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Sample records for diphtheria toxoids adsorbed

  1. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  2. INTERACTION OF RECOMBINANT DIPHTHERIA TOXOIDS WITH CELLULAR RECEPTORS in vitro

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    K. Yu. Manoilov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to compare in vitro characteristics of reception of the natural diphtheria toxin — DT and its nontoxic recombinant analogs — toxoids. For assessing ligand-receptor interaction the method of immunoenzyme analysis and ELISA was used, where the bonding layer recombinant analogues of diphtheria toxin cell receptor HB-EGF from sensitive and resistant to the toxin of the organisms were served. According to the results of ELISA the natural diphtheria toxin, in contrast to recombinant toxoids — CRM197, and B subunit, interacted with mouse HB-EGF with a very low affinity. While human HB-EGF with an equally high affinity connected as toxoids as native diphtheria toxin. Therefore, the analyzed recombinant analogs of toxin obtained in E. coli cells did not reproduce in full measure the receptor specificity of the natural toxin, which should be considered in the case of using these proteins as biotech products.

  3. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, M.; Metz, B.; Tilstra, W.; Hendriksen, C.; Jiskoot, W.; Norde, W.; Kersten, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide

  4. Seroprevalence of diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies in children, adolescents and adults in Poland.

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    Zasada, Aleksandra A; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2013-11-19

    Recommendations for diphtheria immunization are to apply an effective primary immunization in infancy and to maintain immunity throughout life. Immunity against diphtheria depends primarily on antibody to the diphtheria toxin. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of IgG diphtheria antitoxin in sera of healthy children, adolescents and adults in Poland. A total of 1387 serum samples collected between 2010 and 2012 from individuals with ages ranging from 1 month to 85 years were investigated. Antibody concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA IgG, Euroimmun, Germany). The results showed that among 1387 individuals examined, 547 (39.4%) had anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibody levels below 0.1 IU/ml (36.9% ≤ 18 years and 40.5% >18 years old, respectively). The 212 (50.8%) children and 542 (55.9%) adults showed only basic protection (0.1-1.0 IU/ml) and need immediate booster. High levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were found more often in children and adolescent (12.2%) than in adults (3.6%) and this was statistically significant (P 60 years old. Characteristically, in individuals > 40 years old high levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were not seen. There were no statistically significant differences in results in relation to gender. The present study showed inadequate immunity levels to diphtheria amongst the Polish population, especially in adults > 40 years old and children ≤ 2 years old. To prevent reemergence of diphtheria an information campaign reminding people about recommendations concerning diphtheria booster vaccination in adults should be conducted. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the DTP vaccine used in Poland should be verified.

  5. ADJUVANT PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLES IMMOBILIZED RECOMBINANT DIPHTHERIA TOXOID FRAGMENT

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    T. O. Chudina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to compare the characteristics of nanoparticles with different chemical structure and size (colloidal gold Gold 1 and Gold 2, calcium phosphate CaP and poly(lactideco-glykolid PLGA 1 and 2 to find the most efficient carriers of antigen — recombinant diphtheria toxoid for per os immunization. According to the MTT test, all studied particles show no significant cytotoxic impact on the studied cells in vitro, with the exception of CaP nanoparticles, which in high concentrations have cytotoxic effect on the U937 cells, and Gold nanoparticles 1 and 2, that are able to inhibit growth of the L929 cells. The most effective phagocytosis by macrophage-like cells J774 is observed for PLGA nanoparticles 1 and 2 with the immobilized antigen, while Gold nanoparticles 1 and 2 with antigen can interact with the surface of these cells without being phagocytated by them. In BALB/c mice immunized per os with antigen immobilized on PLGA 1 and 2 as well as Gold 2 carriers, the concentration of specific IgA antibodies in blood significantly increases after the second immunization, compared with controls. In the group of mice treated with PLGA 2 conjugated antigen, the concentration of specific IgG in blood after the third immunization also increases. These results show the promise of nanoparticles PLGA 1 and 2 as adjuvant for immunization per os.

  6. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  7. Dynamic changes of horse serum T-globulin immunization with snake venoms, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids.

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    Lee, H F; Lee, J D; Lee, Y C

    1979-12-01

    In course of immunizing horses with snake venoms, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, a new serum component, T-globulin, was formed and migrated between the beta- and gamma-globulins. The T-globulin content was parallel with the antibody titre after the middle course of immunization. There were many components in snake antivenin and T-globulin was composed of most of those components. The components of diphtheria T-globulin were the same as those of crude antitoxin and tetanus T-globulin except one precipitin.

  8. Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Oligopolysaccaride-DiphtheriaeToxoide Conjugate in Mice

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    SM Rezavian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Yersiniosis is created by Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 and causes problems in the world especialy in cold and mild countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 oligopolysaccaride (OPS conjugate to diphtheria toxoid (DT as a vaccine candidate.   Methods : After cultivation of bacteria, the LPS were isolated by modified hot phenol method. Then dialysis and concentration were done and the OPS were extracted by acetic acid 2%. To conjugate with diphtheria toxoid, ADH was used as a spacer molecule and EDAC as a linker. Conjugate was purified by gel filtration. Then 4 groups of female BALB/c mice were selected (15 mice in each group. Injection was performed intraperitoneally in three doses with two weeks interval. Then serum samples were collected and antibody response against OPS was measured by indirect ELISA method for detection of total IgG, IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3.   Results: After second and third doses, OPS-DT recieved group showed significant increase in all types of antibodies titer in anti-OPS in comparison to group that recived nonconjugated OPS. The increase in titer of antibodies was as: OPS-DT>OPS>DT. A remarkable increase was shown in total IgG and IgM titers (with total amount of 3204 and 670, respectively. In IgG1 subclass the amount was 920 and in other subclasses of IgG (IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b the amounts were 910, 110, and 99, respectively.   Conclusion: The results shows that OPS of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 increases the anti-OPS antibodies in the form of conjugate with diphtheria toxoid and could be considered as an appropriate vaccine candidate.

  9. Diphtheria toxoid-containing microparticulate powder formulations for pulmonary vaccination : Preparation, characterization and evaluation in guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, Maryam; Pellikaan, Hubert C.; Hirschberg, Hoang; de Boerd, Anne H.; Crommelin, Daan J. A.; Hennink, Wim E.; Kersten, Gideon; Jiskoot, Wim

    2007-01-01

    this study, the potential of N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC, degree of quaternization 50%) and dextran microparticles for pulmonary delivery of diphtheria toxoid (DT) was investigated. The antigen-containing microparticles were prepared by drying of an aqueous solution of polymer and DT through a

  10. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

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    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-03

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  11. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

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    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  12. Nanoporous Microneedle Arrays Effectively Induce Antibody Responses against Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid

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    de Groot, Anne Marit; Platteel, Anouk C. M.; Kuijt, Nico; van Kooten, Peter J. S.; Vos, Pieter Jan; Sijts, Alice J. A. M.; van der Maaden, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The skin is immunologically very potent because of the high number of antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis, and is therefore considered to be very suitable for vaccination. However, the skin’s physical barrier, the stratum corneum, prevents foreign substances, including vaccines, from entering the skin. Microneedles, which are needle-like structures with dimensions in the micrometer range, form a relatively new approach to circumvent the stratum corneum, allowing for minimally invasive and pain-free vaccination. In this study, we tested ceramic nanoporous microneedle arrays (npMNAs), representing a novel microneedle-based drug delivery technology, for their ability to deliver the subunit vaccines diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT) intradermally. First, the piercing ability of the ceramic (alumina) npMNAs, which contained over 100 microneedles per array, a length of 475 µm, and an average pore size of 80 nm, was evaluated in mouse skin. Then, the hydrodynamic diameters of DT and TT and the loading of DT, TT, and imiquimod into, and subsequent release from the npMNAs were assessed in vitro. It was shown that DT and TT were successfully loaded into the tips of the ceramic nanoporous microneedles, and by using near-infrared fluorescently labeled antigens, we found that DT and TT were released following piercing of the antigen-loaded npMNAs into ex vivo murine skin. Finally, the application of DT- and TT-loaded npMNAs onto mouse skin in vivo led to the induction of antigen-specific antibodies, with titers similar to those obtained upon subcutaneous immunization with a similar dose. In conclusion, we show for the first time, the potential of npMNAs for intradermal (ID) immunization with subunit vaccines, which opens possibilities for future ID vaccination designs. PMID:29375544

  13. Nanoporous Microneedle Arrays Effectively Induce Antibody Responses against Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid.

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    de Groot, Anne Marit; Platteel, Anouk C M; Kuijt, Nico; van Kooten, Peter J S; Vos, Pieter Jan; Sijts, Alice J A M; van der Maaden, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The skin is immunologically very potent because of the high number of antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis, and is therefore considered to be very suitable for vaccination. However, the skin's physical barrier, the stratum corneum, prevents foreign substances, including vaccines, from entering the skin. Microneedles, which are needle-like structures with dimensions in the micrometer range, form a relatively new approach to circumvent the stratum corneum, allowing for minimally invasive and pain-free vaccination. In this study, we tested ceramic nanoporous microneedle arrays (npMNAs), representing a novel microneedle-based drug delivery technology, for their ability to deliver the subunit vaccines diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT) intradermally. First, the piercing ability of the ceramic (alumina) npMNAs, which contained over 100 microneedles per array, a length of 475 µm, and an average pore size of 80 nm, was evaluated in mouse skin. Then, the hydrodynamic diameters of DT and TT and the loading of DT, TT, and imiquimod into, and subsequent release from the npMNAs were assessed in vitro . It was shown that DT and TT were successfully loaded into the tips of the ceramic nanoporous microneedles, and by using near-infrared fluorescently labeled antigens, we found that DT and TT were released following piercing of the antigen-loaded npMNAs into ex vivo murine skin. Finally, the application of DT- and TT-loaded npMNAs onto mouse skin in vivo led to the induction of antigen-specific antibodies, with titers similar to those obtained upon subcutaneous immunization with a similar dose. In conclusion, we show for the first time, the potential of npMNAs for intradermal (ID) immunization with subunit vaccines, which opens possibilities for future ID vaccination designs.

  14. Nanoporous Microneedle Arrays Effectively Induce Antibody Responses against Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid

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    Anne Marit de Groot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The skin is immunologically very potent because of the high number of antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis, and is therefore considered to be very suitable for vaccination. However, the skin’s physical barrier, the stratum corneum, prevents foreign substances, including vaccines, from entering the skin. Microneedles, which are needle-like structures with dimensions in the micrometer range, form a relatively new approach to circumvent the stratum corneum, allowing for minimally invasive and pain-free vaccination. In this study, we tested ceramic nanoporous microneedle arrays (npMNAs, representing a novel microneedle-based drug delivery technology, for their ability to deliver the subunit vaccines diphtheria toxoid (DT and tetanus toxoid (TT intradermally. First, the piercing ability of the ceramic (alumina npMNAs, which contained over 100 microneedles per array, a length of 475 µm, and an average pore size of 80 nm, was evaluated in mouse skin. Then, the hydrodynamic diameters of DT and TT and the loading of DT, TT, and imiquimod into, and subsequent release from the npMNAs were assessed in vitro. It was shown that DT and TT were successfully loaded into the tips of the ceramic nanoporous microneedles, and by using near-infrared fluorescently labeled antigens, we found that DT and TT were released following piercing of the antigen-loaded npMNAs into ex vivo murine skin. Finally, the application of DT- and TT-loaded npMNAs onto mouse skin in vivo led to the induction of antigen-specific antibodies, with titers similar to those obtained upon subcutaneous immunization with a similar dose. In conclusion, we show for the first time, the potential of npMNAs for intradermal (ID immunization with subunit vaccines, which opens possibilities for future ID vaccination designs.

  15. Diphtheria toxoid loaded poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles as mucosal vaccine delivery systems.

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    Singh, Jasvinder; Pandit, Sreenivas; Bramwell, Vincent W; Alpar, H Oya

    2006-02-01

    Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-PCL blend and co-polymer nanoparticles encapsulating diphtheria toxoid (DT) were investigated for their potential as a mucosal vaccine delivery system. The nanoparticles, prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation method, demonstrated release profiles which were dependent on the properties of the polymers. An in vitro experiment using Caco-2 cells showed significantly higher uptake of PCL nanoparticles in comparison to polymeric PLGA, the PLGA-PCL blend and co-polymer nanoparticles. The highest uptake mediated by the most hydrophobic nanoparticles using Caco-2 cells was mirrored in the in vivo studies following nasal administration. PCL nanoparticles induced DT serum specific IgG antibody responses significantly higher than PLGA. A significant positive correlation between hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles and the immune response was observed following intramuscular administration. The positive correlation between hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles and serum DT specific IgG antibody response was also observed after intranasal administration of the nanoparticles. The cytokine assays showed that the serum IgG antibody response induced is different according to the route of administration, indicated by the differential levels of IL-6 and IFN-gamma. The nanoparticles eliciting the highest IgG antibody response did not necessarily elicit the highest levels of the cytokines IL-6 and IFN-gamma.

  16. Hoffmeister Series Ions Protect Diphtheria Toxoid from Structural Damages at Solvent/Water Interface

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    Pedro S. de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During the W1/O phase (in the W1/O/W2 process of protein microencapsulation within poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA, hydrophobic interfaces are expanded where interfacial adsorption occurs followed by protein unfolding and aggregation. Spectroscopic and immunological techniques were used to ascertain the effects of the Hoffmeister series ions on Diphtheria toxoid (Dtxd stability during the W1/O phase. A correlation was established between salts used in aqueous solutions and the changes in Dtxd solubility and conformation. The Dtxd α-helical content was quite stable thus leading to the conclusion that encapsulation was followed by protein aggregation, with minor exposition of hydrophobic residues and a small change at the S-S dihedral angle. Dtxd aggregation is 95% avoided by the chaotropic SCN-. This was used to prepare a stable Dtxd and immunologically recognized/PLGA formulation in the presence of 30 mM SNC-. The recovery increased by 10.42% or 23.2% when microencapsulation was within the -COOMe or -COOH (12kDa PLGA, respectively. In conclusion, the aim of this work was achieved, which was to obtain the maximum of Dtxd stability after contact with CH2Cl2 to begin its PLGA microencapsulation within ideal conditions. This was a technological breakthrough because a simple solution like salt addition avoided heterologous proteins usage.

  17. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine

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    Certiva® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Daptacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  18. Short-term and long-term antibody response by mice after immunization against Neisseria meningitidis B or diphtheria toxoid

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    G.P. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB is a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood worldwide. The only MenB vaccine available in Brazil was produced in Cuba and has shown unsatisfactory efficacy when used to immunize millions of children in Brazil. In the present study, we compared the specific functional antibody responses evoked by the Cuban MenB vaccine with a standard vaccine against diphtheria (DTP: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis after primary immunization and boosting of mice. The peak of bactericidal and opsonic antibody titers to MenB and of neutralizing antibodies to diphtheria toxoid (DT was reached after triple immunization with the MenB vaccine or DTP vaccine, respectively. However, 4 months after immunization, protective DT antibody levels were present in all DTP-vaccinated mice but in only 20% of the mice immunized against MenB. After 6 months of primary immunization, about 70% of animals still had protective neutralizing DT antibodies, but none had significant bactericidal antibodies to MenB. The booster doses of DTP or MenB vaccines produced a significant antibody recall response, suggesting that both vaccines were able to generate and maintain memory B cells during the period studied (6 months post-triple immunization. Therefore, due to the short duration of serological memory induced by the MenB vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC® vaccine, its use should be restricted to outbreaks of meningococcal disease.

  19. Enhanced surveillance of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines in pregnancy in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2011-2015.

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    Moro, Pedro L; Cragan, Janet; Tepper, Naomi; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; Museru, Oidda; Lewis, Paige; Broder, Karen

    2016-04-29

    In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued updated recommendations that all pregnant women routinely receive a dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. We characterized reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) in pregnant women who received Tdap after this updated recommendation (2011-2015) and compared the pattern of adverse events (AEs) with the period before the updated recommendation (2005-2010). We searched the VAERS database for reports of AEs in pregnant women who received Tdap vaccine after the routine recommendation (11/01/2011-6/30/2015) and compared it to published data before the routine Tdap recommendation (01/01/2005-06/30/2010). We conducted clinical review of reports and available medical records. The clinical pattern of reports in the post-recommendation period was compared with the pattern before the routine Tdap recommendation. We found 392 reports of Tdap vaccination after the routine recommendation. One neonatal death but no maternal deaths were reported. No maternal or neonatal deaths were reported before the recommendation. We observed an increase in proportion of reports for stillbirths (1.5-2.8%) and injection site reactions/arm pain (4.5-11.9%) after the recommendation compared to the period before the routine recommendation for Tdap during pregnancy. We noted a decrease in reports of spontaneous abortion (16.7-1%). After the 2011 Tdap recommendation, in most reports, vaccination (79%) occurred during the third trimester compared to 4% before the 2011 Tdap recommendation. Twenty-six reports of repeat Tdap were received in VAERS; 13 did not report an AE. One medical facility accounted for 27% of all submitted reports. No new or unexpected vaccine AEs were noted among pregnant women who received Tdap after routine recommendations for maternal Tdap vaccination. Changes in reporting patterns would be expected, given the broader use of

  20. Diphtheria

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    Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection. You can catch it from a person who has the infection ... as a toy, that has bacteria on it. Diphtheria usually affects the nose and throat. Symptoms include ...

  1. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

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    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They ... United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...

  2. Predictors of Low Uptake of Prenatal Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Immunization in Privately Insured Women in the United States.

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    Butler, Anne M; Layton, J Bradley; Li, Dongmei; Hudgens, Michael G; Boggess, Kim A; McGrath, Leah J; Weber, David J; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    To examine the uptake of prenatal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization among pregnant women in the United States. Using MarketScan data, we conducted a historical cohort study among pregnant women with employer-based commercial insurance in the United States who delivered between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. We examined temporal trends of uptake, predictors of uptake, and timing of Tdap immunization. Among 1,222,384 eligible pregnancies in 1,147,711 women, receipt of prenatal Tdap immunization increased from 0.0% of women who delivered in January 2010 to 9.8% who delivered in October 2012 (the date of the recommendation by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Tdap during every pregnancy) to 44.4% who delivered in December 2014. Among women who received Tdap during pregnancy, the majority were immunized between 27 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation per the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation. In multivariable analyses among women who delivered between November 2012 and December 2014, rates of prenatal Tdap immunization were lower for women younger than 25 years of age (eg, 20-24 compared with 30-34 years rate ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.88), with other children (eg, three compared with zero children: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84-0.88), residing in the South compared with the Midwest (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.80-0.82), or with emergency department visits in early pregnancy (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.92-0.95). The proportion of pregnant women who received prenatal Tdap increased with increasing gestational age at birth. By the end of 2014, fewer than half of pregnant women in the United States were receiving prenatal Tdap immunization. Implementation and dissemination strategies are needed to increase Tdap coverage among pregnant women, especially those who are young, have other children, or reside in the South.

  3. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults aged 65 years and older - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine booster dose for all adolescents aged 11 through 18 years (preferred at 11 through 12 years) and for those adults aged 19 through 64 years who have not yet received a dose. In October 2010, despite the lack of an approved Tdap vaccine for adults aged 65 years and older, ACIP recommended that unvaccinated adults aged 65 years and older be vaccinated with Tdap if in close contact with an infant, and that other adults aged 65 years and older may receive Tdap. In July 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved expanding the age indication for Boostrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) to aged 65 years and older. In February 2012, ACIP recommended Tdap for all adults aged 65 years and older. This recommendation supersedes previous Tdap recommendations regarding adults aged 65 years and older.

  4. Frequency of medically attended adverse events following tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine in adolescents and young adults: a Vaccine Safety Datalink study

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    Naleway Allison

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local reactions are the most commonly reported adverse events following tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (Td vaccine and the risk of local reactions may increase with number of prior Td vaccinations. Methods To estimate the risk of medically attended local reactions following Td vaccination in adolescents and young adults we conducted a six-year retrospective cohort study assessing 436,828 Td vaccinations given to persons 9 through 25 years of age in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population from 1999 through 2004. Results Overall, the estimated risk of a medically attended local reaction was 3.6 events per 10,000 Td vaccinations. The lowest risk (2.8 events per 10,000 vaccinations was found in the 11 to 15 year old age group. In comparison with that group, the event risks were significantly higher in both the 9 to 10 and 21 to 25 year old age groups. The risk of a local reaction was significantly higher in persons who had received another tetanus and diphtheria toxoid containing vaccine (TDCV in the previous five years (incidence rate ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 7.2. Twenty-eight percent of persons with a local reaction to Td vaccine were prescribed antibiotics. Conclusion Medically attended local reactions were uncommon following Td vaccination. The risk of those reactions varied by age and by prior receipt of TDCVs. These findings provide a point of reference for future evaluations of the safety profile of newer vaccines containing tetanus or diphtheria toxoid.

  5. Baseline immunity to diphtheria and immunologic response after booster vaccination with reduced diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccine in Thai health care workers.

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    Wiboonchutikul, Surasak; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sangsajja, Chariya; Thientong, Varaporn; Likanonsakul, Sirirat; Srisopha, Somkid; Termvises, Patamavadee; Rujitip, Jitlada; Loiusirirotchanakul, Suda; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2014-07-01

    A prospective study to evaluate immune status against diphtheria and immunologic response after tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster vaccination was conducted in 250 Thai health care workers (HCWs). A protective antibody was found in 89.2% of the HCWs (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.3%-91.5%) before receipt of the Td booster vaccination, compared with 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1%-99.3%) after receipt of the first dose of booster (P diphtheria increased from 0.39 IU/mL (95% CI, 0.35-0.44 IU/mL) before the Td booster vaccination to 1.20 IU/mL (95% CI, 1.12-1.29 IU/mL) after the vaccination (P diphtheria, which still circulates in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carrier priming with CRM 197 or diphtheria toxoid has a different impact on the immunogenicity of the respective glycoconjugates: biophysical and immunochemical interpretation.

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    Pecetta, S; Lo Surdo, P; Tontini, M; Proietti, D; Zambonelli, C; Bottomley, M J; Biagini, M; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Romano, M R

    2015-01-03

    Glycoconjugate vaccines play an enormous role in preventing infectious diseases. The main carrier proteins used in commercial conjugate vaccines are the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Modern childhood routine vaccination schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously or in close sequence, increasing the concern that the repeated exposure to conjugates based on these carrier proteins might interfere with the anti-polysaccharide response. Extending previous observations we show here that priming mice with CRM197 or DT does not suppress the response to the carbohydrate moiety of CRM197 meningococcal serogroup A (MenA) conjugates, while priming with DT can suppress the response to DT-MenA conjugates. To explain these findings we made use of biophysical and immunochemical techniques applied mainly to MenA conjugates. Differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism data revealed that the CRM197 structure was altered by the chemical conjugation, while DT and the formaldehyde-treated form of CRM197 were less impacted, depending on the degree of glycosylation. Investigating the binding and avidity properties of IgGs induced in mice by non-conjugated carriers, we found that CRM197 induced low levels of anti-carrier antibodies, with decreased avidity for its MenA conjugates and poor binding to DT and respective MenA conjugates. In contrast, DT induced high antibody titers able to bind with comparable avidity both the protein and its conjugates but showing very low avidity for CRM197 and related conjugates. The low intrinsic immunogenicity of CRM197 as compared to DT, the structural modifications induced by glycoconjugation and detoxification processes, resulting in conformational changes in CRM197 and DT epitopes with consequent alteration of the antibody recognition and avidity, might explain the different behavior of CRM197 and DT in a carrier priming context. Copyright © 2014

  7. Evaluation and validation of a single-dilution potency assay based upon serology of vaccines containing diphtheria toxoid: statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman FR; Akkermans AM; Hendriksen CFM; de Jong WH

    1993-01-01

    This document presents the results of a validation study to the use of a single dilution assay in potency testing of the diphtheria component of DPT-polio vaccines. Based on historical data of multi-dilution assays on 27 consecutive batches a simulation study was performed to test the actual

  8. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-11-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier.

  9. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.

  10. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. [[Page... veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate by subcutaneous... provides for the veterinary prescription use of IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid...

  11. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Schroeder, Henri; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis

  12. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  13. Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Willieme, Stephanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J.F.; Muller, Claude P.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

  14. Immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid and poly(I:C) loaded cationic liposomes after hollow microneedle-mediated intradermal injection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangsheng; Leone, Mara; Romeijn, Stefan; Kersten, Gideon; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2018-06-02

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunogenicity of cationic liposomes loaded with diphtheria toxoid (DT) and poly(I:C) after hollow microneedle-mediated intradermal vaccination in mice. The following liposomal formulations were studied: DT loaded liposomes, a mixture of free DT and poly(I:C)-loaded liposomes, a mixture of DT-loaded liposomes and free poly(I:C), and liposomal formulations with DT and poly(I:C) either individually or co-encapsulated in the liposomes. Reference groups were DT solution adjuvanted with or without poly(I:C) (DT/poly(I:C)). The liposomal formulations were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, loading and release of DT and poly(I:C). After intradermal injection of BALB/c mice with the formulations through a hollow microneedle, the immunogenicity was assessed by DT-specific ELISAs. All formulations induced similar total IgG and IgG1 titers. However, all the liposomal groups containing both DT and poly(I:C) showed enhanced IgG2a titers compared to DT/poly(I:C) solution, indicating that the immune response was skewed towards a Th1 direction. This enhancement was similar for all liposomal groups that contain both DT and poly(I:C) in the formulations. Our results reveal that a mixture of DT encapsulated liposomes and poly(I:C) encapsulated liposomes have a similar effect on the antibody responses as DT and poly(I:C) co-encapsulated liposomes. These findings may have implications for future design of liposomal vaccine delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioimmunodiffusion technique for determining diphtheria antitoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniar, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunodiffusion technique for detecting low levels of diphtheria antitoxin was developed. Diphtheria toxoid was labelled with 125 I to facilitate detection of lines of precipitation by the use of X-ray film, the lower limit of detection being 0.001 unit per millilitre of diphtheria antitoxin. (author)

  16. Structural characterisation of diphtheria toxoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Bernardus

    2005-01-01

    The primary concern of the vaccine industry is to produce vaccines with consistent high quality. To that end, control tests are performed in all stages of manufacturing from starting materials through final vaccine lots. Many animal-based tests are included to determine the potency and safety of

  17. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hale; Ozgul, Esra; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem

    2010-01-01

    We present a previously healthy 6-month-old boy who was admitted to our hospital with lethargy, hypotonia and focal clonic seizures 6 days following diptheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination. A diagnosis of acute necrotising encephalopathy was made with the aid of MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  18. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hale; Ozgul, Esra; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    We present a previously healthy 6-month-old boy who was admitted to our hospital with lethargy, hypotonia and focal clonic seizures 6 days following diptheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination. A diagnosis of acute necrotising encephalopathy was made with the aid of MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  19. Specific IgE and IgG4 immune responses to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid in atopic and nonatopic children during the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannemann, A.; van Ree, R.; Kulig, M.; Bergmann, R. L.; Bauer, P.; Forster, J.; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I.; Aalberse, R. C.; Wahn, U.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to investigate, whether atopic and nonatopic children show differences in their specific IgE and IgG4 immune responses to tetanus (T) and diphtheria (D) antigens, we studied 538 children who had been followed from birth on and from whom records had been kept of all

  20. Postbooster Antibodies from Humans as Source of Diphtheria Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Martin, Jesús F; Avila-Alonso, Ana; González-Rivera, Milagros; Tamayo, Eduardo; Eiros, Jose María; Almansa, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use is in limited supply. A potential source might be affinity-purified antibodies originally derived from plasma of adults who received a booster dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid. These antibodies might be useful for treating even severe cases of diphtheria.

  1. Collaborative study for establishment of the European Pharmacopoeia BRP batch 1 for diphtheria toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesardic, D; Prior, C; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2003-07-01

    A stable liquid candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for diphtheria toxin was prepared in peptone buffer (nominal content of diphtheria toxin: 1 Lf/ml, 0.4 micro g/ml), filled in ampoules (filling volume: 1 ml) and characterised in a collaborative study. The toxin is to be used in the test "Absence of toxin and irreversibility of toxoid" as described in the current European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed) (2002:0443). Eleven laboratories assessed the specific activity of the preparation by in vivo and in vitro assays. The material is assumed to have satisfactory stability with a calculated predicted loss of activity of LD( 50)/ml (lethal challenge) and >75 000 Lr/Lf (intradermal challenge). The candidate BRP was successfully used in nine laboratories and confirmed suitable for use in the Vero cell test for "Absence of toxin and irreversibility of toxoid" as described in the Ph. Eur. monograph 2002:0443; i.e., concentrations of 5 x 10( -5) Lf/ml and below caused cytotoxic effects in the Vero cell test. Due to its liquid nature, the stability of the material will be monitored at regular intervals and preparation of a stable freeze-dried formulation will be considered for long-term use. Additional studies will be performed to confirm suitability of this BRP for other applications. The candidate BRP was adopted as the Ph. Eur. reference material for Diphtheria Toxin Batch 1 by the Ph. Eur. Commission at its session in March 2003.

  2. Diphtheria Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  3. Seroprevalence study of anti diphtheria antibodies in two age-groups of Romanian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Coldea, Ileana-Luminiţa; Ilie, Anamaria; Stănescu, Aurora; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Diphtheria represents a serious infectious disease with high epidemic potential. It is a vaccine preventable disease (a minimum vaccine coverage of 95% for children of 1 year and 90% in adults could prevent the disease). Diphtheria vaccination is included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). Complete vaccination for children consists in DTaP (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine) vaccine administration from the age of 2 months until 4 years and dT vaccine (tetanus toxoid and a reduced dose of diphtheria toxoid) at 14 years old. The aim of this paper was to highlight the protection against diphtheria of an age segment of the Romanian adult population (20 to 39 years old) using a seroprevalence study. The Romanian subjects were selected from two age groups: 20-29 years (n = 219) and 30-39 years (n = 229), representative for all counties of Romania. The commercial kit Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA (IgG) (EUROIMMUN) was used to detect the antibodies of IgG class against diphtheria toxoid in the sera obtained from our subjects. We detected a 56.6% rate of positive sera (> 0.1 IU/ml--protection level) for the 20-29 age group and 31.7% positivity for the 30-39 age group. These data show a low protection level against diphtheria of the Romanian adult population, which decreases with age. The serologic data on preventable vaccine diseases are useful in order to evaluate the success of the immunization programs.

  4. Epidemiology of diphtheria in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaz, A; Lance-Parker, S; Welty, T; Schaefer, L; Volmer, L; LaFromboise, C; Dixon, J; Haase, T; Kim, C; Popovic, T; Bisgard, K; Strebel, P; Wharton, M

    2000-07-01

    Respiratory diphtheria was one of the most common causes of death among children in the pre-vaccine era. Since the introduction of diphtheria toxoid vaccine in 1920s, and its widespread use by the late 1940s, diphtheria became increasingly rare in the United States. However, through the 1970s diphtheria remained endemic in some states, with reported incidence rates > 1.0 per million population in six states (Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Washington). Starting in 1980, less than five cases have been reported each year in the United States. The majority of culture-confirmed cases have been associated with importation from other countries. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the organism causing diphtheria, was thought to have become rare or even have disappeared from previously endemic areas such as South Dakota. However, during four months in 1996, 11 persons (one index case, six patients and four household contacts) in an American Indian community in South Dakota were found to be infected by C. diphtheriae; six of these isolates were toxigenic. The findings in this report indicate that despite 20 years without reported respiratory diphtheria cases, toxigenic C. diphtheriae is still present in South Dakota. The continuous circulation of toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae emphasizes the need for health care providers throughout South Dakota to promote timely vaccination against diphtheria among persons of all ages and ethnic groups, to be aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of diphtheria so that cases can be promptly diagnosed and treated, and further public health measures can be taken to contain this serious disease.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS®) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio®) given as a booster dose at 6 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Vincent; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Boyer, Julie; Sadorge, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This randomized, comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to seroprotection 1 month after a single dose of DT Polio (standard-dose diphtheria), both vaccines being given as a second booster to healthy children at 6 years of age. Children were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of REVAXIS or DT Polio. Primary endpoints were the 1-month post-booster seroprotection rates for diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus type-1, -2 and -3 antigens. Secondary endpoints were immunogenicity and safety observations. Of 788 children screened, 760 were randomized: REVAXIS group, 384 children; DT Polio group, 376 children. No relevant difference in demographic characteristics at baseline was observed between REVAXIS and DT Polio groups. Noninferiority of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio for seroprotection was demonstrated against diphtheria (respectively 98.6% and 99.3%), tetanus (respectively 99.6% and 100%) and poliovirus antigens (100% for each types in both groups). No allergic reactions to REVAXIS were reported. A benefit/risk ratio in favor of REVAXIS was suggested by the trend towards a better tolerability of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio regarding the rate of severe solicited injection-site reactions. The results support the use of REVAXIS as a booster at 6 years of age in infants who previously received a three-dose primary series within the first 6 months of life and a first booster including diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus vaccine(s) given before 2 years of age. PMID:21441781

  6. [Diphtheria in the military forces: lessons and current status of prophylaxis, prospects of epidemiological control process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A B; Ogarkov, P I

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological situation of diphtheria in the world and in Russia and experience of mass vaccination of military personnel and civil population with diphtheria toxoid for the last 50 years. Early diagnosis of diphtheria in military personnel has a prognostic value. Authors described the peculiarities of epidemiological process of diphtheria in military personnel in 80-90 years of 20th century and organizational aspects of mass vaccination with diphtheria toxoid. Authors analyzed current problems of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diphtheria in military personnel and civil population and possible developments. According to long-term prognosis authors mentioned the increase of morbidity and came to conclusion that it is necessary enhance the epidemiological surveillance. Authors presented prospect ways of improvement of vaccination and rational approaches to immunization of military personnel under positive long-term epidemiological situation.

  7. METHODS OF CONTROL DIPHTHERIA VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isayenko Ye. Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination success depends not only on the timely coverage of threatened contingents, but also on the quality of vaccines. Every day, the requirements for security guarantees vaccines and their use guarantees of security increases. For the fast, reliable and independent scientific assessment of vaccine safety issues, WHO in 1999 created the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. To enhance the capacity of pharmaceutical supervision in relation to vaccines in 2012 it was developed the Global Vaccine Safety Initiative. The main directions of the Global Vaccine Safety programs are considered in this review. It’s noted more strict requirements of Ukrainian pharmaceutical industry to produce public immunization drugs regulated Supplements to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in comparison with other countries. This review considered diphtheria vaccine safety monitoring in the process of production according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO, described a subcutaneous method for determining the specific toxicity of the combined purified toxoid, characterized an intracutaneous method of determining of the presence of diphtheria toxin in each sample of the combined purified toxoid, that additionally used by some manufacturers. The definition of diphtheria toxin in dilutions of purified toxoid is presented. This review considered diphtheria vaccine safety monitoring in the process of production according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO, described a subcutaneous method for determining the specific toxicity of the combined purified toxoid, characterized an intracutaneous method of determining of the presence of diphtheria toxin in each sample of the combined purified toxoid, that additionally used by some manufacturers. The definition of diphtheria toxin in dilutions of purified toxoid is presented. As methods for determination of diphtheria toxin must be able to detect even a small amount

  8. 75 FR 7281 - Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine), Pentacel [Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus and Haemophilus b...

  9. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact.

  10. Diphtheria Disease Villain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we can shield ourselves with vaccines, fewer than 5 people get diphtheria each year. Diphtheria is a stubborn ... always foiled by the vaccine against it. Ninety-five percent of people with up-to-date diphtheria vaccine are protected. ...

  11. Diphtheria Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  12. Microbe Profile: Corynebacterium diphtheriae - an old foe always ready to seize opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskisson, Paul A

    2018-02-21

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a globally important Gram-positive aerobic Actinobacterium capable of causing the toxin-mediated disease, diphtheria. Diphtheria was a major cause of childhood mortality prior to the introduction of the toxoid vaccine, yet it is capable of rapid resurgence following the breakdown of healthcare provision, vaccination or displacement of people. The mechanism and treatment of toxin-mediated disease is well understood, however there are key gaps in our knowledge on the basic biology of C. diphtheriae particularly relating to host colonisation, the nature of asymptomatic carriage, population genomics and host adaptation.

  13. Diphtheria outbreak in Thailand, 2012; seroprevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults and its implications for immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-09-01

    An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.

  14. Identification of a human monoclonal antibody to replace equine diphtheria antitoxin for treatment of diphtheria intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Leila M; Booth, Brian J; Rowley, Kirk J; Leav, Brett A; Cheslock, Peter S; Garrity, Kerry A; Sloan, Susan E; Thomas, William; Babcock, Gregory J; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) has been the cornerstone of the treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection for more than 100 years. Although the global incidence of diphtheria has declined steadily over the last quarter of the 20th century, the disease remains endemic in many parts of the world, and significant outbreaks still occur. DAT is an equine polyclonal antibody that is not commercially available in the United States and is in short supply globally. A safer, more readily available alternative to DAT would be desirable. In the current study, we obtained human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) directly from antibody-secreting cells in the circulation of immunized human volunteers. We isolated a panel of diverse hMAbs that recognized diphtheria toxoid, as well as a variety of recombinant protein fragments of diphtheria toxin. Forty-five unique hMAbs were tested for neutralization of diphtheria toxin in in vitro cytotoxicity assays with a 50% effective concentration of 0.65 ng/ml for the lead candidate hMAb, 315C4. In addition, 25 μg of 315C4 completely protected guinea pigs from intoxication in an in vivo lethality model, yielding an estimated relative potency of 64 IU/mg. In comparison, 1.6 IU of DAT was necessary for full protection from morbidity and mortality in this model. We further established that our lead candidate hMAb binds to the receptor-binding domain of diphtheria toxin and physically blocks the toxin from binding to the putative receptor, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor. The discovery of a specific and potent human neutralizing antibody against diphtheria toxin holds promise as a potential therapeutic.

  15. In vitro pyrogenicity of the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis components of a trivalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Gunnar; Viitanen, Eila

    2005-05-25

    We have earlier found that a trivalent vaccine, containing antigenic components from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, induced secretion of the endogenous pyrogen interleukin 6 (IL-6) when added to fresh human blood in vitro. The results of the present study showed that the IL-6 secretion was induced by toxoids derived from the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, fresh whole blood from different donors reacted differently to the stimulation. The blood from some donors induced secretion of large concentrations of IL-6, while the blood from other donors induced essentially no IL-6 secretion as a response to stimulation with diphtheria toxoid or a mixture of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Repeated testing over several years using blood from the same donor confirmed a donor-dependency of the reaction. This donor-dependency was only found for the toxoid, since blood from all donors reacted with approximately similar IL-6 production to stimulation by endotoxin from the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, known to be mediated via the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Also, no donor-dependecy was found to highly purified lipoteichoic acid from the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, known to be mediated via TLR-2 and TLR-6. The receptors involved in stimulation by diphtheria toxoid are not known, but may differ from those used by endotoxin and lipoteichoic acid.

  16. Travelers' Health: Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... membrane tissue. Diphtheria is a nationally notifiable disease. TREATMENT Patients with respiratory diphtheria require hospitalization to monitor ... Jan 20;81(3):24–32. Chapter 3 - Dengue Chapter 3 - Ebola Virus Disease & Marburg Virus Disease ...

  17. Diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Carolyn; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Macneil, Adam; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soulaphy, Chanthavy; Souliphone, Phouthone; Reyburn, Rita; Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Watkins, Margaret; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-05

    Diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable disease. When vaccination coverage and population immunity are low, outbreaks can occur. We investigated a diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic that occurred during 2012-2013 and highlighted challenges in immunization services delivery to children in the country. We reviewed diphtheria surveillance data from April 1, 2012-May 31, 2013. A diphtheria case was defined as a respiratory illness consisting of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, or laryngitis, and an adherent tonsillar or nasopharyngeal pseudomembrane. To identify potential risk factors for diphtheria, we conducted a retrospective case-control study with two aged-matched neighborhood controls per case-patient in Houaphan Province, using bivariate analysis to calculate matched odds ratio (mOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Reasons for non-vaccination among unvaccinated persons were assessed. Sixty-two clinical cases of diphtheria and 12 diphtheria-related deaths were reported in seven of 17 provinces. Among case-patients, 43 (69%) were diphtheria case-patients from Houaphan province and 79 matched-controls were enrolled. Five (12%) case-patients and 20 (25%) controls had received DTP3 (mOR=0.4, CI=0.1-1.7). No diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine was received by 20 (48%) case-patients and 38 (46%) controls. Among case-patients and controls with no DTP dose, 43% of case-patients and 40% of controls lacked access to routine immunization services. Suboptimal DTP3 coverage likely caused the outbreak. To prevent continued outbreaks, access to routine immunization services should be strengthened, outreach visits need to be increased, and missed opportunities need to be minimized. In the short term, to rapidly increase population immunity, three rounds of DTP immunization campaign should be completed, targeting children aged 0-14years in affected provinces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-diphtheria immunity in Nigerian mothers and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Henry; Sadoh, Ayebo Evawere; Oviawe, Osawaru; Sadoh, Wilson Ehidiamen

    2014-05-30

    Immunity to diphtheria has been noted to wane with age such that previous studies have shown that a significant proportion of females with characteristics comparable to those of Nigerian women of reproductive age have inadequate levels of immunity to diphtheria. Thus, it is envisaged that Nigerian newborns may inherit inadequate levels of immunity to diphtheria from their mothers. Cord blood and peripheral maternal blood samples were collected from 231 mother-infant pairs at delivery. Anti-diphtheria antibody titres were assayed using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Recruited babies were those born at term with normal birth weight. As much as 29.9% of both mothers and their babies had no protection (antibody titrediphtheria. Ninety (39.0% CI 33%,45%) mothers and 107 (46.3% CI 40%,52%) babies were inadequately protected (antibody titrediphtheria. The difference in the geometric mean antibody titres of mothers and babies was statistically significant (pdiphtheria. Vaccination of parturient women with booster doses of diphtheria toxoid vaccine is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and evaluation of chitosan microspheres for tetanus, diphtheria and divalent vaccines: a comparative study of subcutaneous and intranasal administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Fahima M; Fahmy, Sahar A; El-Sayed, Aly M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to use the new technologies to induce immunity with minimum number of vaccination sessions to ensure compliance with reducing cost. To develop single shot vaccines of tetanus, diphtheria and divalent toxoids microsphere's formulations and to induce their immune response after intranasal and subcutaneous administration in mice. The microspheres were prepared using different concentrations of chitosan. Microsphere's morphology, particle size analysis, encapsulation efficiency and antigen integrity were performed and the best formulations were selected for in vitro and in vivo testing in mice. The developed microspheres have a yield percent of 70.3-91.5%. In vitro release of antigens indicated that tetanus release was increased up to 75 and 81% post T5 and TD5 formulations respectively, whereas diphtheria cumulative release increased up to 74 and 69% post D3 and TD5, respectively. Antibody levels produced were lower than that obtained from alum adsorbed vaccine but higher than the minimum level required to induce immunogenicity (>0.01 IU/mL). The subcutaneous route of administration was superior over the intranasal route in producing higher antibody levels. Chitosan microspheres were developed successfully and prove that chitosan represents a good candidate for vaccines delivery.

  20. Anti-idiotypic antibodies that protect cells against the action of diphtheria toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, J.M.; Gaudin, H.M.; Tirrell, S.M.; MacDonald, A.B.; Eidels, L.

    1989-01-01

    An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against the combining site (idiotype) of specific anti-diphtheria toxoid antibodies was characterized with respect to its interaction with highly diphtheria toxin-sensitive Vero cells. Although the anti-idiotypic serum protected Vero cells against the cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin, it did not prevent the binding of 125 I-labeled diphtheria toxin to the cells but did inhibit the internalization and degradation of 125 I-labeled toxin. This anti-idiotypic serum immunoprecipitated a cell-surface protein from radiolabeled Vero cells with an apparent Mr of approximately 15,000. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anti-idiotypic serum contains antibodies that carry an internal image of an internalization site on the toxin and that a cell-surface protein involved in toxin internalization possesses a complementary site recognized by both the toxin and the anti-idiotypic antibodies

  1. Anti-idiotypic antibodies that protect cells against the action of diphtheria toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolf, J.M.; Gaudin, H.M.; Tirrell, S.M.; MacDonald, A.B.; Eidels, L.

    1989-03-01

    An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against the combining site (idiotype) of specific anti-diphtheria toxoid antibodies was characterized with respect to its interaction with highly diphtheria toxin-sensitive Vero cells. Although the anti-idiotypic serum protected Vero cells against the cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin, it did not prevent the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled diphtheria toxin to the cells but did inhibit the internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled toxin. This anti-idiotypic serum immunoprecipitated a cell-surface protein from radiolabeled Vero cells with an apparent Mr of approximately 15,000. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anti-idiotypic serum contains antibodies that carry an internal image of an internalization site on the toxin and that a cell-surface protein involved in toxin internalization possesses a complementary site recognized by both the toxin and the anti-idiotypic antibodies.

  2. Differential diagnosis diphtheria adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Liashenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,824 human cases of diphtheria, treated at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital SP Botkin (St. Petersburg during 1993, as well as 19 deaths in 1994. It is known that early diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially diphtheria, contributes to the favorable outcome of the disease. The diagnosis of diphtheria at the prehospital stage is always difficult. Presented in detail the differential diagnosis of the disease, clinically similar to diphtheria: Lacunal angina, angina Simanovsky, infectious mononucleosis, angina Ludwig’s angina Dugue, syphilis, non-infectious with clinical «masks» of diphtheria and other. Diphtheria epidemic of 1993–1994 in Russia and, in particular, in St. Petersburg, showed that the late admission of patients with diphtheria infection in hospitals, usually associated with irregular differential diagnosis of this dangerous disease.

  3. SIALIDASE (NEURAMINIDASE) OF CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WARREN, L; SPEARING, C W

    1963-11-01

    Warren, Leonard (National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, Bethesda, Md.) and C. W. Spearing. Sialidase (neuraminidase) of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J. Bacteriol. 86:950-955. 1963.-The characteristics of a sialidase produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae were studied. The enzyme was partially purified from preparations of diphtheria toxin on a column of Sephadex G-75. By this means the lethal factor of diphtheria toxin was separated, in part, from the sialidase activity. There appeared to be a close immunological relationship between the sialidases of C. diphtheriae and clostridia, since a preparation of diphtheria antitoxin was as effective an inhibitor of diphtheria sialidase as of the sialidase of three species of clostridia. Conversely, antitoxin to clostridia inhibited diphtheria sialidase. Diphtheria antitoxin was essentially inactive toward influenza virus sialidase, and was completely inactive against purified sialidase of Vibrio cholerae. Removal of sialic acid from the proteins in a preparation of diphtheria antitoxin did not alter the inhibitory activity of the antitoxin against diphtheria sialidase. The enzyme operated optimally at pH 5.5 and did not require calcium ions for activity. The substrate specificity of diphtheria sialidase appears to be the same as that of other previously described sialidases.

  4. Diphtheria: forgotten, but not gone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, N R; Mahony, A; Friedman, N D

    2013-02-01

    Diphtheria is an acute, highly infectious, vaccine-preventable and previously endemic disease whose etiologic agent is Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria may manifest as an upper respiratory tract infection, a cutaneous infection or as an asymptomatic carrier state. The most common sites of infection are the pharynx and the tonsils, with common clinical manifestations that include sore throat, malaise, cervical lymphadenopathy and low-grade fever. Absorption and dissemination of C. diphtheriae from the respiratory tract can cause disseminated infection and may lead to cardiac or neurological toxicity. The cornerstone of treatment for diphtheria is diphtheria antitoxin. Early treatment is critical as the degree of protection is inversely proportional to the duration of the illness before its administration. Routine childhood vaccination virtually eliminated diphtheria in most industrialised countries. However, in the pre-vaccination era, diphtheria was the most common infectious cause of death in Australia. A case of diphtheria in Brisbane in April 2011 and two recent positive cultures in regional Victoria underscore the need for heightened awareness of C. diphtheriae as an important pathogen. In order to prevent the re-emergence of diphtheria in Australia, public health measures are required to increase immunity in early school leavers and the adult population, and to ensure that travellers to endemic regions are fully immunised. Health policy-makers and clinicians alike should not underestimate the importance of primary vaccination and booster vaccination against diphtheria among healthy adults and travellers. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. ACTION OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN IN THE GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseman, Joel B.; Pappenheimer, A. M.; Gill, D. M.; Harper, Annabel A.

    1970-01-01

    The blood clearance and distribution in the tissues of 125I after intravenous injection of small doses (1.5–5 MLD or 0.08–0.25 µg) of 125I-labeled diphtheria toxin has been followed in guinea pigs and rabbits and compared with the fate of equivalent amounts of injected 125I-labeled toxoid and bovine serum albumin. Toxoid disappeared most rapidly from the blood stream and label accumulated and was retained in liver, spleen, and especially in kidney. Both toxin and BSA behaved differently. Label was found widely distributed among all the organs except the nervous system and its rate of disappearance from the tissues paralleled its disappearance from the circulation. There was no evidence for any particular affinity of toxin for muscle tissue or for a "target" organ. Previous reports by others that toxin causes specific and selective impairment of protein synthesis in muscle tissue were not confirmed. On the contrary, both in guinea pigs and rabbits, a reduced rate of protein synthesis was observed in all tissues that had taken up the toxin label. In tissues removed from intoxicated animals of both species there was an associated reduction in aminoacyl transferase 2 content. It is concluded that the primary action of diphtheria toxin in the living animal is to effect the inactivation of aminoacyl transferase 2. The resulting inhibition in rate of protein synthesis leads to morphologic damage in all tissues reached by the toxin and ultimately to death of the animal. PMID:5511567

  6. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria and tetanus among children and young adults in Tajikistan: nationwide population-based survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Zakikhany, Katherina; Jabirov, Shamsiddin; Saparova, Nargis; Ursu, Pavel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Wassilak, Steve; Efstratiou, Androulla; Martin, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Tajikistan had a major diphtheria outbreak (≈ 10,000 cases) in the 1990 s, which was controlled after nationwide immunization campaigns with diphtheria-tetanus toxoid in 1995 and 1996. Since 2000, only 52 diphtheria cases have been reported. However, in coverage surveys conducted in 2000 and 2005, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage was lower than administratively reported estimates raising concerns about potential immunity gaps. To further assess population immunity to diphtheria in Tajikistan, diphtheria antibody testing was included in a large-scale nationwide serosurvey for vaccine-preventable diseases conducted in connection with a poliomyelitis outbreak in 2010. In addition, the serosurvey provided an opportunity to assess population immunity to tetanus. Residents of all regions of Tajikistan aged 1-24 years were included in the serosurvey implemented during September-October 2010. Participants were selected through stratified cluster sampling. Specimens were tested for diphtheria antibodies using a Vero cell neutralization assay and for tetanus antibodies using an anti-tetanus IgG ELISA. Antibody concentrations ≥ 0.1 IU/mL were considered seropositive. Overall, 51.4% (95% CI, 47.1%-55.6%) of participants were seropositive for diphtheria and 78.9% (95% CI, 74.7%-82.5%) were seropositive for tetanus. The lowest percentages of seropositivity for both diseases were observed among persons aged 10-19 years: diphtheria seropositivity was 37.1% (95% CI, 31.0%-43.7%) among 10-14 year-olds, and 35.3% (95% CI, 29.9%-41.1%) among 15-19 year-olds; tetanus seropositivity in respective age groups was 65.3% (95% CI, 58.4%-71.6%) and 70.1% (95% CI, 64.5%-75.2%). Population immunity for diphtheria in Tajikistan is low, particularly among 10-19 year-olds. Population immunity to tetanus is generally higher than for diphtheria, but is suboptimal among 10-19 year-olds. These findings highlight the need to improve routine immunization service delivery, and support a

  7. Public health action following an outbreak of toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria in an Auckland refugee resettlement centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gary E; Saunders, Helen; Matson, Angela; O'Kane, Fiona; Roberts, Sally A; Singh, Salvin K; Voss, Lesley M; Kiedrzynski, Tomasz

    2016-12-24

    Global forced displacement has climbed to unprecedented levels due largely to regional conflict. Degraded public health services leave displaced people vulnerable to multiple environmental and infectious hazards including vaccine preventable disease. While diphtheria is rarely notified in New Zealand, a 2 person outbreak of cutaneous diphtheria occurred in refugees from Afghanistan in February 2015 at the refugee resettlement centre in Auckland. Both cases had uncertain immunisation status. The index case presented with a scalp lesion during routine health screen and toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated. A secondary case of cutaneous diphtheria and an asymptomatic carrier were identified from skin and throat swabs. The 2 cases and 1 carrier were placed in consented restriction until antibiotic treatment and 2 clearance swabs were available. A total of 164 contacts were identified from within the same hostel accommodation as well as staff working in the refugee centre. All high risk contacts (n=101) were swabbed (throat, nasopharynx and open skin lesions) to assess C. diphtheriae carriage status. Chemoprophylaxis was administered (1 dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin or 10 days of oral erythromycin) and diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine offered regardless of immunisation status. Suspected cases were restricted on daily monitoring until swab clearance. A group of 49 low risk contacts were also offered vaccination. Results suggest a significant public health effort was required for a disease rarely seen in New Zealand. In light of increased worldwide forced displacement, similar outbreaks could occur and require a rigorous public health framework for management.

  8. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  9. Corynebacterium ulcerans cutaneous diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Luke S P; Leslie, Asuka; Meltzer, Margie; Sandison, Ann; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient with cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans who developed a right hand flexor sheath infection and symptoms of sepsis such as fever, tachycardia, and elevated C-reactive protein, after contact with domestic cats and dogs, and a fox. We summarise the epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, diagnosis, therapy, and public health aspects of this disease, with emphasis on improving recognition. In many European countries, C ulcerans has become the organism commonly associated with cutaneous diphtheria, usually seen as an imported tropical disease or resulting from contact with domestic and agricultural animals. Diagnosis relies on bacterial culture and confirmation of toxin production, with management requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and prompt administration of antitoxin, if necessary. Early diagnosis is essential for implementation of control measures and clear guidelines are needed to assist clinicians in managing clinical diphtheria. This case was a catalyst to the redrafting of the 2014 national UK interim guidelines for the public health management of diphtheria, released as final guidelines in March, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Meningococcal groups C and Y and haemophilus B tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix(®)): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Caroline M

    2013-05-01

    The meningococcal groups C and Y and Haemophilus b (Hib) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) contains Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C and Y capsular polysaccharide antigens, and Hib capsular polysaccharide [polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP)]. The HibMenCY-TT vaccine is available in the USA for use as active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroups C (MenC) and Y (MenY), and Hib in children 6 weeks-18 months of age. HibMenCY-TT is the first meningococcal vaccine available for use in the USA that can be administered to infants as young as 6 weeks of age. In a randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trial, the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, administered to infants at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age, was immunogenic against MenC and MenY, and met the prespecified criteria for immunogenicity. Anti-PRP antibodies, which have been shown to correlate with protection against Hib invasive disease, were also induced in the infants who received the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, with induced levels of this antibody noninferior to those occurring in the control group of infants who received a Hib tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months and a single dose of Hib conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein at 12-15 months. In several randomized, controlled clinical trials, HibMenCY-TT was coadministered with vaccines that are routinely administered to infants and toddlers in the USA. These vaccines included: diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined; 7-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide conjugate vaccine; measles, mumps and rubella vaccine; and varicella vaccine. Coadministration of these vaccines did not interfere with the immunogenicity of the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. Similarly, immune responses to the coadministered vaccines were not affected by the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. The tolerability profile of the Hib

  11. Features of Diphtheria in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lecture describes the etiology, epidemiology, classification and clinical features of diphtheria in children, taking into account various sites, covers the issues of diagnosis. Treatment for diphtheria in children is carried as per the order of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine № 354 dated July 9, 2004 in accordance with the form and severity of the disease.

  12. Use of gamma irradiated viper venom as the toxoid against viper venom poisoning in mice and rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hati, A.K.; Mandal, M.; Hati, R.N.; Das, S.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper deals with detoxification of the crude viper (Vipera russelli) venom by gamma irradiation and its effective immunogenic role in Balb/C mice, used as a toxoid. The successful immunization of rabbits with irradiated viper venom toxoid is also reported. Certain biochemical changes of the venom due to radiation exposure and neutralization capacity of the immune sera against phosphodiesterase and protease activity of the crude viper venom have also been studied. The neutralizing potency of Russell's viper venom (RVV) toxoid anti venom (anti venom raised in rabbits against γ-irradiated RVV toxoid adsorbed on aluminium phosphate), in comparison with a commercial bivalent anti venom (as a standard reference) with reference to haemorrhagic, necrotic and lethal effects of Russell's viper envenomation are reported. 25 refs

  13. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Hey, A S

    1997-01-01

    To assess the effect of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in rural Africa, blood samples were collected in two Kenyan sublocations. Serum antibodies against tetanus toxoid were measured in 155 individuals 1-70 years of age. Titers greater than the protective level of 0.01 IU/ml were found...... in 47% of the population. Protection was significantly higher in children born after the launching of the EPI (68%) and in women who had been at childbearing age since then (69%). Significantly lower protection was demonstrated in other age and sex-groups. The level of protection in children was equal...... in the two populations, whereas protection in fertile women was significantly lower in the population living a long distance from a health center. Diphtheria anti-toxin was measured in the samples from one sublocation, and 70 of 84 individuals (83%) had antibody levels greater than the protective level...

  14. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity among term and preterm infant-mother pairs in Turkey, a country where maternal and neonatal tetanus have recently been eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erener-Ercan, Tugba; Aslan, Mustafa; Vural, Mehmet; Erginoz, Ethem; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Ercan, Gokmen; Turkgeldi, Lale Wetherilt; Perk, Yildiz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibody titres and the placental transfer of these antibodies in a group of vaccinated and unvaccinated mothers and their term or preterm offsprings. Anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies were measured quantitatively by ELISA in 91 infant-mother pairs. Protective concentrations of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria were found in 58.3 and 50% of mothers in the unvaccinated group and 94.5 and 85.5% of the mothers in the vaccinated group. Protective concentrations were found in 63.9 and 50% of cord samples, respectively, in the unvaccinated group and in 96.4 and 85.5% of cord samples, respectively, in the vaccinated group (p = 0.0001). There were no differences in the maternal and cord geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of anti-toxoid antibodies between those who received two doses or one dose of Td. The GMCs of maternal and cord anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria were statistically similar between preterm and term groups. Placental transfer ratios (TR) for anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria were 175 and 150%, respectively, in the preterm group and 213 and 178%, respectively, in the term group. There was a strong correlation between maternal and cord anti-toxoid antibody levels. Maternal vaccination was the only predictor of having protective concentrations of anti-toxoid antibodies in cord blood. Vaccinating pregnant women with at least one dose of Td would confer protection for both the term and preterm infant-mother pairs. Therefore, health personnel caring for pregnant women have the responsibility to emphasize the importance of Td vaccination to avoid missed immunization opportunities.

  15. Dot immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of postvaccination immunity against pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Pavel; Bochkova, Maria; Timganova, Valeria; Zamorina, Svetlana; Rayev, Mikhail

    2017-06-01

    A dot immunoassay for simultaneous semiquantitative detection of IgG against tetanus toxoid (Ttx) and diphtheria toxoid (Dtx) and qualitative detection of anti-Bordetella pertussis IgGs in human blood serum using carbon nanoparticles functionalized with streptococcal protein G was developed. Inactivated B. pertussis cells in suspension form were used as an antigen in the immunoassay. Pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria antigens were separately spotted onto nitrocellulose strips, and then the immunostrips were successively incubated with blood sera and a suspension of carbon nanoparticles. The immunostrips were then scanned with a flatbed scanner, and the images obtained were processed with ImageJ. One hundred fifty-five venous blood serum samples from children vaccinated with diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine were tested in comparison with a conventional ELISA and agglutination test. The total time required for analysis of 32 serum samples was less than 3 h. Comparison between the results of the dot immunoassay and the corresponding ELISA/agglutination test revealed a high level of agreement (Cohen's kappa between 0.765 and 0.813). The lower limit of quantification was 0.06 IU/ml for anti-Ttx and anti-Dtx. The intra-assay coefficients of variation were less than 15% for anti-Ttx and anti-Dtx and less than 10% for anti-pertussis. The diagnostic sensitivity of detection of the antibody protection level was 93.5% for anti-Ttx [95% confidence interval (CI) 83.5-97.9%], 92.4% for anti-Dtx (95% CI 80.9297.5%), and 90.2% for anti-pertussis (95% CI 75.9-96.8%). The diagnostic specificity was 90.9% for anti-Ttx (95% CI 57.1-99.5%), 85% for anti-Dtx (95% CI 61.1-96.0%), and 89.3% for anti-pertussis (95%CI 80.8-94.5%). The dot immunoassay developed does not require expensive reading equipment, and allows detection of antibodies against three antigens in a single analysis. The immunostrips can be stored for a long time without changes in the

  16. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  17. Diphtheria: It is still prevalent!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Avani; Samdani, Sunil; Meena, Vinod; Sharma, Man Prakash

    2016-07-01

    Diphtheria is a respiratory infectious disease of childhood. It is a fatal disease and may cause complications if not recognized early and treated properly. Despite availability of effective vaccination it continues to be reported from many parts of the world particularly developing countries. To assess the demographic and clinical characteristics of diphtheria patients, and the predictors of outcomes of respiratory diphtheria. A prospective analysis of 180 patients with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory diphtheria admitted from 2011 to 2014 at a tertiary referral hospital. They were evaluated with respect to demographic details, immunization status, clinical features, complications and outcomes. Most common age group affected was children less than 5 years of age (87 cases, 48.33%). The peak incidence of diphtheria was seen in the months of September and October (111 cases, 62%). Majority of the patients were unimmunized (54%), followed by partially immunized (21%). The most common complication was respiratory in 80 cases (44%), followed by cardiac complications in 54 cases (30%), and renal (16%) and neurological complications (10%). Cardiac complications were associated with the highest mortality rate (63%). The presence of bull neck and pseudomembrane score >2 was associated with a high mortality. Diphtheria is still a preventable public health problem in many developing countries. Improved vaccination coverage, including booster dosage, coupled with early detection and effective treatment, may all reduce incidence and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diphtheria in Mayotte, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Emmanuel; Henry, Sabine; Badell, Edgar; Collet, Louis; Benoit-Cattin, Thierry; de Montera, Anne-Marie; Guiso, Nicole; Patey, Olivier; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Filleul, Laurent; Chieze, Francois; Olivier, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiology of diphtheria in the southwestern Indian Ocean is poorly documented. We analyzed 14 cases of infection with toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae reported during 2007-2015 in Mayotte, a French department located in this region. Local control of diphtheria is needed to minimize the risk for importation of the bacterium into disease-free areas.

  19. Re-emergence of diphtheria and pertussis: implications for Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoh, A E; Oladokun, R E

    2012-11-26

    In the prevaccine era pertussis and diphtheria were responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children. In the United States of America more than 125,000 cases of diphtheria with 10,000 deaths were reported annually in the 1920s. In the same period about 1.7 million cases of pertussis with 73,000 deaths were also reported. Vaccination against these two diseases has caused remarkable reduction in the morbidity and mortality from these diseases both in developed and developing countries. The initial vaccines were the combined diphtheria toxoid and whole cell pertussis vaccine. The recent reported increases in the incidence of these two diseases in countries, which maintain high childhood vaccination coverage is a source of concern not only to these countries but also for developing countries with weak immunization programmes. Nigeria for example reported 11,281 cases of pertussis, the second highest number of cases worldwide in 2009. Waning immunity in adult and adolescent populations has been reported and epidemiologically, more cases are being reported in adults and adolescents. Also a high proportion of pertussis cases are being reported in infants and most of these infant cases are linked to adult/adolescent sources. Recent approaches to control of these diseases include booster doses of combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine while the cocooning strategy (which is immunizing every person who is likely to have contact with a given infant such as mother, father, grandparents and health care workers) is being used in a number of countries. For developing countries including Nigeria where the capacity for making the diagnosis of both diseases is limited, strengthening of routine immunization as well as diagnostic capacity is imperative. Research to determine current levels of immunity in children, adolescents and adults is required. This will enable the determination of the need for booster doses and the age at which such boosters

  20. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria and pertussis in Beijing, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Chen, Meng; Zhang, Tiegang; Li, Juan; Zeng, Yang; Lu, Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of humoral immunity against diphtheria and pertussis by measuring IgG to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and pertussis toxin (PT) in general population of Beijing. A total of 2147 subjects aged 0-74 y were selected with a random sample of resident population in Beijing. The information of socio-demographic characteristics, vaccination history, disease history of diphtheria and pertussis were collected for each subject by questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for IgG antibodies to DT and PT by using commercial ELISA kits. The overall positivity rate of anti-DT IgG was 66.28% with the mean concentration of 2.169 IU/ml. Age stratified data showed that the highest positivity rate of 97.63% was observed in 1-4 y and the rates decreased with age. The positivity rates were only around 50% or below since 25 y old. The positivity rate of anti-PT IgG was 12.34% with the mean concentration of 15.163 IU/ml. The highest level of positivity rate (22.23%) and antibody level (23.101 IU/ml) was seen in diphtheria was observed at 1 y and 6 y respectively, which was consistent with the current immunization schedule. But there was no significant increase of immunity to pertussis observed after booster immunization at 18-24 months, but the proportions of undetectable were lowest in diphtheria and all the age groups showed a low immunity to pertussis indicating the potential risk of transmission and outbreaks of the 2 diseases in Beijing.

  1. Quantitation of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies by enzymoimmunoassay: methodology and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virella, G; Hyman, B

    1991-01-01

    We have developed enzymoimmunoassays (EIA) for the quantitation of antibodies (Ab) to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TT, DT) using Immulon I plates coated with the appropriate toxoid. A preparation of human tetanus immunoglobulin with a known concentration of anti-TT Ab was used as calibrator of the anti-TT antibody assay. The assay of anti-DT Ab is calibrated with a pool of human sera whose anti-DT Ab concentration was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using a horse anti-DT with known Ab concentration as calibrator. A peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgG was used in both assays. ABTS was used as substrate, and the reaction was stopped after 1 min incubation with citric acid and the OD measured at 414 nm on a Vmax reader. The assays have been applied to a variety of clinical situations. In patients suspected of having tetanus, the quantitation of antibodies has been helpful in establishing a diagnosis. In patients with a history of hypersensitivity to tetanus toxoid, verification of the levels of anti-TT antibody may prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful immunizations. The assays have also been used for the diagnostic evaluation of the humoral immune response to TT and DT, both in pediatric patients and in immunosuppressed patients. Several non-responders have been detected, and we have recently used the assay to monitor the effects of fish oil administration on the humoral immune response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children.Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule.Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection.Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies.The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The decrease in

  3. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sonobe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test. In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001. Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r² = 0.95, P < 0.0001 and for diphtheria (r² = 0.93, P < 0.0001 between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.

  4. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outb...

  5. Nanoporous Microneedle Arrays Effectively Induce Antibody Responses against Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anne Marit; Platteel, Anouk C M; Kuijt, Nico; van Kooten, Peter J S; Vos, Pieter Jan; Sijts, Alice J A M; van der Maaden, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The skin is immunologically very potent because of the high number of antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis, and is therefore considered to be very suitable for vaccination. However, the skin's physical barrier, the stratum corneum, prevents foreign substances, including vaccines,

  6. Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomovici, A; Barreto, L; Zickler, P; Meekison, W; Noya, F; Voloshen, T; Lavigne, P

    2012-03-30

    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in earlier clinical trials. Outcome measures were seroprotection (tetanus and diphtheria) or seropositivity (pertussis) and geometric mean concentrations. Humoral immune responses to all antigens were robust 1 month after initial immunization, decreased at subsequent measurements, but continued to exceed pre-immunization levels 1, 3, 5, and 10 years later. Protective levels of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin persisted in 99.3% of adolescents 10 years after a booster dose of Tdap. Seropositivity to 1 or more pertussis antigens also persisted in most adolescents for 10 years. Although tetanus antitoxin responses were similar in adults to those observed in adolescents, diphtheria antitoxin titers were lower, reflecting the fact that a smaller proportion of adults had received diphtheria toxoid in the previous 10 years compared to adolescents. These data will contribute to the selection of the optimal interval for repeat doses of Tdap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wijagkanalan, Wassana; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Petre, Jean; Hong Thai, Pham; Chauhan, Mukesh; Viviani, Simonetta

    2017-01-02

    An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP). A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18-35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN, anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Anti-PT neutralizing antibodies were assessed also by CHO cell assay. A total of 60 subjects (20 per each vaccine group) were enrolled and included in the safety analysis. Safety laboratory parameters, incidence of local and systemic post-immunization reactions during 7 d after vaccination and incidence of adverse events during one month after vaccination were similar in the 3 vaccine groups. One month after vaccination, seroresponse rates of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG antibodies exceeded 78% in all vaccine groups. The anti-PT IgG, anti-FHA IgG, and anti-PT neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher following immunization with BioNet's aP and BioNet's TdaP than Adacel® (Pdiphtheria GMTs at one month after immunization were comparable in all vaccine groups. All subjects had seroprotective titers of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies at baseline. In this first clinical study, PTgen-based BioNet's aP and TdaP vaccines showed a similar tolerability and safety profile to Adacel

  8. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy and reduced risk of infant acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R; Conlin, Ava Marie S

    2017-10-09

    To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and infant ARI at vaccination during pregnancy vs those who did not were 9% less likely to be diagnosed with an ARI at risk was 17% lower if vaccination was received between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). Similar results were observed when comparing mothers who received Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy in addition to Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy versus mothers who only received vaccination prior to pregnancy (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98). Maternal Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy was consistently protective against infant ARI in the first 2months of life vs no vaccination during pregnancy, regardless of Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy. Our findings strongly support current ACIP guidelines recommending Tdap vaccination in late pregnancy for every pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outbreak largely involved adolescents and young adults. PMID:3260143

  10. Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and any cases are often publicized in the newspaper or on television. This helps you to know ... MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department ...

  11. Lichen planus following tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Heather C; Wheat, Chikoti M; Tilson, Matthew P; Cuda, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of approximately 1%. Recent meta-analyses show that patients with hepatitis C virus have a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increased risk of developing lichen planus. Lichen planus has also followed vaccinations and has specifically been attributed to the hepatitis B vaccine, the influenza vaccine, and the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. We describe a case of lichen planus in a hepatitis C virus-infected African American male occurring in temporal association with the administration of the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. The patient's presentation was clinically consistent with lichen planus and confirmed by biopsy. It is likely that many cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus have gone unpublished or unrecognized. In areas with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, we may expect to see more cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus especially in light of the updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination recommendations. This case serves to educate healthcare providers about vaccine-induced lichen planus and, in particular, the need to counsel hepatitis C virus-infected patients about a potential risk of developing lichen planus following vaccination. We also reflect on current theories suggesting the T-cell-mediated pathogenesis of lichen planus and the role that hepatitis C virus and toxoid or protein vaccines may play in initiating the disease.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE DIPHTHERIA MORTALITY IN NIGERIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2011 ... RESULTS: Nine cases of diphtheria were seen and three mortalities were recorded giving a mortality rate ... tissue edema and airway obstruction by the.

  13. Neurologic manifestations of diphtheria and pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Viraj

    2014-01-01

    Historically, diphtheria was a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the prevaccine era. However, in recent times there has been a resurgence of diphtheria, especially in the newly independent states of the former USSR. Diphtheritic polyneuropathy can be a serious complication in patients who have a severe infection. In patients with pertussis, seizures and encephalopathy can occur as a complication of asphyxia. Vaccination against diphtheria and pertussis in children and booster vaccination in adults is recommended. DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) vaccination has been shown to increase the risk of febrile seizures in children. Currently, it appears that the risk of vaccine-induced encephalopathy and/or epilepsy following DTP vaccination, if any, is extremely low. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The immune response of horses to tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B C; Knoetze, P C

    1979-12-01

    An intramuscular injection of 8-16 Lf tetanus toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion protected adult horses against tetanus for at least 128 weeks. A booster dose of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution protected them for a further period of at least 3 1/2 years. Colostral immunity protected foals for at least 10 weeks. An intramuscular injection of 8 Lf toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion given to foals from immune dams when they were 10-18 weeks old did not elicit any antibody response. They did respond, however, to a booster injection of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution given 12 weeks after the first dose. New-born foals were shown to be inherently unable to respond to an injection of tetanus toxoid.

  15. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Tetanus, Diphtheria, and ... updates by email What's this? GO Related Health Topics Childhood Immunization Diphtheria Immunization Tetanus Whooping Cough National ...

  16. STUDY OF CARDIAC INVOLVEMENT IN DIPHTHERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Raju Gundam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diphtheria still endemic in many developing countries and is responsible for high case fatality. Myocardial involvement is a serious complication of diphtheria and diphtheria myocarditis frequently complicated by arrhythmias causes sudden death if not managed properly. So, early and adequate administration of Anti-Diphtheritic Serum (ADS and frequent monitoring particularly 24 hrs. ECG monitoring is helpful to detect any serious cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS A prospective study on patients who were culture positive diagnosed on the basis of WHO definition were treated and analysed in respect to homographic details, immunisation strategy, and clinical features with particular attention to myocarditis. RESULTS In the study, common age group affected by diphtheria was 5 to 10 years. Incidence of myocarditis more in same age group. Out of 64 patients with myocarditis, 23 patients died. CONCLUSION Incidence of diphtheria has increased in the recent years. Commonly effected age group is 5 to 10 years and most of them are presented with asymptomatic myocarditis. Symptomatic diphtheritic myocarditis has high mortality rate even with aggressive management. Patient who presented with either LBBB alone are with combination of other conduction of abnormalities has high mortality rate.

  17. Mathematical modeling of diphtheria transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornbundit, Kan; Triampo, Wannapong; Modchang, Charin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a mathematical model for describing diphtheria transmission in Thailand is proposed. Based on the course of diphtheria infection, the population is divided into 8 epidemiological classes, namely, susceptible, symptomatic infectious, asymptomatic infectious, carrier with full natural-acquired immunity, carrier with partial natural-acquired immunity, individual with full vaccine-induced immunity, and individual with partial vaccine-induced immunity. Parameter values in the model were either directly obtained from the literature, estimated from available data, or estimated by means of sensitivity analysis. Numerical solutions show that our model can correctly describe the decreasing trend of diphtheria cases in Thailand during the years 1977-2014. Furthermore, despite Thailand having high DTP vaccine coverage, our model predicts that there will be diphtheria outbreaks after the year 2014 due to waning immunity. Our model also suggests that providing booster doses to some susceptible individuals and those with partial immunity every 10 years is a potential way to inhibit future diphtheria outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diphtheria - 'The strangling angel' of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-02-01

    Diphtheria, an acute infectious condition caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, was once a major killer of children. Although the mortality rates dropped dramatically in the mid-twentieth century, due to a combination of improved standards of living and immunization programs, outbreaks are still occurring. Two children, aged four and five years respectively, are reported to demonstrate characteristic features of lethal cases. Death in case 1 was due to an extensive upper airway pseudomembrane causing acute respiratory failure. The diagnosis of diphtheria was only made at postmortem. Death in case 2 was due to acute cardiac failure with heart block complicating diphtheria. Other mechanisms in fatal cases involve disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal and endocrine failure. Declining levels of immunity among adults has resulted in a change in the epidemiological pattern of the disease with an older age of victims in recent outbreaks. As a result of population shifts and failure to immunize children it is likely that forensic pathologists may see more cases of diphtheria in the future. Due to the rarity of cases in Western communities and atypical presentations, the diagnosis may only be established at autopsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis: Ask the Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine is needed for wound management in a person who has not previously received Tdap, the use of Tdap is preferred over Td. We see many 10-year-olds for middle school entry immunization. Is one brand of Tdap preferred for this age group? No. ...

  20. Determinants of Clinical Diphtheria After Sub National Diphtheria Immunization Days In 2012 At Bangkalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feranita Utama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The government had held sub-national diphtheria immunization days in 2012 to combat an outbreak of diphtheria in East Java province. However, there werestill regencies or cities which had high incidence and Bangkalanregencywas the highest. The research aimed to analyze the determinants of diphtheria in Bangkalan after SNIDs. This research was case control study with 31 subjects as case and 124 as control spread in 25 case villages and 25 control villages. Bivariate analysis used chi-square and simple logistic regression. Multivariate analysis used logistic regression. Bivariate analysisresult showed that individual and household variables that had associate with incidence of diphtheria in the Bangkalan after SNIDs of diphtheria vaccine in 2012 were DPT immunization status, the status of SNIDs, age, and mother's education level. In this study, there were not associate between village variables with diphtheria in the Bangkalan after SNIDs. Multivariate analysis result showed that had associate with incidence of diphtheria in Bangkalan after SNIDs were no DPT immunization (p=0,012; OR=4,765, incomplete DPT immunization (p=0,001; OR=6,276, 3-7 years of age (p=0,014; OR=15,137, 7-15 years of age (p=0,001;OR=41,984, and no immunization in SNIDs (p=0,020; OR=3,553. Conclusion, the dominantfactors that affected diphtheriainBangkalanwere status of DPTimmunization, ageand the SNIDs of diphtheria. Recommendation, DPTimmunizationshould becomplete, boosterimmunization should be needed, monitoring theimplementation ofsubPIN should be strict, especially inschool, and thecoverage ofDPT3andsubPIN should be increased and its report should be improved. Keywords: diphtheria, sub-nationaldiphtheriaimmunization days, DPT                              immunization

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of the new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria vaccine in healthy Korean adolescents: A comparative active control, double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young Youn; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin Han

    2017-04-01

    A new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine was developed in Korea, and phase I and II clinical trials were successfully undertaken. We conducted this double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the new Td vaccine. Healthy adolescents 11-12 years of age were enrolled and randomized to receive the new Td vaccine (study group) or a commercially available Td vaccine (control group). Blood samples were collected prior to and 4 weeks after the vaccination. Between the study and control groups, seroprotection rate, booster response, and geometric mean titer of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were compared after the vaccination. All solicited and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events during the 6-week study period were monitored. A total of 164 adolescents received vaccination, and 156 of them were evaluated to assess immunogenicity. The seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer for antibodies against diphtheria were significantly higher in the study group, whereas those against tetanus were significantly higher in the control group. However, all seroprotection rates against diphtheria and tetanus in the study and control groups were high: 100% against diphtheria and tetanus in the study group, and 98.7% against diphtheria and 100% against tetanus in the control group. No significant differences in the frequency of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were observed between the two vaccine groups. The new Td vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and this new Td vaccine can be effectively used for preventing diphtheria and tetanus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Clinical Study of New Tetravalent (Type A, B, E, and F) Botulinum Toxoid Vaccine Derived from M Toxin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Nakaba; Kohda, Tomoko; Kozaki, Shunji; Morokuma, Kazunori; Horikawa, Yoshikane; Ginnaga, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Takahashi, Motohide

    2017-07-24

    Botulinum toxin is the most poisonous substance known, and is believed to be a highly lethal as a biological weapon; researchers of the toxin are exposed to this hazard. Botulinum toxoid vaccines have been produced and used in Japan. However, since clinical studies involving these vaccines were conducted before establishment of the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research in Japan, their immunogenicity and safety were not systematically assessed. In this study, we produced a new tetravalent (type A, B, E, and F) botulinum toxoid vaccine, the first ever to be derived from M toxin, and conducted quality control tests with reference to the Minimum Requirements in Japan for adsorbed tetanus toxoid vaccine. Subsequently, a clinical study using the new vaccine in 48 healthy adult volunteers was conducted according to the guidelines in Japan. No clinically serious adverse event was noted. Neutralizing antibody titers for each type of toxin in the participants' sera, 1 month after the 4th injection were more than 0.25 IU/mL, indicating sufficient protection. This study demonstrated that the vaccine has marked immunogenicity and is safe for use in humans.

  3. Evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of the new tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccines (GC1107) in healthy Korean adolescents: a phase II, double-blind, randomized, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young-Youn; Ma, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin-Han

    2013-04-01

    This phase II clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine (GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5) and control vaccine. This study was also performed to select the proper dose of tetanus toxoid in the new Td vaccines. Healthy adolescents aged between 11 and 12 yr participated in this study. A total of 130 subjects (44 GC1107-T5.0, 42 GC1107-T7.5 and 44 control vaccine) completed a single dose of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before and 4 weeks after the vaccination. In this study, all subjects (100%) in both GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5 groups showed seroprotective antibody levels (≥ 0.1 U/mL) against diphtheria or tetanus toxoids. After the vaccination, the geometric mean titer (GMT) against diphtheria was significantly higher in Group GC1107-T5.0 (6.53) and GC1107-T7.5 (6.11) than in the control group (3.96). The GMT against tetanus was 18.6 in Group GC1107-T5.0, 19.94 in GC1107-T7.5 and 19.01 in the control group after the vaccination. In this study, the rates of local adverse reactions were 67.3% and 59.1% in GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-7.5, respectively. No significant differences in the number of adverse reactions, prevalence and degree of severity of the solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were observed among the three groups. Thus, both newly developed Td vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity. GC1107-T5.0, which contains relatively small amounts of tetanus toxoid, has been selected for a phase III clinical trial.

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine administered to children 10 or 11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gary S; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Sheng, Xiaohua; Decker, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Boosting immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis through the use of Tdap vaccines is routinely recommended at 11 to 12 years of age; some states, however, require Tdap for entry into middle school, which may begin at 10 years of age. This study was conducted to determine whether Tdap5 (Adacel), which is licensed for use in children beginning at 11 years of age, is as safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds as it is in 11-year-olds. Children who had received 5 previous doses of any diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were enrolled in a phase IV clinical trial; 646 10-year-olds and 645 11-year-olds completed the study, which involved a single intramuscular dose of Tdap5 along with pre- and postvaccination serologies. Postvaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody to pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbria types 2 and 3) of 10-year-olds were noninferior to those of 11-year-olds, as were booster response rates for all pertussis antibodies, except for those to fimbrial antigens (94% and 97%, respectively). Seroprotection rates among 10-year-olds for tetanus and diphtheria were noninferior to those in 11-year-olds. Rates of injection site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and unsolicited adverse events, adverse reactions, and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. These data support the conclusion that Tdap5 is safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01311557.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. An isolated outbreak of diphtheria in South Africa, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, S; Archary, M; Mutevedzi, P; Mahabeer, Y; Govender, P; Ntshoe, G; Kuhn, W; Thomas, J; Olowolagba, A; Blumberg, L; McCarthy, K; Mlisana, K; DU Plessis, M; VON Gottberg, A; Moodley, P

    2017-07-01

    An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. A targeted vaccination campaign for children aged 6-15 years was carried out at schools in the two districts. The outbreak highlighted the need to improve diphtheria vaccination coverage in the province and to investigate the feasibility of offering diphtheria vaccines to healthcare workers.

  6. Diphtheria in the Postepidemic Period, Europe, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanne M.; Lucenko, Irina; Mercer, David; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2012-01-01

    Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere. Surveillance data from Diphtheria Surveillance Network countries and the World Health Organization European Region for 2000–2009 were analyzed. Latvia reported the highest annual incidence in Europe each year, but the Russian Federation and Ukraine accounted for 83% of all cases. Over the past 10 years, diphtheria incidence has decreased by >95% across the region. Although most deaths occurred in disease-endemic countries, case-fatality rates were highest in countries to which diphtheria is not endemic, where unfamiliarity can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In western Europe, toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans has increasingly been identified as the etiologic agent. Reduction in diphtheria incidence over the past 10 years is encouraging, but maintaining high vaccination coverage is essential to prevent indigenous C. ulcerans and reemergence of C. diphtheriae infections. PMID:22304732

  7. Diphtheria in the postepidemic period, Europe, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Lucenko, Irina; Mercer, David; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2012-02-01

    Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere. Surveillance data from Diphtheria Surveillance Network countries and the World Health Organization European Region for 2000-2009 were analyzed. Latvia reported the highest annual incidence in Europe each year, but the Russian Federation and Ukraine accounted for 83% of all cases. Over the past 10 years, diphtheria incidence has decreased by >95% across the region. Although most deaths occurred in disease-endemic countries, case-fatality rates were highest in countries to which diphtheria is not endemic, where unfamiliarity can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In western Europe, toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans has increasingly been identified as the etiologic agent. Reduction in diphtheria incidence over the past 10 years is encouraging, but maintaining high vaccination coverage is essential to prevent indigenous C. ulcerans and reemergence of C. diphtheriae.

  8. Sudden death of a child due to respiratory diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Rajanikanta; Behera, Chittaranjan; Arava, Sudheer Kumar; Kundu, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    A four-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with respiratory distress. Death occurred despite attempted resuscitation. The illness was not clinically diagnosed. Her father revealed that she had a fever and sore throat for the last four days and was not immunised for diphtheria. Characteristic gross and microscopic pathology of respiratory diphtheria and microbiological findings were observed. The cause of death was acute respiratory failure consequent upon upper airway obstruction from diphtheria. Forensic pathologists should remember that the diphtheria cases can cause sudden death especially in developing countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. [Cutaneous diphtheria after a minor injury in Sri Lanka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L; Mechlin, A; Schultz, E S

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous dipththeria is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in tropical regions, but rarely diagnosed in Germany. Following travel in Sri Lanka, a 60-year-old German presented to our dermatological clinic with a skin ulcer and extensive erythematous erosive edema of his left foot. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. There were no clinical signs of toxic diphtheria. The patient was treated with penicillin G and erythromycin, followed by a slow healing of the lesion. The isolated strain could be identified as toxigenic C. diphtheriae mitis. Due to increased travel activity, dermatologists should have uncommon infections like cutaneous diphtheria in mind.

  10. [First confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, J L; Merle, C; Bimet, F; Kiredjian, M; Goullin, B; Teyssou, R

    2000-01-01

    The first bacteriologically confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti was reported in 1998. It involved a three-year-old native-born infant who had been vaccinated during the first year of life with three doses of a combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and pertussis. A rapid clinical improvement was observed under erythromycin treatment. Other cases of laryngeal diphtheria have been observed. It is important to reverse decreasing vaccinal coverage in Djibouti and to warn incoming travelers of the need to be adequate immunized against diphtheria. Enhanced epidemiologic surveillance of this disease is also needed.

  11. Toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria in a returned traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Nur R; Koehler, Ann P; Shaw, Doug D; Graham, Caitlin R

    2014-12-31

    Diphtheria is rarely reported in Australia. A case of cutaneous diphtheria was reported to the South Australian Department for Health and Ageing in April 2013 in an Australian-born 18-year-old female following travel in India. The case presented with a skin ulcer on her toe. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. The case was treated with antibiotics. The public health response included infection control advice, assessing the case and household contacts for organism carriage and providing antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to contacts. Although cutaneous diphtheria is not included as part of the Australian communicable disease surveillance case definition, this may be an oversight as international evidence demonstrates that it is a source of organism transmission and can potentially result in outbreaks among susceptible populations. This formed the rationale for the public health response to this particular case. The protocol for the public health management of diphtheria in South Australia has since been revised to include cutaneous lesions caused by the toxigenic strain of the organism as part of the surveillance case definition. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that reproduction. Apart from rights to use as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 or allowed by this copyright notice, all other rights are reserved and you are not allowed to reproduce the whole or any part of this work in any way (electronic or otherwise) without first being given the specific written permission from the Commonwealth to do so. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights are to be sent

  12. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  13. External quality assessments for microbiologic diagnosis of diphtheria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-12-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Cardiac complications in diphtheria and predictors of outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdani, Sunil; Jain, Avani; Meena, Vinod; Meena, C B

    2018-01-01

    To study the cardiac complications in diphtheria patients and to study the predictors of outcomes. Single centre prospective analysis of cardiac complications in diphtheria patients. In this study, there were 60 patients diagnosed with diphtheria with ECG changes. The ECG changes seen were sinus tachycardia (68.3%), T wave inversion (20%), ST segment depression (13.3%), right bundle branch block (5%), multiple atrial ectopics (3.3%). The case fatality rate in our study was 25% (15 patients). High CPK-MB, myoglobulin and cardiac troponin levels were associated with cardiac mortality. In our study, cardiac troponin T had the highest sensitivity (80%) and CK-MB had the highest specificity (95.56%). Cardiac involvement is a common complication of infection with C. diphtheria and is associated with high mortality. As diphtheria can be prevented by adequate vaccination, efforts should be maximized for high vaccine coverage with booster doses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Diphtheria outbreak with high mortality in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besa, N C; Coldiron, M E; Bakri, A; Raji, A; Nsuami, M J; Rousseau, C; Hurtado, N; Porten, K

    2014-04-01

    SUMMARY A diphtheria outbreak occurred from February to November 2011 in the village of Kimba and its surrounding settlements, in Borno State, northeastern Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in Kimba village and the surrounding settlements to better describe the extent and clinical characteristics of this outbreak. Ninety-eight cases met the criteria of the case definition of diphtheria, 63 (64.3%) of whom were children aged diphtheria. None of the 98 cases received diphtheria antitoxin, penicillin, or erythromycin during their illness. The overall case-fatality ratio was 21.4%, and was highest in children aged 0-4 years (42.9%). Low rates of immunization, delayed clinical recognition of diphtheria and absence of treatment with antitoxin and appropriate antibiotics contributed to this epidemic and its severity.

  16. Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a free-roaming red fox: case report and historical review on diphtheria in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Andreas; Konrad, Regina; Meinel, Dominik M; Mauder, Norman; Schwabe, Ingo; Sting, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the classical causative agent of diphtheria, is considered to be nearly restricted to humans. Here we report the first finding of a non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae biovar belfanti strain in a free-roaming wild animal. The strain obtained from the subcutis and mammary gland of a dead red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was characterized by biochemical and molecular methods including MALDI-TOF and Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Since C. diphtheriae infections of animals, usually with close contact to humans, are reported only very rarely, an intense review comprising also scientific literature from the beginning of the 20th century was performed. Besides the present case, only 11 previously reported C. diphtheriae animal infections could be verified using current scientific criteria. Our report is the first on the isolation of C. diphtheriae from a wildlife animal without any previous human contact. In contrast, the very few unambiguous publications on C. diphtheriae in animals referred to livestock or pet animals with close human contact. C. diphtheriae carriage in animals has to be considered as an exceptionally rare event.

  17. Evaluation of diphtheria convalescent patients to serve as donors for the production of anti-diphtheria immunoglobulin preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissumbhar, B.; Rakhmanova, A.G.; Berbers, G.; Iakolev, A.; Nosikova, E.; Melnick, O.; Ovtcharenko, E.; Rümke, H. C.; Ruitenberg, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of selecting convalescent diphtheria patients to serve in emergency situations as donors for the production of anti-diphtheria immunoglobulin. To select suitable donors, the criterion of an antitoxin titer ≥3.0 IU/ml was used. In addition,

  18. Immunogenicity and safety after booster vaccination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis in young adults: an open randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Okada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Uno, Shingo; Otsuka, Yasuko; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Ozaki, Iwata; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase of pertussis in young adults in Japan is hypothesized to be due in part to waning protection from the acellular pertussis vaccine. While a booster immunization may prevent an epidemic of pertussis among these young adults, little is known about the safety and immunogenicity of such a booster with the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), which is currently available in Japan. One hundred and eleven medical students with a mean age of 19.4 years were randomly divided into 2 groups of 55 and 56 subjects and received, respectively, 0.2 or 0.5 ml of DTaP. Immunogenicity was assessed by performing the immunoassay using serum, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC), GMC ratio (GMCR), seropositive rate, and booster response rate were calculated. Adverse reactions and adverse events were monitored for 7 days after vaccination. After booster vaccination in the two groups, significant increases were found in the antibodies against pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid, and the booster response rates for all subjects reached 100%. The GMCs and GMCRs against all antigens were significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group than in the 0.2-ml group. No serious adverse events were observed. Frequencies of local reactions were similar in the 2 groups, although the frequency of severe local swelling was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group. These data support the acceptability of booster immunization using both 0.2 and 0.5 ml of DTaP for young adults for controlling pertussis. (This study was registered at UMIN-CTR under registration number UMIN000010672.).

  19. Immunological evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalavand, M; Saadati, M; Ahmadi, A; Abbasi, E; Salimian, J

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing tetanus toxoid (TT)‑loaded-chitosan nanoparticles with aluminum hydroxide as a common vaccine adjuvant. Tetanus remains to be a major public health problem. Nanoparticles have been extensively used as immune adjuvants. Tetanus toxoid (TT) encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles is considered to be a promising tetanus vaccine candidate. TT‑loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method. The nanoparticles were studied by SEM for their size and morphology. In vivo study was conducted to evaluate the immunity response using mice divided into 4 groups and injected with encapsulated toxoid. The immune responses were then measured using indirect ELISA. The purity and integrity of antigen were confirmed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The size of nanoparticles was estimated at 100 nm. As a result, the IgG antibody levels were 1.9, 1.76, and 0.87 in chitosan nanoparticles, aluminum hydroxide, and TT alone groups, respectively. Also, the immune responses were significantly higher in immunized groups compared to control groups vaccinated with free adjuvant vaccines (p chitosan nanoparticles were reasonable. It enhanced the immune responses as much as aluminum hydroxide adjuvant does and thus may be a good alternative candidate (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 16).

  20. Td Vaccine (Tetanus and Diphtheria): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Td Vaccine (Tetanus and Diphtheria) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. org/ vis Hojas de ...

  1. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in the UK in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Andrews, Nick J; Borrow, Ray; Stanford, Elaine; Newton, Emma; Pebody, Richard G

    2012-11-19

    This study aimed to estimate the immunity of the UK population to tetanus and diphtheria, including the potential impact of new glycoconjugatate vaccines, and the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster in 1994. Residual sera (n=2697) collected in England in 2009/10 were selected from 18 age groups and tested for tetanus and diphtheria antibody. Results were standardised by testing a panel of sera (n=150) to enable comparison with a previously (1996) published serosurvey. Data were then standardised to the UK population. In 2009, 83% of the UK population were protected (≥0.1 IU/mL) against tetanus compared to 76% in 1996 (p=0.079), and 75% had at least basic protection against diphtheria (≥0.01 IU/mL) in 2009 compared to 60% in 1996 (pdiphtheria. Higher diphtheria immunity was observed in those aged 16-34 years in 2009 compared to 1996 (geometric mean concentration [GMC] 0.15 IU/mL vs. 0.03 IU/mL, pdiphtheria in 2009 were 29% susceptible), 45-69 years (>20% susceptible) and 70+ years (>32% susceptible). Low immunity was observed in those aged 10-11 years (>19% susceptible), between the scheduled preschool and school leaver booster administration. The current schedule appears to induce protective levels; increases in the proportions protected/GMCs were observed for the ages receiving vaccinations according to UK policy. Glycoconjugate vaccines appear to have increased immunity, in particular for diphtheria, in preschool age groups. Diphtheria immunity in teenagers and young adults has increased as a result of the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster. However, currently older adults remain susceptible, without any further opportunities for immunisations planned according to the present schedule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diphtheria in Andhra Pradesh-a clinical-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Meera; M, Rajarao

    2014-02-01

    Clinical diphtheria is on the increase worldwide, mainly affecting developing countries. We sought to understand its presentation among patients at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Diphtheria patients presented with fever, pharyngitis, and a patch in the throat. Data collected for each patient included age, clinical presentation, morbidity, mortality, bacteria isolated from culture, and immunization status. Of 61 950 admissions from January 2008 to December 2012, 2925 (4.7%) had clinical diphtheria; 1194 had been immunized and 1731 were non-immunized. Immunized patients had a milder disease. Culture-positive immunized patients were positive for Corynebacterium other than diphtheriae (COD; n=104) or Corynebacterium diphtheriae (CD; n=23); these patients suffered mild disease and recovered completely. In contrast, culture-positive non-immunized patients were positive for COD (n=11) or CD (n=412). Eighty-one patients (3%) died, 77 of whom were non-immunized; death was usually as a result of myocarditis. Seventy-three percent of deaths were in patients aged diphtheria and its severity and morbidity differ considerably in immunized and non-immunized patients. Disease caused by CD can be deadly, while disease due to COD is mild and responds to treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Diphtheria in the Republic of Georgia: Use of Molecular Typing Techniques for Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Kekelidze, Merab; Gomelauri, Tsaro; Deng, Yingkang; Khetsuriani, Nino; Kobaidze, Ketino; De Zoysa, Aruni; Efstratiou, Androulla; Morris, J. Glenn; Imnadze, Paata

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (62 of the gravis biotype and 4 of the mitis biotype) isolated during the Georgian diphtheria epidemic of 1993 to 1998 and 13 non-Georgian C. diphtheriae strains (10 Russian and 3 reference isolates) were characterized by (i) biotyping, (ii) toxigenicity testing with the Elek assay and PCR, (iii) the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and (iv) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen selected strains were ribotyped. Six RAPD types and 15 PFGE patterns were identified among all strains examined, and 12 ribotypes were found among the 15 strains that were ribotyped. The Georgian epidemic apparently was caused by one major clonal group of C. diphtheriae (PFGE type A, ribotype R1), which was identical to the predominant epidemic strain(s) isolated during the concurrent diphtheria epidemic in Russia. A dendrogram based on the PFGE patterns revealed profound differences between the minor (nonpredominant) epidemic strains found in Georgia and Russia. The methodologies for RAPD typing, ribotyping, and PFGE typing of C. diphtheriae strains were improved to enable rapid and convenient molecular typing of the strains. The RAPD technique was adequate for biotype differentiation; however, PFGE and ribotyping were better (and equal to each other) at discriminating between epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates. PMID:10488190

  4. CLINICAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN WITH DIPHTHERIA ON SOETOMO HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiyanti Puspitasari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diphtheria is an important disease in children that could lead to fatal disease. East Java Province was declared to have Diphtheria outbreak in 2011 with increasing morbidity and mortality, including on Soetomo Hospital. Our paper aimed to describe the profi le of diphtheria cases in children admitted at dr Sutomo Hospital. Method: This descriptive study reviewed all medical records of diphtheritic patients admitted to Dr. Soetomo Hospital, January 2004–December 2010, of concerns were clinical presentations, age, sex, immunizations status, complications, and outcomes. Result: From 148 diphtheria cases, 22.3% were bacteriologically proven; 53.4% were male with sex ratio 1.1:1. The age proportion of ≤ 5 years old, 5- ≤ 10 years old, and > 10 years old were 61.5%, 31.8%, and 6.7%. Fever occurred in 99% cases, sore throat, stridor and bullneck occurred respectively in 62.2%, 39.9%, and 29.7% cases. There were 56.8% severe and 41.9% moderate diphtheria. Subjects were immunized in 84%, but none of them have adequate immunization. Myocarditis, being one of the commonest complications occurred in 11.4% cases and tracheostomy was the second (4.0%. All of the death cases (7.9% were unvaccinated and in severe form. Discussion: The mostly prevalent clinical manifestations in diphtheria children were fever and sore throat. Half of the cases came with severe diphtheria and most cases were inadequately vaccinated. Death occurred in the unvaccinated and severe form.

  5. International External Quality Assurance for Laboratory Diagnosis of Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, S. E.; Efstratiou, A.

    2009-01-01

    The diphtheria surveillance network (DIPNET) encompassing National Diphtheria Reference Centers from 25 European countries is a Dedicated Surveillance Network recognized by the European Commission. A key DIPNET objective is the quality assessment of microbiological procedures for diphtheria across the European Union and beyond. A detailed questionnaire on the level of reference laboratory services and an external quality assessment (EQA) panel comprising six simulated throat specimens were sent to 34 centers. Twenty-three centers are designated National Diphtheria Reference Centers, with the laboratory in the United Kingdom being the only WHO Collaborating Centre. A variety of screening and identification tests were used, including the cysteinase test (20/34 centers), pyrazinamidase test (17/34 centers), and commercial kits (25/34 centers). The classic Elek test for toxigenicity testing is mostly used (28/34 centers), with variations in serum sources and antitoxin concentrations. Many laboratories reported problems obtaining Elek reagents or media. Only six centers produced acceptable results for all six specimens. Overall, 21% of identification and 13% of toxigenicity reports were unacceptable. Many centers could not isolate the target organism, and most found difficulties with the specimens that contained Corynebacterium striatum as a commensal contaminant. Nineteen centers generated either false-positive or negative toxigenic results, which may have caused inappropriate medical management. The discrepancies in this diphtheria diagnostics EQA alarmingly reflect the urgent need to improve laboratory performance in diphtheria diagnostics in Europe, standardize feasible and robust microbiological methods, and build awareness among public health authorities. Therefore, DIPNET recommends that regular workshops and EQA distributions for diphtheria diagnostics should be supported and maintained. PMID:19828749

  6. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccines - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): ... vis-statements/dtap.html CDC review information for Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) VIS: Page last reviewed: ...

  7. DTaP Vaccine (Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATEMENT DTaP Vaccine What You Need to Know (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are ... www. immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are serious diseases caused by ...

  8. Diphtheria and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Diphtheria and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Last ... April 2017 The best way to protect against diphtheria is by getting the diphther ia-tet anus- ...

  9. Tdap Vaccine (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap Vaccine What You Need to Know (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis are very serious diseases. Tdap vaccine ...

  10. Diphtheria in Lao PDR: Insufficient Coverage or Ineffective Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthavong, Naphavanh; Black, Antony P; Nouanthong, Phonethipsavanh; Souvannaso, Chanthasone; Vilivong, Keooudomphone; Muller, Claude P; Goossens, Sylvie; Quet, Fabrice; Buisson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    During late 2012 and early 2013 several outbreaks of diphtheria were notified in the North of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The aim of this study was to determine whether the re-emergence of this vaccine-preventable disease was due to insufficient vaccination coverage or reduction of vaccine effectiveness within the affected regions. A serosurvey was conducted in the Huaphan Province on a cluster sampling of 132 children aged 12-59 months. Serum samples, socio-demographic data, nutritional status and vaccination history were collected when available. Anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus IgG antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Overall, 63.6% of participants had detectable diphtheria antibodies and 71.2% tetanus antibodies. Factors independently associated with non-vaccination against diphtheria were the distance from the health centre (OR: 6.35 [95% CI: 1.4-28.8], p = 0.01), the Lao Theung ethnicity (OR: 12.2 [95% CI:1,74-85, 4], p = 0.01) and the lack of advice on vaccination given at birth (OR: 9.8 [95% CI: 1.5-63.8], (p = 0.01) while the level of maternal edu-cation was a protective factor (OR: 0.08 [95% CI: 0.008-0.81], p = 0.03). Most respondents claimed financial difficulties as the main reason for non-vaccination. Out of 55 children whose vaccination certificates stated that they were given all 3 doses of diphtheria-containing vaccine, 83.6% had diphtheria antibodies and 92.7% had tetanus antibodies. Furthermore, despite a high prevalence of stunted and underweight children (53% and 25.8%, respectively), the low levels of anti-diphtheria antibodies were not correlated to the nutritional status. Our data highlight a significant deficit in both the vaccination coverage and diphtheria vaccine effectiveness within the Huaphan Province. Technical deficiencies in the methods of storage and distribution of vaccines as well as unreliability of vaccination cards are discussed. Several hypotheses are advanced to explain such a decline in immunity against

  11. Modeling adsorption: Investigating adsorbate and adsorbent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Charles Edwin

    1999-12-01

    Surface catalyzed reactions play a major role in current chemical production technology. Currently, 90% of all chemicals are produced by heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Most of these catalyzed reactions involve adsorption, concentrating the substrate(s) (the adsorbate) on the surface of the solid (the adsorbent). Pore volumes, accessible surface areas, and the thermodynamics of adsorption are essential in the understanding of solid surface characteristics fundamental to catalyst and adsorbent screening and selection. Molecular properties such as molecular volumes and projected molecular areas are needed in order to convert moles adsorbed to surface volumes and areas. Generally, these molecular properties have been estimated from bulk properties, but many assumptions are required. As a result, different literature values are employed for these essential molecular properties. Calculated molar volumes and excluded molecular areas are determined and tabulated for a variety of molecules. Molecular dimensions of molecules are important in the understanding of molecular exclusion as well as size and shape selectivity, diffusion, and adsorbent selection. Molecular dimensions can also be used in the determination of the effective catalytic pore size of a catalyst. Adsorption isotherms, on zeolites, (crystalline mineral oxides) and amorphous solids, can be analyzed with the Multiple Equilibrium Analysis (MEA) description of adsorption. The MEA produces equilibrium constants (Ki), capacities (ni), and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpies, ΔHi, and entropies, ΔSi) of adsorption for each process. Pore volumes and accessible surface areas are calculated from the process capacities. Adsorption isotherms can also be predicted for existing and new adsorbate-adsorbent systems with the MEA. The results show that MEA has the potential of becoming a standard characterization method for microporous solids that will lead to an increased understanding of their behavior in gas

  12. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  13. Epidemiology of Diphtheria in India, 1996-2016: Implications for Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj

    2017-08-01

    Diphtheria is an acute disease caused by exotoxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae . Globally, diphtheria has been showing a declining trend due to effective childhood vaccination programs. A substantial proportion of global burden of diphtheria is contributed by India. Hospital-based surveillance studies as well as diphtheria outbreaks published in last 20 years (1996-2016) indicate that diphtheria cases are frequent among school-going children and adolescents. In some Indian states, Muslim children are affected more. As per the national level health surveys, coverage of three doses of diphtheria vaccine was 80% during 2015-2016. Information about coverage of diphtheria boosters is not routinely collected through these surveys, but is expected to be low. Few studies also indicate low diphtheria immunity among school-going children and adults. The strategies for prevention of diphtheria need to focus on improving coverage of primary and booster doses of diphtheria vaccines administered as a part of Universal Immunization Program as well as introducing diphtheria vaccine for school-going children.

  14. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parande, Mahantesh V; Roy, Subarna; Mantur, B G; Parande, Aisha M; Shinde, Rupali S

    2017-01-01

    A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB) was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Thirty-eight (8.79%) out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26%) were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84%) were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

  15. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh V Parande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  16. [THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VACCINATION AGAINST DIPHTHERIA IN THE VORONEZH REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchik, N P; Gabbasova, N V; Sitnik, T N; Borisova, L S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the assessment of the effectiveness of vaccination against diphtheria in the Voronezh region over the epidemic period of 1993-1997 and epidemiological welfare during 2010-2014. of the study: data of the official statistical reporting--forms number 1, 6, the serum level of antitoxic antibodies to diphtheria in 19319 healthy individuals were analyzed with the aid of epidemiological (descriptive and evaluative), immunological and statistical methods. During the epidemic rise of diphtheria (1993-1997) 75% of cases were amounted to the adult population of the Voronezh region, half of them--were not immunized against diphtheria. In 1993 there was begun mass vaccination of adult population, immunization coverage by 1998 reached 95%. According to seromonitoring data the share of seronegatives to diphtheria among cases examined during the period of 1995-2000 accountedfrom 11.9 to 24.9%. During the period of sporadic morbidity (1998-2007 years) among patients the 80% of cases have been vaccinated with an interval from the last inoculation of 3-5 years, which casts doubt on the effectiveness of vaccines. Since 2008 the incidence of diphtheria in the Voronezh region was not recorded. Against the background of 98% coverage of vaccination of the total population, the share of seronegatives for the last 5 years have decreased by 2.5 times and in 2014 reached the required performance. Documented inoculation indices fail to reflect the level of the actual protection against infection. In the conditions of the absence of the morbidity only serological monitoring is an objective criterion of the protectability of the population from infection.

  17. A case of pharyngeal diphtheria in Germany, June 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Meinel, D M; Schaffer, A; Ziegler, R; Pitteroff, J; Konrad, R; Sing, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    In June 2015, a 45-year-old man suffering from acute necrotic tonsillitis and throat phlegmon was hospitalized in Nuremberg, Germany. After emergency surgery the patient was initially treated with antibiotics. A throat swab grew a toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis strain. The patient's vaccination status was not documented and the patient was tested serologically for anti-diphtheria antibodies showing no protective immunity. Extensive control investigations were performed by the local health department showing no likely source of his infection. No secondary cases were found and the patient completely recovered.

  18. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in refugees in Europe in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Alexandra; Behrens, Georg M N; Stange, Marcus; Dopfer, Christian; Grote, Ulrike; Hansen, Gesine; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Happle, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Current political crises in the Middle East and economic discrepancies led millions of people to leave their home countries and to flee to Western Europe. This development raises unexpected challenges for receiving health care systems. Although pan-European initiatives strive for updated and optimized vaccination strategies, little data on immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in the current refugee population exist. We quantified serum IgG against tetanus and diphtheria (TD) in n = 678 refugees currently seeking shelter in six German refugee centers. Reflecting current migration statistics in Europe, the median age within the cohort was 26 years, with only 23.9 % of female subjects. Insufficient IgG levels without long-term protection against tetanus were found in 56.3 % of all refugees. 76.1 % of refugees had no long-term protection against diphtheria. 47.7 % of subjects needed immediate vaccination against tetanus, and 47.7 % against diphtheria. For both diseases, an age-dependent decline in protective immunity occurred. We observed a considerably low rate of tetanus-protected refugees, and the frequency of diphtheria-immune refugees was far from sufficient to provide herd immunity. These findings strongly support recent intentions to implement and enforce stringent guidelines for refugee vaccination in the current crisis.

  19. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Hanada, Kentaro; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  20. Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) KidsHealth / For ... child outweigh the potential risks. Caring for Your Child After DTaP Immunization Your child may have a ...

  1. Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William A; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Townsend, Hugh G G; Boleslawski, Maria; Lunn, D P

    2010-02-15

    Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants. An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years (mean age 39 years) over a 7-month period. All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination. Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Tat toxoid in immunocompromised HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, A; Santagostino, E; Muça-Perja, M; Mannucci, P M; Zagury, J F; Bizzini, B; Lachgar, A; Carcagno, M; Rappaport, J; Criscuolo, M; Blattner, W; Burny, A; Gallo, R C; Zagury, D

    1998-01-01

    To antagonize the deleterious effects of the HIV-1 toxin extracellular Tat on uninfected immune cells, we developed a new strategy of anti-HIV-1 vaccine using an inactivated but immunogenic Tat (Tat toxoid). Tat toxoid has been assayed for safety and immunogenicity in seropositive patients. The phase I vaccine clinical trial testing Tat toxoid preparation in Seppic Isa 51 oil adjuvant was performed on 14 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic although biologically immunocompromised individuals (500-200 CD4+ cells/mm3). Following as many as 8 injections, no clinical defects were observed. All patients exhibited an antibody (Ab) response to Tat, and some had cell-mediated immunity (CMI) as evaluated by skin test in vivo and T-cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide initial evidence of safety and potency of Tat toxoid vaccination in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  3. Prediction of DtxR regulon: Identification of binding sites and operons controlled by Diphtheria toxin repressor in Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Seyed

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diphtheria toxin repressor, DtxR, of Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been shown to be an iron-activated transcription regulator that controls not only the expression of diphtheria toxin but also of iron uptake genes. This study aims to identify putative binding sites and operons controlled by DtxR to understand the role of DtxR in patho-physiology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Result Positional Shannon relative entropy method was used to build the DtxR-binding site recognition profile and the later was used to identify putative regulatory sites of DtxR within C. diphtheriae genome. In addition, DtxR-regulated operons were also identified taking into account the predicted DtxR regulatory sites and genome annotation. Few of the predicted motifs were experimentally validated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The analysis identifies motifs upstream to the novel iron-regulated genes that code for Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FpG, an enzyme involved in DNA-repair and starvation inducible DNA-binding protein (Dps which is involved in iron storage and oxidative stress defense. In addition, we have found the DtxR motifs upstream to the genes that code for sortase which catalyzes anchoring of host-interacting proteins to the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria and the proteins of secretory system which could be involved in translocation of various iron-regulated virulence factors including diphtheria toxin. Conclusions We have used an in silico approach to identify the putative binding sites and genes controlled by DtxR in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Our analysis shows that DtxR could provide a molecular link between Fe+2-induced Fenton's reaction and protection of DNA from oxidative damage. DtxR-regulated Dps prevents lethal combination of Fe+2 and H2O2 and also protects DNA by nonspecific DNA-binding. In addition DtxR could play an important role in host interaction and virulence by regulating the levels of sortase

  4. Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

  5. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesh V Parande; Subarna Roy; B G Mantur; Aisha M Parande; Rupali S Shinde

    2017-01-01

    Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of dipht...

  6. Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-04-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of

  7. Affinity chromatography of tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, and botulinum A toxin on synaptosomes, and differentiation of their acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, E [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pharmakologisches Inst.

    1976-01-01

    /sup 125/I-labelled tetanus toxin and /sup 125/I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin are known to be specifically bound to brain synaptosomes. In order to discriminate between active toxin and inactive admixtures present in the starting material or arising during iodination, synaptosome columns were prepared using bromacetylcellulose and/or kieselgur (Celite) as carriers. Both types of columns adsorb the toxins from low ionic strength medium and release them if the pH and ionic strength are raised. Botulinum toxin was eluted with lower ionic strength than tetanus toxin, and could be freed from nontoxic admixtures. Analysis by affinity chromatography disclosed partially toxoided tetanus toxin in both labelled and unlabelled toxin samples. High concentrations of formaldehyde (0.5%) destroyed both toxicity and affinity to the synaptosomes of tetanus toxin. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (0.05%) yielded a derivative of low toxicity which was still, however less firmly, bound to synaptosomes. Tetanus and botulinum toxin differ by their acceptors. Whereas unlabelled botulinum toxin is unable to compete with labelled tetanus toxin, unlabelled tetanus toxin slightly competes with botulinum toxin. Both labelled toxins display anomalous binding behaviour in that they cannot be displaced completely even with a large excess of unlabelled toxin.

  8. Affinity chromatography of tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, and botulinum A toxin on synaptosomes, and differentiation of their acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermann, E.

    1976-01-01

    125 I-labelled tetanus toxin and 125 I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin are known to be specifically bound to brain synaptosomes. In order to discriminate between active toxin and inactive admixtures present in the starting material or arising during iodination, synaptosome columns were prepared using bromacetylcellulose and/or kieselgur (Celite) as carriers. Both types of columns adsorb the toxins from low ionic strength medium and release them if the pH and ionic strength are raised. Botulinum toxin was eluted with lower ionic strength than tetanus toxin, and could be freed from nontoxic admixtures. Analysis by affinity chromatography disclosed partially toxoided tetanus toxin in both labelled and unlabelled toxin samples. High concentrations of formaldehyde (0.5%) destroyed both toxicity and affinity to the synaptosomes of tetanus toxin. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (0.05%) yielded a derivative of low toxicity which was still, however less firmly, bound to synaptosomes. Tetanus and botulinum toxin differ by their acceptors. Whereas unlabelled botulinum toxin is unable to compete with labelled tetanus toxin, unlabelled tetanus toxin slightly competes with botulinum toxin. Both labelled toxins display anomalous binding behaviour in that they cannot be displaced completely even with a large excess of unlabelled toxin. (orig.) [de

  9. A Case-control Study of Diphtheria in the High Incidence City of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Uthappa, Chengappa Kechamada; Duerst, Rebecca; Sorley, Evan; Udaragudi, Prasada Rao; Kampa, Shankar; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    India accounts for approximately 72% of reported diphtheria cases globally, the majority of which occur in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study is to better understand lack of knowledge on diphtheria vaccination and to determine factors associated with diphtheria and low knowledge and negative attitudes. We performed a 1:1 case-control study of hospitalized diphtheria cases in Hyderabad. Eligible case patients were 10 years of age or older, resided within the city of Hyderabad and were diagnosed with diphtheria per the case definition. Patients admitted to the hospital for nonrespiratory communicable diseases and residing in the same geographic region as that of cases were eligible for enrolment as controls : There were no statistical differences in disease outcome by gender, education, economic status and mean room per person sleeping in the house in case and control subjects. Not having heard of diphtheria (adjusted odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence intervals: 1.58-8.04] and not believing that vaccines can prevent people from getting diseases (adjusted odds ratio: 3.99; 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-13.45) remained significantly associated with diphtheria on multivariate analysis. To reduce the burden of diphtheria in India, further efforts to educate the public about diphtheria should be considered.

  10. Enacting cultural boundaries in French and German diphtheria serum research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Ulrike

    2008-06-01

    The experimental development of a therapeutic serum against diphtheria between 1891 and 1894 was characterized by a scientific competition that pitted Emil Behring from the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin against Emile Roux and Elie Metschnikoff from the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In general, their competition can be regarded as an extension of the fundamental differences that separated the research schools of Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur. However, to characterize the competition for a diphtheria-serum as "national rivalry" fails to account adequately for the mutual adoption of experimental practices by the Berlin and Parisian protagonists, whose contributions to the development of a therapeutic serum were intertwined in complex ways. Nor can it be characterized as "cooperation," given their fierce public disputes over scientific concepts and the fact that these disputes also shaped the peculiarities of the experimental procedures in Berlin and Paris. A close analysis reveals a complex picture of the dynamic interaction between the conceptual and experimental activities of Behring, Roux, and Metschnikoff- interaction that defined as well as bridged the "French" and "Prussian" experimental systems of diphtheria-serum research.

  11. Access to diphtheria antitoxin for therapy and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, L; White, J; Mandal, S; Efstratiou, A

    2014-06-19

    The most effective treatment for diphtheria is swift administration of diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) with conjunct antibiotic therapy. DAT is an equine immunoglobulin preparation and listed among the World Health Organization Essential Medicines. Essential Medicines should be available in functioning health systems at all times in adequate amounts, in appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality, and at prices individuals and the community can afford. However, DAT is in scarce supply and frequently unavailable to patients because of discontinued production in several countries, low economic viability, and high regulatory requirements for the safe manufacture of blood-derived products. DAT is also a cornerstone of diphtheria diagnostics but several diagnostic reference laboratories across the European Union (EU) and elsewhere routinely face problems in sourcing DAT for toxigenicity testing. Overall, global access to DAT for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications seems inadequate. Therefore--besides efforts to improve the current supply of DAT--accelerated research and development of alternatives including monoclonal antibodies for therapy and molecular-based methods for diagnostics are required. Given the rarity of the disease, it would be useful to organise a small stockpile centrally for all EU countries and to maintain an inventory of DAT availability within and between countries.

  12. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  13. Transporting method for adsorbing tower and the adsorbing tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Nobuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    A cylindrical plastic bag is disposed to the upper surface of an adsorbing tower so as to surround a suspending piece. One opening of the bag is sealed, and other opening is secured in a sealed state to a bag holding portion disposed to glove box at a gate for the adsorbing tower box. The adsorbing tower is transported into the glove box, and after the completion of the operation of the adsorbing tower, the adsorbing tower is taken out in a state that the bag is restricted and sealed at a portion below the adsorbing tower. The bag may be made of a vinyl plastic, the bag holding portion may be a short-cylindrical protrusion, and may have an O-ring groove at the outer surface. Even if the adsorbing tower is heavy, the adsorbing tower can be carried out easily in a state where it is sealed gas tightly. (N.H.)

  14. Validation of the shake test for detecting freeze damage to adsorbed vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartoglu, Umit; Ozgüler, Nejat Kenan; Wolfson, Lara J; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2010-08-01

    To determine the validity of the shake test for detecting freeze damage in aluminium-based, adsorbed, freeze-sensitive vaccines. A double-blind crossover design was used to compare the performance of the shake test conducted by trained health-care workers (HCWs) with that of phase contrast microscopy as a "gold standard". A total of 475 vials of 8 different types of World Health Organization prequalified freeze-sensitive vaccines from 10 different manufacturers were used. Vaccines were kept at 5 degrees C. Selected numbers of vials from each type were then exposed to -25 degrees C and -2 degrees C for 24-hour periods. There was complete concordance between HCWs and phase-contrast microscopy in identifying freeze-damaged vials and non-frozen samples. Non-frozen samples showed a fine-grain structure under phase contrast microscopy, but freeze-damaged samples showed large conglomerates of massed precipitates with amorphous, crystalline, solid and needle-like structures. Particles in the non-frozen samples measured from 1 microm (vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B) to 20 microm (diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, alone or in combination). By contrast, aggregates in the freeze-damaged samples measured up to 700 microm (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) and 350 microm on average. The shake test had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in this study, which confirms its validity for detecting freeze damage to aluminium-based freeze-sensitive vaccines.

  15. The state of physically adsorbed substances in microporous adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomkin, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Xe, Kr, Ar, CF 3 Cl, CH 4 adsorption in NaX microporous zeolite of 0.98 Na 2 OxAl 2 O 3 x2.36SiO 2 x0.02H 2 O is studied. Some properties of adsorbates (density, coefficients of expansion, enthalpy, heat capacity) are determined and discussed. The adsorbate in the microporous adsorbent is shown to be a particular state of a substance. Liniarity of adsorption isosteres and sharp changes during isosteric heat capacity of the adsorbate points to the fact that in microporous adsorbents phase transformations of the second type are possible

  16. Diphtheria outbreak in Maranhão, Brazil: microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, L S; Sant'anna, L O; Ramos, J N; Ladeira, E M; Stavracakis-Peixoto, R; Borges, L L G; Santos, C S; Napoleão, F; Camello, T C F; Pereira, G A; Hirata, R; Vieira, V V; Cosme, L M S S; Sabbadini, P S; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L

    2015-03-01

    We describe microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of a diphtheria outbreak that occurred in Maranhão, Brazil. The majority of the 27 confirmed cases occurred in partially (n = 16) or completely (n = 10) immunized children (n = 26). Clinical signs and characteristic symptoms of diphtheria such as cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation were absent in 48% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Complications such as paralysis of lower limbs were observed. Three cases resulted in death, two of them in completely immunized children. Microbiological analysis identified the isolates as Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius with a predominant PFGE type. Most of them were toxigenic and some showed a decrease in penicillin G susceptibility. In conclusion, diphtheria remains endemic in Brazil. Health professionals need to be aware of the possibility of atypical cases of C. diphtheriae infection, including pharyngitis without pseudomembrane formation.

  17. Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine may suppress the immune response to subsequent immunization with pneumococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine (coadministered with quadrivalent meningococcal TT-conjugate vaccine): a randomized, controlled trial⋆.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashani, Mohamed; Heron, Leon; Wong, Melanie; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2017-07-01

    : Due to their antigenic similarities, there is a potential for immunological interaction between tetanus/diphtheria-containing vaccines and carrier proteins presented on conjugate vaccines. The interaction could, unpredictably, result in either enhancement or suppression of the immune response to conjugate vaccines if they are injected soon after or concurrently with diphtheria or tetanus toxoid. We examined this interaction among adult Australian travellers before attending the Hajj pilgrimage of 2015. We randomly assigned each participant to one of three vaccination schedules. Group A received tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) 3-4 weeks before receiving CRM197-conjugated 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) coadministered with TT-conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MCV4). Group B received all three vaccines concurrently. Group C received PCV13 and MCV4 3-4 weeks before Tdap. Blood samples collected at baseline, at each vaccination visit and 3-4 weeks after vaccination were tested for the pneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA). A total of 166 participants aged 18-64 (median 42) years were recruited, 159 completed the study. Compared with the other groups, Group A had significantly ( P  vaccination in seven serotypes of PCV13 (1, 3, 4, 5, 14, 18C and 9V). Additionally, Group A had lower frequency of serorises (≥ 4-fold rise in OPA titres) in serotype5 (79%, p = 0.01) and 18C (73.5%, p = 0.06); whereas Groups B and C had significantly lower frequencies of serorises in Serotype 4 (82%) and 6A (73.5%), respectively. No statistically significant difference was detected across the three groups in frequencies achieving OPA titre ≥ 1:8 post-vaccination. Tdap vaccination 3-4 weeks before administration of PCV13 and MCV4 significantly reduced the GMTs to seven of the 13 pneumococcal serotypes in adults. If multiple vaccination is required before travel, deferring tetanus/diphtheria until after administering the

  18. Orientational epitaxy in adsorbed monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaco, A.D.; McTague, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The ground state for adsorbed monolayers on crystalline substrates is shown to involve a definite relative orientation of the substrate and adsorbate crystal axes, even when the relative lattice parameters are incommensurate. The rotation angle which defines the structure of the monolayer-substrate system is determined by the competition between adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate energy terms, and is generally not a symmetry angle. Numerical predictions are presented for the rare gas-graphite systems, whose interaction potentials are rather well known. Recent LEED data for some of these systems appear to corroborate these predictions

  19. Immunogenicity test of tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines by toxin binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Souza Matos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus (adult use dT vaccine and from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccine were used to standardize and validate the in vitro toxin binding inhibition (ToBI test for the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component. The levels of tetanus antitoxin obtained by ToBI test were compared to those obtained using the toxin neutralization (TN test in mice routinely employed to perform the quality control of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. The results ranged from 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for dT and 2 to 4 IU/ml for DTP by ToBI test and 1.4 to 3 IU/ml for dT and 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for DTP by TN in mice. These results were significantly correlated. From this study, it is concluded that the ToBI test is an alternative to the in vivo neutralization procedure in the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. A substantial refinement and a reduction in use of animals can be achieved.

  20. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine methods for enumerating antigen-specific T-helper cells may not identify low-frequency phenotypes such as Th2 cells. We compared methods of evaluating such responses to identify tetanus toxoid- (TT) specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL10+ cells. Eight healthy subjects were given a TT booster vacci...

  1. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  2. Diphtheria in the Dominican Republic: reduction of cases following a large outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacarías Garib

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the most recent outbreak of diphtheria in the Dominican Republic and the disease's occurrence and vaccination coverage in 2004-2013. METHODS: Clinical data of diphtheria cases that occurred in 2004 and that met the study's case definition were reviewed along with socioeconomic and epidemiological information from the cases' families. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for fatal diphtheria. Routine surveillance and vaccination coverage data are presented. RESULTS: From January 2004-April 2005, a total of 145 diphtheria cases were reported; 80 (66% of the 122 cases reported in 2004 met the case definition; 26 were fatal (case-fatality rate: 32.5%. Incidence was highest in the group 1-4 years of age at 5.3 per 100 000; 62.5% were male. Of the 80 cases, 61 (76% where hospitalized in Hospital A, 17 in Hospital B, and 2 in two other hospitals. Earlier onset (first half of 2004, birth order, and tracheotomy were associated with fatal diphtheria (P < 0.05; cases in Hospital A were also more likely to be fatal (P = 0.066. The average annual diphtheria incidence was 4.91 cases/1 million people in 2000-2003, climbed to 8.8 cases per million in 2004-2005, and dropped to 0.38 in 2006-2014; no diphtheria cases have been reported since 2011. DTP3 vaccination coverage ranged from 72%-81% in 2000-2004 and from 81%-89% in 2005-2013. CONCLUSIONS: The 2004-2005 diphtheria outbreak in the Dominican Republic resulted in important and avoidable morbidity and mortality. Annual cases declined and no cases have been reported in recent years. Maintaining high vaccination coverage and diligent surveillance are crucial to preventing diphtheria outbreaks and controlling the disease.

  3. Diphtheria in the Dominican Republic: reduction of cases following a large outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Zacarías; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Tavarez, Yira; Leal, Irene; Pedreira, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    To describe the most recent outbreak of diphtheria in the Dominican Republic and the disease's occurrence and vaccination coverage in 2004-2013. Clinical data of diphtheria cases that occurred in 2004 and that met the study's case definition were reviewed along with socioeconomic and epidemiological information from the cases' families. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for fatal diphtheria. Routine surveillance and vaccination coverage data are presented. From January 2004-April 2005, a total of 145 diphtheria cases were reported; 80 (66%) of the 122 cases reported in 2004 met the case definition; 26 were fatal (case-fatality rate: 32.5%). Incidence was highest in the group 1-4 years of age at 5.3 per 100 000; 62.5% were male. Of the 80 cases, 61 (76%) where hospitalized in Hospital A, 17 in Hospital B, and 2 in two other hospitals. Earlier onset (first half of 2004), birth order, and tracheotomy were associated with fatal diphtheria (P diphtheria incidence was 4.91 cases/1 million people in 2000-2003, climbed to 8.8 cases per million in 2004-2005, and dropped to 0.38 in 2006-2014; no diphtheria cases have been reported since 2011. DTP3 vaccination coverage ranged from 72%-81% in 2000-2004 and from 81%-89% in 2005-2013. The 2004-2005 diphtheria outbreak in the Dominican Republic resulted in important and avoidable morbidity and mortality. Annual cases declined and no cases have been reported in recent years. Maintaining high vaccination coverage and diligent surveillance are crucial to preventing diphtheria outbreaks and controlling the disease.

  4. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  5. Positronium chemistry in porous adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foti, G.; Nagy, L.G.; Moravcsik, G.; Schay, G.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic studies on the annihilation of orthopositronium in porous adsorbents have been performed using lifetime spectroscopy. The positron source applied was 22 Na with 0.2 MBq activity. The adsorbents investigated were silica gels of different particle size and pore structure. The appearance of the long-lived component in the lifetime spectra can be explained by the diffusion of the orthopositronium into the pores affected by the particle size and the pore size of the adsorbent, the coverage on it and the chemical nature of the adsorbate. The long-term aim of the work is to determine and to explain these effects. (author)

  6. Compliance with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlyn, S; Rahman, A K; Nielsen, B H

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated with non-compliance with having second vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis in a treatment centre in Dhaka to determine which children were most at risk of not completing immunisation. DESIGN: Cohort study of infants given first dose...... of the vaccine and followed up six weeks later to ascertain compliance with having second dose. Factors associated with non-compliance were evaluated. SETTING: Dhaka treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 136 unimmunised children aged 6 weeks to 23...... of immunisation, and she was given clear instructions to bring the child back after four weeks for the second dose. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate of non-compliance with advice to return child for second vaccination. RESULTS: 46 of 113 children (41%) received the second dose of the vaccine. Factors most closely...

  7. POTENSI GEN dtx DAN dtxR SEBAGAI MARKER UNTUK DETEKSI DAN PEMERIKSAAN TOKSIGENISITAS Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.   Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria. The main virulence determinant of the bacteria is diphtheria toxin, the cause of the systemic complication seen with diphtheria. Production of diphtheria toxin by toxigenic strain encoded by dtx/tox gene and repressed by dtxR gene. Gold standard for bacterial toxigenicity test carried out by conventional methods (Elek test, Guinea pig and vero cell cytotoxicity. However, Elek test have variety result, time consume and problem of the reagent availability. On the other hand, the animal (Guinea pig testing was opposed by many animal lovers and the vero cell cytotoxicity test require high cost. The study purposed to evaluate the using of dtx and dtxR genes as a detection marker of C.diphtheriae and bacterial toxigenicity test simultaneusly by Multiplex PCR. The study examined 44 bacterial and fungal isolates, included 22 C.diphtheriae (4 reference strains and 18 clinical isolates, 5 other specieses of Corynebacterium  (reference strains and 17 non-Corynebacterium (10 reference strains and 7 stock cultures . All of sample were examined by Multiplex PCR for 2 primer pairs targeted dtx and dtxR genes. The study showed that the Multiplex PCR for dtx and dtxR as target genes able to detect all of sample correctly thus concluded that dtx and dtxR genes could be used as a marker for alternative detection and toxigenicity test of C.diphtheriae by Multiplex PCR rapidly and accuratelly. Key words: Corynebacterium diphtheriae, dtx, dan dtxR Abstrak. Corynebacterium diphtheriae merupakan agen penyebab penyakit difteri.. Faktor virulensi utama  C. diphtheriae adalah toksigenisitas (kemampuan memproduksi toksin bakteri toxin. Produksi toksin diatur seperangkat gen yang disebut gen tox/dtx dan diregulasi oleh gen dtxR. Gold standard untuk pemeriksaan toksigenisitas C.diphtheriae adalah dengan metode konvensional (Elek test, Guinea pig dan vero cell cytotoxigenicity,namun  Elek test

  8. Level of Immunological Protection against Diphtheria in the Population of Dnipropetrovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Revenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diphtheria — an infectious disease, the spread of which is limited by population post-vaccination immunity. In the system of epidemiological surveillance of diphtheria, for objective assessment and prediction of epidemic situation in low intensity of epidemic process of this infection, the serological control of immunity is crucial. The objective: prognosis of epidemic situation in terms of the risk of diphtheria outbreaks in Ukraine by the detection of population post-vaccination immunity against diphtheria in Dnipropetrovsk region and evaluation of the effectiveness of widespread vaccination. Materials and methods. 483 people aged 0 to 78 years were examined in total in 2015 (children — 234, adults — 249 persons. Evaluation of specific immunity against diphtheria was carried on with the following criteria: those with levels of antibodies 0.015–0.06 IU/mL should be considered as relatively protected; 0.1–0.5 IU/ml — with average level of protection; > 1.0 IU/ml — with high level of protection. Protective antibody titer should be considered the concentration of not less than 0.1 IU/ml. Results. It was established that the level of protective immunity against diphtheria was 69.5 %. Reliable level of immunological protection of children was 70.9 %, among adults — 68.3 %. None age group had sufficient threshold level of antitoxic immunity required to stop the transmission of diphtheria pathogen. Percentage of protected persons decreased with increasing age of people (both in children and adults. This situation may create conditions for outbreaks of diphtheria in Dnipropetrovsk region. Conclusions. The presented results indicate the importance of maintaining protective antibody levels through widespread immunization of children, as well as booster vaccination among adolescents and adults that will exclude the category of susceptible layer of the population.

  9. Detection of anti-tetanus toxoid antibody on modified polyacrylonitrile fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Chattopadhyay, Sruti; Jackeray, Richa; Zainul Abid, C K V; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Harpal

    2010-10-15

    Accurate determination of concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) to tetanus toxoid is important in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid vaccines, immune competence in individual patients and to measure the prevalence of immunity in populations. Surface modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were evaluated as a matrix to develop highly sensitive method for the detection of anti-tetanus antibody in a sandwich ELISA format. In the proposed method tetanus toxoid immobilized on modified PAN fibers was used to detect anti-tetanus antibody (raised in horse hence represented as horse anti-tetanus toxoid or HAT-Ab) with horse raddish peroxidase enzyme conjugated with Rabbit anti-Horse IgG (RAH-HRP) as the label within 2.5h. A sigmoidal pattern for the detection of different concentration of antibody ranging from 1.0 to 0.0001 IU mL(-1) was validated. The immunoassay recorded a very high sensitivity as concentration as low as 0.0005 IU mL(-1) of HAT-Ab was detected. The intra- and inter-assay precision for 3 parallel measurements of 0.01 and for 0.001 IU mL(-1) of antibody varied from 5.4% to 11% and 5.7% to 20% respectively. PAN fibers were also used to qualitatively access the presence of different level of anti-tetanus antibody spiked in human blood. Seroepidemiological studies to measure the immunity against tetanus were conducted with twenty-five human beings belonging to various age groups using modified PAN-ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and the reproducibility of the developed immunoassay indicate the potential application of modified PAN fibers in the field of immunodiagnostics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Immunogenicity of sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine induced by diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and Sabin inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Qin, Min; Hu, Hui-Qiong; Ji, Guang; Feng, Ling; Gao, Na; Gu, Jie; Xie, Bing-Feng; He, Ji-Hong; Sun, Ming-Bo

    2011-06-01

    In order to search the preparation process and optimazing dosage ratio of adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and sabin inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine (DTaP-sIPV), the neutralizing antibody titers of IPV induced by different concentration of DTaP-sIPV were investigated on rats. Two batches of DTaP-sLPV were produced using different concentration of sIPV and the quality control was carried. Together with sabin-IPV and DTaP-wIPV ( boostrix-polio, GSK, Belgium) as control group, the DTaP-sIPV were administrated on three-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 month on rats. Serum sample were collected 30 days after each dose and neutralizing antibody titers against three types poliovirus were determined using micro-neutralization test. Two batches of prepared DTaP-sIPV and control sLPV were according to the requirement of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume III, 2005 edition) and showed good stability. The seropositivity rates were 100% for sabin inactivated poliovirus antigen in all groups. The GMTs (Geometric mean titers) of neutralizing antibodies against three types poliovirus increased. The prepared DTaP-sIPV was safe, stable and effective and could induced high level neutralizing antibody against poliovirus on rats.

  11. Molecular and Epidemiological Review of Toxigenic Diphtheria Infections in England between 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Collins, Sarah; de Zoysa, Aruni; White, Joanne; Mandal, Sema

    2014-01-01

    Human infections caused by toxigenic corynebacteria occur sporadically across Europe. In this report, we undertook the epidemiological and molecular characterization of all toxigenic corynebacterium strains isolated in England between January 2007 and December 2013. Epidemiological aspects include case demographics, risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome. Molecular characterization was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alongside traditional phenotypic methods. In total, there were 20 cases of toxigenic corynebacteria; 12 (60.0%) were caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans, where animal contact was the predominant risk factor. The remaining eight (40.0%) were caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains; six were biovar mitis, which were associated with recent travel abroad. Adults 45 years and older were particularly affected (55.0%; 11/20), and typical symptoms included sore throat and fever. Respiratory diphtheria with the absence of a pharyngeal membrane was the most common presentation (50.0%; 10/20). None of the eight C. diphtheriae cases were fully immunized. Diphtheria antitoxin was issued in two (9.5%) cases; both survived. Two (9.5%) cases died, one due to a C. diphtheriae infection and one due to C. ulcerans. MLST demonstrated that the majority (87.5%; 7/8) of C. diphtheriae strains represented new sequence types (STs). By adapting several primer sequences, the MLST genes in C. ulcerans were also amplified, thereby providing the basis for extension of the MLST scheme, which is currently restricted to C. diphtheriae. Despite high population immunity, occasional toxigenic corynebacterium strains are identified in England and continued surveillance is required. PMID:25502525

  12. Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid Detection of Diphtheria Toxin: Description and Multicenter Evaluation in Areas of Low and High Prevalence of Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, K. H.; Efstratiou, A.; Norn, D.; Kozlov, R. S.; Selga, I.; Glushkevich, T. G.; Tam, M.; Melnikov, V. G.; Mazurova, I. K.; Kim, V. E.; Tseneva, G. Y.; Titov, L. P.; George, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    An immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test was developed for the detection of diphtheria toxin by using an equine polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific for fragment A of the diphtheria toxin molecule as the detection antibody. The ICS test has been fully optimized for the detection of toxin from bacterial cultures; the limit of detection was approximately 0.5 ng of diphtheria toxin per ml within 10 min. In a comparative study with 915 pure clinical isolates of Corynebacterium spp., the results of the ICS test were in complete agreement with those of the conventional Elek test. The ICS test was also evaluated for its ability to detect toxigenicity from clinical specimens (throat swabs) in two field studies conducted within areas of the former USSR where diphtheria is epidemic. Eight hundred fifty throat swabs were examined by conventional culture and by use of directly inoculated broth cultures for the ICS test. The results showed 99% concordance (848 of 850 specimens), and the sensitivity and specificity of the ICS test were 98% (95% confidence interval, 91 to 99%) and 99% (95% confidence interval, 99 to 100%), respectively. PMID:11773096

  13. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  14. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in Army Personnel and Adult Civilians in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyyed Javad; Mohammadi, Babak; Rajabi, Jalil; Mohammadian Roshan, Ghasem

    2017-03-24

    This study aimed to investigate serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in army personnel and a sample population of adult civilians in Mashhad, Iran. Army personnel (n = 180) and civilians (n = 83) who presented at Mashhad army hospital participated in this study. Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 77% and 94% of army personnel aged 18-34 years had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin level ≥0.1 IU/mL) and tetanus (antitoxin level >0.1 IU/mL), respectively. For civilians in this age group, the proportions were 76% for both diseases. Antitoxin levels waned with age. Thus, participants older than 50 years had lower immunity; this decrease in immunity was more pronounced for tetanus than for diphtheria in both army personnel and civilians. For both diseases, geometric mean antitoxin titers and the proportion of participants with at least basic protection were higher in subjects with a history of vaccination in the last 10 years (P diphtheria and tetanus. However, the large number of susceptible older adults (>50 years old) calls for improved booster vaccination protocols.

  15. Fatal diphtheria myocarditis in a 3-year-old girl-related to late availability and administration of antitoxin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Damme, Karlijn; Peeters, Natasja; Jorens, Philippe G; Boiy, Tine; Deplancke, Marjan; Audiens, Hilde; Wojciechowski, Marek; De Dooy, Jozef; Te Wierik, Margreet; Vlieghe, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic cases of diphtheria are very rare throughout Europe. A 3-year-old incompletely vaccinated girl was admitted with pharyngotonsillitis caused by diphtheria. On day 9 of her illness, renal and cardiac failure with a third-degree AV-block occurred. Unfortunately, she died within 36 h of

  16. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive krypton-85 is released to the atmosphere in the off-gas from nuclear reprocessing plants. Three main methods have been suggested for removal of krypton from off-gas streams: cryogenic distillation; fluorocarbon absorption; and adsorption on solid sorbents. Use of solid adsorbents is the least developed of these methods, but offers the potential advantages of enhanced safety and lower operating costs. An experimental laboratory program was developed that will be used to investigate systematically many solid adsorbents (such as zeolites, i.e., mordenites) for trapping krypton in air. The objective of this investigation is to find an adsorbent that is more economical than silver-exchanged mordenite. Various physical and chemical characteristics such as adsorption isotherms, decontamination factors, co-adsorption, regeneration, and the mechanism and kinetics of noble gas adsorption were used to characterize the adsorbents. In the experimental program, a gas chromatograph using a helium ionization detector was used to measure the krypton in air before and after the adsorbent bed. This method can determine directly decontamination factors greater than 100

  17. Semicarbazone EGA Inhibits Uptake of Diphtheria Toxin into Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Schnell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenylsemicarbazone (EGA has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT. Here, we demonstrate that EGA also protects human cells from diphtheria toxin by inhibiting the pH-dependent translocation of DTA across cell membranes. The results suggest that EGA might serve for treatment and/or prevention of the severe disease diphtheria.

  18. Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Thomas, Archana; Poore, Elizabeth A.; Amanna, Ian J.; Rynko, Abby E.; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Slifka, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and rates of vaccine-associated adverse events, the 10-year revaccination schedule has come into question. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analysis of serum antibody titers in 546 adult subjects stratified by age or sex. All serological results were converted to international units after calibration with international serum standards. Results. Approximately 97% of the population was seropositive to tetanus and diphtheria as defined by a protective serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 IU/mL. Mean antibody titers were 3.6 and 0.35 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. Antibody responses to tetanus declined with an estimated half-life of 14 years (95% confidence interval, 11–17 years), whereas antibody responses to diphtheria were more long-lived and declined with an estimated half-life of 27 years (18–51 years). Mathematical models combining antibody magnitude and duration predict that 95% of the population will remain protected against tetanus and diphtheria for ≥30 years without requiring further booster vaccination. Conclusions. These studies demonstrate that durable levels of protective antitoxin immunity exist in the majority of vaccinated individuals. Together, this suggests that it may no longer be necessary to administer booster vaccinations every 10 years and that the current adult vaccination schedule for tetanus and diphtheria should be revisited. PMID:27060790

  19. Sensitivity of cancer cells to truncated diphtheria toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin (DT has been utilized as a prospective anti-cancer agent for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic therapy to otherwise untreatable neoplasia. DT is an extremely potent toxin for which the entry of a single molecule into a cell can be lethal. DT has been targeted to cancer cells by deleting the cell receptor-binding domain and combining the remaining catalytic portion with targeting proteins that selectively bind to the surface of cancer cells. It has been assumed that "receptorless" DT cannot bind to and kill cells. In the present study, we report that "receptorless" recombinant DT385 is in fact cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell lines.In vitro cytotoxicity of DT385 was measured by cell proliferation, cell staining and apoptosis assays. For in vivo studies, the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM system was used to evaluate the effect of DT385 on angiogenesis. The CAM and mouse model system was used to evaluate the effect of DT385 on HEp3 and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC tumor growth, respectively.Of 18 human cancer cell lines tested, 15 were affected by DT385 with IC(50 ranging from 0.12-2.8 microM. Furthermore, high concentrations of DT385 failed to affect growth arrested cells. The cellular toxicity of DT385 was due to the inhibition of protein synthesis and induction of apoptosis. In vivo, DT385 diminished angiogenesis and decreased tumor growth in the CAM system, and inhibited the subcutaneous growth of LLC tumors in mice.DT385 possesses anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity and may have potential as a therapeutic agent.

  20. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental laboratory program was conducted to develop economical solid adsorbents for the retention of krypton from a dissolver off-gas stream. The study indicates that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems which utilize fluorocarbon absorption nd cryogenic distillation. This technology may have potential applications not only in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, but also in nuclear reactors and in environmental monitoring. Of the 13 prospective adsorbents evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost, the commercially available hydrogen mordenite was the most cost-effective material at subambient temperatures (-40 0 to -80 0 C). Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite

  1. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  2. Detection of tetanus toxoid-specific memory T cells in equine lymph nodes but not in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayne, J; Stokes, C R

    1995-07-01

    The use of tetanus toxoid as a recall antigen to investigate equine immune responses would be, in theory, a useful and cost-effective model in vitro. However, by using various regimens for culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from horses previously immunised with toxoid no proliferative response to the antigen was obtained in vitro, whereas lymph node mononuclear cells from the same animals proliferated significantly in response to it. The lack of response by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not due to the presence of a suppressive factor but to a lack of recognition of the antigen by the T cells of the peripheral blood.

  3. Anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies in intravenous gamma globulin: an alternative to tetanus immune globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D C; Lederman, H M

    1992-09-01

    The levels of anti-tetanus toxoid IgG antibodies were measured in 29 lots of intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG). The antibody levels varied from 4 to 90 IU/mL (geometric mean, 18.6; 90% confidence interval, 9.7-35.7). The variation from manufacturer to manufacturer accounted for most of the observed differences among lots; there was relatively little variability among multiple lots from a single manufacturer. IVIG may be an acceptable alternative to horse or human tetanus immune globulin.

  4. Equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferate in response to tetanus toxoid antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, J; Little, S; Foster, A P; Cunningham, F M; Hamblin, A

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs) do not proliferate in response to tetanus toxoid (TT) (Frayne and Stokes 1995, Research in Veterinary Science 59, 79-81). Here we demonstrate that lymphocyte proliferation responses to TT, which are characteristic of a recall antigen, may be achieved under certain culture conditions. Given that TT vaccination is routinely applied to many horses, TT is a suitable antigen for the investigation of cellular immune responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the horse.

  5. Diphtheria Antibodies and T lymphocyte Counts in Patients Infected with HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. B. Speranza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the IgG levels anti-diphtheria (D-Ab and T cell counts (CD4+ and CD8+ in HIV-1 infected subjects undergoing or not highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Approximately 70% of all HIV-1 patients were unprotected against diphtheria. There were no differences in D-Ab according to CD4 counts. Untreated patients had higher D-Ab (geometric mean of 0.62 IU/ml than HAART-patients (geometric mean of 0.39 IU/ml. The data indicated the necessity of keeping all HIV-1 patients up-to-date with their vaccination.

  6. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: evidence-based management of pediatric patients in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibners, Lara

    2017-02-01

    Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts. Most importantly, issues regarding vaccination and prevention are highlighted.

  7. Induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants in human cells by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, P.; Ferreri, A.M.; Capucci, A.; Prodi, G.

    1981-01-01

    Stable spontaneous mutants resistant to the protein synthesis inhibitor diphtheria toxin (DT) have been selected in human cell line EUE at a very low frequency (less than 8 x 10(-6)). U.v.-induced mutation has been quantitatively measured: treatment of cells with u.v. light increased the frequencies of diphtheria toxin resistant (DTr) mutants up to 1000-fold. The maximum recovery of DTr mutants was observed after a short expression period, for all u.v. doses tested, and was followed by a decrease in mutation frequency on subsequent passages

  8. Induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants in human cells by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, P.; Ferreri, A.M.; Capucci, A.; Prodi, G.

    1981-01-01

    Stable spontaneous mutants resistant to the protein synthesis inhibitor diphtheria toxin (DT) have been selected in human cell line EUE at a very low frequency ( -6 ). U.v.-induced mutation has been quantitatively measured: treatment of cells with u.v. light increased the frequencies of diphtheria toxin resistant (DTsup(r)) mutants up to 1000-fold. The maximum recovery of DTsup(r) mutants was observed after a short expression period, for all u.v. doses tested, and was followed by a decrease in mutation frequency on subsequent passages. (author)

  9. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  10. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Over a dozen prospective adsorbents for krypton were studied and evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost for dissolver off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. Results show that, at subambient temperature (-40 0 to -80 0 C), the commercially available hydrogen mordenite has sufficient adsorptive capacity to be the most cost-effective material studied. Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite. The results indicate that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems whih utilize fluorocarbon absorption and cryogenic distillation

  11. Potency of a human monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin relative to equine diphtheria anti-toxin in a guinea pig intoxication model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi L; Cheslock, Peter; Leney, Mark; Barton, Bruce; Molrine, Deborah C

    2016-08-17

    Prompt administration of anti-toxin reduces mortality following Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. Current treatment relies upon equine diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT), with a 10% risk of serum sickness and rarely anaphylaxis. The global DAT supply is extremely limited; most manufacturers have ceased production. S315 is a neutralizing human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin that may provide a safe and effective alternative to equine DAT and address critical supply issues. To guide dose selection for IND-enabling pharmacology and toxicology studies, we dose-ranged S315 and DAT in a guinea pig model of diphtheria intoxication based on the NIH Minimum Requirements potency assay. Animals received a single injection of antibody premixed with toxin, were monitored for 30 days, and assigned a numeric score for clinical signs of disease. Animals receiving ≥ 27.5 µg of S315 or ≥ 1.75 IU of DAT survived whereas animals receiving ≤ 22.5 µg of S315 or ≤ 1.25 IU of DAT died, yielding a potency estimate of 17 µg S315/IU DAT (95% CI 16-21) for an endpoint of survival. Because some surviving animals exhibited transient limb weakness, likely a systemic sign of toxicity, DAT and S315 doses required to prevent hind limb paralysis were also determined, yielding a relative potency of 48 µg/IU (95% CI 38-59) for this alternate endpoint. To support advancement of S315 into clinical trials, potency estimates will be used to evaluate the efficacy of S315 versus DAT in an animal model with antibody administration after toxin exposure, more closely modeling anti-toxin therapy in humans.

  12. Risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob; Hviid, Anders; Li, Jiong; Vedsted, Peter; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-02-22

    Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. A population-based cohort study of 378,834 children who were born in Denmark between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, and followed up through December 31, 2009; and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study based on children with febrile seizures during follow-up of the cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study. A total of 7811 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures before 18 months, of whom 17 were diagnosed within 0 to 7 days after the first (incidence rate, 0.8 per 100,000 person-days), 32 children after the second (1.3 per 100,000 person-days), and 201 children after the third (8.5 per 100,000 person-days) vaccinations. Overall, children did not have higher risks of febrile seizures during the 0 to 7 days after the 3 vaccinations vs a reference cohort of children who were not within 0 to 7 days of vaccination. However, a higher risk of febrile seizures was found on the day of the first (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 2.86-12.65) and on the day of the second (HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.18-7.10), but not on the day of the third vaccination (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.57) vs the reference cohort. On the day of vaccination, 9 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures after the first (5.5 per 100,000 person-days), 12

  13. Mutant with diphtheria toxin receptor and acidification function but defective in entry of toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Kenji; Hayes, H.; Mekada, Eisuke; Uchida, Tsuyoshi

    1987-01-01

    A mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells, GE1, that is highly resistant to diphtheria toxin was isolated. The mutant contains 50% ADP-ribosylatable elongation factor 2, but its protein synthesis was not inhibited by the toxin even at concentrations above 100 μg/ml. 125 I-labeled diphtheria toxin was associated with GE1 cells as well as with the parent cells but did not block protein synthesis of GE1 cells even when the cells were exposed to low pH in the presence or absence of NH 4 Cl. The infections of GE1 cells and the parent cells by vesicular stomatitis virus were similar. GE1 cells were cross-resistant to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and so were about 1,000 times more resistant to this toxin than the parent cells. Hybrids of GE1 cells and the parent cells or mutant cells lacking a functional receptor were more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than GE1 cells. These results suggest that entry of diphtheria toxin into cells requires a cellular factor(s) in addition to those involved in receptor function and acidification of endosomes and that GE1 cells do not express this cellular factor. This character is recessive in GE1 cells

  14. Is diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) associated with increased female mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ten years ago, we formulated two hypotheses about whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination: first, when given after BCG, DTP increases mortality in girls and, second, following DTP there is an increase in the female/male mortality rate ratio (MRR). A recent review...

  15. Seroprevalence of antibody against diphtheria among the population in Khon Kaen province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansiddhi, Hataichanok; Vuthitanachot, Viboonsuk; Vuthitanachot, Chanpim; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-03-01

    To assess diphtheria immunity in the northeastern region of Thailand, a seroepidemiological survey was undertaken in 2011 from 516 healthy individuals (age range 2-87 years) in Khon Kaen province. Diphtheria antitoxin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titers of ≥0.1 IU/mL were considered to be protective antitoxin levels. Among the studied population, 94.8% have fully protective levels. The younger population (age range 2-19 years) has higher diphtheria immunity with seroprotection rates of 96.8% to 97.9%, compared with the adult population. The proportion of protective diphtheria antitoxin levels declines to 88.3% to 91.9% in the middle-aged group (20-50 years), and appeared to be higher again in the older age-group (50-70 years). To avoid epidemic spreading, promoting immunization booster programs will be helpful, especially among the adult population (20-50 years). Finally, this study may serve as a valuable guide in deciding exactly which age-groups should be targeted by such an effort. © 2012 APJPH.

  16. Effective humoral immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Czirják, László; Hóbor, Renáta; Illes, Zsolt; Bánáti, Miklós; Rajczy, Katalin; Tordai, Attila; Füst, George

    2013-07-01

    Controversy exists about the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immune response in patients with immunoregulatory disorders. Our aim was to determine the antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus in patients with either of two autoimmune diseases. 279 patients with SLE (205 females, aged 45.0 ± 13.8 years), 158 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) (101 females, aged 55 ± 18.7 years) and 208 healthy subjects (122 females, aged 48 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled. Serum concentrations of diphtheria-antitoxin-IgG (A-DIPHTH) and tetanus-antitoxoid-IgG (A-TET) were determined with ELISA. Equal proportions of healthy subjects, as well as patients with SLE or MG exhibited proper antibody responses and immune protection against diphtheria and tetanus. In all three test groups, serum concentration of A-DIPHTH decreased significantly (p60-years-old) subjects. There were no significant differences among the groups in the age-related changes of A-TET and A-DIPHTH except that in diphtheria and tetanus infections in patients with SLE or MG is comparable to the healthy population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis : evaluation of the national immunisation programme in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker, de H.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the evaluation of the National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands the main objectives were to obtain insight into the immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis, into the occurrence of pertussis and to improve serodiagnosis of pertussis.

    In a

  18. Preparación toxoide a partir de la fracción hemorrágica del veneno de Bothrops asper (serpiente de América Central y del Sur) (Toxoid preparation from hemorrhagic fraction of the venom from Bothrops asper (snake from Central and South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described for preparing a toxoid from the hemorrhagic fraction of the Bothrops asper venom. This method conserves a high degree of immunogenicity although it eliminates lethal effects. None of the animals vaccinated with the toxoid from this fraction had hemorrhagic lesions after they were injected the venom from the hemorrhagic fraction.

  19. Recall Responses to Tetanus and Diphtheria Vaccination Are Frequently Insufficient in Elderly Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Birgit; Schirmer, Michael; Matteucci Gothe, Raffaella; Siebert, Uwe; Fuchs, Dietmar; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2013-01-01

    Demographic changes and a more active life-style in older age have contributed to an increasing public awareness of the need for lifelong vaccination. Currently many older persons have been vaccinated against selected pathogens during childhood but lack regular booster immunizations. The impact of regular vaccinations when started late in life was analyzed in an open, explorative trial by evaluating the immune response against tetanus and diphtheria in healthy older individuals. 252 persons aged above 60 years received a booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and polio and a subcohort (n=87) was recruited to receive a second booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis 5 years later. The percentage of unprotected individuals at the time of enrollment differed substantially for tetanus (12%) and diphtheria (65%). Despite protective antibody concentrations 4 weeks after the first vaccination in almost all vaccinees, antibodies had again dropped below protective levels in 10% (tetanus) and 45% (diphtheria) of the cohort after 5 years. Protection was restored in almost all vaccinees after the second vaccination. No correlation between tetanus- and diphtheria-specific responses was observed, and antibody concentrations were not associated with age-related changes in the T cell repertoire, inflammatory parameters, or CMV-seropositivity suggesting that there was no general biological “non-responder type.” Post-vaccination antibody concentrations depended on pre-existing plasma cells and B cell memory as indicated by a strong positive relationship between post-vaccination antibodies and pre-vaccination antibodies as well as antibody-secreting cells. In contrast, antigen-specific T cell responses were not or only weakly associated with antibody concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that single shot vaccinations against tetanus and/or diphtheria do not lead to long-lasting immunity in many elderly persons despite

  20. Iodine removal adsorbent histories, aging and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Rankovic, L.; Lubbers, R.; Kovach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The experience of efficiency changes with life under various test conditions is described. The adsorbents were periodically removed from both standby and continuously operating systems and tested under various test methods for residual iodine adsorption efficiency. Adsorbent from several conventional ''sampler'' cartridges versus the bulk adsorbent was also tested showing deficiency in the use of cartridge type sampling. Currently required test conditions were found inadequate to follow the aging of the adsorbent because pre-equilibration of the sample acts as a regenerant and the sample is not tested in the ''as is'' condition. The most stringent test was found to be the ambient temperature, high humidity test to follow the aging of the adsorbent. Several methods were evaluated to regenerate used adsorbents; of these high temperature steaming and partial reimpregnation were found to produce adsorbents with near identical properties of freshly prepared adsorbents

  1. Diphtheria in a 7-year-old child in north-eastern Nigeria - management in a resource-poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Baba Waru; Gofama, Mustapha M; Lawan, Gana M; Haruna, Yusuph; Bukar, Bakki; Musa, Kida I

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 7-year-old unimmunized child who presented with a 2 week history of nasal quality speech, hoarseness of the voice, regurgitation of feeds, and unstable gait. He had a previous history of fever, severe sore throat and bloody nasal discharge. A throat swab was negative for Corynebacterium diphtheria; however, he had received antibiotics at a primary care clinic prior to presentation. A clinical diagnosis of diphtheria with neurologic complication was made and the child was started on oral erythromycin, nasogastric tube feeding and daily physiotherapy, following which he improved. We did not prescribe diphtheria anti-toxin because of its unavailability.

  2. The Druggable Pocketome of Corynebacterium diphtheriae: A New Approach for in silico Putative Druggable Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed S.; Jamal, Syed B.; Radusky, Leandro G.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Ullah, Asad; Ali, Javed; Behramand; de Carvalho, Paulo V. S. D.; Shams, Rida; Khan, Sabir; Figueiredo, Henrique C. P.; Barh, Debmalya; Ghosh, Preetam; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Röttger, Richard; Turjanski, Adrián G.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.

    2018-01-01

    Diphtheria is an acute and highly infectious disease, previously regarded as endemic in nature but vaccine-preventable, is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd). In this work, we used an in silico approach along the 13 complete genome sequences of C. diphtheriae followed by a computational assessment of structural information of the binding sites to characterize the “pocketome druggability.” To this end, we first computed the “modelome” (3D structures of a complete genome) of a randomly selected reference strain Cd NCTC13129; that had 13,763 open reading frames (ORFs) and resulted in 1,253 (∼9%) structure models. The amino acid sequences of these modeled structures were compared with the remaining 12 genomes and consequently, 438 conserved protein sequences were obtained. The RCSB-PDB database was consulted to check the template structures for these conserved proteins and as a result, 401 adequate 3D models were obtained. We subsequently predicted the protein pockets for the obtained set of models and kept only the conserved pockets that had highly druggable (HD) values (137 across all strains). Later, an off-target host homology analyses was performed considering the human proteome using NCBI database. Furthermore, the gene essentiality analysis was carried out that gave a final set of 10-conserved targets possessing highly druggable protein pockets. To check the target identification robustness of the pipeline used in this work, we crosschecked the final target list with another in-house target identification approach for C. diphtheriae thereby obtaining three common targets, these were; hisE-phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphatase, glpX-fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase II, and rpsH-30S ribosomal protein S8. Our predicted results suggest that the in silico approach used could potentially aid in experimental polypharmacological target determination in C. diphtheriae and other pathogens, thereby, might complement the existing and new drug-discovery pipelines

  3. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of 99m Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by 99m Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl 2 bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl 2 > 110 μg/ml. Adherence levels of 99m Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 μg/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% ± 1.2). Therefore, bacterial 99m Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  4. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  5. Assessment of Serologic Immunity to Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis After Treatment of Korean Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jae-Wook; Chung, Nak-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack-Ki

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis antibody titers after antineoplastic treatment and to suggest an appropriate vaccination approach for pediatric hemato-oncologic patients. A total of 146 children with either malignancy in remission after cessation of therapy or bone marrow failure were recruited. All children had received routine immunization including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination before diagnosis of cancer. The serologic immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was classified as: completely protective, partially protective, or non-protective. Non-protective serum antibody titer for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was detected in 6.2%, 11.6%, and 62.3% of patients, respectively, and partial protective serum antibody titer for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was seen in 37%, 28.1%, and 8.9% of patients. There was no significant correlation between the severity of immune defect and age, gender or underlying disease. Revaccination after antineoplastic therapy showed significantly higher levels of antibody for each vaccine antigen. Our data indicates that a large proportion of children lacked protective serum concentrations of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. This suggests that reimmunization of these patients is necessary after completion of antineoplastic treatment. Also, prospective studies should be undertaken with the aim of devising a common strategy of revaccination. PMID:22219618

  6. Diphtheria toxin-induced channels in Vero cells selective for monovalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandvig, K.; Olsnes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ion fluxes associated with translocation of diphtheria toxin across the surface membrane of Vero cells were studied. When cells with surface-bound toxin were exposed to low pH to induce toxin entry, the cells became permeable to Na+, K+, H+, choline+, and glucosamine+. There was no increased permeability to Cl-, SO4(-2), glucose, or sucrose, whereas the uptake of 45 Ca2+ was slightly increased. The influx of Ca2+, which appears to be different from that of monovalent cations, was reduced by several inhibitors of anion transport and by verapamil, Mn2+, Co2+, and Ca2+, but not by Mg2+. The toxin-induced fluxes of N+, K+, and protons were inhibited by Cd2+. Cd2+ also protected the cells against intoxication by diphtheria toxin, suggesting that the open cation-selective channel is required for toxin translocation. The involvement of the toxin receptor is discussed

  7. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: evidence-based management of pediatric patients in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibners, Lara; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2017-02-22

    Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts. Most importantly, issues regarding vaccination and prevention are highlighted. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  8. The WHO Review of the Possible Nonspecific Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: World Health Organization recently reviewed the possible nonspecific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. The results were considered inconsistent though most studies suggested deleterious effects. We examined whether inconsistencies in results reflected differences...... in effect of DTP or differences in the methodology used in different studies. METHODS: If children remain unvaccinated because they are frail or if children (including dead ones) with no information on vaccination status are classified as "unvaccinated," the mortality rate becomes unnaturally high among...

  9. Low seroprevalence of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in ambulatory adult patients: the need for lifelong vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Mine Durusu; Soyler, Canan; Ascioglu, Sibel; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Unal, Serhat

    2014-07-01

    Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles are vaccine preventable diseases that have been reported to cause morbidity and mortality in adult population in the recent years. We aimed to document the seropositivity rates and vaccination indication for these four vaccine preventable diseases among adult and elderly patients who were seen as outpatients in a university hospital. Blood samples for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles antibodies were obtained. Results were evaluated with regards to protection levels and booster vaccine indications according to the cut-off values. A total of 1367 patients consented for the study and 1303 blood samples were available for analysis at the end of the study. The antibody levels against measles conferred protection in 98% of patients. However, 65% of the patients had no protection for diphtheria, 69% had no protection for tetanus and 90% of the patients had no protection for pertussis. Only 1.3% of the study population had seropositivity against three of the diseases-Tdap booster was indicated in 98.7%. Multivariable logistic regression showed that tetanus protection decreased with increasing age. Having a chronic disease was associated with a lower rate of protective antibodies for pertussis. We demonstrated very low rates of protection against three of the vaccine preventable diseases of childhood-diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. Booster vaccinations are required in adult life in accordance with national and international adult vaccination guidelines. The concept of "lifelong vaccination" should be implemented and every encounter with the patient should be regarded as a chance for catch-up. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seroprevalence of antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis among healthy adolescents and adults in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Babak; Moradi, Behnaz; Mirzaee, Farin; Mahmoudi, Shima; Teymuri, Mostafa; Mamishi, Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccine are useful to evaluate the success of immunization programs. In this study we evaluated the serologic levels of antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. In a cross sectional study, a total of 360 people aged 10-25 years were randomly selected and classified by sex and age (10-14, 15-20, 21-25 years). Overall, 78.8% of people aged 10-25 years had fully protected levels of diphtheria antibody (> or = 0.1 IU/ML), and 89.7% had fully protected levels of tetanus antibody (> or = 0.1 IU/ML), 94.3% of women aged 15-25 years had anti tetanus antibody sufficient to protect against neonatal tetanus (> or = 0.1 IU/ML). Antibodies to Pertussis toxin (PT) were found in 44.2% samples but only 1.4% had fully protective levels. Antibodies to PT increased with age, ranging from 33.5% in aged 10-14 years to 54.6 % in aged 21-25 years. No differences were found between male and female, except for diphtheria in age group 21-25 years. Results of this study reveal that diphtheria and tetanus (dT) are efficient between booster doses. About pertussis, most people are susceptible to pertussis and increased PT antibodies with age suggest acquired asymptomatic Bordeella pertussis infection. Also B. pertussis infections in adolescents and adults are of concern, as they are the most important source of transmission of pertussis to young, unprotected infants. So one booster dose in adolescents and adults (as CDC recommended), to reduce mortality and morbidity in infants, is therefore suggested.

  11. An integrative in-silico approach for therapeutic target identification in the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Babar Jamal

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However, numerous drug-resistant strains emerged recently that consequently decreased the efficacy of current therapeutics and vaccines, thereby obliging the scientific community to start investigating new therapeutic targets in pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, our contributions include the prediction of modelome of 13 C. diphtheriae strains, using the MHOLline workflow. A set of 463 conserved proteins were identified by combining the results of pangenomics based core-genome and core-modelome analyses. Further, using subtractive proteomics and modelomics approaches for target identification, a set of 23 proteins was selected as essential for the bacteria. Considering human as a host, eight of these proteins (glpX, nusB, rpsH, hisE, smpB, bioB, DIP1084, and DIP0983 were considered as essential and non-host homologs, and have been subjected to virtual screening using four different compound libraries (extracted from the ZINC database, plant-derived natural compounds and Di-terpenoid Iso-steviol derivatives. The proposed ligand molecules showed favorable interactions, lowered energy values and high complementarity with the predicted targets. Our proposed approach expedites the selection of C. diphtheriae putative proteins for broad-spectrum development of novel drugs and vaccines, owing to the fact that some of these targets have already been identified and validated in other organisms.

  12. Low tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage among HIV infected individuals in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, K; Herkner, H; Touzeau-Roemer, V; Rieger, A; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-07-31

    Current management guidelines of HIV infected adults include recommendation to immunization against common vaccine preventable diseases. This effort is hindered by the scarce knowledge regarding the immunization status of this especially vulnerable patient group. This study analyzed the serostatus for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus of more than 700 HIV infected individuals residing in Austria. These individuals were representative for the Austrian HIV cohort regarding sex, age, transmission risk and HIV progression markers. Overall, 73.6% were on suppressive HAART, mean CD4 cell count was 603c/μl. Seropositivity was 84% for diphtheria, 51% for tetanus and 1% for pertussis. Migrants had a lower chance of tetanus seropositivity (OR 0.30 (CI 0.21 to 0.43)). Increase in CDC classification were associated with increased diphtheria seropositivity (OR 1.42 (CI 1.02 to 1.98)) and a CD4 nadir200c/μl, 95% lacked seroprotection to at least one of the antigens included in the triple vaccine Tdap and could be vaccinated. Thus, a proactive approach would largely reduce the number of patients at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Autoradiographic assay of mutants resistant to diphtheria toxin in mammalian cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, A.; Gingerich, J.D.; Duncan, A.M.V.; Heddle, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Diptheria toxin kills mammalian cells by ribosylating elongation factor 2, a protein factor necessary for protein synthesis. The frequency of cells able to form colonies in the presence of the toxin can be used as an assay for mutation to diphtheria toxin resistance. Resistance to diphtheria toxin can also be detected autoradiographically in cells exposed to [ 3 H]leucine after treatment with the toxin. In cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells, the frequency of such resistant cells is increased by exposure of the cells to γ-rays, ultraviolet light, ethylnitrosourea, mitomycin c, ethidium bromide, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The resistant cells form discrete microcolonies if they are allowed to divide several times before intoxication which indicates that they are genuine mutants. The assay is potentially adaptable to any cell population that can be intoxicated with diphtheria toxin and labeled with [ 3 H]leucine, whether or not the cells can form colonies. It may be useful, therefore, for measuring mutation rates in slowly growing or nondividing cell populations such as breast, brain, and liver, as well as in cells that do divide but cannot be readily cloned, such as the colonic epithelium. 23 references, 6 figures

  14. Heterosubtypic protection against influenza A induced by adenylate cyclase toxoids delivering conserved HA2 subunit of hemagglutinin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staneková, Z.; Adkins, Irena; Kosová, Martina; Janulíková, J.; Šebo, Peter; Varečková, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2013), s. 24-35 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA ČR GP310/09/P582 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid * Influenza A infection * Cross-protection Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.434, year: 2013

  15. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.A. [Chemica Technologies, Inc., Bend, OR (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  16. Neutron scattering from adsorbed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuwang An

    1998-01-01

    Neutron reflection has been used to investigate the structure of layers of water-soluble diblock copolymers poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-block-methyl methacrylate (poly(DMAEMA-b-MMA)) (70 mol% DMAEMA, M n = 10k, 80 mol% DMAEMA, M n = 10k, and 70 mol% DMAEMA, M n = 20k) adsorbed at the air-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces. The surface tension behaviour of these copolymers at the air-liquid interface has also been investigated. The study of the structure of layers of poly(DMAEMA-b-MMA) adsorbed at the air-water interface forms the main part of the thesis. The surface structure, the effects of pH and ionic strength, and the effects of composition and molecular weight of the copolymers have been studied systematically. For the 70%-10k copolymer at pH 7.5, the adsorption isotherm shows that there is a surface phase transition. The concentration of copolymer at which the phase transition occurs is close to that at which micellar aggregation in the bulk solution also occurs. At low concentrations (below the CMC), the two blocks of the copolymer are approximately uniformly distributed in the direction normal to the interface and the layer is partially immersed in water. At high concentrations (above the CMC), the adsorbed layer has a cross-sectional structure resembling that expected for a micelle with the majority of the MMA blocks forming the core. The outer layers, comprising predominantly DMAEMA blocks, are not equivalent, being more highly extended on the aqueous side of the interface. The effects of pH and added electrolyte on the structure of layers of the 70%-10k copolymer show that the layered structure is promoted by any changes in the bulk solution that enhance the surface coverage but is inhibited by an increase in the fractional charge on the polyelectrolyte part of the copolymer. The effect of lowering the pH is to increase the positive charge on the weak polyelectrolyte block. Addition of electrolyte generally enhances the amount adsorbed and

  17. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  18. Ecological applications of the irradiated adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusseyev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In our previous works it was shown that after irradiation some adsorbents gain new interesting properties such as increasing (or decreasing) of their adsorption capacity, selectivity in relation to some gases, change of chemical bounds of gas molecules with adsorbent surface as well as other properties. We investigated a lot of adsorbents with semiconducting and dielectric properties. A high temperature superconductor was investigated also. Adsorbents were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) and gamma - radiation, reactor (n.γ) - radiation, α-particles (E=40-50 MeV), protons ( E=30 MeV), and also He-3 ions (E-29-60 MeV). The following techniques were used: volumetric (manometrical), mass-spectrometer and IR spectroscopic methods, and also method of electronic - paramagnetic resonance (spin paramagnetic resonance) The obtained results allow to speak about creation of new adsorbents for gas purification (clearing) from harmful impurities, gas selection into components, an increasing of adsorbing surface. Thus one more advantage of the irradiated adsorbents is that they have 'memory effect', i.e. they can be used enough long time after irradiation. In laboratory conditions we built the small-sized adsorptive pump on the basis of the irradiated zeolites which are capable to work in autonomous conditions. It was found, that some of adsorbents after irradiation gain (or lose) selectivity in relation to definite gases. So, silica gel, which one in initial state does not adsorb hydrogen, after gamma irradiation it becomes active in relation to hydrogen. Some of rare earths oxides also show selectivity in relation to hydrogen and oxygen depending on a type of irradiation. Thus, it is possible to create different absorbents, depending on a solved problem, using a way or selection of adsorbents, either of radiation type and energy, as a result obtained adsorbents can be used for various ecological purposes

  19. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Chris [ORNL; Yatsandra, Oyola [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL; none,; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Li-Jung, Kuo [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  20. Thermodynamics of gas adsorption on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrugeac, P.

    1979-01-01

    Starting with several hypotheses about the adsorbtion system and the adsorption phenomenon, a thermodynamic treatment of gas adsorption on solid adsorbants is presented. The relationships for determination from isotherms and calorimetric data of thermodynamic functions are derived. The problem of the phase changes in adsorbed layer is discussed. (author)

  1. SINGLE CHAIN VARIABLE FRAGMENTS OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST DIPHTHERIA TOXIN B-SUBUNIT ISOLATED FROM PHAGE DISPLAY HUMAN ANTIBODY LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliinyk O. S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin is an exoantigen of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that inhibits protein synthesis and kills sensitive cells. The aim of this study was to obtain human recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies against receptor-binding B subunit of diphtheria toxin. 12 specific clones were selected after three rounds of a phage display naїve (unimmunized human antibody library against recombinant B-subunit. scFv DNA inserts from these 12 clones were digested with MvaI, and 6 unique restriction patterns were found. Single-chain antibodies were expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-blue. The recombinant proteins were characterized by immunoblotting of bacterial extracts and detection with an anti-E-tag antibody. The toxin B-subunit-binding function of the single-chain antibody was shown by ELISA. The affinity constants for different clones were found to be from 106 to 108 М–1. Due to the fact, that these antibody fragments recognized epitopes in the receptor-binding Bsubunit of diphtheria toxin, further studies are interesting to evaluate their toxin neutralization properties and potential for therapeutic applications. Obtained scFv-antibodies can also be used for detection and investigation of biological properties of diphtheria toxin.

  2. Estudo da difteria na cidade do Recife. I. Nota sôbre levantamento de portadores de Corynebacterium diphtheriae no bairro dos Coelhos Survey on diphtheriae carriers in "Bairro dos Coelhos" Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available De uma amostra probabilística do bairro dos Coelhos da cidade do Recife, 410 indivíduos foram examinados para verificação de portadores de difteria. Sòmente duas amostras de C. diphtheriae foram isoladas de duas crianças de 8 a 9 anos, as quais não apresentaram sintomatologia compatível com o quadro diftérico.From a limited population living around the University Hospital in Recife, Brazil a randomic sample was examined in order to identify diphtheria carriers. Swabs were made from 410 persons in a house-to-house survey. Two strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were isolated from healthy 8 and 9-year old children.

  3. Irradiation of the Crude Venom of Bothrops jararacussu to Obtain Toxoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Camila G.; Avalloni, Tania M.; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Oliveira, Sara de J; Oliveira, Jose M. Jr. de; Cogo, Jose C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the toxicity of Bothrops jararacussu venom using gamma-rays of low-energy coming from a source of Americium-241 (E = 59.6 keV and 3.7x10 9 Bq of activity) in order to obtain a toxoid. The radiation dose that each sample received was controlled by exposure time of the venom to the radiation beam. Mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation was used for testing the loss of venom toxicity, since the venom causes an irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In this condition, the several samples of irradiated venom, when assayed in neuromuscular preparation showed that with a dose of 0.051 Gy the paralysis caused by the irradiated venom was of 91%, at 0.360 Gy was of 79%, at 1.662 Gy was of 50% and at 2.448 Gy was of 42%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the irradiation model was able to induce a progressive loss of the venom toxicity.

  4. Irradiation of the Crude Venom of Bothrops jararacussu to Obtain Toxoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Camila G.; Avalloni, Tânia M.; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; de J. Oliveira, Sara; de Oliveira, José M.; Cogo, José C.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the toxicity of Bothrops jararacussu venom using gamma-rays of low-energy coming from a source of Americium-241 (E = 59.6 keV and 3.7×109 Bq of activity) in order to obtain a toxoid. The radiation dose that each sample received was controlled by exposure time of the venom to the radiation beam. Mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation was used for testing the loss of venom toxicity, since the venom causes an irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In this condition, the several samples of irradiated venom, when assayed in neuromuscular preparation showed that with a dose of 0.051 Gy the paralysis caused by the irradiated venom was of 91%, at 0.360 Gy was of 79%, at 1.662 Gy was of 50% and at 2.448 Gy was of 42%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the irradiation model was able to induce a progressive loss of the venom toxicity.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccine (Repevax®) followed by two doses of diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccine (Revaxis®) in adults aged ≥ 40 years not receiving a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccination in the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominicus, Rolf; Galtier, Florence; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2014-06-30

    The immunogenicity and safety of one dose of Tdap-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) and two doses of Td-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) were assessed in adults who had not received a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. This open-label, multicentre study was conducted in adults aged ≥ 40 years with no diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. Participants received one dose of Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV (0, 1, 6 month schedule). Primary immunogenicity objectives: to demonstrate acceptable seroprotection rates (percentage of participants with antibody titre above threshold) post-dose 3 for diphtheria (≥ 0.1IU/mL by seroneutralization assay [SNA]); tetanus (≥ 0.1IU/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]); and poliomyelitis (≥ 8 1/dil by SNA); and to evaluate the percentage of participants with an antibody concentration ≥ 5EU/mL (by ELISA) for pertussis antigens post-dose 1. Seroprotection rates were acceptable if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was >95%. Percentage of participants with basic clinical immunity against diphtheria (≥ 0.01IU/mL) was also assessed. Safety (adverse events [AEs] and serious AEs) was assessed after each dose. Overall, 336 participants were included (mean age: 60.2 years). Post-dose 3 seroprotection rates were: diphtheria, 94.6% (CI 91.5-96.8); tetanus and poliomyelitis, 100% (CI: 98.8-100). Percentage of participants with an antibody titre ≥ 5EU/mL against pertussis antigens was ≥ 95.8% for all five pertussis components. Basic clinical immunity against diphtheria was achieved in 100% (CI: 98.8-100) of participants. AEs were reported more frequently following vaccination with Tdap-IPV (post-dose 1: 65.3%) than with Td-IPV (post-dose 2: 48.3%; post-dose 3: 50.3%). This study highlights the benefits of using Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV in an

  6. A cross-sectional study of tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations post vaccination among lung transplant patients compared with healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, K A; Cunningham, K C; Henriquez, K M; Nielsen, A R; Worzella, S L; Hayney, M S

    2014-12-01

    Lung transplant (LuTx) patients are routinely immunized against tetanus and diphtheria. However, few studies have been done to measure serologic immunity in the transplant population. The primary objective of this study was to compare tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations in LuTx vs. healthy subjects. Serum was used from an available sample of 111 total individuals (n = 36 healthy; n = 75 LuTx). Tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay method. A statistically significant difference in both tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations was found between the groups. The median concentration of tetanus antibody was higher for healthy individuals compared with the LuTx group (3.2 IU/mL [1.2-5.2 interquartile range {IQR}] vs. 1.3 IU/mL [0.4-2.6 IQR], respectively; P = 0.0001). No difference in time was found since the last tetanus-diphtheria vaccine or tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine dose between the groups (healthy 76.5 months [16-114 IQR] vs. LuTx 74.5 months [45-118 IQR]; P = 0.44). Tetanus and diphtheria immunizations are recommended for LuTx patients to reduce the risk of infection. Because the LuTx group has lower antibody concentrations, further studies should investigate the possible need for more frequent tetanus and diphtheria boosters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation and validation of a single-dilution potency assay based upon serology of vaccines containing diphtheria toxoid: analysis for consistency in production and testing at the laboratory of the Control of Biological Products of the RIVM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans AM; Hendriksen CFM; Marsman FR; de Jong WH; van de Donk HJM

    1993-01-01

    A single-dilution assay can be a valid procedure to demonstrate that a product exceeds the minimal requirement given for potency provided that consistency in production and testing has been proven. Information is presented justifying the use of a single dilution assay based upon quantitative

  8. Analysis of Adsorbate-Adsorbate and Adsorbate-Adsorbent Interactions to Decode Isosteric Heats of Gas Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, S Hadi; Sedghi, Saeid; Biggs, Mark J; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-12-21

    A qualitative interpretation is proposed to interpret isosteric heats of adsorption by considering contributions from three general classes of interaction energy: fluid-fluid heat, fluid-solid heat, and fluid-high-energy site (HES) heat. Multiple temperature adsorption isotherms are defined for nitrogen, T=(75, 77, 79) K, argon at T=(85, 87, 89) K, and for water and methanol at T=(278, 288, 298) K on a well-characterized polymer-based, activated carbon. Nitrogen and argon are subjected to isosteric heat analyses; their zero filling isosteric heats of adsorption are consistent with slit-pore, adsorption energy enhancement modelling. Water adsorbs entirely via specific interactions, offering decreasing isosteric heat at low pore filling followed by a constant heat slightly in excess of water condensation enthalpy, demonstrating the effects of micropores. Methanol offers both specific adsorption via the alcohol group and non-specific interactions via its methyl group; the isosteric heat increases at low pore filling, indicating the predominance of non-specific interactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  10. Immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Danish men born 1950-59

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Heron, I

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the possible need for vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), antibodies were measured in blood samples from 78 Danish HIV-infected men, born 1950-59, who could be expected to have received primary vaccination before...... they contracted the HIV infection. No patients (95% confidence interval: 0-4) had tetanus antibodies below the protective level, whereas 24 of the 78 patients (16-33) were unprotected against diphtheria. In the background population of the same age group and sex, 5% and 10% have been found unprotected against...... tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. No relationship between disease stages and antibody levels could be found. Neither was there any difference between patients with normal and reduced numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes. From 25 patients two blood samples were taken at an interval of at least one year. Anti...

  11. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P < 0.0005). It may be of value to consider additional vaccination efforts to protect older adults at higher risk for exposure against diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, E M; van Gageldonk, P G M; de Melker, H E; van der Klis, F R; Berbers, G A M; Mollema, L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) a population-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was performed in the Netherlands. We assessed diphtheria antitoxin levels in the general Dutch population and in low vaccination coverage (LVC) areas where a relatively high proportion of orthodox Protestants live who decline vaccination based on religious grounds. Results were compared with a nationwide seroepidemiological study performed 11 years earlier. In 2006/2007 a national serum bank was established. Blood samples were tested for diphtheria antitoxin IgG concentrations using a multiplex immunoassay for 6383 participants from the national sample (NS) and 1518 participants from LVC municipalities. A cut-off above 0.01 international units per ml (IU/ml) was used as minimum protective level. In the NS 91% of the population had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml compared to 88% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey (pdiphtheria vaccination in the NIP and 46% (vs. 37% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey, p = 0.11) of orthodox Protestants living in LVC areas had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml. Linear regression analysis among fully immunized individuals (six vaccinations) without evidence of revaccination indicated a continuous decline in antibodies in both serosurveys, but geometric mean antibodies remained well above 0.01 IU/ml in all age groups. The NIP provides long-term protection against diphtheria, although antibody levels decline after vaccination. As a result of natural waning immunity, a substantial proportion of individuals born before introduction of diphtheria vaccination in the NIP lack adequate levels of diphtheria antibodies. Susceptibility due to lack of vaccination is highest among strictly orthodox Protestants. The potential risk of spread of diphtheria within the geographically clustered orthodox Protestant community after introduction in the Netherlands has not disappeared, despite national long-term high vaccination coverage.

  13. Resurgence of Diphtheria in North Kerala, India, 2016: Laboratory Supported Case-Based Surveillance Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Sangal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAs part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action.MethodsSurveillance data captured from reporting register, case investigation forms, and laboratory reports was analyzed. Cases were allotted unique ID and no personal identifying information was used for analysis. Throat swabs were collected from investigated cases as part of surveillance system. All Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates were confirmed with standard biochemical tests, ELEK’s test, and real-time PCR. Isolates were characterized using whole genome-based multi locus sequence typing method. Case investigation forms and laboratory results were recorded electronically. Public health response by government was also reviewed.ResultsA total of 533 cases were identified in 11 districts of Kerala in 2016, of which 92% occurred in 3 districts of north Kerala; Malappuram, Kozhikode, and Kannur. Almost 79% cases occurred in >10 years age group. In <18 years age group, 62% were male while in ≥18 years, 69% were females. In <10 years age group, 31% children had received three doses of diphtheria vaccine, whereas in ≥10 years, 3% cases had received all doses. Fifteen toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolates represented 6 novel sequence types (STs (ST-405, ST-408, ST-466, ST-468, ST-469, and ST-470. Other STs observed are ST-50, ST-295, and ST-377.ConclusionDiphtheria being an emerging pathogen, establishing quality surveillance for providing real-time information on disease occurrence and mortality is imperative. The epidemiological data thus generated was

  14. Two cases of cutaneous diphtheria associated with occupational pig contact in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Boschert, V; Konrad, R; Schmidt-Wieland, T; Hörmansdorfer, S; Eddicks, M; Sing, A

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, two independent cases of cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxigenic C. ulcerans were identified in Germany. Both patients had intense occupational contact with pigs. Diagnostic work-up comprising biochemical differentiation, rpoB sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis, real-time tox PCR and Elek test as well as public health measures including an intensified source tracing involving 83 asymptomatic pigs of an associated pig farm are presented. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The effects of ascorbic acid on diphtheria toxin and intoxicated hela cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.E.; Smith, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) prevented diphtheria toxin from inhibiting the incorporation of [U- 14 C]-alanine into trichloroacetic acid precipitable material in HeLa cells. Ascorbic acid did not exhibit an effect on the adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation of amino acyl transferase 2 nor did it separate fragment A from fragment B in ''nicked'' toxin. A non-specific reducing agent, para-methylaminophenol sulfate, exhibited an effect of HeLa cells very similar to the results of ascorbic acid. Citric acid, a tricarboxylic acid, had no effect on HeLa cells. (auth.)

  16. Interplay of adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions in self-assembled molecular surface nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnadt, Joachim; Xu, Wei; Vang, Ronnie Thorbjørn

    2010-01-01

    a large tolerance to monatomic surface steps on the Ag(110) surface. The observed behaviour is explained in terms of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding and a strong surface-mediated directionality, assisted by a sufficient degree of molecular backbone flexibility. In contrast, the same kind of step......-edge crossing is not observed when the molecules are adsorbed on the isotropic Ag(111) or more reactive Cu(110) surfaces. On Ag(111), similar 1-D assemblies are formed to those on Ag(110), but they are oriented along the step edges. On Cu(110), the carboxylic groups of NDCA are deprotonated and form covalent...... bonds to the surface, a situation which is also achieved on Ag(110) by annealing to 200 degrees C. These results show that the formation of particular self-assembled molecular nanostructures depends significantly on a subtle balance between the adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions...

  17. Channels Formed by Botulinum, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Toxins in Planar Lipid Bilayers: Relevance to Translocation of Proteins across Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, David H.; Romero-Mira, Miryam; Ehrlich, Barbara E.; Finkelstein, Alan; Dasgupta, Bibhuti R.; Simpson, Lance L.

    1985-03-01

    The heavy chains of both botulinum neurotoxin type B and tetanus toxin form channels in planar bilayer membranes. These channels have pH-dependent and voltage-dependent properties that are remarkably similar to those previously described for diphtheria toxin. Selectivity experiments with anions and cations show that the channels formed by the heavy chains of all three toxins are large; thus, these channels could serve as ``tunnel proteins'' for translocation of active peptide fragments. These findings support the hypothesis that the active fragments of botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, like that of diphtheria toxin, are translocated across the membranes of acidic vesicles.

  18. Alkali metal adsorbate sputtering by molecular impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.P.; Wachman, H.Y.; Trilling, L.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory study of the sputtering by a krypton molecular beam of rubidium adsorbed at low coverage on a tungsten substrate has been described in a previous paper. An extension of this work is reported now

  19. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  20. Chitin Adsorbents for Toxic Metals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Anastopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is still a critical issue all over the world. Among examined methods for the decontamination of wastewaters, adsorption is a promising, cheap, environmentally friendly and efficient procedure. There are various types of adsorbents that have been used to remove different pollutants such as agricultural waste, compost, nanomaterials, algae, etc., Chitin (poly-β-(1,4-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine is the second most abundant natural biopolymer and it has attracted scientific attention as an inexpensive adsorbent for toxic metals. This review article provides information about the use of chitin as an adsorbent. A list of chitin adsorbents with maximum adsorption capacity and the best isotherm and kinetic fitting models are provided. Moreover, thermodynamic studies, regeneration studies, the mechanism of adsorption and the experimental conditions are also discussed in depth.

  1. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this technology project is to develop, optimize, and flight qualify a black version of the molecular adsorber coating and a conductive version...

  2. Methyl iodide tests on used adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the history of events leading to the current problems in radioiodine test conditions. These radioiodine tests are performed in the adsorbent media from both safety and non-safety related Nuclear Air Treatment Systems (NATS). The main problem addressed is that currently there are still numerous plant technical specifications for NATS which reference outdated test protocols for the surveillance testing of the radioactive methyl iodide performance of the adsorbents. Recommendations for correcting the test condition problems are presented. 7 refs

  3. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Santander Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic poly-acrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  4. Properties and selection criteria for adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper gives a survey of the most important industrial adsorbents and of their suitability for different purposes. With special consideration of activated carbon, the properties and characteristic data are discussed which are used for assessing adsorbents. These, among other things, are as follows: specific surface area, pore size distribution, adsorption isotherms, hydrophobic properties, catalytic properties, chemical resistance, heat resistance, particle size and hardness. (orig.) [de

  5. Protein purification using magnetic adsorbent particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzreb, M; Siemann-Herzberg, M.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2006-01-01

    The application of functionalised magnetic adsorbent particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques has received considerable attention in recent years. The magnetically responsive nature of such adsorbent particles permits their selective manipulation and separation in the presence...... separations are fast, gentle, scaleable, easily automated, can achieve separations that would be impossible or impractical to achieve by other techniques, and have demonstrated credibility in a wide range of disciplines, including minerals processing, wastewater treatment, molecular biology, cell sorting...

  6. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahzadeh-Ghom Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices.

  7. [A large-scale epidemic of diphtheria in Moscow in recent years: patterns of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakova, G G; Filatov, N N; Korzhenkova, M P; Solodovnikov, Iu P; Lytkina, I N; Maksimova, N M; Markina, S S

    2001-01-01

    Data on the dynamics of diphtheria morbidity in Moscow in 1958-1999 are presented. The last epidemic which started at the end of the 1980s and reached its peak in 1994, giving a 59-fold rise in morbidity in comparison with the pre-epidemic period, is characterized in detail. During the epidemic 12,267 persons fell ill, 454 of them died (mortality rate was 4%). Having started in Moscow, the epidemic gradually spread not only over the territory of Russia, but also over some other republics of the former Soviet Union (Ukraine, Belarus, etc.). Possible causes of this epidemic emergency are considered. The ever increasing share of adult population among persons affected by the epidemic (75%) is noted. The infection adults is characterized by severity of clinical manifestations and increased morbidity among adults, is shown. Under complicated social and economic conditions (crisis situation) the increase of groups of high risk which included unemployed adults of working age, retirees as well as socially non-adapted persons, was registered. Mainly these groups determined tense epidemiological situation in diphtheria in Moscow.

  8. Mechanism of Metal Ion Activation of the Diphtheria Toxin Repressor DtxR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquino,J.; Tetenbaum-Novatt, J.; White, A.; Berkovitch, F.; Ringe, D.

    2005-01-01

    The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is a metal ion-activated transcriptional regulator that has been linked to the virulence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Structure determination has shown that there are two metal ion binding sites per repressor monomer, and site-directed mutagenesis has demonstrated that binding site 2 (primary) is essential for recognition of the target DNA repressor, leaving the role of binding site 1 (ancillary) unclear. Calorimetric techniques have demonstrated that although binding site 1 (ancillary) has high affinity for metal ion with a binding constant of 2 x 10{sup -7}, binding site 2 (primary) is a low-affinity binding site with a binding constant of 6.3 x 10{sup -4}. These two binding sites act in an independent fashion, and their contribution can be easily dissected by traditional mutational analysis. Our results clearly demonstrate that binding site 1 (ancillary) is the first one to be occupied during metal ion activation, playing a critical role in stabilization of the repressor. In addition, structural data obtained for the mutants Ni-DtxR(H79A, C102D), reported here, and the previously reported DtxR(H79A) have allowed us to propose a mechanism of metal activation for DtxR.

  9. Depletion of alveolar macrophages in CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor mice produces an inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lydia M; Ledvina, Hannah E; Tuladhar, Shraddha; Rana, Deepa; Steele, Shaun P; Sempowski, Gregory D; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in initiating the immune response to inhaled pathogens and have been shown to be the first cell type infected following intranasal inoculation with several pathogens, including Francisella tularensis. In an attempt to further dissect the role of alveolar macrophages in the immune response to Francisella, we selectively depleted alveolar macrophages using CD11c.DOG mice. CD11c.DOG mice express the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under control of the full CD11c promoter. Because mice do not express DTR, tissue restricted expression of the primate DTR followed by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) has been widely used as a tool in immunology to examine the effect of acute depletion of a specific immune subset following normal development. We successfully depleted alveolar macrophages via intranasal administration of DT. However, alveolar macrophage depletion was accompanied by many other changes to the cellular composition and cytokine/chemokine milieu in the lung that potentially impact innate and adaptive immune responses. Importantly, we observed a transient influx of neutrophils in the lung and spleen. Our experience serves as a cautionary note to other researchers using DTR mice given the complex changes that occur following DT treatment that must be taken into account when analyzing data. PMID:26029367

  10. Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Jazzar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1 promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor (HDTR transgene (Tg have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte roles fully, we sought to confirm the selectivity of DT effects in these transgenic mice. However, our findings revealed incomplete DT-induced osteocyte ablation, prevalent HDTR misexpression, as well as more prominent histopathological DT-induced changes in multiple organs in Tg than in wild-type (WT littermate mice. Mechanistic evidence for DT action, via prominent regulation of phosphorylation status of elongation factor-2 (EF-2, was also found in many non-skeletal tissues in Tg mice; indicative of direct “off-target” DT action. Finally, very rapid deterioration in health and welfare status in response to DT treatment was observed in these Tg when compared to WT control mice. Together, these data lead us to conclude that alternative models for osteocyte ablation should be sought and caution be exercised when drawing conclusions from experiments using these Tg mice alone.

  11. State of inequality in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation coverage in low-income and middle-income countries: a multicountry study of household health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Hansen, Peter M; Senouci, Kamel; Boerma, Ties; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2016-09-01

    Immunisation programmes have made substantial contributions to lowering the burden of disease in children, but there is a growing need to ensure that programmes are equity-oriented. We aimed to provide a detailed update about the state of between-country inequality and within-country economic-related inequality in the delivery of three doses of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), with a special focus on inequalities in high-priority countries. We used data from the latest available Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys done in 51 low-income and middle-income countries. Data for DTP3 coverage were disaggregated by wealth quintile, and inequality was calculated as difference and ratio measures based on coverage in richest (quintile 5) and poorest (quintile 1) household wealth quintiles. Excess change was calculated for 21 countries with data available at two timepoints spanning a 10 year period. Further analyses were done for six high-priority countries-ie, those with low national immunisation coverage and/or high absolute numbers of unvaccinated children. Significance was determined using 95% CIs. National DTP3 immunisation coverage across the 51 study countries ranged from 32% in Central African Republic to 98% in Jordan. Within countries, the gap in DTP3 immunisation coverage suggested pro-rich inequality, with a difference of 20 percentage points or more between quintiles 1 and 5 for 20 of 51 countries. In Nigeria, Pakistan, Laos, Cameroon, and Central African Republic, the difference between quintiles 1 and 5 exceeded 40 percentage points. In 15 of 21 study countries, an increase over time in national coverage of DTP3 immunisation was realised alongside faster improvements in the poorest quintile than the richest. For example, in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Gabon, Mali, and Nepal, the absolute increase in coverage was at least 2·0 percentage points per year, with faster improvement in the

  12. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Marcacao de Corynebacterium diphtheriae com Tecnecio-99m e avaliacao da capacidade de ligacao a fibronectina de plasma humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2004-04-15

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of {sup 99m}Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by {sup 99m}Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl{sub 2} bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl{sub 2} > 110 {mu}g/ml. Adherence levels of {sup 99m}Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 {mu}g/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% {+-} 1.2). Therefore, bacterial {sup 99m}Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  13. The Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Andersen, Andreas; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined the introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in the early 1980s. Methods The child population had been followed with 3-monthly nutritional weighing sessions since 1978. From June 1981 DTP and OPV...

  14. More than 20 years after re-emerging in the 1990s, diphtheria remains a public health problem in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsone, Ieva; Lucenko, Irina; Perevoscikovs, Jurijs

    2016-12-01

    In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the goal of eliminating diphtheria within the WHO European Region by the year 2000. However, in 1990 an epidemic emerged within the Russian Federation and spread to other countries, including Latvia, by 1994. We describe national surveillance and immunisation coverage data in Latvia from 1994 to 2014 and present historical data from 1946. We defined a laboratory-confirmed case as a clinical case in which toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. From 1994 to 2014, 1,515 cases were reported, giving an average annual incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.1-14.8), with the highest incidence in age groups 5-19 and 40-49 years (4.4 and 4.3/100,000, respectively); 111 deaths were reported, 83.8% cases were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases occurred in unvaccinated adults. To improve disease control a supplementary immunisation campaign for adults was initiated in 1995, and by the end of 1998 national coverage among adults reached 70%, and reached 77% in 2003, but declined to 59% by 2014. Diphtheria remains a problem in Latvia with continued circulation of toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae. We recommend to strengthen immunisation to cover adults, as well as the education of health professionals and a serological survey. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  15. The effect of vitamin A supplementation and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination on parasitaemia in an experimental murine malaria model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Hein-Kristensen, Line; Hempel, Casper

    2011-01-01

    infectious diseases when given with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. The immunological effects of combining the 2 treatments are unknown. Methods: We studied the effect of treating C57BL/6 mice with VAS and DTP, 1 week prior to infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. The progression of disease...

  16. Accessibility Changes within Diphtheria Toxin T Domain upon Membrane Penetration Probed by Hydrogen Exchange and Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Petr; Montagner, C.; Vitrac, H.; Kavan, Daniel; Pichard, S.; Gillet, D.; Forest, E.; Forge, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 414, č. 1 (2011), s. 123-134 ISSN 0022-2836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : diphtheria toxin * translocation domain * protein/membrane interactions Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2011

  17. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, H.; Have, Ten R.; Maas, van der L.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Amorij, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick

  18. Novel Fiber-Based Adsorbent Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, P.G.; Tsukamoto, T.; Brose, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The overall of this Department of Energy (DOE) Phase II SBIR program was to develop a new class of highly robust fiber-based adsorbents for recovery of heavy metals from aqueous waste-streams. The fiber-based adsorbents,when commercialized,will be used for clean up metals in aqueous waste-streams emanating from DOE facilities,industry,mining,and groundwater-cleanup operations.The amount of toxic waste released by these streams is of great significance.The U.S.Environment Protection Agency (EPA) reports that in 1990 alone,4.8 billion pounds of toxic chemicals were released into the environment.Of this waste,the metals-containing waste was the second largest contributor,representing 569 million pounds. This report presents the results of the Phase II program,which successfully synthesized noval fiber-based adsorbents for the removal of Group 12 metals(i.e.mercury),Group 14 metals (lead),and Group 10 metals(platinum and palladium) from contaminated groundwater and industrial waste streams.These fiber-based adsorbents are ideally suited for the recovery of metal ions from aqueous waste streams presently not treatable due to the degrading nature of corrosive chemicals or radioactive components in the feed stream. The adsorbents developed in this program rely on chemically resistant and robust carbon fibers and fabrics as supports for metal-ion selective ligands.These adsorbents demonstrate loading capacities and selectivities for metal ions exceeding those of conventional ion-exchange resins.The adsorbents were also used to construct filter modules that demonstrate minimal fouling,minimal compaction,chemical and physical robustness,and regeneration of metal loading capacity without loss of performance

  19. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in patients with primary immunodeficiency undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Gonzalez, Isabela Garrido da Silva; Simão, Raquel Maria; de Moraes Pinto, Maria Isabel; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2014-06-21

    Patients with antibody deficiencies depend on the presence of a variety of antibody specificities in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to ensure continued protection against pathogens. Few studies have examined levels of antibodies to specific pathogens in IVIG preparations and little is known about the specific antibody levels in patients under regular IVIG treatment. The current study determined the range of antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in IVIG products and the levels of these antibodies in patients undergoing IVIG treatment. We selected 21 patients with primary antibody deficiencies who were receiving regular therapy with IVIG. Over a period of one year, we collected four blood samples from each patient (every 3 months), immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. We also collected samples from the IVIG preparation the patients received the month prior to blood collection. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella virus were measured in plasma and IVIG samples. Total IgG levels were determined in plasma samples. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, varicella virus and measles showed considerable variation in different IVIG lots, but they were similar when compared between commercial preparations. All patients presented with protective levels of antibodies specific for tetanus, measles and varicella. Some patients had suboptimal diphtheria antibody levels. There was a significant correlation between serum and IVIG antibodies to all pathogens, except tetanus. There was a significant correlation between diphtheria and varicella antibodies with total IgG levels, but there was no significant correlation with antibodies to tetanus or measles. The study confirmed the variation in specific antibody levels between batches of the same brand of IVIG. Apart from the most common infections to which these patients are susceptible, health care providers must be aware of other vaccine preventable diseases, which still exist

  1. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  2. Genetic relationships of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated from a diphtheria case and carriers by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rRNA genes Relação genética de cepas de Corynebacterium diphtheriae isoladas de caso e seus contatos por RLFP de rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we report the results of an analysis, based on ribotyping of Corynebacterium diphtheriae intermedius strains isolated from a 9 years old child with clinical diphtheria and his 5 contacts. Quantitative analysis of RFLPs of rRNA was used to determine relatedness of these 7 C.diphtheriae strains providing support data in the diphtheria epidemiology. We have also tested those strains for toxigenicity in vitro by using the Elek's gel diffusion method and in vivo by using cell culture method on cultured monkey kidney cell (VERO cells. The hybridization results revealed that the 5 C.diphtheriae strains isolated from contacts and one isolated from the clinical case (nose case strain had identical RFLP patterns with all 4 restriction endonucleases used, ribotype B. The genetic distance from this ribotype and ribotype A (throat case strain, that we initially assumed to be responsible for the illness of the patient, was of 0.450 showing poor genetic correlation among these two ribotypes. We found no significant differences concerned to the toxin production by using the cell culture method. In conclusion, the use of RFLPs of rRNA gene was successful in detecting minor differences in closely related toxigenic C.diphtheriae intermedius strains and providing information about genetic relationships among them.No presente estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de uma análise, baseada na ribotipagem de cepas de C. diphtheriae intermedius isoladas de uma criança de 9 anos com difteria e seus 5 contatos. Análise quantitativa por RFLP de rRNA foi usada para determinar a relação destas 7 cepas de C. diphtheriae fornecendo dados de interesse epidemiológico. Nós também testamos estas cepas para toxicidade in vitro usando método de difusão de Elek e in vivo usando método de cultura celular com células VERO. Os resultados de hibridização revelaram que as 5 cepas de C. diphtheriae isoladas dos contatos e uma isolada do caso (cepa isolada

  3. Prevalencia de anticuerpos IgG al toxoide tetánico en trabajadores sanitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pérez Bermúdez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el año 2009 el Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo de España publica una nueva guía para la vacunación de la Difteria y Tétanos. Existen discrepancias con los tiempos de inoculación de las dosis de recuerdo con otros países y sociedades médicas. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo. Las variables analizadas fueron: IgG-Toxoide Tetánico, tiempo última dosis de vacunación, dosis totales, edad, sexo, hospital, habito tabáquico e índice de masa corporal. Se construyó un modelo de Regresión Logística. Con el fin de determinar los puntos de corte más sensibles y específicos para las variables temporales (tiempo desde la última dosis y edad se calcularon las curvas R.O.C Resultados: Las variables, edad O,R= 17,56 (1,840 - 167,760, dosis de vacuna inoculadas al trabajador, O,R= 0,064 (0,006 - 0,908 y tiempo de la última dosis de vacunación, O,R= 1,03 (1,017 - 1,047, son las variables significativas en el análisis multivariante. Los puntos de cortes, para la edad son 54 años (Sensibilidad S= 0,72, Especificidad SP=0,77 y 15 años tras la última dosis años (S= 0,88, SP=0,86, por encima de este corte la probabilidad de no tener anticuerpos al Tétanos es alta. Conclusiones: Ante un trabajador que refiere o documenta que hace más de 15 años de la ultima dosis deberíamos plantearnos la revacunación, si además este trabajador refiere no tener más de 5 dosis inoculadas y tiene más de 54 años la revacunación sería muy recomendable.

  4. Process for producing zeolite adsorbent and process for treating radioactive liquid waste with the zeolite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, K.; Kawamura, F.

    1984-01-01

    Zeolite is contacted with an aqueous solution containing at least one of copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and zinc salts, preferably copper and nickel salts, particularly preferably copper salt, in such a form as sulfate, nitrate, or chloride, thereby adsorbing the metal on the zeolite in its pores by ion exchange, then the zeolite is treated with a water-soluble ferrocyanide compound, for example, potassium ferrocyanide, thereby forming metal ferrocyanide on the zeolite in its pores. Then, the zeolite is subjected to ageing treatment, thereby producing a zeolite adsorbent impregnated with metal ferrocyanide in the pores of zeolite. The adsorbent can selectively recover cesium with a high percent cesium removal from a radioactive liquid waste containing at least radioactive cesium, for example, a radioactive liquid waste containing cesium and such coexisting ions as sodium, magnesium, calcium and carbonate ions at the same time at a high concentration. The zeolite adsorbent has a stable adsorbability for a prolonged time

  5. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  6. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  7. DIPHTHERIA PROPHYLACTICS*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersin2 in 1888, and of antitoxin in small animals by von. Behring and Kitasat03 in .... Until the introduction of the flocculation test, the estimation of the L+ was the only .... difficult and somewhat wasteful to increase this to 2500-. 3000 Lf/mg. P .

  8. Diphtheria Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of ... efficacy, and use of vaccines within the broad immunization community of patients, parents, healthcare organizations, and government health agencies.

  9. Diphtheria Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cover tissues in the nose, tonsils, voice box, and throat, making it very hard to breathe and swallow. The poison may also get into the blood stream and cause damage to the heart, kidneys, and ...

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  11. Diphtheria toxin can simultaneously bind to its receptor and adenylyl-(3',5')-uridine 3'-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, J.T.; Collins, C.M.; Collier, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin (DT) that was bound to receptors on BS-C-1 cells was able to bind approximately 1 molar equiv of adenylyl-(3',5')-uridine 3'-monophosphate (ApUp). In contrast, receptor-bound CRM197, a mutant form of toxin with greatly diminished affinity for dinucleotides, did not bind ApUp. Affinity of the dinucleotide for receptor-bound toxin differed from that for free toxin by less than an order of magnitude. These results indicate that the receptor site and the ApUp site on the toxin do not significantly overlap. BS-C-1 cells were incubated with or without 125 I-DT or CRM 197. They were then incubated with [ 32 P]ApUp, and assayed

  12. Antibody response to booster vaccination with tetanus and diphtheria in adults exposed to perfluorinated alkylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) may induce immunosuppression in humans and animal models. In this exploratory study, 12 healthy adult volunteers were recruited. With each subject, serum-PFAS concentrations were measured and their antibody responses...... prospectively followed for 30 days after a booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus. The results indicated that serum-PFAS concentrations were positively correlated and positively associated with age and male sex. The specific antibody concentrations in serum were increased from Day 4 to Day 10 post......-booster, after which a constant concentration was reached. Serum PFAS concentrations showed significant negative associations with the rate of increase in the antibody responses. Interestingly, this effect was particularly strong for the longer-chain PFASs. All significant associations remained significant after...

  13. The Dynamics and Structures of Adsorbed Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Ellenson, W. D.; McTague, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    . Elastic neutron diffraction measurements, determining the two-dimensional structural ordering of the adsorbed films, have been performed on layers of N2, Ar, H2, D2, O2, Kr, and He. Measurements on layers of larger molecules such as CD4 and ND3 have also been reported. Inelastic neutron scattering...... measurements, studying the dynamics of the adsorbed films are only possible in a few especially favourable cases such as 36Ar and D2 films, where the coherent phonon scattering cross-sections are very large. In other cases incoherent scattering from hydrogen can give information about e.g. the mobility...

  14. Diphtheria toxin resistance in human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the in vivo somatic cell mutation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, D.J.; Wei, L.; Laurie, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used for the enumeration of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells that presumably arise by mutation in vivo. This somatic cell mutation test has been studied in lymphocytes from human populations exposed to known mutagens and/or carcinogens. The sensitivity of the test could be further enhanced by including other gene markers, since there is evidence for locus-specific differences in response to mutagens. Resistance to diphtheria toxin (Dip/sup r/) seemed like a potential marker to incorporate into the test because the mutation acts codominantly, can readily be selected in human diploid fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cells with no evidence for cell density or cross-feeding effects, and can be assayed for in nondividing cells by measuring protein synthesis inhibition. Blood samples were collected from seven individuals, and fresh, cryopreserved, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes were tested for continued DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine, autoradiography) or protein synthesis ( 35 S-methionine, scintillation counting). Both fresh and cryopreserved lymphocytes, stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), continued to synthesize DNA in the presence of high doses of diphtheria toxin (DT). Similarly, both dividing (PHA-stimulated) and nondividing fresh lymphocytes carried on significant levels of protein synthesis even 68 hr after exposure to 100 flocculating units (LF)/ml DT. The results suggest that human T and B lymphocytes may not be as sensitive to DT protein synthesis inhibition as human fibroblast and Chinese hamster cells. For this reason, Dip/sup r/ may not be a suitable marker for the somatic cell mutation test

  15. Effect of diphtheria toxin T-domain on endosomal pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Labyntsev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A key step in the mode of cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin (DT is the transfer of its catalytic domain (Cd from endosomes into the cytosol. The main activity in this process is performed by the transport domain (Td, but the molecular mechanism of its action remains unknown. We have previously shown that Td can have some influence on the endosomal transport of DT. The aim of this work was to study the effect of diphtheria toxin on the toxin compartmentalization in the intracellular transporting pathway and endosomal pH. We used recombinant fragments of DT, which differed only by the presence of Td in their structure, fused with fluorescent proteins. It was shown that the toxin fragment with Td moved slower by the pathway early-late endosomes-lysosomes, and had a slightly different pattern of colocalization with endosomal markers than DT fragment without Td. In addition, endosomes containing DT fragments with Td had a constant pH of about 6.5 from the 10th to 50th minute of observation, for the same time endosomes containing DT fragments without Td demons­trated a decrease in pH from 6.3 to 5.5. These results indicate that Td inhibits acidification of endosomal medium. One of possible explanations for this may be the effect of the ion channel formed by the T-domain on the process of the endosomal acidification. This property of Td may not only inhibit maturation of endosomes but also inhibit activation of endosomal pH-dependent proteases, and this promotes successful transport of Cd into the cell cytosol.

  16. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap Vaccination in Pregnancy and Surrounding Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Echtenkamp

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a serious and vaccine-preventable illness. Despite widespread vaccination in the pediatric population, pertussis still infects approximately 100,000 infants each year in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine gaps in pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, practices, and barriers surrounding the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap vaccination recommendation for patients who are pregnant or planning to come in close contact with infants. Methods: This study was a descriptive, exploratory electronic survey. The survey assessed three major areas; the role of the pharmacist in Tdap vaccination, perceived barriers to vaccination, and understanding the recommendations. Results: A total of 225 pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists who responded to this survey agreed that pharmacists should have a role vaccinating the public and individuals expecting to come into contact with a newborn, (88.5% and 86.9% respectively, but fewer agreed that pharmacists should have a role vaccinating pregnant women against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (77%, p < 0.001. Based on the responses to case scenarios, only 22.5% and 30.6% of respondents understood the recommendations. Numerous barriers to vaccinating pregnant women were identified. Conclusion: While most pharmacists surveyed felt they should have a role in vaccinating pregnant women and those expecting to come in contact with a newborn, there are barriers to implementing this practice. Future efforts should focus on further evaluating identified gaps and developing programs for pharmacists that emphasize the significance of vaccinating these patients to reduce the burden of pertussis in infants.

  17. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-07-07

    The Henry coefficients of a single component adsorbent + adsorbate system are calculated from experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data, from which the heat of adsorption at zero coverage is evaluated. The first part of the papers relates to the development of thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system1 (Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B. B.; Ng, K. C.; Koyama, S.; Srinivasan, K. Langmuir 2009, 25, 2204). A thermodynamic framework is presented to capture the relationship between the specific surface area (Ai) and the energy factor, and the surface structural and the surface energy heterogeneity distribution factors are analyzed. Using the outlined approach, the maximum possible amount of adsorbate uptake has been evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH° for (i) carbonaceous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), carbon nanotubes, zeolites + hydrogen, and (ii) activated carbons + methane systems. The proposed theoretical framework of At and AH0 provides valuable guides for researchers in developing advanced porous adsorbents for methane and hydrogen uptake. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....

  19. Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wagner, K S

    2011-04-01

    Diphtheria is now rare in most European countries but, when cases do arise, the case fatality rate is high (5-10%). Because few countries continue to routinely screen for the causative organisms of diphtheria, the extent to which they are circulating amongst different European populations is largely unknown. During 2007-2008, ten European countries each screened between 968 and 8551 throat swabs from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Six toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were identified: two from symptomatic patients in Latvia (the country with the highest reported incidence of diphtheria in the European Union) and four from Lithuania (two cases, two carriers); the last reported case of diphtheria in Lithuania was in 2002. Carriage rates of non-toxigenic organisms ranged from 0 (Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy) to 4.0 per 1000 (95% CI 2.0-7.1) in Turkey. A total of 28 non-toxigenic strains were identified during the study (26 C. diphtheriae, one Corynebacterium ulcerans, one Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis). The non-toxigenic C. ulcerans strain was isolated from the UK, the country with the highest reported incidence of cases due to C. ulcerans. Of the eleven ribotypes detected, Cluj was seen most frequently in the non-toxigenic isolates and, amongst toxigenic isolates, the major epidemic clone, Sankt-Petersburg, is still in circulation. Isolation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae and non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans in highly-vaccinated populations highlights the need to maintain microbiological surveillance, laboratory expertise and an awareness of these organisms amongst public health specialists, microbiologists and clinicians.

  20. Volatile organic compounds adsorption using different types of adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimanmes Chanayotha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adsorbents were synthesized from coconut shell, coal and coke by pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process. These synthesized materials were used as adsorbents in adsorption test to determine the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs namely, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and Alkanes standard solution (C8-C20. The adsorption capacities of both synthesized adsorbents and commercial grade adsorbents (Carbotrap™ B and Carbotrap™ C were also compared. It was found that adsorbent A402, which was produced from coconut shell, activated with 40% (wt. potassium hydroxide and at activating temperature of 800°C for 1 hr, could adsorb higher amount of both HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane than other synthesized adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent A402 in adsorbing HEMA and Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane were 77.87% and 50.82% respectively. These adsorption capabilities were 79.73% and 70.07% of the adsorption capacity of the commercial adsorbent Carbotrap™ B respectively. All three types of the synthesized adsorbent (A402, C302, C402 showed the capability to adsorb alkanes standard solution through the range of C8-C20 . However, their adsorption capacities were high in a specific range of C10-C11. The result from the isotherm plot was indicated that surface adsorption of synthesized adsorbent was isotherm type I while the surface adsorption of commercial adsorbent was isotherm type III.

  1. A case of respiratory toxigenic diphtheria: contact tracing results and considerations following a 30-year disease-free interval, Catalonia, Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Vidal, Maria José; Camps, Neus; Campins, Magda; Martínez, Ana; Balcells, Joan; Martin-Gomez, Maria Teresa; Bassets, Gloria; Herrera-León, Silvia; Foguet, Anton; Maresma, Mar; Follia, Nuria; Uriona, Sonia; Pumarola, Tomàs

    2018-03-01

    In May 2015, following a 30-year diphtheria-free interval in Catalonia, an unvaccinated 6-year-old child was diagnosed with diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae . After a difficult search for equine-derived diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), the child received the DAT 4 days later but died at the end of June. Two hundred and seventeen contacts were identified in relation to the index case, and their vaccination statuses were analysed, updated and completed. Of these, 140 contacts underwent physical examination and throat swabs were taken from them for analysis. Results were positive for toxigenic C. diphtheriae in 10 contacts; nine were asymptomatic vaccinated children who had been in contact with the index case and one was a parent of one of the nine children. Active surveillance of the 217 contacts was initiated by healthcare workers from hospitals and primary healthcare centres, together with public health epidemiological support. Lack of availability of DAT was an issue in our case. Such lack could be circumvented by the implementation of an international fast-track procedure to obtain it in a timely manner. Maintaining primary vaccination coverage for children and increasing booster-dose immunisation against diphtheria in the adult population is of key importance.

  2. Photoemission spectroscopy of surfaces and adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.C.; Kaindl, G.; Himpsel, F.J.; Eastman, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Core level photoelectron spectroscopy is providing new information concerning the electronic properties of adsorbates and surfaces. Several examples will be discussed, including studies of adsorbed rare gas submonolayers and multilayers as well as clean metal surfaces. For rare gas multilayers adsorbed on metal surfaces, the photoelectrons and Auger electrons exhibit well-resolved increases in kinetic energy with decreasing distance between the excited atom and the substrate, allowing a direct labeling of the layers. These energy shifts are mainly due to the substrate screening effects, and can be described well by an image-charge model. For a Kr/Xe bilayer system prepared by first coating a Pd substrate with a monolayer of Kr and then overcoating with a layer of Xe, a thermally activated layer inversion process is observed when the temperature is raised, with Xe coming in direct contact with the substrate. For rare gas submonolayers adsorbed on the Al(111) surface, coverage-dependent core level shift and work function measurements provide information about the adatom spatial distributions, polarizabilities, and dipole moments for the ground and excited states. We have also studied the 2p core level shifts for a clean Al(001) surface relative to the bulk. The shifts have a large contribution from the initial-state effects

  3. Heterogeneous membranes filled with hypercrosslinked microparticle adsorbent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, Jiří; Krystl, V.; Hrabánek, P.; Bernauer, B.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 65, 1-2 (2005), s. 57-68 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0680 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous membranes * hypercrosslinked adsorbent * microparticle s Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2005

  4. The adsorber loop concept for the contact between seawater and adsorber granulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Ohlrogge, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper deals with the so-called ''adsorber loop concept'' in which the adsorber granulate is carried along with the seawater to be processed in a loop-like configuration and is separated again from the depleted water before this is leaving the adsorption unit. This concept enables high seawater velocities thus reducing the required bed area. Theoretical considerations are presented together with experimental results from field tests. (orig.) [de

  5. Channels formed by botulinum, tetanus, and diphtheria toxins in planar lipid bilayers: relevance to translocation of proteins across membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, D H; Romero-Mira, M; Ehrlich, B E; Finkelstein, A; DasGupta, B R; Simpson, L L

    1985-01-01

    The heavy chains of both botulinum neurotoxin type B and tetanus toxin form channels in planar bilayer membranes. These channels have pH-dependent and voltage-dependent properties that are remarkably similar to those previously described for diphtheria toxin. Selectivity experiments with anions and cations show that the channels formed by the heavy chains of all three toxins are large; thus, these channels could serve as "tunnel proteins" for translocation of active peptide fragments. These f...

  6. Electronic spectral properties of surfaces and adsorbates and atom-adsorbate van der Waals interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovric, D.; Gumhalter, B.

    1988-01-01

    The relevance of van der Waals interactions in the scattering of neutral atoms from adsorbates has been recently confirmed by highly sensitive molecular-beam techniques. The theoretical descriptions of the collision dynamics which followed the experimental studies have necessitated very careful qualitative and quantitative examinations and evaluations of the properties of atom-adsorbate van der Waals interactions for specific systems. In this work we present a microscopic calculation of the strengths and reference-plane positions for van der Waals potentials relevant for scattering of He atoms from CO adsorbed on various metallic substrates. In order to take into account the specificities of the polarization properties of real metals (noble and transition metals) and of chemisorbed CO, we first calculate the spectra of the electronic excitations characteristic of the respective electronic subsystems by using various data sources available and combine them with the existing theoretical models. The reliability of the calculated spectra is then verified in each particular case by universal sum rules which may be established for the electronic excitations of surfaces and adsorbates. The substrate and adsorbate polarization properties which derive from these calculations serve as input data for the evaluation of the strengths and reference-plane positions of van der Waals potentials whose computed values are tabulated for a number of real chemisorption systems. The implications of the obtained results are discussed in regard to the atom-adsorbate scattering cross sections pertinent to molecular-beam scattering experiments

  7. PENETAPAN STANDAR NASIONAL DARI VAKSIN DPT: Penetapan Standar Nasional Vaksin Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljanti Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To check the potency of DPT vaccine, standard preparations of the components, namely Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid, Pertussis Vaccine, and Adsorbed Tetanus Toxoid are necessary. Since WHO International Standard Preparations are distributed only in limited amounts, WHO has suggested that each member country shold develop a National Standard, which is to be matched with International Standard Preparations. An Indonesian National Standard of DPT vaccine (lot 1 has been prepared and lyophilized at the National Institute of Health in Tokyo. The potency of the National Standard of Pertussis Vaccine was determined by Active Mouse Protection Test (AMPT. After several experiments, the potency of the National Standard of Pertussis Vaccine has been decided of being 12 IU/ml. Using the same standard preparations, namely the National Standards, it is hoped that from a lot of DPT vaccine, similar results of potency could be achieved when determined by Government Vaccine Quality Control laboratory and the Manufacturer's laboratory.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpaA, a major pilin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G.; Baker, Edward N.

    2009-01-01

    SpaA, one of the major pilins of C. diphtheriae, has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution. Bacterial pili are cell-surface organelles that are critically involved in adhesion to host cells, leading to the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of infections. Whereas the pili of Gram-negative bacteria have been extensively studied, those of Gram-positive bacteria came to light only recently after the discovery and characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae pili. These newly discovered pili are formed by the covalent polymerization of pilin subunits catalyzed by sortase enzymes, making them fundamentally different from the noncovalent pilin assemblies of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, the expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpaA, which forms the shaft of one of the three types of pili expressed by C. diphtheriae, are reported. SpaA 53–486 crystals diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 34.9, b = 64.1, c = 198.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  9. Adsorbents for radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shigeo; Kiribayashi, Takehiko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to settle radioactive solvents such as tributyl phosphate (TBP) and n-dodecane as they are without using hydrophobicizing agent such as quaternary ammonium salts. Constitution: The adsorbents are prepared by replacing interlaminer ions of swelling-type synthetic mica with alkaline earth metals or metal ions. For instance, synthetic micas introduced with Zr 4+ or Ca 2+ between the layers provide quite different functions from those of starting materials due to the properties of ions introduced between the layers. That is, they provide an intense affinity to organic phosphates such as TBP and transform into material showing a property of adsorbing and absorbing them. Particularly, the fixing nature to the phosphor content constituting TBP is significantly increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  11. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  12. Diphtheria Toxin-Induced Cell Death Triggers Wnt-Dependent Hair Cell Regeneration in Neonatal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingxiang; Lu, Jingrong; Chiang, Hao; Wu, Hao; Edge, Albert S B; Shi, Fuxin

    2016-09-07

    Cochlear hair cells (HCs), the sensory cells that respond to sound, do not regenerate after damage in adult mammals, and their loss is a major cause of deafness. Here we show that HC regeneration in newborn mouse ears occurred spontaneously when the original cells were ablated by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) in ears that had been engineered to overexpress the DT receptor, but was not detectable when HCs were ablated in vivo by the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. A variety of Wnts (Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt2b, Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt7b, Wnt9a, Wnt9b, and Wnt11) and Wnt pathway component Krm2 were upregulated after DT damage. Nuclear β-catenin was upregulated in HCs and supporting cells of the DT-damaged cochlea. Pharmacological inhibition of Wnt decreased spontaneous regeneration, confirming a role of Wnt signaling in HC regeneration. Inhibition of Notch signaling further potentiated supporting cell proliferation and HC differentiation that occurred spontaneously. The absence of new HCs in the neomycin ears was correlated to less robust Wnt pathway activation, but the ears subjected to neomycin treatment nonetheless showed increased cell division and HC differentiation after subsequent forced upregulation of β-catenin. These studies suggest, first, that Wnt signaling plays a key role in regeneration, and, second, that the outcome of a regenerative response to damage in the newborn cochlea is determined by reaching a threshold level of Wnt signaling rather than its complete absence or presence. Sensory HCs of the inner ear do not regenerate in the adult, and their loss is a major cause of deafness. We found that HCs regenerated spontaneously in the newborn mouse after diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced, but not neomycin-induced, HC death. Regeneration depended on activation of Wnt signaling, and regeneration in DT-treated ears correlated to a higher level of Wnt activation than occurred in nonregenerating neomycin-treated ears. This is significant because insufficient

  13. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  14. Generating Atomistic Slab Surfaces with Adsorbates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    slabs of various thickness and with various vacuum spacing need be calculated. This can occur in serial or simultaneously . If performed in serial, the...the user. Although the optimization of the slab thickness and vacuum padding can be done simultaneously , it is more computationally conservative to...monolayer is a slab (True if slab), the type of mesh desired (adsorbates.py was written for “Gamma”), how detailed the mesh should be (in units of inverse

  15. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z.; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i) dyes; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) phenols; (iv) pesticides and (v) pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i) agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods); (ii) agricultural residues and wastes; (iii) low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources). These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity) to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc.), but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful) topics such as: (i) adsorption capacity; (ii) kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes) and (iii) critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry) with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents. PMID:28788460

  16. Adsorbate Diffusion on Transition Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    correlation is a Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi ( BEP )- type of correlation, similar to other BEP correlations established earlier for surface-catalyzed bond- breaking...bond-making reactions.6-9 The universal BEP -type correlation is independent of the nature of the adsorbed species and that of the metal surface. For...a certain class of surface-catalyzed reactions, the existence of a BEP -type correlation reflects a similarity between the geometry of the transition

  17. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations

  18. Biological adsorbent for water decontamination from uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, R [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia); Fuska, J; Nemec, P [Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta

    1978-01-01

    A study was made into the capacity of native and heat-denaturated mycelium to adsorb uranium salts from solutions and into the effect of uranium on the growth of the microorganism biomass. The presence of uranium did not inhibit the growth of Penicillium and Aspergillus strains used at a concentration of up to 5x10/sup -4/ M/dm/sup 3/. Uranium added to a nutrient medium produced complexes with phosphorus ions which were adsorbed on the surface of growing hyphae, thus the removal of the mycelium also removed uranium. The results of the experiments with denaturated mycelium of the same strains suggested that uranium was also bound to the biomass with chemical bonds so that mycelium acted as a ''multifunction ion exchanger'' from which adsorbed uranium can be removed step by step by elution. A sorbent of a three-dimensional structure could be prepared from a dried native mycelium using reinforcing resins, which prevented leakage of the biomass. Uranium sorption by biosorbents is a function of the concentration of the cation sorbed and of the pH of the solution.

  19. Biological adsorbent for water decontamination from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, R.; Fuska, J.; Nemec, P.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made into the capacity of native and heat-denaturated mycelium to adsorb uranium salts from solutions and into the effect of uranium on the growth of the microorganism biomass. The presence of uranium did not inhibit the growth of Penicillium and Aspergillus strains used at a concentration of up to 5x10 -4 M/dm 3 . Uranium added to a nutrient medium produced complexes with phosphorus ions which were adsorbed on the surface of growing hyphae, thus the removal of the mycelium also removed uranium. The results of the experiments with denaturated mycelium of the same strains suggested that uranium was also bound to the biomass with chemical bonds so that mycelium acted as a ''multifunction ion exchanger'' from which adsorbed uranium can be removed step by step by elution. A sorbent of a three-dimensional structure could be prepared from a dried native mycelium using reinforcing resins, which prevented leakage of the biomass. Uranium sorption by biosorbents is a function of the concentration of the cation sorbed and of the pH of the solution. (author)

  20. Characterisation of lignite as an industrial adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Qi; Andrew F.A. Hoadley; Alan L. Chaffee; Gil Garnier [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    An alternative use of the abundant and inexpensive lignite (also known as brown coal) as an industrial adsorbent has been characterised. The adsorptive properties of two Victorian lignite without any pre-treatment were investigated using the cationic methylene blue dye as a model compound in aqueous solutions. Two commercial activated carbon products were also studied for comparison. The adsorption equilibrium of the four adsorbents was better described by the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacities of the two untreated lignite adsorbents, Loy Yang and Yallourn, calculated using Langmuir isotherms were 286 and 370 mg/g, respectively, higher than a coconut shell-based activated carbon (167 mg/g), but lower than a coal-based activated carbon (435 mg/g). Surface area results suggested that larger micropores and mesopores were important for achieving good methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbons. However, FTIR and cation exchange capacity analyses revealed that, for the lignite, chemical interactions between lignite surface functional groups and methylene blue molecules occurred, thereby augmenting its adsorption capacity. 63 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Stimulation of protective antibodies against type Ia and Ib group B streptococci by a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, M R; Paoletti, L C; Rodewald, A K; Michon, F; DiFabio, J; Jennings, H J; Kasper, D L

    1993-01-01

    Antisera elicited by type Ia group B streptococci (GBS) contain antibodies that react with both type Ia and type Ib strains. Previous studies suggested that antibodies elicited by type Ia organisms recognized a carbohydrate antigen or epitope common to Ia and Ib strains. We now report the synthesis and immunogenicity testing of a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (Ia-TT) conjugate vaccine. Ia-TT elicited type Ia polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in all three of the rabbi...

  2. The adsorber loop concept for the contact between seawater and adsorber granulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Ohlrogge, K.

    1984-01-01

    For the production of 1 kg uranium from seawater about 10 9 kg seawater - depending on the extraction efficiency - have to be processed in a production plant. Such high seawater flows have to be put through adsorber beds the area of which depends on the flow velocity of the water in the bed. For a typical polyamidoxim (PAO) adsorber granulate with a grain size distribution of 0.3 to 1.2 mm the velocity in a fluidized bed is limited to about 1 cm/s in order to prevent carry out of the adsorber material. The consequences of this rather low bed velocity are large and expensive bed areas for technical production plants. The present paper deals with the so-called ''adsorber loop concept'' in which the adsorber granulate is carried along with the seawater to be processed in a loop-like configuration and is separated again from the water before this is leaving the adsorption unit. This concept enables considerably higher seawater velocities thus reducing the bed area. Theoretical considerations are presented together with experimental results from field tests. (author)

  3. Bone erosion and subacromial bursitis caused by diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J H; Geoffroy, M; Eschard, J P; Ohl, X

    2015-11-17

    Revaxis(®) is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis (dT-IPV). This vaccine should not be administered by the intradermal or intravenous route. Poor injection techniques and related consequences are rare. We report a case of bursitis associated with reactive glenohumeral effusion complicated by bone erosion occurring after injection of the dT-IPV vaccine. A 26 year old patient was admitted for painful left shoulder causing functional impairment. Control magnetic resonance imaging showed bone oedema on the upper outer part of the humeral head, with a slight cortical irregularity, indicating that the vaccine was injected in contact with the bone at this location, causing erosion. Outcome was favourable after intra-articular corticosteroids. Reports of articular or periarticular injury after vaccination are extremely rare, in view of the substantial number of vaccines administered every year. The potential complications of vaccination are well known to general practitioners but under-reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autoradiographic detection of diphtheria toxin resistant mutants in human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.S.; Singh, B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic procedure for the detection of diphtheria toxin (DT) resistant (Dip/sub R/) mutants in human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cells has been developed. The assay is based on the observation that when HDFs from confluent cultures are seeded in medium containing 0.01 flocculating units/ml or higher concentration of DT, protein synthesis in sensitive cells is severely inhibited by 4-6 hr. If at this or later time, a radiolabeled protein precursor (eg, 3 H-leucine) is added to the culture, it is almost exclusively incorporated into the resistant cells, which are then readily identified by autoradiography. These studies provide strong evidence that the labeled cells identified by autoradiography are bona fide Dip/sub R/ mutants. The detection of Dip/sub R/ cells by autoradiography is apparently not affected by the presence of the sensitive cells in the mixtures. The spontaneous frequency of Dip/sub R/ cells in HDFs has been found to be in the range of 1-5 x 10 -6 , and this increases in a dose dependent manner upon treatment with the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate. These results indicate that the autoradiographic assay could be used for quantitative mutagenesis. Since the autoradiographic assay does not depend on cell division, it may prove useful in estimating the incidence of pre-existing mutations in cell populations that either do not divide or have very limited growth potential (eg, lymphocytes, muscle cells, neurons, senescent fibroblasts, etc.)

  5. Antibody response to booster vaccination with tetanus and diphtheria in adults exposed to perfluorinated alkylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Heilmann, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) may induce immunosuppression in humans and animal models. In this exploratory study, 12 healthy adult volunteers were recruited. With each subject, serum-PFAS concentrations were measured and their antibody responses prospectively followed for 30 days after a booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus. The results indicated that serum-PFAS concentrations were positively correlated and positively associated with age and male sex. The specific antibody concentrations in serum were increased from Day 4 to Day 10 post-booster, after which a constant concentration was reached. Serum PFAS concentrations showed significant negative associations with the rate of increase in the antibody responses. Interestingly, this effect was particularly strong for the longer-chain PFASs. All significant associations remained significant after adjustment for sex and age. Although the study involved a small number of subjects, these findings of a PFAS-associated reduction of the early humoral immune response to booster vaccination in healthy adults supported previous findings of PFAS immunosuppression in larger cohorts. Furthermore, the results suggested that cellular mechanisms right after antigen exposure should be investigated more closely to identify possible mechanisms of immunosuppression from PFAS.

  6. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. A comparison of the intoxication pathways of tumor necrosis factor and diphtheria toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) initiates tumor cell destruction is unknown. We have approached this problem by comparing the biological properties of TNF with diphtheria toxin (DTx), a well-characterized cytotoxin. Initial studies with human U937 cells revealed that a transient exposure to low pH enhances the cytotoxic activity of TNF. Detailed studies on the interaction of TNF with pure lipid vesicles revealed that the acid-enhanced cytolytic activity of this cytokine is correlated with the acquisition of membrane binding and insertion properties. Significantly, an increase in target membrane stabilization was observed in the presence of TNF; hence, TNF is not directly lytic for membranes. In susceptible target cells, DTx induces the release of 51 Cr- and 75 Se-labeled proteins within 7 h. Although DTx-triggered cell death has generally been accepted as a straightforward effect of translation inhibition, little or no cell lysis was observed over a 20-30 h period when target cells were exposed to cycloheximide, amino acid deficient medium or metabolic poisons even though protein synthesis was inhibited to levels observed with DTx. The protein synthesis inhibition and cytolytic activities of DTx showed similar dose-dependencies, target cell specificities, and sensitivities to NH 4 Cl inhibition. DTx-induced DNA fragmentation preceded cells lysis and did not occur in cells that were treated with the other protein synthesis inhibitors

  8. Mutagenic Deimmunization of Diphtheria Toxin for Use in Biologic Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg U. Schmohl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Targeted toxins require multiple treatments and therefore must be deimmunized. We report a method of protein deimmunization based on the point mutation of highly hydrophilic R, K, D, E, and Q amino acids on the molecular surface of truncated diphtheria-toxin (DT390. Methods: Based on their surface position derived from an X-ray-crystallographic model, residues were chosen for point mutation that were located in prominent positions on the molecular surface and away from the catalytic site. Mice were immunized with a targeted toxin containing either a mutated DT390 containing seven critical point mutations or the non-mutated parental toxin form. Results: Serum analysis revealed a significant 90% reduction in anti-toxin antibodies in mice immunized with the mutant, but not the parental drug form despite multiple immunizations. The experiment was repeated in a second strain of mice with a different MHC-haplotype to address whether point mutation removed T or B cell epitopes. Findings were identical indicating that B cell epitopes were eliminated from DT. The mutant drug form lost only minimal activity in vitro as well as in vivo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that this method may be effective for deimmunizing of other proteins and that discovery of a deimmunized form of DT may lead to the development of more effective targeted toxin.

  9. Identification of diphtheria toxin R domain mutants with enhanced inhibitory activity against HB-EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Mizushima, Hiroto; Abe, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Ryo; Nakamura, Haruki; Mekada, Eisuke

    2015-05-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a ligand of EGF receptor, is involved in the growth and malignant progression of cancers. Cross-reacting material 197, CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DT), specifically binds to the EGF-like domain of HB-EGF and inhibits its mitogenic activity, thus CRM197 is currently under evaluation in clinical trials for cancer therapy. To develop more potent DT mutants than CRM197, we screened various mutant proteins of R domain of DT, the binding site for HB-EGF. A variety of R-domain mutant proteins fused with maltose-binding protein were produced and their inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. We found four R domain mutants that showed much higher inhibitory activity against HB-EGF than wild-type (WT) R domain. These R domain mutants suppressed HB-EGF-dependent cell proliferation more effectively than WT R domain. Surface plasmon resonance revealed their higher affinity to HB-EGF than WT R domain. CRM197(R460H) carrying the newly identified mutation showed increased cell proliferation inhibitory activity and affinity to HB-EGF. These results suggest that CRM197(R460H) or other recombinant proteins carrying newly identified mutation(s) in the R domain are potential therapeutics targeting HB-EGF. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of adsorbent particles od copper ions by Jet flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santander, M.; Tapia, P.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study shows the results obtained on the removal of copper ions from synthetic effluents by using the adsorbent particles flotation technique (APF) in a Jet flotation cell (Jameson type). In a typical experimental run, a mineral with high quartz content was used as adsorbent particles in the adsorption and flotation experiments, to determine optimal pH conditions, adsorbent particles concentration; flotation reagents dosage and air/effluent flow ratio for applying in the Jet cell to maximize the efficiency of copper ions adsorptions and the removal of particles adsorbents containing the absorbed copper ions. The results indicate the at pH>7 and at adsorbent particles concentration of 2 kg.m - 3, 99% of copper ions is adsorbed and, when the air/effluent flow ratio applied in the Jet cell is 0,2, 98% of absorbent particles containing the adsorbed copper ions is removed. (Author) 39 refs.

  11. A cross-reacting material CRM197 conjugate vaccine induces diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody response in children and adolescents infected or not with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselle P; Santos, Rafaela S; Pereira-Manfro, Wânia F; Ferreira, Bianca; Barreto, Daniella M; Frota, Ana Cristina C; Hofer, Cristina B; Milagres, Lucimar G

    2017-07-05

    Anti-diphtheria antibody levels decrease with aging, and frequent booster vaccinations are required to maintain herd immunity. We analyzed the diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody (DT-Nab) response induced by a conjugate vaccine (meningococcal C polysaccharide-CRM 197 ) in HIV-vertically infected (HI) children and adolescents and healthy controls (HC) with matched age. We report the association of DT-Nab with the bactericidal antibodies to serogroup C meningococcus (MenC). Before vaccination, 21 HI patients (50%) had no protection against diphtheria (≤0.01IU/ml of antibody) and only 8 (19%) showed complete protection (≥0.1IU/ml). About half of the HC (56%) had complete protection before immunization and 6 subjects (12%) had no protection against diphtheria. After one and two vaccine injections, 96% of HC and 64% of HI vaccinees, respectively, showed full protection against diphtheria. These data indicate that CRM 197 was able to induce primary and/or booster response in both groups of individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxian Zhang

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011. In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT, constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.

  13. 77 FR 4227 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Factor Analog-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... extends the slaughter interval for intact male swine injected with gonadotropin releasing factor analog...-322 for IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) Sterile Solution...

  14. Development of adsorbents for recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Hiroaki; Furusaki, Shintaro.

    1987-01-01

    The largest subject for putting the extraction of uranium from seawater in practical use is the development of high performance adsorbents for uranium. In this paper, the way of thinking about the development of adsorbents for extracting uranium from seawater and the recent reports on this subject are described. Next, the research on the adsorbing capacity and adsorbing rate of the adsorbents developed so far is summarized, and the way of thinking about the evaluation of adsorbent performance which is the base of the design of a system for extracting uranium from seawater is explained, taking amidoxime type adsorbent as the example. For Japan where energy resources are scant, the uranium contained in seawater, which is estimated to be about 4.2 billion t, is the most luring important element. Uranium is contained in seawater is very low concentration of 3 ppb, and exists as anion complex salt. In 1960s, the Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment in UK found out that titanium oxide hydrate is the most promising as the adsorbent. Also a number of organic absorbents have been developed. In order to bring adsorbents in contact with seawater, pumping, ocean current and wave force are utilized. Adsorbents are in spherical, fiber and film forms, and held as fixed beds and fluidized beds. (Kako, I.) 48 refs

  15. Carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children in Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Raj Bhatta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children. Methods: Specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected on calcium alginate coated swabs from 1 02 participants. Processing of specimen and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard procedures. Results: Potential pathogens isolated in our study were S. pneumoniae (14.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.7%, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (3.9%, Streptococcus pyogenes (3.9% and Haemophilus influenzae (1.9%. Important findings in antibiogram include high resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin (73% and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin (23%. Conclusions: Pharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae among school children was found high and there is need of introduction of pneumococcal vaccines among children. Despite expected universal vaccination, pharyngeal colonization by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is possible and there is possibility of transmission.

  16. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2009-01-01

    evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH

  17. Natural adsorbents of dyes from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Meryem; El Hajjaji, souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El M'Rabet, Mohammadine

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of natural waters is a current environmental problem and lot of work has been done to find methods for its, prevention and remediation such as ionic exchange, adsorption on active carbon, filtration, electrolysis, biodegradation …etc. Adsorption is one of the most applied methods according to its effectiveness and easy management. Some adsorbents with good properties such as active alumina, zeolites, crop residues … etc, are suitable to substitute usual active carbon. This study aimed at the removal of dyes using oil shale as natural support, and its optimization by factorial experiment. Three factors were considered namly:pollutant concentration, pH and weight of the adsorbent. Tests have been performed with cationic and anionic dyes. Experimental results show that pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data for the adsorption by the oil shale. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were tested to fit experimental data, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by Freundlich isotherm for methylorange and Temkin for methyl blue. Analysis were completed by oil shale characterization educing XRD, IR, XRF techniques, and cationic exchange capacity.

  18. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  19. Maternal Vaccination With a Monocomponent Pertussis Toxoid Vaccine Is Sufficient to Protect Infants in a Baboon Model of Whooping Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Parul; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Zimmerman, Lindsey I; Wagner, Leslie D; Merkel, Tod J

    2018-03-28

    Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen responsible for serious respiratory illness. The disease is most severe in infants too young to be vaccinated with most hospitalizations and deaths occurring within this age group. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization of pregnant women to protect infants from birth until their first vaccination at 6-8 weeks of age. We previously demonstrated that maternal vaccination with licensed acellular pertussis vaccines protected newborn baboons from disease. We hypothesized that protection was due to toxin-neutralizing, maternal anti-pertussis toxin antibodies and predicted that maternal vaccination with a pertussis toxoid (PTx)-only vaccine would protect newborns from disease. Infant baboons born to unvaccinated mothers or mothers vaccinated with a PTx-only vaccine were challenged with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age and followed for infection and signs of disease. Although all challenged infants were heavily colonized, the infant baboons born to mothers vaccinated with PTx-only vaccine were free from clinical disease following exposure to B. pertussis. In contrast, disease was observed in infants born to unvaccinated mothers. Our results demonstrated that maternal vaccination with a PTx-only vaccine is sufficient to protect newborn baboons from disease following exposure to pertussis.

  20. Outbreak investigation for toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae wound infections in refugees from Northeast Africa and Syria in Switzerland and Germany by whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, D M; Kuehl, R; Zbinden, R; Boskova, V; Garzoni, C; Fadini, D; Dolina, M; Blümel, B; Weibel, T; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Widmer, A F; Bielicki, J A; Dierig, A; Heininger, U; Konrad, R; Berger, A; Hinic, V; Goldenberger, D; Blaich, A; Stadler, T; Battegay, M; Sing, A; Egli, A

    2016-12-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is an important and potentially fatal threat to patients and public health. During the current dramatic influx of refugees into Europe, our objective was to use whole genome sequencing for the characterization of a suspected outbreak of C. diphtheriae wound infections among refugees. After conventional culture, we identified C. diphtheriae using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and investigated toxigenicity by PCR. Whole genome sequencing was performed on a MiSeq Illumina with >70×coverage, 2×250 bp read length, and mapping against a reference genome. Twenty cases of cutaneous C. diphtheriae in refugees from East African countries and Syria identified between April and August 2015 were included. Patients presented with wound infections shortly after arrival in Switzerland and Germany. Toxin production was detected in 9/20 (45%) isolates. Whole genome sequencing-based typing revealed relatedness between isolates using neighbour-joining algorithms. We detected three separate clusters among epidemiologically related refugees. Although the isolates within a cluster showed strong relatedness, isolates differed by >50 nucleotide polymorphisms. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae associated wound infections are currently observed more frequently in Europe, due to refugees travelling under poor hygienic conditions. Close genetic relatedness of C. diphtheriae isolates from 20 refugees with wound infections indicates likely transmission between patients. However, the diversity within each cluster and phylogenetic time-tree analysis suggest that transmissions happened several months ago, most likely outside Europe. Whole genome sequencing offers the potential to describe outbreaks at very high resolution and is a helpful tool in infection tracking and identification of transmission routes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventing the preventable through effective surveillance: the case of diphtheria in a rural district of Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Bhosale, Rajesh V; Joshi, Abhijeet P; Wakchoure, Sushil S; Tambe, Muralidhar P; Awate, Pradip; Marx, Michael

    2013-04-08

    Epidemic diphtheria is still poorly understood and continues to challenge both developing and developed countries. In the backdrop of poor immunization coverage, non-existent adult boosters, weak case based surveillance and persistence of multiple foci, there is a heightened risk of re-emergence of the disease in epidemic forms in India. Investigating each outbreak to understand the epidemiology of the disease and its current status in the country is therefore necessary. Dhule a predominantly tribal and rural district in Northern Maharashtra has consistently recorded low vaccination coverages alongside sporaidic cases of diphtheria over the last years. This study reports the findings of an onsite survey conducted to assess a recent outbreak of diphtheria in Dhule district and the response mounted to it. Secondary data regarding outbreak detection and response were obtained from the district surveillance office. Clinical data were extracted from hospital records of eleven lab confirmed cases including one death case. Frequency distributions were calculated for each identified clinical and non- clinical variable using Microsoft™ Excel® 2010. Our findings suggest a shift in the median age of disease to adolescents (10-15 years) without gender differences. Two cases (18%) reported disease despite immunization. Clinical symptoms included cough (82%), fever (73%), and throat congestion (64%). About 64% and 36% of the 11 confirmed cases presented with a well defined pseudomembrane and a tonsillar patch respectively. Drug resistance was observed in all three culture positive cases. One death occurred despite the administration of Anti-Diphtheric Serum in a partially immunized case (CFR 9%). Genotyping and toxigenicity of strain was not possible due to specimen contamination during transport as testing facilities were unavailable in the district. The outbreak raises several concerns regarding the epidemiology of diphtheria in Dhule. The reason for shift in the median

  3. New type of amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent for the recovery of uranium from seawater. III. Recycle use of adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Katakai, A.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1986-01-01

    An amidoxime-group adsorbent for recovering uranium from seawater was made by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polymeric fiber, followed by amidoximation. Uranium adsorption of the adsorbent contacted with seawater in a column increased with the increase in flow rate, then leveled off. The relationship between uranium adsorption in a batch process and the ratio of the amount of seawater to that of adsorbent was found to be effective in evaluating adsorbent contacted with any amount of seawater. The conditioning of the adsorbent with an alkaline solution at higher temperature (∼80 0 C) after the acid desorption recovered the adsorption ability to the original level. This made it possible to apply the adsorbent to recycle use. On the other hand, the adsorbent conditioned at room temperature or that without conditioning lost adsorption ability during recycle use. The increase in water uptake was observed as one of the physical changes produced during recycle use of the alkaline-conditioned adsorbent, while the decrease in water uptake was observed with the unconditioned adsorbent. The IR spectra of the adsorbent showed a probability of reactions of amidoxime groups with acid and alkaline solutions, which can explain the change in uranium adsorption during the adsorption-desorption cycle

  4. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Dai, Sheng; Das, S.; Liao, W.P.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana; Gill, Gary; Byers, Maggie Flicker; Schneider, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  5. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  6. Creation of the technical adsorbent from local raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobaev, M.D.; Davlatnazarova, M.D.; Abdullaev, T.H.

    2016-01-01

    The results showed the possibility of obtaining effective adsorbents of walnut shell and the sunflower for environmental purposes, in particular for the purification of polluted waters from heavy metals. It has been shown, that 1 g of walnut shell adsorbent can adsorb on its surface ions of lead in amount of 47% by weight. The dependence of the adsorption activity of the semi-coke received from walnut shell from particle size and concentration of the solution. (author)

  7. WGS-Adsorbent Reaction Studies at Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, M.; Torreiro, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document reports the most significant results obtained during the experimental work performed under task WGS adsorbent experimental studies within CAPHIGAS project (National Research Plan 2008-2011, ref: ENE2009-08002). The behavior of the binary adsorbent-catalyst system which will be used in the hybrid system is described in this document. Main results reported here were used during the design and development of the hybrid system adsorbent catalyst- membrane proposed in the CAPHIGAS project. The influence of main operating parameters and the optimized volume ratio adsorbent-catalyst are also presented in this report. (Author)

  8. Neutralization of Rubidium Adsorbate Electric Fields by Electron Attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, J. A. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Kim, E. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rittenhouse, S. T. [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Weck, Philippe F [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sadeghpour, H. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shaffer, J. P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric elds resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the Rb induces a negative electron affnity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows for low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric eld from the Rb adsorbates. Our results have implications for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems and the fundamental study of atom-surface interactions, as well as applications for electrons bound to a 2D surface.

  9. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-02-17

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations. They enable us to compute the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed phase, the isosteric heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, and the adsorbed phase volume thoroughly. These equations are very simple and easy to handle for calculating the energetic performances of any adsorption system. We have shown here that the derived thermodynamic formulations fill up the information gap with respect to the state of adsorbed phase to dispel the confusion as to what is the actual state of the adsorbed phase. We have also discussed and established the temperature-entropy diagrams of (i) CaCl 2-in-silica gel + water system for cooling applications, and (ii) activated carbon (Maxsorb III) + methane system for gas storage. © Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Ion exchange/adsorbent pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A decontamination of greater than 99% of the actinides and fission products contained in radioactive waste water can be obtained using ion exchange resins. A system for achieving this result is described in this paper. This ion exchange pilot-plant design is the culmination of five years of study of the decontamination of radioactive waste streams by ion exchange resins and other adsorbents at Mound. In order to maintain maximum flexibility of treatments, this pilot-plant design is a conceptual design with specific flows, resins, and column specifications, but with many optional features and no rigid equipment specifications. This flexibility allows the system to be amenable to almost any radioactive waste stream. Very specific designs can be constructed from this conceptual design for the treatment of any specific waste stream. Operating and capital costs are also discussed. 1 figure, 5 tables

  11. Canyon solvent cleaning with solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent with a solid adsorbent removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  12. Arsenic Remediation by Synthetic and Natural Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contagion of toxic metals in water is a serious environmental and health concern and threatening problem worldwide. Particularly arsenic contamination in ground water has became great dilemma in the earlier decades. With advent in research for arsenic remediation, standard of drinking water is improving and now reduced to few parts per million (ppm level of arsenic in drinking water sources. However, due to continuous enhancement in environmental pollution, remediation techniques are still needed to achieve the drinking water quality standard. Development of novel and economically feasible removal techniques or materials for selective separation of this toxic specie has been the main focus of research. Several arsenic removal techniques, including membrane separation, coagulation, precipitation, anion exchange have been developed. The aim of this article is to review briefly arsenic chemistry and previous and current available technologies that have been reported various low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal.

  13. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  14. Applications of core level spectroscopy to adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    In the following review different applications of core-level spectroscopy to atomic and molecular adsorbates will be shown. Core-holes are created through core-level ionization and X-ray absorption processes and the core-hole decays by radiant and non-radiant processes. This forms the basis for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy. We will demonstrate how we can use the different methods to obtain information about the chemical state, local geometric structure, nature of chemical bonding and dynamics in electron transfer processes. The adsorption of N 2 and CO on Ni(100) will be used as prototype systems for chemisorption while N 2 on graphite and Ar on Pt for physisorption

  15. In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Rui; Lobo, Maria Joao C.; Duarte, Jose; Ferrer-Correia, Antonio J.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Dubin, Joshua R.; Domingues, Pedro M.; Amado, Francisco M.L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

  16. Biodegradation of bacterial polysaccharides adsorbed on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckert, A.; Tok, H.H.; Jacquin, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this research, by means of a model, a study was made of the biodegradation of microbial organic compounds adsorbed on clays, with a parallel experiment on Fontainebleau sand serving as the control. During incubation the three classes of organic matter ( 14 C-labelled glucose, 14 C-labelled polysaccharides and 14 C-labelled microbial cells) mineralize more actively in the presence of sand than in the presence of clay, since the latter provides protection against biodegradation. Mineralization of the adsorbed organic compounds, however, is marked by clear-cut differences after three weeks - glucose (55%)>polysaccharides (43%)>microbial organisms (7.3%). After incubation, chemical extraction of the organo-mineral complexes by alkaline solvents shows only water-soluble and alkali-soluble products in the case of sand; conversely, in that of montmorillonite the bulk of the 14 C was found in the non-extractable fraction or humin (18.1% of the initial 14 C for glucose, 27.3% for the polysaccharides, and 67.6% for the microbial organisms). A second incubation carried out after a phase in which there was drying and remoistening of the organo-mineral complexes, brings to light the important part played by climatic alternations during the biodegradation process. A new mineralization phase is observed, affecting more the bacterial organisms (14.1%) than the polysaccharides (6.3%), with the glucose-base complexes occupying an intermediate position (11.2%). The chemical fractioning of the organo-mineral complexes following re-incubation shows the stability of 14 C in humin very clearly, especially in the case of polysaccharides, where the mineralization phase relates primarily to the products extractable with alkalis. (author)

  17. Effect of skin barrier disruption on immune responses to topically applied cross-reacting material, CRM(197), of diphtheria toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, S; Peyre, M; Garcia, N; Muller, S; Sesardic, D; Partidos, C D

    2005-08-01

    The high accessibility of the skin and the presence of immunocompetent cells in the epidermis makes this surface an attractive route for needle-free administration of vaccines. However, the lining of the skin by the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to vaccine delivery. In this study we examined the effect of skin barrier disruption on the immune responses to the cross-reacting material CRM(197), a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DTx) that is considered as a vaccine candidate. Application of CRM(197), together with cholera toxin (CT), onto the tape-stripped skin of mice elicited antibody responses that had anti-DTx neutralizing activity. Vaccine delivery onto mildly ablated skin or intact skin did not elicit any detectable anti-CRM(197) antibodies. Mice immunized with CRM(197) alone onto the tape-stripped skin mounted a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response. In contrast, the induction of cellular immunity after CRM(197) deposition onto mildly ablated or intact skin was adjuvant dependent. Furthermore, epidermal cells were activated and underwent apoptosis that was more pronounced when the stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping. Overall, these findings highlight the potential for transcutaneous delivery of CRM(197) and establish a correlation between the degree of barrier disruption and levels of antigen-specific immune responses. Moreover, these results provide the first evidence that the development of a transcutaneous immunization strategy for diphtheria, based on simple and practical methods to disrupt the skin barrier, is feasible.

  18. [Local reactions after diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines in mice; changes in histopathology at the injection site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Chiharu; Katsuta, Tomohiro; Honjo, Ayako; Tateyama, Satoshi; Tokutake, Tadaomi; Arimoto, Yutaka; Nakajima, Natsuki; Goshima, Toshiro; Kato, Tatsuo

    2006-03-01

    Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) developed in Japan is now widely used worldwide. DTaP is safer than the diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) and has fewer severe side effects, but local reactions such as redness, swelling, and induration are still reported. The pathophysiological mechanism of these reactions is controversial. To clarify the cause of local reactions, we conducted studies using the mouse model. After administering either one or two abdominal subcutaneous DTaP inoculations, we observed changes in histopathology at the injection site at 24h, 48h, and 7 days. The control group, inoculated with physiologic saline, showed no significant changes either pathologically or with the naked eye. All mice after DTaP vaccination showed indurations at the injection site. Pathologically, we watched leukocyte invasion into or around the site, especially neutrophils and eosinophils. After the first vaccination, the extent of the invasion was strong 24h and 7 days later. At 24h following the second vaccination, a dramatic leukocyte invasion seen persisted at 7days. At 7 days after the first vaccination, peripheral fibrosis had begun, and when a second vaccination was administered, it began even earlier at the second site. These histopathological changes show that local reactions are caused by both inflammatory and allergic responses. Because this mouse study resulted in the same pattern of reactions observed in humans, this method will be useful for studies focusing on local reactions.

  19. Safety of a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine when used off-label in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Sy, Lina S; Qian, Lei; Marcy, S Michael; Jackson, Lisa A; Glanz, Jason; Nordin, Jim; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison; Donahue, James; Weintraub, Eric; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Published data on the safety of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in persons aged ≥65 years are limited. This study aims to examine a large cohort of Tdap users ≥65 years for evidence of increased risk of adverse events following vaccination. A matched cohort study design and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) design were used. The study population was adults aged ≥65 years who received the Tdap or tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine during 1 January 2006-31 December 2010 at 7 health maintenance organizations in the United States. Seven major groups of prespecified events were identified electronically by diagnostic codes. The study included 119 573 Tdap vaccinees and the same number of Td vaccinees. The results indicated that the risk of the prespecified events following Tdap was comparable to that following Td vaccination in this elderly population. There was a small increased rate of codes suggesting medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap in the SCCS analysis (incidence rate ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.40-1.81]). Although there is a small increased risk of medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap compared to other time periods, it is no more common than that following Td. This study provides empirical safety data suggesting that immunizing adults aged ≥65 years with Tdap to reduce the risk of pertussis in the elderly and their contacts should not have untoward safety consequences.

  20. Characterization of ultraviolet light-induced diphtheria toxin-resistant mutations in normal and Xeroderma pigmentosum human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative mutagenesis studies in human cells have been severely limited by the lack of reliable genetic markers. Experiments were therefore performed to develop and characterize a better quantitative mutation assay for human cells. The uv-induction of diphtheria toxin resistant (DT/sup r/) mutations in normal and excision repair defective xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts has been quantitatively characterized. A concentration of diphtheria toxin to use in the selection of resistant mutants was determined whereby DT/sup r/ cells are cross-resistant to Pseudomonas aeurginosa exotoxin A, indicating mutants have altered elongation factor-2 (EF-2) which is not susceptible to ADP-ribosylation by either toxin. Results of this study indicate that XP fibroblasts have higher uv-induced mutation frequencies per unit uv-dose but similar frequencies per unit survival compared to normal cells as measured using a new genetic marker for quantitative mutagenesis. Furthermore, these results support a prediction of the mutation theory of cancer, namely, that cells from individuals with certain human syndromes that predispose the individual to cancer will have higher induced mutation frequencies than cells from non-susceptible individuals. This newly characterized genetic marker should be useful in quantitative mutagenesis studies in human cells

  1. Understanding Trends in Catalytic Activity: The Effect of Adsorbate-Adsorbate Interactions for CO Oxidation Over Transition Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2010-01-01

    Using high temperature CO oxidation as the example, trends in the reactivity of transition metals are discussed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Volcano type relations between the catalytic rate and adsorption energies of important intermediates are introduced...... and the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on the trends is discussed. We find that adsorbate-adsorbate interactions significantly increase the activity of strong binding metals (left side of the volcano) but the interactions do not change the relative activity of different metals and have a very small...... influence on the position of the top of the volcano, that is, on which metal is the best catalyst....

  2. [In vitro immunization for the production of antibodies to tetanus toxin and toxoid. 1. Systems for the detection of in vitro synthetized specific immunoglobulins. Strategies of test development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessig, S T; Jahn, S; Porstmann, T; von Baehr, R

    1987-01-01

    By means of semipurified tetanus toxin for solid phase coating in an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies a detection limit of 0.02 IU per litre was achieved. The addition of serum from animals like horses or goats as inert protein to the dilution medium was omitted to prevent a displacement of human antibodies by antitetanus antibodies present in the animals sera. The specificity of the ELISA was demonstrated by inhibition experiments with soluble antigen and in an ELISA for detection of anti-tetanus toxin antibodies from mice immunized with the toxoid from the different purification steps.

  3. Antibody responses to tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C Y; Molrine, D C; Antin, J H; Wheeler, C; Guinan, E C; Weinstein, H J; Phillips, N R; McGarigle, C; Harvey, S; Schnipper, C; Ambrosino, D M

    1997-07-01

    Accelerated granulocyte and platelet recovery following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are well documented. We hypothesize that functional immunity may also be enhanced in PBSCT and performed a phase II trial of immunizations in patients with lymphoma undergoing autologous transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow. Seventeen BMT and 10 PBSCT recipients were immunized at 3, 6, 12, and 24-months post-transplantation with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines. IgG anti-HIB and anti-TT antibody concentrations were measured and compared between the two groups. Geometric mean IgG anti-HIB antibody concentrations were significantly higher for PBSCT recipients compared to BMT recipients at 24 months post-transplantation (11.3 micrograms/ml vs 0.93 microgram/ml, P = 0.051) and following the 24 month immunization (66.2 micrograms/ml vs 1.30 micrograms/ml, P = 0.006). Similar results were noted for IgG anti-TT antibody with significantly higher geometric mean antibody concentrations in the PBSCT group at 24 months post-transplantation (182 micrograms/ml vs 21.6 micrograms/ml, P = 0.039). Protective levels of total anti-HIB antibody were achieved earlier in PBSCT recipients compared with those of BMT recipients. PBSCT recipients had higher antigen-specific antibody concentrations following HIB and TT immunizations. These results suggest enhanced recovery of humoral immunity in PBSCT recipients and earlier protection against HIB with immunization.

  4. Estudo epidemiológico de difteria na região da Grande São Paulo, 1969 Epidemiological investigation of diphtheria in the area of the Great São Paulo, Brazil, 1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilia de Araújo Medrado Faria

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento epidemiológico de Difteria, utilizando-se uma amostra de 29 pacientes (GRUPO POSITIVO, a qual correspondeu a 13,5% de crianças internadas no Hospital de Isolamento Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, SP., entre fevereiro a outubro de 1969. Através de pareamente por idade e sexo foram selecionados, entre os vizinhos dos pacientes, 24 crianças (GRUPO CONTROLE. A maioria dos pacientes provinha de bairros ou municípios operários da Grande São Paulo, vivendo sob precárias condições educacionais de saneamento e higiene. Através da história pregressa de vacinação, observou-se que nos 2 grupos é elevado o número de crianças não vacinadas com as três doses iniciais da tríplice. Porém, no Grupo Positivo, êste fato é observado em 100% das crianças. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação ao teste de Schick realizado entre os irmãos dos indivíduos dos dois grupos. Entretanto, as freqüências de Schick negativo foram 61,5% e 75,5%, respectivamente, para os Grupos Controle e Positivo. Êstes dados indicam que os programas de vacinação não têm conseguido resultados satisfatórios na imunização das populações de baixo nível econômico-social.In the period between February to October 1969, an investigation on some characteristics of patients with diphtheria and their families in the area of the Great S. Paulo (Brazil, was accomplished. A group of 29 patients, corresponding to 13.5% of the total number of patients with the disease, admitted to the Hospital Emílio Ribas during the period, was compared with a matched control group of 24 neighbourhood's children. Most of the patients came from the fringe area of the Great S. Paulo and their families and residential quarters were characterized by precarious social, educational and hygienic conditions. The number of children with previous history of complete vaccination (three primary doses of toxoid was strikingly low in both groups. As expected, none

  5. Seroprevalence and Determinants of Immunity to Diphtheria for Children Living in Two Districts of Contrasting Incidence During an Outbreak in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth J; Mikhail, Amy F W; Husada, Dominicus; Irawan, Eveline; Kafatos, George; Bracebridge, Samantha; Pebody, Richard; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, an ongoing outbreak of diphtheria in Indonesia was focused in the province of East Java. There was a need to assess vaccine coverage and immunity gaps in children. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence and vaccine coverage survey of children 1-15 years of age in 2 districts of East Java: one of high incidence (on the island of Madura) and one of low incidence (on the mainland). From each district, we sampled 150 children (10 children per year of age). Sera and throat swabs were taken to determine immunity and carriage status. Immunity was defined as ≥0.1 international unit/mL of antibody to diphtheria toxin. A total of 297 children were selected to participate in the study. Coverage of three doses of combined vaccine for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was significantly lower (P Java. Immunity in high incidence districts is likely because of natural immunity acquired through exposure to toxigenic C. diphtheriae. Booster vaccines are essential for achieving protective levels of immunity.

  6. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  7. Accessibility changes within diphtheria toxin T domain when in the functional molten globule state, as determined using hydrogen/deuterium exchange measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Petr; Montagner, C.; Vitrac, H.; Kavan, Daniel; Pichard, S.; Gillet, D.; Forest, E.; Forge, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 277, č. 3 (2010), s. 653-662 ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : diphtheria toxin * hydrogen/deuterium exchanges * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.129, year: 2010

  8. Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants....

  9. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  10. Comparative evaluation of selected starches as adsorbent for Thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most commonly used is silica gel which is an inorganic adsorbent. Organic substances like cellulose, polyethylene are also used. All these are imported into Nigeria and are unhealthy for economic policies. Most commonly used adsorbent may not be easy to produce locally, but starch, which is a very common product, ...

  11. Synthesis and properties of porous zeolite aluminosilicate adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilina, A.S.; Milinchuk, V.K.; Burukhin, S.B.; Gordienko, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally safe non-energy-intensive methods of the synthesis have been developed and the properties of solid inorganic nanostructured zeolite-like adsorbents of a broad spectrum have been studied. The sorption capacities of the adsorbents with respect to various components of water pollution have been determined [ru

  12. Development of ultrafiltration and inorganic adsorbents: January--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultrafiltration media with and without the assistance of bone char filters were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing radionuclides from contaminated solutions. Precipitants, resin, adsorbents, and inorganic adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in decontaminating solutions. A study of the effects of radiation on ultrafiltration media was initiated. An ultrafiltration media pilot plant was ordered and is being installed

  13. Friction and diffusion dynamics of adsorbates at surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusco, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical study of the motion of adsorbates (e. g. atoms, molecules or clusters) on solid surfaces is presented, with a focus on surface diffusion and atomic-scale friction. These two phenomena are inextricably linked, because when an atomic or molecular adsorbate diffuses, or is pulled, it

  14. Mixed-matrix membrane adsorbers for protein separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, M.E.; Borneman, Z.; Wessling, M.

    2003-01-01

    The separation of two similarly sized proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was carried out using a new type of ion-exchange mixed-matrix adsorber membranes. The adsorber membranes were prepared by incorporation of various types of Lewatit ion-exchange resins into an

  15. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  16. Ionogenic adsorbents based on local raw materials for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobaev, M.D.; Davlatnazarova, M.; Turdialiev, M.Z.; Abdullayev, T.H.; Pulatov, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The successful management of uranium wastes and creating the conditions for effective rehabilitation activities require special adsorbents capable of holding on the surface complexes, including radioactive elements. Currently tested and have shown promising synthetic adsorbents based pitted apricot fruits and other fruit plants. This report presents data for the establishment of ionic type available adsorbents based on Tajikistan coal. As the base for the creation of this type of adsorbent were taken the coal of the 'Ziddi' deposits. As follows from our data on the chemical composition, the studied coals contain more than 20% of the ash. According to the available literature theses ashes contains various minerals compositions that can form the adsorbent's active surface. Thus, the model for this type of activated carbon can serve as a mixture of zeolite, ion exchange resins and activated carbon itself.

  17. Processing method and device for iodine adsorbing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Shiga, Reiko.

    1997-01-01

    An iodine adsorbing material adsorbing silver compounds is reacted with a reducing gas, so that the silver compounds are converted to metal silver and stored. Then, the silver compounds are not melted or recrystallized even under a highly humid condition, accordingly, peeling of the adsorbed materials from a carrier can be prevented, and the iodine adsorbing material can be stored stably. Since the device is disposed in an off gas line for discharging off gases from a nuclear power facility, the iodine adsorbing material formed by depositing silver halides to the carrier is contained, and a reducing or oxidizing gas is supplied to the vessel as required, and silver halides can be converted to metal silver or the metal silver can be returned to silver halide. (T.M.)

  18. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  19. Noble gas separation with the use of inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.; Christian, J.D.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A noble gas separation process is proposed for application to airborne nuclear fuel reprocessing plant effluents. The process involves the use of inorganic adsorbents for the removal of contaminant gases and noble gas separation through selective adsorption. Water and carbon dioxide are removed with selected zeolites that do not appreciably adsorb the noble gases. Xenon is essentially quantitatively removed with a specially developed adsorbent using conventional adsorption-desorption techniques. Oxygen is removed to low ppM levels by the use of a rapid cycle adsorption technique on a special adsorbent leaving a krypton-nitrogen mixture. Krypton is separated from nitrogen with a special adsorbent operated at about -80 0 C. Because the separation process does not require high pressures and oxygen is readily removed to sufficiently limit ozone formation to insignificant levels, appreciable capital and operating cost savings with this process are possible compared with other proposed processes. In addition, the proposed process is safer to operate

  20. Flow boundary conditions for chain-end adsorbing polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Andrienko, Denis; Delle Site, Luigi; Kremer, Kurt

    2005-09-08

    Using the phenol-terminated polycarbonate blend as an example, we demonstrate that the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for a flow of an adsorbing polymer melt are extremely sensitive to the structure of the epitaxial layer. Under shear, the adsorbed parts (chain ends) of the polymer melt move along the equipotential lines of the surface potential whereas the adsorbed additives serve as the surface defects. In response to the increase of the number of the adsorbed additives the surface layer becomes thinner and solidifies. This results in a gradual transition from the slip to the no-slip boundary condition for the melt flow, with a nonmonotonic dependence of the slip length on the surface concentration of the adsorbed ends.

  1. Bioavailability of Carbon Nanomaterial-Adsorbed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Pimphales promelas: Influence of Adsorbate Molecular Size and Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Erica N; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; van den Hurk, Peter; Klaine, Stephen J

    2017-08-15

    Despite carbon nanomaterials' (CNMs) potential to alter the bioavailability of adsorbed contaminants, information characterizing the relationship between adsorption behavior and bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed contaminants is still limited. To investigate the influence of CNM morphology and organic contaminant (OC) physicochemical properties on this relationship, adsorption isotherms were generated for a suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and exfoliated graphene (GN) in conjunction with determining the bioavailability of the adsorbed PAHs to Pimphales promelas using bile analysis via fluorescence spectroscopy. Although it appeared that GN adsorbed PAHs indiscriminately compared to MWCNTs, the subsequent bioavailability of GN-adsorbed PAHs was more sensitive to PAH morphology than MWCNTs. GN was effective at reducing bioavailability of linear PAHs by ∼70%, but had little impact on angular PAHs. MWCNTs were sensitive to molecular size, where bioavailability of two-ringed naphthalene was reduced by ∼80%, while bioavailability of the larger PAHs was reduced by less than 50%. Furthermore, the reduction in bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed PAHs was negatively correlated with the amount of CNM surface area covered by the adsorbed-PAHs. This study shows that the variability in bioavailability of CNM-adsorbed PAHs is largely driven by PAH size, configuration and surface area coverage.

  2. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  3. Surface characterization of Ag/Titania adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Nair, Sachin; Duin, Evert C.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ag/Titania adsorbent for selective removal of the desulfurization-refractive polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) from liquid hydrocarbon fuels was prepared, its total and the Ag specific surface area were determined and the surface reaction sites in the sorbent that may be active in the adsorptive selective desulfurization were characterized by several spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The sorbent contains Ag, Ti, O and spurious C on its surface, as by the XPS measurements. Silver is present as an oxide, as judged by the XPS Auger parameter (AP). The complementary electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy confirms that the majority of Ag is present in the diamagnetic Ag 1+ form, with the minor concentration (∼0.1% of total Ag) present as Ag 2+ . The findings by XPS and ESR are confirmed by the XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and thermodynamic considerations. The supported Ag is highly dispersed on the surface of the titania support, with the particle size of ∼30-60 A depending on Ag content, with an Ag specific surface area of ∼7-14 m 2 /g, vs. the total surface area of ∼114-58 m 2 /g.

  4. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20......% of the PBMC cultures whereas proliferation was induced in 79% of the same cultures offered similar treated TT (except for the PAGE separation). When T-cell blotting was performed with TT separated in a SDS-agarose matrix, proliferation was induced in 80% of donors responding to soluble TT. The results show...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  5. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  6. A theoretical study of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    the barrier for dissociation, whereas S will increase it. The interaction with alkali atoms is mainly of an electrostatic nature. The poisoning by S is due to two kinds of repulsive interactions: a Pauli repulsion and a reduced covalent bond strength between the adsorbate and the surface d-electrons. In order...... to investigate these different interactions in more detail, we look at three different species (N atoms, and terminally bonded N(2) and CO) and use them as probes to study their interaction with two modifier atoms (Na and S). The two modifier atoms have very different properties, which allows us to decouple...

  7. Leukocyte transcript alterations in West-African girls following a booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orntoft, Nikolaj W; Thorsen, Kasper; Benn, Christine S

    2013-01-01

    identified a group of nine comparable West African girls, from a biobank of 356 children, who were due to receive DTP booster vaccine at age 18 months. As a pilot experiment we extracted RNA from blood samples before, and 6 weeks after, vaccination to analyze the coding transcriptome in leukocytes using......Background. Observational studies from low-income countries have shown that the vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) is associated with excess female mortality due to infectious diseases. Methods. To investigate possible changes in gene expression after DTP vaccination, we...... expression microarrays, and ended up with information from eight girls. The data was further analyzed using dedicated array pathway and network software. We aimed to study whether DTP vaccination introduced a systematic alteration in the immune system in girls. Results. We found very few transcripts to alter...

  8. Multidisciplinary approach to the management of a case of classical respiratory diphtheria requiring percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Matthew James; Vijendren, Ananth; Acharya, Vikas; Mulla, Rohinton; Panesar, Miss Jaan

    2017-03-06

    We present a case of a Caucasian woman aged 67 years referred with a 4-day history of sore throat, dysphagia, fever and nasal blockage. Examination revealed a swollen neck and pharyngeal pseudomembrane. A throat swab was positive on culture for Corynebacterium ulcerans , with toxin expression confirmed on PCR and Elek testing. A diagnosis of classical respiratory diphtheria was made, with subsequent confirmation of the patient's domesticated dog as the source of infection. The dog had recently been attacked by a wild badger and was being treated for an ear infection. The patient made a good recovery with intravenous antimicrobial and supportive therapy; however, she subsequently developed a diphtheritic polyneuropathy in the form of a severe bulbar palsy with frank aspiration necessitating percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. A mild sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy was also diagnosed. The patient eventually made an almost complete recovery. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Co adsorbates on superconducting Pb nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Regis; Caminale, Michael; Oka, Hirofumi; Stepniak, Agnieszka; Leon Vanegas, Augusto A.; Sander, Dirk; Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconductivity in low-dimensional structures has become an active research area. In order to understand the superconducting pairing, long-standing work has been devoted to the pair breaking effect, where magnetic impurities break Cooper pair singlets. We performed scanning tunneling spectroscopy at low temperature on Co adsorbates on superconducting Pb nanoislands. On the Co adsorbates, we observe spectral features in the superconductor's energy gap, which we attribute to magnetic impurity induced bound states, a hallmark of the pair breaking effect. We discuss the response of the superconducting islands to the presence of Co adsorbates.

  10. Sequence of ligand binding and structure change in the diphtheria toxin repressor upon activation by divalent transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan; Marin, Vedrana; Bienkiewicz, Ewa A; Semavina, Maria; Guerrero, Luis; Love, John F; Murphy, John R; Logan, Timothy M

    2005-04-19

    The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is an Fe(II)-activated transcriptional regulator of iron homeostatic and virulence genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. DtxR is a two-domain protein that contains two structurally and functionally distinct metal binding sites. Here, we investigate the molecular steps associated with activation by Ni(II)Cl(2) and Cd(II)Cl(2). Equilibrium binding energetics for Ni(II) were obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry, indicating apparent metal dissociation constants of 0.2 and 1.7 microM for two independent sites. The binding isotherms for Ni(II) and Cd(II) exhibited a characteristic exothermic-endothermic pattern that was used to infer the metal binding sequence by comparing the wild-type isotherm with those of several binding site mutants. These data were complemented by measuring the distance between specific backbone amide nitrogens and the first equivalent of metal through heteronuclear NMR relaxation measurements. Previous studies indicated that metal binding affects a disordered to ordered transition in the metal binding domain. The coupling between metal binding and structure change was investigated using near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy. Together, the data show that the first equivalent of metal is bound by the primary metal binding site. This binding orients the DNA binding helices and begins to fold the N-terminal domain. Subsequent binding at the ancillary site completes the folding of this domain and formation of the dimer interface. This model is used to explain the behavior of several mutants.

  11. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and Instituto Butantan (DTP/Hib-BM was undertaken. The reference vaccine had the same DTP vaccine but the Hib component was produced using purified materials supplied by GlaxoSmithKline (DTP/Hib-GSK, which is registered and has supplied the Brazilian National Immunization Program for over more than five years. One thousand infants were recruited for the study and received vaccinations at two, four and six months of age. With respect to immunogenicity, the vaccination protocol was followed in 95.6% and 98.4% of infants in the DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK groups, respectively. For the Hib component of the study, there was 100% seroprotection (>0.15 µg/mL with all three lots of DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK. The geometric mean titer (GMT was 9.3 µg/mL, 10.3 µg/mL and 10.3 µg/mL for lots 1, 2 and 3 of DTP/Hib-BM, respectively, and the GMT was 11.3 g/mL for DTP/Hib-GSK. For diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, seroprotection was 99.7%, 100% and 99.9%, respectively, for DTP/Hib-BM, three lots altogether and 99.2%, 100% and 100% for DTP/Hib-GSK. GMTs were similar across all lots and vaccines. Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine.

  12. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 2. Insights Into Adsorbent Design

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2012-11-21

    Packed bed breakthrough experiments are reported for commercial zeolite 13X and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica materials with three different amine loadings. Mass and heat transfer dynamics for all four materials are modeled successfully. Amine adsorbents with open pores are found to exhibit faster mass diffusion rates compared to zeolite 13X. When amine loading is increased by coupling aminopropyl groups, premature breakthrough combined with a long tail is observed. Contrary to conventional physisorbants, finite heat losses to the column wall do not explain the long breakthrough tail. A rate model that accounts for heterogeneity in diffusion was found to accurately capture the breakthrough shape of the high loading material. Batch uptake measurements support the hypothesis that slow diffusion through the polymer phase is what hampers adsorption kinetics in the high amine loading adsorbent. The results emphasize the importance of designing materials that are not overloaded with amine sites, as excessive amine loadings can lead to depressed adsorption kinetics and premature column breakthrough. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Immunoglobulin G Avidities in Infants in Mexico after Primary Immunization with Three Doses of Polyribosylribitol Phosphate-Tetanus Toxoid Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-León, Patricia; Díaz-García, F. Javier; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Segura, Jorge; Carranza, Martha I.; Arredondo-Garcia, José Luis; Santos, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin G concentrations and avidities specific to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were measured in 208 children living in Guadalajara and Mexico City. Protective concentrations were found in 98.9% and 100.0% of participants, respectively. Geometric mean concentrations differed between both populations and/or among age groups. Mean avidities differed only among the 7- to 12-month-old children. Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib primary vaccination seems to induce protection in Mexican children. PMID:18417667

  14. Immunoglobulin G avidities in infants in Mexico after primary immunization with three doses of polyribosylribitol phosphate-tetanus toxoid Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-León, Patricia; Díaz-García, F Javier; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Segura, Jorge; Carranza, Martha I; Arredondo-Garcia, José Luis; Santos, José Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Serum immunoglobulin G concentrations and avidities specific to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were measured in 208 children living in Guadalajara and Mexico City. Protective concentrations were found in 98.9% and 100.0% of participants, respectively. Geometric mean concentrations differed between both populations and/or among age groups. Mean avidities differed only among the 7- to 12-month-old children. Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib primary vaccination seems to induce protection in Mexican children.

  15. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-03

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  16. Influence of a reducing agent used to prepare radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m on the adhesive properties of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Hirata, R. Jr.; Moreira, L.O.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In this work we investigated the influence of stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) used in nuclear medicine as a reducing agent to prepare radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m, on the survival and adhesive properties of two toxigenic C. diphtheriae of the sucrose fermenting (241strain) and non fermenting (CDC-E8392 strain) biotypes. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays using different concentrations of SnCl 2 . The influence of SnCl 2 on the adhesive properties of C.diphtheriae were evaluated by bacterial autoaggregation, haemagglutination, adherence to glass surface and lectin-binding assays. Results: Differences in survival fractions suggested differences in susceptibility of microorganisms to bactericidal effect of stannous chloride. A percentage of 0.4% bacterial cells of no.241 strain and 0.04% of CDC-E8392 strain survived after 220 μl ml -1 SnCl 2 treatment. Results of both polystyrene and spontaneous autoaggregation tests showed an increase in the hydrophobic surface properties of C. diphtheriae strains. SnCl 2 induced spontaneous bacterial autoaggregation of sucrose fermenting 241 strain. SnCl 2 enhanced adherence to glass and totally inhibited the haemagglutinating activity of the non-sucrose fermenting strain CDC-E8392 strain (original titer=32). Decrease in haemagglutinatination was dependent on the concentration of SnCl 2 used. Lectin-binding assays demonstrated increase in the expression of cell surface receptors to lectin with affinity for molecules containing mannose residues after treatment with SnCl 2 . The presence of SnCl 2 induced differences in the expression of bacterial surface carbohydrates possibly related with differences in degrees of haemagglutination and adherence to glass of diphtheria bacilli. Conclusion: The presence of SnCl 2 may influence on the adhesive properties of bacterial pathogens. The occurrence of cell filamentation suggests a potential genotoxicity

  17. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  18. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Song, Lifu; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Zhaobin; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen to adsorb vanillin in situ during the bioconversion. Resin DM11 was found to be the best, which adsorbed the most vanillin and the least ferulic acid. When 8% resin DM11 (wet w/v) was added to the biotransformation system, 45 g l(-1) ferulic acid could be added continually and 19.2 g l(-1) vanillin was obtained within 55 h, which was the highest vanillin yield by bioconversion until now. This yield was remarkable for exceeding the crystallization concentration of vanillin and therefore had far-reaching consequence in its downstream processing.

  19. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiachuan; Eraghi Kazzaz, Armin; AlipoorMazandarani, Niloofar; Hosseinpour Feizi, Zahra; Fatehi, Pedram

    2018-04-10

    Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  20. Order-disorder transitions in adsorbed systems on magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Granja, F.; Moran-Lopez, J.L.; Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City. Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados); Falicov, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is investigated the effect of adsorbed atoms on the magnetic properties of ferromagnets. The Ising model is employed considering nearest neigbours with antiferromagnetic coupling between atoms. (M.W.O.) [pt

  1. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachuan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  2. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    tanning, metallurgical operation and manufacturing have led to the release ... pulmonary fibrosis and inhibit many enzymatic functions. (Liphadzi ... sector is a low cost adsorbent for heavy metal but has ... as its economic value is less. The aim ...

  3. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  4. Selectivity of β-Sitosterol Imprinted Polymers as Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, St.; Hariani Soekamto, Nunuk; Taba, Paulina; Bachri Amran, Muh

    2018-03-01

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are smart materials that have been used as adsorbents in separation processes of compounds because they have a memorial effect to a certain compound. In this research, MIP synthesized was used as adsorbent for β-sitosterol. The objective of the research was to know the selectivity of MIP in adsorbing β-sitosterol. The concentrations of β-sitosterol after adsorption and desorption were analyzed by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the selectivity test was analyzed by HPLC. Result showed that the MIP had high adsorption ability ( qe ). The recovery of β-sitosterol from MIP for the adsorption-desorption process was 68.48%. The MIP was very selective to β-sitosterol compared to cholesterol because it can adsorb β-sitosterol as many as 100%, whereas the adsorption of cholesterol was only 30.27 %.

  5. TESTING OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water. Relevant direction for improving of quality of potable water is application of active carbons at various stages of water treatments. This work includes complex research dealing with testing of a broad spectrum of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide and nitrite ions from water. The role of the surface functional groups of carbonaceous adsorbents, their acid-basic properties, and the influence of the type of impregnated heteroatom (N, O, or metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, on removal of hydrogen sulfide species and nitrite ions have been researched. The efficiency of the catalyst obtained from peach stones by impregnation with Cu2+ ions of oxidized active carbon was established, being recommended for practical purposes to remove the hydrogen sulfide species from the sulfurous ground waters. Comparative analysis of carbonaceous adsorbents reveals the importance of surface chemistry for oxidation of nitrite ions.

  6. Characterization of novel adsorbents for radiostrontium reduction in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puziy, A.M.; Bengtsson, G.B.; Hansen, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution coefficients, pH dependence, isotherms, kinetics and breakthrough curves of Sr binding have been measured on several types of adsorbents (carbons modified with titanium silicate, crystalline titanium silicate, mixed titanium-manganese oxide, and synthetic zeolites A4 and P) from different water solutions. It is concluded that acid-base properties of the adsorbent is very important for Sr binding. Titanium silicate based adsorbents had reduced chemical stability in an artificial food fluid below pH 2, the mixed titanium manganese oxide below pH 6, zeolite A4 below pH 5 and zeolite P below pH 7. Consideration is given to the feasibility of the adsorbents for food decontamination. (author)

  7. Adsorption of β-galactosidase on silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Dobryakova, I. V.; Pilipenko, O. S.

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that adsorption of β-galactosidase of Aspergillus oryzae fungi on mesoporous and biporous silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents and the rate of the process grow along with the diameter of the pores of the adsorbent. It is found that the shape of the adsorption isotherms changes as well, depending on the texture of the adsorbent: the Michaelis constant rises from 0.3 mM for the enzyme in solution to 0.4-0.5 mM for the enzyme on a surface in the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. It is concluded that β-galactosidase displays its maximum activity on the surface of biporous adsorbents.

  8. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  9. Role of adsorbates on current fluctuations in DC field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.; Bonin, B.; Long, H.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    Field emission experiments in DC regime usually show important current fluctuations for a fixed electric field. These fluctuations are attributed to adsorbed layers (molecules or atoms), liable to affect the work function, height and shape of the potential barrier binding the electron in the metal. The role of these adsorbed species is investigated by showing that the field emission from a well desorbed sample is stable and reproducible and by comparing the emission from the same sample before and after desorption. (author)

  10. Simulations of the Static Friction Due to Adsorbed Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    He, Gang; Robbins, Mark O.

    2001-01-01

    The static friction between crystalline surfaces separated by a molecularly thin layer of adsorbed molecules is calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. These molecules naturally lead to a finite static friction that is consistent with macroscopic friction laws. Crystalline alignment, sliding direction, and the number of adsorbed molecules are not controlled in most experiments and are shown to have little effect on the friction. Temperature, molecular geometry and interaction potenti...

  11. Vanadium (4) complexing in phase of adsorbent with benzimidazole groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvoeva, O P; Kuchava, G P; Evtikova, G A; Belyaeva, V K; Myasoedova, G V; Marov, I N [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii

    1989-04-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of V{sup 4+} sorption by POLYORGS XI-H adsorbent with benzimidazole groups (BIm) are investigated. Using ESR method it is stated that (VO{sup 2+}):(BIm)1:2 complex, where VO{sup 2+} is combined with nitrogen atoms of two imidazole groups, is formed in adsorbent phase. The highest distribution factor of 4.7x10{sup 3} is attained at pH6.

  12. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  13. Vanadium (4) complexing in phase of adsorbent with benzimidazole groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvoeva, O.P.; Kuchava, G.P.; Evtikova, G.A.; Belyaeva, V.K.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Marov, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of V 4+ sorption by POLYORGS XI-H adsorbent with benzimidazole groups (BIm) are investigated. Using ESR method it is stated that [VO 2+ ]:[BIm]1:2 complex, where VO 2+ is combined with nitrogen atoms of two imidazole groups, is formed in adsorbent phase. The highest distribution factor of 4.7x10 3 is attained at pH6

  14. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  15. Irradiation Degradation of Adsorbents for Minor Actinides Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Sano, Y.; Kofuji, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Koizumi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is one of the promising technologies for minor actinides (MA: Am and Cm) recovery from high-level liquid waste. The degradation behaviour of the organic species in the adsorbents under radiation exposure is important to discuss the safety and durability of the adsorbent in the extraction chromatography process. In this study, gamma-ray irradiation experiments on TODGA/SiO 2 -P adsorbent were carried out to investigate the degradation products from radiolysis of the adsorbent. The degraded organic species eluted from the adsorbent and those remaining inside the adsorbent were thoroughly identified by GC/MS, FT-IR and NMR analyses. The species suspected as hydrolysis products of TODGA were mainly detected from the analyses. Since some radicals such as.H or.OH are generated by the gamma-ray irradiation on water molecules, it was discussed that the radicals products from radiolysis of HNO 3 solution are related to the degradation reaction of the extractants. (authors)

  16. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledresse, Adil

    The development of high capacity adsorbents with uniform porosity denoted 5%MP-HMS (5% Mercaptopropyl-Hexagonal Mesoporous Structure) to extract gold from noncyanide solutions is presented. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported. The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1.9 mmol/g (37% of the adsorbent weight) from gold chloride solutions (potassium tetrachloroaurate) and 2.9 mmol/g (57% of the adsorbent weight) from gold bromide solutions (potassium tetrabromoaurate) at pH = 2, is a noteworthy feature of these materials. This gold loading from [AuC4]- and [AuBr4 ]- solutions corresponds to a relative Au:S molar ratio of 2.5:1 and 3.8:1, respectively. These rates are significantly higher than the usual 1:1 (Au:S) ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material. The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as 99.9% recovery. Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics. The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium (saturation) in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride. The MP-HMS materials adsorption is significantly improved by agitation and the adsorption capacity of Au (III) ions increases with the decrease in pH. The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent (MP-HMS) maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) systems fail. The

  17. Cell for studying electron-adsorbed gas interactions; Cellule d'etudes des interactions electron-gaz adsorbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golowacz, H; Degras, D A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Deptartement de Physique des Plasmas et de la Fusion Controlee, Service de Physique Appliquee, Service de Physique des Interractions Electroniques, Section d' Etude des Interactions Gaz-Solides

    1967-07-01

    The geometry and the technology of a cell used for investigations on electron-adsorbed gas interactions are described. The resonance frequencies of the surface ions which are created by the electron impact on the adsorbed gas are predicted by simplified calculations. The experimental data relative to carbon monoxide and neon are in good agreement with these predictions. (authors) [French] Les caracteristiques geometriques et technologiques generales d'une cellule d'etude des interactions entre un faisceau d'electrons et un gaz adsorbe sont donnees. Un calcul simplifie permet de prevoir les frequences de resonance des ions de surface crees par l'impact des electrons sur le gaz adsorbe. Les donnees experimentales sur l'oxyde de carbone et le neon confirment les previsions du calcul. (auteurs)

  18. Study on the adsorption performance of composite adsorbent of CaCl2 and expanded graphite with ammonia as adsorbate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.L.; Wu, J.Y.; Xia, Z.Z.; Wang, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A novel constant volume test unit was built to study the adsorption performance of a new type composite adsorbent. This test unit can measure the adsorption isosteres of the working pairs. The adsorption isosteres are the curves of the adsorption pressure variation with the adsorption temperatures at constant adsorption quantities. Compared to the former test results of isothermals and isobars, the isosteres are better for the calculation of the adsorption heat, desorption heat and the selection the adsorption working pairs. Three experimental results were obtained: the first result was that the expanded graphite powders were superior to the expandable graphite powders to facilitate the transportation of working fluid in the composite adsorbent. The second one was that the composite adsorbent treated by solution is more homogeneous than the simple mixed composite adsorbent and the treated composite adsorbent has a better mass transfer performance. The last one was that the adsorption isosteres was the same one not only in the heating process but also in the cooling process and this performance was not relevant to the homogeneity of the composite adsorbent

  19. Diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, yellow fever and hepatitis B seroprevalence among HIV1-infected migrants. Results from the ANRS VIHVO vaccine sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaert, Jimmy; Abgrall, Sophie; Lele, Nathalie; Batteux, Frederic; Slama, Lilia Ben; Meritet, Jean-Francois; Lebon, Pierre; Bouchaud, Olivier; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile

    2015-09-11

    Few data are available on the seroprotection status of HIV1-infected patients with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. To describe, in a population of HIV1-infected migrants on stable, effective ART therapy, the seroprevalence of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus, yellow fever antibodies and serostatus for hepatitis B, and to identify factors associated with seroprotection. Vaccine responses against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and yellow fever were also studied. Sub-Saharan African patients participating in the ANRS-VIHVO cohort were enrolled prior to travel to their countries of origin. Serologic analyses were performed in a central laboratory before and after the trip. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with initial seroprotection. 250 patients (99 men and 151 women) were included in the seroprevalence study. Median age was 45 years (IQR 39-52), median CD4 cell count was 440/μL (IQR 336-571), and 237 patients (95%) had undetectable HIV1 viral load. The initial seroprevalence rates were 69.0% (95%CI 63.2-74.7) for diphtheria, 70.7% (95%CI 65.0-76.3) for tetanus, and 85.9% (95%CI 81.6-90.2) for yellow fever. Only 64.4% (95%CI 58.5-70.3) of patients had protective antibody titers against all three poliomyelitis vaccine strains before travel. No serological markers of hepatitis B were found in 18.6% of patients (95%CI 13.7-23.3). Patient declaration of prior vaccination was the only factor consistently associated with initial seroprotection. We found a low prevalence of seroprotection against diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus and hepatitis B. HIV infected migrants living in France and traveling to their native countries need to have their vaccine schedule completed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A slow-forming isopeptide bond in the structure of the major pilin SpaD from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has implications for pilus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G. [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Kim, Chae Un [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Middleditch, Martin [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Chang, Chungyu; Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas–Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Baker, Edward N., E-mail: ted.baker@auckland.ac.nz [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2014-05-01

    Two crystal structures of the major pilin SpaD from C. diphtheriae have been determined at 1.87 and 2.5 Å resolution. The N-terminal domain is found to contain an isopeptide bond that forms slowly over time in the recombinant protein. Given its structural context, this provides insight into the relationship between internal isopeptide-bond formation and pilus assembly. The Gram-positive organism Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans, expresses pili on its surface which it uses for adhesion and colonization of its host. These pili are covalent protein polymers composed of three types of pilin subunit that are assembled by specific sortase enzymes. A structural analysis of the major pilin SpaD, which forms the polymeric backbone of one of the three types of pilus expressed by C. diphtheriae, is reported. Mass-spectral and crystallographic analysis shows that SpaD contains three internal Lys–Asn isopeptide bonds. One of these, shown by mass spectrometry to be located in the N-terminal D1 domain of the protein, only forms slowly, implying an energy barrier to bond formation. Two crystal structures, of the full-length three-domain protein at 2.5 Å resolution and of a two-domain (D2-D3) construct at 1.87 Å resolution, show that each of the three Ig-like domains contains a single Lys–Asn isopeptide-bond cross-link, assumed to give mechanical stability as in other such pili. Additional stabilizing features include a disulfide bond in the D3 domain and a calcium-binding loop in D2. The N-terminal D1 domain is more flexible than the others and, by analogy with other major pilins of this type, the slow formation of its isopeptide bond can be attributed to its location adjacent to the lysine used in sortase-mediated polymerization during pilus assembly.

  1. A thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase of the Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae is essential for viability, pilus assembly, toxin production and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Jooya, Neda; Chang, Chungyu; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-12-01

    The Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae exports through the Sec apparatus many extracellular proteins that include the key virulence factors diphtheria toxin and the adhesive pili. How these proteins attain their native conformations after translocation as unfolded precursors remains elusive. The fact that the majority of these exported proteins contain multiple cysteine residues and that several membrane-bound oxidoreductases are encoded in the corynebacterial genome suggests the existence of an oxidative protein-folding pathway in this organism. Here we show that the shaft pilin SpaA harbors a disulfide bond in vivo and alanine substitution of these cysteines abrogates SpaA polymerization and leads to the secretion of degraded SpaA peptides. We then identified a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (MdbA), whose structure exhibits a conserved thioredoxin-like domain with a CPHC active site. Remarkably, deletion of mdbA results in a severe temperature-sensitive cell division phenotype. This mutant also fails to assemble pilus structures and is greatly defective in toxin production. Consistent with these defects, the ΔmdbA mutant is attenuated in a guinea pig model of diphtheritic toxemia. Given its diverse cellular functions in cell division, pilus assembly and toxin production, we propose that MdbA is a component of the general oxidative folding machine in C. diphtheriae. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mechanism of Diphtheria Toxin Catalytic Domain Delivery to the Eukaryotic Cell Cytosol and the Cellular Factors that Directly Participate in the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Research on diphtheria and anthrax toxins over the past three decades has culminated in a detailed understanding of their structure function relationships (e.g., catalytic (C), transmembrane (T), and receptor binding (R) domains), as well as the identification of their eukaryotic cell surface receptor, an understanding of the molecular events leading to the receptor-mediated internalization of the toxin into an endosomal compartment, and the pH triggered conformational changes required for pore formation in the vesicle membrane. Recently, a major research effort has been focused on the development of a detailed understanding of the molecular interactions between each of these toxins and eukaryotic cell factors that play an essential role in the efficient translocation of their respective catalytic domains through the trans-endosomal vesicle membrane pore and delivery into the cell cytosol. In this review, I shall focus on recent findings that have led to a more detailed understanding of the mechanism by which the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain is delivered to the eukaryotic cell cytosol. While much work remains, it is becoming increasingly clear that the entry process is facilitated by specific interactions with a number of cellular factors in an ordered sequential fashion. In addition, since diphtheria, anthrax lethal factor and anthrax edema factor all carry multiple coatomer I complex binding motifs and COPI complex has been shown to play an essential role in entry process, it is likely that the initial steps in catalytic domain entry of these divergent toxins follow a common mechanism. PMID:22069710

  3. Reactogenicidad e inmunogenicidad de una nueva vacuna de toxoide tetánico y diftérico con concentración reducida en adolescentes cubanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Felipe Ochoa.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado, controlado y a doble ciegas en 225 adolescentes cubanos entre 13 y 16 años de edad, con el objetivo de evaluar la reactogenicidad y la inmunogenicidad de una nueva vacuna de toxoide tetánico y toxoide diftérico con concentración reducida, producida en el Instituto Finlay, con respecto a su similar comercial IMOVAX dT adult de Aventis Pasteur. Se tomaron muestras de suero antes y 21 días después de la vacunación. La reactogenicidad de ambas vacunas fue similar. Los síntomas y signos, tanto locales como generales fueron moderados y aparecieron principalmente durante las primeras 72 h después de la vacunación. Todos los voluntarios vacunados alcanzaron niveles protectores (³0,1 UI/mL de antitoxina contra el tétanos y la difteria. El 99,25% de los inmunizados con la vacuna experimental y el 98,36% de los voluntarios del grupo control presentaron niveles de antitoxina tetánica correspondientes a una protección de larga duración (³1,0 UI/mL; para la antitoxina diftérica se alcanzaron estos niveles en el 81,20% y 80,33% de los voluntarios en cada grupo. Los títulos medios geométricos de antitoxina tetánica (21,73 UI/mL y antitoxina diftérica (2,55 UI/mL inducidos por la nueva vacuna fueron superiores (p<0,05 a los del grupo control: 15,55 UI/mL y 1,84 UI/Ml respectivamente(p<0.05.

  4. Microporous carbonaceous adsorbents for CO2 separation via selective adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Selective adsorption of CO2 has important implications for many energy and environment-related processes, which require the separation of CO2 from other gases (e.g. N2 and CH4) with high uptakes and selectivity. The development of high-performance adsorbents is one of the most promising solutions to the success of these processes. The present review is focused on the state-of-the-art of carbon-based (carbonaceous) adsorbents, covering microporous inorganic carbons and microporous organic polymers, with emphasis on the correlation between their textural and compositional properties and their CO2 adsorption/separation performance. Special attention is given to the most recently developed materials that were not covered in previous reviews. We summarize various effective strategies (N-doping, surface functionalization, extra-framework ions, molecular design, and pore size engineering) for enhancing the CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity of carbonaceous adsorbents. Our discussion focuses on CO2/N2 separation and CO2/CH4 separation, while including an introduction to the methods and criteria used for evaluating the performance of the adsorbents. Critical issues and challenges regarding the development of high-performance adsorbents as well as some overlooked facts and misconceptions are also discussed, with the aim of providing important insights into the design of novel carbonaceous porous materials for various selective adsorption based applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Adsorption behavior of lithium from seawater using manganese oxide adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor system is expected to provide the main source of electricity in the future. Large amounts of lithium will be required, dependent on the reactor design concept, and alternative resources should be found to provide lithium inventories for nuclear fusion plants. Seawater has recently become an attractive source of this element and the separation and recovery of lithium from seawater by co-precipitation, solvent extraction and adsorption have been investigated. Amongst these techniques, the adsorption method is suitable for recovery of lithium from seawater, because certain inorganic ion-exchange materials, especially spinel-type manganese oxides, show extremely high selectivity for the lithium ion. In this study, we prepared a lithium adsorbent (HMn 2 O 4 ) by elution of spinel-type lithium di-manganese-tetra-oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) and examined the kinetics of the adsorbent for lithium ions in seawater using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intermediate, LiMn 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from LiOH·H 2 O and Mn 3 O 4 , from which the lithium adsorbent can subsequently be prepared via acid treatment., The adsorption kinetics become faster and the amount of lithium adsorbed on the adsorbent increases with increasing solution temperature. The thermodynamic values, ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 , indicate that adsorption is an endothermic and spontaneous process. (author)

  6. Kinetics of conformational changes of fibronectin adsorbed onto model surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baujard-Lamotte, L; Noinville, S; Goubard, F; Marque, P; Pauthe, E

    2008-05-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a large glycoprotein found in body fluids and in the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in numerous cellular behaviours. We investigate FN adsorption onto hydrophilic bare silica and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) surfaces using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) in aqueous medium. Adsorption kinetics using different bulk concentrations of FN were followed for 2h and the surface density of adsorbed FN and its time-dependent conformational changes were determined. When adsorption occurs onto the hydrophilic surface, FN molecules keep their native conformation independent of the adsorption conditions, but the amount of adsorbed FN increases with time and the bulk concentration. Although the protein surface density is the same on the hydrophobic PS surface, this has a strong impact on the average conformation of the adsorbed FN layer. Indeed, interfacial hydration changes induced by adsorption onto the hydrophobic surface lead to a decrease in unhydrated beta-sheet content and cause an increase in hydrated beta-strand and hydrated random domain content of adsorbed FN. This conformational change is mainly dependent on the bulk concentration. Indeed, at low bulk concentrations, the secondary structures of adsorbed FN molecules undergo strong unfolding, allowing an extended and hydrated conformation of the protein. At high bulk concentrations, the molecular packing reduces the unfolding of the stereoregular structures of the FN molecules, preventing stronger spreading of the protein.

  7. Quantitative relationship between adsorbed amount of solute and solvent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Geng Xindu; Zebolsky, Don M.

    2003-01-01

    A new adsorption isotherm that relates the amount of solute adsorbed to the solvent concentration is proposed. The new equation is derived from Geng and Shi's stoichiometric displacement model for adsorption (SDM-A). The obtained equation may be simplified to an expression containing two parameters. The equation with two parameters, valid for low concentrations of solute, is a logarithmically linear relationship. The intercept contains a thermodynamic equilibrium constant of the solute displacing solvent from the adsorbent. The slope is the negative value of the stoichiometric displacement parameter (Z), the average total number of solvent molecules displaced from an active site on the adsorbent and from the solute. Tests with a homologous series of aromatic alcohols by frontal analysis in reversed phase liquid chromatography demonstrate that experimental results fit the equation well

  8. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  9. Solid adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulphide from hot gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Yumura, Motoo

    1986-04-01

    A wide range of solids have been tested as potential adsorbents for H/sub 2/S removal from hot gas. These solids can be divided into two main groups, i.e., the adsorbents containing alkaline earth metals and those containing transition metals. Among the former, calcium oxide and naturally occurring materials such as limestone, dolomite and calcium silicate have attracted a great deal of attention. The adsorbents of the second group include iron oxide alone or in combination with some supports, zinc oxide, zinc ferrite and manganese oxide. The materials containing both the alkaline earth metals and transition metals, e.g., manganese nodules, fly ash and the reject from the aluminium industry (red mud) have been evaluated as well.

  10. Radioactive diffusion gaseous probe technique for study adsorbent structure inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyuzin, A.Yu.; Korobkov, V.I.; Bekman, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    One of the versions of the method of diffusion gaseous probe - method of longitudinal shear in combination with autoradiography (ARG) - was used for characterising sorbents and catalysts, which are considered to be promising for reprocessing of sulfur-containing natural gases. Hydrogen sulfide, labelled with 35 S was used as diffusion radioactive probe. Zeolite granules of 4A type and granulated adsorbents on the basis of CR and AM aluminium oxides, which are industrial catalysts of Clauss reaction developed at SNEA company, were used as objects under investigation. It is shown that technique for fabrication of 4A zeolite granules leads to asymmetrical pore distribution over the granule diameter. Technique for AM granule fabrication leads to occuRrence of local inhomogeneities of the structure in the form of narrow coaxial rings with decreased or increased local adsorption ability. Granules of adsorbent of CR type are characterized by rather homogeneous structure. It is recommended to use the mentioned method for industrial adsorbent diagnosis

  11. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  12. Repeated vaccination with tetanus toxoid of plasma donors with pre-existing specific IgE transiently elevates tetanus-specific IgE but does not induce allergic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Peter-Paul A.; Makuch, Mateusz; Aalbers, Marja; Derksen, Ninotska I. L.; ten Brinke, Anja; Aalberse, Rob C.; Rispens, Theo; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2018-01-01

    IgE responses against allergens have acquired much attention due to their pathogenic nature as mediators of allergic reactions. In contrast, IgE responses against vaccines like Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTP) and the potential persistence of IgE production have received relatively little

  13. Heat transfer between adsorbate and laser-heated hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueba, H; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    Strong short laser pulses can give rise to a strong increase in the electronic temperature at metal surfaces. Energy transfer from the hot electrons to adsorbed molecules may result in adsorbate reactions, e.g. desorption or diffusion. We point out the limitations of an often used equation to describe the heat transfer process in terms of a friction coupling. We propose a simple theory for the energy transfer between the adsorbate and hot electrons using a newly introduced heat transfer coefficient, which depends on the adsorbate temperature. We calculate the transient adsorbate temperature and the reaction yield for a Morse potential as a function of the laser fluency. The results are compared to those obtained using a conventional heat transfer equation with temperature-independent friction. It is found that our equation of energy (heat) transfer gives a significantly lower adsorbate peak temperature, which results in a large modification of the reaction yield. We also consider the heat transfer between different vibrational modes excited by hot electrons. This mode coupling provides indirect heating of the vibrational temperature in addition to the direct heating by hot electrons. The formula of heat transfer through linear mode-mode coupling of two harmonic oscillators is applied to the recent time-resolved study of carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen hopping on an ultrafast laser-heated Pt(111) surface. It is found that the maximum temperature of the frustrated translation mode can reach high temperatures for hopping, even when direct friction coupling to the hot electrons is not strong enough

  14. SAPO-34 coated adsorbent heat exchanger for adsorption chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freni, Angelo; Bonaccorsi, Lucio; Calabrese, Luigi; Caprì, Angela; Frazzica, Andrea; Sapienza, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, adsorbent coatings on aluminum surfaces were prepared by dip-coating method starting from a water suspension of SAPO-34 zeolite and a silane-based binder. Silane-zeolite coatings morphology and surface coverage grade were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Adhesive and mechanical properties were evaluated by peel, pull-off, impact and micro-hardness tests, confirming the good interaction between metal substrate, binder and zeolite. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of water vapour adsorption on the adsorbent coating were studied in the range T = 30–150 °C and pH 2 O = 11 mbar using a CAHN 2000 thermo-balance. It was found that, in the investigated conditions, the organic binder doesn't affect the water adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics of the original SAPO-34 zeolite. Subsequently, the zeolite coating was applied on a finned flat-tubes aluminum heat exchanger realizing a full-scale AdHEx with an uniform adsorbent coating 0.1 mm thick and a metal/adsorbent mass ratio = 6. The cooling capacity of the realized coated AdHEx was measured by a lab-scale adsorption chiller under realistic operating conditions for air conditioning applications. The coated AdHEx produced up to 675 W/kg ads specific cooling power with a cycle time of 5 min. Adsorption stability of the coated adsorber subjected to 600 sorption cycles was successfully verified. - Highlights: • Adsorbent coatings on aluminum surfaces were prepared by dip-coating method. • Silane-zeolite coatings morphology, and mechanical properties were studied. • The zeolite coating was applied on a finned flat-tubes aluminum heat exchanger. • The coated AdHEx was tested in a lab scale adsorption chiller

  15. Hydrogen molecule on lithium adsorbed graphene: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Gupta, Shuchi; Gaganpreet; Dharamvir, Keya

    2016-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations for the adsorption of molecular hydrogen on lithium (Li) decorated and pristine graphene have been studied systematically using SIESTA code [1] within the framework of the first-principle DFT under the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)[2], including spin polarization. The energy of adsorption of hydrogen molecule on graphene is always enhanced by the presence of co-adsorbed lithium. The most efficient adsorption configuration is when H 2 is lying parallel to lithium adsorbed graphene which is in contrast to its adsorption on pristine graphene (PG) where it prefers perpendicular orientation.

  16. Surface characterization of adsorbed asphaltene on a stainless steel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, W.A.; Taylor, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize a single layer of adsorbed asphaltene on a metallic surface. The deposits were created by immersing a stainless steel disc into a dilute asphaltene solution with either toluene or dichloromethane as the solvent, although the toluene solution allowed for better control of the adsorbed asphaltene layer and less atmospheric oxygen contamination. The analyses for C 1s, S 2p 3/2 , N 1s and O 1s photoemission peaks indicated that different functional groups are present in the asphaltene layer including carboxylic, pyrrolic, pyridininc, thiophenic and sulfite, with slight differences in their binding energies

  17. Adsorbates in a Box: Titration of Substrate Electronic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhihai; Wyrick, Jonathan; Luo, Miaomiao; Sun, Dezheng; Kim, Daeho; Zhu, Yeming; Lu, Wenhao; Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2010-08-01

    Nanoscale confinement of adsorbed CO molecules in an anthraquinone network on Cu(111) with a pore size of ≈4nm arranges the CO molecules in a shell structure that coincides with the distribution of substrate confined electronic states. Molecules occupy the states approximately in the sequence of rising electron energy. Despite the sixfold symmetry of the pore boundary itself, the adsorbate distribution adopts the threefold symmetry of the network-substrate system, highlighting the importance of the substrate even for such quasi-free-electron systems.

  18. Risk factors of delay proportional probability in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination of Iranian children; Life table approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P 0.05. Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care.

  19. RE-VACCINATION OF CHILDREN OVER 1,5 YEARS OLD AGAINST DIPHTHERIA, PERTUSSIS, TETANUS, POLIOMYELITIS AND HEMOPHILIC INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the observation of 200 children under the age 18–42 months (64 healthy children and 136 patients with allergic symptoms, residual lesions of CNS, frequently ailing children, and having reactions of previous vaccination in medical history who were re-vaccinated with vaccine Pentaxim. It was shown that 77% of children had asymptomatic post-vaccinal period. Only 1,5% of patients showed severe reactions with fever > 38,6_С. Local reactions (not over 3–5 cm developed in 25,5% of children with allergy, lesions of CNS and frequently ailing children, their rate was significantly higher than in healthy children (7,8%. No one had post-vaccinal complications. An estimation of reactogenicity of vaccine proved its safety and suitability of administration as first re-vaccination against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and one-time vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in children after 1 year old in different state of health.Key words: children, vaccinations, Pentaxim, post-vaccinal period, safety.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:20-25

  20. pH-Triggered Conformational Switching along the Membrane Insertion Pathway of the Diphtheria Toxin T-Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Ladokhin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The translocation (T-domain plays a key role in the action of diphtheria toxin and is responsible for transferring the catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane into the cytosol in response to acidification. Deciphering the molecular mechanism of pH-dependent refolding and membrane insertion of the T-domain, which is considered to be a paradigm for cell entry of other bacterial toxins, reveals general physicochemical principles underlying membrane protein assembly and signaling on membrane interfaces. Structure-function studies along the T-domain insertion pathway have been affected by the presence of multiple conformations at the same time, which hinders the application of high-resolution structural techniques. Here, we review recent progress in structural, functional and thermodynamic studies of the T-domain archived using a combination of site-selective fluorescence labeling with an array of spectroscopic techniques and computer simulations. We also discuss the principles of conformational switching along the insertion pathway revealed by studies of a series of T-domain mutants with substitutions of histidine residues.

  1. Optimal route of diphtheria toxin administration to eliminate native nephron progenitor cells in vivo for kidney regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Shohei; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Fujimoto, Toshinari; Tajiri, Susumu; Uchiyama, Taketo; Matsumoto, Kei; Ito, Takafumi; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Yokoo, Takashi

    2018-02-19

    To address the lack of organs for transplantation, we previously developed a method for organ regeneration in which nephron progenitor cell (NPC) replacement is performed via the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) system. In transgenic mice with NPC-specific expression of DTR, NPCs were eliminated by DT and replaced with NPCs lacking the DTR with the ability to differentiate into nephrons. However, this method has only been verified in vitro. For applications to natural models, such as animal fetuses, it is necessary to determine the optimal administration route and dose of DT. In this study, two DT administration routes (intra-peritoneal and intra-amniotic injection) were evaluated in fetal mice. The fetus was delivered by caesarean section at E18.5, and the fetal mouse kidney and RNA expression were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of the DT dose (25, 5, 0.5, and 0.05 ng/fetus-body) was studied. Intra-amniotic injection of DT led to a reduction in kidney volume, loss of glomeruli, and decreased differentiation marker expression. The intra-peritoneal route was not sufficient for NPC elimination. By establishing that intra-amniotic injection is the optimal administration route for DT, these results will facilitate studies of kidney regeneration in vivo. In addition, this method might be useful for analysis of kidney development at various time points by deleting NPCs during development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury chemisorption by sulfur adsorbed in porous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijns, M.; Peppelenbos, A.; Mars, P.

    1976-01-01

    The sorption of mercury vapor by adsorbed sulfur in the zeolites CaA (= 5A) and NaX (=13X) and two types of active carbon has been measured at a temperature of 50°C. With increasing degree of micropore filling by sulfur the fraction of sulfur accessible to mercury atoms decreased for CaA and NaX.

  3. Electrospun chitosan/baker's yeast nanofibre adsorbent: preparation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    poration, complexation, reverse osmosis and membrane pro- cesses [2–4]. ... activities and some human activities such as exploitation of uranium and ... bre adsorbent for U(VI) and Th(IV) removal from aqueous solutions. 2. Experimental ..... Adsorption capacity of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) in binary systems. where. H.

  4. Substrate induced ordering of molecular adsorbates on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, J.H.; White, H.S.; Arana, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy in dimethylformate, [Ru(bpy) 2 (bpy-(CH 2 ) x -bpy) 2+ ] (x = 4 and 5) monolayers adsorbed on the unreconstructed and √3 x 22 reconstructed surfaces of Au(111) were imaged in this paper. The substrate had a highly ordered pattern on the reconstructed surface, but random spatial distribution on the unreconstructed surface. 17 refs., 3 figs

  5. Removal of nickel from wastewater using an agricultural adsorbent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-26

    Nov 26, 2009 ... qmax is the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent (mg/g). KL is the Langmuir affinity constant (ℓ/mg). Ce is the supernatant equilibrium concentration of the system (mg/ℓ) (Febrianto et al., 2009). The Freundlich isotherm model can also be expressed in the linearised logarithmic form (Eq.

  6. Magnetic-supported cucurbituril: A recyclable adsorbent for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    removal of humic acid from simulated water. QIN YANG* ... The commonly used adsorbents are activated carbon. (Deng and Bai ... Q[n] is practically insoluble in all common organic solvents. ... Q[n] has other advantages such as its strong rigid structure .... and it does not result in the phase change of Fe3O4. In addition ...

  7. Interactions between adsorbed macromolecules : measurements on emulsions and liquid films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the factors, determining the inter- and intramolecular interactions between adsorbed macromolecules. To that end several experimental and theoretical approaches were followed, using well-defined systems. It was shown that these

  8. Analytical phase diagrams for colloids and non-adsorbing polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, G.J.; Tuinier, R.

    2008-01-01

    We review the free-volume theory (FVT) of Lekkerkerker et al. [Europhys. Lett. 20 (1992) 5591 for the phase behavior of colloids in the presence of non-adsorbing polymer and we extend this theory in several aspects: (i) We take the solvent into account as a separate component and show that the

  9. Application of adsorbent as a novel technique during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... hydrophilic compound (carbon), thermally activated at temperatures of 300, 500, 700 and ... carbon in microbial degradation of anthracene, elicits an enhanced disappearance rate of the ... persistence, toxicity and their tendency to bioaccumulate ... paper therefore, investigates the use of adsorbent (acti-.

  10. Natural material adsorbed onto a polymer to enhance immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaque AP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula Barcelos Reinaque,1 Eduardo Luzía França,2 Edson Fredulin Scherer,3 Mayra Aparecida Côrtes,1 Francisco José Dutra Souto,4 Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França51Post Graduate Program in Material Science, 2Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, 3Post Graduate Program in Material Science, Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, 4Faculty of Medical Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, 5Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Pontal do Araguaia, MT, BrazilBackground: In this study, we produced poly(ethylene glycol (PEG microspheres of different sizes and adsorbing a medicinal plant mixture, and verified their effect in vitro on the viability, superoxide production, and bactericidal activity of phagocytes in the blood.Methods: The medicinal plant mixture was adsorbed onto PEG microspheres and its effects were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.Results: Adsorption of the herbal mixture onto the PEG microspheres was achieved and the particles were internalized by phagocytes. PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture stimulated superoxide release, and activated scavenging and microbicidal activity in phagocytes. No differences in functional activity were observed when the phagocytes were not incubated with PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture.Conclusion: This system may be useful for the delivery of a variety of medicinal plants and can confer additional protection against infection. The data reported here suggest that a polymer adsorbed with a natural product is a treatment alternative for enhancing immune function.Keywords: natural product, polymer, adsorption, immune function, phagocytes

  11. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I; Henrichsen, J; Heron, I; Petersen, I; Skinhoj, P

    1991-11-01

    In vitro studies have shown that anti-malarial drugs suppress immunity. In this study, the effects of chloroquine and proguanil (Paludrine) on the cellular and humoral immune system were measured by two in vivo methods: 1) cell-mediated immunity (delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity) i.e., skin tests with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined on days 0, 28, and 42. The skin tests induced a significant increase in skin reactive areas from day 0 to day 28 in all groups. Furthermore, the skin test induced an increase in the level of specific IgG for diphtheria and tetanus, but had no effect on antibodies to antigens not included in the skin test. The results showed that there were no significant differences among the four groups regarding skin test areas and increases in antibody titers following vaccination. Therefore, it is concluded that in healthy persons, six weeks intake of chloroquine, even in double doses, or proguanil in chemoprophylactic dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens.

  12. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry reveal the pH-dependent conformational changes of diphtheria toxin T domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Rodnin, Mykola V; Ladokhin, Alexey S; Gross, Michael L

    2014-11-04

    The translocation (T) domain of diphtheria toxin plays a critical role in moving the catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane. Translocation/insertion is triggered by a decrease in pH in the endosome where conformational changes of T domain occur through several kinetic intermediates to yield a final trans-membrane form. High-resolution structural studies are only applicable to the static T-domain structure at physiological pH, and studies of the T-domain translocation pathway are hindered by the simultaneous presence of multiple conformations. Here, we report the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) for the study of the pH-dependent conformational changes of the T domain in solution. Effects of pH on intrinsic HDX rates were deconvolved by converting the on-exchange times at low pH into times under our "standard condition" (pH 7.5). pH-Dependent HDX kinetic analysis of T domain clearly reveals the conformational transition from the native state (W-state) to a membrane-competent state (W(+)-state). The initial transition occurs at pH 6 and includes the destabilization of N-terminal helices accompanied by the separation between N- and C-terminal segments. The structural rearrangements accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state expose a hydrophobic hairpin (TH8-9) to solvent, prepare it to insert into the membrane. At pH 5.5, the transition is complete, and the protein further unfolds, resulting in the exposure of its C-terminal hydrophobic TH8-9, leading to subsequent aggregation in the absence of membranes. This solution-based study complements high resolution crystal structures and provides a detailed understanding of the pH-dependent structural rearrangement and acid-induced oligomerization of T domain.

  13. Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange and Mass Spectrometry Reveal the pH-Dependent Conformational Changes of Diphtheria Toxin T Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The translocation (T) domain of diphtheria toxin plays a critical role in moving the catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane. Translocation/insertion is triggered by a decrease in pH in the endosome where conformational changes of T domain occur through several kinetic intermediates to yield a final trans-membrane form. High-resolution structural studies are only applicable to the static T-domain structure at physiological pH, and studies of the T-domain translocation pathway are hindered by the simultaneous presence of multiple conformations. Here, we report the application of hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) for the study of the pH-dependent conformational changes of the T domain in solution. Effects of pH on intrinsic HDX rates were deconvolved by converting the on-exchange times at low pH into times under our “standard condition” (pH 7.5). pH-Dependent HDX kinetic analysis of T domain clearly reveals the conformational transition from the native state (W-state) to a membrane-competent state (W+-state). The initial transition occurs at pH 6 and includes the destabilization of N-terminal helices accompanied by the separation between N- and C-terminal segments. The structural rearrangements accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state expose a hydrophobic hairpin (TH8–9) to solvent, prepare it to insert into the membrane. At pH 5.5, the transition is complete, and the protein further unfolds, resulting in the exposure of its C-terminal hydrophobic TH8–9, leading to subsequent aggregation in the absence of membranes. This solution-based study complements high resolution crystal structures and provides a detailed understanding of the pH-dependent structural rearrangement and acid-induced oligomerization of T domain. PMID:25290210

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal maternal immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Fernandes, Eder Gatti; Gryninger, Ligia Castellon Figueiredo; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2016-03-18

    Pertussis incidence has increased significantly in Brazil since 2011, despite high coverage of whole-cell pertussis containing vaccines in childhood. Infants cost-effectiveness of introducing universal maternal vaccination with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) into the National Immunization Program in Brazil. Economic evaluation using a decision tree model comparing two strategies: (1) universal vaccination with one dose of Tdap in the third trimester of pregnancy and (2) current practice (no pertussis maternal vaccination), from the perspective of the health system and society. An annual cohort of newborns representing the number of vaccinated pregnant women were followed for one year. Vaccine efficacy were based on literature review. Epidemiological, healthcare resource utilization and cost estimates were based on local data retrieved from Brazilian Health Information Systems. Costs of epidemiological investigation and treatment of contacts of cases were included in the analysis. No discount rate was applied to costs and benefits, as the temporal horizon was one year. Primary outcome was cost per life year saved (LYS). Univariate and best- and worst-case scenarios sensitivity analysis were performed. Maternal vaccination of one annual cohort, with vaccine effectiveness of 78%, and vaccine cost of USD$12.39 per dose, would avoid 661 cases and 24 infant deaths of pertussis, save 1800 years of life and cost USD$28,942,808 and USD$29,002,947, respectively, from the health system and societal perspective. The universal immunization would result in ICERs of USD$15,608 and USD$15,590 per LYS, from the health system and societal perspective, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the ICER was most sensitive to discounting of life years saved, variation in case-fatality, disease incidence, vaccine cost, and vaccine effectiveness. The results indicate that universal maternal immunization with Tdap is a cost-effective intervention for preventing

  15. A new mouse model for renal lesions produced by intravenous injection of diphtheria toxin A-chain expression plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Shingo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various animal models of renal failure have been produced and used to investigate mechanisms underlying renal disease and develop therapeutic drugs. Most methods available to produce such models appear to involve subtotal nephrectomy or intravenous administration of antibodies raised against basement membrane of glomeruli. In this study, we developed a novel method to produce mouse models of renal failure by intravenous injection of a plasmid carrying a toxic gene such as diphtheria toxin A-chain (DT-A gene. DT-A is known to kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. Methods An expression plasmid carrying the cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter linked to a DT-A gene was mixed with lipid (FuGENE™6 and the resulting complexes were intravenously injected into adult male B6C3F1 mice every day for up to 6 days. After final injection, the kidneys of these mice were sampled on day 4 and weeks 3 and 5. Results H-E staining of the kidney specimens sampled on day 4 revealed remarkable alterations in glomerular compartments, as exemplified by mesangial cell proliferation and formation of extensive deposits in glomerular basement membrane. At weeks 3 and 5, gradual recovery of these tissues was observed. These mice exhibited proteinuria and disease resembling sub-acute glomerulonephritis. Conclusions Repeated intravenous injections of DT-A expression plasmid DNA/lipid complex caused temporary abnormalities mainly in glomeruli of mouse kidney. The disease in these mice resembles sub-acute glomerulonephritis. These DT-A gene-incorporated mice will be useful as animal models in the fields of nephrology and regenerative medicine.

  16. Ultraviolet light induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutations in normal and DNA repair-deficient human and Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.; Schultz, R.S.; Chang, C.C.; Glover, T.

    1980-01-01

    The role on unrepaired DNA lesions in the production of mutations is suspected of contributing to the initiation phase of carcinogenesis. Since the molecular basis of mutagenesis is not understood in eukaryotic cells, development of new genetic markers for quantitative in vitro measurement of mutations for mammalian cells is needed. Furthermore, mammalian cells, genetically deficient for various DNA repair enzymes, will be needed to study the role of unrepaired DNA lesions in mutagenesis. The results in this report relate to preliminary attempts to characterize the diphtheria toxin resistance marker as a useful quantitative genetic marker in human cells and to isolate and characterize various DNA repair-deficient Chinese hamster cells

  17. Condition of granulating titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent and its adsorption for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Yoshitaka; Kitamura, Takao; Katoh, Shunsaku; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi

    1979-01-01

    The powdery titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent was granulated, and the strength and uranium adsorptivity of the granulated adsorbent were studied in relation to its granulating condition. By use of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) with degree of polymerization above 2,000 as binder, the granular adsorbent with as much the same strength as commercial granular activated carbon was obtained. Addition of PVA did not affect the amount of adsorbed uranium in equilibrium, but decreased the adsorption rate. Effect of granule size between 2-5 mm on the uranium adsorption rate was that the uranium adsorption rate changed proportionally to surface area of assumed sphere. As a test for practical use, 5 times repetitions of adsorption and desorption were carried out on the same granular adsorbent. During this repetition the adsorbent containing formalized PVA revealed smaller weight loss than non-treated adsorbent. The amount of adsorbed uranium decreased with increasing repetition times, and reason of this was discussed. (author)

  18. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  19. Adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas. IV. Characteristics of adsorbents for the adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boki, K

    1974-10-25

    The amount of hydrogen sulfide gas adsorbed was affected by the surface properties (surface pH, acid strength, acid amount, and basic amount), the surface structure (pore volume), and the surface form (scanning electron microscopic observation) of 32 tested adsorbents. In general, the amount adsorption increased in the following order, amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate adsorbents, on the active carbon adsorbents, and on the zeolite adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on magnesium silicate and silica gel adsorbents was mainly affected by the surface structure, and the amount adsorbed on the aluminum silicate adsorbents was affected by the distinctions on the surface forms of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on 10 kinds of active carbon was determined by the surface properties and the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount adsorbed on 12 kinds of zeolites was determined by either the surface properties or by the surface structures of the adsorbents. The amount of H/sub 2/S adsorbed on the silicate, active carbon, and zeolite adsorbents interacted with the heat of adsorption, and among the same kinds of adsorbents, the amount adsorbed was linearly related to the heat of adsorption.

  20. Competitive Adsorption of a Two-Component Gas on a Deformable Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Usenko, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary in adsorption due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas taking into account variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption is obtained. We establi...

  1. Determination of Cr and Cd concentration adsorbed by chicken feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, A.; Cuapio O, L.A.; Cardenas P, S.; Balcazar, M.; Jauregui, V.; Bonilla P, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the results of the samples analysis of chicken feathers are presented, used as adsorber of the heavy metals Cd and Cr present in water solutions with well-known concentrations of these metals. It was used the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (AAN), using the TRIGA Mark-III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The obtained results they show the advantages of having a versatile installation for the analysis of this type of samples. By means of the analysis of the results, it was determined the feasibility of using chicken feathers like adsorber of these metals present in polluted waters, additionally, it was detected the presence of others polluting elements in the inputs to prepare the reference solutions as well as in the processes, so much of preparation of the feathers like of the metals adsorption. (Author)

  2. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  3. Topological features of engineered arrays of adsorbates in honeycomb lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A., E-mail: ludovici83@gmail.com [IMDEA Nanociencia, Calle de Faraday, 9, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lado, J.L. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Av. Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Guinea, Francisco [IMDEA Nanociencia, Calle de Faraday, 9, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen adatoms are one of the most the promising proposals for the functionalization of graphene. The adatoms induce narrow resonances near the Dirac energy, which lead to the formation of magnetic moments. Furthermore, they also create local lattice distortions which enhance the spin–orbit coupling. The combination of magnetism and spin–orbit coupling allows for a rich variety of phases, some of which have non-trivial topological features. We analyze the interplay between magnetism and spin–orbit coupling in ordered arrays of adsorbates on honeycomb lattice monolayers, and classify the different phases that may arise. We extend our model to consider arrays of adsorbates in graphene-like crystals with stronger intrinsic spin–orbit couplings. We also consider a regime away from half-filling in which the Fermi level is at the bottom of the conduction band, we find a Berry curvature distribution corresponding to a Valley–Hall effect.

  4. pyIAST: Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) Python package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory M.; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) is a widely-used thermodynamic framework to readily predict mixed-gas adsorption isotherms from a set of pure-component adsorption isotherms. We present an open-source, user-friendly Python package, pyIAST, to perform IAST calculations for an arbitrary number of components. pyIAST supports several common analytical models to characterize the pure-component isotherms from experimental or simulated data. Alternatively, pyIAST can use numerical quadrature to compute the spreading pressure for IAST calculations by interpolating the pure-component isotherm data. pyIAST can also perform reverse IAST calculations, where one seeks the required gas phase composition to yield a desired adsorbed phase composition.

  5. New apparatus for measuring radon adsorption on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Hines, A.L.; Ghosh, T.K.; Loyalka, S.K.; Ketring, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    A new experimental system was designed to measure radon uptake by solid adsorbents from air or other carrier gases/vapors. The total amount of radon adsorbed corresponding to a specific gas-phase concentration was determined by simultaneously measuring the solid-phase and gas-phase concentrations. The system was used to measure radon adsorption isotherms on BPL activated carbon at 288, 298, and 308 K and on silica gel and molecular sieve 13X at 298 K. The isotherms were of type III according to Brunauer's classification. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the BPL activated carbon provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data were correlated by the Freundlich equation. In this paper the possible adsorption mechanism and the use of the adsorption isotherms to measure indoor radon concentrations are discussed

  6. Ozonation of isoproturon adsorbed on silica particles under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Maryline; Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    The results on heterogeneous ozonation of a phenylurea pesticide, isoproturon, under atmospheric conditions are presented for the first time in the present study. The study was carried out using an experimental device previously adopted and validated for the heterogeneous reactivity of organics toward ozone (Pflieger et al., 2011). Isoproturon was adsorbed on silica particles via a liquid-to-solid equilibrium with a load far below a monolayer (0.02% by weight/surface coverage of 0.5%). The rate constants were estimated by measuring the consumption of the organic (dark, T = 26 °C, RH isoproturon on the aerosol surface does not affect the kinetics of ozonation, indicating that both compounds are adsorbed on different surface sites of silica particles.

  7. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-543, Deleg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

  8. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically γ-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine

  9. A cluster randomized non-inferiority field trial on the immunogenicity and safety of tetanus toxoid vaccine kept in controlled temperature chain compared to cold chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Giner, Aitana; Domicent, Camille; Langendorf, Céline; Roper, Martha H; Baoundoh, Paul; Fermon, Florence; Gakima, Primitive; Zipursky, Simona; Tamadji, Mbaihol; Grais, Rebecca F

    2014-10-29

    In resource-poor settings, cold chain requirements present barriers for vaccine delivery. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in "Controlled Temperature Chain" (CTC; up to 40 °C for cold chain (SCC; 2-8 °C). Prior to the study, stability parameters of TT-CTC were shown to meet international requirements. A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial was conducted in Moïssala district, Chad, December 2012-March 2013. Thirty-four included clusters were randomized to CTC or SCC. Women aged 14-49 years, eligible for TT vaccination and with a history of ≤1 TT dose, received two TT doses 4 weeks apart. Participants were blinded to allocation strategy. Tetanus antibody titers were measured using standard ELISA at inclusion and 4 weeks post-TT2. Primary outcome measures were post-vaccination seroconversion and fold-increase in geometric mean concentrations (GMC). Non-inferiority was by seroconversion difference (TTSCC-TTCTC) 95% of participants; upper 95%CI of the difference was 5.6%. Increases in GMC were over 4-fold; upper 95%CI of GMC ratio was 1.36 in the adjusted analysis. Few adverse events were recorded. This study demonstrates the immunogenicity and safety of TT in CTC at cold chain cannot be maintained. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibodies to the HIV-1 Tat protein correlated with nonprogression to AIDS: a rationale for the use of Tat toxoid as an HIV-1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagury, J F; Sill, A; Blattner, W; Lachgar, A; Le Buanec, H; Richardson, M; Rappaport, J; Hendel, H; Bizzini, B; Gringeri, A; Carcagno, M; Criscuolo, M; Burny, A; Gallo, R C; Zagury, D

    1998-01-01

    To investigate which immune parameters, such as antibodies against HIV-1 specificities, or viral parameters, such as p24 antigenemia, are predictive of disease progression. We performed studies on serum collected from individuals exhibiting two extremes of disease evolution--67 fast progressors (FP) and 182 nonprogressors (NP)--at their enrollment. After a 1- to 2-year clinical follow-up of 104 nonprogressors after their enrollment, we could determine the best serologic predictors for disease progression. We investigated levels of antibodies to tetanus toxoid and to HIV antigens including Env, Gag, Nef, and Tat proteins, as well as p24 antigenemia, viremia, CD4 cell count, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) titers in FPs and NPs, and we correlated these data with clinical and biologic signs of progression. p24 Antigenemia, a marker of viral replication, and anti-Tat antibodies were highly and inversely correlated in both groups (P < .001). Furthermore, anti-p24 antibodies and low serum IFN-alpha levels were correlated to the NP versus the FP cohort. Finally, among NPs, only antibodies to Tat and not to the other HIV specificities (Env, Nef, Gag) were significantly predictive of clinical stability during their follow-up. Antibodies toward HIV-1 Tat, which are inversely correlated to p24 antigenemia, appear as a critical marker for a lack of disease progression. This study strongly suggests that rising anti-Tat antibodies through active immunization may be beneficial in AIDS vaccine development to control viral replication.

  11. A Chimeric protein of CFA/I, CS6 subunits and LTB/STa toxoid protects immunized mice against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Goujani, Goli; Amani, Jafar; Ahangari, Ghasem; Akhavian, Asal; Jafari, Mahyat

    2017-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the commonest bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs is commonly considered the bottleneck to developing an effective vaccine. It is believed that broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be achieved by induced anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity simultaneously. Here, a fusion antigen strategy was used to construct a quadrivalent recombinant protein called 3CL and composed of CfaB, a structural subunit of CFA/I, and CS6 structural subunits, LTB and STa toxoid of ETEC. Its anti-CF and antitoxin immunogenicity was then assessed. To achieve high-level expression, the 3CL gene was synthesized using E. coli codon bias. Female BALB/C mice were immunized with purified recombinant 3CL. Immunized mice developed antibodies that were capable of detecting each recombinant subunit in addition to native CS6 protein and also protected the mice against ETEC challenge. Moreover, sera from immunized mice also neutralized STa toxin in a suckling mouse assay. These results indicate that 3CL can induce anti-CF and neutralizing antitoxin antibodies along with introducing CFA/I as a platform for epitope insertion. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Protective Effect of Vitamin D3 and Gp63 Conjugated with Tetanus Toxoid on Outcome of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions in Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soudi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: GP63 is a major surface protease of Leishmania promastigotes that plays an important role in its virulance. As GP63 on its own can not develop an effective protection against leishmaniasis, the goal of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of GP63 conjugated with tetanus toxoid (TT and Vitamin D3 in susceptible BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: This study was a basic-applied experimental study performed in Tarbiat Modarres University from September 2002 to April 2005. Cloned virulant Leishmania (L. major [MRHO / IR / 75 / ER] strain was cultured and 5109 cells were harvested. GP63 Molecule was purified and conjugated with TT and conjugated molecule was used for immunization of 8 groups of female BALB/c mice. Results: Results showed that the group of mice receiving conjugated molecule with Vitamin D3 had significant differences from other groups regarding lesion progression (P0.05. The culture of spleen cells showed that the disease did not become systemic in this group. Conclusion: Conjugation of GP63 with TT strengthens cell immunity and its use along with vitamin D3 provokes macrophages activity. This basis can be used for production of an appropriate preparation for protection against Leishmaniasis.

  13. A Method for Field Calibration of the PA260 Phosphorus Analyzer Using Solid Adsorbent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    plant environment. The solid adsorbent approach has two major advantages over other traditional air sampling devices such as bubblers or impingers...GC (60/80 mesh) or Chromosorb 106 (80/100 mesh). Both adsorbents were supplied by Alltech Associates (Deerfield, IL). The adsorbents were packed in

  14. Performance of adsorbent-embedded heat exchangers using binder-coating method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ang; Thu, Kyaw; Ismail, Azhar Bin; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    The performance of adsorption (AD) chillers or desalination cycles is dictated by the rates of heat and mass transfer of adsorbate in adsorbent-packed beds. Conventional granular-adsorbent, packed in fin-tube heat exchangers, suffered from poor heat

  15. Single stage batch adsorber design for efficient Eosin yellow removalby polyaniline coated ligno-cellulose

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debnath, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline-coated lignin-based adsorbent (PLC) was synthesized and used for uptake of reactive dye eosin yellow (EY) from aqueous solution. The adsorption capability of the adsorbent was found to be more effective than the unmodified adsorbent (LC...

  16. An innovative zinc oxide-coated zeolite adsorbent for removal of humic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated zeolite adsorbents were developed by both nitric acid modification and Zn(NO3)2•6H2O functionalization of zeolite. The developed adsorbents were used for the removal of humic acid (HA) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents at 21...

  17. Infrared Analysis Of Enzymes Adsorbed Onto Model Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Gloria M.; Rauch, Deborah S.; Brode, Philip F.; Marcott, Curtis A.

    1989-12-01

    The adsorption of the enzymes, subtilisin BPN' and lysozyme, onto model surfaces was examined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Using a cylindrical internal reflection (CIRcle) cell with a Germanium (Ge) internal reflection element (IRE), model hydrophilic surfaces were made by plasma cleaning the IRE and model hydrophobic surfaces were made by precoating the IRE with a thin film of polystyrene. Gas chromatography (GC)-IR data collection software was used to monitor adsorption kinetics during the first five minutes after injection of the enzyme into the CIRcle cell. It was found that for both lysozyme and BPN', most of the enzyme that was going to adsorb onto the model surface did so within ten seconds after injection. Nearly an order-of-magnitude more BPN' adsorbed on the hydrophobic Ge surface than the hydrophilic one, while lysozyme adsorbed somewhat more strongly to the hydrophilic Ge surface. Overnight, the lysozyme layer continued to increase in thickness, while BPN' maintained its initial coverage. The appearance of carboxylate bands in some of the adsorbed BPN' spectra suggests the occurrence of peptide bond hydrolysis. A Au/Pd coating on the CIRcle cell o-rings had a significant effect on the adsorption of BPN'. (This coating was applied in an attempt to eliminate interfering Teflon absorption bands.) An apparent electrochemical reaction occurred, involving BPN', Ge, Au/Pd, and the salt solution used to stabilize BPN'. The result of this reaction was enhanced adsorption of the enzyme around the coated o-rings, etching of the Ge IRE at the o-ring site, and some autolysis of the enzyme. No such reaction was observed with lysozyme.

  18. Removal of toxic industrial chemicals using novel adsorbent hollow fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffs, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    The current military respirator provides protection from contaminants using a cartridge packed with adsorbent activated carbon particles treated with metal salts to provide protection from toxic gases. However, the user of this respirator is subject to a physiological burden as a result. One component of this burden is the pressure drop, which makes breathing through the respirator filter difficult, with the burden becoming more severe at higher breathing rates. This project investigates the ...

  19. Iodine-adsorbent poisoning: FY-82 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, J.G.; Casper, L.A.

    1982-10-01

    Along with its positive attributes as an adsorbent of radioiodine in nuclear plant air cleaning systems, silver zeolite has the disadvantage of being susceptible to poisoning. (Poisoning is defined as the reduction of efficiency in radioiodine removal.) In view of the gravimetric and infrared spectroscopy data presented, π-bonded hydrocarbons, oxygenated organics, and halocarbons appear to be probable poisons of a silver zeolite filtration system

  20. Scattering of atoms by molecules adsorbed at solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Zaida.

    1988-01-01

    The formalism of collisional time-correlation functions, appropriate for scattering by many-body targets, is implemented to study energy transfer in the scattering of atoms and ions from molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Double differential cross-sections for the energy and angular distributions of atoms and ions scattered by a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface are derived in the limit of impulsive collisions and within a statistical model that accounts for single and double collisions. They are found to be given by the product of an effective cross-section that accounts for the probability of deflection into a solid angle times a probability per unit energy transfer. A cluster model is introduced for the vibrations of an adsorbed molecule which includes the molecular atoms, the surface atoms binding the molecule, and their nearest neighbors. The vibrational modes of CO adsorbed on a Ni(001) metal surface are obtained using two different cluster models to represent the on-top and bridge-bonding situations. A He/OC-Ni(001) potential is constructed from a strongly repulsive potential of He interacting with the oxygen atom in the CO molecule and a van der Waals attraction accounting for the He interaction with the free Ni(001) surface. A potential is presented for the Li + /OC-Ni(001) where a coulombic term is introduced to account for the image force. Trajectory studies are performed and analyzed in three dimensions to obtain effective classical cross-sections for the He/OC-Ni(001) and Li + /OC-Ni(001) systems. Results for the double differential cross-sections are presented as functions of scattering angles, energy transfer and collisional energy. Temperature dependence results are also analyzed. Extensions of the approach and inclusion of effects such as anharmonicity, collisions at lower energies, and applications of the approach to higher coverages are discussed

  1. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs

  2. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  3. CHEMICAL REACTIONS ON ADSORBING SURFACE: KINETIC LEVEL OF DESCRIPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.Kostrobii

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the effective Hubbard model we suggest a statistical description of reaction-diffusion processes for bimolecular chemical reactions of gas particles adsorbed on the metallic surface. The system of transport equations for description of particles diffusion as well as reactions is obtained. We carry out the analysis of the contributions of all physical processes to the formation of diffusion coefficients and chemical reactions constants.

  4. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by natural adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    MD SHAHNOOR ALAM KHAN

    2017-01-01

    The presence of arsenic in groundwater has been reported in many countries across the world and it is a serious threat to public health. The aim of this study was to identify prospective natural materials with high arsenic adsorption capacity and durable hydraulic property to produce adequate flow of water. The comparative study identified Skye sand as the best natural adsorbent. The prototype household filter with Skye sand achieved complete removal of arsenic and iron. Arsenic removal by du...

  5. Heat capacity of xenon adsorbed in nanobundle grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishko, K.A.; Sokolova, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    A model of one-dimensional real gas under external transverse force field is applied to interpret the experimentally observed thermodynamical properties of xenon deposited into groves on the surface of carbon nanobundles. This non-ideal gas model with pair interaction is not quite adequate to describe the dense adsorbates (especially at low temperature limit), but it makes possible to take into account easily the particle exchange between 1D adsorbate and 3D atmosphere which becomes an essential factor since intermediate (for xenon - of order 35 K) up to high (approx 100 K) temperatures. In this paper we treat the 1D real gas with only Lennard-Jones pair interaction, but at presence of exact equilibrium conditions on the atom numbers between low-dimensional adsorbate and three-dimensional atmosphere of the experimental cell. The low-temperature branch of the heat capacity has been fitted separately within the elastic atomic chain model to get the best agreement between theory and experiment in as wide as possible region just from zero temperature. The gas approximation is introduced from the temperatures where the chain heat capacity tends definitely to 1D equipartition law. In this case the principal parameters for both models can be chosen in such a way that the heat capacity C(T) of the chain goes continuously into the corresponding curve of the gas approximation. So, it seems to be expected that adequate interpretation for temperature dependences of the atomic adsorbate heat capacity can be obtained through a reasonable combination of 1D gas and phonon approaches. The principal parameters of the gas approximation (such a desorption energy) found from the fitting between theory and experiment for xenon heat capacity are in good agreement with corresponding data known in literature.

  6. Characterization of fractals with an adsorbed superfluid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golov, A.I.; Berkutov, I.B.; Babuin, S.; Cousins, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The tortuosity of a capillary-condensed film of superfluid 4 He adsorbed on 91%-porous silica aerogel has been measured, with transverse sound, as a function of helium coverage. Complementary data from 4 He adsorption isotherms and small-angle X-ray scattering have also been used for substrate characterization. The tortuosity is found to be roughly inversely proportional to the volume fraction of the liquid phase of helium

  7. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  8. Adsorbate-driven cooling of carbene-based molecular junctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foti, Giuseppe; Vázquez, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Oct (2017), s. 2060-2068 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19672S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 702114 - HEATEXMOL Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adsorbate * carbene * current-induced heating and cooling * molecular junction * vibrations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016

  9. Linear response theory of activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti' nez-Casado, R. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sanz, A.S.; Vega, J.L. [Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rojas-Lorenzo, G. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologi' as y Ciencias Aplicadas, Ave. Salvador Allende, esq. Luaces, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cienti' ficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Miret-Artes, S., E-mail: s.miret@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cienti' ficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-12

    Graphical abstract: Activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates is analyzed within the Linear Response Theory framework. The so-called interacting single adsorbate model is justified by means of a two-bath model, where one harmonic bath takes into account the interaction with the surface phonons, while the other one describes the surface coverage, this leading to defining a collisional friction. Here, the corresponding theory is applied to simple systems, such as diffusion on flat surfaces and the frustrated translational motion in a harmonic potential. Classical and quantum closed formulas are obtained. Furthermore, a more realistic problem, such as atomic Na diffusion on the corrugated Cu(0 0 1) surface, is presented and discussed within the classical context as well as within the framework of Kramer's theory. Quantum corrections to the classical results are also analyzed and discussed. - Abstract: Activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates is analyzed within the Linear Response Theory framework. The so-called interacting single adsorbate model is justified by means of a two-bath model, where one harmonic bath takes into account the interaction with the surface phonons, while the other one describes the surface coverage, this leading to defining a collisional friction. Here, the corresponding theory is applied to simple systems, such as diffusion on flat surfaces and the frustrated translational motion in a harmonic potential. Classical and quantum closed formulas are obtained. Furthermore, a more realistic problem, such as atomic Na diffusion on the corrugated Cu(0 0 1) surface, is presented and discussed within the classical context as well as within the framework of Kramer's theory. Quantum corrections to the classical results are also analyzed and discussed.

  10. Rotary adsorbers for waste air purification and solvent recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, G.; Eigenberger, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rotary Adsorbers for Waste Air Purification and Solvent Recovery. Thanks to their compact construction and low pressure drops, adsorbers with rotating adsorbent beds are highly suitable both for retrofitting of waste air purification units and generally for the removal of absorbable components from gas streams. When used in conjunction with straightforward hot gas desorption they permit almost complete purification of gas flows with concomitant concentration of the separated components in the desorbate by a factor of 10 to 20. They can also be used in conjunction with recovery of the separated components by partial condensation of the desorbate. Owing to the fixed coupling of adsorption and desorption times, which is determined by the geometry of the unit, the behaviour of the system is distinctly different from that of conventional multiple bed systems in cyclic operation. A detailed model description and computer simulation of operating behaviour are particularly useful for their analysis. It is shown that the behaviour of commercially available rotor concepts can be much better understood in this way and new concepts for exhaust air purification with integrated solvent recovery can be developed which are characterised by significantly reduced energy requirements for desorption and condensation. (orig.) [de

  11. Specific binding-adsorbent assay method and test means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of an improved specific binding assay method and test means employing a nonspecific adsorbent for the substance to be determined, particularly hepatitis B surface (HBsub(s)) antigen, in its free state or additionally in the form of its immune complex. The invention is illustrated by 1) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen, 2) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen in the form of immune complex with antibody, 3) a study of adsorption characteristics of various anion exchange materials for HBsub(s) antigen, 4) the use of hydrophobic adsorbents in a radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen and 5) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for antibody to HBsub(s) antigen. The advantages of the present method for detecting HBsub(s) antigen compared to previous methods include the manufacturing advantages of eliminating the need for insolubilised anti-HBsub(s) and the advantages of a single incubation step, fewer manipulations, storability of adsorbent materials, increased sensitivity and versatility of detecting HBsub(s) antigen in the form of its immune complex if desired. (U.K.)

  12. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene adsorbed on nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchak, V.N.; Tret'yakov, I.I.; Kislyuk, M.U.

    1976-01-01

    The reactivity of ethylene adsorbed on the pure films of nickel at various temperatures was studied with respect to hydrogen atoms generated in the gaseous phase. The experiments were conducted in a glass vacuum apparatus enabling one to obtain the highest vacuum up to 2x20 -10 torr. The catalyst, nickel films, was produced by their deposition onto the walls of the glass reactor at a pressure of the residual gas of 10 -9 torr and a temperature of the walls of 25 deg C. Gas purity was analyzed by the mass spectrometric method. The ethylene adsorbed at the temperatures below 173 deg K reacted readily with the hydrogen atoms to yield ethane. The process ran without practically any activation energy involved and was limited by the attachment of the first hydrogen atom to the ethylene molecule. The efficiency of this interaction was 0.02 of the number of the hydrogen atoms collisions against the surface occupied by the ethylene. The adsorption of the ethylene at room and higher temperatures was accompanied by its disproportioning with the release of the hydrogen into the gaseous phase and a serious destruction of the ethylene molecules adsorbed to produce hydrogen residues interacting with neither molecular nor atomic hydrogen [ru

  13. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

  14. Stochastic Description of Activated Surface Diffusion with Interacting Adsorbates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casado, Ruth; Vega, José Luis; Sanz, Ángel S.; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    Activated surface diffusion on metal surfaces is receiving much attention both experimentally and theoretically. One of the main theoretical problems in this field is to explain the line-shape broadening observed when the surface coverage is increased. Recently, we have proposed a fully stochastic model, the interacting single adsorbate (ISA) model, aimed at explaining and understanding this type of experiments, which essentially consists of considering the classical Langevin formulation with two types of noise forces: (i) a Gaussian white noise accounting for the substrate friction, and (ii) a shot noise simulating the interacting adsorbates at different coverages. No interaction potential between adsorbates is included because any trace of microscopic interaction seems to be wiped out in a Markovian regime. This model describes in a good approximation, and at a very low computational cost, the line-shape broadening observed experimentally. Furthermore, its mathematical simplicity also allows to derive some analytical expressions which are of much help in the interpretation of the physics underlying surface diffusion processes.

  15. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  16. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes 129 Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of 129 Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, 129 Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature

  17. Treatment of Refinery Waste Water Using Environmental Friendly Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. Geetha; Al-Moshrafi, Samira Mohammed Khamis; Al Hudaifi, Alaa; Al Aisari, Buthaina Hamood

    2017-12-01

    This research evaluates the effectiveness of activated carbon prepared from walnut shell in the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water by adsorption technique. A series of batch experiments were carried out by varying the effluent solution pH, stirring time, stirring speed and adsorbent dosage in the reduction of pollutants from refinery effluent. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET) isotherm and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The best quality activated carbon was obtained with a particle size of 0.75 µm, activation temperature of 800 °C and activation time 24 h. The maximum BET surface area obtained was 165.2653 m2/g. The experimental results demonstrates that the highest percentage reduction in COD was 79%, using 0.6 g walnut shell powder at an optimum stirring speed of 100 rpm, at pH 6 and 120 min of contact time. The outcome of the result shows that walnut shell carbon is a potentially useful adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water.

  18. Cu II Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using Low Cost Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Hadi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study the possibility of utilization of waste tires rubber ash (WTRA as a low-cost adsorbent and are available as a type of solid waste for the removal of copper ions from industrial wastewater. Depending on batch adsorption experiments, the effect of different parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage WTRA, contact time, initial concentration of the ion and shacking speed were studied. Results showed that the highest removal Cu+2 ions was 97.8% at pH equal to 6, 120 min contact time, dose WTRA 1.5 g/L, shacking speed 150 rpm. The experimental data were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models showed great compatibility with Langmuir model (R2=0.923. Adsorption kinetics was studied and the data was showed agree with Pseudo-first-order equation where the value of (kt=0.5115/min. The study also showed the possibility of using WTRA efficiently as adsorbent and low cost in the removal of copper ions from industrial waste water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.17

  19. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children. Copyright © 2016 GSK group of companies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of ovarian cancer ascites by intra-peritoneal injection of diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 vector: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-lail Rasha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian cancer ascitic fluid, which contains malignant cells, is usually present in women with an advanced stage disease. There are currently no effective therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer ascitic fluid. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target expression of the diphtheria toxin fragment A gene in ovarian tumor cells under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a stage IIIc epithelial ovarian cancer. She suffered from progressive disease, accumulation of malignant ascites that needed to be drained weekly, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia and severe weakness. Infusion of the diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 plasmid into the peritoneum of our patient resulted in complete resolution of the ascites with minimum adverse events. Conclusion On the basis of this preliminary experience, we are currently conducting an extensive Phase I study on a larger number of patients in order to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of this novel patient-oriented treatment approach.

  1. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  2. Non-specific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles vaccinations? An analysis of surveillance data from Navrongo, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaga, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Adjuik, Martin; Debpuur, Cornelius; Ross, David A; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that routine vaccinations may have non-specific effects on child mortality; measles vaccine (MV) is associated with lower mortality and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) with relatively higher mortality. We used data from Navrongo, Ghana, to examine the impact of vaccinations on child mortality. Vaccination status was assessed at the initiation of a trial of vitamin A supplementation and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Within the placebo group, we compared the mortality over the first 4 months and the full 2 years of follow-up for different vaccination status groups with different likelihoods of additional vaccinations during follow-up. The frequency of additional vaccinations was assessed among children whose vaccination card was seen at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Among children with a vaccination card, more than 75% received missing DTP or MV during the first 12 months of follow-up, whereas only 25% received these vaccines among children with no vaccination card at enrollment. Children without a card at enrollment had a significant threefold higher mortality over the 2-year follow-up period than those fully vaccinated. The small group of children with DTP3-4 but no MV at enrollment had lower mortality than children without a card and had the same mortality as fully vaccinated children. In contrast, children with 1-2 DTP doses but no MV had a higher mortality during the first 4 months than children without a card [MRR = 1.65 (0.95, 2.87)]; compared with the fully vaccinated children, they had significantly higher mortality after 4 months [MRR = 2.38 (1.07, 5.30)] and after 2 years [MRR = 2.41 (1.41, 4.15)]. Children with 0-2 DTP doses at enrollment had higher mortality after 4 months (MRR = 1.67 (0.82, 3.43) and after 2 years [MRR = 1.85 (1.16, 2.95)] than children who had all three doses of DTP at enrollment. As hypothesised, DTP vaccination was associated with higher child mortality than measles

  3. Using the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program to increase adolescent human papillomavirus, meningococcal, tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis and influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard K; Raviotta, Jonathan M; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Moehling, Krissy K; Reis, Evelyn Cohen; Humiston, Sharon G; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng

    2017-10-27

    To report the results of an intervention using the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program (4 Pillars™ Program) to increase adolescent vaccinations including human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) and influenza vaccines, which remain underutilized in this population. Eleven pediatric and family medicine practices, previously control sites from a randomized controlled cluster trial, with ≥50 adolescent patients participated. The 4 Pillars™ Program was the foundation of the intervention. De-identified demographic, office visit and vaccination data were derived from electronic medical record extractions for patients whose date of birth was 4/1/1997 to 4/1/2004 (ages 11-17years at baseline). Vaccination rates for HPV, influenza, tetanus-pertussis-diphtheria (Tdap) and meningococcal (MenACWY) vaccines were determined for all eligible patients pre- and post intervention (i.e., vaccination rates on 4/1/2015 and 4/30/2016). Among 9473 patients ages 11-17years at baseline (4/1/2015), mean pre-intervention vaccination rates for HPV initiation and completion, meningococcal, Tdap and influenza vaccines were below national levels. Rates increased significantly post intervention (P<0.001) for HPV initiation which increased 17.1 percentage points (PP) from 51.4%; HPV completion increased 14.8PP from 30.7%, meningococcal vaccine uptake increased 16.6PP from 79.1%, Tdap vaccine uptake increased 14.6PP from 76.9%. Influenza vaccine uptake did not increase significantly (2.3PP from 40.1%). In the regression using generalized estimating equations, odds of vaccination were higher for younger, non-white adolescents for all vaccines; being in a smaller practice decreased the odds of Tdap vaccination but increased the odds of influenza vaccination. Clinically and statistically significant improvements in HPV series initiation and completion, and meningococcal and Tdap vaccinations were observed in primary care practices implementing the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program

  4. Demand- and supply-side determinants of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus nonvaccination and dropout in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2017-02-15

    Although 93% of 12- to 23-month-old children in India receive at least one vaccine, typically Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, only 75% complete the recommended three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT, also referred to as DTP) vaccine. Determinants can be different for nonvaccination and dropout but have not been examined in earlier studies. We use the three-dose DPT series as a proxy for the full sequence of recommended childhood vaccines and examine the determinants of DPT nonvaccination and dropout between doses 1 and 3. We analyzed data on 75,728 6- to 23-month-old children in villages across India to study demand- and supply-side factors determining nonvaccination with DPT and dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3, using a multilevel approach. Data come from the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08). Individual- and household-level factors were associated with both DPT nonvaccination and dropout between doses 1 and 3. Children whose mothers had no schooling were 2.3 times more likely not to receive any DPT vaccination and 1.5 times more likely to drop out between DPT doses 1 and 3, compared with children whose mothers had 10 or more years of schooling. Although supply-side factors related to availability of public health facilities and immunization-related health workers in villages were not correlated with dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3, children in districts where 46% or more villages had a healthcare subcentre were 1.5 times more likely to receive at least one dose of DPT vaccine compared with children in districts where 30% or fewer villages had subcentres. Nonvaccination with DPT in India is influenced by village- and district-level contextual factors over and above individuals' background characteristics. Dropout between DPT doses 1 and 3 is associated more strongly with demand-side factors than with village- and district-level supply-side factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and performance prediction of a new generation adsorption chiller using composite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, L.X.; Wang, R.Z.; Xia, Z.Z.; Chen, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Composite adsorbent 'employing lithium chloride in silica gel' and water as working pair. → A new type adsorbent bed is used to accommodate the composite adsorbent. → A dynamic model of the adsorption chiller is built. → The coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity will be improved. -- Abstract: This paper presents a novel adsorption chiller using composite adsorbent 'employing lithium chloride in silica gel' as adsorbent and water as adsorbate. A new type adsorbent bed is used to accommodate the composite adsorbent. The mass recovery between two adsorbent beds usually results in the adsorbate unbalance. So a novel auto water makeup unite is used to solve the problem. A dynamic model of the adsorption chiller is built based on the adsorption isotherms to predict the performance. The simulation result shows that the coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity will increase by using this new composite adsorbent. When the temperatures of hot water inlet, cooling water inlet, and chilled water inlet are 363, 303 and 293 K, COP will be 0.43, and the cooling capacity will be 5.295 kW. Also operation strategy is optimized. Different temperatures of hot water inlet, cooling water inlet and chilling water inlet will result in different COP and cooling capacity.

  6. Investigation of A-3 adsorbent-ditolylmethane two-phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, V.A.; Benderskaya, O.S.

    1988-01-01

    Compatibility of A-3 adsorbent, produced on the basis of palygoskite clay, with organic coolant of nuclear reactors-ditolylmethane (DTM)- and the possibility to use the given adsorbent for DTM purification from surfactant impurities are investigated. Compatibility of the adsorbent with DTM was evaluated by the concentration of its constituents in liquid phase. Sufactant adsorption was observed by the change in acid number of coolant, optical density at λ=396 nm and adsorbate mass in the adsorbent. From spent adsorbent the coolant was washed out by n-heptane, and the adsorbate - by methylene chloride, othanol and water in succession. On the basis of the results obtained the conclusion is made that A3 possesses a high chemical stability in DTM medium, i.e. it is compatible with DTM and can be used for its purification from surfactant impurities sorbed on heat-transferring surface

  7. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...... in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study in 26 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The preoperative antitetanus antibody level was less than 0.1 IU/ml in all patients, and they were inoculated with both antigens 48 hours before surgery. Serum samples for analysis of antitetanus toxoid...... and antidiphtheria toxoid were drawn before skin incision and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Ranitidine significantly increased the postoperative antibody response to tetanus toxoid, (p less than 0.01) and insignificantly increased that to diphtheria toxoid vaccination (p less than 0...

  8. An Open-Label, Randomized Study of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Given Concomitantly with Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, and Poliomyelitis Vaccines to Healthy Adolescents 11 to 15 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Mehlsen, Jesper; Vesikari, Timo

    2015-01-01

    .8% in both groups at month 7. For REPEVAX, noninferiority of immune response was established for diphtheria, tetanus, and all polio and pertussis antigens for both groups. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs. CONCLUSION: Overall, concomitant administration of 9vHPV vaccine and REPEVAX was generally...

  9. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  10. Bioavailability in rats of metal adsorbed to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, R.; Griffin, S.; Irene, S.; DeRosa, C.; Choudhury, H.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of metals to humans and animals has been well documented, however little data are available on the physiological bioavailability of metals from various soil types. These studies were designed to assess the bioavailability of sodium 75 selenate (NaS), 63 nickel chloride (NiCl) and 109 cadmium chloride (CdCl) adsorbed to sand or clay loam in rats. Each test compound was administered in seven dose groups: Group 1 - intravenously, Group 2 and 3 - oral aqueous solution by gavage, Groups 4-7 - aqueous suspension adsorbed to each soil type by gavage. Blood was collected from the jugular vein at intervals up to 48 hours post dosing and analyzed for radio-activity. Both NiCl and CdCl were poorly adsorbed from the soils. Approximately 3% of the CdCl bound to sand and 1.5% of the NiCl bound to clay loam were absorbed into the bloodstream. Approximately 0.5% and 0.1% of the CdCl bound to sand and clay, respectively were absorbed. NaS was well absorbed following oral administration with approximately 85% of the compound bound to sand and 94% bound to clay being absorbed into the blood. Bioavailability of metals from soil appears to be primarily affected by the ionic state of the metal. Anions, such as selenium, are more mobile in an acid environment and may leach more readily from soil. Cations, such as Ni and Cd may bind to soil more tightly, thus soil type becomes a factor affecting bioavailability

  11. Adsorptivity of uranium by aluminium-activated carbon composite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Ayako; Takagi, Norio; Miyai, Yoshitaka

    1976-01-01

    To research the adsorption process of uranium from sea water by aluminium-activated carbon composite adsorbent (C-Al-OH), the authors examined the effects of temperature, pH and carbonate ion concentration of the solution upon the adsorption of uranium, using sodium chloride solution and natural sea water. The continued mixing of the solution for the duration of two to four hours was required to attain the apparent equilibrium of adsorption. The adsorption velocity at an early stage and the uptake of uranium at the final stage showed an increase in proportion to a rise in the adsorption temperature. In the experiment of adsorption for which sodium chloride solution was used, the linear relationship between the logarithm of the distribution coefficient (K sub(d)) and the pH of the solution was recognized. The uptake of the uranium from the solution at the pH of 12 increased as the carbonate ion concentration in the solution decreased. The uranyl ion in the natural sea water was assumed to be uranyl carbonate complex ion (UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- ). As the result of the calculation conducted by using the formation constants for uranyl complexes in literature, it was found that uranyl hydroxo complex ion (UO 2 (OH) 3 - ) increased in line with a decrease of the carbonate ion concentration in the solution. The above results of the experiment suggested that the adsorption of uranium by the adsorbent (C-Al-OH) was cationic adsorption or hydrolysis adsorption being related with the active proton on the surface of the adsorbent. (auth.)

  12. Study of the Adsorbent-Adsorbate Interactions from Cd(II) and Pb(II) Adsorption on Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Doo Won; Kim, Bohye; Yang, Kap Seung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yongkyun; Park, Eun Nam [Microfilter Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC), activated carbon fiber (ACF), modified ACF (NaACF), and a mixture of GAC and NaACF (GAC/NaACF) have been studied. The surface properties, such as morphology, surface functional groups, and composition of various adsorbents were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and pore size distribution were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods. In this study, NaACF showed a high adsorption capacity and rate for heavy metal ions due to the improvement of its ion-exchange capabilities by additional oxygen functional groups. Moreover, the GAC and NaACF mixture was used as an adsorbent to determine the adsorbent-adsorbate interaction in the presence of two competitive adsorbents.

  13. Study of the Adsorbent-Adsorbate Interactions from Cd(II) and Pb(II) Adsorption on Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Doo Won; Kim, Bohye; Yang, Kap Seung; Lim, Yongkyun; Park, Eun Nam

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC), activated carbon fiber (ACF), modified ACF (NaACF), and a mixture of GAC and NaACF (GAC/NaACF) have been studied. The surface properties, such as morphology, surface functional groups, and composition of various adsorbents were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and pore size distribution were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods. In this study, NaACF showed a high adsorption capacity and rate for heavy metal ions due to the improvement of its ion-exchange capabilities by additional oxygen functional groups. Moreover, the GAC and NaACF mixture was used as an adsorbent to determine the adsorbent-adsorbate interaction in the presence of two competitive adsorbents

  14. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2016-05-16

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  15. Graphene symmetry-breaking with molecular adsorbates: modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, M. A.; Hawkins, M. K.; Wang, Y. L.; Cullen, W. G.; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    Graphene's structure and electronic properties provide a framework for understanding molecule-substrate interactions and developing techniques for band gap engineering. Controlled deposition of molecular adsorbates can create superlattices which break the degeneracy of graphene's two-atom unit cell, opening a band gap. We simulate scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements for a variety of organic molecule/graphene systems, including pyridine, trimesic acid, and isonicotinic acid, based on density functional theory calculations using VASP. We also compare our simulations to ultra-high vacuum STM and STS results.

  16. Device for adsorbing exhaled radioactive gases and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, H.; Panetta, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    Sorption means are provided for sorbing radioactive gases, as in the exhalations of a living subject, especially for nuclear diagnostic test studies, comprising means for adsorbing the radioactive gas onto activated carbon, the carbon being contained in a plurality of independent, series-connected, chambers. The sorption means are especially adapted for the adsorption of radioactive inert gases such as xenon-133 ( 133 Xe). There can also be provided indicator means for indicating the flow-through of xenon comprising an indicator which changes color upon contact with xenon, such as dioxygenylhexafluoroantimoniate. 14 claims, 7 drawing figures

  17. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou; Rodionov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  18. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  19. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud and a biosorbent (Lemna minor were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L−1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 % was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  20. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.