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Sample records for diphyllobothrium

  1. Diphyllobothrium latum: relato de caso no Brasil

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    Emmel Vanessa Erichsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Difilobotriose é causada em humanos pela infecção com vermes adultos do gênero Diphyllobothrium adquiridos pelo consumo de peixe cru ou mal cozido. Diphyllobothrium latum foi confirmado pelo exame dos proglotes grávidos e típicos ovos operculados nas fezes. O paciente havia comido crustáceos e peixes. É o relato do primeiro brasileiro infectado.

  2. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Oros, M.; Ferguson, J.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 351-353 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alaska * Diphyllobothrium * human * larva * nonhuman * Oncorhynchus * seashore Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 8.222, year: 2016

  3. [Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin,1931) margolis, 1956 in Canis familiaris from Chincha city, Peru].

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    Cabrera, R; Tantaleán, M; Rojas, R

    2001-01-01

    In this communication is presented the finding of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum, parasite of sea lions, in Canis familiaris (dog) in Chincha city, Peru. This is the first canine infection with D. pacificum in the South Peruvian coast.

  4. The first confirmed case of Diphyllobothrium latum in Brazil

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    FLN Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Diphyllobothriasis is an infection of the small intestine by the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium sp. The associated symptomatology is nonspecific, but megaloblastic anemia is a well-described complication. Although the infection is common in temperate regions, descriptions in South America have so far been limited to Chile, Peru, and a few cases in Argentina. This paper presents the first confirmed Brazilian case of diphyllobothriasis. A 29-years-old woman living in Salvador (state of Bahia apparently acquired the infection from eating sushi. The diagnosis was based on fecal examination that revealed a large quantity of operculated eggs. A single dose of praziquantel (600 mg was sufficient to cure the infection.

  5. Diphyllobothriasis caused by Diphyllobothrium latum in Southeast Asia: A new emerging fish-borne disease

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    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diphyllobothriasis caused by Diphyllobothrium latum is an important helminthiasis. It is seen in many non-tropical countries. Since it is a marine fish-borne zoonosis, it becomes an important issue in coastal medicine. However, in the few recent years, there are some reports on a new emerging diphyllobothriasis caused by Diphyllobothrium latum in tropical countries. In this specific short article, the authors review and present on the situation of diphyllobothriasis in Southeast Asia. Diphyllobothriasis presently becomes a new concern in tropical coastal medicine.

  6. Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin, 1931) Margolis, 1956 en Canis familiaris de la ciudad de Chincha, Perú

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    Cabrera, Ch; Tantaleán V, Manuel; Rojas M, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    In this communication is presented the finding of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum, parasite of sea lions, in Canis familiaris (dog) in Chincha city, Peru. This is the first canine infection with D. pacificum in the South Peruvian coast

  7. Multiplex PCR for Differential Identification of Broad Tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium) Infecting Humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wicht, B.; Yanagida, T.; Scholz, Tomáš; Ito, A.; Jiménez, J. A.; Brabec, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 9 (2010), s. 3111-3116 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : MOLECULAR EVIDENCE * PACIFIC SALMON * NIHONKAIENSE * Diphyllobothrium * multiplex PCR * the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.220, year: 2010

  8. Diphyllobothrium sp. in Canis familiaris from the subtropical area of Argentina (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones).

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    Rivero, María R; Motta, Carlos E; Salas, Martín M; Chiaretta, Alicia; Salomón, Oscar D

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first finding of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs in Canis familiaris (domestic dog) from Puerto Iguazú, a subtropical city of Misiones province, Argentina. In 2013, two positive cases of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs were detected during an annual parasitological survey of dogs. Dog feces were collected in vials containing 10% formalin and processed using Telemann's sedimentation and Sheather's flotation techniques. The two cases were detected in rural areas of the municipality. Since Misiones is not a part of the endemic area of diphyllobothriasis and given the fact that it is located in the three-border area of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, we consider this finding of great importance to public health. We stress the need for updating the current knowledge about the life cycle of these parasites considering the range of intermediate and definitive hosts, their zoonotic potential, and the epidemiological situation in non-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Ontogenetic dynamics of infection with Diphyllobothrium spp. cestodes in sympatric Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

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    Henrickson, Eirik H.; Knudsen, Rune; Kristoffersen, Roar; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2016-01-01

    The trophic niches of Arctic charr and brown trout differ when the species occur in sympatry. Their trophically transmitted parasites are expected to reflect these differences. Here, we investigate how the infections of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and D. ditremum differ between charr and trout. These tapeworms use copepods as their first intermediate hosts and fish can become infected as second intermediate hosts by consuming either infected copepods or infected fish. We examined 767 charr and 368 trout for Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in a subarctic lake. The prevalence of D. ditremum was higher in charr (61.5%) than in trout, (39.5%), but the prevalence of D. dendriticum was higher in trout (31.2%) than in charr (19.3%). Diphyllobothrium spp. intensities were elevated in trout compared to charr, particularly for D. dendriticum. Large fish with massive parasite burdens were responsible for the high Diphyllobothrium spp. loads in trout. We hypothesize that fish prey may be the most important source for the Diphyllobothrium spp. infections in trout, whereas charr predominantly acquire Diphyllobothrium spp. by feeding on copepods. Our findings support previous suggestions that the ability to establish in a second piscine host is greater for D. dendriticum than for D. ditremum.

  10. Diphyllobothrium latum in Italy: plerocercoids larvae distribution in perch (Perca fluviatilis fillets

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    MariaLetizia Fioravanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the diffusion of new eating habits (consumption of uncooked, undercooked, marinated or cold-smoked fish, some cases of parasitic zoonosis from freshwater fish are recently reappeared in Italy. One of these is tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, whose final host could be human. This study aimed to individuate the position of plerocercoid larvae inside perch fillets (Perca fluviatilis caught in 4 different sites on Como lake in 2011. The fish analyzed were 390. The larvae totally isolated from 112 positive fishes were 164: 85 found in the right fillets and 79 in left ones. According to dorso-ventral disposition in fish, 144 larvae were individuated in dorsal muscles and 20 in ventral ones. Data collected confirm that plerocercoid larvae prefer the upper mass of perch muscle. Dietary education and sanitary care on fish supply are necessary to prevent the diffusion of tapeworm zoonosis in high-risk zones. European legislation establishes freezing to sanitize fish to be eaten raw, marinated or cold-smoked.

  11. [An experimental study of the susceptibility of the snakehead Ophiocephalus argus to infestation by larvae of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum].

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    Khodakova, V I; Zholdasova, I M; Allaniiazova, T; Frolova, A A; Artamoshin, A S; Guseva, L N; Arystanov, E; Gitsu, G A

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were made to infect young Ophiocephalus argus, the fish of prey delivered from eastern Asia in the Amu-Dar'ya River basin, outside the area of the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum. The dalags were infected mainly by ingesting the local copepods Arctodiaptomus salinus, the experimentally invaded larvae of the broad tapeworm. The latter larvae were obtained from the development of eggs of the helminth isolated from strobilae from the patients treated in Perm Province. D. latum plerocercoids lived in the dalags nearly 3 weeks, then they died and lysed. Thus, the dalag cannot be a supplementary host of D. latum.

  12. The finding of eggs of Diphyllobothrium in human coprolites (4.100-1.950 BC from Northern Chile

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    Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six coprolites from an archaeological site in the province of Iquique, northern Chile, were examined for parasites. Coprolites were found in two excavation units, I and II (Tiliviche site, dated respectively at 5,900 B.C. to 4,110 B.C. and 4,110 B.C. to 1,950 B.C., and identified as of human origin. Only at the unit II coprolites containing helminth eggs identified as Diphyllobothrium pacificum were found. The presence of this tapeworm, a parasite of the American Sea Lion, in human coprolites, points to a diet which included marine fishes and provides information on the antiquity of infection by Diphyllobothrium pacificum. It is interesting to note that Baer (1969 suggests the presence of this tapeworm in pre-Columbian populations when diagnosing the first human cases in today's population in Peru.Os autores realizaram exame parasitológico de vinte e seis coprólitos encontrados em um sítio arqueológico no norte do Chile, Província de Iquique.O material foi colhido em duas unidades de escavação, I e II (sitio Tiliviche datados respectivamente de 5.900 a.C. a 4.100 a.C. e 4.110 a.C. a 1.950 a.C. e identificados como de origem humana.Na unidade II foram observados ovos de helmintos diagnosticados como de Diphyllobothrium pacificum. Esse achado nos informa sobre a antiguidade da infecção bem como sobre os hábitos alimentares dessas populações, uma vez que a contaminação se da por ingestão de peixes marinhos. E interessante assinalar que Baer (1969, ao descrever pela primeira vez a infecção humana por esse cestódeo em populações atuais do Peru, sugere a sua presença nas populações pré-colombianas.

  13. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

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    Lucila Venturini

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined

  14. Plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta: substantial increase in infection after establishment of European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus.

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    Borgstrøm, R; Trømborg, J; Haugen, T O; Rosseland, B O

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta from the subalpine lake Øvre Heimdalsvatn in south-central Norway. Salmo trutta was the only fish species in this lake until European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus was registered in 1969. The P. phoxinus population increased substantially in the following years. In contrast with the 1969-1972 period, when plerocercoids of D. ditremum were practically absent in S. trutta, there was a high prevalence and intensity of infection in the 2013 S. trutta samples. Because the life cycle of D. ditremum involves two larval stages, in copepods and salmonids and mature worms in piscivorous birds, such as mergansers and loons, a change in feeding ecology of S. trutta or changes in population densities of copepods, fish or birds might have influenced the infection pattern. No relationships between D. ditremum infection and muscle-tissue δ 15 N signature or Hg concentration were found, indicating that infection is not a result of piscivory or cannibalism. Furthermore, consumption of copepods by S. trutta during summer and autumn was low. On the other hand, the number of piscivorous birds has increased, probably due to the presence of P. phoxinus as a new and numerous prey. An increased number of final D. ditremum hosts may have produced a higher output of cestode eggs, resulting in more infected copepods that in turn are consumed by S. trutta. Indirectly, P. phoxinus may therefore have caused the observed increased infection in S. trutta and thereby imposed further negative effects on S. trutta in high mountain areas. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)-Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubáčková, P.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2013), e2535 ISSN 1935-2727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tapeworm * human disease * cox1 gene Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.716, year: 2011

  16. Diphyllobothrium pacificum Infection is Seldom Associated with Megaloblastic Anemia

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    Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gamboa, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty cases of Dyphillobothrium pacificum (fish tapeworm) infections were prospectively studied to determine whether this tapeworm is associated with megaloblastic anemia, as commonly reported for D. latum infections. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue and mild abdominal pain, which were identified in approximately 66.6% of the 18 patients interviewed. Fourteen patients received treatment with niclosamide and all were cured. The other six patients spontaneously eliminated the tapeworms. One patient, who also had chronic diabetes and gastric atrophy, had low vitamin B12 levels and megaloblastic anemia. In all other patients, including three other patients with anemia, baseline vitamin B12 levels were in the reference range and did not significantly change when re-assessed three months later. Unlike D. latum, infection with D. pacificum is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia or vitamin B12 deficit. PMID:22987655

  17. Misidentification of Diphyllobothrium Species Related to Global Fish Trade, Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Esteban, J. G.; Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2014), s. 1955-1957 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : infection * tapeworm * dendriticum * latum Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.751, year: 2014

  18. Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; García, H. H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2009), s. 146-160 ISSN 0893-8512 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * D. latum * zoonosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 14.691, year: 2009

  19. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

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    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel.

  20. First record of human infection with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wicht, B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Peduzzi, R.; Kuchta, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2008), s. 235-238 ISSN 0002-9637 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : broad fish tapeworm * case report * molecular diagnostics * Canada Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.450, year: 2008

  1. High morphological plasticity and global geographical distribution ofthe Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn.Diphyllobothrium pacificum): Molecular and morphological survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Scholz, Tomáš; Brabec, Jan; Kuzmina, T.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 149, SEP 2015 (2015), s. 168-178 ISSN 0001-706X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biogeography * Cestoda * cox1 * lsrDNA * helminth * Diphyllobothriidea * diphyllobothriosis * phylogeny * Pseudophyllidea * seals Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.380, year: 2015

  2. Is the human-infecting Diphyllobothrium pacificum a valid species or just a South American population of the Holarctic fish broad tapeworm, D. latum?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škeříková, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Jiménez, J. A.; García, H. H.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2006), s. 307-310 ISSN 0002-9637 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * Pseudophyllidea * human parasite Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.546, year: 2006

  3. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vermicularis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba coli Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba... Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp. Plasmodium falciparum (3) For laboratories specified in paragraph (a)(1...

  4. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  5. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmina, T.A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, E.T.; Spraker, T.R.; Kornyushyn, V.V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2015), s. 256-263 ISSN 2213-2244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothrium pacificum) * Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis * Cestoda * Diphyllobothridea * Diplogonoporus tetrapterus * Otariidae, North Pacific * Tapeworms * Tetrabothriidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  6. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

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    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  7. The catholic taste of broad tapeworms - multiple routes to human infection.

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    Waeschenbach, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Kuchta, Roman

    2017-11-01

    Broad tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) are the principal agents of widespread food-borne cestodosis. Diphyllobothriosis and diplogonoporosis, caused by members of the genera Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus and Adenocephalus, are the most common fish cestodoses with an estimated 20million people infected worldwide, and has seen recent (re)emergences in Europe due to the increasing popularity of eating raw or undercooked fish. Sparganosis is a debilitating and potentially lethal disease caused by the larvae of the genus Spirometra, which occurs throughout much of the (sub)tropics and is caused by the consumption of raw snakes and frogs, and drinking water contaminated by infected copepods. Both diseases are caused by several species, but the frequency by which the transition to humans has occurred has never been studied. Using a phylogenetic framework of 30 species based on large and small nuclear ribosomal RNA subunits (ssrDNA, lsrDNA), large subunit mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnL) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), we hypothesize that humans have been acquired asaccidental hosts four times across the tree of life of diphyllobothriideans. However, polytomies prevent an unambiguous reconstruction of the evolution of intermediate and definitive host use. The broad host spectrum and the frequency with which switching between major host groups appears to have occurred, may hold the answer as to why accidental human infection occurred multiple times across the phylogeny of diphyllobothriideans. In this study Diplogonoporus is determined to be the junior synonym of Diphyllobothrium. Furthermore, we divide the latter polyphyletic genus into (i) the resurrected genus Dibothriocephalus to include freshwater and terrestrial species including Dibothriocephalus dendriticus, Dibothriocephalus latus and Dibothriocephalus nihonkaiensis as the most common parasites of humans, and (ii) the genus Diphyllobothrium to accommodate parasites from cetaceans including

  8. Epidemiología de la difilobotriasis en la cuenca del río Valdivia, Chile Epidemiologia de difílobotriase na bacia do rio Valdivia, Chile Epidemiology of diphyllobothriasis in the Valdivia River basin, Chile

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    Patricio Torres

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de marzo y octubre de 1987 fueron examinados 1295 personas de seis distritos ribereños de la cuenca del río Valdivia, determinándose un 1,2% de prevalencia de infección por Diphyllobothrium en los distritos de Riñihue y Las Huellas. Además, se comprobó un 5,3% y un 9,8% de prevalencia en perros de los distritos de Riñihue y Malihue, respectivamente, pero no se observó infección en gatos y cerdos. Los parásitos recuperados después del tratamiento fueron identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. La infección humana por D. latum en los distritos afectados se favorece por el consumo de peces ahumados o sometidos a cocción insuficiente. La investigación de 1450 peces (4 especies introducidas y 11 autóctonas capturados entre 1986-1987 en la cuenca del río Valdivia, demostró la existencia de plerocercoides de D. latum y/o Diphyllobothrium dendriticum en Salmo gairdneri y Salmo trutta, entre los peces introducidos, y en algunas especies autóctonas. La prevalencia e intensidad media en las infecciones de los peces así como el grado de agregación de las infrapoblaciones varía en los distintos sectores. Algunas especies de peces actuarían como huésped intermediario y otras como huéspedes paraténicos de Diphyllobothrium spp. en la cuenca del río Valdivia. Como medidas de control para la difilobotriasis en los distritos afectados se propone un mejoramiento de las condiciones de saneamiento básico, educación sanitaria y tratamiento de las personas infectadas.Foram examinadas 1.295 pessoas de seis localidades situadas às margens da bacia do rio Valdivia (Chile, encontrando-se uma prevalência de infecção por Diphyllobothrium igual a 1,2% em Riñihue e Las Huellas. Em cães a prevalência foi de 5,3% e e 9,8% em Riñihue e Malihue, respectivamente, não tendo sido observada infecção em gatos nem porcos. Os parasitas obtidos após tratamento foram identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. A infecção humana

  9. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina

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    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.

  10. First identification of eggs of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in human stool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yera, H.; Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Peyron, F.; Dupouy-Camet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2013), s. 268-271 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : COI * Diphyllobothrium * French Guiana * Man * Molecular identification * rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2013

  11. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiestand Shelby J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2, and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  12. Parasites and associated pathology observed in pinnipeds stranded along the Oregon coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, R K

    1978-07-01

    Forty-two seals and sea lions found dead along the Oregon Coast were examined for parasites and associated pathology. Nematode infections of the lung and/or gastrointestinal tract were the primary cause of death in 5 of 42 animals examined. New distribution records were established for Pricetrema zalophi and Zalophotrema hepaticum. New host records include Z. hepaticum and Diphyllobothrium cordatum in the Steller's sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus); Nanophyetus salmincola in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus); P. zalophi in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina); and P. zalophi, Trigonocotyle sp. and Otostrongylus circumlitus in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).

  13. [Role of helminth antigens in the abnormal mitosis of bone marrow cells in laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkova, T N; Tatarnikova, N A; Berezhko, V K; Benediktov, I I

    2013-01-01

    The intraabdominal administration of somatic extracts of the cestodes Hydatigera taeniaformis Batsch 1786, Lamarck, 1816 and Diphyllobothrium latum Linnaeus, 1758 and the nematodes Anisakis simplex larva Rudolphi 1809, Toxocara canis Railliet et Henry, 1912 in albino mice proved that these helminths had a karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of the animals. The antigenic composition of these extracts was investigated using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The antigenic composition of the parasites was ascertained to affect their karyopathic properties. The amount of antigens and their foreignness caused a marked karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of laboratory animals during intraabdominal administration.

  14. Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhalife, Ibrahim S.; Hassan, Rafiaa R.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed A.; Al-Khayal, Laila A.

    2006-01-01

    We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)

  15. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

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    Gino Chaves da Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements.

  16. Human intestinal parasites from a Mamluk Period cesspool in the Christian quarter of Jerusalem: Potential indicators of long distance travel in the 15th century AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Prag, Kay; Clamer, Christa; Humbert, Jean-Baptiste; Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research is to determine which parasites were present in a mediaeval latrine from the old city of Jerusalem. This latrine contains fragments of pottery from the Middle East and also from Italy, suggesting links of some kind with Europe. Excavation identified two separate entry chutes emptying in a shared cesspool. Radiocarbon dating and pottery analysis is compatible with a date of use in the late fifteenth century and early sixteenth century. Twelve coprolites (preserved stool) and mixed cesspool sediment were analysed with light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Six species of intestinal parasites were identified. These were the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Taenia sp. (beef/pork/asiatic tapeworm) Diphyllobothrium sp. (fish tapeworm), and two protozoa that can cause dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis). While roundworm and whipworm were found in every sample, the other parasite species were present in only one or two samples each, suggesting that only a minority of those using the latrine were infected with those species. The role of Jerusalem as a site for long distance trade, migration or pilgrimage is considered when interpreting the Italian pottery and the parasites present, especially E. histolytica and Diphyllobothrium sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metodo para montaje permanente de huevos de helmintos enteroparasitos Definitive preservation of helminthic eggs

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    Victor Muñoz

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Se comunican resultados obtenidos empleando Medio de Hoyer para el montaje de huevos de helmintos enteroparásitos, destinado a preparaciones para colecciones docentes y/o de investigación. La utilización de esta técnica en muestras fecales conteniendo huevos de A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta y F. hepática, permitió la correcta observación de ellos en lecturas iniciadas a las 24 horas y mantenidas hasta 180 días después.The results using the Hoyer method for examining eggs of helminths enteroparasites are presented. This method is particularly swited for teaching and on research purposes. Using this technique in fecal sample containing eggs of A.lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta and F. hepática allowed the correct identification of then after 24 hours up to 180 days after the samples were obtained.

  18. Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Hill, Janet E; Paquet, Paul C; Thompson, R C Andrew; Wagner, Brent; Smits, Judit E G

    2012-05-01

    Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km(2), wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005-2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km(2)), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ≥14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ≤1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change.

  19. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  20. Old problems on a new playing field: Helminth zoonoses transmitted among dogs, wildlife, and people in a changing northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M

    2011-11-24

    Although surveillance is limited, indigenous residents at latitudes ranging from 53 to 73°N in Canada appear to have a higher occurrence of infection with some zoonotic parasites than the general population. Conversely, they are relatively naïve to other zoonotic parasites that have previously been unable to establish at northern latitudes. For those parasites that circulate among dogs, wildlife, and people, potential risk factors in the North include limited availability of veterinary services, presence of free-roaming dog populations, and consumption of locally harvested fish and wildlife. These regions are also experiencing some of the greatest impacts of climate change in North America, including increased temperature, precipitation, and frequency and severity of extreme weather. We review the current taxonomy, genetic diversity, host and geographic distributions, epidemiology and risk factors for 3 genera of helminths (Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus spp., and Toxocara sp.) in Canada's North in order to identify climate-sensitive aspects of their ecology. Free-living stages of parasitic zoonoses endemic in the Arctic (such as Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, the cervid strain of Echinococcus granulosus, and Arctic strains of Echinococcus multilocularis) will experience trade-offs between enhanced survival under wetter conditions and increased mortality under warmer conditions. Climate change might also lead to the introduction and establishment in the Arctic of parasitic zoonoses previously restricted to the sub-Arctic, such as Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and the prairie strain of E. multilocularis. Molecular techniques applied in broad geographic surveys are needed to address critical knowledge gaps in the geographic distribution, genetic diversity, and public health significance of zoonotic helminths already in the circumpolar North, and to determine the current barriers to range expansion of temperate-adapted parasites into the North. Dogs

  1. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  2. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  3. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  4. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alva

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica

  5. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Alicia; Cangalaya, Carla; Quiliano, Miguel; Krebs, Casey; Gilman, Robert H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica with a high

  6. The thermal regime and species composition of fish and invertebrates in Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David; Farag, Aida

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the thermal regime and relative abundance of native and nonnative fish and invertebrates within Kelly Warm Spring and Savage Ditch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Water temperatures within the system remained relatively warm year-round with mean temperatures >20 °C near the spring source and >5 °C approximately 2 km downstream of the source. A total of 7 nonnative species were collected: Convict/Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum), Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus), Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculata), and American bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Nonnative fish (Zebra Cichlids and Green Swordtails), red-rimmed melania snails, and bullfrog tadpoles dominated the upper 2 km of the system. Abundance estimates of the Zebra Cichlid exceeded 12,000 fish/km immediately downstream of the spring source. Relative abundance of native species increased movingdownstream as water temperatures attenuated with distance from the thermally warmed spring source; however, nonnative species were captured 4 km downstream from the spring. Fish diseases were prevalent in both native and nonnative fish from the Kelly Warm Spring pond. Clinostomum marginatum, a trematode parasite, was found in native species samples, and the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum was present in samples from nonnative species. Diphyllobothrium dendriticum is rare in Wyoming. Salmonella spp. were also found in some samples of nonnative species. These bacteria are associated with aquarium fish and aquaculture and are generally not found in the wild.

  7. Difilobotriasis humana en la Patagonia, Argentina Human diphyllobothriasis in Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Semenas

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del trabajo fué detectar hospedadores humanos en la zona andino patagónica argentina, teniendo en cuenta las prácticas de pesca desportiva y la importancia de los salmónidos dentro de la zona. MATERIAL Y METODO: Entre 1986 y 1995 se implementaron Campañas de Información en los laboratorios de Análisis Clínicos de la región andinopatagónica argentina, destinadas a lograr una detección más eficiente de la difilobotriasis, a través de análisis coproparasitológicos. RESULTADOS: Adicionalmente, se confeccionaron planillas destinadas a recoger información sobre las características de la infección, del tratamiento y del paciente. Durante este período se detectaron 13 nuevos casos humanos, por identificación directa del parásito o por la presencia de huevos en materia fecal. Las características de las infecciones responden a las descriptas para el género Diphyllobothrium. CONCLUSIONES: En la región, los salmónidos son los peces predilectos en la pesca deportiva. Estos peces, frecuentemente parasitados con larvas, constituyen la principal fuente de contagio para el hombre al ser consumidos insuficientemente cocidos o ahumados en frío.OBJECTIVE: In view of the amateur fishing practices and the importance of salmonids in the region the study sets out to detect human hosts in the Andean-Patagonian zone. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Information campaigns were carried out by Clinical Analysis Laboratories of Andean Patagonia between 1986 and 1995 to detect diphyllobothriasis more efficiently by means of coproparasitological analysis. RESULTS: Further, forms were prepared for the collection of information about infection, treatment and the characteristics of the human host. During this period 13 new cases were registered either through direct identification of the parasite or through the presence of eggs in the faeces. The characteristics of infection are similar to those described for the genus Diphyllobothrium

  8. Human intestinal parasites in crusader Acre: Evidence for migration with disease in the medieval period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D; Anastasiou, Evilena; Syon, Danny

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research is to highlight the role of ancient parasites as evidence for human migration in past populations. The material analysed was soil sediment from the excavation of a medieval cesspool in the city of Acre, in Israel. Archaeological stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of a fragment of animal bone from the cesspool confirm its use in the 13th century CE, during the crusader period. At that time Acre was located in the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem. Soil samples from the cesspool were analysed and eggs of the roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum) were identified. The fish tapeworm has only been found in the mainland Near East once before, in a latrine of the crusader Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller). It has been absent in all earlier cesspools, latrines and coprolites so far studied in the region. In contrast to its rarity in the Levant, the fish tapeworm was common in northern Europe during the medieval period. The presence of fish tapeworm eggs in a crusader period cesspool in Acre suggests its use by crusaders or pilgrims from northern Europe who travelled to the Levant carrying these parasites in their intestines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parasites of dogs from Indian settlements in northwestern Canada: a survey with public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, D H; King, J E; Eaton, R D; Allen, J R

    1973-01-01

    A total of 959 faecal samples were obtained from dogs in 12 native communities in Northern Saskatchewan, Central and Northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories. All samples were examined using a flotation technique. Samples from an area of endemic human amoebic infections were also examined by a formol-ether sedimentation method. Eighteen necropsies were performed. Entamoeba histolytica cysts were recovered from dog faeces at Loon Lake, Saskatchewan. Toxocara canis had low incidence in Saskatchewan and Central Alberta, and appeared to be almost non-existent further North. Toxascaris leonina was found in all areas surveyed. Canine hookworm infections were plentiful in all areas, the highest incidence being recorded from Northern Alberta and Northwest Territories. Many Taenia (or Echinococcus) infections were found consistently in all areas. Only one infection with Dipylidium caninum was discovered.Metorchis conjunctus infections were found to be common in the Saskatchewan reserves. Infections with Diphyllobothrium sp. were found in all communities with access to good fishing. One specimen of Dioctophyma renale was recovered at necropsy. Infections with parasites of no known zoonotic importance such as Trichuris, Alaria and Isospora species were also recorded.

  10. Endoparasitic helminths of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.

    The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.

  11. Intestinal Helminthoses in Dogs in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar YA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be­tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec­tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area."nMethods: During the survey, 160 gastrointestinal tracts of dogs killed for meat selected by simple sampling technique were collected and examined for helminths in Kaduna metropolis, latitude 100 50I  N and longitude 70 50I E."nResults: Of the helminths found, Dipylidium caninum (75.0%, Taenia hydatigena (43.8%, Diphyllobothrium latum (6.3%, Ancylostoma caninum (6.3% and Toxocara canis (6.3% were the most common. Female dogs were more likely of contacting intestinal helminths than male dogs (RR = 1.125. Higher mean worm burden was recorded for dogs infected by T. hydatigena and D. caninum than dogs infected by T. canis, D. latum or A. caninum."nConclusion: The presence of these parasites in dogs examined indicates a potential public health problem in Kaduna me­tropolis. Mass enlightenment of dog keepers on the need for periodic veterinary care and restriction of stray dogs through legislation formulation and enforcement are recommended as possible control measures.

  12. ANALISA TINGKAT PREVALENSI DAN DERAJAT INFEKSI PARASIT PADA IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Ephinephilus fuscoguttatus DI LOKASI BUDIDAYA BERBEDA

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    Marzuki Musyaffak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is the potential protein source for human. People consumption of fish requires attention related to whether the fish is safe to consume. This research is aimed at finding kind of parasite attack Groupers (E. fuscoguttatus and the prevalence and the infection level in the different farming location. The research method used that is by taking Groupers size between 10 cm - 35 cm as many  fish from all population in each location with the assumption of percentage the prevalence used was 10%. Sample then analyzed for amount and type of parasite attacked and determined level of prevalence and degree of parasite infection. Result showed the type of parasite attack Groupers are Anasakis sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Caligus sp., Diplectanum sp., Ergasillus sp., and Argulus sp. The different location of farming didn’t influence the parasite prevalence degree in Groupers. It is known that in location 1 in Lamongan, the prevalence level is 60% and the amount of fish attacked is 12, while in location 2 which is in Situbondo regency the prevalence degree is 50% with 10 fish attacked. t-test result showed that the level of infection degree did not differ perhaps because of the water condition quality between two location was relatively similar and still in the normal category, and also farmers have known the farming techniques well. Key Words : Prevalence, Degree of parasite infection, Groupers

  13. Possible influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the pathoecology of diphyllobothriasis and anisakiasis in ancient Chinchorro populations

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    Bernardo T Arriaza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical data show a clear relationship between the zoonosis rates of Diphyllobothrium pacificum and Anisakis caused by the El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO phenomenon along the Chilean coast. These parasites are endemic to the region and have a specific habitat distribution. D. pacificum prefers the warmer waters in the northern coast, while Anisakis prefers the colder waters of Southern Chile. The ENSO phenomenon causes a drastic inversion in the seawater temperatures in this region, modifying both the cool nutrient-rich seawater and the local ecology. This causes a latitudinal shift in marine parasite distribution and prevalence, as well as drastic environmental changes. The abundance of human mummies and archaeological coastal sites in the Atacama Desert provides an excellent model to test the ENSO impact on antiquity. We review the clinical and archaeological literature debating to what extent these parasites affected the health of the Chinchorros, the earliest settlers of this region. We hypothesise the Chinchorro and their descendants were affected by this natural and cyclical ENSO phenomenon and should therefore present fluctuating rates of D. pacificum and Anisakis infestations.

  14. Difilobotriasis humana en la Patagonia, Argentina

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    Semenas Liliana

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del trabajo fué detectar hospedadores humanos en la zona andino patagónica argentina, teniendo en cuenta las prácticas de pesca desportiva y la importancia de los salmónidos dentro de la zona. MATERIAL Y METODO: Entre 1986 y 1995 se implementaron Campañas de Información en los laboratorios de Análisis Clínicos de la región andinopatagónica argentina, destinadas a lograr una detección más eficiente de la difilobotriasis, a través de análisis coproparasitológicos. RESULTADOS: Adicionalmente, se confeccionaron planillas destinadas a recoger información sobre las características de la infección, del tratamiento y del paciente. Durante este período se detectaron 13 nuevos casos humanos, por identificación directa del parásito o por la presencia de huevos en materia fecal. Las características de las infecciones responden a las descriptas para el género Diphyllobothrium. CONCLUSIONES: En la región, los salmónidos son los peces predilectos en la pesca deportiva. Estos peces, frecuentemente parasitados con larvas, constituyen la principal fuente de contagio para el hombre al ser consumidos insuficientemente cocidos o ahumados en frío.

  15. Difilobotriasis humana en la Patagonia, Argentina

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    Liliana Semenas

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo del trabajo fué detectar hospedadores humanos en la zona andino patagónica argentina, teniendo en cuenta las prácticas de pesca desportiva y la importancia de los salmónidos dentro de la zona. MATERIAL Y METODO: Entre 1986 y 1995 se implementaron Campañas de Información en los laboratorios de Análisis Clínicos de la región andinopatagónica argentina, destinadas a lograr una detección más eficiente de la difilobotriasis, a través de análisis coproparasitológicos. RESULTADOS: Adicionalmente, se confeccionaron planillas destinadas a recoger información sobre las características de la infección, del tratamiento y del paciente. Durante este período se detectaron 13 nuevos casos humanos, por identificación directa del parásito o por la presencia de huevos en materia fecal. Las características de las infecciones responden a las descriptas para el género Diphyllobothrium. CONCLUSIONES: En la región, los salmónidos son los peces predilectos en la pesca deportiva. Estos peces, frecuentemente parasitados con larvas, constituyen la principal fuente de contagio para el hombre al ser consumidos insuficientemente cocidos o ahumados en frío.

  16. [Prevalence of infection by intestinal helminths and protozoa in school children from a coastal locality in the province of Valdivia, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, N; Torres, P

    1994-01-01

    During July-August 1989, 219 coprological samples from primary school children from Niebla and Los Molinos localities (39 degrees 52'S, 73 degrees 26'W) in the coast of province of Valdivia, Chile, were analysed. Prevalence % (in parentheses) of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths were the followings: Entamoeba histolytica: (18.0), Entamoeba coli (34.0), Endolimax nana (34.4), Iodamoeba buetschlii (7.4), Blastocystis hominis (64.3), Giardia intestinalis (27.9) Chilomastix mesnili (0.8), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.7), Trichuris trichiura (32.0), Trichostronqylidea gen. sp. (0.8), Enterobius vermicularis (1.6), Hymenolepis nana (0.4) Diphyllobothrium sp. (0.4). No sanitary conditions, water, faeces and garbage disposal were detected in the 55.5%, 86.4% and 52.7% of 110 houses from the sector, respectively. The high prevalence of protozoa and helminths intestinal infections in the sector are related to no sanitary conditions of houses and fecal contamination of the estuary of the Valdivia river.

  17. Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review

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    Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

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    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  19. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  20. Паразитозы домашних хищников городских популяций Ивановской области

    OpenAIRE

    Абалихин, Борис; Егоров, Сергей; Соколов, Евгений; Баландина, Валентина; Егоров, Дмитрий; Крючкова, Елена

    2014-01-01

    В работе определен видовой состав эктои эндопаразитозов квартирных, бродячих и тех домашних плотоядных, которые никогда не покидали пределов квартиры в городах Ивановской области. В результате исследований установлена зараженность собак и кошек паразитами классов Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Piroplasmea, Conoidasida, Insecta. Квартирные собаки заражены 13-ю видами паразитов: из Trematoda обнаружили Alaria alata; из Cestoda Dipylidium caninum и Diphyllobothrium latum; Nematoda представлены To...

  1. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

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    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium