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Sample records for dioxin-like pcb levels

  1. Evaluation and interconversion of various indicator PCB schemes for ∑PCB and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2015-01-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (∑PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ∑PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ∑PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union.

  2. Study of dioxin and dioxin-like PCB levels in fatty fish from Sweden 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankarberg, E.; Bjerselius, R.; Aune, M.; Darnerud, P.O.; Larsson, L.; Andersson, A.; Toernkvist, A.; Glynn, A. [Swedish National Food Administration, Research and Development Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Tysklind, M.; Bergek, S. [Environmental Chemistry, Umea Univ. (Sweden); Lundstedt-Enkel, K. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Karlsson, L. [Inst. of Freshwater Research, National Board of Fisheries, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in fatty fish from the Baltic Sea area are still of major concern in Sweden, although the levels have decreased in Baltic Sea biota since the 1970. During later years this decrease seems to have leveled off, and at least dioxin levels in Baltic herring seem to be more or less the same during the last 10 years period. Harmonised EU maximum levels have been established for PCDD/Fs in fish and fishery products for human consumption, and the maximum level is 4 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fresh weight. Certain fatty fish species in the Baltic Sea are shown to have levels of PCDD/Fs exceeding the maximum level. However, because of protective dietary advice, Sweden and Finland have an exemption from the Council regulation that allows national marketing of fish and fishery products that exceed the maximum level for PCDD/F. For dioxin-like PCBs, common EU maximum levels have not yet been established. However, during 2004 the Commission will review the present maximum levels for dioxins in the light of new data, with a particular aim to include dioxin-like PCBs. The Swedish National Food Administration (NFA) has undertaken a survey to analyse the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in fatty fish in the Baltic Sea area. The study presents results from analyses of eel (Anguilla anguilla), salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), cod (Gadus morhua callarias) and vendace (roe) (from Coregonus albula) from several locations in the Baltic Sea. This study reports the fifth part of the results from the analyses. The entire study is available on www.slv.se as interim reports 1-5.

  3. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  4. PCB 126 and Other Dioxin-Like PCBs Specifically Suppress Hepatic PEPCK Expression via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuo; Sargis, Robert M.; Volden, Paul A.; Carmean, Christopher M.; Sun, Xiao J.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, commenced early in the 20th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism. PMID:22615911

  5. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  6. Reproduction of European eel jeopardised by high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, C; Focant, J-F; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Belpaire, C

    2011-09-01

    Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in muscle tissue from yellow phased European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 38 sites in Belgium. Dioxin concentrations in eel vary considerably between sampling locations, indicating that yellow eel is a good indicator of local pollution levels. Measured levels of dioxin-like PCBs are much higher than those of the dioxins and furans. In the majority of the sites, eel has levels considered to be detrimental for their reproduction. Field levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are therefore suggested as an additional causal factor contributing to the decline of the European eel. 42% of the sampling sites show especially dioxin-like PCB levels exceeding the European consumption level (with a factor 3 on average). Human consumption of eel, especially in these highly contaminated sites, seems unjustified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittsiepe, J.; Schrey, P.; Lemm, F.; Wilhelm, M. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Abt. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (Germany); Fuerst, P. [Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Muenster (Germany); Kraft, M. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany); Eberwein, G. [Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen (Germany); Winneke, G. [Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is done by analyzing both blood and milk samples. With reference to calculation of Toxicity Equivalents (TEq) as published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 determination of 17 PCDD/F congeners together with 4 non- and 8 mono-ortho PCB congeners is the preferred method. In contrast to data on PCDD/F only little is known on background levels of dioxin-like PCB in human blood or milk samples. In the present study we report on PCDD/F and PCB levels in human blood samples of pregnant women living in an industrialized area of Germany and of human milk samples from the same women taken in the first weeks after birth. The investigations demonstrate the current background levels found in Germany, make a contribution for the assessment of preand postnatal exposure of infants and show correlations between the two matrices.

  8. Transcriptomics identifies differences between ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like PCB126 in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wens, B.; De Boever, P.; Maes, M.; Hollanders, K.; Schoeters, G.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain ubiquitously present in human lipids despite the ban on their production and use. Their presence can be chemically monitored in peripheral blood samples of the general population. We tested whether in vitro exposure to different PCB congeners induced different gene expression profiles in peripheral blood cells. We have isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood of 8 healthy individuals and exposed these cells in vitro to individual non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCB congeners (PCB52, 138 or 180; 10 μM) or dioxin-like (DL)-PCB congener PCB126 (1 μM) during 18 h. Differential gene expression response was measured using Agilent whole-human genome microarrays. Two-way ANOVA analysis of the data showed that both gender and PCB exposure are important factors influencing gene expression responses in blood cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis of genes influenced by PCB exposure, revealed that DL-PCB126 induced a different gene expression response compared to the NDL-PCBs. Biological interpretation of the results revealed that exposure to PCB126 induced the AhR signaling pathway, whereas the induction of nuclear receptor pathways by the NDL-PCBs was limited in blood cells. Nevertheless, molecular responses of blood cells to individual PCB congeners revealed significantly expressed genes that play a role in biological functions and processes known to be affected by PCB exposure in vivo. Observed gene expression changes in this in vitro model were found to be related to hepatotoxicity, immune and inflammatory response and disturbance of lipid and cholesterol homeostasis.

  9. Levels of dioxin-like compounds in Taiwan foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated DibenzoFurans (PCDFs), and WHO PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the consumption rate of foodstuffs are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in foodstuffs increases the population risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs in 2001 and 2002. In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. The DLCs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs is, therefore, being surveyed for the first time.

  10. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB bioaccumulation by Manila clam from polluted areas of Venice lagoon (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfriso, Adriano; Facca, Chiara; Raccanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    POP bioaccumulation pathways in the clam Tapes philippinarum were examined for two years from juveniles to adult size. Two polluted sites, one with sandy sediment, the other muddy were compared with a reference site characterized by low contamination levels. Juvenile clams coming from a hatchery were reared both on the sediment and in nets suspended at 30 cm from the bottom. POP changes in clam tissue were related to the concentrations recorded in sediments and in the particulate matter during the entire fattening period. Results provided interesting data on the relationships between environmental contamination and bioaccumulation. Contrary to studies on the decontamination times of the clams collected in polluted areas, this work investigates the preferential clam bioaccumulation pathways during growth under different environmental conditions. In general POP bioaccumulation resulted to be correlated to concentrations in SPM rather than in sediments and was higher in S-clams rather than in B-clams. -- Highlights: • PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCB accumulation in clam tissues during growth. • Muddy and sandy polluted areas. • How sediment and suspended matter contamination affect clam toxicity. • Clam toxicity and law limits. -- Clam bioaccumulation pathways in polluted areas

  11. Dioxin-like (PCB 126) and non dioxin-like (PCB 153) action on DNA damage and apoptosis in granulosa cells. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoraszczuk, E.L.; Wojtowicz, A. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland); Kapiszewska, M.; Magnowska, Z. [Dept. of General Biochemistry, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Approximately 60-90% of all cancer cases are now generally believed to be due to environmental factors, to which humans are exposed by taking food, and water or inhaling air. These chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be subdivided into different classes. TCDD was classified as group (documented carcinogen in humans) Benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene were included into group 2A (probably carcinogen in humans). PCB is not mentioned in this list. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) maintains a register of human carcinogens and suspected human carcinogens. The capacity of PCBs to induce DNA strand breaks has been studied to a lesser degree and is quite controversial. DNA strand breaks are the potentially mutagenic lesions that have been proposed as a genotoxicity biomarker for the biomonitoring of environmental pollutants. The mutations induced by these lesions in pollutant-exposed populations are believed to be induced by chemical carcinogens. The formation of PCB adducts has been demonstrated and measured in vitro and in vivo 3. The capacity of PCBs to form DNA adducts depends on their metabolic rate, which is determined by the degree of chlorination. The aim of the presented preliminary data was to evaluate the follicular stage-specific action of PCB 126 and PCB 153 on DNA damage and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

  12. Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB exposure of non-breastfed Dutch infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P J M; Bakker, Martine I; Korver, K R; Goor Ghanaviztchi, K van; Wijnen, Joop H van

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of humans to PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs, i.e. polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) occurs predominantly via the intake of food. Young children have a relatively high intake of these substances, due to their

  13. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  14. PCB Concentrations and Dioxin-like Activity in Blood Samples from Danish School Children and Their Mothers living in Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of major concern due to a diversity of adverse effects from prolonged exposure and bioaccumulation. Manufacturing of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a subgroup of POPs, has been prohibited for many decades; however, human exposure still...... occurs due to the persistent nature of the chemicals. The concentrations of the dioxin-like PCB congeners 105, 118 and 156 and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, HCB and β-HCH as well as the dioxin-like activity using the Ah......R transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were...

  15. Blood levels of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and TEQs in general populations: a review, 1989-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; Sindaco, Raffaella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive worldwide literature review of blood levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in non-exposed adult general populations was performed. The studies published in 1989-2010 reporting information on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho-PCBs (nPCBs), mono-ortho-PCBs (mPCBs) levels and Toxic Equivalencies (TEQs, a summary weighted measure of their combined toxicity) were reviewed. TEQs were calculated using as standard the most recent WHO 2005 reevaluation of Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs). Weighted multiple regression analyses adjusted for year, subject's age, type of sample analyzed, method used for values below detection limit, and central tendency measure used were performed for each congener and standardized TEQs (log-transformed). We identified 187 studies regarding 29,687 subjects of 26 countries. Year of blood collection ranged from 1985 to 2008. The studies reporting congener levels 161. In adjusted analyses, European countries showed higher levels of most dioxin-like congeners and TEQs. A strong positive association of subjects' age with most congeners and with TEQ values was found, confirming previous findings. Significant decreases over time (1985-2008) were documented for PCCDs, PCDFs, and TEQs including their contributions. No significant decrease was found for non-ortho-PCBs, notably PCB 126. Only some mono-ortho-PCBs showed clear significant declines. Accordingly, TEQs including only PCB contribution did not decrease over time. In interpreting these findings, it should be considered that for dioxin-like PCBs the analysis period was shorter (17 years), since these compounds were first measured in 1992. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallani, B.; Verstraete, F. [European Commission, DG SANCO, Brussels (Belgium); Boix, A.; Holst, C. von; Anklam, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Regulation (EC) No 466/2001 as amended by Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 of November 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, inter alia dioxins, stipulates that foodstuffs should not, when placed on the market, contain higher contaminant levels than those specified in that Regulation. The Regulation also states that the Commission shall review Section 5 of Annex I, which outlines the maximum levels for dioxins and furans in food, by 31 December 2004 at the latest, in the light of new data on the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, in particular with a view to the inclusion of dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Section 5 of Annex I shall be further reviewed by 31 December 2006 at the latest with the aim of significantly reducing the maximum levels. An EC Recommended Monitoring Programme for Food (Ref 1) was discussed to provide the Commission with the necessary data to make it possible to meet these commitments. A considerable amount of data was received by the Commission on the occurrence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and was analysed to determine whether any patterns emerge in the ratios between dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in certain food types or in certain areas. Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as amended by Commission Directive 2003/57/EC of 17 June 2003 on undesirable substances in animal feed establishes maximum levels for dioxins in several feed materials and compound feeding stuffs. Similar revision clauses to the Regulation on food apply to this Directive on feeding stuffs. A monitoring programme similar to the one recommended for food was discussed for undesirable substances in animal feed (Ref 2). Data submitted by Member states on the occurrence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed have also been analysed to determine whether any patterns emerge in the ratios between dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in certain feedstuffs or in certain areas. This paper describes

  17. Optimization of an oil leaching process to reduce the level of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fishmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Åge; Kvamme, Bjørn

    2013-05-01

    Fishmeal produced from fish caught in polluted fishing areas might contain dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above maximum permitted levels (MPL) for use in feed. Decontamination of the fishmeal can be achieved by hexane extraction. The principal objective of this study was to optimize a more environmentally friendly alternative based on oil leaching of the moist presscake intermediate product during fishmeal manufacturing. A central composite design and response surface methodology was used to study the influence of the process variables temperature (T), presscake moisture content (MC) and leaching time (LT) on the decontamination process. A significant squared MC effect was observed, resulting in an optimum leaching rate at 27% MC. This corresponds to 5% improved dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzo furan (PCDD/F)-PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) reduction compared to normal presscake (55% MC). The initial leaching rate was fast, with a TEQ reduction of 69% after only 2 min at 87 °C and 55% MC. Under the best experimental conditions (87 °C, 38% MC, 12 min LT) a TEQ reduction of 82% was achieved. Excess oil in the presscake after the leaching operation could be removed by use of a water washing step. No reduction in protein quality measured by mink digestibility could be observed. The results confirm that the oil leaching process is robust and offers easily achievable TEQ levels well below present MPLs based on process conditions normally used by the industry. Comparative effects on non-dioxin-like PCBs are expected. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  19. Mode of action of dioxin-like versus non-dioxin-like PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeters, G. [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Dept. of Environemental Toxicology (Belgium)]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Birnbaum, L. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of humans to polychlorinated biphenyls has been associated with different adverse effects such as immune impairment, changes in hormone levels, reproductive and neuropsychological changes and cancer. It is difficult to attribute the observed effects to either dioxin-like, non-dioxin-like PCBs or to both. All known human exposures are mixed, comprising dioxin and non-dioxin like PCB congeners as well as dioxins and furans. The purpose of this work was to evaluate, based on mechanistic data available in the open literature, whether non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) themselves may pose specific health risks. It is clear that dioxin and NDL-PCBs differ in the spectrum of metabolizing enzymes they induce, but the mechanistic links to health of these biochemical changes remain unclear at the moment. NDL-PCBs also cause immunotoxicity and tumor promotion via different mechanisms than do dioxin-like PCBs. We focus on neurotoxicity which has been associated with developmental exposure to PCBs and which is considered as one of the most sensitive adverse health effects.

  20. Diffuse emissions of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB from industrial sources in the Flemish region (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, F.; Blondeel, M.; Bernaert, P.; Baert, R. [Ministry of the Flemish Community - Environmental Inspection Section, Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In Belgium, and especially in the Flemish region, the contamination of the environment and food chain with PCDD/F and PCB has been a major public concern during the past decade. The largest point sources of PCDD/F emissions have been monitored and tackled by the Environment Inspection Section (EIS) since 1993. This has caused a very significant emission reduction, which in its turn had a considerable impact on lowering the environmental and food PCDD/F levels, both in the immediate surroundings of the sources and on a regional scale. However, at a few measurement locations, levels of PCDD/F in deposition samples and in cow's milk remained increased despite the stack emission reduction of nearby sources. Recently, also increased dioxinlike PCB levels were found at some locations. This has led to an investigation of the contribution of diffuse emission sources, revealing the importance of such sources at particular plants, mainly in the non-ferrous metal and scrap metal sectors.

  1. Assessment of exposure and transfer of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs. Literature review; Expositionsbetrachtung und Beurteilung des Transfers von Dioxinen, dioxinaehnlichen PCB und PCB. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany); Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Becker, Leonie [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde und Bodenerhaltung

    2011-09-15

    Causal correlations between environmental contamination with PCBs and PCDD/Fs and food and feed contamination with these substances are not been found so far. Because of the high importance of the transfer of these substances into the food chain this is subject to wide research. The present literature review summarizes the actual knowledge regarding emission, exposition and transfer of PCBs and Dioxins within the food chain. A particular focus has been laid to sources of emission, distribution processes and exposure assessment for environment and consumer. International publications as well as publications and reports on a German national level and so called ''grey'' literature were evaluated. In general it can be noticed that comparison of different publications is difficult since the authors usually do not differentiate between non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). Most authors mix dl-PCBs and ndl-PCBs, a breakdown of the PCBs in single congeners is rarely given. Extended Abstract Due to atmospheric translocation PCBs and PCDD/Fs are ubiquitous distributed in the environment. The emissions in Germany could be reduced drastically in the first half of the nineties due to regulatory restrictions. At the same time contaminations detected in food and feed dropped down. But since 1997 no significant further reduction of environmental concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs can be observed. Present emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs derive from nonpoint sources mainly, e.g. remobilisation from soils and sediments by surface erosion and volatilization. Further increasing emissions of PCDD/Fs are expected due to promotion of renewable energies (combustion of wood). A short term reduction of environmental concentrations is not likely due to the persistence of the compounds. Major exposure pathway for plants is via dry and wet deposition of contaminated particles and volatiles, depending on the physical-chemical properties of the various congeners. Uptake by

  2. Assessment of exposure and transfer of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs. Literature review; Expositionsbetrachtung und Beurteilung des Transfers von Dioxinen, dioxinaehnlichen PCB und PCB. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany); Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Becker, Leonie [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde und Bodenerhaltung

    2011-09-15

    Causal correlations between environmental contamination with PCBs and PCDD/Fs and food and feed contamination with these substances are not been found so far. Because of the high importance of the transfer of these substances into the food chain this is subject to wide research. The present literature review summarizes the actual knowledge regarding emission, exposition and transfer of PCBs and Dioxins within the food chain. A particular focus has been laid to sources of emission, distribution processes and exposure assessment for environment and consumer. International publications as well as publications and reports on a German national level and so called ''grey'' literature were evaluated. In general it can be noticed that comparison of different publications is difficult since the authors usually do not differentiate between non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). Most authors mix dl-PCBs and ndl-PCBs, a breakdown of the PCBs in single congeners is rarely given. Extended Abstract Due to atmospheric translocation PCBs and PCDD/Fs are ubiquitous distributed in the environment. The emissions in Germany could be reduced drastically in the first half of the nineties due to regulatory restrictions. At the same time contaminations detected in food and feed dropped down. But since 1997 no significant further reduction of environmental concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs can be observed. Present emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs derive from nonpoint sources mainly, e.g. remobilisation from soils and sediments by surface erosion and volatilization. Further increasing emissions of PCDD/Fs are expected due to promotion of renewable energies (combustion of wood). A short term reduction of environmental concentrations is not likely due to the persistence of the compounds. Major exposure pathway for plants is via dry and wet deposition of contaminated particles and volatiles, depending on the physical-chemical properties of the various

  3. The mechanism for enhanced oxidation degradation of dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-77) in the atmosphere by the solvation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mei-Ling; Yang, Jia-Wen; Li, Yu

    2017-07-11

    The reaction pathways of PCB-77 in the atmosphere with ·OH, O 2 , NO x , and 1 O 2 were inferred based on density functional theory calculations with the 6-31G* basis set. The structures the reactants, transition states, intermediates, and products were optimized. The energy barriers and reaction heats were obtained to determine the energetically favorable reaction pathways. To study the solvation effect, the energy barriers and reaction rates for PCB-77 with different polar and nonpolar solvents (cyclohexane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, and water) were calculated. The results showed that ·OH preferentially added to the C5 atom of PCB-77, which has no Cl atom substituent, to generate the intermediate IM5. This intermediate subsequently reacted with O 2 via pathway A to generate IM5a, with an energy barrier of 7.27 kcal/mol and total reaction rate of 8.45 × 10 -8  cm 3 /molecule s. Pathway B involved direct dehydrogenation of IM5 to produce the OH-PCBs intermediate IM5b, with an energy barrier of 28.49 kcal/mol and total reaction rate of 1.15 × 10 -5  cm 3 /molecule s. The most likely degradation pathway of PCB-77 in the atmosphere is pathway A to produce IM5a. The solvation effect results showed that cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, and benzene could reduce the reaction energy barrier of pathway A. Among these solvents, the solvation effect of benzene was the largest, and could reduce the total reaction energy barrier by 25%. Cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethanol could increase the total reaction rate of pathway A. The increase in the reaction rate of pathway A with benzene was 8%. The effect of solvents on oxidative degradation of PCB-77 in the atmosphere is important. Graphical abstract The reaction pathways of PCB-77 in the atmosphere with •OH, O2, NOx, and 1O2 were inferred based on density functional theory

  4. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB bioaccumulation by Manila clam from polluted areas of Venice lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, Adriano; Facca, Chiara; Raccanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    POP bioaccumulation pathways in the clam Tapes philippinarum were examined for two years from juveniles to adult size. Two polluted sites, one with sandy sediment, the other muddy were compared with a reference site characterized by low contamination levels. Juvenile clams coming from a hatchery were reared both on the sediment and in nets suspended at 30 cm from the bottom. POP changes in clam tissue were related to the concentrations recorded in sediments and in the particulate matter during the entire fattening period. Results provided interesting data on the relationships between environmental contamination and bioaccumulation. Contrary to studies on the decontamination times of the clams collected in polluted areas, this work investigates the preferential clam bioaccumulation pathways during growth under different environmental conditions. In general POP bioaccumulation resulted to be correlated to concentrations in SPM rather than in sediments and was higher in S-clams rather than in B-clams. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food of animal origin in the Netherlands during the period 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Schoss, Stefanie; Theelen, Rob M C; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (DL-PCBs) in food of animal origin produced in the Netherlands, including potential trends in time. Test results from about 2500 samples of animal derived food products (beef, veal, lamb, chicken, pork, deer, milk and eggs), sampled for the National Residue Monitoring Plan from 2001-2011, were evaluated. Most samples were screened with a bioassay and, if suspected, analysed by GC-HRMS. The fraction of samples which were non-compliant with European maximum levels was rather low, being below 1% for most food products, except for lamb. Exceedance of action levels was particularly observed for lamb and beef. To obtain an insight into background levels, a randomly taken part of the samples was directly analysed by GC-HRMS. In general, only minor decreases in mean PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations could be observed for the period 2001-2011. This may be due to a plateauing of current background levels but also to factors like the sensitivity of the analytical method.

  6. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of

  7. A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

  8. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring

  9. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  10. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  12. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in Irish farmed salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruemping, R.; Hamm, S.; Stegemann, D.; Maulshagen, A. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    A recent survey published by Hites in the journal Science compared the level of organochlorine contaminants including PCBs and dioxins in farmed versus wild salmon collected from around the world. Most organochlorine substances analysed in the study show a significantly higher concentration level in farmed than in wild salmon. While dioxin and PCB levels of wild fish mainly reflect the contamination level of the environment in which the fish is grown, the dioxin and PCB concentration in farmed fish may mainly be attributed to the fish feed used. In January 2004, the Irish Sea Fisheries Board (BIM) conducted the present study on the concentration of Polychlorinated Dibenzo(p)dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike PCBs (WHO-PCBs) in farmed salmon from two locations in Ireland. The present study should examine whether the PCDD/F and WHO-PCB levels of Irish farmed salmon correlate to the dioxin data for farmed Atlantic salmon from other countries in Northern Europe (e.g. Scotland, Faroe Islands and Norway) presented in the study by Hites. In the Hites survey, raw salmon filets with skin on were tested. Since PCBs, dioxins and other organic pollutants are mainly bound to the fish fat, a reduction of fat content by removal of the skin was supposed to lower the amount of organic contaminants. Thus, the effect of skin removal on the dioxin and PCB levels was also examined in the present study. In addition, the influence of cooking the fish meat was investigated.

  13. Constitutive expression of the AHR signaling pathway in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line and modulation by dioxin-like PCB and other AHR ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Manzini, Livio; Carletti, Monica; Nebbia, Carlo

    2015-01-05

    Environmental pollutants, such as dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, benzo(a) pyrene (B[a]P), and flavonoids are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands and may be excreted in dairy milk. The expression of AHR-target genes, particularly those involved in xenobiotic biotransformation, and their modulation by two DL-PCBs, B[a]P, and β-naphthoflavone was investigated in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV). As assessed by quantitative PCR, BME-UV cells expressed a functional AHR signaling pathway. All the AHR ligands induced a concentration-related increase in the transcription of cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1, known to be implicated in the bioactivation of several xenobiotics. Conversely, genes encoding for antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, like quinone oxidoreductase or glutathione S-transferase A2, were not affected or even depressed. This study demonstrates the occurrence and the modulation by different AHR-ligands of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism in BME-UV cells, with the potential generation of (re) active metabolites that may damage mammary tissue and/or affect animal or human health via the contaminated milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the levels of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the Australian population by analysis of pooled human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.; Toms, L.M.L.; Moore, M. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Burniston, D.; Symons, R. [AGAL, Sydney (Australia); Ahokas, J. [RMIT, Melbourne (Australia); Fuerst, P. [State Lab. of NRW, Muenster (Germany); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds are ubiquitously distributed and humans are exposed to them via various sources but primarily through food. They can be detected in air, water, soil, sediment and biota. These compounds are lipid soluble, poorly eliminated and thus can accumulate in human adipose tissue. They can cross the placenta and are also transferred to breast milk during the lactation process. Therefore infants are exposed ante and postnatally. Since PCDD/PCDF concentration in blood and human milk are very similar when concentrations are expressed on a lipid basis, human milk provides a good monitoring tool of exposure for a given population in a given area. Previously the WHO has co-ordinated international studies on dioxin-like compounds in breast milk. These were conducted in 1987/88, 1992/93 and 2001. In summary, these studies demonstrated that levels of dioxins in breast milk are relatively high in industrialised countries when compared to non-industrialised countries that PCDD/PCDFs were higher in human milk from mothers with their first child and that the levels decrease over a given lactation period. The present study aims to examine the levels of these compounds in primiparae women throughout Australia.

  15. Surveillance program on dioxin-like compounds in fatty food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh Junghyuck; Choi Dongmi; Lee Eunju; Hong Mooki [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Although dioxin-like compounds (PCDD/Fs and co-planar PCBs) are environmental contaminants mainly produced from municipal waste incineration, the main route of human intake of these are food. This is because these chemicals have strong tendencies to bioaccumulate in lipid-rich compartments of organisms because of their highly lipophilic property. The contamination levels of dioxin-like compounds depends on species. Species with a higher fat content may have higher contamination levels so that detectable levels are found in fatty food such as meat, eggs, dairy products and fishes. Therefore it is very important to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds in food(especially fatty food) and to do the risk assessment. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds of retail food in Korea and then assess the health risks potentially associated with the dioxin-like compounds intake.

  16. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PCDD/PCDF AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reassessment of the toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) identifies ingestion as a key route of human exposure to these compounds. The reassessme...

  17. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...

  18. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations. Methods Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed for 57 PCB congeners. Serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns were compared between the teachers, to the 2003-4 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data, and to data from 358 Greater Boston area men. Results Teachers at one school had higher levels of lighter (PCB 6-74) congeners compared to teachers from other schools. PCB congener 47 contributed substantially to these elevated levels. Older teachers (ages 50-64) from all schools had higher total (sum of 33 congeners) serum PCB concentrations than age-comparable NHANES reference values. Comparing the teachers to the referent population of men from the Greater Boston area (all under age 51), no difference in total serum PCB levels was observed between the referents and teachers up to 50 years age. However, the teachers had significantly elevated serum concentrations of lighter congeners (PCB 6-74). This difference was confirmed by comparing the congener-specific ratios between groups, and principal component analysis showed that the relative contribution of lighter congeners differed between the teachers and the referents. Conclusions These findings suggest that the teachers in the PCB-containing buildings had higher serum levels of lighter PCB congeners (PCB 6-74) than the referent populations. Examination of the patterns, as well as concentrations of individual PCB congeners in serum is essential to investigating the contributions from potential environmental sources of PCB exposure. PMID:21668970

  19. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  20. Dioxin-like chemicals in bivalves and sediment collected from around Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.F.; Muller, R.; Goudkamp, K. [EnTox, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (AU)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The aquatic environment is a significant sink for persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like chemicals. Besides continuous investigations into sources of higher chlorinated PCDD that have initially been found in soils, and later in dugong and sediments little is known about the levels of dioxin-like chemicals in Australia's aquatic environment. In 2002 the National Dioxin Program (NDP) was commissioned by the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australia. One focus of the NDP was to evaluate background levels of dioxin-like chemicals in Australia's environment. One component of the 'Environmental Levels' project aimed to identify dioxinlike chemicals in the aquatic environment including bivalves collected in both marine, estuarine and freshwater systems. Here we report results from the NDP aquatic study with a particular emphasis on the levels of dioxin-like chemicals in bivalves and sediments respectively in areas from where the bivalves were collected.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  2. Association of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood with nephropathy among US teens and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the association of three chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, a chlorinated dibenzofuran, and four dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human blood with nephropathy (microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) among teens and young adults (12-30 years old) having normal glycohemoglobin (A1c Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy? Environ Res 2014;132:126-31), the cut-offs for these chemicals being considered elevated, were defined as the 75th percentile. Using these same cut-offs again, the proportion of those with one or more of the eight dioxin-like compounds elevated was 9.9%. The four chemicals associated with nephropathy were 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, PCB 126, PCB 169, and PCB 156. The proportion with one or more of these four dioxin-like chemicals elevated was 3.9% (unweighted n=46) and the odds ratio (OR) for nephropathy was 7.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-28.1]. The association was strong among females (OR 17.4, 95% CI 3.4-88.6), but among males there were no cases of nephropathy when one or more of the four dioxin-like chemicals were elevated, and therefore no association. In a separate analysis, elevated toxic equivalency, defined using the eight dioxin-like chemicals (TEQ8), was associated with nephropathy. TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g included 2.6% of the sample (unweighted n=28) and had an OR of 5.8 (95% 1.3-25.9) for nephropathy. As found in the analysis of one or more of four dioxin-like chemicals elevated, TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g was associated with nephropathy among females (OR 11.9, 95% CI 1.6-87.2), but not males. Trends for least-squares means also differed by gender, but there were no significant differences in mean TEQ8 between normal subjects and those having nephropathy in either males or females. We also evaluated pre-diabetes (A1c 5.7-6.4%) without nephropathy and found no associations when one or more of four dioxin-like compounds were elevated, or when TEQ8 was

  3. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  4. Congener-specific metabolism and sequestration of dioxin-like compounds by cytochrome P450 1A induced in the liver of crows from Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Yoneda, K.; Hashimoto, T. [Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Jungle crow (JC; Corvus macrorhynchos) is a useful bioindicator for monitoring contaminants in urban areas, because this species is residential, occupies a same habitat as human, and feeds variety of foods including domestic waste and garbage. Therefore, JCs may accumulate environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), which are released by human activities. Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A is a responsive mechanism elicited by exposure to dioxinlike compounds including PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs. Toxicokinetic behavior of dioxin-like compounds in organisms is controlled by excretion, metabolism and absorption. These processes are, at least partly, dependent on CYP1A expression in addition to chemical structure and number of chlorine substitution of each congener. Low chlorinated congeners such as 2378-T{sub 4}CDD, 2378- T{sub 4}CDF, 12378-P{sub 5}CDD and 33'44'-PCB were easily metabolized by CYP1A1/2 in rat liver microsomes. PCDDs/DFs accumulate in hepatic tissue to a greater extent than adipose tissue in rats and mice. Recent study using transgenic CYP1A2 knockout mice demonstrated that CYP1A2 is responsible for the sequestration of 2378-T{sub 4}CDD and 23478-P{sub 5}CDF in hepatic tissue. Therefore, CYP1A is considered as a key factor responsible for toxicokinetics of dioxin-like compounds. However, there's no comprehensive data on the contribution of CYP1A to the toxicokinetics of dioxin-like congeners in wild populations. In this study, we investigated contamination levels of PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs in liver and breast muscle of JCs from Tokyo, Japan, and interactions of dioxin-like congeners with hepatic CYP to elucidate congener-specific toxicokinetics related to CYP expression in JC.

  5. Are dioxin-like contaminants responsible for the eel ( Anguilla anguilla) drama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, A. P.; van Ginneken, V. J. T.; Murk, A. J.; van den Thillart, G. E. E. J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Eel populations worldwide are dangerously close to collapsing. Our study is the first to show that current levels of dioxin-like contaminants are strong candidates because of their devastating effects on development and survival of eel embryos. Female and male silver eels were artificially stimulated to maturation and reproduction by treatment with carp pituitary extracts and hCG, respectively. During maturation of female European silver eels, about 60 g fat per kg eel is incorporated in the oocytes. Together with the fat, however, persistent organic pollutants such as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are incorporated too. The total dioxin-like toxic potency of the individual gonad batches was determined as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxine equivalents (TEQs), using an in vitro reporter gene assay. The observed differences in development and survival showed a significant negative correlation with the TEQ levels in the gonads, already at levels far below the maximal allowable level for fish consumption, i.e., 4 ng TEQ/kg fish. The clear inverse relationship between the TEQ level and the survival period of the fertilised eggs strongly suggests that the current levels of dioxin-like compounds seriously impair the reproduction of the European eel. The peak of the environmental levels of dioxin-like PCBs and the decline of eel coincide worldwide, further suggesting that, in addition to other threats, these contaminants contributed significantly to the current collapse in eel populations.

  6. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  7. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN A COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: BLOOD LEVELS OF NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs AND RELATIONSHIP WITH BMI AND AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial activities, specifically from petroleum and chemical manufacturing facilities, in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have resulted in releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). I Most of the dioxin found in this region has resulted from the produ...

  8. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, A.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Baumann, R.A.; Boon, P.E.; Freijer, J.I.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Liem, A.K.D.; Traag, W.A.; Vries, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food

  9. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  10. Toxicological profile of ultrapure 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T M; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Leslie, Heather A; Hamers, Timo; Hamscher, Gerd; Al-Anati, Lauy; Stenius, Ulla; Dervola, Kine-Susann; Bogen, Inger-Lise; Fonnum, Frode; Andersson, Patrik L; Schrenk, Dieter; Halldin, Krister; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological

  11. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M.; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Livers of cod from the Barents Sea have been analysed for dioxins, PCBs and PBDEs. • The overall mean concentration of dioxins and DL-PCBs was 14.2 ng TEQ WHO-2005 /kg ww. • The concentrations of dioxins and DL-PCBs varied between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. • 20% of the samples had concentrations higher than 20 ng TEQ/kg ww. • The highest concentrations of dioxins and PCB were found in samples from the east area of the Barents Sea. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB 6 ) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009–2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005 /kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low

  12. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    -p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic equivalency factors have been established for the other PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCB relative to TCDD, and the combined toxicity of a sample can be expressed...... as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data...

  13. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  14. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ingelsson, Erik [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  15. Survey on the presence of non-dioxine-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in south Mediterranean coasts (Sicily, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Calvaruso, Enza; Pantano, Licia; Cascio, Giovanni Lo; Randisi, Barbara; Macaluso, Andrea; Vazzana, Mirella; Caracappa, Giulia; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    A total of 71 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy) were examined for non-dioxine like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) levels in muscle and adipose tissue by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method. The results revealed 6 high-indicator congener (∑ 6 PCB IND ) levels in 45% of the loggerhead turtles examined, with mean values of 980.39 ± 2508.39 ng/g wet weight in adipose tissue and 102.53 ± 238.58 ng/g wet weight in muscle tissue. The hexachloro and heptachloro PCB congeners were the most abundant in both the sample types. The highest NDL-PCB levels were reached in an adipose tissue sample of a loggerhead turtle of 80 kg stranded along the coasts of Termini Imerese (14 183.85 ng/g wet wt). No significant correlation was found between modified Fulton's K values of the loggerhead turtles and PCB contents (S = 47 151, p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between sexes (W = 365, p >  0.05). The PCB levels found in the present study were much higher than those found in the literature. The present study is the first report on the existence of NDL-PCBs in loggerhead turtles stranded in Sicilian coasts confirming C. caretta as a valuable indicator of contaminant exposure in the marine environment because of their specific biological and ecological characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2997-3002. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds Toxic Equivalency Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA requires that, in addition to the total grams released for the entire dioxin and dioxin-like compounds category, TRI facilities must report the quantity for each individual member on a new Form R Schedule 1.

  17. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2018-04-01

    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  18. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is a major, potential complication of diabetes. We assessed the association of 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood with diabetic nephropathy in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted N=2588, population estimate=117,658,357). Diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed (glycohemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) and nephropathy defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Seven of 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, analyzed separately, were found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The chemicals associated with diabetic nephropathy were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; PCB 126; PCB 169; PCB 118; and PCB 156. Three of the 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran and PCB 118; expressed as log-transformed continuous variables; were associated with diabetes without nephropathy. When 4 or more of the 23 chemicals were elevated the odds ratios were 7.00 (95% CI=1.80-27.20) for diabetic nephropathy and 2.13 (95% CI=0.95-4.78) for diabetes without nephropathy. Log-transformed toxic equivalency (TEQ) was associated with both diabetic nephropathy, and diabetes without nephropathy, the odds ratios were 2.35 (95% CI=1.57-3.52) for diabetic nephropathy, and 1.44 (95% CI=1.11-1.87) for diabetes without nephropathy. As the kidneys function to remove waste products from the blood, diabetic nephropathy could be either the cause or the consequence (or both) of exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs. Copyright © 2014

  19. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,2′,3,4,4′,5,5′-Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Leslie, Heather A.; Hamers, Timo; Hamscher, Gerd; Al-Anati, Lauy; Stenius, Ulla; Dervola, Kine-Susann; Bogen, Inger-Lise; Fonnum, Frode; Andersson, Patrik L.; Schrenk, Dieter; Halldin, Krister; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological

  20. Relative effect potency estimates of dioxin-like activity for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in adults based on two thyroid outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Jusko, Todd A; Šovčíková, Eva; Lancz, Kinga; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Palkovičová, L'ubica; Drobná, Beata; Langer, Pavel; Van den Berg, Martin; Dedik, Ladislav; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2013-08-01

    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are an important component in the risk assessment of dioxin-like human exposures. At present, this concept is based mainly on in vivo animal experiments using oral dosage. Consequently, the current human TEFs derived from mammalian experiments are applicable only for exposure situations in which oral ingestion occurs. Nevertheless, these "intake" TEFs are commonly-but incorrectly-used by regulatory authorities to calculate "systemic" toxic equivalents (TEQs) based on human blood and tissue concentrations, which are used as biomarkers for either exposure or effect. We sought to determine relative effect potencies (REPs) for systemic human concentrations of dioxin-like mixture components using thyroid volume or serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration as the outcomes of interest. We used a benchmark concentration and a regression-based approach to compare the strength of association between each dioxin-like compound and the thyroid end points in 320 adults residing in an organochlorine-polluted area of eastern Slovakia. REPs calculated from thyroid volume and FT4 were similar. The regression coefficient (β)-derived REP data from thyroid volume and FT4 level were correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) TEF values (Spearman r = 0.69, p = 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.03, respectively). The calculated REPs were mostly within the minimum and maximum values for in vivo REPs derived by other investigators. Our REPs calculated from thyroid end points realistically reflect human exposure scenarios because they are based on chronic, low-dose human exposures and on biomarkers reflecting body burden. Compared with previous results, our REPs suggest higher sensitivity to the effects of dioxin-like compounds.

  1. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed "fast foods". Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food. This study adds to the previous paper by presenting data, in addition to dioxins and dibenzofurans, on the closely related dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the persistent metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), in four types of popular U.S. fast food. These include McDonald's Big Mac Hamburger, Pizza Hut's Personal Pan Pizza Supreme, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) three piece original recipe mixed dark and white meat luncheon package, and Häagen-Daz chocolate-chocolate chip ice cream. Dioxin plus dibenzofuran dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.28 TEQ pg/g wet or whole weight for the Big Mac, from 0.03 to 0.29 for the Pizza, from 0.01 to 0.31 for the KFC, and from 0.03 to 0.49 TEQ pg/g for the ice cream. Daily TEQ consumption per kilogram body weight (kg/BW), assuming an average 65 kg adult and a 20 kg child, from one serving of each of these fast food ranged between 0.046 and 1.556 pg/kg in adults whereas in children the values were between 0.15 and 5.05 pg/kg. Total measured PCDD/Fs in the Big Mac, Personal Pan Pizza, KFC, and the Häagen-Daz ice cream varied from 0.58 to 9.31 pg/g. Measured DDE levels in the fast foods ranged from 180 to 3170 pg/g. Total mono-ortho PCB levels ranged up to 500 pg/g or 1.28 TEQ pg/g for the KFC and for di-ortho PCBs up to 740 pg/g or 0.014 TEQ pg/g for the pizza sample. Total PCB values in the four samples ranged up to 1170 pg/g or 1.29 TEQ pg/g for the chicken sample.

  2. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babut, M.; Miege, C.; Villeneuve, B.; Abarnou, A.; Duchemin, J.; Marchand, P.; Narbonne, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  3. Non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl indicator congeners in Northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Adam T; Aeppli, Christoph; Burnell, Craig A; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2017-07-15

    In the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWAO), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a promising commercial species following of collapse of traditional groundfish stocks. There are little available data assessing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in NWAO spiny dogfish. Here, six non-dioxin like PCB indicator congeners used in European Union regulations (EU NDL-PCB) were quantified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 50 mature male spiny dogfish landed in southern New England. The average total concentration of EU NDL-PCBs was 58±43ng/g (mean±1 standard deviation). PCB values (corrected for co-elution) were below the 200ng/g EU regulatory limit. Results provide first recent regional insight into the PCB content of spiny dogfish in the NWAO. However, our study offers only a snapshot of one particular dogfish population, and might not be representative for the whole NWAO. This study underscores the need for further testing in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J.; Celander, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  5. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro [Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Celander, Malin C., E-mail: malin.celander@gu.se [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  7. A survey of dioxin-like contaminants in fish from recreational fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Grønstøl, Gaute; Hetland, Karl Torstein; Alarcon, Javier Martinez; Rylander, Charlotta; Mariussen, Espen

    2015-08-01

    The dioxin and dioxin-like compounds are regarded as one of the most toxic group of environmental contaminants. Food for the commercial market is regularly monitored for their dioxin levels and the concentration allowed in food is strictly regulated. Less is known about locally caught fish from recreational fishing, which is often brought home for consumption. This can be fish caught from nearby lakes or streams or fish with marine origin close to industrial areas or harbours that are not regularly monitored for their dioxin levels. In this study, we established collaboration with schools in 13 countries. We received 203 samples of 29 different fish species of which Atlantic cod was the most abundant followed by brown trout and pollock. In general, the majority of samples from the participating countries had low concentrations (between 0.1 and 0.2 pg/g chemical-activated luciferase gene expression toxic equivalency wet weight (CALUX TEQ w.w.)) of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Only 18 samples had concentrations above 1 pg/g CALUX TEQ w.w., and only 2 dab samples had concentration above maximum levels set by the European Commission. The Atlantic cod samples showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of dioxins with increasing latitude indicating less contamination of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the north of Norway. The results indicate that a moderate consumption of self-caught fish at presumed non-contaminated sites does not represent a major risk for exposure to dioxins or dioxin-like compounds at concentrations associated with adverse health effects. Recreational fishermen should, however, obtain knowledge about local fish consumption advice.

  8. The need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chobtang, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments,

  9. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and risk assessment of dioxin-like PCBs along the Chenab river, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Mehmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the occurrence, distribution and dietary risks of seven dl-PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan. ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng g"−"1, wet weight) burden was species-specific and the maximum average concentrations were found in Mastacembelus armatus (5.43), and Rita rita (5.1). Correlation of each dl-PCBs with δ"1"5N%, indicated a food chain accumulation process of these chemicals into Chenab river, Pakistan. Species-specific toxicity of each dl-PCBs (WHO–PCBs TEQ) was calculated and higher values were found in three carnivore fish species i.e., M. armatus (2.5 pg TEQ g"−"1), R. rita (2.47 pg TEQ g"−"1), Securicola gora (2.98 pg TEQ g"−"1) and herbivore fish species i.e., Cirrhinus mrigala (2.44 pg TEQ g"−"1). The EDI (Estimated Daily Intake) values in most cases exceeded the WHO benchmark (4 pg WHO–TEQ kg"−"1 bw d"−"1) evidencing a potential health risk for consumers via fish consumption from Chenab river. - Highlights: • Dioxin-like PCBs in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river. • ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng/g, ww) burdens were specie-specific. • dl-PCBs (WHO-pg TEQ g"−"1ww) ranged between 0.96 and 2.9 in fish samples. • PCB-126 contribution was predominant towards total WHO dl-PCB TEQs. • Potential human health risk of dl-PCBs via fish consumption from Chenab river. - ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng g"−"1, ww) burdens in collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan reflected the potential human health risk via fish consumption.

  10. Occurrence of NDL-PCB in food and feed in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallani, B. [UK Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Boix, A. [European Commission, DG JRC IRMM FSQ, Geel (Belgium); Domenico, A. di [Italian National Institute of Health, Rome (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milano (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) cover a group of 209 different congeners, which can be divided into two groups according to their toxicological properties. One group consists of 12 congeners that show toxicological properties similar to dioxins and are therefore termed ''dioxin-like PCBs''. The other PCBs, sometimes termed ''non dioxin-like PCBs'', do not show dioxin-like toxicity but have another toxicological profile The Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) assessed the risks for public health arising from the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food in November 2000 and May 2001. The Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition (SCAN) adopted on 6 November 2000 an opinion on the dioxin contamination of feedingstuffs and their contribution to the contamination of food of animal origin. These opinions provided the scientific basis for the Community measures to limit the presence of these contaminants in feed and food as part of an overall strategy to reduce the presence of dioxins, furans and PCBs in the environment, food and feed. A significant part of the human exposure to PCBs derives from food. Food of animal origin is the main contributor to dietary PCB exposure. The PCB burden in animals derives mainly from feed. This paper provides some information on background levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed and might assist in the calculation of exposure of the EU population to these contaminants, including the identification of the main sources of dietary exposure and the relative importance of dietary and non dietary sources.

  11. Effects of estrogen supplementation on PCB 126-induced effects on vertebral bone, vitamin D and thyroxin levels in serum of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Monica Lind [Karolinska Inst., Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyberg, I.; Oerberg, J. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Environmental Toxicology (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Own and others experimental studies in rat have demonstrated that high affinity Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the dioxin-like PCB congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), impair normal bone metabolism and result in increased bone fragility. No experimental study have, up to now, investigated effects of POCs on vertebra in bone-toxicological studies. Recently a Swedish epidemiological study showed that Swedish east-coast fishermen's wives have a significantly increased incidence for hospitalized vertebral fractures when compared with west-coast fishermen's wives7. The results give some indirect support for the notion that a high dietary intake of POCs through fatty fish might be a risk factor for vertebral fractures. The levels of POCs are much higher in the fish from the Baltic Sea compared with fish from the sea on the Swedish West coast. Vertebral bone consists to a larger extent than e.g. the long bones of trabecular bone which compared with cortical bone has a much higher metabolism and a more rapid bone turnover. It is therefore more likely to find more obvious effects of endocrine disruption in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. As an extension of our previous work, the goals of this study are therefore to (1) investigate interactive effects between PCB126 exposure, estrogen depletion (OVX) and estrogen supplementation (2) investigate the effects of PCB126 exposure of the trabecular rich vertebral bone (3) analyse serum levels 25OH- vitamin D and thyroxin as these are both important for bone tissue homeostasis and as biomarkers for organochlorines exposure.

  12. Dioxin, furan and PCB serum levels in a South African Tswana population: comparing the polluting effects of using different cooking and heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Rialet; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    In South Africa, 26-50% of households use solid fuel for cooking food and heating houses. When used as fuel, wood and chlorinated waste are known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we compare PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB), and non-DL-PCB (NDL-PCB) levels in serum of 693 Tswana individuals in the North West province, who either burn solid biofuels or have access to electricity, gas, and paraffin. This is the first South African study on dioxin levels in humans with more than 100 participants. Serum was pooled according to fuel use, as well as to confounding factors such as gender and age. Solid-phase extraction was used to remove the target analytes from serum, after which the extracts were further refined automatically using a combination of multilayer sorbents. Compound concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry after high-resolution gas chromatography. Mean serum lipid content was determined enzymatically to be 5.91 ± 0.42 g/L. The PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were similar to global concentrations reported for non-exposed adults. The mean of the total Toxic Equivalencies (ΣTEQ) was 6.9 ± 3.3 pg/g lipid and the mean NDL-PCB was 70.1 ± 42.8 ng/g lipid. The mean concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs and the corresponding World Health Organization-TEQ (WHO-TEQ) of the population using electricity, gas, and paraffin were greater than of those reliant on solid biomass (p = 0), whereas the DL-PCBs, their corresponding WHO-TEQ, and NDL-PCBs were greater for the population who use biofuels but not significantly so. The females had higher serum levels of the PCDDs (p = 0) and PCDFs (not significant) whereas the PCBs were higher for the males (p = 0). Breastfeeding women presented lower levels of all compound classes than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p=0) and older subjects manifested greater pollutant loads than the younger generation (p = 0

  13. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  14. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish from Shandong, China, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanping; Jiang, Dafeng; Li, Fenghua; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yanni; Li, Lu

    2018-05-22

    The occurrence and human dietary exposure of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in 41 marine fish samples from Shandong Province of China were investigated. The DL-PCB congeners were extracted using automated Soxhlet extraction, purified via a composite column cleanup procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. DL-PCB congeners were found in all analyzed samples, with a mean concentration of 0.887 ng/g ww (wet weight). The TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in individual fish samples ranged from 0.011 to 9.214 pg WHO TEQ/g ww. The mean dietary intake for all fish species was 36.5 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, which was lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ/kg bw/month set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. To monitor the trend of DL-PCBs in fish for food safety control it is necessary to maintain a surveillance program.

  15. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  16. PCB and PAH release from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, Patrick H. [PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, HR3 6DX (United Kingdom); Foan, Colin [The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, (United Kingdom); Fiedler, Heidelore [United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, 11-13, chemin des Anemones, CH-1219, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAH. The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m{sup 3}. (Author)

  17. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Assessment on dioxin-like compounds intake from various marine fish from Zhoushan Fishery, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyong; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Tong, Zhendong; Yu, Xinwei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2015-01-01

    Sea fish consuming is an important intake source of dioxin-like compounds, especially for the coastal residents. To assess the intake levels of these contaminants from sea fish and to provide risk-based consumption advice, concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in 32 commonly consumed fish species from Zhoushan Fishery, China. Due to the different accumulation influenced by fat content, feed habits and living zone in the sea area, the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in different fish species varied significantly ranging from 0.002 to 0.078pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, from 0.002 to 0.553pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight and from 0.003 to 2.059pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, respectively. Based on mean fish consuming rate in China, the estimated maximum possible dioxin-like compounds intake through different fish species ranged from 0.26 to 65.61pgTEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). Bullet mackerel has the highest monthly intake level which was much higher than other fish species and very close to the provisional tolerable monthly intake (70pgTEQkg(-)(1)bwmonth(-)(1)) proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Hence, comparing to other fish species, the consumption of Bullet mackerel from Zhoushan Fishery should be cautious to reduce the potential health risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  20. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei...... (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet...

  1. A question of origin: dioxin-like PCBs and their relevance in stock management of European eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Marko; Sühring, Roxana; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Magath, Victoria; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hanel, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The stock of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has reached an all-time low in 2011. Spawner quality of mature eels in terms of health status and fitness is considered one of the key elements for successful migration and reproduction. Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are known persistent organic pollutants potentially affecting the reproductive capability and health status of eels throughout their entire lifetime. In this study, muscle tissue samples of 192 European eels of all continental life stages from 6 different water bodies and 13 sampling sites were analyzed for contamination with lipophilic dl-PCBs to investigate the potential relevance of the respective habitat in light of eel stock management. Results of this study reveal habitat-dependent and life history stage-related accumulation of targeted PCBs. Sum concentrations of targeted PCBs differed significantly between life stages and inter-habitat variability in dl-PCB levels and -profiles was observed. Among all investigated life stages, migrant silver eels were found to be the most suitable life history stage to represent their particular water system due to habitat dwell-time and their terminal contamination status. With reference to a possible negative impact of dl-PCBs on health and the reproductive capability of eels, it was hypothesized that those growing up in less polluted habitats have a better chance to produce healthy offspring than those growing up in highly polluted habitats. We suggest that the contamination status of water systems is fundamental for the life cycle of eels and needs to be considered in stock management and restocking programs.

  2. PCDD/F, dioxin-like and markers PCBs in trouts from French aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, P.; Matayron, G.; Gade, C.; Le Bizec, B.; Andre, F. [LABERCA-ENVN, Nantes (France)

    2004-09-15

    Since the introduction of 12 ''dioxin-like'' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the assessment of a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998, the analytical determination of nonand mono-ortho PCBs is of increasing interest in the scientific community. The European Commission has already published a regulation that sets maximum limits for dioxins in foodstuffs (Council Regulation 2375/01/EC amending Commission regulation (EC) N 466/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs). As an additional feature of the reduction strategy for this group of compounds, the European Commission has planned to include the dioxinlike PCBs in the limit values for food and feeding stuffs starting at the end of 2004. The LABERCA (French National Reference Laboratory for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)) and the CIPA (French Interprofessional Committee for Aquaculture products) reported levels in French farmed trout according to WHO-TEQ expression and sum of Markers PCBs (m-PCBs). It must be emphasized that this survey only represents a snapshot in time. The results cannot be used to determine the potential contamination of other batches that have not been tested. However, the fish samples were taken from 58 aquaculture sites and 10 fishes were pooled from each site. It is the reason why the results can be interpreted as a good indicative of the contamination levels in farmed trout produced in France.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g - 1 wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g - 1 wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  4. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    Full Text Available Copper sulfates (CuSO4 are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g. In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4 application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1 also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date.

  6. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed materials in the Netherlands, 2001-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Schoss, Stefanie; de Jong, Jacob; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the European Union for either dioxins or the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were below 1% for most feed categories, except for fish meal (4.1%), clay minerals (binders and anti-caking agents) (3.4%), and vegetable oils and byproducts (1.7%). For most feed categories, non-compliance with the action threshold (roughly 33% lower than maximum levels) for either dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs was up to three times higher than non-compliance with the respective maximum levels. Exceedance of action thresholds was just above 1% for animal fat, pre-mixtures and feed materials of plant origin excluding vegetable oils. For the categories fish meal, clay minerals, and vegetable oils and byproducts, the action thresholds were exceeded by 5.0%, 9.8% and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. In general, the percentages of samples that exceeded the action thresholds and maximum levels were lower than those reported for the European Union by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In most of the feed materials, there seems to be a decreasing trend in concentrations of dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs over the years. However, a lowering of the limits of quantification during this period and the low concentrations in most samples precludes drawing strong conclusions.

  7. 78 FR 48156 - Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States for the Years... document entitled, Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in... the report: An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United...

  8. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Simon E; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bechshøft, Thea Ø; Vorkamp, Katrin; Letcher, Robert J; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2 induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were higher among adult bears compared to subadult bears, but not significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In Utero Exposure to Compounds with Dioxin-like Activity and Birth Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Pedersen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds may affect fetal growth and development. We evaluated the association between in utero dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother-child study. METHODS: We measured dioxin-like activity in maternal...... and cord blood plasma samples collected at delivery using the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX) bioassay in 967 mother-child pairs, in Denmark, Greece, Norway, Spain, and England. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the associations with birth...... weight, gestational age, and head circumference. RESULTS: Plasma dioxin-like activity was higher in maternal sample than in cord samples. Birth weight was lower with medium (-58 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -176 to 62]) and high (-82 g [-216 to 53]) tertiles of exposure (cord blood) compared...

  10. Levels and trends of PCB 28, PCB 153 and DDE in breast milk from primiparae women in Uppsala County, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Atuma, S.; Aune, M.; Glynn, A. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Dept. of Epidemiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Since 1996, the Swedish NFA has made recurrent measurements of levels of selected POPs, chiefly PCBs, dioxins and persistent pesticides (e.g. DDTs), in human breast milk. The analyses were made on individual basis, which offer possibility to adjust the time trends in POP levels for differences among the participating women in life-style or other factors that could affect the levels in breast milk. The ambition with the NFA sampling is to follow changes in the levels of these environmental contaminants in human breast milk and to continue the Swedish time trend measurements that was started in the 1970s. The measured levels will be used as base for evaluation of possible health risks for the mother and in particular for the breastfed infant. This report presents breast milk results from 1996 to 2003, concentrating on the selected PCB congeners (PCB 28 and 153) and p,p'-DDE. The reason for selecting these compounds are the data showing differences in e.g. sources and persistence, which could make them interesting type substances for larger groups of compounds.

  11. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  12. Carcinogenicity of individual and a mixture of dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, N.; Nyska, A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Crockett, P. [Constella Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (US)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The human health risk posed by exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs) and - biphenyls (PCBs), present in the food and the environment is one of widespread concern throughout the industrialized world. The dioxin Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) approach is currently the most feasible interim approach for assessing and managing the risk posed by exposure to mixtures of these compounds and has been formally adopted by regulatory bodies in many countries, the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the World Health Organization. The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that estimates the total exposure and biological effects of a mixture of chemicals based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of the compound to the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). An implicit assumption of the TEF methodology is that the combined risk of effects of the different congeners is dose additive. Therefore, the total dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of a mixture of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs may be estimated by the summation of the mass of each compound in the mixture after adjustment for its potency relative to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). While dose additivity is supported for certain mixtures for some biological endpoints in some experimental models, this has never been evaluated for cancer risk. Here we present a summary of four chronic rodent bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (US Department of Health and Human Services) that evaluated the carcinogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3.3',4,4',5- pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and 2,3,4,7,8 pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and a mixture of these three dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. Data from these studies will be used to test the hypothesis of dose-additivity of carcinogenicity by a defined mixture of dioxin-like compounds.

  13. The Need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aize Kijlstra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments, well-trained personnel and expensive chemical reagents. Ideally, real-time monitoring using rapid detection methods should be applied to detect possible contamination along the food chain in order to prevent human exposure. Sensor technology may be promising in this respect. This review gives the state of the art for detecting possible contamination with dioxins and DL-PCBs along the food chain of animal-source foods. The main detection methods applied (i.e., high resolution gas-chromatography combined with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS and the chemical activated luciferase gene expression method (CALUX bioassay, each have their limitations. Biosensors for detecting dioxins and related compounds, although still under development, show potential to overcome these limitations. Immunosensors and biomimetic-based biosensors potentially offer increased selectivity and sensitivity for dioxin and DL-PCB detection, while whole cell-based biosensors present interpretable biological results. The main shortcoming of current biosensors, however, is their detection level: this may be insufficient as limits for dioxins and DL-PCBs for food and feedstuffs are in pg per gram level. In addition, these contaminants are normally present in fat, a difficult matrix for biosensor detection. Therefore, simple and efficient extraction and clean-up procedures are required which may enable biosensors to detect dioxins and DL-PCBs contamination along the food chain.

  14. The Need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobtang, Jeerasak; de Boer, Imke J. M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L. A. P.; Haasnoot, Willem; Kijlstra, Aize; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments, well-trained personnel and expensive chemical reagents. Ideally, real-time monitoring using rapid detection methods should be applied to detect possible contamination along the food chain in order to prevent human exposure. Sensor technology may be promising in this respect. This review gives the state of the art for detecting possible contamination with dioxins and DL-PCBs along the food chain of animal-source foods. The main detection methods applied (i.e., high resolution gas-chromatography combined with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the chemical activated luciferase gene expression method (CALUX bioassay)), each have their limitations. Biosensors for detecting dioxins and related compounds, although still under development, show potential to overcome these limitations. Immunosensors and biomimetic-based biosensors potentially offer increased selectivity and sensitivity for dioxin and DL-PCB detection, while whole cell-based biosensors present interpretable biological results. The main shortcoming of current biosensors, however, is their detection level: this may be insufficient as limits for dioxins and DL-PCBs for food and feedstuffs are in pg per gram level. In addition, these contaminants are normally present in fat, a difficult matrix for biosensor detection. Therefore, simple and efficient extraction and clean-up procedures are required which may enable biosensors to detect dioxins and DL-PCBs contamination along the food chain. PMID:22247688

  15. The need and potential of biosensors to detect dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls along the milk, eggs and meat food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobtang, Jeerasak; de Boer, Imke J M; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Haasnoot, Willem; Kijlstra, Aize; Meerburg, Bastiaan G

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments, well-trained personnel and expensive chemical reagents. Ideally, real-time monitoring using rapid detection methods should be applied to detect possible contamination along the food chain in order to prevent human exposure. Sensor technology may be promising in this respect. This review gives the state of the art for detecting possible contamination with dioxins and DL-PCBs along the food chain of animal-source foods. The main detection methods applied (i.e., high resolution gas-chromatography combined with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the chemical activated luciferase gene expression method (CALUX bioassay)), each have their limitations. Biosensors for detecting dioxins and related compounds, although still under development, show potential to overcome these limitations. Immunosensors and biomimetic-based biosensors potentially offer increased selectivity and sensitivity for dioxin and DL-PCB detection, while whole cell-based biosensors present interpretable biological results. The main shortcoming of current biosensors, however, is their detection level: this may be insufficient as limits for dioxins and DL-PCBs for food and feedstuffs are in pg per gram level. In addition, these contaminants are normally present in fat, a difficult matrix for biosensor detection. Therefore, simple and efficient extraction and clean-up procedures are required which may enable biosensors to detect dioxins and DL-PCBs contamination along the food chain.

  16. PCB138, but not PCB153 and PCB180, acts as a weak antiandrogen in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2000-01-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a group of persistent environmental chemicals including 209 possible congeners exhibiting a variety of chlorine substitution patterns. Due to their lipophilic nature and resistance toward biotransformation, PCBs accumulate in the food chain and all...... environmental matrixes including human adipose tissue, blood and milk. In most biological extracts PCB#138 (2,2',3,4,4',5-hexaCB), PCB#153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB), and PCB#180 (2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptaCB) are the dominating components. Depending on the position and number of chlorine substitutions, different...... classes of PCB congeners elicit a complex spectrum of biological and toxic responses in in vivo and in vitro models. Some PCBs exert dioxin-like activities mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah receptor) giving rise to health risk such as organ toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although reports...

  17. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample and large marine fish (0.6. In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60–65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13–40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future.

  18. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  19. PCDD/F and PCB in spruce forests of the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenthaler, I., E-mail: ivo.offenthaler@umweltbundesamt.a [Austrian Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardia (Italy); Jakobi, G.; Kirchner, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (German Research Centre for Environmental Health) (Germany); Kraeuchi, N. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, W. [Austrian Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (German Research Centre for Environmental Health) (Germany); Sedivy, I. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Uhl, M.; Weiss, P. [Austrian Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in remote mountainous spruce stands of the Central European Alps show strong geographic variation. Independent of the matrix (0.5 year old needles, humus or mineral soil), the highest pollutant levels were always found at the lateral zones of the mountain range. High levels coincided with strong precipitation, particularly along the northern margin of the study region. The most volatile PCB congener propagated farther into the colder, drier central Alps than the heavier species. Matrices with different accumulation history (needles and humus) repeatedly reflected different spatial immission patterns. Consistent with its much longer exposure, pollutant levels in humus exceeded those of needles by up to two orders of magnitude. Needle contamination varied with altitude but the vertical trends were highly variable between transsects and changed between years, too. - Dioxin-like pollution of forests in the Alps shows strong geographic variation.

  20. A total diet study to estimate dioxin-like compounds intake from Taiwan food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Furans (PCDFs), and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the food consumption rate are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in food increases the population's risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan food (not including plant origin) in 2001 and 2002, In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. A total diet study (TDS) of DLCs intake from Taiwan food is, therefore, conducted for the first time. The DLCs concentrations in food of animal origin and the food consumption rate are collected. The average daily intake (ADI) and average weekly intake (AWI) of DLCs from food by Taiwan adults is determined.

  1. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2013-01-01

    chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE...... and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2...

  2. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in farmed salmon of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kiel (Germany); Schwind, K.H.; Jira, W. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With a market share of 8.4% in 2001 (approx. 100,000 t) farmed salmon is one of the most important fish species on the German market. The world wide production of salmon in 2001 was approximately 1.2 Mio t. Norway has produced around 450,000 t of Atlantic salmon of which 60,000 t has been exported to Germany. Other important suppliers of salmon to the German market are Scotland, Denmark, Chile and Ireland. The annual amount from Ireland is relatively small, being approximately 2,000 t. Most salmon is raised under conventional farming conditions. During the last years also high priced organically grown salmon is available on the German market, mainly produced in Ireland. With 800 t per year the market share of organically farmed salmon is less than 1%. Within the context of a study to develop methods for the detection of organically produced products taking salmon as example it was checked if the contaminant levels and/or the contaminant patterns are suitable to differentiate between organically and conventionally farmed salmon. Conventionally farmed salmon, referred as to farmed salmon, was collected from different European farms; organically farmed salmon, referred as to organic salmon, came from Ireland as well as wild Atlantic salmon, which was included into the study. In the present study dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs and a range of organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, chlordane, DDT, HCB etc.) in the muscle meat of salmon were investigated.

  3. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values.

  4. Enhancing the response of CALUX and CAFLUX cell bioassays for quantitative detection of dioxin-like compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, Bin; BASTON, David S.; KHAN, Elaine; SORRENTINO, Claudio; DENISON, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Reporter genes produce a protein product in transfected cells that can be easily measured in intact or lysed cells and they have been extensively used in numerous basic and applied research applications. Over the past 10 years, reporter gene assays have been widely accepted and used for analysis of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related dioxin-like compounds in various types of matrices, such as biological, environmental, food and feed samples, given that high-resolution instrumental analysis techniques are impractical for large-scale screening analysis. The most sensitive cell-based reporter gene bioassay systems developed are the mechanism-based CALUX (Chemically Activated Luciferase Expression) and CAFLUX (Chemically Activated Fluorescent Expression) bioassays, which utilize recombinant cell lines containing stably transfected dioxin (AhR)-responsive firefly luciferase or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes, respectively. While the current CALUX and CAFLUX bioassays are very sensitive, increasing their lower limit of sensitivity, magnitude of response and dynamic range for chemical detection would significantly increase their utility, particularly for those samples that contain low levels of dioxin-like HAHs (i.e., serum). In this study, we report that the addition of modulators of cell signaling pathways or modification of cell culture conditions results in significant improvement in the magnitude and overall responsiveness of the existing CALUX and CAFLUX cell bioassays. PMID:21394221

  5. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Doi

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  6. Human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin like PCBs in Japan, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mato, Y.; Nakayama, S. [Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki (Japan); Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Kadokami, K. [Kitakyushu City Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan); Katatani, N. [Univ. of Yamanashi, Kofu (Japan); Nakano, T. [Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Takei, T. [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, I. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Miyata, H. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Women' s Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In our previous study, we have estimated the level of human exposure to dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and Dioxin like PCBs) in Japan based on dioxins monitoring data and results of total diet studies (TDS) in fiscal 2000 (April 2000- March 2001). It has been reported that the national PCDDs/DFs emission in 2001 against the 1997 level has been reduced by approximately 77% In addition, reduction of environmental levels was reported. The enforcement of Japan's Law Concerning Special Measures against Dioxins has significant impact on the reduction of the average dioxins concentrations in the ambient air. Therefore, the transitions of Japanese dioxins exposure levels in recent years are worthy of attention. In order to determine exposure level in fiscal 2001, collection and compilation for surveillance results derived from the regular environmental monitoring under the law as well as other dioxins surveys by national and local governmental bodies were continued, and the data were analyzed. The exposure level in fiscal 2001 was estimated by a ''point'' estimate (i.e., a single value derived from arithmetic means) approach based on the collected data. Because dioxins exposure is not clearly below the level of concern, an emphasis is placed on the importance of quantitatively characterizing the variability in exposure assessments. Therefore, the ''probabilistic'' approach using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted. However, elaboration in curve fitting to the distribution of dioxins intake through diet wasn't completely achieved due to the limitation of TDS data size in fiscal 2000 (n=16) in our previous study. In the present study, the curve fitting to diet were updated and elaborated, based on larger size of TDS data (n=54) by combining all the data in fiscal 1998-2001.

  7. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish in general and in particular from Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Federal Research Centre For Nutrition and Food, Kiel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Commission Regulation No 466/2001 establishes maximum levels for dioxins in foodstuffs, foreseeing to review the maximum levels by 31 December 2006 and to include dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Fish is known to accumulate dioxins and dioxin related compounds in the lipid phase of their tissue. To collect information of the actual contamination levels in fish species on the German market, samples were taken from fishing grounds important for the supply and in particular from the Baltic Sea. Sampling concentrates on fish species with higher fat content like mackerel (Scomber scombrus), salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), red fish (Sebastes sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus), because lean fish species are known to be less contaminated. Herring is the most important fat fish species for the German fish processing industry with a market share of 19% in 2001. The annual demand is approximately 149.000 t. Herring and other fish species accumulate PCDD/Fs with increasing age and dioxin levels in the edible part of eastern Baltic herring exceeds the maximum limit of 4 ng WHOPCDD/ F-TEQ/kg wet weight (w.w.) at ages of 4 - 6 years, corresponding to sizes of approximately 17 - 18 cm and a weight of 40 g, respectively. Hence Isosaari recommended to use preferably young fish from this area for human consumption. However, the German herring industry is based on the processing of large herring with a minimum weight of > 85g up to 250g. Therefore our interest focused on herring sizes of potential interest for the German processing industry. Samples were collected in September 1999 within two weeks covering an area from the Skagerrak to the Coast of Latvia. Additionally the contamination levels in sprat (Sprattus sprattus), flounder, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and in spring spawning herring from commercial landings around the area of Ruegen have been analysed.

  8. A review of the neurotoxicity of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegal, R. [Albany Univ., NY (United States). Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and School of Public Health

    2004-09-15

    It is perhaps both presumptuous and somewhat nostalgic for me to present research findings from both myself and others describing the changes in central nervous system (CNS) function that occur following exposure to non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the 2004 Dioxin meeting. Presumptuous because my presentation occurs during this meeting where the majority of the research is concerned with the consequences of exposure to dioxins (the most toxic substance produced by man) and nostalgic because, in 1992, I presented some of my earliest work demonstrating that non-dioxin-like PCBs were capable of significantly altering neurochemical function. Much has changed in the intervening twelve years. Laboratories in the United States and Europe now routinely study and describe the neurotoxicological effects of developmental and in vitro exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs. My task will be to briefly describe the highlights of that research and suggest additional approaches that will hopefully increase our ability to understand the mechanisms of action of non-dioxin-like PCBs on neuronal and behavioral function in populations of exposed humans.

  9. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, de A.; Bakker, M.I.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Traag, W.A.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Boon, P.E.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, representative occurrence data for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food were obtained and used to estimate dietary exposure of the Dutch population. Food composite samples were analyzed as well as single fish and vegetables samples. Total dioxin concentrations in animal products

  10. Dioxin-like exposures and effects on estrogenic and androgenic exposures and micronuclei frequency in mother-newborn pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mathiesen, Line

    2010-01-01

    In utero exposure to environmental dioxin-like, estrogen and androgen compounds can cause adverse health effects. Little is known about potential interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens and androgens during fetal development in humans. Therefore we explored the potential...... interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens, androgens using chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(R) bioassays in maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section from 98 healthy pregnancies. The dioxin-like activity was also...... determined after placental transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion system. Similar dioxin-like activity in maternal and cord blood (37 versus 33pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids, P>0.05) was detected and it demonstrates transplacental transfer. Increased...

  11. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother-child study (NewGeneris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria; Pedersen, Marie; Besselink, Harrie; Mendez, Michelle A; Fleming, Sarah; Hardie, Laura J; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Wright, John; Agramunt, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Brunborg, Gunnar; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Sarri, Katerina; Chatzi, Leda; Merlo, Domenico F; Kleinjans, Jos C; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-06-15

    Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother–newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006–2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) ® bioassay, 32 P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  13. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Marie, E-mail: mpedersen@creal.cat [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: lur@ssi.dk [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Autrup, Herman, E-mail: ha@mil.au.dk [School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Brouwer, Abraham, E-mail: Bram.Brouwer@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Besselink, Harrie, E-mail: Harrie.Besselink@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loft, Steffen, E-mail: stl@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Knudsen, Lisbeth E., E-mail: liek@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2012-06-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX){sup Registered-Sign} bioassay, {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  14. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g"−"1 lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g"−"1 lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  15. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Rowe, Christopher L.; Eisenreich, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  16. Persistence and dioxin-like toxicity of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbo, John; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Pfister, Gerd; Nguyen, Nghia; Schroll, Reiner; Munch, Jean Charles; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Halogenated carbazoles have recently been detected in soil and water samples, but their environmental effects and fate are unknown. Eighty-four soil samples obtained from a site with no recorded history of pollution were used to assess the persistence and dioxin-like toxicity of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles in soil under controlled conditions for 15 months. Soil samples were divided into two temperature conditions, 15 and 20 °C, both under fluctuating soil moisture conditions comprising 19 and 44 drying-rewetting cycles, respectively. This was characterized by natural water loss by evaporation and rewetting to -15 kPa. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and cleanup were performed after incubation. Identification and quantification were done using high-resolution gas chromatogram/mass spectrometer (HRGC/MS), while dioxin-like toxicity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in H4IIA rat hepatoma cells assay and multidimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (mQSAR) modelling. Carbazole, 3-chlorocarbazole and 3,6-dichlorocarbazole were detected including trichlorocarbazole not previously reported in soils. Carbazole and 3-chlorocarbazole showed significant dissipation at 15 °C but not at 20 °C incubating conditions indicating that low temperature could be suitable for dissipation of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles. 3,6-Dichlorocarbazole was resistant at both conditions. Trichlorocarbazole however exhibited a tendency to increase in concentration with time. 3-Chlorocarbazole, 3,6-dibromocarbazole and selected soil extracts exhibited EROD activity. Dioxin-like toxicity did not decrease significantly with time, whereas the sum chlorocarbazole toxic equivalence concentrations (∑TEQ) did not contribute significantly to the soil assay dioxin-like toxicity equivalent concentrations (TCDD-EQ). Carbazole and chlorocarbazoles are persistent with the latter also toxic in natural conditions.

  17. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Atmospheric PCDD/F and PCB levels implicated by pine (Cedrus deodara) needles at Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingwen; Zhao Huimin; Gao Lina; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2006-01-01

    Dalian is a seaside city situated in the northeastern monsoon area of China. For the first time, levels of PCDD/F and PCB congeners in pine (Cedrus deodara) needles of Dalian urban areas were investigated. Two sampling campaigns with 17 sampling points were performed in 2002. The summation of tetra- to octachlorinated PCDD/Fs and summation of 209 PCB congeners in Dalian pine needles averaged 127 ± 40 ng/kg (dry) and 4389 ± 1575 ng/kg (dry), respectively. Average toxic equivalence (TEQ) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs are 2.1 and 0.4 ng/kg (dry), respectively. The pine needles can differentiate spatial variation of the pollutants. The PCDD/F and PCB levels in Dalian pine needles are low or comparable with other international regions that were not impacted by evident point sources. The data can serve as a base for long-term spatial and temporal studies of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in China. - Levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in pine needles sampled from Dalian, China, were investigated for the first time

  19. Resveratrol via sirtuin-1 downregulates RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression preventing PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Natascia [IRCSS SDN, Naples 80131 (Italy); Laudati, Giusy [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Anzilotti, Serenella [IRCSS SDN, Naples 80131 (Italy); Secondo, Agnese [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Montuori, Paolo [Department of Public Health, ‘Federico II’ University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Di Renzo, Gianfranco [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Canzoniero, Lorella M.T. [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy); Formisano, Luigi, E-mail: cformisa@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) (RSV), a polyphenol widely present in plants, exerts a neuroprotective function in several neurological conditions; it is an activator of class III histone deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a crucial regulator in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is involved in the neurotoxic effects following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture A1254. The present study investigated the effects of RSV-induced activation of SIRT1 on REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Further, we investigated the possible relationship between the non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 and REST through SIRT1 to regulate neuronal death in rat cortical neurons. Our results revealed that RSV significantly decreased REST gene and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of SIRT1 reduced REST expression, whereas EX-527, an inhibitor of SIRT1, increased REST expression and blocked RSV-induced REST downregulation. These results suggest that RSV downregulates REST through SIRT1. In addition, RSV enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Jun expression and its binding to the REST promoter gene. Indeed, c-Jun knockdown reverted RSV-induced REST downregulation. Intriguingly, in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons the NDL PCB-95 induced necrotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing REST mRNA and protein expression. In addition, SIRT1 knockdown blocked RSV-induced neuroprotection in rat cortical neurons treated with PCB-95. Collectively, these results indicate that RSV via SIRT1 activates c-Jun, thereby reducing REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells under physiological conditions and blocks PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death by activating the same SIRT1/c-Jun/REST pathway. - Highlights: • Resveratrol via SIRT1/c-Jun downregulates REST mRNA and protein in SH-SY5Y cells. • Non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 is cytotoxic to

  20. Resveratrol via sirtuin-1 downregulates RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression preventing PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Anzilotti, Serenella; Secondo, Agnese; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M.T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) (RSV), a polyphenol widely present in plants, exerts a neuroprotective function in several neurological conditions; it is an activator of class III histone deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a crucial regulator in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is involved in the neurotoxic effects following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture A1254. The present study investigated the effects of RSV-induced activation of SIRT1 on REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Further, we investigated the possible relationship between the non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 and REST through SIRT1 to regulate neuronal death in rat cortical neurons. Our results revealed that RSV significantly decreased REST gene and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of SIRT1 reduced REST expression, whereas EX-527, an inhibitor of SIRT1, increased REST expression and blocked RSV-induced REST downregulation. These results suggest that RSV downregulates REST through SIRT1. In addition, RSV enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Jun expression and its binding to the REST promoter gene. Indeed, c-Jun knockdown reverted RSV-induced REST downregulation. Intriguingly, in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons the NDL PCB-95 induced necrotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing REST mRNA and protein expression. In addition, SIRT1 knockdown blocked RSV-induced neuroprotection in rat cortical neurons treated with PCB-95. Collectively, these results indicate that RSV via SIRT1 activates c-Jun, thereby reducing REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells under physiological conditions and blocks PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death by activating the same SIRT1/c-Jun/REST pathway. - Highlights: • Resveratrol via SIRT1/c-Jun downregulates REST mRNA and protein in SH-SY5Y cells. • Non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 is cytotoxic to

  1. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic basis for evolved tolerance to dioxin-like pollutants in wild Atlantic killifish: more than the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) resident to some US urban and industrialized estuaries demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locu...

  3. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and infant growth and body mass index at seven years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iszatt, N.; Stigum, H; Govarts, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposure to EDCs results in later obesity. However, the few epidemiological investigations on dioxins are inconclusive. We investigated perinatal exposure to dioxins...... and dioxin-like compounds, infant growth and body mass index (BMI) in childhood. Methods We pooled data from 3 European birth cohorts (Belgian, Norwegian, Slovak) with exposure assessment in cord blood or breast milk. Two cohorts had dioxin-like toxicity assessed using dioxin-responsive chemical......-activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay and one cohort had measured concentrations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenols with CALUX relative potency values applied. Growth was cohort- and sex-specific change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months (N = 367). BMI...

  4. Documents for Recommended Toxicity Equivalency Factors for Human Health Risk Assessments of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) updated approach for evaluating the human health risks from exposures to environmental media containing dioxin-like compounds (DLCs).

  5. In vitro function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor predicts in vivo sensitivity of oviparous vertebrates to dioxin-like compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) among species and taxa presents a major challenge to ecological risk assessments. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs in vertebrates. Prior investig...

  6. Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.-C.; Pan, M.-H.; Li, L.-A.; Chen, C.-J.; Tsai, S.-S.; Guo, Y.L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification

  7. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beníšek, Martin; Kukučka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Luděk

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22μg (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of toxic equivalency factors for induction of cytochromes P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity by dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Walker, Nigel J.; Bailer, A. John; Portier, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) method has been used to characterize the toxicity of human mixtures of dioxin-like compounds and is being considered for use with other classes of potentially toxic agents. TEFs are estimated by examining the relative potencies of the various congeners for a series of biological and toxicological effects. In this paper, we consider changes in activity for two enzymes, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1)-associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and CYP1A2-associated acetanilide-4-hydroxylase (A4H) activity, resulting from exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) or a mixture of these agents. The ratio of median effective dose (ED 50 ) is one way to estimate the relative potencies, especially for gene expression and protein endpoints. ED 50 's were estimated with a nonlinear regression model in which dose-related changes in mean responses are described by a Hill function. ED 50 's along with other model parameters were estimated by fitting this model to a given data set. Significant differences in estimated model parameters were tested by likelihood ratio methods. The estimated parameters indicated that congener-specific dose-response shapes were significantly different, that additivity failed for these congeners, and that the ratios of ED 50 's did not predict the response seen for the mixture. These results indicate that for some biological responses, the use of a single relative potency factor (RPF) is not appropriate for the comparison of the dose response behavior of different dioxin-like congeners

  9. Perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, alters bone tissue composition in female goat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Rebecca; Lyche, Jan L.; Ropstad, Erik; Aleksandersen, Mona; Roenn, Monika; Skaare, Janneche U.; Larsson, Sune; Orberg, Jan; Lind, P. Monica

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if environmentally relevant doses of the putative estrogenic non dioxin-like PCB 153 and the dioxin-like PCB 126 caused changes in bone tissue in female goat offspring following perinatal exposure. Goat dams were orally dosed with PCB 153 in corn oil (98 μg/kg body wt/day) or PCB 126 (49 ng/kg body wt/day) from day 60 of gestation until delivery. The offspring were exposed to PCB in utero and through mother's milk. The suckling period lasted for 6 weeks. Offspring metacarpal bones were analysed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) after euthanisation at 9 months of age. The diaphyseal bone was analysed at a distance of 18% and 50% of the total bone length, and the metaphyseal bone at a distance of 9%. Also, biomechanical three-point bending of the bones was conducted, with the load being applied to the mid-diaphyseal pQCT measure point (50%). PCB 153 exposure significantly decreased the total cross-sectional area (125 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (142 mm 2 ± 5), decreased the marrow cavity (38 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (50 mm 2 ± 3) and decreased the moment of resistance (318 mm 3 ± 10) versus non-exposed (371 mm 3 ± 20) at the diaphyseal 18% measure point. At the metaphyseal measure point, the trabecular bone mineral density (121 mg/cm 3 ± 5) was increased versus non-exposed (111 mg/cm 3 ± 3). PCB 126 exposure did not produce any observable changes in bone tissue. The biomechanical testing of the bones did not show any significant changes in bone strength after PCB 153 or PCB 126 exposure. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, resulted in altered bone composition in female goat offspring

  10. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Sinjari, T.; Joensson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14 C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14 C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14 C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14 C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  11. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case-control study has reported an association...... between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels...... controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases...

  12. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from metallurgy industries in S. Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byeong-Woon; Jin, Guang-Zhu; Moon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kwan; Kyoung, Jong-Dai; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The metallurgy industry and municipal waste incinerators are considered the main sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in many countries. This study investigated the emission factors and total emissions of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) emitted from metallurgy industries (including ferrous and nonferrous foundries) in Korea. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor of PCDD/Fs was the highest for secondary copper production, at 24451 ng I-TEQ/ton. The total estimated emissions of PCDD/Fs from these sources were 35.259 g I-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.088 g I-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 31.713 g I-TEQ/yr from copper production, 1.716 g I-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.111 g I-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 1.631 g I-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The total estimated annual amounts of dioxin-like PCBs emitted from these sources were 13.260 g WHO-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.014 g WHO-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 12.675 g WHO-TEQ/yr from copper production, 0.170 g WHO-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.017 g WHO-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 0.384 g WHO-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The highest emission factor was found for secondary copper smelting, at 9770 ng WHO-TEQ/ton.

  14. Influence of cAMP on reporter bioassays for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Ayumi; Yao, Jian; Yamauchi, Kozue; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Meng, Yiman; Maeda, Shuichiro; Kitamura, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    In reporter assays for detection of dioxins, the dioxin-responsive element (DRE) is generally used as a sensor sequence. In several systems, the CYP1A1 promoter containing DREs (DRE cyp ) is inserted into a part of the long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor virus (LTR MMTV ) to improve sensitivity of assays. We found that DRE cyp -LTR MMTV responds not only to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds but also to forskolin, a cAMP-elevating agent. This effect was dose-dependent and reproduced by other cAMP-elevating agents including 8-bromo-cAMP and 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine. The cAMP response element (CRE) and CRE-like sequences were absent in DRE cyp -LTR MMTV and not involved in this process. In contrast to the effect of dioxin, the activation of DRE cyp -LTR MMTV by cAMP was independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor for DRE. Furthermore, neither DRE cyp , LTR MMTV nor the consensus sequence of DRE alone was activated in response to cAMP. These data elucidated for the first time that the combination of DRE cyp with LTR MMTV causes a peculiar response to cAMP and suggested that use of AhR antagonists is essential to exclude false-positive responses of DRE cyp -LTR MMTV -based bioassays for detection and quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

  15. Pure non-dioxin-like PCB congeners suppress induction of AhR-dependent endpoints in rat liver cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brenerová, P.; Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H.; Vondráček, Jan; Střapacova, S.; Andersson, P.L.; Machala, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2016), s. 2099-2107 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : NDL-PCBs * Aryl hydrocarbon receptor * DR-CALUX (R) assay Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016

  16. Exposure assessment for dioxin-like PCBs intake from organic and conventional meat integrating cooking and digestion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressou, Jessica; Ben Abdallah, Nadia; Planche, Christelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Sans, Pierre; Engel, Erwan; Albert, Isabelle

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, exposure to Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) related to bovine meat consumption is assessed based on multiples sources of data, namely data collected within the national research project "SoMeat" that objectively assesses the potential risks and benefits of organic and conventional food production systems in terms of contaminants respective contents. The work focuses on dioxin like PCBs in bovine meat in France. A modular Bayesian approach is proposed including measures after production, effect of cooking, levels and frequency of consumption and effect of digestion. In each module, a model is built and prior information can be integrated through previously acquired data commonly used in food risk assessment or vague priors. The output of the global model is the exposure including both production modes (organic and conventional) for three different cooking intensities (rare, medium, and well-done), before digestion and after digestion. The main results show that organic meat is more contaminated than conventional meat in mean after production stage and after cooking although cooking reduces the contamination level. This work is a first step of refined risk assessment integrating different steps such as cooking and digestion in the context of chemical risk assessment similarly to current microbiological risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  18. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life

  19. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of dioxin-furans and dioxin-like PCBs from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Capelo, J L; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2008-05-30

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) applying three extraction cycles, temperature and pressure, improved the efficiency of solvent extraction when compared with the classical Soxhlet extraction. Polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs (coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs)) in two Certified Reference Materials [DX-1 (sediment) and BCR 529 (soil)] and in two contaminated environmental samples (sediment and soil) were extracted by ASE and Soxhlet methods. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, results demonstrated that ASE using n-hexane as solvent and three extraction cycles, 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) and 150 degrees C achieves similar recovery results than the classical Soxhlet extraction for PCDFs and Co-PCBs, and better recovery results for PCDDs. ASE extraction, performed in less time and with less solvent proved to be, under optimized conditions, an excellent extraction technique for the simultaneous analysis of PCDD/PCDFs and Co-PCBs from environmental samples. Such fast analytical methodology, having the best cost-efficiency ratio, will improve the control and will provide more information about the occurrence of dioxins and the levels of toxicity and thereby will contribute to increase human health.

  20. Interspecies variability of Dioxin-like PCBs accumulation in five plants from the modern Yellow River delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guolan; Cui Zhaojie; Liu Jing

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the interspecies variance of Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the plants from modern Yellow River delta, the concentrations of 12 DL-PCBs congeners were examined in five plant species and their associated soils. The DL-PCBs concentrations in plants (2.32-287.60 ng/kg dry weight) were low compared to most published literature, and the concentrations and ratios of DL-PCBs congeners in plants varied greatly among species. The properties of plants and PCBs were then studied to explore the factors affecting the interspecies variance of DL-PCBs accumulation. The plants with the smallest variance of morphological and physiological characteristics (Imperata cylindrical var. Major and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud) had the most similar accumulation patterns of DL-PCBs among the species tested. As the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (K oa ) of the DL-PCBs increased, interspecies variance decreased on the whole plant level. Interestingly, the correlation between the DL-PCBs concentrations in plants and log K oa of congeners was found to be significant for annual plants, but for perennial plants it was not significant. Thus the patterns of uptake of DL-PCBs are different between annual and perennial plants

  1. Interspecies variability of Dioxin-like PCBs accumulation in five plants from the modern Yellow River delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guolan, Fan [Environmental Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Cui Zhaojie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China)], E-mail: cuizj@sdu.edu.cn; Jing, Liu [School of City Planning and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250101 (China)

    2009-04-30

    To investigate the interspecies variance of Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the plants from modern Yellow River delta, the concentrations of 12 DL-PCBs congeners were examined in five plant species and their associated soils. The DL-PCBs concentrations in plants (2.32-287.60 ng/kg dry weight) were low compared to most published literature, and the concentrations and ratios of DL-PCBs congeners in plants varied greatly among species. The properties of plants and PCBs were then studied to explore the factors affecting the interspecies variance of DL-PCBs accumulation. The plants with the smallest variance of morphological and physiological characteristics (Imperata cylindrical var. Major and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud) had the most similar accumulation patterns of DL-PCBs among the species tested. As the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (K{sub oa}) of the DL-PCBs increased, interspecies variance decreased on the whole plant level. Interestingly, the correlation between the DL-PCBs concentrations in plants and log K{sub oa} of congeners was found to be significant for annual plants, but for perennial plants it was not significant. Thus the patterns of uptake of DL-PCBs are different between annual and perennial plants.

  2. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada. Methods. SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  3. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada): results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI) and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35-72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  4. Relative effect potency estimates of dioxin-like activity for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in adults based on cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 gene expression in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmerová, Soňa; van den Berg, Martin; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Jusko, Todd A; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Canton, Rocio F; van Ede, Karin I; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the risk assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, regulatory authorities support the use of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-scheme derived from a heterogeneous data set of the relative effect potency (REPs) estimates. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine REPs for

  5. A rapid and reagent-free bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists using autobioluminescent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Young, Anna; Marr, Enolia; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven; Close, Dan

    2018-02-01

    An autonomously bioluminescent Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYAhS bioreporter was developed in this study for the simple and rapid detection of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. This recombinant yeast reporter was based on a synthetic bacterial luciferase reporter gene cassette (lux) that can produce the luciferase as well as the enzymes capable of self-synthesizing the requisite substrates for bioluminescent production from endogenous cellular metabolites. As a result, bioluminescent signal production is generated continuously and autonomously without cell lysis or exogenous reagent addition. By linking the expression of the autobioluminescent lux reporter cassette to AhR activation via the use of a dioxin-responsive promoter, the S. cerevisiae BLYAhS bioreporter emitted a bioluminescent signal in response to DLC exposure in a dose-responsive manner. The model dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), could be detected within 4 h with a half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) of ~ 8.1 nM and a lower detection limit of 500 pM. The autobioluminescent response of BLYAhS to other AhR agonists, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), polychlorinated bisphenyl congener 126 (PCB-126) and 169 (PCB-169), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and β-naphthoflavone (bNF), were also characterized in this study. The non-destructive and reagent-free nature of the BLYAhS reporter assay facilitated near-continuous, automated signal acquisition without additional hands-on effort and cost, providing a simple and cost-effective method for rapid DLC detection.

  6. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  7. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    OpenAIRE

    Go Suzuki; Masayuki Someya; Hidenori Matsukami; Nguyen Minh Tue; Natsuyo Uchida; Le Huu Tuyen; Pham Hung Viet; Shin Takahashi; Shinsuke Tanabe; Abraham Brouwer; Hidetaka Takigami

    2016-01-01

    The management of electronic waste (e-waste), which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-proces...

  10. Dioxins, DL-PCB and NDL-PCB accumulation profiles in livers from sheep and cattle reared in North-western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Guaraldo, P; Stella, C; Cappa, C; Baioni, E; Spalenza, V; Nebbia, C; Abete, M C

    2016-06-01

    Products of animal origin represent the main route of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-compounds). Recently, concerns have been raised about ovine products, particularly the liver, in which relatively high levels of DL-compounds have been reported. We surveyed ovine and bovine livers in areas with no known sources of dioxin or DL-PCB contamination, in order to assess accumulation patterns for both DL-compounds and non-DL (NDL-) PCBs. None of the ovine and bovine samples exceeded the current Maximum Limits (MLs) for DL-compounds. Liver DL-compound TEQ concentrations were up to 5-fold higher in sheep than in cows. No statistically significant differences in total NDL-PCBs levels were found. The main contributors to TEQ levels were the Penta- and Hexa-chlorinated PCDFs and PCB 126. The results confirm the increased bioaccumulation in ovine liver towards specific DL-compounds even in ewes reared in areas with no known sources of PCDD/Fs or DL-PCBs contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Schoss, S.; Jong, de J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were

  12. Characterization of trace organic contaminants in marine sediment from Yeongil Bay, Korea: 2. Dioxin-like and estrogenic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Chul-Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This study employed mechanism-specific in vitro bioassays to help characterize the occurrence and distribution of dioxin-like and estrogenic contaminants in sediment from Yeongil Bay, Korea. Approximately 85% of the sediments tested induced significant dioxin-like activity in the H4IIE-luc bioassay, while approximately 50% induced significant estrogenic activity in the MVLN bioassay. Instrumentally-derived estimates of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 17β-estradiol equivalents tended to underestimate the magnitude of response observed in the bioassays, suggesting that compounds detected by chemical analysis did not account for all the activity associated with Yeongil Bay sediments, or that non-additive interactions were occurring. The greatest dioxin-like and estrogenic activity was associated with the mid-polarity Florisil fractions (F2) expected to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as chlorinated dioxins and furans. As in previous studies of Korean coastal sediment, more polar fractions (F3) generated more modest responses both in terms of magnitude and the number of samples responding. -- In vitro bioassay responses observed for Yeongil Bay surficial sediment and sediment core extracts showed the greatest dioxin-like and estrogenic activities in the mid-polarity fraction containing PAHs as well as chlorinated dioxins and furans

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...

  14. Studying placental transfer of highly purified non-dioxin-like PCBs in two models of the placental barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia Carreira, S; Cartwright, L; Mathiesen, L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, toxicology and toxicokinetics of purified non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are poorly characterised. Transplacental kinetics of NDL-PCBs can be studied in a variety of models, but careful validation of each model is crucial. We aimed to develop a standard operating...

  15. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  16. Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y. [State Univ. of New York and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, D.; Cakirogullari, G.C.; Ucar, Y.; Theelen, R.; Traag, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total

  18. Development of a reference material for routine performance monitoring of methods measuring polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selliah, S S; Cussion, S; MacPherson, K A; Reiner, E J; Toner, D

    2001-06-01

    Matrix-matched environmental certified reference materials (CRMs) are one of the most useful tools to validate analytical methods, assess analytical laboratory performance and to assist in the resolution of data conflicts between laboratories. This paper describes the development of a lake sediment as a CRM for polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs). The presence of DLPCBs in the environment is of increased concern and analytical methods are being developed internationally for monitoring DLPCBs in the environment. This paper also reports the results of an international interlaboratory study involving thirty-five laboratories from seventeen countries, conducted to characterize and validate levels of a sediment reference material for PCDDs, PCDFs and DLPCBs.

  19. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  20. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B.; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  1. Resveratrol via sirtuin-1 downregulates RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression preventing PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Anzilotti, Serenella; Secondo, Agnese; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) (RSV), a polyphenol widely present in plants, exerts a neuroprotective function in several neurological conditions; it is an activator of class III histone deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a crucial regulator in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is involved in the neurotoxic effects following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture A1254. The present study investigated the effects of RSV-induced activation of SIRT1 on REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Further, we investigated the possible relationship between the non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 and REST through SIRT1 to regulate neuronal death in rat cortical neurons. Our results revealed that RSV significantly decreased REST gene and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of SIRT1 reduced REST expression, whereas EX-527, an inhibitor of SIRT1, increased REST expression and blocked RSV-induced REST downregulation. These results suggest that RSV downregulates REST through SIRT1. In addition, RSV enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Jun expression and its binding to the REST promoter gene. Indeed, c-Jun knockdown reverted RSV-induced REST downregulation. Intriguingly, in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons the NDL PCB-95 induced necrotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing REST mRNA and protein expression. In addition, SIRT1 knockdown blocked RSV-induced neuroprotection in rat cortical neurons treated with PCB-95. Collectively, these results indicate that RSV via SIRT1 activates c-Jun, thereby reducing REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells under physiological conditions and blocks PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death by activating the same SIRT1/c-Jun/REST pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of electronic waste (e-waste, which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-processing village in northern Vietnam. The WHO-TEQs (Toxic equivalents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs in soils collected in January 2012 ranged from 0.29 to 310 pg/g (median 2.9 pg/g, n = 32, and the WHO-TEQs in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 58 pg/g (median 4.4 pg/g, n = 8. Dioxin-like activities (CALUX-TEQs [2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent] in soils collected in January 2012, 2013, and 2014 ranged from <30 to 4300 pg/g (median <30 pg/g, n = 96, and the activities in sediments ranged from <30 to 4000 pg/g (median 33 pg/g, n = 24. Dioxin-like compounds accumulated in samples collected around e-waste-processing areas such as open-burning sites and e-waste-processing workshops, and the compounds may be transported from their sources to surrounding areas over the course of several years. Some of the CALUX-TEQs, but not WHO-TEQs, values were higher than the maximum acceptable WHO-TEQs promulgated by various authorities, indicating that all dioxin-like compounds should be evaluated in samples collected from e-waste-processing areas. Our findings suggest that open burning and open storage of e-waste should be prohibited and that wastewater treatment should be implemented at each workshop to reduce contamination by dioxin-like compounds from e-waste.

  3. Dietary exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs of different population groups in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihats, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael; Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke

    2015-05-01

    The dietary exposure to the sum of the six indicator PCBs (Σ6 PCBs; PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) across different Austrian population groups was assessed in this study by combining data on occurrence from food of the Austrian market (n=157) analysed during 2006-2011 with national food consumption data. The most contaminated food group was meat, poultry, game and offal with average levels of ndl-PCBs of 5.20 ng g(-1) fat. In fish and fish products and eggs, mean concentrations of 3.89 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 4.00 ng g(-1) fat, respectively, were found. In milk and dairy products average concentrations ranged from 3.07 to 4.44 ng g(-1) fat. The mean dietary intake of Σ6 PCBs was estimated to be 3.37 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for children (6-15 years old), 3.19 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for women (19-65 years) and 2.64 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men (19-65 years). In all three population groups, milk and dairy products was the major contributing food group to the total dietary intake (50-55%) followed by fish and fish products (23-27%). The exposure of all Austrian population groups is well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) proposed by WHO, accounting for 34% in children, 32% in women and 26% in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health risk assessment of exposure to dioxin-like PCBs and dioxins in the City of Menen (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouwen, J.; Provoost, J.; Cornelis, C.; Bronders, J.; Fre, R. de; Clauvenbergern, R. van [Flemish Insitute for Technological Research (Vito) (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    The City of Menen is a well-outlined residential area located in the neighbourhood of two waste incinerators. The waste incinerators (Menen (Belgium) and Roncq (France)) are in full operation since the eighties. Emission measurements indicate that they fulfil the European Union dioxin emission standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/m{sup 3}. Despite this, new deposition measurements and analysis of milk in this region indicate a high burden of the local environment with dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). It should be noted that formerly the City of Menen was also surrounded by other potential dioxin sources, among them a dye factory, some small illegal cable burning houses, a pressed board manufacturer, and a metal recycling plant. Before 1984, fly ashes of the waste incinerator were locally used as road materials and transported. This could be a secondary source. Additionally the Environmental Inspection has regularly noticed some large open waste fires in this region and follows up the situation. On request of the Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM) an inventory of all dioxin measurements within the city area was made. The ratio of the dioxin-like PCBs compared to the PCDD/Fs in these measurement results was unexpectedly high. As a consequence of this and in order to achieve an optimal risk assessment for the people living in the City of Menen an additional sampling of soil, vegetables and eggs was carried out. This article focuses on the relative amounts of dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the different media and the consequences for the outcome of the risk assessment.

  5. In utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and anogenital distance in newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Besselink, Harrie; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-01-01

    Anogenital distance in animals is used as a measure of fetal androgen action. Prenatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in rodents causes reproductive changes in male offspring and decreases anogenital distance. We assessed whether in utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds adversely influences anogenital distance in newborns and young children (median age, 16 months; range, 1-31 months). We measured anogenital distance among participants of the "Rhea" mother-child cohort study in Crete and the Hospital del Mar (HMAR) cohort in Barcelona. Anogenital distance (AGD; anus to upper penis), anoscrotal distance (ASD; anus to scrotum), and penis width (PW) were measured in 119 newborn and 239 young boys; anoclitoral (ACD; anus to clitoris) and anofourchetal distance (AFD; anus to fourchette) were measured in 118 newborn and 223 young girls. We estimated plasma dioxin-like activity in maternal blood samples collected at delivery with the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX®) bioassay. Anogenital distances were sexually dimorphic, being longer in males than females. Plasma dioxin-like activity was negatively associated with AGD in male newborns. The estimated change in AGD per 10 pg CALUX®-toxic equivalent/g lipid increase was -0.44 mm (95% CI: -0.80, -0.08) after adjusting for confounders. Negative but smaller and nonsignificant associations were observed for AGD in young boys. No associations were found in girls. Male infants may be susceptible to endocrine-disrupting effects of dioxins. Our findings are consistent with the experimental animal evidence used by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization to set recommendations for human dioxin intake.

  6. Exposure assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in pasteurised bovine milk using probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunte, Adefunke O; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative exposure assessment is a useful technique to investigate the risk from contaminants in the food chain. The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic exposure assessment model for dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in pasteurised bovine milk. Mean dioxins and DL-PCBs (non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs) concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in bovine milk were estimated as 0.06 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for dioxins and 0.08 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for DL-PCBs using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated model estimated mean exposure for dioxins was 0.19 ± 0.29 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)bw d(-1) and 0.14 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and for DL-PCBs was 0.25 ± 0.30 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and 0.19 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men and women, respectively. This study showed that the mean dioxins and DL-PCBs exposure from consumption of pasteurised bovine milk is below the provisional maximum tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (equivalent of 2.3 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1)) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA). Results from this study also showed that the estimated dioxins and DL-PCBs concentration in pasteurised bovine milk is comparable to those reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Genetic Basis for Evolved Tolerance to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Wild Atlantic Killifish: More Than the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) resident to some US urban estuaries have independently evolved extreme and inherited tolerance to toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). To further understand the genetic basis for this trait, we densely genotyped families o...

  9. Associations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs with diabetes and pre-diabetes: is the toxic equivalency approach useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2012-10-01

    Toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been established by the World Health Organization. Toxic equivalency (TEQ) was derived using 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls, in blood, from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Relationships of 8 individual chemicals, the number of compounds elevated, and TEQ with pre-diabetes and total diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) were investigated using logistic regressions. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds, values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Pre-diabetes with glycohemoglobin (A1c) 5.9-6.4% was associated with PCB 126, PCB 118 and having one or more compounds elevated (odds ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.51-4.06). Pre-diabetes with A1c 5.7-5.8% was not associated with any individual chemical or the number of compounds elevated. Total diabetes was associated with 6 of the 8 individual compounds tested, and was associated with having 4 or more compounds elevated. Toxic equivalency ≥81.58 TEQ fg/g was associated with total diabetes (odds ratio 3.08, 95% CI 1.20-7.90), but was not associated with A1c 5.9-6.4%. Having multiple compounds elevated appeared to be important for total diabetes, whereas for pre-diabetes with A1c 5.9-6.4%, having a single compound elevated appeared most important. Diabetes plus A1c ≥5.9% was associated with 34.16-81.57 TEQ fg/g (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.06-3.77) and with ≥81.58 TEQ fg/g (odds ratio 2.48, 95% CI 1.21-5.11), indicating that half the population has elevated risk for this combination of conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of dioxin-like PCBs in passive air and vegetation samples surrounding a metal reclamation incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, C.M.; Fayez, L.; Reiner, E.J.; Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Crozier, P.W.; Emerson, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wania, F. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physical and Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    In 1998 the WHO identified 12 PCBs to be dioxin-like (DLPCB). This list includes 4 coplanar: 77, 81, 126, 169 and 8 mono-ortho: 105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167 and 189 congeners. Determination of DLPCBs allows results to be converted into TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD) values and enables data comparison at very low (sub ppt (pg/g)) levels. Vegetation and air samples were collected from an area surrounding a metal recovery incinerator in order to assess spatial and temporal trends for DLPCBs stemming from the long term operation of the incinerator. Foliage samples were harvested in September (1999 - 2 sets, 2000 to 2003) from maple and ash trees surrounding the incinerator at varying distances. Mature tree leaves are exposed to atmospheric deposition of PCBs for about 4 months (June to September) and the levels determined in foliage are representative of DLPCBs in the atmosphere surrounding each tree. Additionally, a passive air sampling technique based on the sorption of gaseous pollutants on XAD-2 (a styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer) resin was used for measuring long-term average gas-phase concentrations in the area surrounding the incinerator. Ten passive samplers were placed adjacent to trees previously sampled for DLPCBs at locations presented in Figure 1. The deployment period, lasting approximately 4 month (June to September 2003), corresponds to the time that mature leaves were present on the adjacent trees. Four other air samplers were placed close to a main highway in Toronto in order to compare the concentration of DLPCB in the urban area with the concentration in the rural area surrounding the incineration facility. Passive air samplers allow the characterization of the gaseous distribution of DLPCBs in the atmosphere. The advantages of using this technique are that it is independent of the atmospheric conditions (winds, precipitation, UV exposure) and can be used for sampling year round. Atmospheric deposition is expected to control

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) levels in transformer oils from selected transformers in sensitive areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buah-Kwofie, A.

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of PCBs and the adverse effects on humans and the environment have been assessed among Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) staff members, Volta River Authority (VRA) staff members and the general public. Evidence obtained shows that, Staff members of the technical departments of ECG/VRA (71.4 %) as well as a few welders (16.7 %) have come in contact with the transformer oil that may possibly contain PCBs. About fifty six percent (55.6 %) of the ECG/VRA staff members do not wear any protective gears when working on these transformers thus exposing themselves to PCBs. About twenty seven percent (27.3 %) of the management staff members of ECG/VRA are not aware of the adverse health effects caused by PCBs. Using PCB test kits (CLOR-N-OIL) developed by Dexsil Company of USA, 17 out of the 80 transformers screened for PCB contaminated oils, tested positive as containing PCBs levels greater than 50 ppm. Neutron Activation Analysis and gamma ray spectroscopy using Canberra HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software has been used to determine the total chlorine content in 22 of the transformer oil samples screened using the test kits, including the 17 samples that tested positive using the test kits. The total chlorine content measured in the transformer oils that tested positive by the test kit was in the range of 71.34 ± 8.63 with 6 - 7.5 % accuracy. This being deduced that using NAA, total chlorine greater than 71.34 ppm is an indication of PCB contamination. NAA thus provides a faster and efficient way of analyzing transformer oil samples for possible PCB contamination

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, Maria C.; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, Maria C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Monnolo, Anna [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mattace Raso, Giuseppina, E-mail: mattace@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Meli, Rosaria, E-mail: meli@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring with Tillandsia usneoides (L.) in an industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil--Part II: PCB and PAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Heitmann, Dieter; Reifenhäuser, Werner; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Santos, Luciana Silva; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf; Körner, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    Monitoring of immission of persistent organic pollutants in the industrialized area of Volta Redonda (V.R.) and in the National Park of Itatiaia (PNI) in southeast Brazil was performed using an endemic bromeliad species as biomonitor and measuring bulk deposition rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). For the sum of PCB, overall deposition rates were between 17 and 314 ng/(m2 day) in winter and between 43 and 81 ng/(m2 day) in summer, respectively. Deposition rates of dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.14 to 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in winter and from 0.90 to 4.3 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in summer. PCB deposition rates (total PCB and WHO-TEQ) were in the same range in winter in V.R. and PNI. In summer, contamination levels in V.R. were 6-10-folds higher than in PNI. PCB concentrations in biomonitor samples from V.R. and PNI were in the same range in summer and in winter. Concentrations of total PCB ranged from 14 to 95 microg/kg dry matter (d.m.) in winter and from 18 to 27 microg/kg d.m. in summer, respectively. The TEQ values were between 1.7 and 4.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in winter and between 1.9 and 2.9 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in summer. PCB concentrations of di-ortho PCB but not of non-ortho PCB were a factor of 2-4 lower in summer in both areas. PCB congener profiles resembled those from technical formulations. The profiles shifted to the higher chlorinated congeners in summer, probable due to revolatilisation of the lighter components at higher temperatures. PCB profiles in biomonitor resembled those from deposition samples and the shift to the heavier congeners in summer was even more pronounced. PAH deposition rates were in a similar range in both areas (131-2415 ng/(m2 day)). PAH levels in biomonitor samples from V.R. were about one order of magnitude higher than in samples from PNI indicating the impact of local sources. PAH profiles revealed stationary thermal processes as main source of contamination in V.R. whereas in PNI

  15. Human exposure to PCBs and some other presistent organochlorines in eastern Slovakia as a consequence of former PCB production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Petrik, J.; Jursa, S.; Chovancova, J.; Conka, K.; Balla, B.; Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Out of estimated 1.3 million tonnes of PCBs totally produced in the world, about 21,500 t were manufactured in 1959-1984 by the chemical plant Chemko situated at the town of Strazske, Michalovce District, eastern Slovakia. Chemko PCB products called Delor 103, Delor 105, Delor 106, Delotherm and Hydelor were used inside former Czechoslovakia chiefly as heat transfer fluids, capacitor and transformer oils, and paint additives. Because of poor production technology, especially in the 1960s and early 1970s, high amounts of PCB waste discharged, into an open, several km long, muddy Chemko effluent canal causing the increased contamination of the nearby Laborec River and Zemplinska Sirava Lake. A higher PCB content in water sediment, surface water, soil, and air has resulted in high exposure of wild fish and food products coming from cattle, swine and poultry kept in the polluted area and fed with locally produced feed. Two previous pilot studies realized in 1993 and 1997-98 indicated that mean PCB levels measured in the blood, adipose tissue and milk of the human population living in the polluted area (Michalovce District) are several times higher if compared with other Slovak districts. The objective of this exposure oriented part of the EU's 5{sup th} Framework Programme PCBRISK project (www.pcbrisk.sk) was to evaluate the PCB and selected organochlorine pesticide exposure of minimally 2,000 adults (equally men and women) and 400 children (equally boys and girls, 8/9 years old) living in the towns and villages of the Michalovce District adjacent to the Laborec River downstream the Chemko plant where higher PCB human levels could be expected and in the towns and villages of the Svidnik and Stropkov Districts lying several tens km upstream the Laborec where lower PCB exposure was expected. The exposure of at least 300 adults out of those 2,000 to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs was evaluated as well. The assessment of health effects and other factors

  16. Evaluation of the capabilities of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls in complex-matrix food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, T; Sales, C; Abalos, M; Sauló, J; Abad, E

    2016-09-21

    The use of the novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography (GC) coupled to triple quadrupole using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and its potential for the simultaneous determination of the 12 dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs) in complex food and feed matrices has been evaluated. In first place, ionization and fragmentation behavior of DL-PCBs on the APCI source under charge transfer conditions has been studied followed by their fragmentation in the collision cell. Linearity, repeatability and sensitivity have been studied obtaining instrumental limits of detection and quantification of 0.0025 and 0.005 pg μL(-1) (2.5 and 5 fg on column) respectively for every DL-PCB. Finally, application to real samples has been carried out and DL-PCB congeners (PCB 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189) have been detected in the different samples in the range of 0.40-10000 pg g(-1). GC-(APCI)MS/MS has been proved as a suitable alternative to the traditionally accepted confirmation method based on the use of high resolution mass spectrometry and other triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry techniques operating with electron ionization. The development of MS/MS methodologies for the analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs is nowadays particularly important, since this technique was included as a confirmatory method in the present European Union regulations that establish the requirements for the determination of these compounds in food and feed matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  18. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p < 0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries. - Brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins/furans in Hong Kong and Korean waters are emitted from industrial activities

  19. Dioxin and PCB levels in human samples from the Greek population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leondiadis, L.; Vassiliadou, I.; Costopoulou, D.; Papadopoulos, A. [Mass Spectrometry and Dioxin Analysis Lab. - NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are commercial chemical substances produced in a large scale since 1930, with a wide range of applications in industry, such as for coolant fluids in transformers and dielectric fluids in capacitors. After their health effects became apparent, PCB production was banned in the late 1970s. However, humans are still exposed through PCB leakage of old capacitors and transformers and disposal of contaminated materials. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)), are formed as undesirable by-products mainly during the production of chlorinated chemicals and during the combustion of municipal and hazardous waste. Due to potential health hazard (dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive effects, teratogenicity, endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity), their monitoring in humans is of high general concern. Enough information on POP presence in human tissues from industrialized countries is available to suggest that the concentration of these compounds has decreased during the last 10 years. Monitoring of human exposure to PCBs and dioxins, contaminants that accumulate in lipid tissue, is most conveniently performed by analysis of blood plasma or blood serum. Monitoring of dioxins in human milk is of also great importance, since it is especially feared that lactational exposure to dioxins and related compounds may adversely affect brain development and the immune system of infants and children. The present study includes the analyses of non-ortho, mono-ortho, indicator PCBs, and PCDD/Fs in human blood and human milk samples collected between November 2002 and February 2004 and is the first study of this kind to be undertaken in Greece.

  20. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  1. PBDE and PCB levels correlated in wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, D.; Wong, J.; Krynitsky, A. [US Food and Drug Administration, College Park (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two classes of industrial chemicals that have been widely used in the manufacture of many materials found commonly in highly industrial societies. PCBs used as an electrical insulator and in plastics have been banned in the US since 1977. PCB levels have steadily declined in foods. PBDEs are currently used as effective flame retardant in electronics, automobiles, home furnishings, textiles and in building materials. Environmental levels have not reached equilibrium. Both classes are ubiquitous contaminants with a strong tendency for bioaccumulation. The detection of PBDEs in human and some animal fats and fish/shellfish has been reported1. Recent reports of PBDEs in the US population have reported PBDE levels higher than most other industrialized countries. The pathway of these exposures is not precisely known, but one likely pathway is food. US FDA is planning to monitor some PBDE congeners beginning 2005. Data collection will begin with fish and shellfish and most likely be expanded to other foods. Fish/shellfish are already being monitored for PCDD/F and some PCB content. Several different instrumental approaches have been used successfully to measure PBDEs in human tissues and in environmental media including HRGC/HRMS, ECNI-LRMS, EI-LRMS and tandem mass spectrometry. The focus of this study is to determine PBDE levels in fish that are already known to have higher levels of PCBs relative to other fish or other foods. EI-LRMS was selected for initial testing with PBDE measurements in fish for its simplicity and availability in every FDA field laboratory.

  2. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in soils after the flooding of River Elbe and Mulde in 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umlauf, G.; Christoph, E.H.; Bidoglio, G. [European Commission, Ispra (IT). Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Joint Research Center (JRC)

    2004-09-15

    On account of the Elbe and Mulde flooding in 2002 the UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig/Halle co-ordinated an ad hoc project entitled 'Pollutant studies following the flooding in August 2002 - determining the potential hazards in the Elbe and the Mulde' (BMBF ad-hoc- Verbundprojekt Elbe Hochwasser 2002). In the frame of this project, the Institute of Environment and Sustainability of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addressed the issue of the contamination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in flooded soils. The objective of this survey was to assess the contamination of urban and agricultural soils in relation to current land use, to estimate the specific impact of the flooding in 2002 and to link the contamination data to possible sources.

  3. Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Batang, Zenon B.

    2016-08-01

    All 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast (Jeddah region) of Saudi Arabia were analyzed by isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The upper-bound total PCBPCB) levels in nine commonly consumed fish species from three areas were 0.2–82.5 ng/g wet weight (17–8450 ng/g lipid weight), which were at the lower end of reported global range and far below international tolerance limits (500–3000 ng/g ww). Dioxin-like congeners contributed up to 12.8% (mean 6.5%) to ΣPCB in tissue samples, with the total PCB toxic equivalencies (TEQs) at a tolerable range (0.05–2.6 pg TEQ/g ww or 2–238 pg TEQ/g lw) for all species. PCB profiles were dominated by moderately chlorinated homologs, mainly hexachlorobiphenyls, but less chlorinated congeners were also consistently elevated, notably in Siganus rivulatus (Area III) and Mugil cephalus (Area I). It remains to be ascertained if the latter were breakdown products or due to fresh inputs. The top congeners based on dominance by both occurrence and abundance were identified as potential markers of ΣPCB in fish tissue, which can be used for future selective biomonitoring in case of reasonable constraints on full congener approach.

  4. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The neurotoxicant PCB-95 by increasing the neuronal transcriptional repressor REST down-regulates caspase-8 and increases Ripk1, Ripk3 and MLKL expression determining necroptotic neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Serani, Angelo; Mascolo, Luigi; Molinaro, Pasquale; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2017-10-15

    Our previous study showed that the environmental neurotoxicant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-95 increases RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression, which is related to necrosis, but not apoptosis, of neurons. Meanwhile, necroptosis is a type of a programmed necrosis that is positively regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and negatively regulated by caspase-8. Here we evaluated whether necroptosis contributes to PCB-95-induced neuronal death through REST up-regulation. Our results demonstrated that in cortical neurons PCB-95 increased RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL expression and decreased caspase-8 at the gene and protein level. Furthermore, the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 or siRNA-mediated RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL expression knockdown significantly reduced PCB-95-induced neuronal death. Intriguingly, PCB-95-induced increases in RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL expression and decreases in caspase-8 expression were reversed by knockdown of REST expression with a REST-specific siRNA (siREST). Notably, in silico analysis of the rat genome identified a REST consensus sequence in the caspase-8 gene promoter (Casp8-RE1), but not the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL promoters. Interestingly, in PCB-95-treated neurons, REST binding to the Casp8-RE1 sequence increased in parallel with a reduction in its promoter activity, whereas under the same experimental conditions, transfection of siREST or mutation of the Casp8-RE1 sequence blocked PCB-95-induced caspase-8 reduction. Since RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL rat genes showed no putative REST binding site, we assessed whether the transcription factor cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein (CREB), which has a consensus sequence in all three genes, affected neuronal death. In neurons treated with PCB-95, CREB protein expression decreased in parallel with a reduction in binding to the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL gene promoter sequence. Furthermore, CREB overexpression was

  6. Evaluation of the capabilities of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls in complex-matrix food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portolés, T.; Sales, C.; Abalos, M.; Sauló, J.; Abad, E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography (GC) coupled to triple quadrupole using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and its potential for the simultaneous determination of the 12 dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs) in complex food and feed matrices has been evaluated. In first place, ionization and fragmentation behavior of DL-PCBs on the APCI source under charge transfer conditions has been studied followed by their fragmentation in the collision cell. Linearity, repeatability and sensitivity have been studied obtaining instrumental limits of detection and quantification of 0.0025 and 0.005 pg μL"−"1 (2.5 and 5 fg on column) respectively for every DL-PCB. Finally, application to real samples has been carried out and DL-PCB congeners (PCB 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189) have been detected in the different samples in the range of 0.40–10000 pg g"−"1. GC-(APCI)MS/MS has been proved as a suitable alternative to the traditionally accepted confirmation method based on the use of high resolution mass spectrometry and other triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry techniques operating with electron ionization. The development of MS/MS methodologies for the analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs is nowadays particularly important, since this technique was included as a confirmatory method in the present European Union regulations that establish the requirements for the determination of these compounds in food and feed matrices. - Highlights: • GC-(APCI)MS/MS with QqQ: a suitable alternative to GC-(EI)HRMS for DL-PCBs determination. • LODs and LOQs as low as 0.0025 and 0.005 pg μL"−"1 respectively achieved for each DL-PCB congener. • Enhanced sensitivity and specificity of APCI in comparison with EI source in QqQ instruments.

  7. Evaluation of the capabilities of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls in complex-matrix food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portolés, T., E-mail: tportole@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Sales, C. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Abalos, M.; Sauló, J.; Abad, E. [Laboratory of Dioxins, IDAEA, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-09-21

    The use of the novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography (GC) coupled to triple quadrupole using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and its potential for the simultaneous determination of the 12 dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs) in complex food and feed matrices has been evaluated. In first place, ionization and fragmentation behavior of DL-PCBs on the APCI source under charge transfer conditions has been studied followed by their fragmentation in the collision cell. Linearity, repeatability and sensitivity have been studied obtaining instrumental limits of detection and quantification of 0.0025 and 0.005 pg μL{sup −1} (2.5 and 5 fg on column) respectively for every DL-PCB. Finally, application to real samples has been carried out and DL-PCB congeners (PCB 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189) have been detected in the different samples in the range of 0.40–10000 pg g{sup −1}. GC-(APCI)MS/MS has been proved as a suitable alternative to the traditionally accepted confirmation method based on the use of high resolution mass spectrometry and other triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry techniques operating with electron ionization. The development of MS/MS methodologies for the analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs is nowadays particularly important, since this technique was included as a confirmatory method in the present European Union regulations that establish the requirements for the determination of these compounds in food and feed matrices. - Highlights: • GC-(APCI)MS/MS with QqQ: a suitable alternative to GC-(EI)HRMS for DL-PCBs determination. • LODs and LOQs as low as 0.0025 and 0.005 pg μL{sup −1} respectively achieved for each DL-PCB congener. • Enhanced sensitivity and specificity of APCI in comparison with EI source in QqQ instruments.

  8. Spatial distribution of chlordanes and PCB congeners in soil in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; Erdman, Nicholas R.; Rodenburg, Zachary L.; Eastling, Paul M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2012-01-01

    Residential soils from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA were collected and analyzed for chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study is one of the very few urban soil investigations in the USA. The chlordanes concentrations ranged from 0 to 7500 ng g −1 dry weight (d.w.), with a mean and standard deviation of 130 ± 920 ng g −1 d.w., which is about 1000 times larger than background levels. ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 3 to 1200 ng g −1 d.w., with a mean and standard deviation of 56 ± 160 ng g −1 d.w. and are about 10 times higher than world-wide background levels. Both groups exhibit considerable variability in chemical patterns and site-to-site concentrations. Although no measurements of dioxins were carried out, the potential toxicity due to the 12 dioxin-like PCBs found in the soil is in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Graphical Abstract: Spatial location and measured concentrations of ΣPCB (left, 64 sites) and chlordanes (right, 66 sites) (ng g −1 d.w.) in soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Samples were collected in August 2008. Estimated flood area was obtained from the Linn County Auditor's Office. Highlights: ► Chlordanes and PCBs congeners were measured in surficial soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ► Measured values for both chemical groups are similar to other urban/industrial site around the world. ► This is one of the few urban soil studies in the USA. ► TEQs values are in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Chlordane compounds (trans-, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and PCBs (164 peaks for 209 congeners) were measured in the soils of a small medium-sized American city.

  9. THE 2005 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION RE-EVALUATION OF HUMAN AND MAMMALIAN TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS FOR DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2005 a WHO-IPCS expert meeting was held in Geneva during which the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for dioxin like compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were re-evaluated. For this re-evaluation process the refined TEF database recently published by...

  10. Using the dioxin receptor-calux in vitro bioassay to screen marine harbor sediments for compounds with a dioxin-like mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in sediments from harbors and reference sites along the Dutch coast was investigated using the dioxin receptor–chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay. The DR-CALUX response varied between 0.2 and 136 ng/kg dry weight expressed in

  11. Biological responses to dioxin-like compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Contributions to an integrated environmental assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna

    This PhD project attempts to link exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to effects in the marine fish eelpout Zoarces viviparus by combining different in vivo and in vitro biomarkers in both...

  12. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother–child study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria

    2014-01-01

    . A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed...

  13. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the food supply: strategies to decrease exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply, National Research Council

    2003-01-01

    .... People are exposed to these unintentional environmental contaminants primarily through the food supply, although at low levels, particularly by eating animal fat in meat, dairy products, and fish...

  14. Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. A reliable technique for the analysis of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F J; Malavia, J; Galceran, M T [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Rivera, J [Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Dept. of Ecotechnologies, IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The recent establishment of maximum residue limits for polychlorodibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in food and feed samples by the European Community and the future inclusion of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in these values at the end of 2006, has led to an important increase on the routine analysis of these compounds. Therefore, there is a clear need to have powerful sensitive and selective methods for the analysis of these compounds at low concentration levels. Actually, gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) is the technique of reference for the determination of these analytes in environmental and food samples due to its high sensitivity and selectivity. Nevertheless, this technique is relatively expensive and requires qualifier personnel. Therefore, the development of more economical but reliable methods that can deliver results comparable to GC-HRMS is required. During the last years, gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) working in MS/MS mode has become an interesting alternative technique to GC-HRMS for the analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the ability of the gas chromatography coupled with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS/MS) for the analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in food and feed samples. This work was performed on the framework of the European research project called DIFFERENCE (Dioxins in Food and Feed - Reference methods and New Certified Reference Materials) with the objective to validate the GC-ITMS/MS method as alternative to HRMS in order to reduce the cost of dioxin analysis. The results and conclusions of the evaluation study are presented here.

  15. Rapid methods for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feedingstuffs. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Hoogenboom, R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    The increasing number of local dioxin crises since 2002 becoming more and more apparent due to stricter controls of feed and food in the European Union and the globally increasing number of countries applying similar guidelines make it necessary to establish reliable, time and cost-effective screening methods for the dioxin intake through nutritional pathways. Five years after the last overview presentation about all kinds of different bio-analytical detection methods (BDMs) and the establishment of quality guidelines for screening methods, time has come to include as well the improvements in the chemical methods to speed up the analysis. This review gives an overview about the state-of-the-art improvements and gives a future outlook for both methods, chemical and bio-analytical approach for rapid analyses of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Now several new ways of improvement are currently in the pipeline of research and testing, such as PCR, proteomic biomarkers and in case of the clean-up ASE11, PowerPrep and different detection methods as well as different other ways of indicators for dioxins (e.g. correlations to fatty acids).

  16. Bioanalytical characterisation of multiple endocrine- and dioxin-like activities in sediments from reference and impacted small rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinani, Said, E-mail: said@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchonnet, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.bouchonnet@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Creusot, Nicolas [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bourcier, Sophie [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Balaguer, Patrick [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U896, Montpellier, F-34298 (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Ait-Aissa, Selim, E-mail: selim.ait-aissa@ineris.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive evaluation of organic contamination was performed in sediments sampled in two reference and three impacted small streams where endocrine disruptive (ED) effects in fish have been evidenced. The approach combined quantitative chemical analyses of more than 50 ED chemicals (EDCs) and a battery of in vitro bioassays allowing the quantification of receptor-mediated activities, namely estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), dioxin (AhR) and pregnane X (PXR) receptors. At the most impacted sites, chemical analyses showed the presence of natural estrogens, organochlorine pesticides, parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs), bisphenol A and alkylphenols, while synthetic steroids, myco-estrogens and phyto-estrogens were not detected. Determination of toxic-equivalent amounts showed that 28-96% of estrogenic activities in bioassays (0.2-6.3 ng/g 17beta-estradiol equivalents) were explained by 17beta-estradiol and estrone. PAHs were major contributors (20-60%) to the total dioxin-like activities. Interestingly, high PXR and (anti)AR activities were detected; however, the targeted analysed compounds could not explain the measured biological activities. This study highlighted the presence of multiple organic EDCs in French river sediments subjected to mixed diffuse pollution, and argues for the need to further identify AR and PXR active compounds in the aquatic environment. - Multiple endocrine disrupting chemicals (ER, AR, AhR and PXR ligands) are detected in French river sediments using a panel of in vitro bioassays and analytical methods.

  17. In vitro bioassays for detecting dioxin-like activity--application potentials and limits of detection, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Kathrin; Brinkmann, Markus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P; Engwall, Magnus; van Bavel, Bert; Hollert, Henner

    2014-07-15

    Use of in vitro assays as screening tool to characterize contamination of a variety of environmental matrices has become an increasingly popular and powerful toolbox in the field of environmental toxicology. While bioassays cannot entirely substitute analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the increasing improvement of cell lines and standardization of bioassay procedures enhance their utility as bioanalytical pre-screening tests prior to more targeted chemical analytical investigations. Dioxin-receptor-based assays provide a holistic characterization of exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) by integrating their overall toxic potential, including potentials of unknown DLCs not detectable via e.g. GC-MS. Hence, they provide important additional information with respect to environmental risk assessment of DLCs. This review summarizes different in vitro bioassay applications for detection of DLCs and considers the comparability of bioassay and chemical analytically derived toxicity equivalents (TEQs) of different approaches and various matrices. These range from complex samples such as sediments through single reference to compound mixtures. A summary of bioassay derived detection limits (LODs) showed a number of current bioassays to be equally sensitive as chemical methodologies, but moreover revealed that most of the bioanalytical studies conducted to date did not report their LODs, which represents a limitation with regard to low potency samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and infant growth and body mass index at seven years: A pooled analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Thomsen, Cathrine; Koppen, Gudrun; Eggesbø, Merete

    2016-09-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposure to EDCs results in later obesity. However, the few epidemiological investigations on dioxins are inconclusive. We investigated perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, infant growth and body mass index (BMI) in childhood. We pooled data from 3 European birth cohorts (Belgian, Norwegian, Slovak) with exposure assessment in cord blood or breast milk. Two cohorts had dioxin-like toxicity assessed using dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay and one cohort had measured concentrations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenols with CALUX relative potency values applied. Growth was cohort- and sex-specific change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24months (N=367). BMI was calculated at around 7years (median 7.17, interquartile range [IQR] 7.00-7.37years, N=251), and overweight defined according to international standards for children equivalent to adult BMI >25kg/m(2) (Cole and Lobstein, 2012). We fitted multivariate models using generalized estimating equations, and tested effect modification by sex, breastfeeding and cohort. Results per 10pgCALUXTEQ/g lipid increase in exposure. Dioxin exposure was highest in the Belgian and lowest in the Norwegian cohort; median (IQR) of the pooled sample 13 (12.0) pgCALUXTEQ/g lipid. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds appeared associated with increased growth between 0 and 24months (adjusted estimate for change in z-score: β=0.07, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.14). At 7years, dioxins exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in girls (adjusted estimate for BMI units β=0.49, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.91) but not in boys (β=-0.03, 95% CI: -0.55, 0.49) (p-interaction=0.044). Furthermore, girls had a 54% (-6%, 151%) increased risk of overweight at 7years (p-interaction=0.023). Perinatal exposure to

  19. Mass-selective Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants by GC/MS Isolation, Concentration, Identification and Determination of Isomeric Spesific Composition of PCB in Natural and Drinking Waters of Dnieper River Basin in Kiev Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milyukin, Mikhail V.

    2002-01-01

    In concentrates of natural and drinking waters of Dnieper river basin in Kiev region with enrichment factor of 2,0⋅105–4,0⋅105 PCB (PCB524, PCB664, PCB1015, PCB1185, PCB1055, PCB1536, PCB1386, PCB1807, PCB2008) have been identified and their isomeric-specific composition (tetrachloro- – heptachloroisomers) has been determined at MDL level as low as 10–400 pg/L

  20. Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  1. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  2. Contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the 13-year period from 1999 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hove, Helge T; Duinker, Arne; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Berntssen, Marc H G; Hannisdal, Rita; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Maage, Amund; Madsen, Lise; Torstensen, Bente E; Julshamn, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollutants such as dioxins and PCBs, heavy metals, and organochlorine pesticides are a global threat to food safety. In particular, the aquatic biota can bioaccumulate many of these contaminants potentially making seafood of concern for chronic exposure to humans. The main objective was to evaluate trends of contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon in light of the derived tolerable intakes. Through an EU-instigated surveillance programme, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) has between 1999 and 2011 collected more than 2300 samples of Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) for contaminant analyses. The fillets of these fish were homogenised and analysed for dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides. The levels of the contaminants mercury, arsenic, dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and DDT in Norwegian farmed salmon fillet have decreased during our period of analyses. The levels of cadmium, lead and several organochlorine pesticides were too close to the limit of quantification to calculate time trends. For PCB6 and quantifiable amounts of pesticides, except DDT, stable levels were observed. The contaminant levels in Norwegian farmed salmon have generally decreased between 1999 and 2011. Excluding other dietary sources, the levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in 2011 allowed consumption of up to 1.3kg salmon per week to reach the tolerable weekly intake. The group of contaminants which was the limiting factor for safe consumption of Norwegian farmed salmon, based on currently established TWI values, is the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dioxin-like activities in serum across European and Inuit populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Manhai; Andersen, Birgitte S; Lindh, Christian H; Hagmar, Lars; Giwercman, Aleksander; Manicardi, Gian-Carlo; Bizzaro, Davide; Spanò, Marcello; Toft, Gunnar; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva C

    2006-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides can cause a series of adverse effects on e.g. reproduction in animals and humans, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of the present study was to compare the integrated serum level of AhR mediated activity among European and Inuit populations, and evaluate whether the activity was associated to the selected POP markers, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE). Methods The study included 338 males from Greenland (Inuit's), Sweden, Warsaw (Poland) and Kharkiv (Ukraine). The AhR transactivity of serum extracts alone (AhRag) and competitive AhR activity (AhRcomp) upon co-exposure with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were determined in the lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the AhR mediated luciferase reporter Hepa1.12cR cell assay. Results The European groups showed higher median level of AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalents) compared to the Inuit's, whereas higher incidence of Inuits sample further induced AhRcomp activity. Neither AhRag nor AhR-TEQ were correlated to CB-153 or p,p'-DDE for any of the study groups. Multiple regressions showed a significant heterogeneity of association between the CB-153 and the AhRcomp across the study groups, and accordingly a negative association between AhRcomp and CB-153 was found for the Kharkiv group. Conclusion No consistent correlation between AhR activities and two POP markers was found. Although the difference of AhRag between European and Inuit men could not be explained by CB-153 or p,p'-DDE levels alone, we believe that the variation of AhR serum activity reflects different pattern of POP exposure, genetics and/or life style factors. PMID:16725033

  4. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate...... whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid...... induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were...

  5. The brown mussel Perna perna (L., 1758) as a sentinel species for chlorinated pesticide and dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Petrus; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Longo, Renan; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-09-01

    To contribute to the use of the tropical brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel species for organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the present study reports data on the toxicokinetics of these compounds in P. perna. Specifically, the authors present data on OCP and PCB bioaccumulation for eight sampling months from three bays (SE Brazil) and two transplant experiments (each 1 month long). Although seasonality is observed in the total lipid content of the whole soft tissue, with summer samples showing higher values, no such seasonality is observed in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the mussel P. perna. Because no seasonal effect is observed in the annual OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by P. perna, the use of this species as a sentinel organism to monitor organochlorinated compounds is encouraged. One month of transplantation is not enough to allow the transplanted specimens to reach the concentrations observed in animals reared at the destination site. Nevertheless, P. perna showed a clear tendency to depurate the DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE after 1 month of transplantation.

  6. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  7. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the Tone River, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Eiki; Heesoo, Eun; Koji, Baba; Tomohito, Arao; Shozo, Endo [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Tadashi, Sekino [Environmental Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Environmental pollution by PCDD/Fs has arisen exclusively from human activities, and for example, they are inadvertently produced from various combustion sources and manufacturing processes, such as municipal solid waste incineration steel production processes and chemical production processes. In Japan, it is well known that the environmental pollution has close relation to agricultural operation, that is, some PCDD/Fs are contained as impurities in a kind of pesticide. The Tone River is the largest basin area (about 16,900 km{sup 2}) in Japan, and after the Shinano River, is the second longest river (about 322 km). The river has many tributaries (about 800 rivers), and the rivers taking the Kokai River, the Kinu River, the Edo River, and the Watarase River as objects of the present study are also representative tributaries. Since the Tone River basin corresponding to about 4.5% of the total area of Japan leads about twelve million population corresponding to about 10% of the gross population in Japan, it plays an important part in a supply of water for human activities. Not only some residential zones near Tokyo and industrial zones but also representative agricultural zones in Japan expand in the basin expands, and especially the lower basin leads a leading granary. The objective of our effort is to investigate the levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in surface sediment and water samples from the Tone River and some related tributaries, and to assess their distribution and origin using congener-specific characterization approach.

  9. PCDD/F and PCB levels in Austrian cow's milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanner, G.; Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt Wien (Austria)

    2004-09-15

    In 2003 the Federal Environment Agency carried out a first Austrian wide milk monitoring study with the objective to get an overview of average PCDD/F levels in cow's milk, additionally dioxinlike PCBs, according to WHO, and indicator PCBs, as listed by national regulations, were analysed.

  10. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pcontamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  11. A dioxin-like compound induces hyperplasia and branching morphogenesis in mouse mammary gland, through alterations in TGF-β1 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Noelia; Rico-Leo, Eva; Pontillo, Carolina; Zotta, Elsa; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro; Randi, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant and a dioxin-like compound that binds weakly to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because AhR and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) converge to regulate common signaling pathways, alterations in this crosstalk might contribute to developing preneoplastic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate HCB action on TGF-β1 and AhR signaling in mouse mammary gland, through AhR+/+ and AhR-/- models. Results showed a differential effect in mouse mammary epithelial cells (NMuMG), depending on the dose: 0.05μM HCB induced cell migration and TGF-β1 signaling, whereas 5μM HCB reduced cell migration, promoted cell cycle arrest and stimulated the dioxin response element (DRE) -dependent pathway. HCB (5μM) enhanced α-smooth muscle actin expression and decreased TGF-β receptor II mRNA levels in immortalized mouse mammary fibroblasts AhR+/+, resembling the phenotype of transformed cells. Accordingly, their conditioned medium was able to enhance NMuMG cell migration. Assays in C57/Bl6 mice showed HCB (3mg/kg body weight) to enhance ductal hyperplasia, cell proliferation, estrogen receptor α nuclear localization, branch density, and the number of terminal end buds in mammary gland from AhR+/+ mice. Primary culture of mammary epithelial cells from AhR+/+ mice showed reduced AhR mRNA levels after HCB exposure (0.05 and 5μM). Interestingly, AhR-/- mice exhibited an increase in ductal hyperplasia and mammary growth in the absence of HCB treatment, thus revealing the importance of AhR in mammary development. Our findings show that environmental HCB concentrations modulate AhR and TGF-β1 signaling, which could contribute to altered mammary branching morphogenesis, likely leading to preneoplastic lesions and retaining terminal end buds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and marker PCBs in eggs of peregrine falcons from Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, R.; Baum, F. [CVUA, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Adverse effects of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) on wildlife have been widely documented in the literature. For birds, the reproductive cycle is negatively influenced. Therefore, bird's eggs are frequently used to monitor the contamination of the environment with xenobiotic substances. A high content of PCBs and p,p'-DDE (as main metabolite of p,p'-DDT) was found in eggs of peregrine falcons collected between 1988 and 1993 in the German ''Bundesland'' Baden- Wuerttemberg. Many other publications presented results for organochlorine pesticides, indicator PCBs or organobromine compounds in various bird's eggs. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs were determined in eggs of California peregrine falcons, of cormorants in Japan, of predatory birds in Spain, of common terns in Michigan, USA, of peregrine falcons in Spain (vii) and of different sorts of hawks in Germany. The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty signed now by 55 parties to take action against certain POPs, among them PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. After ratification by France as the 50th Party, the Convention entered into force on 17 May 2004. The effectiveness should be evaluated four years after the date of entry into force and periodically thereafter at intervals. Therefore, a Global POPs Monitoring Programme was developed. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) organized a workshop to provide a scientific basis for this programme. One of the conclusions was to select the following matrices: air; bivalves; wildlife species (fish, bird's eggs, marine mammals) and human milk. The main reason for inclusion wildlife including bird's eggs was to gain information on temporal trends on, at the least, a regional basis, in animals, which represent either top predators or important species within aquatic or terrestrial food chains. For falcons, a high accumulation of POPs was observed. Regarding the migration habits it is known that older peregrine falcons

  13. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  14. Comparative liver accumulation of dioxin-like compounds in sheep and cattle: Possible role of AhR-mediated xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, F; Spalenza, V; Benedetto, A; Manzini, L; Badino, P; Abete, M C; Nebbia, C

    2016-11-15

    PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that accumulate in animal products and may pose serious health problems. Those able to bind the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), eliciting a plethora of toxic responses, are defined dioxin-like (DL) compounds, while the remainders are called non-DL (NDL). An EFSA opinion has highlighted the tendency of ovine liver to specifically accumulate DL-compounds to a greater extent than any other farmed ruminant species. To examine the possible role in such an accumulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) involved in DL-compound biotransformation, liver samples were collected from ewes and cows reared in an area known for low dioxin contamination. A related paper reported that sheep livers had about 5-fold higher DL-compound concentrations than cattle livers, while the content of the six marker NDL-PCBs did not differ between species. Specimens from the same animals were subjected to gene expression analysis for AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and AhR-dependent oxidative and conjugative pathways; XME protein expression and activities were also investigated. Both AhR and ARNT mRNA levels were about 2-fold lower in ovine samples and the same occurred for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, being approximately 3- and 9-fold less expressed in sheep compared to cattle, while CYP1B1 could be detectable in cattle only. The results of the immunoblotting and catalytic activity (most notably EROD) measurements of the CYP1A family enzymes were in line with the gene expression data. By contrast, phase II enzyme expression and activities in sheep were higher (UGT1A) or similar (GSTA1, NQO1) to those recorded in cattle. The overall low expression of CYP1 family enzymes in the sheep is in line with the observed liver accumulation of DL-compounds and is expected to affect the kinetics and the dynamics of other POPs such as many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as of toxins (e.g. aflatoxins) or drugs (e.g. benzimidazole

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and congener composition in masu salmon from Japan: A study of all 209 PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Reiko; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Haruta, Shinsuke; Kawano, Masahide; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two subspecies of masu salmon collected from central to northern Japan were examined. • All 209 PCB congeners in the fish were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS with δ 15 N and δ 13 C determinations. • ∑ PCBs was highest in fish that had upstreamed from Ise Bay, which is close to a heavy industrial area. • However, TEQ dl-PCBs values were highest in fish from southern part of the Sea of Japan. - Abstract: We collected two subspecies of masu salmon: Oncorhynchus masou masou from four localities (southern Sea of Japan northward to Hokkaido) and O. masou ishikawae from upstream from Ise Bay close to a heavy industrial area. All 209 PCB congeners were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. PCA ordination of congener concentrations divided data into three groups: (i) ssp. masou from Hokkaido, (ii) ssp. masou from the other regions and (iii) ssp. ishikawae. The highest ∑ PCB concentration (40.39 ng/wet wt) was in ssp. ishikawae followed by ssp. masou from southern waters; however the TEQ dioxin-like PCBs was highest in ssp. masou from southern water (1.96 pg-TEQ dioxin-like PCBs /g wet wt.) due to the high proportion of congener #126 in its complement (#126 has the highest toxic equivalency factor among congeners). There is likely a contamination source offshore in the southern Sea of Japan and/or along the migratory route of ssp. masou

  16. Dioxin-like activity of brominated dioxins as individual compounds or mixtures in in vitro reporter gene assays with rat and mouse hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, G; Nakamura, M; Michinaka, C; Tue, N M; Handa, H; Takigami, H

    2017-10-01

    In vitro reporter gene assays detecting dioxin-like compounds have been developed and validated since the middle 1990's, and applied to the determination of dioxin-like activities in various samples for their risk management. Data on characterizing the potency of individual brominated dioxins and their activity in mixture with chlorinated dioxins are still limited on the cell-based assay. This study characterized the dioxin-like activities of the 32 brominated dioxins, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs), coplanar polybrominated biphenyls, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDFs), as a sole component or in a mixture by DR-CALUX (dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase expression) using the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line and XDS-CALUX (xenobiotic detection systems-chemically activated luciferase expression) assays using the mouse hepatoma H1L6.1 cell line. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD-relative potencies (REPs) of most of the brominated dioxins were within a factor of 10 of the WHO toxicity equivalency factor (WHO-TEF) for the chlorinated analogues. The REPs of a few PXDFs were an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding WHO-TEFs, indicating their toxicological importance. Results with reconstituted mixtures suggest that the activity of brominated and chlorinated dioxins in both CALUX assays was dose-additive. Thus, obtained results indicated the applicability of the CALUX assays as screening tools of brominated dioxins together with their chlorinated analogues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data...... to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from the fish oil by means of physical filtration with activated carbon...

  18. Background Contamination by Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Trace Level High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) Analytical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  19. Phenyltrichlorosilane-functionalized magnesium oxide microspheres: Preparation, characterization and application for the selective extraction of dioxin-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils with matrix solid-phase dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Dongqin [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Jing [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Fang [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Sun, Xiaoli [Department of Chemistry, Lishui University, Lishui 32300 (China); Dhanjai; Ni, Yuwen [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Jiping, E-mail: chenjp@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium oxide microspheres functionalized with phenyltrichlorosilane (PTS-MgO) were synthesized by surface modification through silanization reaction, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The result indicated that PTS-MgO not only possessed the ability of enhancing the retention with PAHs, but also weakening the interference from chlorinated compounds. As a sorbent for the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction, PTS-MgO was used to selectively extract seven dioxin-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (DL-PAHs) from soil samples. Various parameters affecting the recoveries of seven DL-PAHs were investigated and optimized, such as sorbent/sample mass ratio, grinding time, rinsing and eluting conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method combining MSPD with HPLC-FLD exhibited good sensitivity (0.02–0.12 ng g{sup −1} detection of limits) and linearity (linear correlation coefficient greater than 0.9997). Satisfactory recoveries with DL-PAHs spiked at two levels (10 and 80 ng g{sup −1}) were obtained in the range of 72.2–113.1% with RSD < 9.6%, indicating that PTS-MgO had a potential in MSPD extraction of DL-PAHs in soils. Additionally, the proposed MSPD-HPLC-FLD method was also verified by detecting seven DL-PAHs in the standard reference soil. Based on the developed method, DL-PAHs in soil samples were detected with the concentration ranging from 70.08 to 555.05 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw). The total toxic equivalency quotients (TEQ) of seven DL-PAHs varied from 9.93 to 143.94 ng TEQ/g dw. - Highlights: • Phenyltrichlorosilane modified magnesium oxide microsphere (PTS-MgO) was presented. • PTS-MgO was used for a new sorbent material in matrix solid-phase dispersion. • The sorbent showed high selectivity for DL-PAHs with satisfactory recoveries obtained. • The

  20. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D.; Holem, Ryan R.; Khim, Jong Seong; Chang, Hong; Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L.; Patterson, William P.; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater δ 13 C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), ΣPCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of ΣPCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of ΣPCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of ΣPCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  1. PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB in the ambient air of a tropical Andean city: passive and active sampling measurements near industrial and vehicular pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J; González, C M; Morales, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Aristizábal, B H

    2014-09-01

    Concentration gradients were observed in gas and particulate phases of PCDD/F originating from industrial and vehicular sources in the densely populated tropical Andean city of Manizales, using passive and active air samplers. Preliminary results suggest greater concentrations of dl-PCB in the mostly gaseous fraction (using quarterly passive samplers) and greater concentrations of PCDD/F in the mostly particle fraction (using daily active samplers). Dioxin-like PCB predominance was associated with the semi-volatility property, which depends on ambient temperature. Slight variations of ambient temperature in Manizales during the sampling period (15°C-27°C) may have triggered higher concentrations in all passive samples. This was the first passive air sampling monitoring of PCDD/F conducted in an urban area of Colombia. Passive sampling revealed that PCDD/F in combination with dioxin-like PCB ranged from 16 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near industrial sources to 7 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in an intermediate zone-a reduction of 56% over 2.8 km. Active sampling of particulate phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB were analyzed in PM10 samples. PCDD/F combined with dl-PCB ranged from 46 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near vehicular sources to 8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in the same intermediate zone, a reduction of 83% over 2.6 km. Toxic equivalent quantities in both PCDD/F and dl-PCB decreased toward an intermediate zone of the city. Variations in congener profiles were consistent with variations expected from nearby sources, such as a secondary metallurgy plant, areas of concentrated vehicular emissions and a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). These variations in congener profile measurements of dioxins and dl-PCBs in passive and active samples can be partly explained by congener variations expected from the various sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterising boiler ash from a circulating fluidised bed municipal solid waste incinerator and distribution of PCDD/F and PCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2018-05-31

    In this study, ash samples were collected from five locations situated in the boiler of a circulating fluidised bed municipal solid waste incinerator (high- and low-temperature superheater, evaporator tubes and upper and lower economiser). These samples represent a huge range of flue gas temperatures and were characterised for their particle size distribution, surface characteristics, elemental composition, chemical forms of carbon and chlorine and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and biphenyls (PCB). Enrichment of chlorine, one of the main elements of organochlorinated pollutants, and copper, zinc and lead, major catalytic metals for dioxin-like compounds, was observed in lower-temperature ash deposits. The speciation of carbon and chlorine on ash surfaces was established, showing a positive correlation between organic chlorine and oxygen-containing carbon functional groups. The load of PCDD/F and PCB (especially dioxin-like PCB) tends to rise rapidly with falling temperature of flue gas, reaching their highest value in economiser ashes. The formation of PCDD/F congeners through the chlorophenol precursor route apparently was enhanced downstream the boiler. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the links between the ash characteristics and distribution of chloro-aromatics. The primary purpose of this study is improving the understanding of any links between the characteristics of ash from waste heat systems and its potential to form PCDD/F and PCB. The question is raised whether further characterisation of fly ash may assist to establish a diagnosis of poor plant operation, inclusive the generation, destruction and eventual emission of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  3. Automated PCB Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Usama BUKHARI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of an automated PCB inspection system as per the need of industry is a challenging task. In this paper a case study is presented, to exhibit, a proposed system for an immigration process of a manual PCB inspection system to an automated PCB inspection system, with a minimal intervention on the existing production flow, for a leading automotive manufacturing company. A detailed design of the system, based on computer vision followed by testing and analysis was proposed, in order to aid the manufacturer in the process of automation.

  4. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Identification of dioxin-like and estrogenic compounds in sediment using CALUX {sup registered} assay-directed fractionation combined with two-dimensional comprehensive GCxGC-ToF MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtman, C.; Lamoree, M.; Legler, J.; Brouwer, A. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Inst. for Environmental Studies; Jover, E. [I.I.Q.A.B.-C.S.I.C., Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Adahchour, M. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy

    2004-09-15

    The dioxin responsive (DR-) and estrogen responsive (ER-) CALUX {sup registered} -assays (Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression) are mechanism-based, rapid and extremely sensitive in vitro reporter gene bioassays developed to assess dioxin-like and estrogenic activity. They provide useful information about the total dioxin-like or estrogenic potential of complex mixtures of chemicals in environmental samples. They are especially useful if combined with instrumental analytical approaches, as e.g. in bioassay-directed fractionation. In this approach, bioassays are used to direct fractionation and chemical analysis in order to elucidate compounds responsible for the toxic activity found in a sample. The present study was undertaken to elucidate dioxin-like and estrogenic chemicals in sediment from the harbor of the small town of Zierikzee in the Dutch delta area. Former research had shown high dioxin-like and estrogenic activity in sediment from this location. DR- and ER-CALUX {sup registered} assay were used to direct fractionation and chemical analysis of sediment extract. Active fractions were analyzed with comprehensive multidimensional GC x GC-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to elucidate responsible compounds.

  6. Effects of urbanization on gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in a coastal city, China: levels, sources, and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fuwang; Zhang, Han; Xu, Lingling; Yin, Liqian; Chen, Yanting

    2015-10-01

    Gas/particle distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in Xiamen from May 2009 to March 2010 to evaluate the impacts of urbanization on the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmospheric environment. In a newly developing area (NDA), the concentrations of 16 PAHs (gas + particle) were significantly higher than that a historically urbanized area (HUA) (p value <0.05), while the trend of 28 PCBs was reversed. Diagnostic ratios and principle component analysis (PCA) implied that atmospheric PAHs in the NDA were mainly derived from petrogenic combustion, including mixed sources of vehicle emissions, biomass burning and oil combustion, while pyrogenic combustion (e.g., traffic and coal combustion) was considered the major source of PAHs in the HUA. Atmospheric PCBs in both HUA and NDA were dominated by TriCBs and PeCBs related to the use of commercial mixtures (Aroclors 1242 and 1254). Based on the toxicological equivalent factor (TEF) approach, total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent values in the HUA and NDA were 1.12 and 2.02 ng m(-3), respectively, exceeding the standard threshold values (1.0 ng m(-3)) of China and WHO. Average daily intake of dioxin-like compounds was 0.2 pg kg(-1) day(-1) in the HUA, which are below the WHO tolerable daily intake level. The results showed that the contribution to the toxic equivalency (TEQ) was dominated by PCB169, PCB105, and PCB81.

  7. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 2. Biomonitoring in breast milk of women living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; Sampaio, C.; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Although breast-feeding women cannot be representative of the general population, for biomonitoring programs carried out to ultimately assist in policy design to improve public health and safety, it is important to monitor dioxin exposure of this demographic segment through breast milk due to several reasons: 1) breast milk reflects the maternal body burden of lipophilic chemicals and thus it is a measure of prenatal exposure to those compounds; 2) being a human food and the first and main foodstuff for most newborn babies during first lifetime-period, breast milk can be a very significant pathway for infant exposure to dioxins; 3) because large volumes can be collected non-invasively, breast milk is also a convenient sampling specimen for biomonitoring purposes if it is collected taking into consideration all the relevant factors influencing fat content and thus levels of lipophilic compounds, namely the time of sampling during lactation, breastfeeding patterns and maternal characteristics. As part of an Environmental Health Survey Program, relative to an updated incinerator at Meia Serra, Madeira Island, Portugal, dioxin breast milk levels have been determined to provide indicative data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to investigate potential determinants of dioxin exposure in age reproductive women for prevention priorities. The ultimate objective was to determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases the maternal dioxin exposure and accordingly their breast-fed infants. Data will also be collected longitudinally in order to provide information on temporal trends in breast milk dioxin levels, which will indicate whether controls on sources of these pollutants are effective.

  8. Low-temperature thermal decomposition of dioxin-like compounds in fly ash: combination of chemical analysis with in vitro bioassays (EROD and DR-CALUX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnisch, Peter A; Hosoe, Kazunori; Shiozaki, Ken; Ozaki, Hironori; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the dechlorination of fly ash during low-temperature treatment under oxygen-deficient conditions (thermocatalyic treatment or Hagenmaier process), six fly ash samples from six different incineration plants were treated in a laboratory experiment or in the actual plant, either under ideal (400 degrees C, 120 min) or intermediate (300 degrees C, 30 min) conditions. The aim of the present study was to confirm the decrease in the I-TEQ (international toxicity equivalency) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PXBs) and, also for the first time, the decrease in the sum of dioxin-like toxicity (bioassay- or bio-TEQ) of all kinds of other dioxin-like Ah receptor agonists (such as PXDD/Fs, PXBs, PXN, X = Br, F) measured by two state-of-the-art cell-based Ah receptor-dependent bioassays: H4IIE-Ethoxy-Resorufin-o-Deethylase (EROD) and H4IIE-luc/DR-Chemical Activated Luciferase expression (DR-CALUX). The treatment efficiency was calculated on the basis of the reduction in the I-TEQ and bio-TED values. For these fly ash samples, the treatment efficiency, as measured by chemical analysis, was higher than 99%, and 85%-99%, in the case of the bio-TED values, indicating that these Ah receptor binding toxic compounds were sufficiently decomposed. Bio-TEQ values for untreated fly ash samples (n = 6) were on average 1.2 times (range 0.7-1.9), for the H4IIE-EROD assay, and 2.8 times (1.1-4.9), for the DR-CALUX assay, higher than I-TEQ values measured by chemical analyses (sum of PCDD/Fs and co-PCBs). In the case of these fly ash samples treated under ideal conditions and therefore low in contaminants, the bio-TEQ values were on average 1.4 times (range 0.9-1.8), for the H4IIE-EROD assay, and 5.1 times (range 1.2-12), for the DR-CALUX assay, higher than the I-TEQ values.

  9. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  10. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Environmental Neurotoxicant PCB 95 Promotes Synaptogenesis via Ryanodine Receptor-Dependent miR132 Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Adam; Zhu, Mingyan; Chen, Hao; Appleyard, Suzanne M.; Impey, Soren; Wayman, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Non–dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants linked to neuropsychological dysfunction in children. NDL PCBs increase spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in neurons by stabilizing ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels in the open configuration, which results in CREB-dependent dendritic outgrowth. In this study, we address the question of whether activation of CREB by NDL PCBs also triggers dendritic spine formation. Nanomolar concentrations of PCB 95, a NDL congener with potent RyR activity, significantly increased spine density and the frequency of miniature EPSCs in primary dissociated rat hippocampal cultures coincident with upregulation of miR132. Inhibition of RyR, CREB, or miR132 as well as expression of a mutant p250GAP cDNA construct that is not suppressed by miR132 blocked PCB 95 effects on spines and miniature EPSCs. PCB 95 also induced spine formation via RyR- and miR132-dependent mechanisms in hippocampal slice cultures. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism of PCB developmental neurotoxicity whereby RyR sensitization modulates spine formation and synaptogenesis via CREB-mediated miR132 upregulation, which in turn suppresses the translation of p250GAP, a negative regulator of synaptogenesis. In light of recent evidence implicating miR132 dysregulation in Rett syndrome and schizophrenia, these findings identify NDL PCBs as potential environmental risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24431430

  12. Seasonal variation in the levels of organohalogen compounds in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Måge, Amund; Iversen, Svein Arnholt; Julshamn, Kåre

    2011-09-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically important fish stock in the Norwegian Sea, and with a catch volume exceeding one million tons a year it is also economically important and a valuable food source. In order to provide a baseline of the levels of contaminants in this fish stock, the levels of organohalogen compounds were determined in 800 individual herring sampled at 29 positions in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of Norway. Due to seasonal migration, the herring were sampled where they were located during the different seasons. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCB(7)) and PBDEs were determined in fillet samples of individual herring, and found to be relatively low, with means (min-max) of 0.77 (0.24-3.5) ng TEQ kg(-1) wet weight (ww), 5.0 (1.4-24) μg kg(-1) ww and 0.47 (0.091-3.1) μg kg(-1) ww, respectively. The concentrations varied throughout the year due to the feeding- and spawning cycle: Starved, pre-spawning herring caught off the Norwegian coast in January-February had the highest levels and those caught in the Norwegian Sea in April-June, after further starvation and spawning, had the lowest levels. These results show that the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in NSS herring are relatively low and closely tied to their physiological condition, and that in the future regular monitoring of NSS herring should be made in the spawning areas off the Norwegian coast in late winter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food. Comments by the German Federal Environmental Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, A.; Neumeier, G.; Rappolder, M.; Konietzka, R. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Potential health effects of dioxins are an important issue of concern to both politicians and the public. As all humans are exposed to measurable levels of dioxins and related substances, the determination of the tolerated daily intake is a very significant decision. Moreover the revision of this value is not only of academic interest but may also directly influence limit values guiding risk reduction measures, target levels such as those for tolerated residues in food. Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 (setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food) states in 11: ''Target levels indicate the levels to be achieved in order to ultimately bring human exposure for the majority of the population down to the TWI set by the Scientific Committee''. These target values will be set before 31 December 2004. Thus the level of the TDI may indirectly influence entire sectors of industry in some member countries such as the fish industry of some Nordic States or the feed industry throughout the European Union. Recommendations of a daily intake should involve a very low likelihood of a risk for humans. In particular some prerequisites have to be fulfilled: The proposed TDI has to protect all subpopulations. In the case of dioxin this is of high importance as the exposure of infants through breast feeding may exceed the exposure of adults by one or two orders of magnitude. The degree of uncertainty should be indicated at every step of the risk assessment as requested by the Communication from the Commission on the Precautionary Principle ''Where possible, a report should be made which indicates the assessment of the existing knowledge and the available information, providing the views of the scientists on the reliability of the assessment as well as on the remaining uncertainties. If necessary, it should also contain the identification of topics for further scientific research'' Uncertainty of the models applied should be

  14. A sensitive, rapid, and simple DR-EcoScreen bioassay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in environmental and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Iida, Mitsuru; Nakayama, Shoji F; Shiozaki, Takuya

    2018-03-01

    In developing countries in Asia, such as China, Vietnam, and Thailand, there is a strong need for the development of relatively rapid and low-cost bioassays for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food samples. These compounds are known to induce a variety of toxic and biological effects through their ligand-specific binding of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Indeed, several AhR-mediated reporter gene assays are widely used as prescreening tools for high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) analysis, which individually measures 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs. In 2008, we have developed a new sensitive and rapid reporter gene assay using a genetically engineered stable cell line, designated DR-EcoScreen cells. The DR-EcoScreen assay using these cells has a number of great advantages of its sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and its simple procedure, which shows little variance in the data (within CV 10 %) compared to other reporter gene assays. In this review, we summarize the application of the DR-EcoScreen assay to the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in ambient air samples, in fish and shellfish samples, and in flue gas samples from incinerators and provide potential usefulness of this bioassay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in various matrices.

  15. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  16. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  18. An integrative risk assessment approach for persistent chemicals: a case study on dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchaux, Camille; Zeilmaker, Marco; Merlo, Mathilde; Bokkers, Bas; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-10-01

    For persistent chemicals slowly eliminated from the body, the accumulated concentration (body burden), rather than the daily exposure, is considered the proper starting point for the risk assessment. This work introduces an integrative approach for persistent chemical risk assessment by means of a dynamic body burden approach. To reach this goal a Kinetic Dietary Exposure Model (KDEM) was extended with the long term time trend in the exposure (historic exposure) and the comparison of bioaccumulation with body burden references for toxicity. The usefulness of the model was illustrated on the dietary exposure to PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDFs) and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in France. Firstly the dietary exposure to these compounds was determined in 2009 and combined with its long term time trend. In order to take differences between the kinetics of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs into account, three groups of congeners were considered i.e. PCDD/Fs, PCB 126 and remaining dl-PCBs. The body burden was compared with reference body burdens corresponding to reproductive, hepatic and thyroid toxicity. In the case of thyroid toxicity this comparison indicated that in 2009 the probability of the body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 2.8% (95% CI: 1.5-4.9%) up to 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7-7.1%) (18-29 vs. 60-79year olds). Notwithstanding the decreasing long-term time trend of the dietary dioxin exposure in France, this probability still is expected to be 1.5% (95% CI: 0.3-2.5%) in 2030 in 60-79 olds. In the case of reproductive toxicity the probability of the 2009 body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 3.1% (95% CI: 1.4-5.0%) (18-29year olds) to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.2-5.2%) (30-44year olds). In 2030 this probability is negligible in 18-29year olds, however small though significant in 30-44year olds (0.7%, 95% CI: 0-1.6%). In the case of hepatic toxicity the probability in 2009 even in 60-79year olds already was negligible. In

  19. Microbial decomposition of PCB. PCB no biseibutsu bunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1993-08-01

    This paper generalizes knowledges acquired so far on bio-remediation of PCB. Aerobic PCB decomposition using soil bacteria generally goes through introduction of O2 into second and third orders of a biphenyl ring, ring cleavage, and hydrolysis, and generates benzoate finally. PCB that is decomposed in this 2, 3-dioxygenaze path requires at least one of the second and third orders to be open. The decomposition through this path becomes difficult when the number of displaced Cl increases, and PCB with Cl displaced in only one of the rings decomposes more easily than PCB with the same number of Cl in both rings. A group in GE, Inc. has searched for two kinds of bacteria stocks that introduce O2 preferentially into the third and fourth orders. These stocks decompose third and fourth ordered open high-chlorine PCB. Groups in GE, Inc. and other companies have isolated bacteria that dechlorinate PCB decreasingly under an anaerobic condition. These bacteria desorb metha-ordered chlorine. Discussions are being made on cloning of PCB decomposing genes, and breeding of decomposing bacteria that have wide PCB decomposing spectra. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Hepatic CYP1A involved in metabolism and sequestration of PCDD, PCDF and coplanar PCB congeners in common cormorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, A.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Yoneda, K.; Tobata, S. [Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Wildlife is chronically exposed to complex mixtures of dioxin-like compounds via the gastrointestinal tract, whereas laboratory animals, in most cases, are administered with single or repeated dose of a defined congener through various routes for a short period. The validity of such experimental approach for their toxicokinetics is completely unproven, and many questions still remain to be resolved. Exposure to dioxin-like compounds activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and regulates the transcription of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and other target genes. Altered expression of CYP1A is linked with production of reactive oxygen species and metabolic activation of PHAHs. Therefore, measurement of CYP expression levels is considered as a useful approach to assess the environmental exposure to dioxin-like compounds and their effects. Common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) contained considerable amount of persistent organochlorines such as dioxin-like compounds, PCBs and DDTs. Our recent study verified contamination status of PCDD/DFs and Co-PCBs and immunochemically detected CYP1A-like protein in hepatic microsomal fraction using an anti-rat CYP1A1 polyclonal antibody. However, no comprehensive data is available on whether CYP protein expressions are influenced by PCDD/DFs and Co-PCBs, and are involved in their toxicokinetics. This study therefore investigates the effects of PCDD/DFs and Co-PCBs on CYP protein expressions in Lake Biwa populations of common cormorants. The role of CYP proteins related to congener profiles of residue concentration and tissue distribution will also be discussed.

  1. Interaction of mammary bovine ABCG2 with AFB1 and its metabolites and regulation by PCB 126 in a MDCKII in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, L; Halwachs, S; Girolami, F; Badino, P; Honscha, W; Nebbia, C

    2017-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 plays a key role in the mammary excretion of drugs and toxins in humans and animals. Aflatoxins (AF) are worldwide contaminants of food and feed commodities, while PCB 126 is a dioxin-like PCB which may contaminate milk and dairy products. Both compounds are known human carcinogens. The interactions between AF and bovine ABCG2 (bABCG2) as well as the effects of PCB 126 on its efflux activity have been investigated by means of the Hoechst H33342 transport assay in MDCKII cells stably expressing mammary bABCG2. Both AFB1 and its main milk metabolite AFM1 showed interaction with bABCG2 even at concentrations approaching the legal limits in feed and food commodities. Moreover, PCB 126 significantly enhanced bABCG2 functional activity. Specific inhibitors of either AhR (CH233191) or ABCG2 (Ko143) were able to reverse the PCB 126-induced increase in bABCG2 transport activity, showing the specific upregulation of the efflux protein by the AhR pathway. The incubation of PCB 126-pretreated cells with AFM1 was able to substantially reverse such effect, with still unknown mechanism(s). Overall, results from this study point to AFB1 and AFM1 as likely bABCG2 substrates. The PCB 126-dependent increased activity of the transporter could enhance the ABCG2-mediated excretion into dairy milk of chemicals (i.e., drugs and toxins) potentially harmful to neonates and consumers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Monitoring of dioxin-like, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in sediments of the Bizerta lagoon (Tunisia) by means of in vitro cell-based bioassays: contribution of low concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louiz, I; Kinani, S; Gouze, M-E; Ben-Attia, M; Menif, D; Bouchonnet, S; Porcher, J M; Ben-Hassine, O K; Aït-Aïssa, S

    2008-09-01

    We used an array of in vitro cell-based bioassays to assess dioxin-like, estrogenic and (anti-)androgenic activities in organic extracts of sediments from the Bizerta lagoon, one of the largest Tunisian lagoons subjected to various anthropogenic and industrial pressures. The sediments were sampled both in winter and summer 2006 in 6 stations differently impacted and in one reference station located in the seawards entrance of Ghar el Melh lagoon. Chemical analyses of the 16 priority PAHs showed that the sediments were low to moderately contaminated (2-537 ng/g dry weight). By using the estrogen- (MELN) and androgen-responsive (MDA-kb2) reporter cell lines, significant estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were detected only in the Menzel Bourguiba (MB) site, the most contaminated site, both in winter and summer. By using 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in the fish PLHC-1 cell line after both 4 and 24 h of cell exposure, dioxin-like activities were detected in all analysed samples. Dioxin-like activities were higher after 4 h exposure, and varied according to the sites and the sampling season. While highly significant correlation was observed between bioassay- and chemical analyses-derived toxic equivalents (TEQs), PAHs accounted for only a small part (up to 4%) of the detected biological activities, suggesting that other readily metabolised EROD-inducing compounds were present. This study argues for the use of short time exposure to assess biological TEQs in low contaminated samples and provides new induction equivalent factors (IEF(4h)) for 16 PAHs in the PLHC-1 cell line. Finally, our results stress the need to further characterise the nature of organic chemical contamination as well as its long-term impacts on aquatic wildlife in the Bizerta lagoon.

  3. 2,2′,3,5′,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 95) AND ITS HYDROXYLATED METABOLITES ARE ENANTIOMERICALLY ENRICHED IN FEMALE MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Stamou, Marianna; Truong, Kim M.; El-Komy, Mohammed H.M.E.; Lein, Pamela J.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory studies link polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several neurotoxic PCB congeners are chiral and undergo enantiomeric enrichment in mammalian species, which may modulate PCB developmental neurotoxicity. This study measures levels and enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 and its hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in adult female C57Bl/6 mice following subchronic exposure to racemic PCB 95. Tissue levels of PCB 95 and OH-PCBs increased with increasing dose. Dose-dependent enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 was observed in brain and other tissues. OH-PCBs also displayed enantiomeric enrichment in blood and liver, but were not detected in adipose and brain. In light of data suggesting enantioselective effects of chiral PCBs on molecular targets linked to PCB developmental neurotoxicity, our observations highlight the importance of accounting for PCB and OH-PCB enantiomeric enrichment in the assessment of PCB developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:22974126

  4. The Engineering Of PCB Processing Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handoyo, Demon; Satmoko, Ari; T, Sapta; Heru, G. B.

    2001-01-01

    The engineering of PCB processing machine had been done. Purposes of the engineering of PCB processing machine are used to process PCB and to get the data's of characteristic of PCB processing. Further, these data's will be used as setting point when processing of PCB is done with manual and automatic control. The method of processing of PCB are inserting and pulling of the PCB rack to and from Ferro chlorite using electrical motor to corrosive Cu shield parts witch is not used. The experiment have result that the characteristic of operation of PCB processing machine as we hope when designing

  5. Long-term food-exposure of zebrafish to PCB mixtures mimicking some environmental situations induces ovary pathology and impairs reproduction ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Tarek; Larcher, Thibaut; Roupsard, François; Lyphout, Laura; Rigaud, Cyril; Ledevin, Mireille; Loizeau, Véronique; Cousin, Xavier

    2011-10-01

    Although the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned for several decades, they are still present in the environment and are occasionally mechanically released from sediment or transferred through the trophic chain. Field analyses have established correlations between exposure to PCBs and alterations in fish physiology including reproductive function. Experimental exposures have been mainly performed using dioxin-like PCBs or other congeners at very high concentrations. However, these studies are often difficult to relate to real-life conditions. In the present study, we performed a life-cycle exposure using zebrafish model and mixtures representative of some environmental situations in terms of doses, composition and containing mainly non dioxin-like congeners. Exposure was performed through diet which is the main contamination route in the field. We demonstrated a bioaccumulation of PCBs in males and females as well as a maternal transfer to the eggs. Survival, growth and organ size were similar for all conditions. Several reproductive traits were altered after exposure to a PCB-contaminated diet, including a reduction in the number of fertilized eggs per spawn as well as an increase of the number of poorly fertilized spawns. This latter observation was found irrespective of the sex of contaminated fish. This is related to modifications of ovary histology revealing a decrease of maturing follicles and an increase of atretic follicles in the ovaries of females exposed to PCBs. These results indicate that exposure to PCBs mixtures mimicking some environmental situations, including mainly non dioxin-like congeners, can lead to a dramatic reduction in the number of offspring produced by a female over a lifetime. This is of great concern for wild species living under natural conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of hydroxylated PCB metabolites for Slovakia maternal blood serums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S.; Athanasiadou, M; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Charles, J.; Zhao, G.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Petrik, J.; Kocan, A; Trnovec, T. [Bratislava Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Although it is known that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have adverse impacts on human health, it is not clear if human health impacts are caused by the PCBs or their related hydroxylated (OH) PCB metabolite compounds. This study measured OH-PCB metabolites in the maternal blood serum specimens from the Svidnik and Michalovce areas in eastern Slovakia where PCBs were intensively produced and inadequately disposed. The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify levels of specific OH-PCB metabolites in Slovakian maternal serums exposed to high environmental PCB levels. All specimens were analyzed for PCBs, and a subset of the samples was analyzed for OH-PCB metabolites. The Wallenburg blood extraction method was adopted to separate the OH-PCBs from the blood serums. Final eluates and calibration standards were spiked with PCB209 as an injection standard before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. OH-PCBs in the samples range from 75{+-}9 per cent to 101{+-}11 per cent. Median concentrations of OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce samples were approximately twice as high as for the Svidnik samples. Concentrations of OH-PCBs of Michalovce blood samples were comparable to samples obtained from northern Canadian female Inuit and Faroe Island females, and were considered to be among the highest OH-PCB concentrations obtained in human blood. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the placental transfer of OH-PCBs to the fetus, as well as epidemiological approaches to determine the relationship between the exposure of OH-PCB metabolites and child development. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  8. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.T.; Traag, W.A.; Murk, A.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US

  9. PCB exposure and cochlear function at age 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Tihányi, Juraj; Jurečková, Dana; Kováč, Ján; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Drobná, Beata; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented adverse associations between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and otological outcomes. Previously, we documented decreased distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in children exposed to PCBs, up to the age of 45 months, amongst a cohort of children in eastern Slovakia. The objective of the present study is to evaluate cochlear dysfunction at 72 months of age in 214 children from this same cohort and to compare the otoacoustic test sensitivity to that of pure tone audiometry (PTA). The association between DPOAE, PTA, and PCBs was estimated by means of multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) and linear regression models. ROC curves were computed to estimate the DPOAE-test power in children. The DPOAE level at 72 months was related to PCB-153 serum levels. The DPOAE Input/Output function test at mid-frequency (2kHz) has shown instead nonmonotonic dependence on PCB exposure, for the left ears of children, over the whole growth curve. No significant association was found between PTA hearing levels and PCB-153 concentration. High diagnostic power of the DPOAE-test was found in children, similar to that found by the same authors in adults. In conclusions the DPOAE-PCB correlation obtained at 72 months is similar to that at 45 months suggesting a permanent and stable ototoxic effect of the PCB exposure. The lack of statistical significance of the PCB-PTA correlation suggests that DPOAEs are sensitive biomarkers of cochlear damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory test of source encapsulation for decreasing PCB concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Markowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of encapsulation of tertiary PCB sources with PERMASORB™ Adsorber Wallpaper and the surface emissions trap (cTrap) on indoor air concentration of PCBs and on the PCB content in the source. The 40 weeks long laboratory investigation shows reduction of the air...... concentration by approx. 90% for both wallpapers, a level comparable to source removal. The potential for extraction of PCBs from the contaminated materials stays unclear for both wallpapers. The cTrap has shown potential to accumulate PCBs, however the total content of PCB in investigated sources has...... apparently increased. The opposite was observed for the PERMASORB™, where the total PCB content in the sources has decreased, with however only small concentration of PCBs in the wallpaper measured at the end of the experiment....

  11. Monitoring OH-PCBs in PCB transport worker's urine as a non-invasive exposure assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Suzuki, Motoharu; Matsumura, Chisato; Okuno, Toshihiro; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Fujimori, Kazuo; Kannan, Narayanan; Weber, Roland; Nakano, Takeshi

    2018-04-14

    In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs. The concentration of OH-PCBs in PCB transport workers' urine (0.55~11 μg/g creatinine (Cre)) was higher than in PCB researchers' urine (PCB storage area. In the second sampling, after recommended PCB exposure reduction measures had been enacted, the worker's PCB levels did not increase during handling of PCB equipment. This suggests that applied safety measures improved the situation. Hydroxylated trichlorobiphenyls (OH-TrCBs) were identified as a major homolog of OH-PCBs in urine. Also, hydroxylated tetrachlorobiphenyls (OH-TeCBs) to hydroxylated hexachlorobiphenyls (OH-HxCBs) were detected. For the sum of ten selected major indicators, a strong correlation to total OH-PCBs were found and these can possibly be used as non-invasive biomarkers of PCB exposure in workers managing PCB capacitors and transformer oils. We suggest that monitoring of OH-PCBs in PCB management projects could be considered a non-invasive way to detect exposure. It could also be used as a tool to assess and improve PCB management. This is highly relevant considering the fact that in the next 10 years, approx. 14 million tons of PCB waste need to be managed. Also, the selected populations could be screened to assess whether exposure at work, school, or home has taken place.

  12. Total destruction of PCB transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that if elimination of PCB liability, including lingering liabilities, is the goal, then landfilling cannot be and option. The law is clear that the generator of PCB waste is responsible for that waste until this destruction. Landfilling is not destruction. Retrofilling as askarel units will not get rid of all PCB liabilities, either. Askarel retrofilling can only make this claim when it can give a lifetime guaranty of no detectable PCBs. States like Washington and California regulate, as hazardous waste, fluids which contain greater than 2 and 5 ppm PCB, respectively. There is no guarantee that your state will not so regulate PCBs in the future or that the federal laws might tighten up. Therefore, replacement and disposal by Resource Recovery constitutes the only lifetime guarantee on the market that the PCBs in your askarel transformers will never come back to haunt you

  13. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dechlorination of PCB by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Yoshiharu

    1978-01-01

    On the PCB poisoning accident in Japan occurred in 1968, Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center started to investigate the decomposition of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) on the request of Metropolitan government. The research center has found that if PCB is dissolved or extracted in alkaline 2-propanol solution and then irradiated with γ-ray, PCB is dechlorinated in chain-reactive manner, and biphenyl and salts (KCl or NaCl) are formed. Afterwards, it has been found that photolysis has also similar effect on PCB. Then, the basic design of a disposal pilot plant using ultraviolet ray and its economic evaluation have been performed, which is composed of photolysis reaction process, refining process and waste disposal process. However, its disposal cost only has reached the value three times as high as that of incineration process. If this is conducted by radiolysis, its disposal cost can be reduced to about 1/12 of that of ultraviolet ray system when an electron accelerator is employed. Cs-137 source gives better results than Co-60. Dechlorination process of PCB has been thus established. Further reduction of total cost will be the keypoint of radiolysis system to be adopted. If the application of electron accelerators to sludge treatment in the future, the effective use of recovered products, and the possibility of using Cs-137 large sources are considered, it is expected that the disposal cost of radiolysis process system becomes comparable with the incineration process. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Development of a refined database of relative potency estimates to facilitate better characterization of variability and uncertainty in the current mammalian TEFs for PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haws, L. [Exponent, Austin, TX (United States); Harris, M.; Santamaria, A. [Exponent, Houston, TX (United States); Su, S. [Exponent, New York, NY (United States); Birnbaum, L.; DeVito, M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farland, W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Walker, N. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Connor, K. [Exponent, Natick, MA (United States); Finley, B. [Exponent, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach has been widely accepted as the most feasible and plausible method presently available for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In accordance with this approach, the relative potency of each congener is expressed as some fraction of the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The current TEFs for PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs were established by the World Health Organization (WHO) following the meeting of an international expert panel in June of 1997. In the course of their review, the WHO expert panel examined data from an extensive body of in vivo and in vitro studies that had been compiled into a database of relative potency (REP) values by scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden (hereafter referred to as the Karolinska database). The WHO TEFs are currently used by numerous governmental agencies and others to regulate or otherwise assess health risks associated with exposure to PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in foods, consumer products, and environmental media. As has been noted by others, for any given congener, the underlying REP values typically represent a heterogeneous data set, and the range of REPs often spans several orders of magnitude. It would therefore be helpful to better understand the degree to which the TEF values contribute to variability and uncertainty in the risk assessment process. As such, the goal of this project was to develop a database that will better characterize the range of REPs, allow for the development and application of quantitative weighting schemes, and facilitate quantitative analyses. This in turn will allow for better characterization of variability and uncertainty inherent in the mammalian TEFs. The development of this database was necessary since the Karolinska database was

  16. Assessment of questionnaire-based PCB exposure focused on food frequency in birth cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Otake, Masae; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels of mothers and fathers recruited from the Chiba Regional Center, which is one of the 15 regional centers of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (mothers: n = 1477, fathers: n = 219). The expected PCB values were estimated from the participants' FFQ answers and medical records (age, body mass index and number of deliveries). Based on the stepwise forward selection results of Bayesian regression models, age and fish and egg consumption were positively associated with PCB concentrations and a number of deliveries were negatively associated with PCB concentrations in mothers, whereas only age was positively associated with PCB concentrations in fathers.These findings indicated that the estimation of daily dietary intake may be useful for the prediction of PCB concentration for mothers.

  17. Desarrollo de métodos y evaluación de los niveles de dioxinas, PCBs "dioxin-like", compuestos bromados, organoestánnicos y metales pesados en productos y subproductos de la pesca y acuicultura

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco López, Sonia Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Esta Tesis Doctoral aborda el desarrollo de metodología analítica, fundamentalmente técnicas cromatográficas acopladas a la detección mediante espectrometría de masas en trampa iónica (GC-ITMS), para contaminantes químicos: dioxinas y furanos, PCBs "dioxin-like" y PBDEs. La medición de los niveles de estos contaminantes orgánicos y de metales pesados mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica se realiza en productos y/o subproductos de la pesca y de la acuicultura. Se evaluó la transferenc...

  18. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorrink, Sabine U. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Severson, Paul L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Kulak, Mikhail V. [Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Futscher, Bernard W. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Domann, Frederick E., E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced AhR function and

  20. Sampling methodology and PCB analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominelli, N.

    1995-01-01

    As a class of compounds PCBs are extremely stable and resist chemical and biological decomposition. Diluted solutions exposed to a range of environmental conditions will undergo some preferential degradation and the resulting mixture may differ considerably from the original PCB used as insulating fluid in electrical equipment. The structure of mixtures of PCBs (synthetic compounds prepared by direct chlorination of biphenyl with chlorine gas) is extremely complex and presents a formidable analytical problem, further complicated by the presence of PCBs as contaminants in oils to soils to water. This paper provides some guidance into sampling and analytical procedures; it also points out various potential problems encountered during these processes. The guidelines provided deal with sample collection, storage and handling, sample stability, laboratory analysis (usually gas chromatography), determination of PCB concentration, calculation of total PCB content, and quality assurance. 1 fig

  1. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  2. Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 μg·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 μg·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

  3. Treating PCB contaminated light ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.

    1995-01-01

    Development and salient features of CON TECH PCB, a light ballast reduction process to allow PCB waste owners to best utilize storage space for the long-term regulated storage of PCBs, or to prepare them for final destruction and to reduce destruction costs, was reviewed. The essence of the process is ballast splitting, i.e. the breaking of the ballast and removing the capacitor containing the toxic PCBs. The work is done in a specially fitted mobile processing unit, thus reducing the storage requirements by better than 50 per cent. Details of the process and some cost and storage facility estimates were provided

  4. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.

  5. PCB eksponering i Farum Midtpunkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    I marts og april 2011 blev i alt 104 lejligheder og 289 beboere fra Farum Midtpunkt undersøgt for niveauer af PolyChlorerede Biphenyler (PCB) i henholdsvis fuger og indeluft i lejligheder-ne, og i blodplasma. Til analyserne i denne rapport indgik 273 beboere, 139 fra PCB-forurenede lejligheder og...... 134 fra ikke-forurenede lejligheder. Der blev indsamlet luftprøver fra 83 forure-nede og 21 ikke-forurenede lejligheder og fugeprøver fra 20 forurenede lejligheder. Ni ud af 24 målte PCB-kongenere var under detektionsgrænsen i luften, inkl. de to mest toksiske kongenere nr. 126 og 169. For de...... forurenede lejlig-heder, undtagen for nr. 183 og 190, samt for nr. 182 som alle lå under detektionsgrænsen. For ni ud af tolv dioxin-lignende PCB-forbindelser var alle, eller næsten alle prøver under detektions-grænsen. For nr. 105 og 118 sås signifikant højere niveau blandt eksponerede. Mænd havde et lidt...

  6. Hepatic metabolism affects the atropselective disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Barnhart, Christopher; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-06

    To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs.

  7. Effects of acute postnatal exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on sperm function and hormone levels in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ping-Chi; Guo, Yueliang Leon; Li, Mei-Hui

    2004-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered potential endocrine disruptors due to their ability to act as estrogens, antiestrogens and goitrogens. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether acute postnatal treatment with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB 77) affects sperm function and hormone levels in adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received CB 77 by ip injection of 2 or 20 mg/kg at day 21 and sacrificed at day 112. At day 112, right and left testis weights were significantly increased, whereas sperm count, motility, total motile sperm count, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, straight-line velocity, and beat-cross frequency for motile sperm were significantly decreased in rats treated with 20 mg/kg CB 77. Sperm-oocyte penetration rate was significantly reduced in rats treated with either 2 or 20 mg/kg CB 77. There was high sperm acrosome reaction rate (ARR) in the 20 mg/kg CB 77-treated rats. There was a significant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the 20 mg/kg CB 77 group. However, no changes were seen in serum testosterone, thyroid hormones, or prolactin concentrations at day 112. In summary, this study showed that postnatal exposure to CB 77 might affect spermatogenesis, motility, ARR, and ability of fertilizing oocytes in mature rats. These results suggest that the sperm functions may be more susceptible or adapt less readily than the thyroid functions to endocrine disruption caused by dioxin-like PCB congeners.

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of LANL PCB waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) to determine if it meets applicable DOE and Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements. DOE Order 5820.2A and 40 CFR 761 (Polychlorinated Biphenyls Manufacturing, Processing, Distribution in Commerce, and Use Prohibitions) set forth requirements and guidelines for the establishment of Waste Acceptance Criteria. The primary purpose of a PCB WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before PCB wastes can be accepted for treatment, storage, and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic PCB WAC was developed based on the requirements of 5820.2A and 40 CFR 761. The major elements that should be addressed by a PCB WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container, Waste Forms, PCB Concentrations, Labeling, and Data Package Certification

  10. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Brizio, P.; Nespoli, R.; Stella, C.; Abete, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g"−"1 for NDL-PCBs). Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits. - Highlights: • We analyzed free-range eggs from farms close to a secondary aluminum smelter (ALS). • Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs strongly exceeded the limit set by EU Regulation. • Concentrations decrease at increasing distances from the plant. • Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a health risk for humans. - Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are of concern in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter.

  11. Recent changes in federal PCB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, H.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the federal regulations dealing with PCBs, the draft PCB Transformer Decontamination Standards and Protocols, and the Practice of Ballast Splitting was given. Answers were provided to practical questions concerning the regulations, specifically, responsibility for storage, labelling requirements, waste export regulations, treatment and destruction standards, transformer decontamination, decontamination standards, and the practice of ballast splitting into PCB and non-PCB materials. Details of sampling procedures and sample handling were also described

  12. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  13. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  14. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g −1 lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g −1 lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g −1 lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e

  15. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications, PCB's have become a persistent... unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient period of time following...

  16. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automatic extraction of via in the CT image of PCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Hu, Yuwei

    2018-04-01

    In modern industry, the nondestructive testing of printed circuit board (PCB) can prevent effectively the system failure and is becoming more and more important. In order to detect the via in the PCB base on the CT image automatically accurately and reliably, a novel algorithm for via extraction based on weighting stack combining the morphologic character of via is designed. Every slice data in the vertical direction of the PCB is superimposed to enhanced vias target. The OTSU algorithm is used to segment the slice image. OTSU algorithm of thresholding gray level images is efficient for separating an image into two classes where two types of fairly distinct classes exist in the image. Randomized Hough Transform was used to locate the region of via in the segmented binary image. Then the 3D reconstruction of via based on sequence slice images was done by volume rendering. The accuracy of via positioning and detecting from a CT images of PCB was demonstrated by proposed algorithm. It was found that the method is good in veracity and stability for detecting of via in three dimensional.

  18. PCB 28 metabolites elimination kinetics in human plasma on a real case scenario: Study of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB) metabolites of PCB 28 in a highly exposed German Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia; Esser, André; Kraus, Thomas; Schettgen, Thomas

    2017-07-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects in animals and humans. Although background levels of PCBs have been slowly decreased after their ban, they are still among the most persistent and ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, remaining the subject of great concern. PCB 28 is a trichlorinated PCB found in high concentrations not only in human plasma but also in indoor air in Europe, yet little is known about its metabolic pathway and potential metabolites in humans. The present study aims to elucidate the kinetics of metabolite formation and elimination by analyzing four hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in human plasma as potential metabolites of the PCB 28 congener. For this purpose, the study was conducted in plasma samples of highly PCB-exposed individuals (N=268), collected from 2010 to 2014 as a representation of a real case scenario with longitudinal data. OH-PCBs have been predicted, synthesized in the course of this study and further identified and quantitated in human plasma. This is the first time that previously unknown PCB 28 metabolites have been measured in human plasma and half-lives have been estimated for PCB metabolites, which could then provide further understanding in the toxicological consequences of exposure to PCBs in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  20. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  1. Stereoselective bioaccumulation of chiral PCB 91 in earthworm and its metabolomic and lipidomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Wang, Yuehua; Zhang, Yanwei; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2018-07-01

    Stereoselective bioaccumulation, elimination, metabolomic and lipidomic responses of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 91 in an earthworm-soil system were investigated. Preferential bioaccumulation of (-)-PCB 91 and elimination of (+)-PCB 91 were observed following 50 and 500 μg/kg dwt exposures. Enantiomer fraction (EF) values decreased over time during the uptake and elimination periods. Metabolomics and lipidomics techniques based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) revealed significant changes in 108 metabolites after earthworms exposure to (+)-, (-)-, and (±)-PCB 91, compared to control groups. Forty two of these metabolites were identified as amino acids, nucleosides, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, vitamins or others. Lysophospholipids including six lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), six lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), eight lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and five lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) were also differentially expressed between exposure and control groups. Alterations in the levels of metabolites and lipids indicated stereoselective effects of chiral PCB 91 on earthworm amino acid, energy, and nucleotide metabolism, neurodevelopment and gene expression. Overall, the effects of (+)-PCB 91 were more pronounced than that of (-)- and (±)-PCB 91. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  3. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  4. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D and D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN LEVELS IN PROCESSED BALL CLAY FROM THE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added...

  6. Mono-, di-, and trichlorinated biphenyls (PCB 1-PCB 39) in the indoor air of office rooms and their relevance on human blood burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M; Sievering, S; Grün, L; Rauchfuss, K

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from indoor air can lead to a significant increase in lower chlorinated congeners in human blood. Lower chlorinated congeners with short biological half-lives can exhibit an indirect genotoxic potential via their highly reactive metabolites. However, little is known about their occurrence in indoor air and, therefore, about the effects of possible exposure to these congeners. We analyzed all mono-, di-, and trichlorinated biphenyls in the indoor air of 35 contaminated offices, as well as in the blood of the 35 individuals worked in these offices for a minimum of 2 years. The median concentration of total PCB in the indoor air was 479 ng/m 3 . The most prevalent PCBs in the indoor air samples were the trichlorinated congeners PCB 31, PCB 18, and PCB 28, with median levels of 39, 31, and 26 ng/m 3 , respectively. PCB 8 was the most prevalent dichlorinated congener (median: 9.1 ng/m 3 ). Monochlorinated biphenyls were not detected in relevant concentrations. In the blood samples, the most abundant congener was PCB 28; nearly 90% of all mono-, di-, and trichlorinated congeners were attributed to this congener (median: 12 ng/g blood lipid). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prenatal and postnatal serum PCB concentrations and cochlear function in children at 45 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A; Sisto, Renata; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Moleti, Arturo; Wimmerová, Sonˇa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Sovčiková, Eva; Drobná, Beata; Palkovičová, L'ubica; Jurečková, Dana; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Verner, Marc-André; Sonneborn, Dean; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    Some experimental and human data suggest that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may induce ototoxicity, though results of previous epidemiologic studies are mixed and generally focus on either prenatal or postnatal PCB concentrations exclusively. Our aim was to evaluate the association between pre- and postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to cochlear status, assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and to further clarify the critical periods in development where cochlear status may be most susceptible to PCBs. A total of 351 children from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia underwent otoacoustic testing at 45 months of age. Maternal pregnancy, cord, and child 6-, 16-, and 45-month blood samples were collected and analyzed for PCB concentrations. At 45 months of age, DPOAEs were assessed at 11 frequencies in both ears. Multivariate, generalized linear models were used to estimate the associations between PCB concentrations at different ages and DPOAEs, adjusting for potential confounders. Maternal and cord PCB-153 concentrations were not associated with DPOAEs at 45 months. Higher postnatal PCB concentrations at 6-, 16-, and 45-months of age were associated with lower (poorer) DPOAE amplitudes. When all postnatal PCB exposures were considered as an area-under-the-curve metric, an increase in PCB-153 concentration from the 25th to the 75th percentile was associated with a 1.6-dB SPL (sound pressure level) decrease in DPOAE amplitude (95% CI: -2.6, -0.5; p = 0.003). In this study, postnatal rather than maternal or cord PCB concentrations were associated with poorer performance on otoacoustic tests at age 45 months.

  8. PCB Fault Detection Using Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Jithendra P. R.; Anitha, K.; Parameshachari, B. D., Dr.; Banu, Reshma, Dr.; Rashmi, P.

    2017-08-01

    The importance of the Printed Circuit Board inspection process has been magnified by requirements of the modern manufacturing environment where delivery of 100% defect free PCBs is the expectation. To meet such expectations, identifying various defects and their types becomes the first step. In this PCB inspection system the inspection algorithm mainly focuses on the defect detection using the natural images. Many practical issues like tilt of the images, bad light conditions, height at which images are taken etc. are to be considered to ensure good quality of the image which can then be used for defect detection. Printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication is a multidisciplinary process, and etching is the most critical part in the PCB manufacturing process. The main objective of Etching process is to remove the exposed unwanted copper other than the required circuit pattern. In order to minimize scrap caused by the wrongly etched PCB panel, inspection has to be done in early stage. However, all of the inspections are done after the etching process where any defective PCB found is no longer useful and is simply thrown away. Since etching process costs 0% of the entire PCB fabrication, it is uneconomical to simply discard the defective PCBs. In this paper a method to identify the defects in natural PCB images and associated practical issues are addressed using Software tools and some of the major types of single layer PCB defects are Pattern Cut, Pin hole, Pattern Short, Nick etc., Therefore the defects should be identified before the etching process so that the PCB would be reprocessed. In the present approach expected to improve the efficiency of the system in detecting the defects even in low quality images

  9. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  10. Accumulation of dioxins and PCB in house fly larvae (musca domestica) reared in poultry manure and used in feed for organic laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Fischer, Christian Holst

    2014-01-01

    higher content of the persistent organic environmental contaminants dioxins and PCB than eggs from conventional hens held indoor in cages. 1,2 The elevated levels of dioxins and PCB are most likely due to the hens picking in soils contaminated by industrial activities, burning of waste, chemical spillage...... etc. As manure from free range hens is expected to have elevated contents of dioxins and PCB, we investigated whether larvae reared in this type of manure accumulate dioxins and PCB, and if feeding organic laying hens with these larvae would increase the levels of dioxins and PCB in the hen eggs...... larvae, poultry manure, compost and compound feed as well as pooled egg samples from each group were analysed for levels of dioxins and PCB. Analytical procedure: after extraction of the sample with a mixture of pentane and acetone (88:12), the extracts were cleaned-up on a multilayer silica column...

  11. Editor's Highlight: Congener-Specific Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Lactating Mice and Their Offspring: Implications for PCB Developmental Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lukasiewicz, Tracy; Barnhart, Christopher D; Stamou, Marianna; Chung, Haeun; Kelly, Kevin M; Bandiera, Stelvio; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners have been implicated by laboratory and epidemiological studies in PCB developmental neurotoxicity. These congeners are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). The present study explores the enantioselective disposition and toxicity of 2 environmentally relevant, neurotoxic PCB congeners and their OH-PCB metabolites in lactating mice and their offspring following dietary exposure of the dam. Female C57BL/6N mice (8-weeks old) were fed daily, beginning 2 weeks prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation and lactation, with 3.1 µmol/kg bw/d of racemic 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) or 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in peanut butter; controls received vehicle (peanut oil) in peanut butter. PCB 95 levels were higher than PCB 136 levels in both dams and pups, consistent with the more rapid metabolism of PCB 136 compared with PCB 95. In pups and dams, both congeners were enriched for the enantiomer eluting second on enantioselective gas chromatography columns. OH-PCB profiles in lactating mice and their offspring were complex and varied according to congener, tissue and age. Developmental exposure to PCB 95 versus PCB 136 differentially affected the expression of P450 enzymes as well as neural plasticity (arc and ppp1r9b) and thyroid hormone-responsive genes (nrgn and mbp). The results suggest that the enantioselective metabolism of PCBs to OH-PCBs may influence neurotoxic outcomes following developmental exposures, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Optimal production planning for PCB assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, William

    2006-01-01

    Focuses on the optimization of the Printed circuit board (PCB) assembly lines' efficiency. This book integrates the component sequencing and the feeder arrangement problems together for the pick-and-place machine and the chip shooter machines.

  13. Carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs at low contamination levels-- influence of mycotoxin binders on the carry-over from feed to eggs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Kan, C A; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Eijkeren, Jan C H van; Traag, Win A

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with compound feed containing six different levels of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs for a period of 56 days. This was followed by a period of 56 days on clean feed. Dioxin levels in feed varied from background levels to three times the current EU tolerance limit

  14. Carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs at low contamination levels - influence of mycotoxin binders on the carry-over from feed to eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Zeilmaker, M.; Eijkeren, van J.; Traag, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with compound feed containing six different levels of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs for a period of 56 days. This was followed by a period of 56 days on clean feed. Dioxin levels in feed varied from background levels to three times the current EU tolerance limit

  15. AN ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN LEVELS IN PROCESSED ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added to chicken feed was the source of dioxin contamination. Further investigation showed that the dioxin contamination came from the mixing of a natural clay known as

  16. Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.

    2007-01-01

    A steady state model is developed to describe the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by 14 species in a Baltic food web including pelagic and benthic aquatic organisms. The model is used to study the bioaccumulation of five PCB congeners of different chlorination levels. The model predictions are evaluated against monitoring data for five of the species in the food web. Predicted concentrations are on average within a factor of two of measured concentrations. The model shows that all PCB congeners were biomagnified in the food web, which is consistent with observations. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the single most sensitive parameter is log K OW . The most sensitive environmental parameter is the annual average temperature. Although not identified amongst the most sensitive input parameters, the dissolved concentration in water is believed to be important because of the uncertainty in its determination. The most sensitive organism-specific input parameters are the fractional respiration of species from the water column and sediment pore water, which are also difficult to determine. Parameters such as feeding rate, growth rate and lipid content of organism are only important at higher trophic levels. - The bioaccumulation behaviour of PCB congeners in a Baltic food web is studied using a novel mechanistic model

  17. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  18. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  19. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  20. Effects of thiol antioxidants on the atropselective oxidation of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) by rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, such as PCB 136, are atropselectively metabolized to various hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs). The present study investigates the effect of two thiol antioxidants, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), on profiles and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites in rat liver microsomal incubations. Liver microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital were incubated with PCB 136 (5 μM) in the presence of the respective antioxidant (0-10 mM), and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites were determined. Three metabolites, 5-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol), 4-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol), and 4,5-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4,5-diol), were detected in all incubations, with 5-136 being the major metabolite. Compared to microsomal incubations without antioxidant, levels of 4,5-136 increased with increasing antioxidant concentration, whereas levels of PCB 136 and both mono-HO-PCBs were not affected by the presence of either antioxidant. PCB 136, 4-136, and 5-136 displayed significant atropisomeric enrichment; however, the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment was not altered in the presence of an antioxidant. Because 4,5-136 can either be conjugated to a sulfate or glucuronide metabolite that is readily excreted or further oxidized a potentially toxic PCB 136 quinone, the effect of both thiol antioxidants on 4,5-136 formation suggests that disruptions of glutathione homeostasis may alter the balance between both metabolic pathways and, thus, PCB 136 toxicity in vivo.

  1. PCB and Dioxin content of Swedish waste fuels; PCB- och dioxininnehaall i svenska avfallsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, Evalena (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Reported dioxin data in the literature presents a rather large variation, 1-255 ng I-TEQ/kg, among different municipal solid waste (MSW) mixture samples taken within different countries. However the variation is not only large between different countries, a significant variation is reported within each study as well. Results that shows the importance of using reliable and representative sampling methods. The majority of the reported dioxin levels is within 4 to 45 ng I-TEQ/kg waste. In some of the reported studies the dioxin content has as well been analysed in sources-sorted fractions. The majority, 90-95%, of the detected dioxins were found in the fraction consisting of textiles and leather. This study aims to analyse the amount and variations, of the toxic dioxin and PCB congeners within a typical MSW mixture in Sweden, before it is energy recovered in a waste incineration plant. The study includes 20 samples, taken from two different plants in Sweden i.e. Renova and Boraas Energi och Miljoe, during 2007/2008. A well evaluated sampling method were used at both plants to achieve representative samples. Each sampling campaign resulted in a 30 kg sample that was transported in sealed containers to a laboratory. The heat value and a complete determination of the elementary content was analysed as well as the levels of toxic dioxins and PCBs in all samples. All results, both organic and inorganic, were rather similar between the two incineration plants. The resemblance within the results is an outcome of that good and representative sampling method has been used during the sampling campaigns. The average value (+/- standard deviation) of all 20 samples is 29 +/-15 ng I-TEQ per kilo of dry MSW. An average value which is within the lower range of the previous reported levels in the literature. The lower dioxin content within Swedish MSW mixtures is most likely due to the relative well-controlled waste management and sorting system in Sweden. The majority of the

  2. Dietary Selenium as a Modulator of PCB 126–Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ian K.; Chai, Yingtao; Simmons, Donald; Watson, Walter H.; Tan, Rommel; Haschek, Wanda M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Bingxuan; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Homeostasis of selenium (Se), a critical antioxidant incorporated into amino acids and enzymes, is disrupted by exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Here we examined the importance of dietary Se in preventing the toxicity of the most toxic polychlorinated biphenyl congener, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a potent AhR agonist. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a modified AIN-93 diet with differing dietary Se levels (0.02, 0.2, and 2 ppm). Following 3 weeks of acclimatization, rats from each dietary group were given a single ip injection of corn oil (vehicle), 0.2, 1, or 5 μmol/kg body weight PCB 126, followed 2 weeks later by euthanasia. PCB exposure caused dose-dependent increases in liver weight and at the highest PCB 126 dose decreases in whole body weight gains. Hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A1) activity was significantly increased even at the lowest dose of PCB 126, indicating potent AhR activation. PCB exposure diminished hepatic Se levels in a dose-dependent manner, and this was accompanied by diminished Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. Both these effects were partially mitigated by Se supplementation. Conversely, thioredoxin (Trx) reductase activity and Trx oxidation state, although significantly diminished in the lowest dietary Se groups, were not affected by PCB exposure. In addition, PCB 126–induced changes in hepatic copper, iron, manganese, and zinc were observed. These results demonstrate that supplemental dietary Se was not able to completely prevent the toxicity caused by PCB 126 but was able to increase moderately the levels of several key antioxidants, thereby maintaining them roughly at normal levels. PMID:21865291

  3. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  4. Final report. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant PCB sediment survey: Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Laboratory analysis of collected samples along drainage features at PGDP. Report documents levels of PCB contamination and considers locations of contamination and known releases to theorize probable sources to further investigate.

  5. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  6. Integrated Nanozero Valent Iron and Biosurfactant-Aided Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs have been identified as environmental hazards for years. Due to historical issues, a considerable amount of PCBs was released deep underground in Canada. In this research, a nanoscale zero valent iron- (nZVI- aided dechlorination followed by biosurfactant enhanced soil washing method was developed to remove PCBs from soil. During nZVI-aided dechlorination, the effects of nZVI dosage, initial pH level, and temperature were evaluated, respectively. Five levels of nZVI dosage and two levels of initial pH were experimented to evaluate the PCB dechlorination rate. Additionally, the temperature changes could positively influence the dechlorination process. In soil washing, the presence of nanoiron particles played a key role in PCB removal. The crude biosurfactant was produced using a bacterial stain isolated from the Atlantic Ocean and was applied for soil washing. The study has led to a promising technology for PCB-contaminated soil remediation.

  7. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Audiogenic Seizures and Decreases Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Suren B; Eubig, Paul A; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we observed that developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure resulted in an increase in audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in rats. However, the rats were exposed to loud noise in adulthood, and were not tested for AGS until after 1 year of age, either of which could have interacted with early PCB exposure to increase AGS susceptibility. This study assessed susceptibility to AGS in young adult rats following developmental PCB exposure alone (without loud noise exposure) and investigated whether there was a decrease in GABA inhibitory neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus (IC) that could potentially explain this effect. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from 28 days prior to breeding until the pups were weaned at postnatal day 21. One male-female pair from each litter was retained for the AGS study whilst another was retained for Western blot analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAAα1 receptor in the IC, the site in the auditory midbrain where AGS are initiated. There was a significant increase in the number and severity of AGSs in the PCB groups, with females somewhat more affected than males. GAD65 was decreased but there was no change in GAD67 or GABAAα1 in the IC indicating decreased inhibitory regulation in the PCB group. These results confirm that developmental PCB exposure alone is sufficient to increase susceptibility to AGS, and provide the first evidence for a possible mechanism of action at the level of the IC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, D.; Taylor, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil following the application of quicklime and heat. META Environmental, Inc., as a contractor to EPRI, recently completed research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of quicklime for treating PCBs in soil and sand matrices under several reaction conditions, and to examine the underlying dechlorination chemistry involved, if any. Experiments were run with PCB-spiked sand and with actual PCB-contaminated soil. A variety of experimental conditions were employed including tests in open and closed containers, at ambient and elevated temperatures, and over a range of one hour to four days. Granular quicklime, fly ash, and kiln dust were all tested for reaction with PCBs. Early experiments showed that a mixture of sand/quicklime/water at 1:3:1.5 by weight, placed in an insulated container reached a maximum temperature of 216 degree C. Treatability experiments were subsequently run under controlled heat at room temperature, at 80 degree C, and at 200 degree C (following the initial temperature increase which occurs when water is added to quicklime). Little or no loss of PCBs was observed in open or closed containers at ambient or at 800 degree C over any period of time studied. A significant decrease of PCBs levels was observed only in the high temperature experiments (above 200 degree C), however the fate of the PCBs in those experiments was not determined. The conditions and the results of the PCB treatment tests are presented in this report, as well as recommendations for further studies

  10. PCB congener concentrations in a municipal sewer system in New Jersey, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, B. [Murray State Univ., Murray, KY (United States); Botts, J.A. [Aquatic Sciences Consulting, Woodbine, MD (United States); Spadone, J.; McKenna, B. [Linden Roselle Sewerage Authority, Linden, NJ (United States); Sajwan, K.S. [Savannah State Univ., Savannah, GA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper provided details of a water sampling pilot study conducted in the Linden Roselle Sewerage Authority (LRSA) region in New Jersey. The pilot study was conducted as part of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) monitoring program. Total PCB concentrations in whole water samples in both dissolved and particulate phases were collected at selected locations in the LRSA. PCB loading estimates for dry weather were also provided. Automatic composite sampler equipped with peristaltic pump mechanisms were used to collect the samples in a series of 4 rounds. Sample extracts were then purified and analyzed using a gas chromatograph electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Results showed that in dry weather, total PCBs were between 2.6 to 6.0-fold higher in the western sampling area than in the Roselle Flue, which received sewage flows from residential and commercial sources in the northwest area of the LRSA. Wet weather samples showed only slightly higher total PCBs. Data indicated a source of PCBs in the western portion of the sewershed. In dry weather, higher PCB levels were found in the whole primary influent samples. It was concluded that increased PCB levels were attributed to grit and sludge processing waste streams within a waste water treatment plant. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase...

  12. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB remediation waste. 761.61 Section... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.61 PCB remediation waste. This section provides cleanup and disposal options for PCB remediation waste. Any person cleaning up and disposing of PCBs managed under this section...

  13. Kwantificatie van PCB-componenten in krachtvoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazijk, van R.J.; Munsteren, van A.J.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.

    1981-01-01

    Met behulp van individuele chloorbifenylstandaarden is het PCB-gehalte van een aantal krachtvoeders bepaald, waarbij voor de onbekende componenten een geschatte waarde is gebruikt. Uit deze gehalten is met behulp van omrekeningsfactoren de theoretische DCB-opbrengst bij perchloreren berekend. Dit

  14. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, I.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  15. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  16. A preliminary approach to characterizing variability and uncertainty in the mammalian PCDD/F and PCB TEFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haws, L. [Exponent, Austin, TX (United States); Harris, M.; Santamaria, A. [Exponent, Houston, TX (United States); Su, S. [Exponent, New York, NY (United States); Walker, N. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Birnbaum, L.; DeVito, M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farland, W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Connor, K. [Exponent, Natick, MA (United States); Finley, B. [Exponent, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The current toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDD/Fs and ''dioxin-like'' PCBs represent consensus-based values that were recommended by an international panel of experts convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June of 1997. As a part of the development of the mammalian TEFs, the WHO expert panel considered an extensive body of in vivo and in vitro studies compiled into a database of relative potency (REP) values by scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm Sweden (hereafter referred to as the Karolinska database). The final TEFs recommended by the WHO expert panel were determined based on scientific judgment and represent order-of magnitude estimates of potency for each of the congeners relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD). As has been indicated by a number of investigators, the REP values for many congeners are derived from a highly heterogeneous data set, and for most TEFs, the range of underlying REP values often spans several orders of magnitude. However, the degree to which the current ''point estimate'' TEFs introduce variability and uncertainty into the health risk assessment process cannot be characterized in a quantitative fashion. Such characterizations may be important in settings where numerous PCDD/F and PCB congeners contribute to potential health risk. We believe that the use of REP distributions, as a supplement to or in place of ''point estimate'' TEFs, would facilitate such characterizations. Specifically, use of a range of REP values, perhaps with a clearly identified ''central tendency'' (e.g., 50{sup th} percentile) and/or ''upper bound'' (e.g., 90{sup th} or 95{sup th} percentile), would permit more informed discussions regarding the degree to which the TEFs contribute to variability and uncertainty in health risk estimates. This is important given the widespread use of the TEFs by numerous governmental

  17. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  18. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Højgård, A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine substances, including a number of organochlorine pesticides and PCB, are monitored in food, including meat, fish and dairy products. The substances are slowly degradable and therefore persist for long periods in the environment, where they accumulate in the fatty tissues...... pesticides and 0.9 μg/day for the indicator PCB-sum. People with a relatively high intake of these substances (the 95th percentile) are estimated to consume approximately twice as much. In general, the highest contributions to the intake of the organochlorine environmental contaminants are from fish, meat...

  19. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses.

  20. Hepatic Metabolism Affects the Atropselective Disposition of 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs. PMID:25420130

  1. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  2. Metabolism of 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) Atropisomers in Tissue Slices from Phenobarbital or Dexamethasone-Induced Rats is Sex-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J.; Duffel, Michael; Lein, Pamela J.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as PCB 136 enantioselectively sensitize the ryanodine receptor (RyR). In light of recent evidence that PCBs cause developmental neurotoxicity via RyR-dependent mechanisms, this suggests that enantioselective PCB metabolism may influence the developmental neurotoxicity of chiral PCBs. However, enantioselective disposition of PCBs has not been fully characterized.The effect of sex and cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme induction on the enantioselective metabolism of PCB 136 was studied using liver tissue slices prepared from naïve control (CTL), phenobarbital (PB; CYP2B inducer) or dexamethasone (DEX; CYP3A inducer) pretreated adult Sprague-Dawley rats. PCB 136 metabolism was also examined in hippocampal slices derived from untreated rat pups.In liver tissue slices, hydroxylated PCB (OH-PCB) profiles depended on sex and inducer pretreatment, and OH-PCB levels followed the rank orders male > female and PB > DEX > CTL. In contrast, the enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 136 and its metabolites was independent of sex and inducer pretreatment. Only small amounts of PCB 136 partitioned into hippocampal tissue slices and no OH-PCB metabolites were detected.Our results suggest that enantioselective metabolism, sex and induction status of P450 enzymes in the liver may modulate the neurotoxic outcomes of developmental exposure to chiral PCBs. PMID:23581876

  3. Inhibition of aromatase activity by methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites in primary culture of human mammary fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. van den; Heneweer, M.; Geest, M. de; Sanderson, T. [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences and Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Jong, P. de [St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) are persistent contaminants and are ubiquitously present in humans and the environment. Lipophilicity of MeSO2- PCB metabolites is similar to the parent compounds and they have been detected in human milk, adipose, liver and lung tissue. 4- MeSO2-PCB-149 is the most abundant PCB metabolite in human adipose tissue and milk at a level of 1.5 ng/g lipids. Human blood concentration of 4-MeSO2-PCB-149 is approximately 0.03 nM. 3- MeSO2-PCB-101 is the predominant PCB metabolite in muscle and blubber in wildlife, such as otter, mink and grey seal. In the environment, they have been linked to chronic and reproductive toxicity in exposed mink. Additionaly, some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been shown to be glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists. Since approximately 60% of all breast tumors are estrogen responsive, exposure to compounds that are able to alter estrogen synthesis through interference with the aromatase enzyme, can lead to changes in estrogen levels and possibly to accelerated or inhibit breast tumor growth. Therefore, it is important to identify exogenous compounds that can alter aromatase activity in addition to those compounds which have direct interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Aromatase (CYP19) comprises the ubiquitous flavoprotein, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and a unique cytochrome P450 that is exclusively expressed in estrogen producing cells. Previous studies have revealed that expression of the aromatase gene is regulated in a species- and tissue specific manner. In healthy breast tissue, the predominantly active aromatase promoter region I.4 is regulated by glucocorticoids and class I cytokines. Therefore, it is important to investigate possible aromatase inhibiting properties of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs (as anti glucocorticoids?) in relevant human tissues. We used primary human mammary fibroblasts because of their role in breast cancer development. We compared the results in primary fibroblasts with

  4. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  5. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial ecology of bacterially mediated PCB biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, C.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The roles of plasmid mediated and consortia mediated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation by bacterial populations isolated from PCB contaminated freshwater sediments were investigated. PCB degrading bacteria were isolated by DNA:DNA colony hybridization, batch enrichments, and chemostat enrichment. Analysis of substrate removal and metabolite production were done using chlorinated biphenyl spray plates, reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, Cl - detection, and 14 C-labeled substrate mineralization methods. A bacterial consortium, designated LPS10, involved in a concerted metabolic attack on chlorinated biphenyls, was shown to mineralize 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4' CB). The LPS10 consortium was isolated by both batch and chemostat enrichment using 4CB and biphenyl (BP) as sole carbon source and was found to have tree bacterial isolates that predominated; these included: Pseudomonas, testosteroni LPS10A which mediated the breakdown of 4CB and 4,4' CB to the putative meta-cleavage product and subsequently to 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CBA), an isolate tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter sp. LPS10B which mediated 4CBA degradation, and Pseudomonas putida by A LPS10C whose role in the consortium has not been determined

  7. Machine Vision Implementation in Rapid PCB Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosafat Surya Murijanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, the heart of machine vision, has proven itself to be an essential part of the industries today. Its application has opened new doorways, making more concepts in manufacturing processes viable. This paper presents an application of machine vision in designing a module with the ability to extract drills and route coordinates from an un-mounted or mounted printed circuit board (PCB. The algorithm comprises pre-capturing processes, image segmentation and filtering, edge and contour detection, coordinate extraction, and G-code creation. OpenCV libraries and Qt IDE are the main tools used. Throughout some testing and experiments, it is concluded that the algorithm is able to deliver acceptable results. The drilling and routing coordinate extraction algorithm can extract in average 90% and 82% of the whole drills and routes available on the scanned PCB in a total processing time of less than 3 seconds. This is achievable through proper lighting condition, good PCB surface condition and good webcam quality. 

  8. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  9. Identification of lipidomic markers of chronic 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure in the male rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Wu, Xianai; Wang, Kai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to PCB 126, an environmentally relevant aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, is an environmental factor causing hepatic steatosis in rodent models; however, the lipidome of PCB 126-exposed rats has not been investigated in-depth. The objective of the present study was therefore to characterize dose-dependent changes in the lipid profile in the liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to PCB 126. Rats were exposed for three month to intraperitoneal injections of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.2μmol/kg bw PCB 126 in corn oil. Control animals were exposed in parallel and received corn oil alone. Lipids were extracted from whole liver homogenate and levels of polar lipids and fatty acids incorporated into triglycerides (FA TAGs ) were determined with tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization. PCB 126 exposure increased the hepatic content of polar lipids and FA TAGs . Protein adjusted levels of several polar lipid classes, in particular phosphatidylserine levels, decreased, whereas FA TAGs levels typically increased with increasing PCB 126 dose. Sensitive, dose-dependent endpoints of PCB 126 exposure included an increase in levels of adrenic acid incorporated into triglycerides and changes in levels of certain ether-linked phospholipid and 1-alkyl/1-alkenyldiacylglycerol species, as determined using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and ANOVA. These changes in the composition of polar lipids and fatty acid in the liver of PCB 126 exposed rats identified several novel markers of PCB 126-mediated fatty liver disease that need to be validated in further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PCB i bygninger - afhjælpning, renovering og nedrivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    SBi-anvisning 268 beskriver, hvordan PCB-forurening af indeluften afhjælpes, og hvordan PCB håndteres, når man renoverer eller nedriver bygninger med PCB. Uanset om der er tale om afhjælpning, renovering eller nedrivning, kan arbejdet generere PCB-holdigt affald. Anvisningen forklarer derfor......, hvordan affaldet skal håndteres, og hvordan man beskytter mennesker og miljø under arbejdet. Anvisningen er baseret på byggebranchens erfaringer og den aktuelle forskningsbaserede viden om PCB i bygninger. SBi-anvisning 268 afløser den snart fire år gamle SBi-anvisning 242 om renovering af bygninger med...... PCB, som ikke behandlede spørgsmålet om affaldshåndtering....

  11. EFFECTS OF THIOL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE ATROPSELECTIVE OXIDATION OF 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 136) BY RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, such as PCB 136, are atropselectively metabolized to various hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs). The present study investigates the effect of two thiol antioxidants, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), on profiles and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites in rat liver microsomal incubations. Liver microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital were incubated with PCB 136 (5 μM) in the presence of the respective antioxidant (0–10 mM), and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites were determined. Three metabolites, 5-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol), 4-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) and 4,5-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-4,5-diol), were detected in all incubations, with 5-136 being the major metabolite. Compared to microsomal incubations without antioxidant, levels of 4,5-136 increased with increasing antioxidant concentration, whereas levels of PCB 136 and both mono-HO-PCBs were not affected by the presence of either antioxidant. PCB 136, 4-136 and 5-136 displayed significant atropisomeric enrichment; however, the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment was not altered in the presence of an antioxidant. Because 4,5-136 can either be conjugated to a sulfate or glucuronide metabolite that is readily excreted or further oxidized a potentially toxic PCB 136 quinone, the effect of both thiol antioxidants on 4,5-136 formation suggests that disruptions of glutathione homeostasis may alter the balance between both metabolic pathways and, thus, PCB 136 toxicity in vivo. PMID:26155892

  12. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and PCB editor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2009-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Editor. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Editor is used to design the circuit board so that it can be manufactured. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need in-depth instruction on how to use the software, and who need background knowledge of the PCB design process. KEY FEATURES:* Beginning to end cove

  13. Kartlegging av PCB i sedimenter fra Indre Sørfjord

    OpenAIRE

    Skei, J.; Klungsøyr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Som følge av forhøyede nivåer av PCB i fiskelever innerst i Sørfjorden er det gjennomført en sedimentundersøkelse for om mulig å finne kilden til PCB. Det ble ikke registrert høye nivåer av PCB i sedimentene. Høyeste konsentrasjoner ble målt i munningen av Eitrheimsvågen. Analyser av trafooljer brukt i Tyssedalsområdet viste spor av PCB. Statens forurensningstilsyn (SFT)

  14. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, S.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  15. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  16. Cell specific effects of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbone receptors in follicular cells of porcine ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Augustowska, K.; Gregoraszczuk, E. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Dept. of Animal Physiology, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) like other endocrine disrupters could interfere with natural hormones by binding to their receptors and thus mimicking the cellular response to them. They are known to possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties. In our previous papers we demonstrated that PCBs are able to disrupt ovarian steroidogenesis. We found that the coplanar PCB 126 caused the decrease in estradiol secretion in whole cultured pig ovarian follicles. PCB 126 congener is structurally related to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Since TCDD effects are known to be mediated by aryl hydrocarbone receptors (AhRs), we decided to determine if PCB 126 affects signal transduction pathway activated by these receptors. It has been reported that the functional AhR is present in ovary including oocytes, granulosa and theca cells of rat, mouse, rhesus monkey and human ovary. Moreover, the expression of AhR in the rat ovary appeared to be estrous cycle-dependent, thus suggesting that AhR expression may be regulated by fluctuating hormone levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the non-ortho-substituted 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on the AhR activation, localization and protein level in pig ovarian follicle cells.

  17. Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Crisol, Barbara Moreira; Formigari, Guilherme Pedron; Sant'Ana, Marcella Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys Esper; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2018-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.

  18. Prediction of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB 2005-WHO-TEQ content based on the contribution of six congeners: Toward a new screening approach for fish samples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Marchand, Philippe; Venisseau, Anais; Brosseaud, Aline; Bertrand, Dominique; Qannari, El Mostafa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Current European Union regulation regarding polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in food and feed is based on Toxic Equivalent Quotient (TEQ) concept. For confirmatory purpose, the isotope-dilution method associated to a measurement by gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry is usually the method of choice for precisely measuring the 29 target congeners in three separated fractions. Time and cost related to these analyses are very significant. Various kinds of screening concepts can be considered. In the present study, we elaborated and validated a prediction model for the 2005 World Health Organization TEQ in fish, based on the measurement of 4 PCDD/F and 2 non-ortho dl-PCB congeners, potentially analyzable in a single extracted fraction by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Large independent datasets have been used for model elaboration (n = 108) and validation (n = 363, n = 357 and n = 6). - This study describes a statistical regression model approach for screening PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fish.

  19. Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM, ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

  20. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Galveston Bay, Texas: Comparing concentrations and profiles in sediments, passive samplers, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Apell, Jennifer N; Winfield, Zach C; Back, Jeffrey A; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2018-05-01

    The industrialized portion of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is heavily contaminated with anthropogenic contaminants, most prominent of which are the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This contamination has driven adaptive evolution in a keystone species for Galveston Bay, the Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). We investigated the geographical extent of PCB impacts by sampling 12 sites, ranging from the heavily industrialized upper portion of the HSC to Galveston Island. At each site, PCB concentrations and profiles were determined in three environmental compartments: sediment, water (polyethylene passive samplers), and fish tissue (resident Gulf killifish). We observed a steep gradient of PCB contamination, ranging from 4.00 to 100,000 ng/g organic carbon in sediment, 290-110,000 ng/g lipid in fish, and 4.5-2300 ng/g polyethylene in passive samplers. The PCB congener profiles in Gulf killifish at the most heavily contaminated sites were shifted toward the higher chlorinated PCBs and were highly similar to the sediment contamination profiles. In addition, while magnitude of total PCB concentrations in sediment and total fish contamination levels were highly correlated between sites, the relative PCB congener profiles in fish and passive samplers were more alike. This strong correlation, along with a lack of dependency of biota-sediment accumulation factors with total contamination rates, confirm the likely non-migratory nature of Gulf killifish and suggest their contamination levels are a good site-specific indicator of contamination in the Galveston Bay area. The spatial gradient of PCB contamination in Galveston Bay was evident in all three matrices studied and was observed effectively using Gulf killifish contamination as an environmentally relevant bioindicator of localized contamination in this environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variability of PCB burden in 5 fish and sharks species of the French Mediterranean continental slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Pierre; Fabri, Marie Claire; Miralles, Françoise Marco; Dufour, Jean-Louis; Elleboode, Romain; Sevin, Karine; Mahé, Kelig; Bouchoucha, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Despite being generally located far from contamination sources, deep marine ecosystems are impacted by chemicals like PCB. The PCB contamination in five fish and shark species collected in the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) was measured, with a special focus on intra- and interspecific variability and on the driving factors. Significant differences occurred between species. Higher values were measured in Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus and Helicolenus dactylopterus and lower values in Phycis blennoides and Lepidorhombus boscii. These differences might be explained by specific abilities to accumulate and eliminate contaminant, mostly through cytochrome P450 pathway. Interindividual variation was also high and no correlation was observed between contamination and length, age or trophic level. Despite its major importance, actual bioaccumulation of PCB in deep fish is not as documented as in other marine ecosystems, calling for a better assessment of the factors driving individual bioaccumulation mechanisms and originating high variability in PCB contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB (PCB 153) and methylmercury enhances developmental neurotoxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, C.; Fredriksson, A.; Eriksson, P. [Dept. Environment. Toxicol., Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    In our environment there are innumerable hazardous contaminants. Many of these compounds are the well-known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like PCB and DDT. Another persistent agent in our environment is methylmercury (MeHg). These agents are known to be neurotoxic in laboratory animals and humans. Fetuses and neonates are known to be high-risk groups for exposure to these agents. A naturally occurring circumstance is the exposure to a combination of different persistent compounds. The knowledge of interaction between different toxic agents during development is sparse. In several studies we have shown that low-dose exposure of environmental toxic agents such as PCBs, DDT, BFRs (brominated flame retardants) as well as well-known neurotoxic agents such as nicotine, organophosphorous compounds and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), during the ''BGS'', in neonatal mice can lead to disruption of the adult brain function, and to an increased susceptibility to toxic agents as adults. Our studies concerning developmental neurotoxic effects after neonatal exposure to single PCB congeners have shown that some orthosubstituted PCBs (such as PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 153) and some co-planar PCBs (such as PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 169) cause derangement of adult behaviour that can worsen with age. Furthermore, the cholinergic receptors in the brain were also found to be affected8. Just recently we have seen that neonatal co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB, 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), together with a brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenylether (PBDE 99), can enhance developmental neurotoxic effects when the exposure occurs during a critical stage of neonatal brain development. The present study was carried out in order to see whether PCB and MeHg could interact to cause enhanced developmental neurotoxic effects on spontaneous behaviour and habituation capability when given to neonatal mice.

  4. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R.. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  5. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer to be a PCB Transformer. (4) Any person must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is...

  6. Hormetic effects of noncoplanar PCB exposed to human lung fibroblast cells (HELF) and possible role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Hu, Jinxing; Naveedullah; Su, Xiaomei; Abbas, Ghulam; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng

    2015-12-01

    Hormesis, a biphasic dose-response phenomenon, which is characterized by stimulation of an end point at a low-dose and inhibition at a high-dose. In the present study we used human lungs fibroblast (HELF) cells as a test model to evaluate the role of oxidative stress (OS) in hormetic effects of non coplanar PCB 101. Results from 3-(4,5-dime-thylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazo-lium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that PCB101 at lower concentrations (10(-5) to 10(-1) μg mL(-1) ) stimulated HELF cell proliferation and inhibited at high concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 20 μg mL(-1) ) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (except 48 h) showed a significant increase at higher concentrations of PCB 101 than those at the lower concentrations with the passage of time. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) exhibited decreasing trends in dose and time dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant increase (P PCB 101-treated HELF cells compared with controls, suggesting that OS plays a key role in PCB 101-induced toxicity. Comet assay indicated a significant increase in genotoxicity at higher concentrations of PCB 101 exposure compared to lower concentrations. Overall, we found that HELF cell proliferation was higher at low ROS level and vice versa, which revealed activation of cell signaling-mediated hormetic mechanisms. The results suggested that PCB 101 has hormetic effects to HELF cells and these were associated with oxidative stress. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measurement of PCB concentrations in waters using a biomonitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The book describes a PCB biomonitoring programme which was developed for measuring instantaneous PCB concentrations and permits the compilation of PCB action cadastres for different types of waters and subsequent derivation of current trends. Six representative congeners were selected as a basis for the quantitative routine analysis. The fish species bream (abramis brama) and roach (rutilus rutilus) were used as indicators in the PCB biomonitoring programme on account of their distribution and ecological demands. The age and growth rate of each fish destined for analysis was determined so as to ensure that only healthy fish would be used. In both fish species the dorsal musulature with its low scatter of test results and consistent PCB pattern (internal quantification) proved a representative body region. (orig.) [de

  8. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  9. 40 CFR 761.346 - Three levels of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Three levels of sampling. 761.346... PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal...

  10. Assessment of exposure to PCDD/F, PCB, and PAH at a basic oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) and an iron ore sintering plant in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kevin; Aries, Eric; Fisher, Raymond; Anderson, David R; Parris, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    An assessment was carried out at a UK integrated steelworks to investigate the exposure of workers via inhalation to dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD/F)], polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Investigations focused on a basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) plant and an iron ore sintering plant. The highest concentrations of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB were found at the BOS vessels and sinter strand area at the BOS and sinter plant, respectively. A risk assessment was carried out by comparing the daily intake of PCDD/F and PCB via inhalation with the recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). For the most exposed category of worker in this study (i.e. sinter plant workers inside the strand area), the estimated daily intake via inhalation was estimated to be 0.25 pg WHO-toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight (bw). Considering that the average UK adult exposure to PCDD/F from the diet is 1.8 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), the results indicated that the estimated daily intake of PCDD/F and PCB via inhalation for sinter plant workers would not result in the recommended range of the TDI (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) being exceeded. Cancer risks for a 40-year occupational exposure period were determined by multiplying the estimated intake by the inhalation cancer potency factor for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. For the most exposed category of worker, cancer risks from exposure to PCDD/F and PCB ranged from 2.5 × 10(-6) to 5.2 × 10(-5). Under most regulatory programmes, excess cancer risks between 1.0 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-4) indicate an acceptable range of cancer risk, suggesting a limited risk from PCDD/F and PCB exposure for workers in the sinter plant. With regard to PAH, B[a]P concentrations were typically plant and the BOS plant. In several cases, particularly at the sinter plant, B[a]P concentrations

  11. Exposure to 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) impacts multiple organ systems in developing little skate (Leucoraja erinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of exposure to coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other dioxin-like chemicals on developing vertebrates involve many organ systems, including the skeletal and cardiovascular systems. Apex predators, including those from the class Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates,...

  12. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    The CALUX (chemically activated luciferase expression) bioassay based on rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells is a sensitive assay for the detection of Ah receptor agonists like 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and related PCBs. In this paper, the assay was optimized...... and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted...... lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs...

  13. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  14. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of PCB...

  15. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  16. Evolution study of contamination Russian Baltic fish by PCDD/F and WHO-PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelepchikov, A.; Brodsky, E. [Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) (Russian Federation); Shenderyuk, V.; Baholdina, L. [Atlantic Research Inst. of Fish Industry and Oceanography, (AtlantNIRO) (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Baltic Sea is well known as the most polluted sea in the world, but its fish products have a significant role in diet of Baltic countries habitants. In Dioxin 2003 meeting we have present first results of analysis of Baltic fishes caught by Russian fisherman for market. The results confirmed a rather high level of pollution in the Baltic seafood by PCDD/Fs and have shown necessity of the further researches. Although PCDD/Fs profile in fisher's body is not consist unsteady and was formed under affection of various factors, it was obvious that essential path comes with PCB; also previously were found that WHO-TEQ{sub PCB} in seafood could exceed WHO-TEQ{sub PCDD/F} level. In given works we present results of the analysis of two freshwater species of fishes and updating research of former analyzed kinds, included of WHO-PCBs determination.

  17. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in the lower troposphere of the North-and South-Atlantic Ocean. Studies of global baseline pollution. Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreitmueller, J.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified in air samples of the tropospheric boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples were taken on the German research vessel 'Polarstern' during north-south cruises across the Atlantic Ocean (1990, 1991), and on the Capo Verde islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (1992). Values for the sum of PCB were between 48 pg/m 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [ in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 1.3; PCB 52: 5.0; PCB 101: 3.0; PCB 118: ≤0.5; PCB 138: 1; PCB 153: 1; PCB 180: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.3; PCB 52: 3.4; PCB 101: ≤0.5; PCB 118: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.6; PCB 52: 11.7; PCB 101: 28.4; PCB 118: 9; PCB 138: 21; PCB 153: 18; PCB 180: 5.5) were measured of the coast of South Patagonia. A difference depending on latitude and on terrestrial influenced air masses between the lower and the higher chlorinated congeners was observed. The levels of three- and tetrachlorinated congeners were highest in the Trade Wind regions. The contents of the higher chlorinated congeners had maxima in samples influenced by continental air masses. A correlation of the levels of the lower chlorinated congeners in air over the South Atlantic with the surface water temperature and thus with the temperature dependent gas/water partition coefficient K gw was observed. (orig.)

  18. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g(-1) lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g(-1) lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively.

  19. Up-regulation of endothelial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by coplanar PCB77 is caveolin-1-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkova, Zuzana; Smart, Eric; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of heart disease and stroke is initiated in the vascular endothelium, and risk factors for its development include environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Caveolae are membrane microdomains involved in regulation of many signaling pathways, and in particular in endothelial cells. We tested the hypothesis that intact caveolae are required for coplanar PCB77-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an endothelium-derived chemokine that attracts monocytes into sub-endothelial space in early stages of the atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis-prone LDL-R -/- mice (control) or caveolin-1 -/- /LDL-R -/- mice were treated with PCB77. PCB77 induced aortic mRNA expression and plasma protein levels of MCP-1 in control, but not caveolin-1 -/- /LDL-R -/- mice. To study the mechanism of this effect, primary endothelial cells were used. PCB77 increased MCP-1 levels in endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was abolished by caveolin-1 silencing using siRNA. Also, MCP-1 up-regulation by PCB77 was prevented by inhibiting p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK1/2, suggesting regulatory functions via p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Finally, pre-treatment of endothelial cells with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibitor α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) partially blocked MCP-1 up-regulation. Thus, our data demonstrate that coplanar PCB77 can induce MCP-1 expression by endothelial cells and that this effect is mediated by AhR, as well as p 38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Intact caveolae are required for these processes both in vivo and in vitro. This further supports a key role for caveolae in vascular inflammation induced by persistent organic pollutants.

  20. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S; Borgå, Katrine; Asplund, Lillemor; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Polder, Anuschka; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2010-06-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 degrees N-82 degrees N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 degrees N-62 degrees N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB](org); pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C(w); pg/L). The BAF(Arctic):BAF(Temperate) ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF(Arcti):BAF(Temperate)) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S.; Borga, Katrine; Asplund, Lillemor; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Polder, Anuschka; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2010-01-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 o N-82 o N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 o N-62 o N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB] org ; pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C w ; pg/L). The BAF Arctic :BAF Temperate ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF Arcti :BAF Temperate ) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic.

  2. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R. Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppM DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppM Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their controls, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats.

  3. Economical weight loss program for PCB-contaminated ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.

    1995-01-01

    A PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) reduction process for PCB-contaminated ballasts was described. The process was developed by such organizations and programs as PCB Containment Technology Inc, and the Contech Ballast Reduction Program, and was claimed to include waste reduction of lighting ballasts down to their smallest PCB contaminated components. Particular attention was paid to the two most contaminated main components, i.e. the capacitor and the tar potting material. Development of the process and the government's role and participation therein was explained. The process of ballast reduction was said to utilize the old 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycle' theory; it was considered to be a cost effective waste reduction, recycling, and auditing alternative to incineration of PCBs

  4. New EPA ban stymies Canadian exports of PCB waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    With reference to a 1996 EPA ruling permitting the importation to the USA of PCBs for incineration, a unanimous three-judge panel of the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth District in San Francisco ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) did not have the authority to permit the import of PCB wastes into the USA for disposal. Prior to the decision, 35 applications from Canada to export some 37,000 tonnes of PCB to the USA for disposal have been approved. Canadian brokers are upset with the decision, claiming that the decision will create a virtual monopoly for Bovar Inc., of Calgary, the only PCB-disposal facility in Canada. The loss (at least for the time being) of the alternate disposal opportunity will likely have the effect of forcing Canadian customers to pay more for PCB disposal. The Canadian government is monitoring the situation and is waiting to see whether an appeal is filed against the ruling

  5. Prenatal Exposure to DDE and PCB 153 and Respiratory Health in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascon, Mireia; Sunyer, Jordi; Casas, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants may affect the immune and respiratory systems, but available evidence is based on small study populations. We studied the association between prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153) and children......'s respiratory health in European birth cohorts. METHODS: We included 4608 mothers and children enrolled in 10 birth cohort studies from 7 European countries. Outcomes were parent-reported bronchitis and wheeze in the first 4 years of life. For each cohort, we performed Poisson regression analyses, modeling...... 153 tertiles of exposure, whereas DDE associations were more robust. CONCLUSION: This large meta-analysis suggests that prenatal DDE exposure may be associated with respiratory health symptoms in young children (below 18 months), whereas prenatal PCB 153 levels were not associated with such symptoms....

  6. PCB concentrations and metabolism patterns in common terns (Sterna hirundo) from different breeding colonies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    PCB levels in blood of common terns (Sterna hirundo) from Terneuzen, a breeding colony in The Netherlands with relatively low breeding success, were significantly higher than in birds from two Dutch reference colonies, one nearby (Oesterdam) and one further away (the Isle of Griend). However, a

  7. Comparison of dioxin and PCB concentrations in human breast milk samples from Hong Kong and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, S.D.; Chan, S.M.; Nelson, E.A.; Brouwer, A.; Sauer, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The adverse effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human health are of increasing concern. These lipophilic compounds are concentrated through the food chain and are present in human milk. This study compares PCB levels in human milk samples from Hong Kong and Dutch mothers. Ten

  8. Prenatal exposure to PCB-153, p,p'-DDE and birth outcomes in 9000 mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Martínez, David

    2014-01-01

    Low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) can impair fetal growth; however, the exposure-response relationship and effect modifiers of such association are not well established. This study is an extension of an earlier European me...

  9. PCB-induced changes of a benthic community and expected ecosystem recovery following in situ sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic community was analyzed to evaluate pollution-induced changes for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site at Hunters Point (HP) relative to 30 reference sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. An analysis based on functional traits of feeding, reproduction, and position in the sediment shows that HP is depauperate in deposit feeders, subsurface carnivores, and species with no protective barrier. Sediment chemistry analysis shows that PCBs are the major risk drivers at HP (1,570 ppb) and that the reference sites contain very low levels of PCB contamination (9 ppb). Different feeding traits support the existence of direct pathways of exposure, which can be mechanistically linked to PCB bioaccumulation by biodynamic modeling. The model shows that the deposit feeder Neanthes arenaceodentata accumulates approximately 20 times more PCBs in its lipids than the facultative deposit feeder Macoma balthica and up to 130 times more than the filter feeder Mytilus edulis. The comparison of different exposure scenarios suggests that PCB tissue concentrations at HP are two orders of magnitude higher than at the reference sites. At full scale, in situ sorbent amendment with activated carbon may reduce PCB bioaccumulation at HP by up to 85 to 90% under favorable field and treatment conditions. The modeling framework further demonstrates that such expected remedial success corresponds to exposure conditions suggested as the cleanup goal for HP. However, concentrations remain slightly higher than at the reference sites. The present study demonstrates how the remedial success of a sorbent amendment, which lowers the PCB availability, can be compared to reference conditions and traditional cleanup goals, which are commonly based on bulk sediment concentrations.

  10. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus; Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2

  11. Historical reconstruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures for workers in a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    We developed a semiquantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a capacitor manufacturing plant from 1946 to 1977. In a recently updated mortality study, mortality of prostate and stomach cancer increased with increasing levels of cumulative exposure estimated with this JEM (trend p values = 0.003 and 0.04, respectively). Capacitor manufacturing began with winding bales of foil and paper film, which were placed in a metal capacitor box (pre-assembly), and placed in a vacuum chamber for flood-filling (impregnation) with dielectric fluid (PCBs). Capacitors dripping with PCB residues were then transported to sealing stations where ports were soldered shut before degreasing, leak testing, and painting. Using a systematic approach, all 509 unique jobs identified in the work histories were rated by predetermined process- and plant-specific exposure determinants; then categorized based on the jobs' similarities (combination of exposure determinants) into 35 job exposure categories. The job exposure categories were ranked followed by a qualitative PCB exposure rating (baseline, low, medium, and high) for inhalation and dermal intensity. Category differences in other chemical exposures (solvents, etc.) prevented further combining of categories. The mean of all available PCB concentrations (1975 and 1977) for jobs within each intensity rating was regarded as a representative value for that intensity level. Inhalation (in microgram per cubic milligram) and dermal (unitless) exposures were regarded as equally important. Intensity was frequency adjusted for jobs with continuous or intermittent PCB exposures. Era-modifying factors were applied to the earlier time periods (1946-1974) because exposures were considered to have been greater than in later eras (1975-1977). Such interpolations, extrapolations, and modifying factors may introduce non-differential misclassification; however, we do believe our rigorous method

  12. Influence of a combination of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners (PCB 47; PCB 77) on thyroid status, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and short- and long-term memory in 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, Douglas A.; Dougherty, Edward J.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of thyroid hormones in growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, digestion, cardiac function, and normal brain development can be disrupted by environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Polychlorinated biphenyls are environmental contaminants that are widespread, persistent, lipophilic, and bioaccumulate through food webs, concentrating in adipose tissue. Placental and lactational PCB exposure of offspring causes metabolic and endocrine disruptions including hypothyroxinemia, spatial learning and memory deficits, neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and reproductive problems. Previous studies in our lab using the individual congeners PCB 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, ortho-substituted) and PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, non-ortho-substituted) have demonstrated alterations in thyroid hormone levels, alterations in brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and spatial learning deficits. In the present study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet with or without a mixture of PCB 47/77 at 1.25 ppm, 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm (w/w). Rat pups were swum in the Morris water maze four times a day on days 21-29 in order for the animals to learn the position of a submerged fixed platform. A probe test was run on day 24 (30 min after last swim) for short-term memory, and on day 29 (24 h after the last swim) for long-term memory after removal of the platform. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. Rats were decapitated on day 30, serum collected and frozen at -20 deg. ChAT activity was measured radiometrically in basal forebrain and hippocampus. All PCB-treated animals experienced a depression in both triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ). The present study found that all doses of PCB depressed ChAT activity in hippocampus with no significant alteration in the basal forebrain. In PCB-treated animals, short-term memory showed a trend toward

  13. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Sung Yong, E-mail: seum@miami.edu; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  14. Current data on the background burden to the persistent organochlorine pollutants HCB, p,p'-DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 in plasma of the general population in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettgen, Thomas; Alt, Anne; Esser, Andre; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite their long-term ban, persistent organochlorine compounds like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still of environmental concern. For the evaluation of potential occupational or environmental exposures to these substances, it is essential to know the current background burden of the general population. As representative and up-to-date information is missing for Germany, we have analysed a large dataset generated in studies on potential exposure to lower chlorinated PCBs to fill this gap for the levels of HCB, DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. We have investigated n=2750 plasma samples of persons of the general population living in North Rhine-Westfalia and Hesse aged 6-65 years and sampled between September 2010 and March 2014. For evaluation of the age-dependent accumulation in the general population we have generated seven age groups in the collective. Our laboratory used a validated and quality controlled procedure using GC/MS for quantification of the organochlorine compounds in plasma (LOQ: 0.01μg/L). The median (95th percentile) levels for ∑ PCB 138+PCB 153+PCB 180 were 0.14 (0.73); 0.30 (0.82); 0.38 (0.88); 0.50 (1.14); 0.92; 1.58 (3.54) and 2.41 (4.82)μg/L plasma in the age groups 6-10 years (n=102), 11-17 years (n=499), 18-25 years (n=157), 26-35 years (n=710), 36-45 years (n=400), 46-55 years (n=525) and 56-65 years (n=357), respectively. Similarly, the median (95th percentile) levels of p,p'-DDE were 0.18 (1.24); 0.18 (0.74); 0.24 (0.85); 0.30 (1.20); 0.45 (1.74); 0.64 (3.25) and 0.94 (4.7)μg/L plasma. Finally, the median (95th percentile) of HCB in plasma in these age groups was 0.05 (0.10); 0.06 (0.11); 0.08 (0.15); 0.08 (0.15); 0.11 (0.22); 0.14 (0.42) and 0.20 (0.68)μg/L plasma. Our results prove an overall substantial reduction in the body burden to organochlorine compounds in Germany compared to earlier studies. However, 15% and 3.6% of the examined

  15. PCB management and the environmental movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1995-01-01

    Some key issues of public concern about hazardous waste incinerators and, in general, the management of toxic wastes, have been identified with a view to counter arguments brought forward by environmentalists and to offer reassurance based on scientific evidence. The case in point is the long-term management of London's (Ontario) PCB inventory, extensively studied by Proctor and Redfern Ltd., a consultant group. They recommended thermal destruction of the PCBs as the most effective and permanent solution. Their report was subsequently attacked by Greenpeace, whose main concern was the consultants's recommendation to rely on destruction by incineration and removal efficiency values. Greenpeace also raised doubts about recommended measures against emissions of products of incomplete combustion, the incineration of metal containing waste, and the validity of health risk assessment. Evidence from Proctor and Redfern's own consulting experience, and other published scientific studies were used to show the fallacy of Greenpeace's arguments, claiming that they were based on unscientific, outdated and seemingly selective information, resulting in completely misleading assessment of incineration as an effective means of toxic waste management. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (Pfillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (Pfillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (Pfillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  18. Assessment of serum PCDD, RCDF and PCB levels in firefighters exposed to combustion products during the 1992 ''Irkutskcable'' factory fire in the city of Shelekhov, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyak, Y.; Merinova, A. [Inst. of Occupational Health and Human Ecology of the Siberian Branch of Academy of Medical Sciences, Angarsk (Russian Federation); Grassman, J. [Brooklyn Coll.-CUNY, Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Brodsky, E.; Shelepchikov, A.; Mir-Kadyrova, E.; Feshin, D.; Zhilnikov, V. [Severtsov Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    In December 1992, a fire broke out in a warehouse of the ''Irkutskcable'' factory in the city of Shelekhov, Russia. Over the next three days, the fire destroyed four additional factory warehouses. The building in which the factory was located was sufficiently large, twelve-meters high, to permit the entry of firefighters and their trucks during the fire. The total area affected by the fire was 16280 m{sup 2}. The rest of the approximately 60000 m{sup 2} building was not damaged. Temperatures exceeding 600 C deformed the roof causing it to collapse with the resultant ignition of the technical and raw materials kept in the shops and storerooms. Combustion products were drawn into the air systems of the shops and immediate environment. The height of the air emissions during the first hours of the fire reached 100 m. The ignition of 250 tons of cable oil made it impossible for the firefighters to use their closed circuit respirators because of the danger of explosion. Only the firefighters of one division were provided with compressed air equipment, and they worked in the most difficult areas. According to existing records, 522 firefighters and 12 individuals from the factory fire department participated in the fire liquidation. Moreover, 230 teaching officers and students from Irkutsk Firefighters School were involved. The fire destroyed about 1000 tons of various raw materials, mainly polyvinylchloride and polyethylene. The firefighters had varying degrees of involvement with the liquidation of the fire, during which they were exposed to a complex mixture of toxic compounds that contained dioxins. An estimated, 22 to 57 g of dioxins (in I-TEQ{sub DF}) were formed during the fire. Previously, we described the health disorders of this cohort of firefighters in detail. Dioxin toxicity due to the short but intense respiratory exposure could be responsible for the observed health effects. Following is a report of new data examining dioxin levels in 15

  19. 3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) Decreases Hepatic and Systemic Ratios of Epoxide to Diol Metabolites of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Robertson, Larry W.; Hammock, Bruce; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the homeostasis of oxygenated regulatory lipid mediators (oxylipins), potential markers of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, such as 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), is associated with a range of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Here we test the hypothesis that PCB 126 exposure alters the levels of oxylipins in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-weeks old) were treated over a 3-month period every 2 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of PCB 126 in corn oil (cumulative doses of 0, 19.8, 97.8, and 390 µg/kg b.w.; 6 injections total). PCB 126 treatment caused a reduction in growth rates at the highest dose investigated, a dose-dependent decrease in thymus weights, and a dose-dependent increase in liver weights. Liver PCB 126 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, while levels in plasma were below or close to the detection limit. The ratios of several epoxides to diol metabolites formed via the cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway from polyunsaturated fatty acids displayed a dose-dependent decrease in the liver and plasma, whereas levels of oxylipins formed by other metabolic pathways were generally not altered by PCB 126 treatment. The effects of PCB 126 on epoxide-to-diol ratios were associated with an increased CYP1A activity in liver microsomes and an increased sEH activity in liver cytosol and peroxisomes. These results suggest that oxylipins are potential biomarkers of exposure to PCB 126 and that the P450/sEH pathway is a therapeutic target for PCB 126-mediated hepatotoxicity that warrants further attention. PMID:27208083

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load, lipid reserves and biotransformation activity in migrating Atlantic salmon from River Moerrum, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Maria C.; Persson, Maria E.; Larsson, Per; Schantz, Torbjoern von

    2009-01-01

    Atlantic salmon accumulate high levels of contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their lipids during the adult growth phase spent at sea. The lipids are later utilized during migration for swimming and biological adaptations. We hypothesize that migrating salmons' biotransformation processes are affected by the high levels of built-up PCBs compared to salmon that in a pre-migrational stage. For these analyses we sampled adult Atlantic salmon during migration in the Swedish River Moerrum and measured the 21 most common PCB congeners (ΣPCB) and lipid levels in muscle tissue, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) transcript levels as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver. We also determined which AHR2 genotypes the salmon carried. We show that EROD activity is correlated to CYP1A1 level but not to ΣPCB concentration. ΣPCB concentration does not predict levels of neither the AHR2 nor CYP1A1 genes. We find no associations between specific AHR2 transcription levels and AHR2 genotypes or a correlation between AHR2 and CYP1A1 transcription levels, which is in direct contrast to pre-migrational adult salmon from the Baltic Sea. When we compare River Moerrum to salmon we have previously sampled in the Baltic Sea we show that migrating salmon have significantly lower lipid levels in their muscles; higher muscle concentrations of ΣPCB on a lipid basis; and significantly lower CYP1A1 and EROD levels compared to salmon from the Baltic Sea. Also, transcript levels of three out of four AHR2 genes are significantly different. In conclusion, migrating Swedish Atlantic salmon carry higher concentrations of PCBs in their lipids compared to salmon in the Baltic Sea, but have lower activation of biotransformation genes and enzymes. Our results indicate that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea are deactivated inside the migrating salmon's lipid tissues and increase in concentration when migration is initiated

  1. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  2. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, T M; Valberg, P A; Wait, A D

    1998-06-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the relationship between the amount of organic material collected by hexane and the amount actually picked up by, for example, a person's hand touch is unknown. To better mimic PCB pickup by casual hand contact with contaminated concrete surfaces, we used alternate solvents and wipe application methods that more closely mimic casual dermal contact. Our sampling results were compared to PCB pickup using hexane-wetted wipes and the standard rubbing protocol. Dry and oil-wetted samples, applied without rubbing, picked up less than 1% of the PCBs picked up by the standard hexane procedure; with rubbing, they picked up about 2%. Without rubbing, saline-wetted wipes picked up 2.5%; with rubbing, they picked up about 12%. While the nature of dermal contact with a contaminated surface cannot be perfectly reproduced with a wipe sample, our results with alternate wiping solvents and rubbing methods more closely mimic hand contact than the standard hexane wipe protocol. The relative pickup estimates presented in this paper can be used in conjunction with site-specific PCB hexane wipe results to estimate dermal pickup rates at sites with PCB-contaminated concrete.

  3. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research.

  4. PCB-level Electro thermal Coupling Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Runjing; Shao, Xuchen

    2017-10-01

    Power transmission network needs to transmit more current with the increase of the power density. The problem of temperature rise and the reliability is becoming more and more serious. In order to accurately design the power supply system, we must consider the influence of the power supply system including Joule heat, air convection and other factors. Therefore, this paper analyzes the relationship between the electric circuit and the thermal circuit on the basis of the theory of electric circuit and thermal circuit.

  5. PCB management at Manitoba Hydro's Waverley Service Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, R.G.; Engstrom, T.

    1996-01-01

    Manitoba Hydro was the first Canadian utility to initiate a program to decontaminate insulating oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's recovery, reuse and recycling program, operated out of the utility's Waverley Service Centre (WSC). The WSC is a central facility serving to phase out and and destroy PCBs which remain in Manitoba Hydro's electrical system. Several hundred thousand litres of PCB-contaminated insulating oil are decontaminated annually at the WSC. The decontaminated oil is then reconditioned for reuse within the system operations. A PCBX unit was purchased from Sun Ohio for the decontamination of insulating oils containing PCBs. PCB decontamination is achieved through a chemical dechlorination treatment process. The PCBX treatment unit and the PCB storage building were described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  6. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  7. Thermal dechlorination of PCB-209 over Ca species-doped Fe₂O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guijin; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Ruifang; Liu, Yexuan; Lu, Huijie; Zhao, Yuyang; Yang, Fan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-02-01

    Degradation reaction of decachlorobiphenyl (PCB-209) was investigated over the synthesized Ca species-doped Fe2O3 at 300 °C. The 1%Ca-Fe2O3 exhibited the highest activity among the four catalysts prepared with the pseudo-first order reaction at k(obs) = 0.103 min(-1). PCB-207, PCB-197, PCB-176, PCB-184, PCB-150, PCB-136, PCB-148, PCB-104, PCB-96, PCB-54, PCB-19, PCB-4 and PCB-1 were identified as the dominant isomers in their respective nonachlorobiphenyl (NonaCB) to monochlorobiphenyl (MonoCB) homologue groups. Analysis of the hydrodechlorination products indicated that dechlorination was much more favored on meta- and para-than on ortho-positions. The formation of significantly predominant NonaCB and octachlorobiphenyl (OctaCB) isomers was attributed to lower energy principles and to the 90° dihedral angles of two aromatic rings which prevented the hydrodechlorination at ortho-positions. When the number of chlorine atoms is not more than 7, the steric effect supports the formation of predominant PCB isomers having chlorines at four ortho-positions. During the dechlorination of tetrachlorobiphenyl (TetraCB) formed to generate monochlorobiphenyl (MonoCB) isomers, the chlorine atoms fully substituted at the ortho-positions have to be successively removed, with the first two dechlorinations preferentially occurring at the two different benzene rings. This is dissimilar to that of octachloronaphthalene (PCN-75) in which the hydrodechlorination reaction happened preferentially at ortho-position due to the existence of steric effects. The opposite roles of the steric effect in ortho-position between PCB-209 and PCN-75 might be due to the difference of the π-conjugated plane caused by the dihedral angle of 90° and 0° of the two aromatic rings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RANCANG BANGUN CNC MILLING MACHINEHOME MADE UNTUK MEMBUAT PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dityo Pradana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kendala yang dimiliki oleh seorang penggemar elektronik untuk membuat PCB diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu, tenaga, dan biaya. Pembuatan CNC milling machine merupakan salah satu solusi yang tepat untuk membuat PCB. CNC milling machine adalah mesin bubut otomatis yang bekerja atas dasar perintah Numerical Code. Rancang bangun CNC Milling Machine Home Made ini dikontrol oleh komputer yang akan mengontrol IC L297 melalui parallel port. IC L297 ini kemudian memberikan empat data digital a, b, c dan d untuk mengatur phase IC L298 yang menyalurkan tegangan untuk koil motor stepper unipolar. Pada akhirnya motor stepper unipolar akan memutar baut dan dapat menggerakkan meja sumbu menggunakan prinsip kerja ulir.

  10. PCB Embedded Inductor for High-Frequency ZVS SEPIC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Yi; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thummala, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    The volume and temperature rise of passive components, especially inductors, limit the momentum toward high power density in high-frequency power converters. To address the limitations, PCB integration of passive components should be considered with the benefit of low profile, excellent thermal...... characteristic and cost reduction. This paper investigates an embedded structure of inductors to further increase the power density of a low power DC-DC converter. A pair of coupling inductors have been embedded into the PCB. The detailed embedded process has been described and the characteristics of embedded...

  11. Computerization of the Electronic Scheme Drawing Equipment on Printed-Circuit-Board (PCB) Surface (Phase One)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid; Pinitoyo, A.; Demon H; Kussigit S; Paidjo; Riswan Dj; Natsir, M.; Dedy H; Edy Karyanta; Edy S

    2003-01-01

    To increase the capability of the PCB immersion machine developed previous a computerized drawing machine on PCB surface is proposed for drawing the schematic electronic, PROTEL software is used Used is Roland DXY 1100 type which had been modified to accommodate the PCB characteristic, because it is used originally for paper. Concerning, the plotter ink, the waterproof type must be used. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For...

  13. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100...

  14. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and electric...

  15. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [CERCLA-04-2012-3763; FRL 9637-7] Anniston PCB Superfund Site... past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston, Calhoun County.... Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4...

  16. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9644-2; CERCLA-04-2012-3763] Anniston PCB Superfund Site... FR 11533 (FRL-9637-7), EPA posted a Notice of Amended Settlement concerning the Anniston PCB... the settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB...

  17. Effect van PCB's op de energiekosten van migratie en bloedparameters van Europese aal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Palstra, A.P.; Nieveen, M.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Er zijn nog steeds PCB's aanwezig in het ecosysteem (water en land). Als palingen 6000 km migreren, zullen ze hun vetreserves aanspreken en komen er giftige PCB's vrij in het lichaam. Daarnaast kan de embryonale ontwikkeling nadelig beïnvloed worden door ophoping van PCB's in dooiermateriaal.

  18. Radioactive and non-radioactive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, W.W.; Gretzinger, R.F.; Cox, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Conformance to all state and federal regulations is the goal of Rockwell in the management of both radioactive and non-radioactive PCB's at Hanford. A continuing effort is being made to locate, remove, and properly dispose of all PCB's. As improved methods of management are developed, consideration will be given to them for their adaptation into the Hanford Site PCB Management Plan

  19. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  20. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  1. PCB in soils and estimated soil-air exchange fluxes of selected PCB congeners in the south of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, Cecilia; Cousins, Ian T.; Larsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    PCB concentrations were studied in different soils to determine the spatial variation over a region of approximately 11 000 km 2 . PCB congener pattern was used to illustrate the spatial differences, as shown by principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship to different soil parameters was studied. PCB concentrations in soil showed a large variation between sampling-areas with median concentrations ranging between 2.3 and 332 ng g -1 (dw). Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with extremely high organic carbon content. Both sites were located on the west coast of southern Sweden. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with congener patterns almost site-specific. PCB in air and precipitation was measured and the transfer of chemicals between the soil and air compartments was estimated. Soil-air fugacity quotient calculations showed that the PCBs in the soil consistently had a higher fugacity than the PCBs in the air, with a median quotient value of 2.7. The gaseous fluxes between soil and air were estimated using standard modelling equations and a net soil-air flux estimated by subtracting bulk deposition from gaseous soil-air fluxes. It was shown that inclusion of vertical sorbed phase transport of PCBs in the soil had a large effect on the direction of the net soil-air exchange fluxes. - Soil-air exchange of PCBs is investigated and modelled across Sweden

  2. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION IN RAW MILK IN TURIN DEPARTEMENT : HEAVY METALS, P.C.B, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES – YEARS 2005 – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cavallera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period between 2005 and 2008 was carried out a survey on 252 samples of raw bovine milk collected in Turin departement to certain levels of contamination by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb, Zn, PCB and organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides. These results argue that the levels of heavy metals, PCB and pesticides are well below what is expected by the European legislation and that the situation is under control and that raw milk meets the hygiene requirements for human health.

  3. Reference standards for quantitative trace analysis of PCB's by GC. Technical PCB formulations for the calibration of ECD and MSD responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupcik, J. (Slovak Technical Univ., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Kocan, A. (Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Petrik, J. (Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Leclercq, P.A. (Eindhoven University of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lab. of Instrumental Analysis (Netherlands)); Ballschmiter, K. (University of Ulm, Dept. of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    The composition of any technical PCB formulation can be determined directly by analyzing the PCB sample by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), provided the relative molecular masses of the components are known. The response of electron capture and selected-ion monitoring, mass-spectra detectors can then be calibrated for individual PCB congeners by correlation of the chromatographic patterns with those of concentrated PCB samples obtained by GC-FID. This procedure, which uses a given technical PCB formulation as a secondary reference standard mixture, is to be preferred over existing calibration methods, when results with [+-]10% errors are acceptable because commercial PCB formulations cover the whole range of chlorination products. (orig.)

  4. Solvent extraction treatment of PCB contaminated soil at Sparrevohn Long Range Radar Station, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    On-site soil treatment at a long range radar station in Alaska, which was contaminated with between 50 and 350 mg/kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is described. The stock-piled soil was treated by the Terra Kleen Response Group, using a solvent extraction process. After the treatment, PCB concentrations in the treated soil were found to have been reduced to less than the target treatment level of 15 mg/kg. Not only was the process successful, it also saved the government about $ 1 million over what hauling and off-site treatment and disposal would have cost. 1 tab

  5. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L; Billsson, K; Berg, A H [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S J; Hinton, D E [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  6. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... This widespread contamination of air, soil and water by metals, chemicals and metalloids causes environmental concerns, ... basic structure of PCB according to Wiegel and Wu. (2000), is as shown in Figure. 1. ..... inability to understand the interaction between complex chemicals in addition to physical and ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  8. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  9. PCB dechlorination hotspots and reductive dehalogenase genes in sediments from a contaminated wastewater lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Timothy E; Ewald, Jessica M; Liang, Yi; Martinez, Andres; Awad, Andrew; Richards, Patrick; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2017-08-12

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that are distributed worldwide. Although industrial PCB production has stopped, legacy contamination can be traced to several different commercial mixtures (e.g., Aroclors in the USA). Despite their persistence, PCBs are subject to naturally occurring biodegradation processes, although the microbes and enzymes involved are poorly understood. The biodegradation potential of PCB-contaminated sediments in a wastewater lagoon located in Virginia (USA) was studied. Total PCB concentrations in sediments ranged from 6.34 to 12,700 mg/kg. PCB congener profiles in sediment sample were similar to Aroclor 1248; however, PCB congener profiles at several locations showed evidence of dechlorination. The sediment microbial community structure varied among samples but was dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of putative dechlorinating Chloroflexi (including Dehalococcoides sp.) was 0.01-0.19% among the sediment samples, with Dehalococcoides sp. representing 0.6-14.8% of this group. Other possible PCB dechlorinators present included the Clostridia and the Geobacteraceae. A PCR survey for potential PCB reductive dehalogenase genes (RDases) yielded 11 sequences related to RDase genes in PCB-respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CG5 and PCB-dechlorinating D. mccartyi strain CBDB1. This is the first study to retrieve potential PCB RDase genes from unenriched PCB-contaminated sediments.

  10. Relationships between Atmospheric Transport Regimes and PCB Concentrations in the Air at Zeppelin, Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-09-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent hazardous chemicals that are still detected in the atmosphere and other environmental media, although their production has been banned for several decades. At the long-term monitoring site, Zeppelin at Spitsbergen, different PCB congeners have been continuously measured for more than a decade. However, it is not clear what factors determine the seasonal and interannual variability of different (lighter versus heavier) PCB congeners. To investigate the influence of atmospheric transport patterns on PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations at Zeppelin, we applied the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART and calculated "footprints" that indicate the potential source regions of air arriving at Zeppelin. By means of a cluster analysis, we assigned groups of similar footprints to different transport regimes and analyzed the PCB concentrations according to the transport regimes. The concentrations of both PCB congeners are affected by the different transport regimes. For PCB-101, the origin of air masses from the European continent is primarily related to high concentrations; elevated PCB-101 concentrations in winter can be explained by the high frequency of this transport regime in winter, whereas PCB-101 concentrations are low when air is arriving from the oceans. For PCB-28, in contrast, concentrations are high during summer when air is mainly arriving from the oceans but low when air is arriving from the continents. The most likely explanation of this finding is that local emissions of PCB-28 mask the effect of long-range transport and determine the concentrations measured at Zeppelin.

  11. Interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on expression of CYP1A and its potential regulators in Atlantic croaker liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A. Croaker were exposed to hypoxia (1.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77, dose: 2 and 8 µg/g body weight), and Aroclor 1254 (a common PCB mixture, dose: 0.5 and 1 µg/g body weight), alone and in combination for 4 weeks. PCB 77 exposure markedly increased hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein expression, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, an indicator of CYP1A enzyme) activity and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression. PCB 77 treatment also increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β, a cytokine) mRNA levels and protein carbonyl (PC, an indicator of reactive oxygen species, ROS) contents. These marked PCB 77- and Aroclor 1254-induced increases in CYP1A mRNA levels and EROD activity were significantly attenuated by co-exposure to hypoxia, whereas the increases in hepatic eNOS protein and IL-1β mRNA expression, and PC contents were augmented by hypoxia co-exposure. The results suggest that biotransformation of organic xenobiotics by CYP1A is reduced in fish during co-exposure to hypoxia and is accompanied by alterations in eNOS, ROS, and IL-1β levels. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Robertson, L.W.; Ludewig, G.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  13. Removal of PCB from indoor air and surface materials by introduction of additional sorbing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Lyng, Nadja; Kolarik, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Alleviation of indoor PCB contamination is extremely expensive because PCB from old primary sources has redistributed to most other surfaces over time. This study investigates the introduction of new removable sorbing materials as a method instantly lowering the concentration of PCB in indoor air...... and slowly decontaminating old surface materials. In three bedrooms of a contaminated apartment respectively new painted gypsum boards, sheets of flexible polyurethane foam and activated carbon fabric were introduced. The PCB concentrations in room air were monitored before the intervention and several times...... during the following 10 months. The PCB concentrations in the old surface materials as well as the new materials were also measured. An immediate reduction of PCB concentration in indoor air, a gradual increase of PCB in new material and as well a gradual reduction in old surface materials were...

  14. Studies on the distribution of 14C-labelled PCB in the body, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Soshichi; Hosoya, Hideo

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report of 14 C-PCB distribution series in animals. We reported the results of the distribution of 14 C-PCB from birds, fish and shell in the previous experiments, and we have obtained some results from present experiment. This time interperito neal injection of 14 C-PCB solution was carried to mice, and the results were as follows; Excretion of 14 C-PCB as radioactivity was at its maximum about 6 hr. after medication. Excretive ratio was 87.20% for 24 hr, but 72.43% of radioactivity was excreted within 12hr. The result of radiopaperchromatography showed that 14 C-PCB was not changeable in the fecus after medication, being Rf = 0.92 in comparison with standard 14 C-PCB. 14 C-PCB distributed throughout the body of mice in 24 hr. and at least remained over till 480 hr. in adipose tissues of mice after single medication. (auth.)

  15. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and PCB residues among hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green (Chelonia mydas) turtles in the Yucatan Peninsula and their maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Besné, Gabriela; Valdespino, Carolina; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2015-02-15

    Organochlorine pesticides and PCB (POPs) concentrations were determined in the blood and eggs of green and hawksbill turtles. We compared concentrations between species, analyzed the relationship between turtle size and the POPs concentrations and the relationship between the concentrations in the blood of the nesting turtles and their eggs. We expected higher concentrations in the hawksbill turtle because of its higher trophic level, but concentrations were not higher in all the cases. Significant differences were found in δ-HCH blood concentrations. Lindane, heptachlor epoxide and PCB 101 concentrations were significantly higher in the hawksbill eggs. The relationship between the size of the turtles and the POP concentrations in the eggs of the hawksbills showed a negative correlation. No correlation was found between the size of the female and concentrations in the blood. In eggs, only the hawksbill turtles exhibited negative correlation in the concentration of mirex and PCB 44 and size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60 degrees F but insoluble in water above 90 degrees F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL's Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination

  17. Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals perturbation of lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) treated with PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadetie, Fekadu; Oveland, Eystein; Døskeland, Anne; Berven, Frode; Goksøyr, Anders; Karlsen, Odd André

    2017-04-01

    PCB 153 is one of the most abundant PCB congeners detected in biological samples. It is a persistent compound that is still present in the environment despite the ban on production and use of PCBs in the late 1970s. It has strong tendencies to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota, and studies have suggested that it is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor. In order to study mechanisms of toxicity, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to various doses of PCB 153 (0, 0.5, 2 and 8mg/kg body weight) for two weeks and examined the effects on expression of liver proteins using label-free quantitative proteomics. Label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the liver proteome resulted in the quantification of 1272 proteins, of which 78 proteins were differentially regulated in the PCB 153-treated dose groups compared to the control group. Functional enrichment analysis showed that pathways significantly affected are related to lipid metabolism, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle and cell adhesion. Importantly, the main effects appear to be on lipid metabolism, with up-regulation of enzymes in the de novo fatty acid synthesis pathway, consistent with previous transcriptomics results. Increased plasma triglyceride levels were also observed in the PCB 153 treated fish, in agreement with the induction of the lipogenic genes and proteins. The results suggest that PCB 153 perturbs lipid metabolism in the Atlantic cod liver. Elevated levels of lipogenic enzymes and plasma triglycerides further suggest increased synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Large variation in lipid content, ΣPCB and δ13C within individual Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Maria E.; Larsson, Per; Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    Many studies that investigate pollutant levels, or use stable isotope ratios to define trophic level or animal origin, use different standard ways of sampling (dorsal, whole filet or whole body samples). This study shows that lipid content, ΣPCB and δ 13 C display large differences within muscle samples taken from a single Atlantic salmon. Lipid- and PCB-content was lowest in tail muscles, intermediate in anterior-dorsal muscles and highest in the stomach (abdominal) muscle area. Stable isotopes of carbon (δ 13 C) showed a lipid accumulation in the stomach muscle area and a depletion in tail muscles. We conclude that it is important to choose an appropriate sample location within an animal based on what processes are to be studied. Care should be taken when attributing persistent pollutant levels or stable isotope data to specific environmental processes before controlling for within-animal variation in these variables. - Lipid content, ΣPCB and δ 13 C vary to a large extent within Atlantic salmon, therefore, the sample technique for individual fish is of outmost importance for proper interpretation of data

  19. Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping of Installation Box for Vehicle Terminal PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Installation box for vehicle terminal PCB (Printed Circuit Board was took as research object, which is encountered in the process of project developing. Vehicle terminal PCB in actual development process was set as an example, point cloud data were acquired by three coordinate measuring method; Imageware software was used to reconstruct the vehicle terminal PCB model, basic size parameters of vehicle terminal PCB can be got and then design parameters of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB can be determined. Design of the installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was completed based on Solidworks software, then 3D modeling and 2D drawing of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was gained. Up Plus 2 rapid prototype machine was used to manufacture installation box for vehicle terminal PCB rapidly based on 3D printing technology, then prototype of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was obtained. It is of certain engineering significant for single (small amount manufacturing of installation box for general PCB.

  20. Reference standards for quantitative trace analysis of PCB's by GC. Technical PCB formulations for the calibration of ECD and MSD responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupcik, J.; Kocan, A.; Petrik, J.; Leclercq, P.A.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1993-01-01

    The compn. of any tech. PCB formulation can be detd. directly by analyzing the PCB sample by gas chromatog. with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), provided the relative mol. masses of the components are known. The responses of electron capture and selected-ion monitoring, mass-spectra detectors

  1. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  2. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  3. Eco Logic signs deal to destroy Japanese PCB stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    According to a recent announcement, Eco Logic of Rockwood, Ontario, has entered into a partnership with the Japanese companies Tokyo Boeki and Nippon Sharyo for the destruction of stockpiled PCB materials in Japan, using Eco Logic's non-incineration technology. The deal is reported to be worth about $50 million in revenues to Eco Logic, spread over the next few years. The agreement includes provisions for the Japanese companies to purchase, or manufacture under licence, a number of Eco Logic's gas phase chemical reduction processing units to serve the Japanese market. In exchange for exclusive rights to the Japanese market, Eco Logic will receive license fees and royalties of up to nine per cent for the use of its process. Eco Logic is currently building a demonstration unit under contract with the two Japanese companies. The Japanese PCB waste destruction market is estimated to be worth as much as $400 million. Incineration, the conventional form of disposal, is strongly opposed by local governments

  4. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  5. SEASONAL INFLUENCES ON PCB RETENTION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Margaret O.; Kleinow, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that fish from waters with PCB-contaminated sediments accumulate PCBs and related chemicals, and that people who eat fish from contaminated waters have higher body burdens of PCBs and PCB metabolites than those who do not. PCBs and their metabolites are potentially toxic, thus it is important to human health to understand the uptake, biotransformation and elimination of PCBs in fish, since these processes determine the extent of accumulation. The intestinal uptake of PCBs present in the diet of fish into fish tissues is a process that is influenced by the lipid composition of the diet. Biotransformation of PCBs in fish, as in mammals, facilitates elimination, although many PCB congeners are recalcitrant to biotransformation in fish and mammals. Sequential biotransformation of PCBs by cytochrome P450 and conjugation pathways is even less efficient in fish than in mammalian species, thus contributing to the retention of PCBs in fish tissues. A very important factor influencing overall PCB disposition in fish is water temperature. Seasonal changes in water temperature produce adaptive physiological and biochemical changes in fish. While uptake of PCBs from the diet is similar in fish acclimated to winter or summer temperatures, there is evidence that elimination of PCBs occurs much more slowly when the fish is acclimated at low temperatures than at warmer temperatures. Research to date suggests that the processes of elimination of PCBs are modulated by several factors in fish including seasonal changes in water temperature. Thus, the body burden of PCBs in fish from a contaminated location is likely to vary with season. PMID:23494683

  6. Study of PCB degradation in real contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšlavá, E.; Krejčík, Zdeněk; Macek, Tomáš; Nováková, H.; Demnerová, K.; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 12 (2003), s. 296-301 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GA526/01/1292 Grant - others:GA EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Phytoremediation * rhizoremediation * PCB degradation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  7. Potential Impact of PCB's on Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, Management

    OpenAIRE

    Eldridge, Peter J.; Meaburn, G. Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    Since 1979, anglers along the U.S. Atlantic coast have landed by weight more bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, than any other marine species. A fishery management plan has been developed jointly by three fishery management councils and the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission to preserve the bluefish resource. Major objectives of the plan include prevention of recruitment overfishing and reduction in waste of bluefish. In 1985, a Federal survey found PCB concentrations in larger bluefish ...

  8. PCB transformer fires: the risk in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmon, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is estimated that 1/2 of the present nuclear power plants operate with PCB-filled transformer equipment. In an attempt to obtain better estimates of clean-up costs in a nuclear power plant under reasonable-loss scenarios, a study was commissioned. This study was a joint venture between Blackmon-Mooring Steamatic Technologies, Inc., (BMS-TECH) and M and M Protection Consultants. This joint study was conducted at a typical pressurized-water reactor plant consisting of two 1000-MW units. Three specific scenarios were selected and analyzed for this typical power plant. These scenarios were: (1) an electrical failure of a transformer in an isolated switch gear room; (2) a transformer exposed to a 55-gallon transient combustion oil fire in the auxiliary building; and (3) a PCB transformer involved in a major turbine lube fire in the turbine building. Based on results of this study, the insurance carriers for this industry implemented an adjustment in their rate structures for nuclear power plants that have PCB equipment

  9. Study on polychlorobiphenyl serum levels in French consumers of freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desvignes, Virginie; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Bels, Frédéric de; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Favrot, Marie-Christine; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Rivière, Gilles; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Merlo, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are widespread in the environment and in foodstuffs, particularly in freshwater fish, which frequently exceed the maximum levels set by European regulations. Objectives: First, we describe the consumption of freshwater fish and serum PCB levels in French anglers, a population expected to have the highest level of dietary PCB exposure. Second, we investigated whether there is a statistical relationship between serum PCB levels and the angler consumption of freshwater fish with high PCB bioaccumulation potential (PCB-BP + freshwater fish) in order to make recommendations with regard to safe consumption of freshwater fish. Methods: We conducted a survey of anglers from six sites with contrasting PCB contamination levels. The survey included a food consumption frequency questionnaire and blood samples were taken to assess serum PCB levels. We used a regression model to determine the main factors contributing to serum PCB levels. Results: Consumption of PCB-BP + freshwater fish was relatively infrequent. Serum PCB levels of the study population and of women of childbearing age were in the same range as those observed in the French population and in neighbouring European countries, but higher than in the North American population. The two factors with the highest positive association with serum PCB levels were age (R 2 = 61%) and the consumption of PCB-BP + freshwater fish (R 2 = 2%). Using the regression model, we calculated, for several scenarios depending on the age and gender of the population, the maximum annual frequencies for PCB-BP + freshwater fish consumption that do not exceed the critical body burden threshold. Conclusion: Following the results of this study, the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety (ANSES) issued an opinion and recommended some specific maximum freshwater fish consumption frequencies to protect the French general population

  10. Study on polychlorobiphenyl serum levels in French consumers of freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desvignes, Virginie, E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Department, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27–31, avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort, F-94701 (France); Volatier, Jean-Luc [Risk Assessment Department, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27–31, avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort, F-94701 (France); Bels, Frédéric de [Division for Public Health and Care, French National Cancer Institute (INCa), 52, avenue André Morizet, Boulogne Billancourt Cedex, F-92513 (France); Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim [Department of Environmental Health, French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS), 12, rue du Val d' Osne, Saint-Maurice, F-94415 (France); Favrot, Marie-Christine [Ministry of Health, 14, avenue Duquesne, Paris, F-75350 (France); Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes, F-44307 (France); Rivière, Gilles; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Merlo, Mathilde [Risk Assessment Department, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27–31, avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort, F-94701 (France)

    2015-02-01

    Introduction: Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are widespread in the environment and in foodstuffs, particularly in freshwater fish, which frequently exceed the maximum levels set by European regulations. Objectives: First, we describe the consumption of freshwater fish and serum PCB levels in French anglers, a population expected to have the highest level of dietary PCB exposure. Second, we investigated whether there is a statistical relationship between serum PCB levels and the angler consumption of freshwater fish with high PCB bioaccumulation potential (PCB-BP{sup +} freshwater fish) in order to make recommendations with regard to safe consumption of freshwater fish. Methods: We conducted a survey of anglers from six sites with contrasting PCB contamination levels. The survey included a food consumption frequency questionnaire and blood samples were taken to assess serum PCB levels. We used a regression model to determine the main factors contributing to serum PCB levels. Results: Consumption of PCB-BP{sup +} freshwater fish was relatively infrequent. Serum PCB levels of the study population and of women of childbearing age were in the same range as those observed in the French population and in neighbouring European countries, but higher than in the North American population. The two factors with the highest positive association with serum PCB levels were age (R{sup 2} = 61%) and the consumption of PCB-BP{sup +} freshwater fish (R{sup 2} = 2%). Using the regression model, we calculated, for several scenarios depending on the age and gender of the population, the maximum annual frequencies for PCB-BP{sup +} freshwater fish consumption that do not exceed the critical body burden threshold. Conclusion: Following the results of this study, the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety (ANSES) issued an opinion and recommended some specific maximum freshwater fish consumption frequencies to protect the French

  11. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  12. PCB Food Web Dynamics Quantify Nutrient and Energy Flow in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gordon; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2015-11-03

    Measuring in situ nutrient and energy flows in spatially and temporally complex aquatic ecosystems represents a major ecological challenge. Food web structure, energy and nutrient budgets are difficult to measure, and it is becoming more important to quantify both energy and nutrient flow to determine how food web processes and structure are being modified by multiple stressors. We propose that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners represent an ideal tracer to quantify in situ energy and nutrient flow between trophic levels. Here, we demonstrate how an understanding of PCB congener bioaccumulation dynamics provides multiple direct measurements of energy and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. To demonstrate this novel approach, we quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and caloric turnover rates for Lake Huron lake trout, and reveal how these processes are regulated by both growth rate and fish life history. Although minimal nutrient recycling was observed in young growing fish, slow growing, older lake trout (>5 yr) recycled an average of 482 Tonnes·yr(-1) of N, 45 Tonnes·yr(-1) of P and assimilated 22 TJ yr(-1) of energy. Compared to total P loading rates of 590 Tonnes·yr(-1), the recycling of primarily bioavailable nutrients by fish plays an important role regulating the nutrient states of oligotrophic lakes.

  13. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...... nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used...... as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two...

  14. The importance of uptake from food for the bioaccumulation of PCB and PBDE in the marine planktonic copepod Acartia clausi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.magnusson@marecol.gu.se [Department of Marine Ecology-Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg, Kristineberg 566, SE 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden); Tiselius, Peter [Department of Marine Ecology-Kristineberg, University of Gothenburg, Kristineberg 566, SE 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation of {sup 14}C-labelled PCB 31, PCB 101, PCB 153 and PBDE 99 was investigated at the two lowest trophic levels of the pelagic food web. Accumulation was measured in the small phytoplankter Thalassiosira weissflogii (Coscinodiscophyceae: Thalassiosirales) and in the neritic zooplankter Acartia clausi (Copepoda: Calanoida) exposed to the substance either only via water or through ingestion of contaminated T. weissflogii. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all four compounds were significantly higher in A. clausi feeding on contaminated phytoplankton than in animals exposed only via water. The log BAF for the PCBs increased linearly with the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K{sub OW}) in both the algae and the copepods, but with steeper slopes for feeding than non-feeding animals. Reported values for K{sub OW} for PBDEs vary by almost an order of magnitude and it was therefore not meaningful to calculate a log BAF - log K{sub OW} ratio for PBDE 99. It is clear that the nutritional status of the zooplankton affects the uptake of the compounds and that the bioaccumulation cannot be modelled as a passive partitioning between the organisms and the surrounding water. Small copepods are typical of coastal waters and point sources (both temporal and spatial) may be the rule for HOC releases into the sea. Thus, the pathways shown in this study are important and realistic.

  15. The importance of uptake from food for the bioaccumulation of PCB and PBDE in the marine planktonic copepod Acartia clausi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Kerstin; Tiselius, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of 14 C-labelled PCB 31, PCB 101, PCB 153 and PBDE 99 was investigated at the two lowest trophic levels of the pelagic food web. Accumulation was measured in the small phytoplankter Thalassiosira weissflogii (Coscinodiscophyceae: Thalassiosirales) and in the neritic zooplankter Acartia clausi (Copepoda: Calanoida) exposed to the substance either only via water or through ingestion of contaminated T. weissflogii. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all four compounds were significantly higher in A. clausi feeding on contaminated phytoplankton than in animals exposed only via water. The log BAF for the PCBs increased linearly with the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K OW ) in both the algae and the copepods, but with steeper slopes for feeding than non-feeding animals. Reported values for K OW for PBDEs vary by almost an order of magnitude and it was therefore not meaningful to calculate a log BAF - log K OW ratio for PBDE 99. It is clear that the nutritional status of the zooplankton affects the uptake of the compounds and that the bioaccumulation cannot be modelled as a passive partitioning between the organisms and the surrounding water. Small copepods are typical of coastal waters and point sources (both temporal and spatial) may be the rule for HOC releases into the sea. Thus, the pathways shown in this study are important and realistic.

  16. Occurrence of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, PFAS, and organotin compounds in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, K; Hallikainen, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Airaksinen, R; Koponen, J; Rannikko, R; Kiviranta, H

    2011-10-01

    We analysed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in 13 fish meal, five fish oil, and seven fish feed samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organotin compounds (OTC), and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) were analysed in ten fish meal, two fish oil, and two fish feed samples. All measured TEQ concentrations of PCDD/F and PCB were below the maximum levels set by Directive 2002/32/EC. There was no correlation between concentrations of WHOPCDD/F-TEQ and indicator PCB in our samples. The most common congeners among PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-100. BDE-209 was present in five fish meals of the ten analysed. Tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant congener in all samples except in three fish meals, where monobutyltin (MBT) was the major congener. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) was the predominant congener in six fish meals of the ten analysed. There was large variation in concentrations and congener distributions of the studied compounds between our samples. Our results underline a need to pay special attention to the origin and purity of feed raw material of marine origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications... residues of PCB's as unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient...

  18. Silicon photonic IC embedded optical-PCB for high-speed interconnect application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallega, Rakshitha; Nambiar, Siddharth; Kumar, Abhai; Ranganath, Praveen; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Optical-Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an emerging optical interconnect technology to bridge the gap between the board edge and the processing module. The technology so far has been used as a broadband transmitter using polymer waveguides in the PCB. In this paper, we report a Silicon Nitride based photonic IC embedded in the PCB along with the polymers as waveguides in the PCB. The motivation for such integration is to bring routing capability and to reduce the power loss due to broadcasting mode.

  19. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

    1982-06-01

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  1. Fast and parallel determination of PCB 77 and PCB 180 in plasma using ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection: A pharmacokinetic study in Swiss albino mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, N; Sivaselvakumar, M; Ramalingam, S

    2017-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 77 and PCB 180 in mouse plasma. The sample preparation was performed by simple liquid-liquid extraction technique. The analytes were chromatographed on a Waters Acquity H class UPLC system using isocratic mobile phase conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and Acquity UPLC BEH shield RP 18 column maintained at 35°C. Quantification was performed on a photodiode array detector set at 215 nm and PCB 101 was used as internal standard (IS). PCB 77, PCB 180, and IS retention times were 2.6, 4.7 and 2.8 min, respectively, and the total run time was 6 min. The method was validated for specificity, selectivity, recovery, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 10-3000 ng/mL for PCB 77 and PCB 180. Intra- and inter-day precisions for PCBs 77 and 180 were found to be good with CV <4.64%, and the accuracy ranged from 98.90 to 102.33% in mouse plasma. The validated UPLC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of PCBs 77 and 180 in mouse plasma. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.During the manufacturing period of PCBs, these chemicals entered the environment though atmospheric release during manufacturing and burning of PCB products, leaks and spills, and improper disposal. Although PCB manufacturing was banned over 20 years ago, PCBs still enter the environment from hazardous waste sites, improper disposals of PCB-containing products, weathering of asphalt and other substances containing PCBs, burning of PCB containing products, leakage from old equipment, leaching from landfills, and release from contaminated sediments. PCBs do not readily break down in the environment, thus remain there for long periods of time. A small amount may remain dissolved in water but most adhere to organic particles and bottom sediments.In sufficient concentrations, PCBs affect human, wildlife, and aquatic health. PCBs accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and fish and are passed on to those that eat them. PCBs are animal teratogens and potentially carcinogenic. They can cause death of animals, fish, and birds; death or low growth rate of plants; shortened lifespan; reproductive problems; and lower fertility. Women who are exposed to high levels of PCBs may have babies with slightly lower birth weights and transfer the PCBs through the breast milk, which may affect the immune system and motor development of

  3. EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

  4. Study of penetration behavior of PCB-DNAPL in a sand layer by a column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Nobuyasu; Shimizu, Takaaki; Muratani, Masaru; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the infiltration performances of high concentration PCB oils (KC-300 and KC-1000 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures), representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), under both saturated and unsaturated conditions, we conducted experiments on a sand column filled with Toyoura Standard Sand. When PCB oil with the volume comparable to the total porosity in the column was supplied, the residual PCB concentrations under PCB-water conditions were 4.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-300 and 3.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-1000. Under PCB-air conditions, residual PCB concentrations were 6.0×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 2.4×10(5)mgkg(-1) in the upper and lower parts for KC-300 and 3.6×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 1.5×10(5)mgkg(-1) in those for KC-1000, respectively, while the rest of the PCBs were infiltrated. On the other hand, when a small amount of PCB oil with the volume far smaller than the total porosity in the column was supplied, the original PCBs were not transported via water permeation. However, lower-chlorinated PCB congeners-e.g., di- or tri-chlorinated biphenyls-preferentially dissolved and were infiltrated from the bottom of the column. These propensities on PCB oil infiltration can be explained in conjunction with the degree of PCB saturation in the sand column. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ''did what he/she was told.'' The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician's office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface

  6. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{