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Sample records for diphenylpicrylhydrazyl

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Canarium schweinfurthii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the -carotene bleaching test. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was employed as a positive control. The essential oil showed antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities, and it displayed ...

  2. Electron spin resonance study of the demagnetization fields of the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Gimazov, Yu.I. Talanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the electron spin resonance study of the La1-xCaxMnO3 manganite and the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl thin films for the magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to plane of the films are presented. The temperature dependence of the demagnetizing field is obtained. The parameters of the Curie-Weiss law are estimated for the paramagnetic thin film.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Pithecellobium clypearia

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    Lingzhi Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aqueous extract of Pithecellobium clypearia afforded one n ovel compound, clypearoside A(1, and one new stereoisomer , (--(2S,3S-epigallocatechin-7-gallate(2 and four known ones (3-6. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially 2D NMR, HRESIMS and ECD spectra. Compounds 2-4 showed strong activity against DPPH (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate with an IC 50 value of 11.9-13.2 μg/mL (DPPH and 4.5-6.4 μg/mL (ABTS.

  4. Characterization analysis for leaves of Leucaena leucocephala by using phytochemical screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarina, Z.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Petai Belalang) is a medium plant which belong in group of tropical breed that can survived in hot, dried and warm environment. In Malaysia, the plant is available abundantly. As there are still no commercial used, and no serious intention in finding the benefits of L. Leucocephala, this work come out with the idea to analyze the antioxidants contains in leaves of the plant by undergoes different extraction and chemical testing method. The phytochemical screening assay involved in this study are antioxidant activity by using free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, total phenolic content by using Folin-Ciocalteu method, total flavonoid content by using colorimetric assay with ascorbic acid and quercetin were used as reference standards while for phosphorus analysis, a molybdenum blue method or also known as ascorbic acid method was used. For antioxidant activity by using free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 8247.0 mg/L, for total phenolic content higher concentration was recorded by extraction using deionized water (dried sample) which is 4276.0 mg/L, for total flavonoid content by using colorimetric assay higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 4439.0 mg/L, and for for phosphorus analysis higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 71.057 mg/L.

  5. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-14

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation and comparison of different extraction methods on sesquiterpene lactone yields from the medicinal plant Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed Ibrahim, Abir M.; Martinez-Swatson, Karen A.; Benkaci-Ali, Farid

    2017-01-01

    methods Quantification of the compounds of interest was done using an HPLC. The antioxidant activity extracts was determined using the two free radical scavenging assays: the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Results...... the combined effect of microwave assisted extraction and gamma irradiation on the highly bioactive compounds found in extracts of Algerian T. garganica, samples from different locations in Algeria were prepared by extraction from dried leaf and root samples of dried plant material, using different extraction......: It was found that location and extraction method had significant impact on the phytochemical composition of extracts. Gamma irradiation was found to have no effect on the phytochemical composition of the plant extracts or on their antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The study has shown that microwave assisted...

  7. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Kehoe, Patrick G; Sombie, Pierre A E D; Lamien, Charles E; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2011-12-01

    Different extracts were obtained from Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae) by successive extraction with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. These extracts exhibited significant antioxidant capacity in various antioxidant models mediated (xantine oxidase and lipoxygenase) or not mediated (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, β-carotene bleaching, lipid peroxidation) by enzymes. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to their phytochemical composition in terms of polyphenol and carotenoid contents. The chloroform extract was richest in phytochemicals and had the highest antioxidant activity in the different antioxidant systems. All the extracts exhibited less than 50% inhibition on xanthine oxidase but more than 50% inhibition on lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase. The extracts strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation mediated by lipoxygenase.

  8. The scavenging of free radical and oxygen species activities and hydration capacity of collagen hydrolysates from walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2009-06-01

    Fish skin collagen hydrolysates (FSCH) were prepared from walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) using a mixture of enzymes, namely trypsin and flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis of the skin collagen was 27.3%. FSCH was mainly composed of low-molecular-weight peptides and the relative proportion of <1000Da fraction was 70.6%. Free radical and oxygen species scavenging activities of FSCH were investigated in four model systems, including diphenylpicrylhy-drazyl radical (DPPH), superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide model, and compared with that of a native antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). FSCH was also evaluated by water-absorbing and water-holding capacity. The results showed that FSCH was able to scavenge free radical and oxygen species significantly and to enhance water-absorbing and water-holding capacity remarkably. Therefore, FSCH may have potential applications in the medicine and food industries.

  9. The antioxidant effect of derivatives pyroglutamic lactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohadi, Atisya; Lazim, Azwani Mat; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is widely used for quickly accessing the ability of polyphenols to transfer labile H atoms to radicals. The antioxidant activity of all the synthesized compounds was screened by DPPH method. Compound (4) showed 54% antioxidant potential while all other compounds were found to have moderate to have moderate to mild antioxidant activity ranging from 47–52%. Pyroglutamic lactams have been synthesized stereoselectively in racemic form from levulinic acid as bifunctional adduct using convertible isocyanide in one-pot Ugi 4-center-3-component condensation reaction (U-4C-3CR). The product formed provides biologically interesting products in excellent yields in a short reaction time. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  10. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  11. Identification of a Protein with Antioxidant Activity that is Important for the Protection against Beer Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming J.; Clarke, Frank M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Young, Paul; Sales, Narelle; O’Doherty, Patrick J.; Higgins, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian lager flavour was maintained in the fresh and vintage beers but was lost in the aged beer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and free thiol group labelling analyses of beer proteins found that this flavour stability correlated with the presence of an unknown 10 kilodaltons (kDa) protein with a higher level of free thiols. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography, then peptide sequencing and database matching identified it as the barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1). Further characterisation using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based antioxidant screening assay demonstrated that the LTP1 protein was active in DPPH reduction and antioxidant activity. The absence of free thiol in the aged beer indicates that the thiol functional groups within the LTP1 protein were saturated and suggests that it is important in the flavour stability of beer by maintaining reduction capacity during the ageing process. PMID:22016646

  12. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

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    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  13. Red/Green Currant and Sea Buckthorn Berry Press Residues as Potential Sources of Antioxidants for Food Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puganen, Anna; Kallio, Heikki P; Schaich, Karen M; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Yang, Baoru

    2018-04-04

    The potential for using extracts of press residues from black, green, red, and white currants and from sea buckthorn berries as sources of antioxidants for foods use was investigated. Press residues were extracted with ethanol in four consecutive extractions, and total Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reactive material and authentic phenolic compounds were determined. Radical quenching capability and mechanisms were determined from total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant capacity (TRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays and from diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) kinetics, respectively; specific activities were normalized to F-C reactive concentrations. Levels of total F-C reactive materials in press residue extracts were higher than in many fruits and showed significant radical quenching activity. Black currant had the highest authentic phenol content and ORAC, TRAP, and DPPH reactivity. Sea buckthorn grown in northern Finland showed extremely high total specific DPPH reactivity. These results suggest that berry press residues offer attractive value-added products that can provide antioxidants for use in stabilizing and fortifying foods.

  14. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston (Fabaceae (CD is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay, mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of hesperidin from citrus peel using electron spin resonance and cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashaal, Hanan A; El-Sheltawy, Shakinaz T

    2011-03-01

    Hesperidin is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The aim of the study is the isolation of hesperidin from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. (Rutaceae), and the evaluation of its antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity against different human carcinoma cell lines. In the present work, hesperidin is identified and confirmed using chromatographic and spectral analysis. To correlate between hesperidin concentration and antioxidant capacity of peel extracts, extraction was carried out using 1% HCl-MeOH, MeOH, alkaline solution, the concentration of hesperidin determined qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, in vitro antioxidant capacity of hesperidin and the extracts against free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) performed using an electron spin resonance spectrophotometer (ESR). Cytotoxic assay against larynx, cervix, breast and liver carcinoma cell lines was performed. Hesperidin was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent; its capacity reached 36%. In addition, the results revealed that hesperidin exhibited pronounced anticancer activity against the selected cell lines. IC₅₀ were 1.67, 3.33, 4.17, 4.58 µg/mL, respectively. Orange peels are considered to be a cheap source for hesperidin which may be used in the pharmaceutical industry as a natural chemopreventive agent. Hesperidin and orange peel extract could possess antioxidant properties with a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  16. Biochemical Characterization of Tunisian Cichorium Intybus L. Roots and Optimization of Ultrasonic Inulin Extraction

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    Youkabed Ouederni Zarroug

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study Cichorium intybus L. roots were tested for its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile. Optimization of ultrasonic inulin extraction using response surface methodology (RSM was further investigated. Chicory roots were found to have high value of total carbohydrates (70.43%, soluble fiber (66.93, Neutral detergent fiber (NDF (33.07%, potassium (380 mg/100g, calcium (540 mg/100g and sodium (140 mg/100g. Chicory roots exhibit a high content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins. Antioxidant activity measurement reveals the capacity of Chicory roots to scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals. Phenolic acids profile shows the abundance of vanillic acid (19.64% followed by protocatechuic acid (15.67%. The effect of three independent variables namely extraction time, the ratio of water to raw material and temperature on inulin extraction was studied. Optimum deciding responses were Inulin content, Total Soluble Solids (TSS content and Water produced inulin yield. The optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions were: extraction time 87 min, liquid to solid ratio 38 (ml/g and ultrasonic temperature 61 ̊ C. Under these conditions, the inulin content, TSS content and produced inulin yield were 35.92%, 24.72%, and 32.53%, respectively. The produced inulin was characterized by the Fourier infrared transformation (FTIR and observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM.  

  17. Antioxidant Flavonoids from Nepeta floccosa Benth.

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    Liaqat Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the substances which significantly delay or prevent the development of age-related degenerative and chronic diseases caused by oxidative damage. Due to this, there is a considerable interest in the identification of lead molecules, which can inhibit the oxidation process or slow it down considerably. Based on the spectrofluorimetric analysis of superoxide and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, the bio-assay guided isolation of methanolic extract of Nepeta floccosa Benth. was carried out. As a result of this study, one new flavanonol named nepetavanol (1 and four known flavonoids; dihydrokaempferol (2, naringenin (3, caulesnarinside (4, and poncirin (5 have been isolated. The structure of the new flavanonol was assigned on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments and FABMS, EIMS, HR-MS data. Compound 1 , 2, and 3 showed significant activity whereas compounds 4 and 5 showed moderate activity against antioxidant assays.

  18. Copper complexes containing thiosemicarbazones derived from 6-nitropiperonal: Antimicrobial and biophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Webb, Kelsey R.

    2017-08-01

    A series of four thiosemicarbazones from 6-nitropiperonal along with the corresponding copper complexes were synthesized. The biophysical characteristics of the complexes were investigated by the binding to DNA and human serum albumin. The binding to DNA is moderate; the binding constants run from (0.49-7.50) × 104 M- 1. In relation to HSA, the complexes interact strongly with binding constants on the order of 105 M- 1. The complexes also display antioxidant behavior as determined by the ability to scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (dpph) and nitric oxide radicals. The antimicrobial profiles of the compounds, tested against a panel of microbes including five of the ESKAPE pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii), are also described. The compounds contain a core moiety that is similar to oxolinic acid, a quinolone antibiotic that targets DNA gyrase and topoisomerase (IV). The binding interaction between the complexes and these important antibacterial targets were studied by computational methods, chiefly docking studies. The calculated dissociation constants for the interaction with DNA gyrase B (from Staphylococcus aureus) range from 4.32 to 24.65 μM; the binding was much stronger to topoisomerase IV, with dissociation constants ranging from 0.37 to 1.27 μM.

  19. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

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    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  20. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of an artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Meriele A; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Richter, Marc F; Picada, Jaqueline N; de Andrade, Heloisa H R; Lehmann, Mauricio; Dihl, Rafael R; Nunes, Emilene; Semedo, Juliane; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-02-01

    The Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is widely consumed as tea or food and shows important therapeutic properties. However, few studies have assessed the possible toxic effects of artichoke extracts. This study evaluates genotoxic and mutagenic activities of artichoke leaf aqueous extract in mice using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Leaf extracts were given by gavage (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Extract composition was investigated using phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, antioxidant capacity was analyzed through the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase assay. Phytochemical screening detected the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercetrin, and rutin. Extracts showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect of DPPH and an inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase. The genotoxic results showed that leaf extracts did not increase micronuclei in peripheral blood cells. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in comet assay values was observed only in bone marrow of group treated with 2000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. This is the first report of in vivo mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation with C. scolymus. The present study revealed leaf aqueous extract from artichoke shows lack of mutagenicity in vivo, and low genotoxicity and antioxidant activity; indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Thymus lanceolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Sobeh, Mansour; Gad, Haidy A; Benbelaid, Fethi; Bendahou, Mourad; Peixoto, Herbenya; Sporer, Frank; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Thymus lanceolatus is a rare species, which grows wild in Algeria and Tunis. It is used traditionally as a drink and to flavor and preserve meat and poultry. The composition of the essential oil was determined by GLC/FID and GLC/MS. Forty-nine components were identified and quantified, accounting for 96.75% of the total detected components in the oil. The oxygenated monoterpenes (74.85%) constitute the major class of volatile secondary metabolites in the oil. Thymol was the most abundant constituent (69.61%) followed by γ-terpinene (8.38%). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using both diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) reduction and 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) degradation prevention methods. The oil showed a very potent antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 0.20 ± 0.07 and 4.96 ± 0.39 μg/mL for the DPPH˙ and 2-DR methods, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assessed using the agar diffusion method, and the in vitro cytotoxicity on five different cancer cells was examined using the MTT assay. The oil revealed promising inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes with an MIC value of 62.5 μg/mL. Additionally, the highest cytotoxic activity was observed against the HL-60 cells with an IC(50) of 113.5 μg/mL. These results validate some of their traditional uses in food preservation.

  2. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil

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    R. Mahmodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing drug resistance in microorganisms and concerns for side effects of chemical preservatives, especially in the food industry, have led to extensive studies on novel potential agents with natural origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch in 2012-2013. The essential oil was extracted from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem and flower by hydrodistillation. The essential oil was phytochemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial properties were examined by disc diffusion and microtiter plates. Antioxidant activity was examined by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Findings: E-Citral in leaves, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl in stem, and Trans-Carveol in flower were the major components identified in the Melissa officinalis. Among different parts essential oil, the highest and the lowest antibacterial activity were related to leaves and stem, respectively. The largest diameter of the inhibition growth zone for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was related to the leaves essential oil. The highest antioxidant activity was related to the leaves essential oil in DPPH assay. Conclusion: With regards to the results, the Melissa officinalis essential oil can be used as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of foods.

  3. Characterization of substituted aryl meroterpenoids from red seaweed Hypnea musciformis as potential antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Joy, Minju; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2016-12-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction of red seaweed Hypnea musciformis was purified to yield three substituted aryl meroterpenoids, namely, 2-(tetrahydro-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-pentylfuran-3-yl)-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1), 2-2-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-oxy]-ethyl-4-methoxy-4-2-[(4-methylpentyl)oxy]-3,4-dihydro-2H-6-pyranylbutanoic acid (2) and 3-((5-butyl-3-methyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-methyl)-4-methoxy-4-oxobutyl benzoate (3). The structures of these compounds, as well as their relative stereochemistries, were confirmed by exhaustive NMR spectroscopic data analyses. Compound 1 exhibited similar 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical inhibiting and Fe(2+) ion chelating activities (IC50 25.05 and 350.7μM, respectively) as that of commercial antioxidant gallic acid (IC50 32.3 and 646.6μM, respectively), followed by 3 (IC50 231.2 and 667.9μM, respectively), and 2 (IC50 322.4 and 5115.3μM, respectively), in descending order of activities. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the antioxidant activities of these compounds were directly proportional to the steric and hydrophobic parameters. The seaweed derived aryl meroterpenoids might serve as potential lead antioxidative molecules for use in pharmaceutical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Appraisal of Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Potential of Folkloric Lannea coromandelica Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

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    Tekeshwar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica and its two ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL, superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL, and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL. Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity.

  5. Hierarchical cluster analysis and chemical characterisation of Myrtus communis L. essential oil from Yemen region and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-colorectal adenocarcinoma properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Crouch, Rebecca A; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A; Setzer, William N; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2017-09-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oil obtained from the dried leaves of Myrtus communis, collected in Yemen, was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-one compounds were identified, representing 96.3% of the total oil. The major constituents of essential oil were oxygenated monoterpenoids (87.1%), linalool (29.1%), 1,8-cineole (18.4%), α-terpineol (10.8%), geraniol (7.3%) and linalyl acetate (7.4%). The essential oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity using a disc diffusion assay and resulted in moderate to potent antibacterial and antifungal activities targeting mainly Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The oil moderately reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC 50  = 4.2 μL/mL or 4.1 mg/mL). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation against HT29 (human colonic adenocarcinoma cells) showed that the essential oil exhibited a moderate antitumor effect with IC 50 of 110 ± 4 μg/mL. Hierarchical cluster analysis of M. communis has been carried out based on the chemical compositions of 99 samples reported in the literature, including Yemeni sample.

  6. Antioxidant and wound healing potential of saponins extracted from the leaves of Algerian Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razika, Laoufi; Thanina, Affif Chaouche; Nadjiba, Chebouti-Meziou; Narimen, Benhabyles; Mahdi, Dahmani Mohamed; Karim, Arab

    2017-05-01

    The Nettle is a herbaceous and vivace plant of Asian origin. It is integrated in several areas especially alimentary, agricultural, industrial and medicinal. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through pharmacological tests a possible antioxidant and wound healing effect of crude saponins of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. The extraction method is based on the degree of solubility of saponins in organic solvents. The antioxidant activity of the leaves extracts was evaluated by the diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl test (DPPH). The wound healing effect is interpreted on the basis of the healing time and the evaluation of the surface of wounds. It appears from this study that the Nettle is rich in saponins, either 4.08% to 30 g of plant powder. The results also showed significant antioxidant effect similar to that of ascorbic acid (p> 0.05) with an IC 50 of 0.159mg/ml. As regards the healing power, treatment of rats with the product based on crude saponins is achieved after 15 days, either 100% of wound reduction. This value is much higher than that obtained by the reference product (Madécassol®) on the same duration of treatment with 93.73% of wound reduction. The achievement of pharmacological tests has thus shown that crude saponins extracted from the leaves of Urtica dioica L. can be integrated into the pharmaceutical field or even in cosmetic.

  7. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Barsett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO, inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

  8. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  9. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Rosemary Essential Oil Treated By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Mohamed, H.G.; Abdel-Khalek, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the irradiated rosemary essential oil at doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy were studied. Rosemary essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were camphor (20.85%), caryophyllene (18.37%), 1, 8-cineole (14.49%), δ-Cadinene (9.59%) and α-Pinene (8.47%). The antibacterial of the rosemary essential oil as well as the minimum inhibitory dosage (MID) values were recorded. The irradiated rosemary essential oil was generally more effective against bacteria than non-irradiated essential oil. The gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus megaterium were more sensitive to non-irradiated and irradiated rosemary essential oil than the gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Pseudomonas hydrophila. The MID values of tested bacteria to rosemary were in the range of 4-16 μl.ml -1 . The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated with two methods, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) was employed as positive control. The natural essential oil showed antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities and it displayed the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Then, 0.1% of irradiated rosemary essential oil was added to sunflower oil as natural antioxidant comparing to 0.02% TBHQ as artificial antioxidant. The results showed that irradiation treatment increased the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil

  10. Ameliorative properties of aqueous extract of Ficus thonningii on erythrocyte osmotic fragility induced by acetaminophen in Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Masekaven Ahur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro antioxidant and erythrocyte protecting activities by aqueous extract of Ficus thonningii leaves on blood cells were studied in acetaminophen treated rats. The extract was safe at limit dose of 5000 mg kg-1body weight. The extract demonstrated dose dependent antihemolytic effect at dose levels between 50 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight. The lowest antihemolytic effect was observed at dose level of 200 mg kg-1 body given the lowest percentage hemolysis of 10.53 ± 1.76%, whereas the highest percentage hemolysis at dose level of 50 mg kg-1 was 29.02 ± 7.45%. Hematology revealed erythrocytosis at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight. Hyper-globinemia and lymphocytopenia were observed at dose levels of 100 mg kg-1 and 200 mg kg-1, respectively. The extract effectively showed scavenging activity on a stable oxidative radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH and a significant ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP activity. The plausible erythrocyte membrane protective effect may be due to its free radical scavenging activity and hence the extract can be used to improve hematological parameters and ameliorate oxidative stress.

  11. Antioxidant activity of puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) as assessed by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Arlene; Thompson, Scott; Stark, Mirjam; Ou, Zong-Quan; Gould, Kevin S

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable interest in antioxidant dietary components that can be protective against degenerative diseases in humans. Puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, and exhibits strong antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. However, the potential of puha to protect against degenerative diseases requires that low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) are absorbed by, and active in, human cells. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of puha leaf extracts. Preparation methods of freezing and freeze-drying reduced the total polyphenolic content compared with fresh puha, but did not affect the LMWA potential as determined by the DPPH assay. The IC(50) values were 0.012 ± 0.003 mg/mL and 0.010 ± 0.005 mg/mL for freeze-dried and fresh puha leaves, respectively. Using the CAA assay, it was shown that LMWAs from foliar extracts of puha were effectively absorbed into HepG2 cells, and exerted antioxidant activity at levels comparable to those of extracts from blueberry fruits, the much-touted antioxidant superfood. Methylene blue staining of HepG2 cells indicated that puha extracts were not cytotoxic at concentrations below 100 mg DW/mL. The data indicate the potential of puha as a nutraceutical supplement for human health. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Rades, Thomas; Larsen, Lesley; McDowell, Arlene

    2013-02-01

    To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity. Separation of phytochemicals and simultaneous assessment of antioxidant activity were performed online using HPLC and post-column reaction with a free-radical reagent (2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, DPPH). Active compounds were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. We applied the online HPLC-DPPH radical assay to evaluate antioxidants in leaves from different positions on the plant and to assess the effect of pre-treatment of leaves with liquid N(2) before grinding, extraction time, extraction temperature and method of concentrating extracts. Key antioxidants identified in S. oleraceus leaf extracts were caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid. Middle leaves contained the highest total amount of the three key antioxidant compounds, consisting mainly of chicoric acid. Pre-treatment with liquid N(2), increasing the extraction temperature and time and freeze-drying the extract did not enhance the yield of the key antioxidants. The online HPLC-DPPH radical assay was validated as a useful screening tool for investigating individual antioxidants in leaf extracts. Optimized extraction conditions were middle leaves pre-treated with liquid N(2), extraction at 25°C for 0.5 h and solvent removal by rotary evaporation. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Influence of postharvest processing and storage conditions on key antioxidants in pūhā (Sonchus oleraceus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Strachan, Clare J; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2014-07-01

    To investigate effects of different postharvest drying processes and storage conditions on key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaves. Fresh leaves were oven-dried (60°C), freeze-dried or air-dried (∼25°C) for 6 h, 24 h and 3 days, respectively. Design of experiments (DOE) was applied to study the stability of antioxidants (caftaric, chlorogenic and chicoric acids) in S. oleraceus leaves and leaf extracts stored at different temperatures (4, 25 and 50°C) and relative humidities (15%, 43% and 75%) for 180 days. The concentration of antioxidants was quantified by a HPLC-2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl post-column derivatisation method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by a cellular antioxidant activity assay. The three antioxidants degraded to unquantifiable levels after oven-drying. More than 90% of the antioxidants were retained by freeze-drying and air-drying. Both leaf and extract samples retained >90% of antioxidants, except those stored at 75% relative humidity. Leaf material had higher antioxidant concentrations and greater cellular antioxidant activity than corresponding extract samples. Freeze-drying and air-drying preserved more antioxidants in S. oleraceus than oven-drying. From DOE analysis, humidity plays an important role in degradation of antioxidants during storage. To preserve antioxidant activity, it is preferable to store S. oleraceus as dried leaf material. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  15. Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Massry, Khaled F; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Shaaban, Hamdy A; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil, dichloromethane extract, and ethanol extract were prepared from fresh Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The essential oil comprised 4.97% monoterpenes, 56.96% sesquiterpenes, 34.37% oxygenated monoterpenes, and 3.32% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major compounds in the essential oil were cis-beta-terpineol (GC peak area%, 17.87%), (E)-caryophyllene (17.56%), beta-cedrene (9.76%), and citronellal (7.03%). The major phenolic compounds identified in the ethanol extract were caffeic acid (5.07 mg/100 mg extract), coumaric acid (1.64 mg), and syringic acid (1.59 mg). The antioxidant activity of ethanol extract, which was comparable with that of butylhydroquinone, was superior to essential oil and dichloromethane extract in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and beta-carotene/bleaching assays. The dichloromethane extract exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity against 6 strains, followed by the ethanol extract and the essential oil.

  16. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  17. Antioxidant activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) leaf extracts: remarkable attenuations of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Haidy S; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Moussa, Ziad; Taha, Kamilia F; Singab, Abdel Nasser B

    2011-04-05

    The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit) leaf extracts (JFEs). The 70% ethanol (JFEE), n-butanol (JFBE), water (JFWE), chloroform (JFCE), and ethyl acetate (JFEAE) extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2 in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 µU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.9 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C) from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE) and by +11% (JFBE). Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  18. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. Materials and Methods: The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*+) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Conclusion: Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases. PMID:27104032

  19. Hypoglycemic effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) aqueous extract is mediated through inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshbishy, Ha; Bahashwan, Sa

    2012-02-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro hypoglycemic activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) aqueous extract. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. The total polyphenols content (TPC), flavonoids content (FC), percentage diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH( · )) radical inhibition and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated. The FC was 41 ± 2.2 rutin/g dry extract, the TPC was 146 ± 5.26 mg catechin/g dry extract and the TAS was 5.12 ± 0.7 mmol/L. The %DPPH( · ) free radical inhibition was 60%, 54%, 49% and 43%, respectively, for different extract concentrations; 20, 18.2, 16.3 and 14.5 mg/ml, respectively. The extract elicited significant dose-dependent pattern against rat intestinal sucrase (RIS; IC(50) = 36.72 mg/ml), rat intestinal maltase (RIM; IC(50) = 21.31 mg/ml) and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA; IC(50) = 42.50 mg/ml) inhibitory activities. The inhibition was greater against maltase compared with sucrase. These effects may be attributed to the high TPC and FC levels. The linear regression analysis revealed strong significant positive correlations between %DPPH( · ) radical inhibition and each of %RIS, %RIM and %PPA inhibiting activity. Also, strong significant positive correlations between %RIS and either %RIM or %PPA inhibition activity were observed. We concluded therefore that basil aqueous extract via antioxidant and possibly α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibiting activities, offered positive benefits to control diabetes.

  20. Development and performance of a 129-GHz dynamic nuclear polarizer in an ultra-wide bore superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumata, Lloyd L; Martin, Richard; Jindal, Ashish K; Kovacs, Zoltan; Conradi, Mark S; Merritt, Matthew E

    2015-04-01

    We sought to build a dynamic nuclear polarization system for operation at 4.6 T (129 GHz) and evaluate its efficiency in terms of (13)C polarization levels using free radicals that span a range of ESR linewidths. A liquid helium cryostat was placed in a 4.6 T superconducting magnet with a 150-mm warm bore diameter. A 129-GHz microwave source was used to irradiate (13)C enriched samples. Temperatures close to 1 K were achieved using a vacuum pump with a 453-m(3)/h roots blower. A hyperpolarized (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal was detected using a saddle coil and a Varian VNMRS console operating at 49.208 MHz. Samples doped with free radicals BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl), trityl OX063 (tris{8-carboxyl-2,2,6,6-benzo(1,2-d:4,5-d)-bis(1,3)dithiole-4-yl}methyl sodium salt), galvinoxyl ((2,6-di-tert-butyl-α-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)-p-tolyloxy), 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 4-oxo-TEMPO (4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy) were assayed. Microwave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) spectra and solid-state (13)C polarization levels for these samples were determined. (13)C polarization levels close to 50 % were achieved for [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid at 1.15 K using the narrow electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidth free radicals trityl OX063 and BDPA, while 10-20 % (13)C polarizations were achieved using galvinoxyl, DPPH and 4-oxo-TEMPO. At this field strength free radicals with smaller ESR linewidths are still superior for DNP of (13)C as opposed to those with linewidths that exceed that of the (1)H Larmor frequency.

  1. Solid-State Fermentation of Silybum marianum L. Seeds Used as Additive to Increase the Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Cizeikiene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Silybum marianum L. seeds were fermented using solid-state fermentation (SSF with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus genera, isolated from spontaneously fermented Lithuanian rye sourdough. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavour of Silybum marianum L. seeds using LAB fermentation was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of the unfermented and LAB-fermented seeds of this plant was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Fermented seeds have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of higher alcohols. Total amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of unfermented and fermented seeds were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results indicate that Silybum marianum L. seeds are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The highest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids (4596 and 1346 mg of rutin equivalents (RE per 100 g, respectively was determined in the seeds fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria in solid-state fermentation. Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 and Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-9 showed stronger antioxidant activity (1263 and 1041 mg of RE per 100 g, respectively, compared to the unfermented seeds (805 mg of RE per 100 g. The addition of Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria had the highest effect on the decrease of the bacterial spoilage of bread. The aroma compounds from the fermented seeds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Ultrasonic pretreatment of the seeds reduced the total amount of microorganisms in the raw material. Microbiological tests revealed that the highest antimicrobial effect was achieved using the solid-state fermentation conditions. This

  2. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytka, Karolina; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Knutelska, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Magdalena; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Kotańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15). Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins-LDL, high density lipoproteins-HDL, triglycerides), glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase). We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma-FRAP, non-protein thiols-NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH) cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant and endothelial protective effects of Lysimachia christinae Hance (Jin Qian Cao) extract fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning-Hua; Ke, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Qing-Jie; Huang, Sheng-Tang; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-10

    Lysimachia christinae Hance is a traditional Chinese medicine with diuretic, detumescent, and detoxifying effects. Our aimed to optimize the extraction protocol to maximize the yield of flavonoids from Lysimachia christinae Hance, and evaluate the pharmacological activities of four fractions, namely, petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (NB), and aqueous (AQ) fractions, of the ethanolic extract of Lysimachia christinae Hance. The flavonoid monomers in the crude extract were characterized via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used as markers for extract quality control and standardization. The total flavonoid, total phenolic, and total polysaccharide contents of each fraction were determined by spectrophotometry. Further, the in vitro free radical (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals) scavenging activities, and antioxidant capacity in endothelial cells were evaluated for each fraction. After optimizing the extraction protocol to maximize the total flavonoid yield from L. christinae Hance, the NB fractions had the highest total flavonoid (39.4 ± 4.55 mg RE/g), total phenolic (41.1 ± 3.07 mg GAE/g) and total polysaccharide (168.1 ± 7.07 mg GE/g); In addition, the NB fraction of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance reveal the strongest radical-scavenging activity, antioxidant activity and protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in HUVECs. Among the four fractions of L. christinae Hance, the NB fraction showed the most potent antioxidant and endothelial protective effects, which may be attributed to its high flavonoid, phenolic contents and optimal portfolio of different active ingredients of NB fractions of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance. This study might improve our understanding of the pharmacological activities of L. christinae Hance, thereby facilitating its use in disease prevention and treatment.

  4. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O

    2016-01-01

    Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*(+)) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*(+). Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases.

  5. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Plectranthus stocksii Hook. f. leaf and stem extracts

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    Kasipandi Muniyandi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of Plectranthus stocksii—a well-known folk medicinal plant—were investigated. The plant extracts were successively extracted and tested for phytochemicals using high performance liquid chromatography, while antioxidant and anticancerous properties were assessed using MCF-7, Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cancerous cell line models. The methanolic extract of leaves showed higher concentrations of total phenolics (415.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and tannins (177.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract contents than other studied extracts. In the case of flavonoids, ethyl acetate extract of leaf (LEA showed a higher concentration (777.11 mg rutin equivalents/g extract and was also found to have better antioxidant activity against stable radical 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (3.46 μg/mL, 2,2′azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid disodium salt radical (27.41 mM Trolox equivalent/g extract and superoxide (24.16 μg/mL radicals and showed better IC50 (the concentration of the sample at which the inhibition rate reaches 50% values on MCF-7 (48.874 μg/mL and Caco-2 (36.088 μg/mL cancerous cell line models. The immense anti-oxidant potential of P. stocksii leaf and stem extracts could be utilized as a good source of natural, anti-oxidant supplement in food to defend against oxidative-stress-related disorders and more generally in the food safety industry.

  6. Quantitative analysis of Curcuminoid collected from different location in Indonesia by TLC-Densitometry and its antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Artanti, A. N.; Rinanto, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Curcuminoid, consisting of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis demethoxycurcumin, is the active compound in Curcuma longa L. rhizome. It yielded vary depend on the environment and varieties. Curcumin has been known to have a potent antioxidants activity. The present work was conducted to assess the curcuminoid content and antioxidant capacity in the crude extracts of C. longa L. collected from eight different locations in Indonesia. Samples were collected from eight locations including Java island, Sumatera island and Nusa Tenggara island. All samples were extracted using 96% ethanol and analyzed quantitatively using TLC-Densitometry. Antioxidant activity was assessed using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and analyzed at 517 nm using a spectrophotometer. Curcuminoid content in C. longa varied among eight different locations (0.53±0.05 - 5.33±0.12 % w/w). The highest curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin yield were found in the samples from Magetan (5.33±0.12%, 1.54±0.05%, 0.46±0.02% w/w, respectively). In contrast, the lowest curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin yield were found in the sample from Demak (0.53±0.05%, 0.17±0.05%, 0.17±0.05% w/w, respectively). Antioxidant capacity showed similar for all places unless sample from Magetan which exhibited two times lower than other locations. It is apparently curcuminoid content and antioxidant activity varied among places. These results are useful information for curcuminoid standardization method in pharmaceutical products.

  7. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats.

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    Karolina Pytka

    Full Text Available Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxyethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14 and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxyethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15. Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents, lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins-LDL, high density lipoproteins-HDL, triglycerides, glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase. We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma-FRAP, non-protein thiols-NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  8. Antioxidant activity of insect gall extracts of Pistacia integerrima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Lakshmikantha, Ramachandra Yarappa; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Surendranath, Austin Richard; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia integerrima (P. integerrina) insect galls are widely used in ayurveda and siddha system of medicine as karkatasringi. The use of leaf galls as a rejuvenator may be attributed to antioxidant property, however there is less scientific evidence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and ethanol) of P. integerrina, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications. The antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. The presences of phenolics, tannins, phytosterols, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the ethanolic extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 234 ±2.4 mg of GAE/g d.w. and 95.5 ±3.2 mg of QUE/g d.w., respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated with higher antioxidant activity. This study demonstrates the poetnet antioxidant activities of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts. Further, there was a strong association between the higher antioxidant activities with that of higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of P. integerrima. The results encourage the use of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications, due to their antioxidant properties. Future work will be interesting to learn the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present in the extract for development as a drug for therapeutic application.

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit Leaf Extracts: Remarkable Attenuations of Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

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    Haidy S. Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit leaf extracts (JFEs. The 70% ethanol (JFEE, n-butanol (JFBE, water (JFWE, chloroform (JFCE, and ethyl acetate (JFEAE extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 μU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.91 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE and by +11% (JFBE. Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  10. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  11. In vivo and in vitro addition of dried olive extract in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Annie J; Griffin, Johanna K; Roslan, Fahkirah

    2014-08-06

    A freeze-dried powder from organic olive (Olea europaea) juice extract, contains 8.82% polyphenols and a minimum of 2.5% hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol), an effective free radical scavenger and the major antioxidant in the byproduct (dried olive extract, DOE). Myricetin, a bioflavonoid extract from the bark powder of the bayberry tree (Myrica cerifera), also has many beneficial biological properties and antioxidative capacity. While well-known as antioxidants, the capacity of these compounds to retard lipid oxidation in foods containing unsaturated fatty acids has not been widely evaluated. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the capacity of DOE to (1) enhance the growth of poultry, (2) determine the effectiveness of DOE (administered in vivo) as an antioxidant in post-mortem tissue and further processed meat, and (3) compare the in vitro antioxidative capacity of hydroxytyrosol and myricetin. DOE was administered ad libitum in water at 6 and 12 mg per bird per day for 6 weeks in a factorial design: 3 diets (control plus two treatment levels) × 2 blocks × 2 replications. There was no enhancement of feed consumption, body weight (BW), or feed conversion by DOE; overall means for these measurements were 5.49 kg per bird, 3.32 kg per bird, and 1.65 g feed per g live BW, respectively. Diagnostic examinations of two birds per pen at the end of the study revealed no adverse effects due to consumption of DOE, a generally recognized as safe substance. The byproduct, administered in vivo, did not retard lipid oxidation in fresh, heated, or NaCl (1.0% w/w)/heated/stored meat as assessed by absorbance values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at 532 nm and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl at 517 nm. Both the byproduct and hydroxytyrosol are highly water-soluble and may have been unavailable as an antioxidant in the tissue of broilers that did not consume water for 4-6 h prior to processing. As an additive in processed thigh meat, 6 and 12 mg of DOE (2

  12. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  13. Chemical analysis of Punica granatum fruit peel and its in vitro and in vivo biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathikannan, Kaliyan; Venkatadri, Babu; Khusro, Ameer; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Agastian, Paul; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Choi, Han Sung; Kim, Young Ock

    2016-07-30

    The medical application of pomegranate fruits and its peel is attracted human beings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro α-Glucosidase inhibition, antimicrobial, antioxidant property and in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity of Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit peel extract using Caenorhabditis elegans. Various invitro antioxidant activity of fruit peel extracts was determined by standard protocol. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined using disc diffusion and microdilution method respectively. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of fruit peel was observed using fluorescence microscope for in vivo study. The ethyl acetate extract of P. granatum fruit peel (PGPEa) showed α-Glucosidase inhibition upto 50 % at the concentration of IC50 285.21 ± 1.9 μg/ml compared to hexane and methanol extracts. The total phenolic content was highest (218.152 ± 1.73 mg of catechol equivalents/g) in ethyl acetate extract. PGPEa showed more scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 value 302.43 ± 1.9 μg/ml and total antioxidant activity with IC50 294.35 ± 1.68 μg/ml. PGPEa also showed a significant effecton lipid peroxidation IC50 208.62 ± 1.68 μg/ml, as well as high reducing power. Among the solvents extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract of fruit peel showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Ethyl acetate extract supplemented C.elegans worms showed inhibition of lipid accumulation similar to acarbose indicating good hypoglycemic activity. The normal worms compared to test (ethyl acetate extract supplemented) showed the highest hypoglycaemic activity by increasing the lifespan of the worms. GC-MS analysis of PGPEa showed maximum amount of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 4-fluorobenzyl alcohol (48.59 %). In the present investigation we observed various biological properties of pomegranate fruit peel. The results clearly indicated that pomegranate peel extract could be used in preventing

  14. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    potassium application [120 kg ha -1 extract, all extracts showed high and similar DPPH scavenging activity. The highest phenolic compounds were obtained with 30 kg ha -1 of K 2 SO 4 , whereas the use of 60 kg ha -1 caused the highest total flavonoid content. This plant is a good source of K + , Ca +2 , PO4 -3 , and Cl -1 . In this study, increasing doses of potassium sulfate had significant effect on element, polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the milk thistle. All tested extracts were active against all tested microbial species.All extracts have shown high and similar DPPH scavenging activity.There was a gradual increase in the biological properties of the milk thistle seeds with rising levels of potassium sulfate.The milk thistle seeds are rather rich sources of K + , Ca +2 , PO4 -3 and Cl -1 potentially bioavailable for human consumption. Abbreviations used: AlCl 3 : aluminum chloride, Ca +2 : calcium, Cl - : chloride, Cr: chromium CE: catechol equivalents, DPPH: 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, DAP: diamonyum fosfat, F - : fluoride, Fe: iron, K 2 SO 4 : potassium sulfate, K+ : potassium, Li+: lithium, Mg +2 : magnesium, NH 4 + : amonyum, Na + : sodium, NO 2 - : nitrite, NO 3 - : nitrate, Ni: nickel, NaNO 2 : sodium nitrite, NaOH: sodium hidroksit. ND: Not detectable, PO4 -3 : phosphorus, Zn: zinc.

  15. Further Investigation Into Maple Syrup Yields Three New Lignans, a New Phenylpropanoid, and Twenty-Six Other Phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, LIYA; SEERAM, NAVINDRA P.

    2011-01-01

    ,3-propanediol (12), syringaresinol (13), isolariciresinol (14), icariside E4 (15), sakuraresinol (16), 1,2-diguaiacyl-1,3-propanediol (17), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (19), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-one (20), dihydroconiferyl alcohol (21), 4-acetylcatechol (22), 3′,4′,5′-trihydroxyacetophenone (23), 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde (24), protocatechuic acid (25), 4-(dimethoxymethyl)-pyrocatechol (26), tyrosol (27), isofraxidin (28) and 4-hydroxycatechol (29). One sesquiterpene, phaseic acid (30), which is a known metabolite of the phytohormone, abscisic acid, was also isolated from MS-EtOAc. The antioxidant activities of MS-EtOAc (IC50 = 75.5 μg/mL), and the pure isolates (IC50 ca. 68–3000 μM) were comparable to vitamin C (IC50 = 40 μM) and the synthetic commercial antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (IC50 = 3000 μM), in the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The current study advances scientific knowledge of maple syrup constituents and suggest that these diverse phytochemicals may impart potential health benefits to this natural sweetener. PMID:21675726

  16. Further investigation into maple syrup yields 3 new lignans, a new phenylpropanoid, and 26 other phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-07-27

    ,3-propanediol (12), syringaresinol (13), isolariciresinol (14), icariside E4 (15), sakuraresinol (16), 1,2-diguaiacyl-1,3-propanediol (17), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (19), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-one (20), dihydroconiferyl alcohol (21), 4-acetylcatechol (22), 3',4',5'-trihydroxyacetophenone (23), 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde (24), protocatechuic acid (25), 4-(dimethoxymethyl)pyrocatechol (26), tyrosol (27), isofraxidin (28), and 4-hydroxycatechol (29). One sesquiterpene, phaseic acid (30), which is a known metabolite of the phytohormone abscisic acid, was also isolated from MS-EtOAc. The antioxidant activities of MS-EtOAc (IC(50) = 75.5 μg/mL) and the pure isolates (IC(50) ca. 68-3000 μM) were comparable to that of vitamin C (IC(50) = 40 μM) and the synthetic commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (IC(50) = 3000 μM), in the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The current study advances scientific knowledge of maple syrup constituents and suggests that these diverse phytochemicals may impart potential health benefits to this natural sweetener.