relative distribution of the interacting spins varies with the rate of the chemical reactions. In both three- and two-dimensional fluids spectral densities show an ω-3/2 or ω-2 behaviour for ωτ >> 1 according to the magnitude of the association rate of the reacting groups of atoms. In liquid glycerol we analyse the low- and high-frequency limits of the experimental proton relaxation rate 1/T1 and 1/T1ρ measured by Harmon, Harmon and Burnett, and Lenk. We also discuss the proton spin-lattice relaxation times measured by Kleinberg and Silbernagel in layered intercalation compounds TiS2-NH3 and TaS2-NH3.

  6. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Benzonitrile Oxide with Various Dipolarophiles in Aqueous Solutions. A Kinetic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersbergen, Dick van; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    1998-01-01

    The second-order rate constants for the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of benzonitrile oxide (1) with various dipolarophiles (2a-e) were determined in aqueous media and in organic solvents to gain more insight into the influence of an aqueous medium on pericyclic reactions. 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions wit

  7. Symmetry breaking and a dynamical property of a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan-Sheng, E-mail: joiningnow@126.com; Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Zhu-Wen; Diao, Xin-Feng

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We investigate the symmetry breaking of a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate. •The anisotropy of dipolar interaction affects the ground state structure. •Tuning the scattering length can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena. •Increasing the barrier height can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena.

  8. A statistical study of magnetic dipolarization for sawtooth events and isolated substorms at geosynchronous orbit with GOES data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Cai

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether the dipolarization process during sawtooth events is global or not through an examination of the local time distribution of the magnetic tilt angle (i.e. the angle between the B vector and the equatorial plane in dipole VDH coordinates at geostationary orbit. From the statistical analysis of 207 individual teeth and 212 isolated substorms, we find that individual teeth follow a dipolarization pattern similar to that observed for isolated substorms. The dipolarization for individual teeth initiates in the sector between 22:00 magnetic local time (MLT and 00:00 MLT. Then the dipolarization expands both eastward and westward. However, relative to isolated substorms, we find that the nightside magnetosphere is much more stretched prior to the onset, and the change of the tilt angle during the dipolarization process is much larger during individual teeth. The magnetic dipolarization is seen over a wider local time sector during individual teeth than during isolated substorms. However, the magnetic dipolarization is rarely observed near local noon during individual teeth. This suggests that the magnetic dipolarization process during individual teeth is still confined primarily to the nightside.

  9. Review: Use of residual dipolar couplings to determine the structure of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, A; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Pastor, M

    2012-12-01

    Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is especially useful in the carbohydrate field. The measurement of residual dipolar couplings provides long-range structural information, a valuable complement for the structural study of carbohydrates either in its free form or in the bound state to proteins. They permit to deduce the geometry and the flexibility of the glycosidic linkages, which have a major influence on the conformation of carbohydrates and their overall shape. This article reviews the current application of the residual dipolar couplings methodology to carbohydrates.

  10. Crossover from normal to anomalous diffusion in systems of field-aligned dipolar particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Jäger, Sebastian; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2011-01-21

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the translational dynamics of particles with dipolar interactions in homogenous external fields. For a broad range of concentrations, we find that the anisotropic, yet normal diffusive behavior characterizing weakly coupled systems becomes anomalous both parallel and perpendicular to the field at sufficiently high dipolar coupling and field strength. After the ballistic regime, chain formation first yields cagelike motion in all directions, followed by transient, mixed diffusive-superdiffusive behavior resulting from cooperative motion of the chains. The enhanced dynamics disappears only at higher densities close to crystallization.

  11. Pressure-stability of phospholipid bicelles: Measurement of residual dipolar couplings under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, E.; Arnold, M.R.; Kremer, W.; Kalbitzer, H.R. [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)

    2001-10-15

    High-pressure NMR of proteins in solutions currently gains increasing interest. 3D structure determination of proteins under high pressure is, however, so far impossible due to the lack of NOE information. Residual dipolar couplings induced by the addition of magnetically orienting media are known to be capable of replacing NOE information to a very high extent. In the present contribution we study the pressure-wstability of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/ dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) bicelles and demonstrate the feasibility of measuring residual dipolar couplings in proteins under high pressure.

  12. Quantum simulating the frustrated Heisenberg model in a molecular dipolar crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan-Li, E-mail: ylzhou@nudt.edu.cn [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); Ou, Bao-Quan [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); Wu, Wei [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China)

    2015-10-23

    We study the simulation of spin models with polar molecules in a dipolar crystal. We employ a master equation approach to describe the dynamics of the system and to research the dissipation of the model. The reduced dynamics of the polar molecules lead to frustrated Heisenberg models with tuneable long-range interactions, via spin-dependent dipole–dipole interactions forces to the lattice vibrations. The influence of the lattice vibrations is calculated and analyzed in detail. - Highlights: • We simulate spin models with polar molecules in a dipolar crystal. • We employ a master equation to describe the dynamics of the system. • The influence of the lattice vibrations is calculated.

  13. Simulation of transverse beam splitting using time-dependent dipolar or quadrupolar kicks

    CERN Document Server

    Capoani, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Two simple systems with high relevance for accelerator physics have been studied in detail in the context of this Summer Student Project. These systems describe the motion under the influence of detuning with amplitude due to non-linear magnets and an external, time-dependent force of dipolar or quadrupolar nature.Two simple systems with high relevance for accelerator physics have been studied in detail in the context of this Summer Student Project. These systems describe the motion under the influence of detuning with amplitude due to non-linear magnets and an external, time-dependent force of dipolar or quadrupolar nature.

  14. Vibration spectrum of a two-soliton molecule in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turmanov, B.Kh. [Physical–Technical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 100084, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Baizakov, B.B., E-mail: baizakov@uzsci.net [Physical–Technical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 100084, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Umarov, B.A.; Abdullaev, F.Kh. [Department of Physics, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-09-11

    We study the vibration of soliton molecules in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates by variational approach and numerical simulations of the nonlocal Gross–Pitaevskii equation. We employ the periodic variation of the strength of dipolar atomic interactions to excite oscillations of solitons near their equilibrium positions. When the parametric perturbation is sufficiently strong the molecule breaks up into individual solitons, like the dissociation of ordinary molecules. The waveform of the molecule and resonance frequency, predicted by the developed model, are confirmed by numerical simulations of the governing equation.

  15. Anisotropic collisions of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in the universal regime

    CERN Document Server

    Burdick, Nathaniel Q; Tang, Yijun; Lev, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    We report the measurement of collisions between two Bose-Einstein condensates with strong dipolar interactions. The collision velocity is significantly larger than the internal velocity distribution widths of the individual condensates, and thus, with the condensates being sufficiently dilute, a halo corresponding to the two-body differential scattering cross section is observed. The results demonstrate a novel regime of quantum scattering, relevant to dipolar interactions, in which a large number of angular momentum states become coupled during the collision. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations to provide a detailed comparison between theoretical two-body cross sections and the experimental observations.

  16. Dipolar Quinoidal Acene Analogues as Stable Isoelectronic Structures of Pentacene and Nonacene

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xueliang

    2015-10-08

    Quinoidal thia-acene analogues, as the respective isoelectronic structures of pentacene and nonacene, were synthesized and an unusual 1,2-sulfur migration was observed during the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. The analogues display a closed-shell quinoidal structure in the ground state with a distinctive dipolar character. In contrast to their acene isoelectronic structures, both compounds are stable because of the existence of more aromatic sextet rings, a dipolar character, and kinetic blocking. They exhibit unique packing in single crystals resulting from balanced dipole-dipole and [C-H⋯π]/[C-H⋯S] interactions.

  17. Propriedades térmicas do modelo de ising com competição dipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Fontana Michelon

    2005-01-01

    O modelo bidimensional de Ising com interações competitivas entre um termo ferromagnético, de curto alcance, e outro antiferromagnético, de longo alcance, é o modelo mais simples para descrever filmes finos e materiais magnéticos quase-bidimensionais. A frustração, introduzida pelo termo dipolar no Hamiltoniano, é responsável por uma dinâmica lenta e uma fenomenologia rica. Neste trabalho estudamos as propriedades de equilíbrio e fora de equilíbrio do modelo Ising-Dipolar para certos valores ...

  18. Phase Diagram of the Two-Dimensional Ising Model with Dipolar Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Gang; CHU Qian-Jin

    2001-01-01

    We treat the two-dimensional Ising model with the dipolar interaction by the numerical calculation under the restriction that the spin configurations are distributed with a 4 × 4 period. The phase diagram with respect to temperature and dipolar interaction strength is constructed. Most characters of the phase diagram are consistent with those obtained in the references by the Monte Carlo simulation, except that we find a new rectangle phase, which is ordered in the spin structure with the 1 × 2 rectangle.

  19. Diazepam effect during early neonatal development correlates with neuronal Cl−

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Although benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptors allosteric modulators are used to treat neonatal seizures, their efficacy may derive from actions on subcortical structures. Side effects of benzodiazepines in nonseizing human neonates include myoclonus, seizures, and abnormal movements. Excitatory actions of GABA may underlie both side effects and reduced anticonvulsant activity of benzodiazepines. Neocortical organotypic slice cultures were used to study: (1) spontaneou...

  20. Electron correlation effects on the d-d excitations in NiO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C; Broer, R.; Nieuwpoort, WC

    1996-01-01

    The partly filled 3d shell in solid transition metal compounds is quite localized on the transition metal ion and gives rise to large electron correlation effects. With the recently developed CASSCF/CASPT2 approach electron correlation effects can be accounted for efficiently. The CASSCF step

  1. Publication bias in psychology: a diagnosis based on the correlation between effect size and sample size

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .... We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values...

  2. Correlation-induced self-focusing and self-shaping effect of a partially coherent beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahong Chen; Yangjian Cai

    2016-01-01

    A new specially correlated partially coherent beam named nonuniform multi-Gaussian correlated(NMGC) partially coherent beam is introduced. The correlation functions of such beam in x and y directions are different from each other,i.e., nonuniform correlation function in one direction and multi-Gaussian correlated Schell-model function in the other direction. The propagation properties of an NMGC partially coherent beam in free pace are demonstrated, and we find that the intensity distribution of such beam exhibits self-focusing and self-shifting effect in one direction and self-shaping effect in the other direction on propagation. The correlation-induced self-focusing and self-shaping effect will be useful in some applications, where the high power and shaped laser is required, such as material thermal processing and laser carving.

  3. Correlated mutations in protein sequences: Phylogenetic and structural effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapedes, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Giraud, B.G. [C.E.N. Saclay, Gif/Yvette (France). Service Physique Theorique; Liu, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.; Stormo, G.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

    1998-12-01

    Covariation analysis of sets of aligned sequences for RNA molecules is relatively successful in elucidating RNA secondary structure, as well as some aspects of tertiary structure. Covariation analysis of sets of aligned sequences for protein molecules is successful in certain instances in elucidating certain structural and functional links, but in general, pairs of sites displaying highly covarying mutations in protein sequences do not necessarily correspond to sites that are spatially close in the protein structure. In this paper the authors identify two reasons why naive use of covariation analysis for protein sequences fails to reliably indicate sequence positions that are spatially proximate. The first reason involves the bias introduced in calculation of covariation measures due to the fact that biological sequences are generally related by a non-trivial phylogenetic tree. The authors present a null-model approach to solve this problem. The second reason involves linked chains of covariation which can result in pairs of sites displaying significant covariation even though they are not spatially proximate. They present a maximum entropy solution to this classic problem of causation versus correlation. The methodologies are validated in simulation.

  4. Oscillatory correlates of moral decision-making: Effect of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Savostyanov, Alexander N; Bocharov, Andrey V; Dorosheva, Elena A; Tamozhnikov, Sergey S; Saprigyn, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    The role of emotion in moral decision-making is still a matter of debate. Greene, Sommerville, Nystrom, Darley, and Cohen (2001) argue that 'personal' moral judgments are driven by emotional responses, while 'impersonal' judgments are largely driven by cognitive processes. In this study, oscillatory correlates of decision-making were compared in moral personal, moral impersonal, and nonmoral conditions, as well as in trials associated with utilitarian (i.e., favoring the 'greater good' over individual rights) and non-utilitarian choices. Event-related synchronization in delta and theta bands was greater in the right temporal lobe in personal than in both nonmoral and impersonal moral condition. Graph-theoretical analysis of connectivity patterns showed the prominent role of the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices in personal moral decision-making, implying greater emotional and self-processing. Higher conscientiousness and intellect and lower behavioral activation were associated with greater difference in oscillatory responses between utilitarian and non-utilitarian choices in personal than in impersonal condition, indicating that sensitivity to moral issues and the ability to grasp the nuances of moral situation are essential for understanding the implications of utilitarian choices in personal and impersonal conditions.

  5. Achieving high dielectric constant and low loss property in a dipolar glass polymer containing strongly dipolar and small-sized sulfone groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junji; Zhang, Zhongbo; Tseng, Jung-Kai; Treufeld, Imre; Liu, Xiaobo; Litt, Morton H; Zhu, Lei

    2015-03-11

    In this report, a dipolar glass polymer, poly(2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl methacrylate) (PMSEMA), was synthesized by free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylate monomer. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, PMSEMA exhibited a strong γ transition at a temperature as low as -110 °C at 1 Hz, about 220 °C below its glass transition temperature around 109 °C. Because of this strong γ dipole relaxation, the glassy PMSEMA sample exhibited a high dielectric constant of 11.4 and a low dissipation factor (tan δ) of 0.02 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. From an electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop study, PMSEMA demonstrated a high discharge energy density of 4.54 J/cm(3) at 283 MV/m, nearly 3 times that of an analogue polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). However, the hysteresis loss was only 1/3-1/2 of that for PMMA. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipolar side groups are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications.

  6. Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Nersissian, Denise Yanikian; Melo, Camila Souza

    2016-01-01

    The present review aims to offer an educational approach related to the limitations in the use of the effective dose mgnitude as a tool for the quantification of doses resulting from diagnostic applications of ionizing radiation. We present a critical analysis of the quantities accepted and currently used for dosimetric evaluation in diagnostic imaging procedures, based on studies published in the literature. It is highlighted the use of these quantities to evaluate the risk attributed to the procedure and to calculate the effective dose, as well as to determine its correct use and interpretation. PMID:27403018

  7. Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Nersissian, Denise Yanikian; Melo, Camila Souza, E-mail: pcosta@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-05-15

    The present review aims to offer an educational approach related to the limitations in the use of the effective dose magnitude as a tool for the quantification of doses resulting from diagnostic applications of ionizing radiation. We present a critical analysis of the quantities accepted and currently used for dosimetric evaluation in diagnostic imaging procedures, based on studies published in the literature. It is highlighted the use of these quantities to evaluate the risk attributed to the procedure and to calculate the effective dose, as well as to determine its correct use and interpretation. (author)

  8. Sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations to probe inter-beta-sheet interactions using fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR in biological solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Asakura, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2016-08-10

    (14)N/(14)N correlations are vital for structural studies of solid samples, especially those in which (15)N isotopic enrichment is challenging, time-consuming and expensive. Although (14)N nuclei have high isotopic abundance (99.6%), there are inherent difficulties in observing (14)N/(14)N correlations due to limited resolution and sensitivity related to: (i) low (14)N gyromagnetic ratio (γ), (ii) large (14)N quadrupolar couplings, (iii) integer (14)N spin quantum number (I = 1), and (iv) very weak (14)N-(14)N dipolar couplings. Previously, we demonstrated a proton-detected 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H correlation experiment at fast magic angle spinning (MAS) on l-histidine·HCl·H2O utilizing a through-bond (J) and residual dipolar-splitting (RDS) based heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (J-HMQC) sequence mediated through (1)H/(1)H radio-frequency driven recoupling (RFDR). As an extension of our previous work, in this study we show the utility of dipolar-based HMQC (D-HMQC) in combination with (1)H/(1)H RFDR mixing to obtain sensitivity enhanced (14)N/(14)N correlations in more complex biological solids such as a glycyl-l-alanine (Gly-l-Ala) dipeptide, and parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) β-strand alanine tripeptides (P-(Ala)3 and AP-(Ala)3, respectively). These systems highlight the mandatory necessity of 3D (14)N/(14)N/(1)H measurements to get (14)N/(14)N correlations when the amide proton resonances are overlapped. Moreover, the application of long selective (14)N pulses, instead of short hard ones, is shown to improve the sensitivity. Globally, we demonstrate that replacing J-scalar with dipolar interaction and hard- with selective-(14)N pulses allows gaining a factor of ca. 360 in experimental time. On the basis of intermolecular NH/NH distances and (14)N quadrupolar tensor orientations, (14)N/(14)N correlations are effectively utilized to make a clear distinction between the parallel and antiparallel arrangements of the β-strands in (Ala)3 through the

  9. Correlates of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Method Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Oakman, Jonathan M.; Risko, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Investigators of personality assessment are becoming aware that using positively and negatively worded items in questionnaires to prevent acquiescence may negatively impact construct validity. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has demonstrated a bifactorial structure typically proposed to result from these method effects. Recent work suggests…

  10. Correlates of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Method Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Oakman, Jonathan M.; Risko, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Investigators of personality assessment are becoming aware that using positively and negatively worded items in questionnaires to prevent acquiescence may negatively impact construct validity. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has demonstrated a bifactorial structure typically proposed to result from these method effects. Recent work suggests…

  11. Correlation effects in 3D triple-Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Xin; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    We study interaction effects, including short-range interactions and long-range Coulomb interactions, in three-dimensional topological triple-Weyl semimetals whose triple-Weyl points are protected by crystalline symmetries. In the low-energy effective field theory of triple-Weyl semimetals, by considering symmetries and utilizing Fierz identity, we find that there are only four independent short-range interaction terms. We then perform Wilsonian renormalization group analysis to determine the effect of short-range interactions at low energy and long distance by finding fixed points as well as stable strong-coupling limits. For those strong-coupling limits due to short-range interactions, spontaneous symmetry-breaking ordering is expected and is analyzed by self-consistent mean-field calculations combined with RG flow. For long-range Coulomb interactions, we find anisotropic screening effect, similar with the one in double-Weyl semimetals, and hence a qualitatively different fixed point from the Gaussian one.

  12. Neural correlates of testing effects in vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Takashima, A.; Segers, P.C.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    Tests that require memory retrieval strongly improve long-term retention in comparison to continued studying. For example, once learners know the translation of a word, restudy practice, during which they see the word and its translation again, is less effective than testing practice, during which

  13. Organic Conductors: Evidence for Correlation Effects in Infrared Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    The infrared conductivities of four organic conductors with partially filled one-electron bands are compared. The behavior ranges from near Drude type in the best metal to semiconductorlike in the moderate conductor. Electron-molecular-vibration coupling effects of varying degree are seen in all...

  14. Molecular-Based Fluorescent Nanoparticles Built from Dedicated Dipolar Thienothiophene Dyes as Ultra-Bright Green to NIR Nanoemitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrodonato, Cristiano; Pagano, Paolo; Daniel, Jonathan; Vaultier, Michel; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2016-09-14

    Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles (FONs), prepared by self-aggregation of dedicated dyes in water, represent a promising green alternative to the toxic quantum dots (QDs) for bioimaging purposes. In the present paper, we describe the synthesis and photophysical properties of new dipolar push-pull derivatives built from thieno[3,2-b]thiophene as a π-conjugated bridge that connects a triphenylamine moiety bearing various bulky substituents as electron-releasing moiety to acceptor end-groups of increasing strength (i.e., aldehyde, dicyanovinyl and diethylthiobarbiturate). All dyes display fluorescence properties in chloroform, which shifts from the green to the NIR range depending on the molecular polarization (i.e., strength of the end-groups) as well as a large two-photon absorption (TPA) band response in the biological spectral window (700-1000 nm). The TPA bands show a bathochromic shift and hyperchromic effect with increasing polarization of the dyes with maximum TPA cross-section reaching 2000 GM for small size chromophore. All dyes are found to form stable and deeply colored nanoparticles (20-45 nm in diameter) upon nanoprecipitation in water. Although their fluorescence is strongly reduced upon aggregation, all nanoparticles show large one-photon (up to 10⁸ M(-1)·cm(-1) in the visible region) and two-photon (up to 10⁶ GM in the NIR) brightness. Interestingly, both linear and non-linear optical properties are significantly affected by interchromophoric interactions, which are promoted by the molecular confinement and modulated by both the dipolar strength and the presence of the bulky groups. Finally, we exploited the photophysical properties of the FONs to design optimized core-shell nanoparticles built from a pair of complementary dipolar dyes that promotes an efficient core-to-shell FRET process. The resulting molecular-based core-shell nanoparticles combine large two-photon absorption and enhanced emission both located in the NIR spectral region

  15. Rational Design of Dipolar Chromophore as an Efficient Dopant-Free Hole-Transporting Material for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong'an; Zhu, Zonglong; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jo, Sae Byeok; Luo, Jingdong; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2016-09-14

    In this paper, an electron donor-acceptor (D-A) substituted dipolar chromophore (BTPA-TCNE) is developed to serve as an efficient dopant-free hole-transporting material (HTM) for perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). BTPA-TCNE is synthesized via a simple reaction between a triphenylamine-based Michler's base and tetracyanoethylene. This chromophore possesses a zwitterionic resonance structure in the ground state, as evidenced by X-ray crystallography and transient absorption spectroscopies. Moreover, BTPA-TCNE shows an antiparallel molecular packing (i.e., centrosymmetric dimers) in its crystalline state, which cancels out its overall molecular dipole moment to facilitate charge transport. As a result, BTPA-TCNE can be employed as an effective dopant-free HTM to realize an efficient (PCE ≈ 17.0%) PVSC in the conventional n-i-p configuration, outperforming the control device with doped spiro-OMeTAD HTM.

  16. Structure-independent cross-validation between residual dipolar couplings originating from internal and external orienting media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Renato; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Lee, Yong-Min; Luchinat, Claudio; Velders, Aldrik H. [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center CERM, Department of Chemistry (Italy)

    2002-04-15

    Lanthanide-substituted calcium binding proteins are known to partially orient in high magnetic fields. Orientation provides residual dipolar couplings (rdc's). Two of these systems, Tm{sup 3+}- and Dy{sup 3+}-substituted calbindin D{sub 9k}, dissolved in an external orienting medium (nonionic liquid crystalline phase) provide rdc values which are the sum of those induced by the lanthanides and by the liquid crystalline phase on the native calcium binding protein. This structure-independent check shows the innocence of the orienting medium with respect to the structure of the protein in solution. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of lanthanide substitution and external orienting media provides a further effective tool to control and tune the orientation tensor.

  17. Study of the growth and pyroelectric properties of TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kecong; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Min; Fang, Changshui; Lu, Mengkai

    1987-04-01

    TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules (aniline, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzene-sulphonic acid, 4-aminobenzenesulphonic acid and 4-nitroraniline) have been grown by the slow-cooling solution method. The influence of these dopants on the growth habits, crystal morphology pyroelectric properties, and structure parameters of TGS crystals has been systematically investigated. The effects of the domain structure of the seed crystal on the pyroelectric properties of the doped crystals have been studied. It is found that the spontaneous polarization (P), pyroelectric coefficient (lambda), and internal bias field of the doped crystals are slightly higher than those of the pure TGS, and the larger the dipole moment of the dopant molecule, the higher the P and lambda of the doped TGS crystal.

  18. Hall effect in strongly correlated low dimensional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Suros, Gladys Eliana; Berthod, Christophe; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the Hall effect in a quasi one-dimensional system made of weakly coupled Luttinger Liquids at half filling. Using a memory function approach, we compute the Hall coefficient as a function of temperature and frequency in the presence of umklapp scattering. We find a power-law correction to the free-fermion value (band value), with an exponent depending on the Luttinger parameter $K_{\\rho}$. At high enough temperature or frequency the Hall coefficient approaches the band value.

  19. Correlation effects for a quasi-one-dimensional polaron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Paulo Cesar Miranda [Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao, Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil); Borges, Antonio Newton; Osorio, Francisco Aparecido Pinto [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias, Goiania (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we investigate the plasmon-LO phonon interaction effects on the intrasubband structure factor, electron-electron effective potential, and plasmon energy associated with the lowest subband in a GaAs-AlGaAs rectangular quantum-well wire (QWW) as a function of the electronic density. Our calculations are performed using the self-consistent field approximation, which includes the local-field correction (LFC) within the Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander (STLS) theory, at zero temperature and assuming a three-subband model, where only the first subband is occupied by electrons. We report for the first time dips in the structure factor spectra as a function of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) plasmon-LO phonon wavevector that are directly related with the resonant split of the collective excitation energy into two branches due to the polaronic effects. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Investigating the neural correlates of the Stroop effect with magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer, Sophie; Op De Beeck, Marc; Urbain, Charline; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Ligot, Noémie; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Peigneux, Philippe; De Tiège, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Reporting the ink color of a written word when it is itself a color name incongruent with the ink color (e.g. "red" printed in blue) induces a robust interference known as the Stroop effect. Although this effect has been the subject of numerous functional neuroimaging studies, its neuronal substrate is still a matter of debate. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of interference-related neural events using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and voxel-based analyses (SPM8). Evoked magnetic fields (EMFs) were acquired in 12 right-handed healthy subjects performing a color-word Stroop task. Behavioral results disclosed a classic interference effect with longer mean reaction times for incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the group level, EMFs' differences between incongruent and congruent trials spanned from 380 to 700 ms post-stimulus onset. Underlying neural sources were identified in the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) confirming the role of these regions in conflict processing.

  1. Correlates of formal reasoning: Content and problem effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven; Gans, Adrienne

    Piaget's structural theory of formal thought suggests that a general construct of formal reasoning exists. The content of the task and type of problem employed are often ignored in Piagetian based studies but are important for generalizing findings to other studies and to educational problems. The study reported here examines content and problem effects of formal thought in 13-year-old adolescents. Specifically, three controlling variables tasks with different content and two question type tests (analysis and controlling questions) were administered to 120 seventh graders. Ability measures and personality dimensions associated with formal reasoning in the literature are used to clarify what formal reasoning is and how content and problem type are involved in formal reasoning. Significant main effects were found for problem and content effects (p = 0.001), and a significant interaction was found between the two (p = 0.001). Across the three tasks general ability, field dependency, and locus of control were consistently and significantly related to the controlling questions. However, only measures of field dependency were related to the analysis questions. Combinations of ability and personality factors were found to be uniquely related to each task, within each question type. Results have implications for a theory of formal thought and the teaching of the controlling variables strategy.

  2. Relations Between Serial Correlation and Volatility: Is There a LeBaron Effect in Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Augusto Ely

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relation between serial correlation and volatility of the Ibovespa index returns and extends the empirical evidence of the LeBaron effect for higher orders of serial correlation. We employ an exponential general autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic model to estimate volatility and an automatic variance ratio statistic to calculate serial correlation. The results support some stylized facts from behavioral finance and help us to explain evidences from empirical studies. We show that (i serial correlation in weekly returns are negative related with volatility, (ii this negative relation is found in daily returns only if we use first order serial correlation, and (iii the effect for weekly returns was not intensified by the 2008 crisis, but a positive relation between volatility and serial correlation for daily returns was identified during that time.

  3. Numerical simulation of trapped dipolar quantum gases: Collapse studies and vortex dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sparber, Christof

    2010-01-01

    We numerically study the three dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation for dipolar quantum gases using a time-splitting algorithm. We are mainly concerned with numerical investigations of the possible blow-up of solutions, i.e. collapse of the condensate, and the dynamics of vortices. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  4. Electron dynamics during substorm dipolarization in Mercury's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the nonlinear dynamics of electrons during the expansion phase of substorms at Mercury using test particle simulations. A simple model of magnetic field line dipolarization is designed by rescaling a magnetic field model of the Earth's magnetosphere. The results of the simulations demonstrate that electrons may be subjected to significant energization on the time scale (several seconds of the magnetic field reconfiguration. In a similar manner to ions in the near-Earth's magnetosphere, it is shown that low-energy (up to several tens of eV electrons may not conserve the second adiabatic invariant during dipolarization, which leads to clusters of bouncing particles in the innermost magnetotail. On the other hand, it is found that, because of the stretching of the magnetic field lines, high-energy electrons (several keVs and above do not behave adiabatically and possibly experience meandering (Speiser-type motion around the midplane. We show that dipolarization of the magnetic field lines may be responsible for significant, though transient, (a few seconds precipitation of energetic (several keVs electrons onto the planet's surface. Prominent injections of energetic trapped electrons toward the planet are also obtained as a result of dipolarization. These injections, however, do not exhibit short-lived temporal modulations, as observed by Mariner-10, which thus appear to follow from a different mechanism than a simple convection surge.

  5. Lewis Acid Catalyzed 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditon Reactions of Stabilized Azomethine Ylides

    OpenAIRE

    KANIŞKAN, Hasan KOYUNCU & DOĞAN, Özdemir

    2014-01-01

    Diethylzinc was tested for the first time as the Lewis acid in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of azomethine ylides to synthesize pyrrolidine derivatives. A new, easily applicable and highly selective method was developed for the synthesis of highly substituted pyrrolidines. By the application of this method, the synthesis of three new pyrrolidine derivatives was achieved.

  6. Using “domino” model to study the secular variation of the geomagnetic dipolar moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, B.; Peqini, K.; De Santis, A.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to understand the physical processes underneath the reversals events of geomagnetic field, different numerical models have been conceived. We considered here the so named “domino” model, an Ising-Heisenberg model of interacting magnetic macrospins aligned along a ring. This model was proposed by Mazaud and Laj (1989) and then applied by Mori et al. (2013) to study geomagnetic field reversals. The long series of the axial magnetic moment (dipolar moment or “magnetization”) generated by the “domino” model are empirically studied by varying all model parameters. We present here some results which are slightly different from those given by Mori et al. (2013), and will provide our explanation on the presence of these differences. We also define the set of parameters that supply the longest mean time between reversals. Using this set of parameters, a large number of time series of axial magnetic moment are also generated. After de-noising the fluctuation of these time series and averaging them, we compared the resulting averaged series with the series of axial dipolar magnetic moment values supplied by CALS7k.2, and CALS10k.1b models, finding similar behavior for the all time series. In a similar way, we also compared the averaged 14,000 years long series of dipolar moment with the dipolar magnetic moment obtained by the model SHA.DIF.14k.

  7. Wave Vector Dependent Susceptibility at T>Tc in a Dipolar Ising Ferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Holmes, L. M:; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The wave-vector-dependent susceptibility of LiTbF4 has been investigated by means of neutron scattering. The observations show a singularity of the susceptibility near wave vector Q=0 which is characteristic of the dipolar Coulomb interaction and good agreement with theory is obtained...

  8. A kinetic study of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in micellar media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, T; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions (DC) of benzonitrile oxide with a series of N-substituted maleimides in micellar media have been investigated. Surfactants studied include anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate, cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and a series of nonionic alkyl poly(ethyl

  9. On the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for trapped dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Carles, Rémi

    2008-09-29

    We study the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensation of trapped dipolar quantum gases. Existence and uniqueness as well as the possible blow-up of solutions are studied. Moreover, we discuss the problem of dimension reduction for this nonlinear and nonlocal Schrödinger equation. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd and London Mathematical Society.

  10. Catalytic, Enantioselective 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Nitrile Imines with Methyleneindolinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerten, Anthony L.; Slade, Michael C.; Pugh, Kelsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic, enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of nitrile imines with methyleneindolinones are reported. The spiro[pyrazolin[3,3′-oxindole] products are formed in good yields (up to 98%) and high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). PMID:24132663

  11. Anisotropic relaxation dynamics in a dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aikawa, K.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We report on the observation of a large anisotropy in the rethermalization dynamics of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium. Our system consists of an ultracold sample of strongly magnetic $^{167}$Er fermions, spin-polarized in the lowest Zeeman sublevel. In this system, elastic...

  12. Synthesis of 2H-indazoles by the [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition of sydnones with arynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuesi; Wu, Chunrui; Larock, Richard C; Shi, Feng

    2011-11-04

    A rapid and efficient synthesis of 2H-indazoles has been developed using a [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition of sydnones and arynes. A series of 2H-indazoles have been prepared in good to excellent yields using this protocol, and subsequent Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions can be applied to the halogenated products to generate a structurally diverse library of indazoles.

  13. Flagella as a novel alignment medium for the measurement of residual dipolar couplings in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Himanshu; Shukla, Manish; Rao, Basuthkar J; Chary, Kandala V R

    2013-12-18

    The two flexible rod-like flagella (∼500 nm in diameter and 5-15 μm long) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, can weakly align molecules in an external magnetic field, thereby enabling the measurement of various residual dipolar couplings in solution NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Evidence for pair correlation effects in heavy ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auditore, L; D'Amico, V; De Pasquale, D; Trifiró, A; Trimarchi, M; Italiano, A

    2003-01-01

    The study of the sup 1 sup 2 C( sup 1 sup 4 N, sup 1 sup 4 N) sup 1 sup 2 C reaction was performed at 28 and 35 MeV beam energies. The results were analyzed in the frame of the EFRDWBA (Exact-Finite-Range Distorted Wave Born Approximation) assuming the simultaneous and sequential transfer of a np pair. The angular distributions, fairly reproduced in the first case, confirm the validity of the generalized BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) theory to explain this behaviour. Moreover, this process could be regarded as a possible Nuclear Josephson Effect. (author)

  15. Correlation and dimensional effects of trions in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia

    2010-01-01

    We study the binding energies of singlet trions, i.e., charged excitons, in carbon nanotubes. The problem is modeled, through the effective-mass model, as a three-particle complex on the surface of a cylinder, which we investigate using both one- and two-dimensional expansions of the wave function...... are used to compute physical binding energies for a wide selection of carbon nanotubes. In addition, the dependence on dielectric screening is examined. Our findings indicate that trions are detectable at room temperature in carbon nanotubes with radius below 8 Å....

  16. Correlation effects in ruthenates: LDA+DMFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, Evgeny; Pavarini, Eva [IAS-3, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The ruthenates of the Ruddlesden-Popper family A{sub n+1}Ru{sub n} O{sub 3n+1} where A=(Sr,Ca) are unique among transition-metal oxides, because the change of cation A and/or in the number n of RuO{sub 2} layers leads to a variety of collective phenomena, ranging from multi-band Mott transitions to ferro- and meta-magnetism. To understand these systems, it is necessary to disentangle the effects of Coulomb repulsion in the 4d{sup 4}Ru shell from those of lattice distortions and chemistry. By using the LDA+DMFT approach, we show how such disentanglement explains the nature of the metal-insulator transition in single-layered Ca ruthenates and the evolution of electronic structure in n-layered Sr ruthenates. We use LDA+DMFT scheme based on the N-th Order Muffin-Tin Orbital approach and the weak-coupling CT-quantum Monte Carlo method as impurity solver. This method allows us to take into account the full rotationally-invariant Coulomb interaction, as well as full on-site self-energy matrix in orbital space with spin-orbit coupling. We discuss changes in effective mass and orbital polarization as a result of spin-flip processes and spin-orbit interaction.

  17. Influence of dipolar interactions on the magnetic susceptibility spectra of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Julien O.; Camp, Philip J.; Kantorovich, Sofia S.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.

    2016-06-01

    The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of a ferrofluid is calculated under the assumption that the constituent particles undergo Brownian relaxation only. Brownian-dynamics simulations are carried out in order to test the predictions of a recent theory [A. O. Ivanov, V. S. Zverev, and S. S. Kantorovich, Soft Matter 12, 3507 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02679B] that includes the effects of interparticle dipole-dipole interactions. The theory is based on the so-called modified mean-field approach and possesses the following important characteristics: in the low-concentration, noninteracting regime, it gives the correct single-particle Debye-theory results; it yields the exact leading-order results in the zero-frequency limit; it includes particle polydispersity correctly from the outset; and it is based on firm theoretical foundations allowing, in principle, systematic extensions to treat stronger interactions and/or higher concentrations. The theory and simulations are compared in the case of a model monodisperse ferrofluid, where the effects of interactions are predicted to be more pronounced than in a polydisperse ferrofluid. The susceptibility spectra are analyzed in detail in terms of the low-frequency behavior, the position of the peak in the imaginary (out-of-phase) part, and the characteristic decay time of the magnetization autocorrelation function. It is demonstrated that the theory correctly predicts the trends in all of these properties with increasing concentration and dipolar coupling constant, the product of which is proportional to the Langevin susceptibility χL. The theory is in quantitative agreement with the simulation results as long as χL≲1 .

  18. Correlation of Effective Dispersive and Polar Surface Energies in Heterogeneous Self-Assembled Monolayer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    We show, theoretically, that the measured effective dispersive and polar surface energies of a heterogeneous Surface are correlated; the correlation, however, differs whether a Cassic or an Israelachvili and Gee model is assumed. Fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers with varying coverage were...... grown oil oxidized (100) silicon Surfaces in a vapor phase process using five different precursors. Experimentally, effective surface energy components of the fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers were determined from measured contact angles using the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method. We show...... that the correlation between the effective surface energy components of the heterogeneous Surfaces coated with fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers is in agreement with the Cassie model....

  19. Effects of Correlated Errors on the Analysis of Space Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Wolf, Andres; Jacobs, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    As thermal errors are reduced instrumental and troposphere correlated errors will increasingly become more important. Work in progress shows that troposphere covariance error models improve data analysis results. We expect to see stronger effects with higher data rates. Temperature modeling of delay errors may further reduce temporal correlations in the data.

  20. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lynn, Joel E; Schwenk, Achim

    2016-01-01

    We show that the empirical linear relation between the magnitude of the EMC effect in deep inelastic scattering on nuclei and the short range correlation scaling factor $a_2$ extracted from high-energy quasi-elastic scattering at $x\\ge 1$ is a natural consequence of scale separation and derive the relationship using effective field theory. While the scaling factor $a_2$ is a ratio of nuclear matrix elements that depend on the calculational scheme, we show that the ratio is independent of this choice. We perform Green's function Monte Carlo calculations with both chiral and Argonne-Urbana potentials to verify this and determine the scaling factors for light nuclei. The resulting values for $^3$He and $^4$He are in good agreement with experimental values. We also present results for $^9$Be and $^{12}$C extracted from variational Monte Carlo calculations.

  1. Short-range correlation effects on the nuclear matrix element of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Benhar, Omar; Speranza, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a calculation of the nuclear matrix element of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}$Ca, carried out taking into account nucleon-nucleon correlations in both coordinate- and spin-space. Our numerical results, obtained using nuclear matter correlation functions, suggest that inclusion of correlations leads to a $\\sim$ $20\\%$ decrease of the matrix element, with respect to the shell model prediction. This conclusion is supported by the results of an independent calculation, in which correlation effects are taken into account using the spectroscopic factors of $^{48}$Ca obtained from an {\\em ab intitio} many body approach.

  2. Brightening of onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset: THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, J. R.; Li, H.; Wang, C.; Frey, H. U.; Kubyshkina, M. V.; Runov, A.; Xiao, C. J.; Lyu, L. H.; Sun, W.

    2011-11-01

    We present a new M-I coupling model of substorm during southward IMF based on the THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008. The first event (E-1) was classified as a pseudo-breakup: brightening of the onset arc preceded the first dipolarization onset by ∼71 ± 3 s, but the breakup arcs faded within ∼5 min without substantial poleward expansion and the dipolarization stopped and reversed to thinning. The second event (E-2) was identified as a substorm: brightening of the second onset arc preceded the second dipolarization onset by ∼80 ± 3 s, leading to a full-scale expanding auroral bulge during the substorm expansion phase for ∼20 min. The Alfvén travel time from the ionosphere to the dipolarization onset region is estimated at ∼69.3 s in E-1; at ∼80.3 s in E-2, which matched well with the observed time delay of the dipolarization onset after the brightening of the onset arc, respectively in E-1 and E-2. Brightening of the onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset suggest that the onset arc brightening is caused by the intense upward field-aligned currents originating from the divergence of the Cowling electrojet in the ionosphere. The Cowling electrojet current loop (CECL) is formed to close the field-aligned currents at all times. The closure current in the Alfvén wavefront is anti-parallel to the cross-tail current. Dipolarization onset occurs when the Alfvén wavefront incident on the near-Earth plasma sheet to disrupt the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region. Slow MHD waves dominate the disruption of the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region.

  3. Brightening of onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset: THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Kan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new M-I coupling model of substorm during southward IMF based on the THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008. The first event (E-1 was classified as a pseudo-breakup: brightening of the onset arc preceded the first dipolarization onset by ∼71 ± 3 s, but the breakup arcs faded within ∼5 min without substantial poleward expansion and the dipolarization stopped and reversed to thinning. The second event (E-2 was identified as a substorm: brightening of the second onset arc preceded the second dipolarization onset by ∼80 ± 3 s, leading to a full-scale expanding auroral bulge during the substorm expansion phase for ∼20 min. The Alfvén travel time from the ionosphere to the dipolarization onset region is estimated at ∼69.3 s in E-1; at ∼80.3 s in E-2, which matched well with the observed time delay of the dipolarization onset after the brightening of the onset arc, respectively in E-1 and E-2. Brightening of the onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset suggest that the onset arc brightening is caused by the intense upward field-aligned currents originating from the divergence of the Cowling electrojet in the ionosphere. The Cowling electrojet current loop (CECL is formed to close the field-aligned currents at all times. The closure current in the Alfvén wavefront is anti-parallel to the cross-tail current. Dipolarization onset occurs when the Alfvén wavefront incident on the near-Earth plasma sheet to disrupt the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region. Slow MHD waves dominate the disruption of the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region.

  4. Noise Correlation Effect on Detection: Signals in Equicorrelated or Autoregressive(1) Gaussian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasasbeh, Hadi; Viswanathan, Ramanarayanan; Cao, Lei

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, we consider the effect of noise correlation on the error performance of binary hypothesis signal detection, when one of two deterministic signals is received in correlated Gaussian noise. For the likelihood ratio detection scheme, analytical performance results are derived for equicorrelated and autoregressive order one models. Although it is known previously that the best signal lies in the direction of eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the noise covariance matrix, our investigation of the variation of mean signal-to-noise power ratio as a function of correlation parameter (i) shows how correlation leads to increased probability of error up to a point, beyond which monotonic decrease in error probability with increasing correlation is possible and (ii) provides a max-min signal design solution for the unknown correlation parameter case. Numerical results are also included for some specific signals.

  5. On the effect of correlated measurements on the performance of distributed estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Mohammed

    2013-06-01

    We address the distributed estimation of an unknown scalar parameter in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Sensor nodes transmit their noisy observations over multiple access channel to a Fusion Center (FC) that reconstructs the source parameter. The received signal is corrupted by noise and channel fading, so that the FC objective is to minimize the Mean-Square Error (MSE) of the estimate. In this paper, we assume sensor node observations to be correlated with the source signal and correlated with each other as well. The correlation coefficient between two observations is exponentially decaying with the distance separation. The effect of the distance-based correlation on the estimation quality is demonstrated and compared with the case of unity correlated observations. Moreover, a closed-form expression for the outage probability is derived and its dependency on the correlation coefficients is investigated. Numerical simulations are provided to verify our analytic results. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Estimation of interdomain flexibility of N-terminus of factor H using residual dipolar couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Mateusz; Tjandra, Nico; Barlow, Paul N

    2011-09-27

    Characterization of segmental flexibility is needed to understand the biological mechanisms of the very large category of functionally diverse proteins, exemplified by the regulators of complement activation, that consist of numerous compact modules or domains linked by short, potentially flexible, sequences of amino acid residues. The use of NMR-derived residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), in magnetically aligned media, to evaluate interdomain motion is established but only for two-domain proteins. We focused on the three N-terminal domains (called CCPs or SCRs) of the important complement regulator, human factor H (i.e., FH1-3). These domains cooperate to facilitate cleavage of the key complement activation-specific protein fragment, C3b, forming iC3b that no longer participates in the complement cascade. We refined a three-dimensional solution structure of recombinant FH1-3 based on nuclear Overhauser effects and RDCs. We then employed a rudimentary series of RDC data sets, collected in media containing magnetically aligned bicelles (disklike particles formed from phospholipids) under three different conditions, to estimate interdomain motions. This circumvents a requirement of previous approaches for technically difficult collection of five independent RDC data sets. More than 80% of conformers of this predominantly extended three-domain molecule exhibit flexions of <40°. Such segmental flexibility (together with the local dynamics of the hypervariable loop within domain 3) could facilitate recognition of C3b via initial anchoring and eventual reorganization of modules to the conformation captured in the previously solved crystal structure of a C3b:FH1-4 complex.

  7. Correlated and cooperative motions in segmental relaxation: Influence of constitutive unit weight and intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Bidur; Soto Puente, Jorge Arturo; Atawa, Bienvenu; Delbreilh, Laurent; Fatyeyeva, Kateryna; Saiter, Allisson; Dargent, Eric

    2016-12-01

    This work clarifies the notion of correlated and cooperative motions appearing during the α-relaxation process through the role of the molecular weight of the constitutive units and of the interchain dipolar interactions. By studying amorphous copolymers of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) with different vinyl acetate contents, we show that the correlated motions are not sensitive to the interchain dipolar interactions, in contrast to the cooperative motions, which increase with a strengthening of the intermolecular interactions for this sample family. Concerning the influence of the molecular weight m0, the notion of "correlated motions" seems to be equivalent to the notion of "cooperative motions" only for low m0 systems.

  8. Point defects and diffusion in alloys: correlation effects; Defauts atomiques et diffusion dans les alliages: effets des correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, V

    2006-06-15

    Kinetic models in alloys aim at predicting the transport properties of a system starting from the microscopic jump frequencies of defects. Such properties are of prior importance in systems which stay out of equilibrium for a long time, as for example irradiated alloys in nuclear reactors. We hereby propose several developments of the recent self-consistent mean field (SCMF) kinetic theory, which deals particularly with the correlation effects due to the coupling of atomic and defect fluxes. They are taken into account through a non-equilibrium distribution function of the system, which is derived from the time evolution of small clusters (of two or more atoms or defects). We therefore introduce a set of 'dynamic' interactions called effective Hamiltonian. The SCMF theory is extended to treat high jump frequency ratios for the vacancy mechanism, as well as the transport through interstitial defects. We use in both cases an atomic model which accounts for the thermodynamic properties of the alloy, as e.g. the t-range order. Those models are eventually applied to predict the diffusion properties in two model alloys of nuclear interest: the concentrated Fe-Ni-Cr solid solution and the dilute Fe(P) alloy. We present adapted atomic models and compare our predictions to experimental data. (author)

  9. Sensitive {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation spectra of amyloid fibrils at very high spinning frequencies and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingarth, Markus [Utrecht University (Netherlands); Masuda, Yuichi; Takegoshi, K. [Kyoto University, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Tekely, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.tekely@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Superieure, Departement de Chimie (France)

    2011-06-15

    Sensitive 2D solid-state {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation spectra of amyloid {beta} fibrils have been recorded at very fast spinning frequencies and very high magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that PARIS-xy recoupling using moderate rf amplitudes can provide structural information by promoting efficient magnetization transfer even under such challenging experimental conditions. Furthermore, it has been shown both experimentally and by numerical simulations that the method is not very sensitive to dipolar truncation effects and can reveal direct transfer across distances of about 3.5-4A.

  10. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Sofia; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albaladejo, Rafael G.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity) has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth. PMID:27835658

  11. Effects of cross-correlated noises on the intensity fluctuation of the single-mode laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Wang; Shuwen Dai; Shuping Ge

    2006-01-01

    @@ A single-mode laser model with cross-correlated additive and multiplicative noise terms is considered, and the effects of correlation between noises on the relaxation time and the intensity correlation function are studied. Using the projection operator method and taking into account the effects of the memory kernels of the intensity correlation function, the analytic expressions for the relaxation time and the correlation function are derived. Based on numerical computations, it is found that the self-correlation time and the cross-correlation time have the same effects on the single-mode laser system.

  12. Effects of cross-correlated noises on the relaxation time of the bistable system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢崇伟; 梅冬成

    2003-01-01

    The stationary correlation function and the associated relaxation time for a general system driven by crosscorrelated white noises are derived, by virtue of a Stratonovich-like ansatz. The effects of correlated noises on the relaxation time of a bistable kinetic model coupled to an additive and a multiplicative white noises are studied. It is proved that for small fluctuations the relaxation time Tc as a function of λ (the correlated intensity between noises)exhibits very different behaviours for α< D and for α> D (α and D, respectively, stand for the intensities of additive and multiplicative noises). When α> D, Tc increases with increasing λ. But when α< D, Tc increases with λ for the case of weak correlated noises and sharply decreases with λ for the case of strong correlated noises, and thus Tc-λ curve behaves with one extremum.

  13. Field-aligned currents observed by MMS in the near-Earth plasma sheet during large-scale substorm dipolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Giles, Barbara; Le Contel, Olivier; Stawarz, Julia; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Artemyev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    During substorms significant energy conversion has been reported to take place at the sharp dipolarization front in the flow braking region where the probability of observing bursty bulk flows (BBFs) significantly drops. On 10 August 2016, MMS traversed the pre-midnight near-Earth plasma sheet when dipolarization disturbances were detected in an extended nightside local time region by Cluster, Geotail, GOES 13, 14 and 15, and the Van Allen Probes. In an expanding plasma sheet during the dipolarization, MMS detected sub-ion scale field-aligned current layers that are propagating both Earthward (equatorward) as well as tailward (outward). These multi-scale multi-point observations enable a unique investigation of both the meso-scale evolution of the disturbances and the detailed kinetic structures of the fronts and boundaries relevant to the dipolarizations.

  14. New data strengthen the connection between Short Range Correlations and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Weinstein, L B

    2012-01-01

    Recently published measurements of the two nucleon short range correlation ($NN$-SRC) scaling factors, $a_2(A/d)$, strengthen the previously observed correlation between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at $0.35\\le x_B\\le 0.7$ and the SRC scaling factor measured at $x_B \\ge 1$. The new results have improved precision and include previously unmeasured nuclei. The measurements of $a_2(A/d)$ for $^9$Be and $^{197}$Au agree with published predictions based on the EMC-SRC correlation. This paper examines the effects of the new data and of different corrections to the data on the slope and quality of the EMC-SRC correlation, the size of the extracted deuteron IMC effect, and the free neutron structure function. The results show that the linear EMC-SRC correlation is robust and that the slope of the correlation is insensitive to most combinations of corrections examined in this work. The inclusion of new nuclei shows that while neither the EMC effect nor the SRC scaling ...

  15. Evidence of magnetic dipolar interaction in micrometric powders of the Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} system: Melted alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Alcazar, G.A., E-mail: gpgeperez@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Apdo. 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Zamora, L.E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Apdo. 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Tabares, J.A.; Piamba, J.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Gonzalez, J.M. [Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Apdo. 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Greneche, J.M. [LUNAM, Universite du Maine, Institut des Molecules et Materiaux du Mans, UMR CNRS 6283, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Romero, J.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Powders of melted disordered Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} alloy were separated at different mean particle sizes as well as magnetically and structurally characterized. All the samples are BCC and show the same nanostructure. Particles larger than 250 {mu}m showed a lamellar shape compared to smaller particles, which exhibited a more regular form. All the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature and showed reentrant spin-glass (RSG) and superparamagnetic (SP)-like behaviors between 30 and 60 K and 265 and > 280 K, respectively, as a function of frequency and particle size. The freezing temperature increases with increasing particle size while the blocking one decreases with particle size. The origin of these magnetic phenomena relies in the internal disordered character of samples and the competitive interaction of Fe and Mn atoms. The increase of their critical freezing temperature with increasing mean particle size is due to the increase of the magnetic dipolar interaction between the magnetic moment of each particle with the field produced by the other magnetic moments of their surrounding particles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of particle size in microsized powders of Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} melted disordered alloy is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipolar magnetic interaction between particles exists and this changes with the particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For all the particle sizes the reentrant spin- glass and the superparamagnetic-like phases exist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RSG and SP critical temperatures increase with increasing the dipolar magnetic interaction (the mean particle size).

  16. Empirical parameters for solvent acidity, basicity, dipolarity, and polarizability of the ionic liquids [BMIM][BF4] and [BMIM][PF6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, J C; García Blanco, F; Catalán, J

    2015-04-02

    The empirical solvent scales for polarizability (SP), dipolarity (SdP), acidity (SA), and basicity (SB) have been successfully used to interpret the solvatochromism of compounds dissolved in organic solvents and their solvent mixtures. Providing that the published solvatochromic parameters for the ionic liquids 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4] and 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM][PF6], are excessively widespread, their SP, SdP, SA, and SB values are measured herein at temperatures from 293 to 353 K. Four key points are emphasized herein: (i) the origin of the solvatochromic solvent scales--the gas phase, that is the absence of any medium perturbation--; (ii) the separation of the polarizability and dipolarity effects; (iii) the simplification of the probing process in order to obtain the solvatochromic parameters; and (iv) the SP, SdP, SA, and SB solvent scales can probe the polarizability, dipolarity, acidity, and basicity of ionic liquids as well as of organic solvents and water-organic solvent mixtures. From the multiparameter approach using the four pure solvent scales one can draw the conclusion that (a) the solvent influence of [BMIM][BF4] parallels that of formamide at 293 K, both of them miscible with water; (b) [BMIM][PF6] shows a set of solvatochromic parameters similar to that of chloroacetonitrile, both of them water insoluble; and (c) that the corresponding solvent acidity and basicity of the ionic liquids can be explained to a great extent from the cation species by comparing the empirical parameters of [BMIM](+) with those of the solvent 1-methylimidazole. The insolubility of [BMIM][PF6] in water as compared to [BMIM][BF4] is tentatively connected to some extent to the larger molar volume of the anion [PF6](-), and to the difference in basicity of [PF6](-) and [BF4](-).

  17. Multicomponent synthesis of spiropyrrolidine analogues derived from vinylindole/indazole by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanarao, Manjunatha; Koodlur, Lokesh; Revanasiddappa, Vijayakumar G; Gopal, Subramanya; KAMILA, Susmita

    2016-01-01

    A new series of spiropyrrolidine compounds containing indole/indazole moieties as side chains have been accomplished via a one-pot multicomponent synthesis. The method uses the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between N-alkylvinylindole/indazole and azomethine ylides, prepared in situ from cyclic/acyclic amino acids. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition proceeds efficiently under thermal conditions to afford the regio- and stereospecific cyclic adducts.

  18. Multicomponent synthesis of spiropyrrolidine analogues derived from vinylindole/indazole by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanarao, Manjunatha; Koodlur, Lokesh; Revanasiddappa, Vijayakumar G; Gopal, Subramanya; Kamila, Susmita

    2016-01-01

    A new series of spiropyrrolidine compounds containing indole/indazole moieties as side chains have been accomplished via a one-pot multicomponent synthesis. The method uses the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between N-alkylvinylindole/indazole and azomethine ylides, prepared in situ from cyclic/acyclic amino acids. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition proceeds efficiently under thermal conditions to afford the regio- and stereospecific cyclic adducts.

  19. Multicomponent synthesis of spiropyrrolidine analogues derived from vinylindole/indazole by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Narayanarao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new series of spiropyrrolidine compounds containing indole/indazole moieties as side chains have been accomplished via a one-pot multicomponent synthesis. The method uses the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between N-alkylvinylindole/indazole and azomethine ylides, prepared in situ from cyclic/acyclic amino acids. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition proceeds efficiently under thermal conditions to afford the regio- and stereospecific cyclic adducts.

  20. Multicomponent synthesis of spiropyrrolidine analogues derived from vinylindole/indazole by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanarao, Manjunatha; Koodlur, Lokesh; Revanasiddappa, Vijayakumar G; Gopal, Subramanya

    2016-01-01

    A new series of spiropyrrolidine compounds containing indole/indazole moieties as side chains have been accomplished via a one-pot multicomponent synthesis. The method uses the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between N-alkylvinylindole/indazole and azomethine ylides, prepared in situ from cyclic/acyclic amino acids. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition proceeds efficiently under thermal conditions to afford the regio- and stereospecific cyclic adducts. PMID:28144362

  1. Interaction of monopolar and dipolar vortices with a shear flow: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Leon; Marques Rosas Fernandes, Vitor; van Heijst, Gert-Jan; Clercx, Herman

    2014-11-01

    Interaction of large-scale flows with vortices is of fundamental and widespread importance in geophysical fluid dynamics and also, more recently for the dynamics of fusion plasma. More specifically the interplay between two-dimensional turbulence constituted by a collection of unsteady eddies and so-called zonal flows has gained considerable interest because of the relevance for transport and associated barriers. We present numerical results on the interaction of individual monopolar and dipolar vortices with typical sheared channel flows (Couette and Poiseuille). Contrary to monopolar vortices, dipolar ones tend to retain their compactness while propagating through the shear flow along curved pathways without much distortion. Simulations on the interaction of a driven turbulent field with mentioned channel flows are used to explore the suppression of turbulence and turbulent transport and the pronounced role played by the boundaries on these.

  2. Ultracold Dipolar Gas of Fermionic 23Na40 K Molecules in Their Absolute Ground State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Woo; Will, Sebastian A; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2015-05-22

    We report on the creation of an ultracold dipolar gas of fermionic 23Na40 K molecules in their absolute rovibrational and hyperfine ground state. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we demonstrate hyperfine resolved two-photon transfer into the singlet X 1Σ+|v=0,J=0⟩ ground state, coherently bridging a binding energy difference of 0.65 eV via stimulated rapid adiabatic passage. The spin-polarized, nearly quantum degenerate molecular gas displays a lifetime longer than 2.5 s, highlighting NaK's stability against two-body chemical reactions. A homogeneous electric field is applied to induce a dipole moment of up to 0.8 D. With these advances, the exploration of many-body physics with strongly dipolar Fermi gases of 23Na40K molecules is within experimental reach.

  3. Power and energy relations for macroscopic dipolar continua derived from the microscopic Maxwell equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yaghjian, Arthur D

    2015-01-01

    Positive semi-definite expressions for the macroscopic energy density in passive, spatially nondispersive dipolar continua are derived from the underlying microscopic Maxwellian equations satisfied by discrete bound dipolar molecules or inclusions of the material or metamaterial continua. The microscopic derivation reveals two distinct positive semi-definite macroscopic energy expressions, one that applies to diamagnetic continua and another that applies to nondiamagnetic continua (for example, paramagnetic or ferro(i)magnetic material). The diamagnetic dipoles are unconditionally passive in that their Amperian magnetic dipole moments are zero in the absence of applied fields. The analysis of the nondiamagnetic continua, which are defined in terms of magnetization caused by the alignment of randomly oriented pre-existing Amperian magnetic dipole moments that dominate any induced diamagnetic magnetization, is greatly simplified by first proving that the microscopic power equations for rotating pre-existing Amp...

  4. Partial alignment and measurement of residual dipolar couplings of proteins under high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yinan; Wand, A Joshua

    2013-08-01

    High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling.

  5. Classical and quantum filaments in the ground state of trapped dipolar Bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    We study, by quantum Monte Carlo simulations, the ground state of a harmonically confined dipolar Bose gas with aligned dipole moments and with the inclusion of a repulsive two-body potential of varying range. Two different limits can clearly be identified, namely, a classical one in which the attractive part of the dipolar interaction dominates and the system forms an ordered array of parallel filaments and a quantum-mechanical one, wherein filaments are destabilized by zero-point motion, and eventually the ground state becomes a uniform cloud. The physical character of the system smoothly evolves from classical to quantum mechanical as the range of the repulsive two-body potential increases. An intermediate regime is observed in which ordered filaments are still present, albeit forming different structures from the ones predicted classically; quantum-mechanical exchanges of indistinguishable particles across different filaments allow phase coherence to be established, underlying a global superfluid response.

  6. Resonant dipolar relaxation in poly ( ɛ -caprolactone)—A thermally stimulated depolarization current study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, M. M.; Jain, D.; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V.

    2016-07-01

    Resonant dipolar relaxation in poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) is reported using thermally stimulated discharge current spectroscopy. PCL is a bio-medically known shape memory polymer having a well defined γ, β, α, and α ' relaxations, respectively, centered around 125 K, 170 K, 220 K, and 270 K as seen by the measurements. By employing a new protocol variable poling temperature at constant freezing temperature, resonant dipolar relaxation in PCL could be induced, especially in the vicinity of α relaxation. Such a protocol is useful in de-convoluting the features in a more meaningful fashion. By an analysis of activation process, we could show a clear contrast enhancement of the dynamics of the participating dipoles by means of a minimum in the activation energies situated around the glass transition region. The relevant parameters of interest such as activation energies and relaxation times are estimated and discussed.

  7. Strongly scale-dependent CMB dipolar asymmetry from super-curvature fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian; Sasaki, Misao; Takahashi, Tomo

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider the observed CMB dipolar asymmetry in the context of open inflation, where a supercurvature mode might survive the bubble nucleation. If such a supercurvature mode modulates the amplitude of the curvature power spectrum, it would easily produce an asymmetry in the power spectrum. We show that current observational data can be accommodated in a three-field model, with simple quadratic potentials and a non-trivial field-space metric. Despite the presence of three fields, we believe this model is so far the simplest that can match current observations. We are able to match the observed strong scale dependence of the dipolar asymmetry, without a fine tuning of initial conditions, breaking slow roll or adding a feature to the evolution of any field.

  8. Partial alignment and measurement of residual dipolar couplings of proteins under high hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yinan; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@mail.med.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Johnson Research Foundation (United States)

    2013-08-15

    High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling.

  9. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  10. Effect of extreme value loss on long-term correlated time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao; Li, Huiqun; Mao, Jiangyu

    2012-07-01

    Effects of extreme value loss on long-term correlated time series are analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and power spectral density analysis. Weaker memory can be detected after removing of extreme values for the artificial long-term correlated data, indicating the emergence of extreme events may be closely related to long-term memory. For observational temperature records, similar results are obtained, but not in all stations. For example, in some stations, only extending of scaling range to smaller time scales occurs, which may be due to the asymmetric distribution of values in the record. By comparing our findings with previous works, clustered positions of the extreme events are recognized as an important property in long-term correlated records. Through a simple numerical test, close relations between extreme events and long-term memory are discovered, which is helpful for our understanding of the effects of extreme value loss on long-term correlated records.

  11. Effects of staggered fermions and mixed actions on the scalar correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Prelovsek, S

    2006-01-01

    We provide the analytic predictions for the flavor non-singlet scalar correlator, which will enable determination of the scalar meson mass from the lattice scalar correlator. We consider simulations with 2+1 staggered sea quarks and staggered or chiral valence quarks. At small u/d masses the correlator is dominated by the bubble contribution, which is the intermediate state with two pseudoscalar mesons. We determine the bubble contribution within Staggered and Mixed Chiral Perturbation Theory. Its effective mass is smaller than the mass M_pi+M_eta, which is the lightest intermediate state in proper 2+1 QCD. The unphysical effective mass is a consequence of the taste breaking that makes possible the intermediate state with mass 2*M_pi. We find that the scalar correlator can be negative in the simulations with mixed quark actions if the sea and valence quark masses are tuned by matching the pion masses M_{val,val}=M_{pi_5}.

  12. Tool for Studying the Effects of Range Restriction in Correlation Coefficient Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    AFHRL-TP-90-6 AIR FORCE TOOL FOR STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF RANGE RESTRICTION IN CORRELATION COEFFICIENT ESTIMATION H U Douglas E. JacksonM Eastern New...the Lftects of kange Restriction in Correlation Coefficient Estimation PE - 62703F PR - 7719 4. AUTHOR(S) TA - 18 Douglas E. Jackson WU - 46 Malcolm J...that one must try to estimate the correlation coefficient between two random variables X and Y in some population P using data taken f-om a

  13. Observation of Noise Correlated by the Hawking Effect in a Water Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euvé, L.-P.; Michel, F.; Parentani, R.; Philbin, T. G.; Rousseaux, G.

    2016-09-01

    We measured the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the randomly fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow with a maximum Froude number Fmax≈0.85 reached above a localized obstacle. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the noise show a clear correlation between pairs of modes of opposite energies. We also measure the scattering coefficients by applying the same analysis of correlations to waves produced by a wave maker.

  14. Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated nodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Singha Deo

    2002-02-01

    We numerically study the effect of non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) on electron correlation effects for spinless electrons. We find that repulsive interaction between electrons can enhance the overlap between nearest neighbors in the tight binding Hamiltonian, in the presence of NSDN. Normally, in the absence of NSDN, attractive interaction between electrons give such an effect and repulsive interaction gives the opposite effect.

  15. Time-varying correlations in global real estate markets: A multivariate GARCH with spatial effects approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huaying; Liu, Zhixue; Weng, Yingliang

    2017-04-01

    The present study applies the multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) with spatial effects approach for the analysis of the time-varying conditional correlations and contagion effects among global real estate markets. A distinguishing feature of the proposed model is that it can simultaneously capture the spatial interactions and the dynamic conditional correlations compared with the traditional MGARCH models. Results reveal that the estimated dynamic conditional correlations have exhibited significant increases during the global financial crisis from 2007 to 2009, thereby suggesting contagion effects among global real estate markets. The analysis further indicates that the returns of the regional real estate markets that are in close geographic and economic proximities exhibit strong co-movement. In addition, evidence of significantly positive leverage effects in global real estate markets is also determined. The findings have significant implications on global portfolio diversification opportunities and risk management practices.

  16. [Cultured epidermis in the treatment of leg ulcer: "edge effect" and correlation with keratinocyte proliferation index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, V; Pimpinelli, N; Mariotti, V; Borgognoni, L; Reali, U M

    1990-04-01

    Cultured keratinocyte grafting (KG) of chronic leg ulcers produces an impressive stimulation of host epithelization by an effect on the edge of the ulcer, which starts to grow in rapidly ("edge effect"). In 5 patients with chronic leg ulcers treated by KG, we have studied the proliferation index of the epidermis of the edge and of the graft area and that of secondary culture keratinocytes. The aim of the study was to correlate this parameter with the clinical evolution of the treated lesions. We found a significant correlation between the proliferation index of the edge epidermis and the clinical evidence of "edge effect".

  17. Analysis of the effect of core structure upon dineutron correlation using antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Fumiharu

    2015-01-01

    We extend the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics to investigate dineutron correlation. We apply this method to $^{10}$Be as an example and investigate the motion of two neutrons around a largely deformed $^8$Be core by analyzing the two-neutron overlap function around the core. We show that the core structure plays an important role in dineutron formation and expansion from the core and that the present framework is effective for the studies of dineutron correlation.

  18. Correlation effects in MgO and CaO Cohesive energies and lattice constants

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, K; Stoll, H; Doll, Klaus; Dolg, Michael; Stoll, Hermann

    1996-01-01

    A recently proposed computational scheme based on local increments has been applied to the calculation of correlation contributions to the cohesive energy of the CaO crystal. Using ab-initio quantum chemical methods for evaluating individual increments, we obtain 80% of the difference between the experimental and Hartree-Fock cohesive energies. Lattice constants corrected for correlation effects deviate by less than 1% from experimental values, in the case of MgO and CaO.

  19. Existence and stability results for thermoelastic dipolar bodies with double porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M.; Nicaise, S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the theory of thermoelastic dipolar bodies which have a double porosity structure. In contrast with previous papers dedicated to classical elastic bodies, in our context the double porosity structure of the body is influenced by the displacement field, which is consistent with real models. In this setting, we show instability of solution as the initial energy is negative while under an appropriated (and realistic) condition, we prove existence and uniqueness of solution using semi-group theory.

  20. A facile regioselective synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrafi, Yaghoub; Asghari, Asieh; Sadatshahabi, Marzieh, E-mail: ysarrafi@umz.ac.ir [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamzehloueian, Mahshid [Department of Chemistry, Jouybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Shariati Branch, University of Farhangian, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    An efficient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines with high regioselectivity is described. These compounds were prepared from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide generated from acenaphthenequinone and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline via [1,5]-H shift, with chalcone and nitrostyrene derivatives as dipolarophiles. The structure and stereochemistry of the cycloadducts have been established by single crystal X-ray structure and spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  1. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition in the Preparation of New Fused Heterocyclic Compounds via Thermal Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Porubský

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of precursors with a benzo[b]furan skeleton for the intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides prepared from N-substituted 3-allyl-aminobenzo[b]furan-2-aldehydes and secondary amines derived from α-amino acid esters. Reactions were initiated by heating. The products consisted of four fused rings with three stereogenic centers. Their structure and stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectra and X-ray measurements.

  2. NMR studies on 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to norbornenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucma, Miroslaw; Golebiewski, W. Marek; Krawczyk, Maria, E-mail: golebiewski@ipo.waw.pl [Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides to norbornenes substituted with an acrylate-derived moiety was examined. Only adducts to norbornene system were formed with a good exo selectivity and complete site-selectivity. Structures of the products were elucidated by an extensive application of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 2D {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  3. Soluble Polymer-Supported Synthesis of Pyrazoles via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN,Xu-Feng(林旭锋); WANG,Yan-Guang(王彦广); DING,Han-Feng(丁寒锋)

    2004-01-01

    Rapid parallel liquid-phase synthesis of pyrazoles has first been developed.The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between nitrilimines generated in situ and soluble polymer-supported alkynyl or alkenyl dipolarophiles in parallel one-pot fashion gave the corresponding PEG-supported regioisomeric pyrazoles or regiospecific pyrazolines.The latter was assuredly oxidated by DDQ to PEG-supported regiospecific pyrazoles.Cleavage from the support under mild conditions afforded pyrazoles in good yields and high purity.

  4. Measurement of Large Dipolar Couplings of a Liquid Crystal with Terminal Phenyl Rings and Estimation of the Order Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R V Sudheer; Ramanathan, Krishna V

    2015-07-20

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful means of studying liquid-crystalline systems at atomic resolutions. Of the many parameters that can provide information on the dynamics and order of the systems, (1) H-(13) C dipolar couplings are an important means of obtaining such information. Depending on the details of the molecular structure and the magnitude of the order parameters, the dipolar couplings can vary over a wide range of values. Thus the method employed to estimate the dipolar couplings should be capable of estimating both large and small dipolar couplings at the same time. For this purpose, we consider here a two-dimensional NMR experiment that works similar to the insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) experiment in solution. With the incorporation of a modification proposed earlier for experiments with low radio frequency power, the scheme is observed to enable a wide range of dipolar couplings to be estimated at the same time. We utilized this approach to obtain dipolar couplings in a liquid crystal with phenyl rings attached to either end of the molecule, and estimated its local order parameters.

  5. Thinking out of the black box: accurate barrier heights of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of ozone with acetylene and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Steven E; Ess, Daniel H; Houk, K N

    2008-02-28

    Accurate barriers for the 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of ozone with acetylene and ethylene have been determined via the systematic extrapolation of ab initio energies within the focal point approach of Allen and co-workers. Electron correlation has been accounted for primarily via coupled cluster theory, including single, double, and triple excitations, as well as a perturbative treatment of connected quadruple excitations [CCSD, CCSD(T), CCSDT, and CCSDT(Q)]. For the concerted [4 + 2] cycloadditions, the final recommended barriers are DeltaH(0K) = 9.4 +/- 0.2 and 5.3 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for ozone adding to acetylene and ethylene, respectively. These agree with recent results of Cremer et al. and Anglada et al., respectively. The reaction energy for O3 + C2H2 exhibits a protracted convergence with respect to inclusion of electron correlation, with the CCSDT/cc-pVDZ and CCSDT(Q)/cc-pVDZ values differing by 2.3 kcal mol-1. Recommended enthalpies of formation (298 K) for cycloadducts 1,2,3-trioxole and 1,2,3-trioxolane are +32.8 and -1.6 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Popular composite ab initio approaches [CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, G3, G3B3, G3(MP2)B3, G4, G4(MP3), and G4(MP2)] predict a range of barrier heights for these systems. The CBS-QB3 computed barrier for ozone and acetylene, DeltaH(0K) = 4.4 kcal mol(-1), deviates by 5 kcal mol(-1) from the focal point value. CBS-QB3 similarly underestimates the barrier for the reaction of ozone and ethylene, yielding a prediction of only 0.7 kcal mol(-1). The errors in the CBS-QB3 results are significantly larger than mean errors observed in application to the G2 test set. The problem is traced to the nontransferability of MP2 basis set effects in the case of these reaction barriers. The recently published G4 and G4(MP2) approaches perform substantially better for O3 + C2H2, predicting enthalpy barriers of 9.0 and 8.4 kcal mol(-1), respectively. For the prediction of these reaction barriers, the additive corrections applied in the

  6. Dipolar Rydberg-atom gas prepared by adiabatic passage through an avoided crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linjie; Li, Changyong; Yang, Yonggang; Zhao, Jianming; Raithel, Georg; Jia, Suotang

    2015-01-01

    The passage of cold cesium 49S$_{1/2}$ Rydberg atoms through an electric-field-induced multi-level avoided crossing with nearby hydrogen-like Rydberg levels is employed to prepare a cold, dipolar Rydberg atom gas. When the electric field is ramped through the avoided crossing on time scales on the order of 100~ns or slower, the 49S$_{1/2}$ population adiabatically transitions into high-\\emph{l} Rydberg Stark states. The adiabatic state transformation results in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms with large electric dipole moments. After a waiting time of about $1~\\mu$s and at sufficient atom density, the adiabatically transformed highly dipolar atoms become undetectable, enabling us to discern adiabatic from diabatic passage behavior through the avoided crossing. We attribute the state-selectivity to $m$-mixing collisions between the dipolar atoms. The data interpretation is supported by numerical simulations of the passage dynamics and of binary $m$-mixing collisions.

  7. Statics and dynamics of a self-bound dipolar matter-wave droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    We study the statics and dynamics of a stable, mobile, self-bound three-dimensional dipolar matter-wave droplet created in the presence of a tiny repulsive three-body interaction. In frontal collision with an impact parameter and in angular collision at large velocities along all directions two droplets behave like quantum solitons. Such a collision is found to be quasi elastic and the droplets emerge undeformed after collision without any change of velocity. However, in a collision at small velocities the axisymmeric dipolar interaction plays a significant role and the collision dynamics is sensitive to the direction of motion. For an encounter along the z direction at small velocities, two droplets, polarized along the z direction, coalesce to form a larger droplet—a droplet molecule. For an encounter along the x direction at small velocities, the same droplets stay apart and never meet each other due to the dipolar repulsion. The present study is based on an analytic variational approximation and a numerical solution of the mean-field Gross–Pitaevskii equation using the parameters of 52Cr atoms.

  8. A New Wavelet Denoising Method for Experimental Time-Domain Signals: Pulsed Dipolar Electron Spin Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Madhur; Georgieva, Elka R; Freed, Jack H

    2017-03-30

    We adapt a new wavelet-transform-based method of denoising experimental signals to pulse-dipolar electron-spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS). We show that signal averaging times of the time-domain signals can be reduced by as much as 2 orders of magnitude, while retaining the fidelity of the underlying signals, in comparison with noiseless reference signals. We have achieved excellent signal recovery when the initial noisy signal has an SNR ≳ 3. This approach is robust and is expected to be applicable to other time-domain spectroscopies. In PDS, these time-domain signals representing the dipolar interaction between two electron spin labels are converted into their distance distribution functions P(r), usually by regularization methods such as Tikhonov regularization. The significant improvements achieved by using denoised signals for this regularization are described. We show that they yield P(r)'s with more accurate detail and yield clearer separations of respective distances, which is especially important when the P(r)'s are complex. Also, longer distance P(r)'s, requiring longer dipolar evolution times, become accessible after denoising. In comparison to standard wavelet denoising approaches, it is clearly shown that the new method (WavPDS) is superior.

  9. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, M., E-mail: Mikko.Saarela@oulu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  10. Competition between anisotropy and dipolar interaction in multicore nanoparticles: Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Londoño-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron simulaciones computacionales empleando Monte Carlo combinado con el modelo de Heisenberg y el algoritmo de Metropolis con el fin de estudiar las propiedades de equilibrio magnético en nano partículas multi-núcleo de magnetita. Se consideraron tres tipos de efectos: Interacción Zeeman, anisotropía magneto cristalina e interacción dipolar. Se observó una reducción en la magnetización debido a la influencia de la interacción dipolar y la anisotropía. Se estudió el efecto de la distribución de tamaños (diámetro medio y desviación estándar en la magnetización de las nano partículas, obteniéndose un mejor comportamiento magnético para tamaños grandes, ya que, en este caso se reduce la influencia del término de interacción dipolar. Se estudió además el efecto de la temperatura y de la dirección del eje fácil de magnetización sobre las propiedades magnéticas.

  11. Influence of dipolar interactions on the angular-dependent coercivity of nickel nanocylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P.; Krämer, F.; Tschöpe, A.; Birringer, R.

    2015-04-01

    In this study the influence of dipolar interactions on the orientation-dependent magnetization behavior of an ensemble of single-domain nickel nanorods was investigated. The rods were synthesized by electrodeposition of nickel into porous alumina templates. Some of the rods were released from the oxide and embedded in gelatine hydrogels (ferrogel) at a sufficiently large average interparticle distance to suppress dipolar interactions. By comparing the orientation-dependent hystereses of the two ensembles in the template and the gel-matrix it could be shown that the dipolar interactions in the template considerably alter the functional form of the angular-dependent coercivity. Analysis of the magnetization curves for an angle of 60° between the rod-axes and the field revealed a significantly reduced coercivity of the template compared to the ferrogel, which could be directly attributed to a stray field induced magnetization reversal of a steadily increasing number of rods with increasing field strength. The magnetization curve of the template could be approximated by a weighted linear superposition of the hysteresis branches of the ferrogel. The magnetization reversal process of the rods was investigated by analyzing the angular-dependent coercivity of the non-interacting nanorods. Comparison of the functional form with analytical models and micromagnetic simulations emphasized the assumption of a localized magnetization reversal. Additionally, it could be shown that the nucleation field of rods with diameters in the range 18-29 nm tends to increase with increasing diameter.

  12. Comparison of the dipolar magnetic field generated by two Ising-like models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peqini, Klaudio; Duka, Bejo

    2015-04-01

    We consider two Ising-like models named respectively the "domino" model and the Rikitake disk dynamo model. Both models are based on some collective interactions that can generate a dipolar magnetic field which reproduces the well-known features of the geomagnetic field: the reversals and secular variation (SV). The first model considers the resultant dipolar magnetic field as formed by the superposition of the magnetic fields generated by the dynamo elements called macrospins, while the second one, starting from the two-disk dynamo action, takes in consideration the collective interactions of several disk dynamo elements. We will apply two versions of each model: the short-range and the long-range coupled dynamo elements. We will study the statistical properties of the time series generated by the simulation of all models. The comparison of these results with the paleomagnetic data series and long series of SV enables us to conclude which of these Ising-like models better match with the geomagnetic field time series. Key words: geomagnetic field, domino model, Rikitake disk dynamo, dipolar moment

  13. Applying "domino" model to study dipolar geomagnetic field reversals and secular variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peqini, Klaudio; Duka, Bejo

    2014-05-01

    Aiming to understand the physical processes underneath the reversals events of geomagnetic field, different numerical models have been conceived. We considered the so named "domino" model, an Ising-Heisenberg model of interacting magnetic spins aligned along a ring [Mazaud and Laj, EPSL, 1989; Mori et al., arXiv:1110.5062v2, 2012]. We will present here some results which are slightly different from the already published results, and will give our interpretation on the differences. Following the empirical studies of the long series of the axial magnetic moment (dipolar moment or "magnetization") generated by the model varying all model parameters, we defined the set of parameters that supply the longest mean time between reversals. Using this set of parameters, a short time series (about 10,000 years) of axial magnetic moment was generated. After de-noising the fluctuation of this time series, we compared it with the series of dipolar magnetic moment values supplied by CALS10K.1b model for the last 10000 years. We found similar behavior of the both series, even if the "domino" model could not supply a full explanation of the geomagnetic field SV. In a similar way we will compare a 14000 years long series with the dipolar magnetic moment obtained by the model SHA.DIF.14k [Pavón-Carrasco et al., EPSL, 2014].

  14. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2017-02-01

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  15. Impurity modes in Frenkel exciton systems with dipolar interactions and cubic symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgin, I; Huber, D L

    2013-04-28

    We introduce a continuum model for impurity modes of Frenkel excitons in fully occupied face-centered and body-centered cubic lattices with dipole-dipole interactions and parallel moments. In the absence of impurities, the model reproduces the small-k behavior found in numerical calculations of dipolar lattice sums. The exciton densities of states near the upper and lower band edges are calculated and compared with the corresponding results for a random array of dipoles. The Green function obtained with the continuum model, together with a spherical approximation to the Brillouin zone, is used to determine the conditions for the formation of a localized exciton mode associated with a shift in the transition energy of a single chromophore. The dependence of the local mode energy on the magnitude of the shift is ascertained. The formation of impurity bands at high concentrations of perturbed sites is investigated using the coherent potential approximation. The contribution of the impurity bands to the optical absorption is calculated in the coherent potential approximation. The locations of the optical absorption peaks of the dipolar system are shown to depend on the direction of propagation of the light relative to the dipolar axis, a property that is maintained in the presence of short-range interactions.

  16. Sulfone-Containing Dipolar Glass Polymers with High Dielectric Constant and Low Loss Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhongbo; Litt, Morton; Zhu, Lei

    Sulfone-containing polyoxetanes are designed and synthesized for high dielectric constant and low loss dipolar glasses. The precursor polymer, poly(3,3-bis(chloromethyl)oxetane) (PBCMO) is synthesized by bulk cationic polymerization with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as initiator. The number-average molecular weight of PBCMO is 73 kDa, with a polydispersity of 1.53 as obtained from size-exclusion chromatography results. Post-modification of PBCMO yields the dipolar glass polymer, poly(3,3-bis(methylsulfonylmethyl)oxetane) (MST). Nuclear magnetic resonance result shows 100% conversion. Differential scanning calorimetry result indicates that MST has a glass transition temperature of ca. 120 °C. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, MST exhibits a high dielectric constant of 8.7 and a low dissipation factor of 0.01 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipoles in the side chains are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications. This work is supported by NSF Polymers Program (DMR-1402733).

  17. Measurement of the rapidity-even dipolar flow in Pb-Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Jiangyong

    2012-01-01

    The rapidity-even dipolar flow v1 associated with dipole asymmetry in the initial geometry is measured over a broad range in transverse momentum 0.5 GeVcorrelations in azimuthal angle \\Delta\\phi=\\phi_a-\\phi_b as a function of pT^a and pT^b. This fit is motivated by the finding that the pT dependence of v_{1,1}(pT^a,pT^b) data are consistent with the combined contributions from a rapidity-even v1 and global momentum conservation. The magnitude of the extracted momentum conservation component suggests that the system conserving momentum involves only a subset of the event (spanning about 3 units in \\eta in central collisions). The extracted v1 is observed to cross zero at pT~1.0 GeV, reaches a maximum at 4-5 GeV with a value comparable to that for v...

  18. Direct observation of ultrafast many-body electron dynamics in a strongly-correlated ultracold Rydberg gas

    CERN Document Server

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Genes, Claudiu; Pupillo, Guido; Goto, Haruka; Koyasu, Kuniaki; Chiba, Hisashi; Weidemüller, Matthias; Ohmori, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Many-body interactions govern a variety of important quantum phenomena ranging from superconductivity and magnetism in condensed matter to solvent effects in chemistry. Understanding those interactions beyond mean field is a holy grail of modern sciences. AMO physics with advanced laser technologies has recently emerged as a new platform to study quantum many-body systems. One of its latest developments is the study of long-range interactions among ultracold particles to reveal the effects of many-body correlations. Rydberg atoms distinguish themselves by their large dipole moments and tunability of dipolar interactions. Most of ultracold Rydberg experiments have been performed with narrow-band lasers in the Rydberg blockade regime. Here we demonstrate an ultracold Rydberg gas in a complementary regime, where electronic coherence is created using a broadband picosecond laser pulse, thus circumventing the Rydberg blockade to induce strong many-body correlations. The effects of long-range Rydberg interactions h...

  19. Effect of extreme data loss on long-range correlated and anti-correlated signals quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Qianli D Y; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how extreme loss of data affects the scaling behavior of long-range power-law correlated and anti-correlated signals applying the DFA method. We introduce a segmentation approach to generate surrogate signals by randomly removing data segments from stationary signals with different types of correlations. These surrogate signals are characterized by: (i) the DFA scaling exponent $\\alpha$ of the original correlated signal, (ii) the percentage $p$ of the data removed, (iii) the average length $\\mu$ of the removed (or remaining) data segments, and (iv) the functional form of the distribution of the length of the removed (or remaining) data segments. We find that the {\\it global} scaling exponent of positively correlated signals remains practically unchanged even for extreme data loss of up to 90%. In contrast, the global scaling of anti-correlated signals changes to uncorrelated behavior even when a very small fraction of the data is lost. These observations are confirmed on the examples of human g...

  20. The double soft limit in cosmological correlation functions and graviton exchange effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alinea, Allan L; Misumi, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The graviton exchange effect on cosmological correlation functions is examined by employing the double soft limit technique. A new relation among correlation functions that contain the effects due to graviton exchange diagrams is derived by using the background field method and independently by the method of Ward identities associated with dilatation symmetry. The four point correlation function is shown to consist of three terms that come from scalar-exchange, scalar-contact-interaction and the graviton exchange. We compare these three terms, putting small values for the slow roll parameters and $(1-n_{s}) = 0.042$, where $n_{s}$ is the scalar spectral index. It is argued that the graviton exchange effects are more dominant than the other two and could be observed in the trispectrum in the double soft limit.

  1. Correlation, Breit and Quantum Electrodynamics effects on energy level and transition properties of W54+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaobin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Dong, Chenzhong

    2017-03-01

    The electron correlation effects and Breit interaction as well as Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) effects were expected to have important contribution to the energy level and transition properties of heavy highly charged ions. The ground states [Ne]3 s 23 p 63 d 2 and first excited states [Ne]3 s 23 p 53 d 3 of W54+ ion have been studied by using Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock method with the implementation of Grasp2K package. A restricted active space method was employed to investigate the correlation contribution from different models. The Breit interaction and QED effects were taken into account in the relativistic configuration interaction calculation with the converged wavefunction. It is found that the correlation contribution from 3 s and 3 p orbital have important contribution to the energy level, transition wavelength and probability of the ground and the first excited state of W54+ ion.

  2. Effects of Processing and Ambient Noise Distribution on Seismic Interferometry using Auto-Correlation Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, R. L.; Oren, C.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of processing and ambient noise distribution on seismic interferometry using auto-correlation stacks is investigated. We first study the effects of automatic gain control (AGC) and spectral whitening on the daily and monthly auto-correlation stacks. It was found that although the AGC equalizes the amplitudes over longer time lag windows, it does not dramatically affect the results over time lag windows shorter than the AGC window applied. The effects of spectral whitening are more pronounced where the daily and monthly auto-correlation stacks for the PmP window become less coherent when spectral whitening is not applied. The influence of band-pass filtering is next investigated, where the results are robust to the effects of the high cut filter applied from 0.55 to 0.85 Hz. However, the results are less robust if the low-cut filter is set lower than about 0.3 Hz. Similar to not applying spectral whitening, this could result from lower frequency microseisms contaminating the body waves on the auto-correlation stacks. Synthetic modeling was then performed to investigate the effects of the ambient noise distribution on the auto-correlation stacks. For sources along the top boundary, it was found that the zone of stationary phase of the auto-correlation stacks was very localized to energy coming from nearby the receiver with energy from sources at greater distances destructively interfering. For noise energy arriving from below the model, such as far from regional and teleseismic sources, it was found that the angular zone of stationary phase was much broader. Assuming that the time duration for the temporal stacking is sufficient to allow for a smoothly varying range of incident arriving noise energy, then a broad region of stationary phase could explain the observation of both PmP and SmS phases on the auto-correlation stacks.

  3. The effect of correlated observations on the performance of distributed estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Mohammed

    2013-12-01

    Estimating unknown signal in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) requires sensor nodes to transmit their observations of the signal over a multiple access channel to a Fusion Center (FC). The FC uses the received observations, which is corrupted by observation noise and both channel fading and noise, to find the minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) estimate of the signal. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the source-node correlation (the correlation between sensor node observations and the source signal) and the inter-node correlation (the correlation between sensor node observations) on the performance of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) estimator for three correlation models in the presence of channel fading. First, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the achieved distortion (i.e., MSE) resulting from both the observation and channel noise in a non-fading channel. Then, the effect of channel fading is considered and the corresponding distortion outage probability, the probability that the distortion exceeds a certain value, is found. By representing the distortion as a ratio of indefinite quadratic forms, a closed-form expression is derived for the outage probability that shows its dependency on the correlation. Finally, the new representation of the outage probability allows us to propose an iterative solution for the power allocation problem to minimize the outage probability under total and individual power constraints. Numerical simulations are provided to verify our analytic results. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Skew Scattering from Correlated Systems: Impurities and Collective Excitations in the Spin Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, Timothy; Gu, Bo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2017-01-01

    The spin Hall effect is affected by the Coulomb interaction as well as spin-spin correlations in metals. Here we examine the enhancement in the effect caused by resonant skew scattering induced by electron correlations. For single-impurity scattering, local Coulomb correlations may significantly change the observed spin Hall angle. There may be additional effects because of the special atomic environment close to a surface — extra degeneracies compared to the bulk, enhanced correlations that move the relative d- or f-levels, and interference effects coming from the lower local dimension. Our results may explain the very large spin Hall angle observed in CuBi alloys. We discuss the impact on the spin Hall effect from cooperative effects, firstly in an itinerant ferromagnet where there is an anomaly near the Curie temperature originating from high-order spin fluctuations. The second case considered is a metallic spin glass, where exchange via slowly fluctuating magnetic moments may lead to the precession of an injected spin current. This decreases the net spin-charge conversion from skew scattering at temperatures below a value three or four times the freezing temperature.

  5. Mass dependence of nuclear short- range correlations and the EMC effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cosyn, Wim; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We sketch an approximate method to quantify the number of correlated pairs in any nucleus $A$. It is based on counting independent-particle model (IPM) nucleon-nucleon pairs in a relative $S$-state with no radial excitation. We show that IPM pairs with those quantum numbers are most prone to short-range correlations and are at the origin of the high-momentum tail of the nuclear momentum distributions. Our method allows to compute the $a_2$ ratios extracted from inclusive electron scattering. Furthermore, our results reproduce the observed linear correlation between the number of correlated pairs and the magnitude of the EMC effect. We show that the width of the pair center-of-mass distribution in exclusive two-nucleon knockout yields information on the quantum numbers of the pairs.

  6. Dielectric matrix formulation of correlation energies in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA): inclusion of exchange effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Jansen, Georg; Angyan, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the general expression for the ground state correlation energy in the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT) framework, it is shown that the dielectric matrix formulation, which is usually applied to calculate the direct random phase approximation (dRPA) correlation energy, can be used for alternative RPA expressions including exchange effects. Within this famework, the ACFDT analog of the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) approximation leads to a logarithmic formula for the correlation energy similar to the direct RPA expression. Alternatively, the contribution of the exchange can be included in the kernel used to evaluate the response functions. In this case the use of an approximate kernel is crucial to simplify the formalism and to obtain a correlation energy in logarithmic form. Technical details of the implementation of these methods are discussed and it is shown that one can take advantage of density fitting or Cholesky decomposition techniques to improve the co...

  7. Dynamic-stall and structural-modeling effects on helicopter blade stability with experimental correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwey, D.; Gaonkar, Gopal H.

    1994-04-01

    The effects of blade and root-flexure elasticity and dynamic stall on the stability of hingeless rotor blades are investigated. The dynamic stall description is based on the ONERA models of lift, drag, and pitching moment. The structural analysis is based on three blade models that range from a rigid flap-lag model to two elastic flap-lag-torsion models, which differ in representing root-flexure elasticity. The predictions are correlated with the measured lag damping of an experimental isolated three-blade rotor; the correlation covers rotor operations from near-zero-thrust conditions in hover to highly stalled, high-thrust conditions in foward flight. That correlation shows sensitivity of lag-damping predictions to structural refinements in blade and root-flexure modeling. Moreover, this sensitivity increases with increasing control pitch angle and advance ratio. For high-advance-ratio and high-thrust conditions, inclusion of dynamic stall generally improves the correlation.

  8. The effects of notch filters on the correlation properties of a PN signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, S. M.; Ferrari, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    With wideband pseudo-noise (PN) communications systems, it is sometimes desirable to supplement the inherent interference rejection capabilities by adding notch filters to attenuate relatively narrowband interference. This correspondence presents an investigation of the effects of notch filters on the performance of PN correlation receivers. A theoretical analysis of the correlation drop due to filter distortion has been conducted and confirmed by experimentation. Additional measurements and analysis have established the trade-off between correlation drop and interference suppression as a function of interference bandwidth. A typical result is that by incurring a penalty of a 1-dB drop in correlation peak, interfering signals having bandwidths of 2 to 3% of the PN chip rate can be attenuated by 25 dB.

  9. Bioavailability studies and the clinical pharmacologist: correlation of drug distribution with clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, R I

    1975-06-01

    Bioavailability studies can be interpreted only when clinical information is available which correlates drug distribution with both efficacious and toxic clinical effects. The clinical pharmacologist should be instrumental in the development of safe and effective drug therapy by the systematic application of well designed clinical trials, the clear definition of therapeutically desirable clinical responses, and the development and application of improved techniques of measuring these effects.

  10. Observation of noise correlated by the Hawking effect in a water tank

    CERN Document Server

    Euvé, L -P; Parentani, R; Philbin, T G; Rousseaux, G

    2015-01-01

    We measure the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow above an obstacle with high Froude number $F \\approx 0.85$. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the correlations clearly indicate a steady conversion of incident modes into pairs of modes of opposite energies. We then use a wave maker to measure the scattering coefficients responsible for this effect.

  11. Reflected Charged Particle Populations around Dipolar Lunar Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deca, Jan; Divin, Andrey

    2016-10-01

    In this work we analyze and compare the reflected particle populations for both a horizontal and a vertical dipole model embedded in the lunar surface, representing the solar wind interaction with two different lunar magnetic anomaly (LMA) structures. Using the 3D full-kinetic electromagnetic code iPic3D, in combination with a test-particle approach to generate particle trajectories, we focus on the ion and electron dynamics. Whereas the vertical model electrostatically reflects ions upward under both near-parallel and near-perpendicular angles with respect to the lunar surface, the horizontal model only has a significant shallow component. Characterizing the electron dynamics, we find that the interplay of the mini-magnetosphere electric and magnetic fields is capable of temporarily trapping low-energy electrons and possibly ejecting them upstream. Our results are in agreement with recent high-resolution observations. Low- to medium-altitude ion and electron observations might be excellent indicators to complement orbital magnetic field measurements and better uncover the underlying magnetic field structure. The latter is of particular importance in defining the correlation between LMAs and lunar swirls, and further testing the solar wind shielding hypothesis for albedo markings due to space weathering. Observing more reflected ions does not necessarily point to the existence of a mini-magnetosphere.

  12. Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Bracco, Silvia

    2015-02-16

    New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.

  13. CFD modeling of liquid-solid fluidization: Effect of drag correlation and added mass force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao yan Huang

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely used to study the hydrodynamics of gas-solid fluidization; however,its applications in liquid-solid fluidization are relatively rare.In this study,CFD simulations of a liquid-solid fluidized bed are carried out,focusing on the effect of drag correlation and added mass force on the hydrodynamics of liquid-solid fluidization.It is shown that drag correlation has a significant effect on the simulation results and the correlation proposed by Beetstra et al.(2007) gives the best agreement with experimental data.We further show that the added mass force does play an important role in CFD simulation of liquid-solid fluidization,and therefore should not be ignored in CFD simulations.

  14. Connections among residual strong interaction, the EMC effect and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A linear correlation is shown quantitatively between the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and the nuclear residual strong interaction energy (RSIE) obtained from the nuclear binding energy subtracting the Coulomb energy part. The observed correlation supports the recent speculation that the nuclear dependence of quark distributions depend on the local nuclear density. This phenomenological relationship can be used to extract the size of in-medium correction (IMC) effect on deuteron. Most importantly, the EMC slopes $dR_{EMC}/dx$ of nuclei can be predicted with the nuclear binding energy data. The relationship between nucleon-nucleon (N-N) short range correlation (SRC) and RSIE is also presented.

  15. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Massen, S E; Grypeos, M E

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the effects of fluctuations of the nuclear surface on the harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei, while simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation ~factor. Inclusion of surface-fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of ^{16}O and ^{40}Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that the surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behavior of the point-proton form factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const. \\cdot q^{-4}) at large values of the momentum transfer q.

  16. Cognition in aged rhesus monkeys: effect of DHEA and correlation with steroidogenic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorwell, K G; Renner, L; Weiss, A R; Neuringer, M; Kohama, S G; Urbanski, H F

    2017-03-01

    Estradiol supplementation has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in old ovariectomized rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To determine if similar benefits could be achieved in perimenopausal animals using alternative hormonal supplements, we administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to old ovary-intact female rhesus macaques for ∼2.5 months. Using computerized touch screen memory tasks, including delayed response (DR) and delayed matching-to-sample (DMS), we observed improved performance with time in all of the animals but failed to detect a significant effect of DHEA. On the other hand, gene expression profiling disclosed a significant correlation between cognitive performance and the expression of several steroidogenic and steroid-responsive genes. The DR performance was positively correlated with hippocampal expression of AKR1C3 and STAR and negatively correlated with the expression of SDRD5A1. A positive correlation was also found between DMS performance and prefrontal cortical expression of AKR1C3 and a negative correlation with STAR, as well as a negative correlation with the hippocampal expression of HSD11B1 and NR3C1. Taken together, the results suggest that steroidogenic gene regulation within the brain may help to maintain cognitive function during the perimenopausal transition period, despite a decline in sex-steroid levels in the circulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Effects of coarse-graining on the scaling behavior of long-range correlated and anti-correlated signals

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yinlin; Schmitt, Daniel T; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how various coarse-graining methods affect the scaling properties of long-range power-law correlated and anti-correlated signals, quantified by the detrended fluctuation analysis. Specifically, for coarse-graining in the magnitude of a signal, we consider (i) the Floor, (ii) the Symmetry and (iii) the Centro-Symmetry coarse-graining methods. We find, that for anti-correlated signals coarse-graining in the magnitude leads to a crossover to random behavior at large scales, and that with increasing the width of the coarse-graining partition interval $\\Delta$ this crossover moves to intermediate and small scales. In contrast, the scaling of positively correlated signals is less affected by the coarse-graining, with no observable changes when $\\Delta1$ a crossover appears at small scales and moves to intermediate and large scales with increasing $\\Delta$. For very rough coarse-graining ($\\Delta>3$) based on the Floor and Symmetry methods, the position of the crossover stabilizes, in contrast to the ...

  18. Publication bias in psychology: a diagnosis based on the correlation between effect size and sample size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kühberger

    Full Text Available The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias.We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values.We found a negative correlation of r = -.45 [95% CI: -.53; -.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings.The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology.

  19. Publication Bias in Psychology: A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. Methods We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. Results We found a negative correlation of r = −.45 [95% CI: −.53; −.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. Conclusion The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology. PMID:25192357

  20. Electron correlation effects on photoionization time delay in atomic Ar and Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A.; Saha, S.; Decshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Time delay studies in photoionization processes have stimulated much interest as they provide valuable dynamical information about electron correlation and relativistic effects. In a recent work on Wigner time delay in the photoionization of noble gas atoms, it was found that correlations resulting from interchannel coupling involving shells with different principal quantum numbers have significant effects on 2s and 2p photoionization of Ne, 3s photoionization of Ar, and 3d photoionization of Kr. In the present work, photoionization time delay in inner and outer subshells of the noble gases Ar and Xe are examined by including electron correlations using different many body techniques: (i) the relativistic-random-phase approximation (RRPA), (ii) RRPA with relaxation, to include relaxation effects of the residual ion and (iii) the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (RMCTD) approximation. The (sometimes substantial) effects of the inclusion of non-RPA correlations on the photoionization Wigner time delay are reported. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).