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Sample records for dioxide improves plant

  1. A New and Improved Carbon Dioxide Isotope Analyzer for Understanding Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. W.; Berman, E. S.; Owano, T. G.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Still, C. J.; Gardner, A.; Baer, D. S.; Rastogi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Stable CO2 isotopes provide information on biogeochemical processes that occur at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. While δ13C measurement can provide information on the sources of the CO2, be it photosynthesis, natural gas combustion, other fossil fuel sources, landfills or other sources, δ18O, and δ17O are thought to be determined by the hydrological cycling of the CO2. Though researchers have called for analytical tools for CO2 isotope measurements that are reliable and field-deployable, developing such instrument remains a challenge. The carbon dioxide isotope analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This new and improved analyzer measures CO2 concentration as well as δ13C, δ18O, and δ17O from CO2 at natural abundance (150-2500 ppm). The laboratory precision is ±200 ppb (1σ) in CO2 at 1 s, with a long-term (2 min) precision of ±20 ppb. The 1-second precision for both δ13C and δ18O is 0.7 ‰, and for δ17O is 1.8 ‰. The long-term (2 min) precision for both δ13C and δ18O is 0.08 ‰, and for δ17O is 0.18 ‰. The instrument has improved precision, stability and user interface over previous LGR CO2 isotope instruments and can be easily programmed for periodic referencing and sampling from different sources when coupled with LGR's multiport inlet unit (MIU). We have deployed two of these instruments at two different field sites, one at Twitchell Island in Sacramento County, CA to monitor the CO2 isotopic fluxes from an alfalfa field from 6/29/2015-7/13/2015, and the other at the Wind River Experimental Forest in Washington to monitor primarily the oxygen isotopes of CO2 within the canopy from 8/4/2015 through mid-November 2015. Methodology, laboratory development and testing and field performance are presented.

  2. Studies on carbon dioxide power plant, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Koji; Fujii, Terushige; Sakaguchi, Tadashi; Kawabata, Yasusuke; Kuroda, Toshihiro.

    1980-01-01

    A power generating plant using carbon dioxide instead of water has been studied by the authors, as high efficiency can be obtained in high temperature range (higher than 650 deg C) and turbines become compact as compared with the Rankine steam cycle. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of the dynamic characteristics of this small power generating plant of supercritical pressure and the comparison with the experimental results are reported. In the theoretical analysis, the linear approximation method using small variation method was adopted for solution. Every component was modeled as the concentrated constant system, and the transfer function for each component was determined, then simulation was carried out for the total system synthesizing these components. The approximation of physical values, and the analysis of a plunger pump, a regenerator, a heater, a vapor valve, a turbine and a blower, piping, and pressure drop are described. The response to the stepwise changes of heating, flow rate, opening of a vapor valve and a load control valve for a blower was investigated. The theoretical anaysis and the experimental results were in good agreement, and this analysis is applicable to the carbon dioxide plant of practical scale. (Kako, I.)

  3. Improved ionic model of liquid uranium dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryaznov, [No Value; Iosilevski, [No Value; Yakub, E; Fortov, [No Value; Hyland, GJ; Ronchi, C

    The paper presents a model for liquid uranium dioxide, obtained by improving a simplified ionic model, previously adopted to describe the equation of state of this substance [1]. A "chemical picture" is used for liquid UO2 of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric composition. Several ionic species

  4. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  5. Uranium Dioxide Powder Flow ability Improvement Using Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanda, D.; Sambodo Daru, G.

    1998-01-01

    The improvement of flow ability characteristics of uranium dioxide powder has been done using sol-gel process. To anticipate a pellet mass production with uniform pellet dimension, the uranium dioxide powder must be have a spherical form. Uranium dioxide spherical powder has been diluted in acid transformed into sol colloidal solution. To obtain uranium dioxide spherical form, the uranium sol-colloidal solution has been dropped in a hot paraffin ( at the temperature of 90 0 C) to form gelatinous colloid and then dried at 800 0 C, and sintered at the temperature of 1700 0 C. The flow ability of spherical uranium dioxide powder has been examined by using Flowmeter Hall (ASTM. B. 213-46T). The measurement result reveals that the spherical uranium dioxide powder has a flow ability twice than that of unprocessed uranium dioxide powder

  6. Plant growth and physiology of vegetable plants as influenced by carbon dioxide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tadashi

    1973-01-01

    In order to obtain basic knowledge on the increased giving of carbon dioxide to vegetables, the carbon dioxide environment in growing houses was analyzed, and the physiological and ecological properties of vegetables cultivated in carbon dioxide environment were elucidated. To improve the carbon dioxide environment, giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide, air flow, ventilation, and others were examined. The concentration of carbon dioxide began to decrease when the illumination intensity on growing layer reached 1 -- 1.5 lux, owing to the photo-synthetic activity of vegetables, and decreased rapidly at 3 -- 5 lux. The lowering of carbon dioxide concentration lowered the photo-synthesis of vegetables extremely, and the transfer of synthesized carbohydrate to roots was obstructed. The effect suffered in low carbon dioxide concentration left some aftereffect even after ventilation and the recovery of carbon dioxide concentration. But this aftereffect was not observed in case of cucumber. To improve carbon dioxide environment, the air flow or ventilation required for minimizing the concentration lowering was determined, but giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide was most effective. The interaction of carbon dioxide concentration and light was examined regarding the effect on photo-synthesis, and some knowledge of practical application was obtained. The effect of giving more carbon dioxide was more remarkable as the treatment was given to younger seedlings and in the period when the capacity of absorbing assimilation products was higher. (Kako, I.)

  7. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and northern plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, A; Punkkinen, R

    1981-01-01

    Convincing quantitative data have recently been published about the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by certain plants. Several qualitative pieces of evidence were found suggesting similar ability in northern plants. The volume fraction of NO/sub 2/ in the air, Phi, was measured at Kevo (70/sup 0/N, 27/sup 0/E). The Saltzman method was used, with a continuously recording detector, especially developed for measurements below the usual analytical limit of this method (0.005 ppm). The systematic error of Phi was estimated to be less than 50%. In general, Phi did not vary much with time. However, when the recorder of the atmospheric electric field at the adjacent Meteorological Station of Kevo once rose up to 4 times the normal value, the Phi-curve simultaneously rose momentarily. By using the measured value of anti-Phi, the annual uptake of NO/sub 2/-nitrogen by plants in the region of Kevo was estimated to be about 0.1 g(N)m/sup -2/ for a canopy of pines and lichens, and about 0.001 g(N)m/sup -2/ for plants at the tops of low mountains. In terms of dry weight of lichens, the uptake rate would be of the order of 0.1 ..mu..g(N)h/sup -1/ (g dry weight)/sup -1/, based on independent measurements. These amount are of the same order of magnitude as the yields of biological nitrogen fixation by lichens in corresponding conditions. A direct experimental study of the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by northern plants seems very desirable and readily feasible.

  8. Observations of foliar injury to plants by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical changes in mature leaves indicated that Raphanus sativus, Commelina benghalensis and Medicago sativa were injured and Pennisetum typhoideum, Alternanthere ficoidea and Mangifera indica (seedlings) were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation. The highly susceptible plants like Raphanus, Medicago, and Commelina can be used for monitoring air quality in a polluted atmosphere. Uninjured species like Pennisetum on the other hand, may be grown in polluted areas for maintaining agricultural production. 9 references, 1 table.

  9. Investigation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles toxicity and uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, C; Carriere, M [Laboratoire de Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique UMR 9956 CEA-CNRS-IRAMIS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Khodja, H [Laboratoire d' Etude des Elements Legers, UMR 9956 CEA-CNRS-IRAMIS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Herlin-Boime, N [Laboratoire Francis Perrin URA 2453 CEA-CNRS-IRAMIS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brisset, F [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, UMR8182 CNRS-University Paris sud, Orsay (France); Flank, A M [LUCIA beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, Saint-Aubin (France); Fayard, B [Laboratoire de Physique du solide, Orsay, France and ID21 beamline, ESRF, Grenoble (France); Chaillou, S, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [Unite de Nutrition Azotee des Plantes, INRA, Versailles (France)

    2011-07-06

    Nanoparticles (NP) are introduced in a growing number of commercial products and their production may lead to their release in the environment. Plants may be a potential entry point for NP in the food chain. Up to now, results describing NP phytotoxical effects and plant accumulation are scarce and contradictory. To increase knowledge on titanium dioxide NP (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) accumulation and impact on plants, we designed a study on three plant species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum), oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants were exposed in hydroponics to a panel of well-characterized TiO{sub 2}-NPs, with diameters ranging from 12 to 140 nm, either anatase or rutile. Their accumulation in plant tissues is currently being assessed by complementary imaging techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-{mu}-XRF) imaging and micro-particle induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) imaging. Moreover, the impact of TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure on germination rate, root elongation, dry biomass and evapotranspiration is evaluated. Preliminary results are presented here, with data collected on wheat plants exposed to 12 nm and 25 nm anatase TiO{sub 2}-NPs. These results show that TiO{sub 2}-NPs are taken up by plants, and do not significantly alter their germination and root elongation. These results underline the necessity of deeper evaluation of nanoparticle ecotoxicity, and particularly on their interaction with plants.

  10. Investigation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles toxicity and uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, C; Carriere, M; Khodja, H; Herlin-Boime, N; Brisset, F; Flank, A M; Fayard, B; Chaillou, S

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are introduced in a growing number of commercial products and their production may lead to their release in the environment. Plants may be a potential entry point for NP in the food chain. Up to now, results describing NP phytotoxical effects and plant accumulation are scarce and contradictory. To increase knowledge on titanium dioxide NP (TiO 2 -NPs) accumulation and impact on plants, we designed a study on three plant species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum), oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants were exposed in hydroponics to a panel of well-characterized TiO 2 -NPs, with diameters ranging from 12 to 140 nm, either anatase or rutile. Their accumulation in plant tissues is currently being assessed by complementary imaging techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) imaging and micro-particle induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) imaging. Moreover, the impact of TiO 2 -NP exposure on germination rate, root elongation, dry biomass and evapotranspiration is evaluated. Preliminary results are presented here, with data collected on wheat plants exposed to 12 nm and 25 nm anatase TiO 2 -NPs. These results show that TiO 2 -NPs are taken up by plants, and do not significantly alter their germination and root elongation. These results underline the necessity of deeper evaluation of nanoparticle ecotoxicity, and particularly on their interaction with plants.

  11. Absorption of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide by petunia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Petunia plants (Petunia hybrida Vilm.) of three varieties with differing air pollutant sensitivities were grown in controlled environments and the absorption rates of ozone (O/sub 3/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) determined during single gas and mixed gas exposures. Additional experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of duration of exposure, leaf age, and plant growth stage on absorption of O/sub 3/. Absorption of all pollutants from single gases or the mixture was generally greater for the more sensitive varieties. Absorption from single gases was generally greater than from the mixed gases. Absorption rates tended to decrease gradually throughout the day and from day to day with continuous exposure. Absorption of O/sub 3/ was proportional to exposure concentration and decreased with time at differing rates for each variety. More O/sub 3/ was absorbed by older than younger leaves and by plants at the early vegetative stage compared with those in the prefloral stage.

  12. Mechanism of the toxic action of sulfur dioxide on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaevskii, V S; Miroshnikova, A T; Firger, V V; Belokrylova, L M

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on U CO2 metabolism and photosynthesis in fescue and timothy grass and in maple and barberry branches. The free radical inhibitors, ascorbic acid and thiourea, were found to decrease the damaging effects of the sulfur dioxide. These results indicated that the processes involved are of the free-radical chain type. Even at low sulfur dioxide concentrations, photosphosphorylation and carbon dioxide assimilation were inhibited. In addition, starch and protein as well as the formation of polymeric substances were also inhibited.

  13. Increasing carbon dioxide and the response of plants to this challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzaz, F.A.; Fajer, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed are the effects that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the air tend to have on the various types of plant. In the so-called C 3 group of plants globally elevated carbon dioxide levels may lead to increases in the rate of photosynthesis, even though these often appear to be only of a transient nature. The C 4 group of plants, however, clearly are at a disadvantage here. The attendant agricultural problems and resulting dangers to complete ecosystems including animals are described. Mention is also made of the possibility of using plants as carbon dioxide repositories. The urgent need for measures leading to a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is strongly pointed out. (MG) [de

  14. New insights into the cellular mechanisms of plant growth at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Dananjali; Thompson, Michael; Sutherland, Mark; Hirotsu, Naoki; Makino, Amane; Seneweera, Saman

    2018-04-02

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]) significantly influences plant growth, development and biomass. Increased photosynthesis rate, together with lower stomatal conductance, have been identified as the key factors that stimulate plant growth at elevated [CO 2 ] (e[CO 2 ]). However, variations in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance alone cannot fully explain the dynamic changes in plant growth. Stimulation of photosynthesis at e[CO 2 ] is always associated with post-photosynthetic secondary metabolic processes that include carbon and nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle functions and hormonal regulation. Most studies have focused on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in response to e[CO 2 ], despite the emerging evidence of e[CO 2 ]'s role in moderating secondary metabolism in plants. In this review, we briefly discuss the effects of e[CO 2 ] on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance and then focus on the changes in other cellular mechanisms and growth processes at e[CO 2 ] in relation to plant growth and development. Finally, knowledge gaps in understanding plant growth responses to e[CO 2 ] have been identified with the aim of improving crop productivity under a CO 2 rich atmosphere. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Programs to improve plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmus, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    Looking toward the 1990's, we see a period in which our industry will face the challenge of improving the performance of the nuclear plants which are built and operating. The skills and technology are at hand to make good plant performance a reality and we believe the time has come to use them to achieve that end. As reserve margins decline, utilities and their regulators will increasingly seek to tap the unexploited capacity tied up in plants operating below their optimum availability. This paper describes a number of the programs, plant improvements and operations improvements which can yield a significant increase in nuclear plant availability and capacity factor now and into the 1990's. (author)

  16. Health Risk Assessment of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Exposure from a New Developing Coal Power Plant in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Thongthammachart

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Krabi coal-fired power plant is the new power plant development project of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT. This 800 megawatts power plant is in developing process. The pollutants from coal-fired burning emissions were estimated and included in an environmental impact assessment report. This study aims to apply air quality modeling to predict nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 concentration which could have health impact to local people. The health risk assessment was studied following U.S. EPA regulatory method. The hazard maps were created by ArcGIS program. The results indicated the influence of the northeast and southwest monsoons and season variation to the pollutants dispersion. The daily average and annual average concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were lower than the NAAQS standard. The hazard quotient (HQ of SO2 and NO2 both short-term and long-term exposure were less than 1. However, there were some possibly potential risk areas indicating in GIS based map. The distribution of pollutions and high HI values were near this power plant site. Although the power plant does not construct yet but the environment health risk assessment was evaluated to compare with future fully developed coal fire plant.

  17. Improved core monitoring for improved plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    Westinghouse has recently installed a core on-line surveillance, monitoring and operations systems (COSMOS), which uses only currently available core and plant data to accurately reconstruct the core average axial and radial power distributions. This information is provided to the operator in an immediately usable, human-engineered format and is accumulated for use in application programs that provide improved core performance predictive tools and a data base for improved fuel management. Dynamic on-line real-time axial and radial core monitoring supports a variety of plant operations to provide a favorable cost/benefit ratio for such a system. Benefits include: (1) relaxation or elimination of certain technical specifications to reduce surveillance and reporting requirements and allow higher availability factors, (2) improved information displays, predictive tools, and control strategies to support more efficient core control and reduce effluent production, and (3) expanded burnup data base for improved fuel management. Such systems can be backfit into operating plants without changing the existing instrumentation and control system and can frequently be implemented on existing plant computer capacity

  18. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  19. Value of forestation in absorbing carbon dioxide surrounding a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-08-01

    The dispersion of carbon dioxide emitted from 1000 MW(e) coal fired power plant is investigated. Calculated ground level carbon dioxide concentrations as a function of distance from the power plant stack is validated by the results derived from sulfur dioxide dispersion measurements. Forestation is examined as a means for removal and control of atmospheric carbon dioxide at a distance of 5 to 10 km away from the power plant stack. An equilibrium and a dynamic approach are considered. For an average temperate zone forest growth rate (7.42 mg/dm/sup 2/ h), the overall reduction in forested land area required to remove the equivalent of all of the CO/sub 2/ from a 1000 MW(e) power plant would be less than 3.3% compared to removing the equivalent amount of CO/sub 2/ by planting forests remotely from the plant. If faster growing tropical plants or trees having up to 4 times the temperate plant growth rate were used, there would be a maximum savings of 15% in forested land area compared to a remote planting. This magnitude of reduction in cultivated forest area is insufficient to recommend planting forested areas adjacent to central power stations as a means of controlling CO/sub 2/ emission. Rather it is suggested to provide sufficient increased regional forested areas on a global scale for the purposes of absorbing the equivalent increase in CO/sub 2/ emission due to increased fossil fuel use.

  20. Carbon dioxide and water transport through plant aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Osborn, Hannah L; Evans, John R

    2017-06-01

    Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins is of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability. There are a growing number of PIPs shown to act as water channels, but those altering membrane permeability to CO 2 are more limited. The structural basis for selective substrate specificities has not yet been resolved, although a few key amino acid positions have been identified. Several regions important for dimerization, gating and trafficking are also known. PIP aquaporins assemble as tetramers and their properties depend on the monomeric composition. PIPs control water flux into and out of veins and stomatal guard cells and also increase membrane permeability to CO 2 in mesophyll and stomatal guard cells. The latter increases the effectiveness of Rubisco and can potentially influence transpiration efficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) efflux of two shrubs in response to plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although plant density should affect soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux and carbon cycling in semi-arid regions, the effects of plant density on soil CO2 efflux are not well known. This study was performed to investigate the responses of soil CO2 efflux of two dominant shrubs (Caragana korshinkii and Salix psammophila) to ...

  2. Improvement of cesium retention in uranium dioxide by additional phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamaury Dubois, S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the cesium retention in nuclear fuel. A bibliographic survey indicates that cesium is rapidly released from uranium dioxide in an accident condition. At temperatures higher than 1500 deg C or in oxidising conditions, our experiments show the difficulty of maintaining cesium inside simulated fuel. Two ternary systems are potentially interesting for the retention of cesium and to reduce the kinetics of release from the fuel: Cs 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 et Cs 2 O-ZrO 2 -SO 2 . The compounds CsAISi 2 O 6 and Cs 2 ZrSi 6 O 15 were studied from 1200 deg C to 2000 deg C by thermogravimetric analysis. The volumetric diffusion coefficients of cesium in these structures, in solid state as well as in liquid one, were measured. A fuel was sintered with (Al 2 O 3 + SiO 2 ) or (ZrO 2 + SiO 2 ) and the intergranular phase was characterized. In the presence of (Al 2 O 3 + SiO 2 ), the sintering is realized at 1610 deg C in H 2 . It is a liquid phase sintering. On the other end, with (ZrO 2 + SiO 2 ), the sintering is a low temperature one in oxidising atmosphere. Finally, cesium containing simulated fuels were produced with these additives. According to the effective diffusion coefficients that were measured, the additives improved the retention of cesium. We have predicted the improvement that could be hoped for in a nuclear reactor, depending on the dispersion of the intergranular additives, the temperature and the degree of oxidation of the UO 2+x . We wait for a factor of 2 for x=0 and more than 8 for x=0.05, up to 2000 deg C. (author). 148 refs., 122 figs., 34 tabs

  3. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K; van den Bergh, Walter M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes. Methods. This is an observational cohort substudy of a single arm intervention study. Twenty-four ICU patients were included, who were admitted after a cardiac arrest and mechanically ventilated for 3 hours with heliox (50% helium; 50% oxygen). A fixed protective ventilation protocol (6 mL/kg) was used, with prospective observation for changes in lung mechanics and gas exchange. Statistics was by Bonferroni post-hoc correction with statistical significance set at P ventilation, respiratory rate decreased (25 ± 4 versus 23 ± 5 breaths min(-1), P = 0.010). Minute volume ventilation showed a trend to decrease compared to baseline (11.1 ± 1.9 versus 9.9 ± 2.1 L min(-1), P = 0.026), while reducing PaCO2 levels (5.0 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 kPa, P = 0.011) and peak pressures (21.1 ± 3.3 versus 19.8 ± 3.2 cm H2O, P = 0.024). Conclusions. Heliox improved CO2 elimination while allowing reduced minute volume ventilation in adult patients during protective mechanical ventilation.

  4. Foliar injury responses of eleven plant species to ozone/sulfur dioxide mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, D T; Reinert, R A; Dunning, J A; Heck, W W

    1973-01-01

    Eleven plant species were exposed to ozone and/or sulfur dioxide to determine if a mixture of the two gases enhanced foliar injury. Tobacco, radish, and alfalfa developed more injury that the additive injury of the single gases. In other species, such as cabbage, broccoli, and tomato, the foliar injury from mixed-gas exposures was additive or less than additive. Leaf injury from the ozone/sulfur dioxide mixture appeared as upper surface flecking, stipple, bifacial necrosis, and lower surface glazing and, in general, appeared similar to injury from oxidant or ozone. The concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide that caused plant injury were similar to those found in urban areas. These concentrations may result in yield losses to plants grown under field conditions.

  5. Evolutionary CANDU 9 plant improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.K.W.

    1999-01-01

    The CANDU 9 is a 935 MW(e) nuclear power plant (NPP) based on the multi-unit Darlington and Bruce B designs with additional enhancements from our ongoing engineering and research programs. Added to the advantages of using proven systems and components, CANDU 9 offers improvement features with enhanced safety, improved operability and maintenance including a control centre with advanced man-machine interface, and improved project delivery in both engineering and construction. The CANDU 9 NPP design incorporated safety enhancements through careful attention to emerging licensing and safety issues. The designers assessed, revised and evolved such systems as the moderator, end shield, containment and emergency core cooling (ECC) systems while providing an integrated final design that is more passive and severe-accident-immune. AECL uses a feedback process to incorporate lessons learned from operating plants, from current projects experiences and from the implementation or construction phase of previous projects. Most of the requirements for design improvements are based on a systematic review of current operating CANDU stations in the areas of design and reliability, operability, and maintainability. The CANDU 9 Control Centre provides plant staff with improved operability and maintainability capabilities due to the combination of systematic design with human factors engineering and enhanced operating and diagnostics features. The use of advanced engineering tools and modem construction methods will reduce project implementation risk on project costs and schedules. (author)

  6. Dependence of freshwater plants on quantity of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion concentration illustrated through experimental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, E S

    1944-01-01

    By culture experiments with the freshwater plants Helodea canadensis and Ceratophyllum demersum, in which both the contents of carbon dioxide and pH of the water were varied, it was shown that ph within the area 4.5 to 8.2 has no appreciable influence on the growth. The supply of carbon dioxide, on the other hand, has very great influence. The fact that the two freshwater plants mentioned in Denmark are found in alkaline water only, is due to the contents of assimilable carbon dioxide decreasing with decrease of pH. While thus in alkaline water there are generally large quantities of bicarbonate, from which half of the carbon dioxide may be utilized in the assimilation, there is in acid water (pH below 4.5) no bicarbonate. Carbon dioxide in true solution and bicarbonate carbon dioxide behave differently as sources of carbon dioxide for the assimilation; this is amongst other things due to the fact that the absorption of the carbon dioxide through the bicarbonate is made actively on the part of the plant. The investigations which illustrate the influence of the quantity of carbon dioxide on the intensity of assimilation were made on submersed plants in water containing bicarbonate, and therefore give quite different results in relation to terraneous plants, where the carbon dioxide is exclusively assimilated.

  7. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte J. Beurskens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2 diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes. Methods. This is an observational cohort substudy of a single arm intervention study. Twenty-four ICU patients were included, who were admitted after a cardiac arrest and mechanically ventilated for 3 hours with heliox (50% helium; 50% oxygen. A fixed protective ventilation protocol (6 mL/kg was used, with prospective observation for changes in lung mechanics and gas exchange. Statistics was by Bonferroni post-hoc correction with statistical significance set at P<0.017. Results. During heliox ventilation, respiratory rate decreased (25±4 versus 23±5 breaths min−1, P=0.010. Minute volume ventilation showed a trend to decrease compared to baseline (11.1±1.9 versus 9.9±2.1 L min−1, P=0.026, while reducing PaCO2 levels (5.0±0.6 versus 4.5±0.6 kPa, P=0.011 and peak pressures (21.1±3.3 versus 19.8±3.2 cm H2O, P=0.024. Conclusions. Heliox improved CO2 elimination while allowing reduced minute volume ventilation in adult patients during protective mechanical ventilation.

  8. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-01-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for state-of-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency

  9. Residential carbon dioxide emissions in Canada. Impact of efficiency improvements and fuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugursal, V.I.; FUng, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of improving house envelope, heating system and appliance efficiencies, and fuel substitution on the atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide in the Canadian residential sector is studied based on simulation studies. The findings clearly indicate that improving appliance efficiency reduces the overall end-use energy consumption in the residential sector as well as the associated carbon dioxide emissions. However, the magnitude of the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions as a result of improving only appliance efficiencies is quite small. Significantly larger reductions can be obtained by improving house envelopes and heating/cooling systems in addition to improving appliance efficiencies. Fuel substitution for space and domestic hot water heating can also present a potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions depending on the fuel substitution scenario adopted. (author)

  10. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Soledad Darqui; Laura Mabel Radonic; Horacio Esteban Hopp; Marisa Lopez Bilbao

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (http://www.isaaa.org), there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University develo...

  11. Biochemical and cytological effects of sulphur dioxide on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, S S; Hocking, D

    1976-01-01

    Biochemical effects of sulfur dioxide arise from its unique ability to act as an oxidizing or a reducing agent. Among some of the important metabolic effects are direct interference with photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation (competitive inhibiton of ribulose diphosphate carbosylase by SO/sub 3/) and with energy metabolism (inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production by SO/sub 3//sup =/). Many indirect effects result from formation of sulfites and organic sulfonates with other cell constituents. These compounds can cause inhibition of a variety of metabolic enzyme systems. All these factors are probably instrumental in the gross disruption of chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Injurious effects result when sulfur dioxide is taken up in excess of the capacity of the tissue to incorporate sulfur into the normal metabolic activities. The ubiquitous presence of small amounts of SO/sub 2/ and the subtle and varied nature of its biochemical effects suggest that crop losses to SO/sub 2/ pollution may be more widespread and serious than is generally suspected.

  12. Absorption and conversion of nitrogen dioxide by higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmishidze, S.V.; Nutsubidze, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the ability of plants to absorb and metabolize NO 2 , as well as to reduce and incorporate nitrogen into amino acid molecules. Experiments on the absorption of NO 2 labeled with 15 N were conducted in special chambers, both on whole plants and on fresh-cut branches. NO 2 was used in various concentrations from 0.01 to 5% of the volume. The exposure of the experiments ranged from 5 min to 7 days, involving more than 60 species of perennial and annual plants. The processes of assimilation and conversion of NO 2 from the air to amino acids by plants are related. The conversion scheme showed close association with physiological state of the plant and with external factors of its vital activity. It is conceivable that plants that intensively absorb and convert oxides of nitrogen and give a large biomass can be used for the purification air

  13. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol develop...

  14. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J.; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical

  15. Sulfur dioxide content of the air and its influence on the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeck, G; Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1929-01-01

    Clover was exposed to concentrations of sulfur dioxide ranging from 5 to 50 ppm for periods of 1 to 4 hours. The higher concentrations caused an increase in sulfur content. Single exposures did not affect the digestible protein content of the plants. 10 tables, 3 figures.

  16. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  17. Operating conditions of T.B.P. line uranium purification plant, for uranium dioxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardich, R.N.; La Gamma, A.M.; Anasco, R.; Soler, S.M.G. de; Isnardi, E.; Gea, V.; Chiaraviglio, R.; Matyjasczyk, E.; Aramayo, R.

    1992-01-01

    In this contribution are presented the operative conditions and the results obtained step of the Uranium dioxide production plant of Argentina. The refining step involve the Uranium concentrate dissolution, the silica ageing, the filtration and liquid - liquid extraction with n-tributyl phosphate solution in kerosene. The established operative conditions allow to obtain Uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear purity in industrial scale. (author)

  18. Effect of sequences of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on plant dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) is the most important gaseous air pollutant in the world because of its adverse effects on vegetation in general and crop plants in particular. Since nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a precursor of ozone, studying the implication of sequences of these two gases is very important. Hence, the effects of sequences of ...

  19. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis X. Carbon Dioxide Assimilation in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.; Bassham, J. A.; Benson, A. A.; Lynch, V.; Ouellet, C.; Schou, L.; Stepka, W.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1950-04-01

    The conclusions which have been drawn from the results of C{sup 14}O{sub 2} fixation experiments with a variety of plants are developed in this paper. The evidence for thermochemical reduction of carbon dioxide fixation intermediates is presented and the results are interpreted from such a viewpoint.

  20. The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide elevation on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Vermaat, J.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Mooij, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors developed a dynamic model to investigate the effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increase on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems. Steady-state simulations were performed to analyze the response of phytoplankton and submerged macrophytes to atmospheric CO2 elevation from 350 to

  1. The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide elevation on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Vermaat, J.E.; de Klein, J.; Mooij, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a dynamic model to investigate the effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increase on plant growth in freshwater ecosystems. Steady-state simulations were performed to analyze the response of phytoplankton and submerged macrophytes to atmospheric CO2 elevation from 350 to 700 ppm.

  2. Sulfur dioxide concentration measurements in the vicinity of the Albert Funk mining and metallurgical plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide in the area of Freiberg, GDR. The emission of sulfur dioxide results for the most part from brown coal combustion in heat and power plants and in metallurgical plants. Sulfur dioxide emission from neighboring industrial centers such as Dresden and North Bohemian towns affects the Freiburg area to some extent. The use of brown coal in household heating contributes an average of 50 kg of sulfur dioxide emission per coal burning household annually. A total of 1260 measurements at 28 points in the vicinity of Freiberg were made in the year 1972 in evaluating the concentration of sulfur dioxide present in the air. In 75% of the measurements the concentrations were below 0.15 mg/mat3, in 12% between 0.15 and 0.2 mg/mat3, in 7% between 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mat3 and in 6% between 0.3 and 0.5 mg/mat3. The results are described as average industrial pollution. The influence of air temperature, wind velocity, fog, season and time of day are also discussed. (4 refs.) (In German)

  3. Damage to greenhouse plants caused by town fogs with special reference to sulfur dioxide and light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C R

    1941-11-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments carried out on greenhouse plants to assess the effects of urban air pollution. The approach was to place fuming sulfuric acid in a greenhouse, then circulate the fumes throughout the greehouse with fans. Symptoms produced were then compared with those found on plants in urban areas. The symptoms matched well and sulfur dioxide was declared the culprit. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. Carbon dioxide recovery from gas-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Ricardo Salgado; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: martinsr@epenergy.com; barbosa@mec.ita.br; Prado, Eduardo Lanari [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Jones Graduate School of Business]. E-mail: pradoe@epenergy.com; Vieira, Adriana de Moura [Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (IBMEC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Financas]. E-mail: vieiraa@epenergy.com

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 the Brazilian electric sector has undergone a major restructuring. The aim of such change is to reduce the State's participation in the sector, and to induce the growth of private investments. In particular, this event created several opportunities for thermal power plant projects, leading to competition at the generation level. In this scenario of increased competition, the power plant efficiency becomes a key element for determining the feasibility and profitability of the project. Moreover, the utilization of the plant's own effluents as feedstock or as a source of additional revenue will impact positively in its economics. As an example, long term additional revenues could be created by the sale of CO{sub 2} extracted from the combustion products of thermal power plants. The production of CO{sub 2} also contributes to mitigate the environmental impacts of the power plant project by significantly reducing its airborne emissions. This paper shows how a gas-fired power plant can extract and utilize CO{sub 2} to generate additional revenue, contributing to a more competitive power plant. (author)

  5. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  6. Evaluation of possible use of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić-Martinez Mira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation of food contact surfaces has been a contributing factor in food borne disease outbreaks, especially those involving Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus etc. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1. Determine the efficiency of a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in suspension in a closed system in a dairy plant. 2. Evaluate the possibility of disinfection of working surfaces with a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide. In order to determine the germicidal effect of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide by suspension test (BSEN 1276:1997; the following test organisms were used: Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide were tested by IDF 077:1977 standard. The efficacy of this disinfectant was investigated in a closed system in a dairy plant. Results indicated a 100% reduction of >108 cfu/ml L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, viable count after 1 minute of exposure to 100 ppm of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide and 400 ppm for Bacillus cereus. In the presence of 2% skim milk and 4 % skim milk concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm resulted in 100% reduction in numbers of the five of six test microorganisms, respectively. The spore former, Bacillus cereus is less susceptible to the disinfectant. Therefore, the efficient concentration for 100% reduction in viable count after 1 minute exposure was 500 ppm. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant were not determined. In the case of closed system disinfection in a dairy plant, reduction in viable count after 15 minute exposure to 100 ppm of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide ranged from 80 to 100%.

  7. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Beurskens, Charlotte J; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K; van den Bergh, Walter M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes. Methods. This is an observational cohort substudy of a single arm intervention study. Twenty-four ICU patients were included, who were admitted after a cardiac arr...

  8. Postillumination burst of carbon dioxide in crassalacean Acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C E; Vines, H M; Black, C C

    1975-04-01

    Immediately following exposure to light, a postillumination burst of CO(2) has been detected in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. A detailed study with pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaves indicates that the postillumination burst changes its amplitude and kinetics during the course of a day. In air, the postillumination burst in pineapple leaves generally is exhibited as two peaks. The postillumination burst is sensitive to atmospheric CO(2) and O(2) concentrations as well as to the light intensity under which plants are grown. We propose that the CO(2) released in the first postillumination burst peak is indicative of photorespiration since it is sensitive to either O(2) or CO(2) concentration while the second CO(2) evolution peak is likely due to decarboxylation of organic acids involved in Crassulacean acid metabolism.In marked contrast to other higher plants, the postillumination burst in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants can be equal to or greater than the rate of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in pineapple leaves also varies throughout a day. Both photosynthesis and the postillumination burst have a daily variation which apparently is a complex function of degree of leaf acidity, growth light intensity, ambient gas phase, and the time a plant has been exposed to a given gas.

  9. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M; Majid, A

    2013-01-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO 2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO 2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO 2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants

  10. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  11. NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  12. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  13. Ethylene and carbon dioxide exchange in leaves and whole plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodrow, L

    1989-01-01

    This investigation addresses the interactions between CO{sub 2}, ethylene, and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Xanthium strumarium L. Rates of ethylene release were examined at alternate leaf positions on vegetative tomato plants. The rates of endogenous and ACC-stimulated ethylene release per unit leaf area were highest in the young, rapidly expanding leaves. When plants were grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment rates of ethylene release from the leaf tissue were consistently higher than from tissue grown at ambient levels. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations during short-term incubations further enhanced the rates of ethylene release. Ethylene release from ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) applied to intact tomato plants provided a model system in which to study the effects of ethylene on photosynthetic metabolism and carbon partitioning. The ethephon treated plants exhibited leaf epinasty, flower bud abscission, inhibition of leaf expansion, adventitious root development, and reduction of dry matter accumulation and growth over time. Rates of steady state photosynthesis, respiration, photorespiration, transpiration, and partitioning of recently fixed {sup 14}C into neutral, acidic, basic, and insoluble leaf fractions were unaltered 24 h after ethephon application.

  14. Profiling of Indoor Plant to Deteriorate Carbon Dioxide Using Low Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Shamsuri Mohd Mahathir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable grounds that human needs the plants because their abilities reduce carbon dioxide (CO2. However, it is not constantly human with the plants, especially in the building. This paper intends to study the abilities of seven plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Prayer Plants, Spider Plant, and Syngonium to absorb CO2 gas. The research was conducted in chambers (one cubic meter with temperature, lux intensity and CO2 concentration at 25±10C, 300 lux, and 450±10 ppm. Before experimental were carried out, all plants selected should be assimilated with an indoor setting for performance purpose, and the experiment was conducted during daytime (9 am-5 pm. The experiments run in triplicate. Based on the results that are using extremely low light that ever conducted on plants, only Spider Plants are not capable to absorb CO2, instead turn up the CO2 rate during respiration. Meanwhile, Prayer Plant is the most plant performed with CO2 reduction is 7.62%, and this plant also has equivalent results in triplicate study based on an ANOVA test with significant value at 0.072. The conclusions of this research, only Spider Plant cannot survive at indoor condition with extremely low light for plants live and reduce CO2 concentration for indoor air quality (IAQ. The rate of 300 lux is a minimum light at indoor that are set by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH, Malaysia.

  15. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Soledad Darqui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (http://www.isaaa.org, there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University developed petunia; all of them with the same trait, a change in their colour. On the other hand, in 2014, the whole-genome sequence of carnation appeared which was the first and until now the only one among ornamental species. In this context, we review the publications from the last five years in petunia, rose, chrysanthemum and carnation. In these papers there are detailed descriptions of modification of the cascade of genes and transcription factors involved in stress situations, in different developmental stages and their regulation through different plant hormones. This knowledge will allow breeding for better and new varieties with changes in their abiotic or biotic stress tolerance, altered growth or yield and modified product quality as colour or fragrance.

  16. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from fields fertilized with digestate from an agricultural biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubaszek, Robert; Wysocka-Czubaszek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Digestate from biogas plants can play important role in agriculture by providing nutrients, improving soil structure and reducing the use of mineral fertilizers. Still, less is known about greenhouse gas emissions from soil during and after digestate application. The aim of the study was to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from a field which was fertilized with digestate. The gas fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance system. Each day, the eddy covariance system was installed in various places of the field, depending on the dominant wind direction, so that each time the results were obtained from an area where the digestate was distributed. The results showed the relatively low impact of the studied gases emissions on total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Maximum values of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes, 79.62 and 3.049 µmol s-1 m-2, respectively, were observed during digestate spreading on the surface of the field. On the same day, the digestate was mixed with the topsoil layer using a disc harrow. This resulted in increased CO2 emissions the following day. Intense mineralization of digestate, observed after fertilization may not give the expected effects in terms of protection and enrichment of soil organic matter.

  17. COHO - Utilizing Waste Heat and Carbon Dioxide at Power Plants for Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sumanjeet [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wilson, Aaron [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wendt, Daniel [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Mendelssohn, Jeffrey [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Desormeaux, Erik [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Klare, Jennifer [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    2017-07-25

    The COHO is a breakthrough water purification system that can concentrate challenging feed waters using carbon dioxide and low-grade heat. For this project, we studied feeds in a lab-scale system to simulate COHO’s potential to operate at coal- powered power plants. COHO proved successful at concentrating the highly scaling and challenging wastewaters derived from a power plant’s cooling towers and flue gas desulfurization units. We also found that COHO was successful at scrubbing carbon dioxide from flue gas mixtures. Thermal regeneration of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis draw solution ended up requiring higher temperatures than initially anticipated, but we also found that the draw solution could be polished via reverse osmosis. A techno-economic analysis indicates that installation of a COHO at a power plant for wastewater treatment would result in significant savings.

  18. Influences of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide Nanobubbles on Seed Germination and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Shi, Xiaonan; Hua, Likun; Manzueta, Leidy; Qing, Weihua; Marhaba, Taha; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-23

    Nanobubbles (NBs) hold promise in green and sustainable engineering applications in diverse fields (e.g., water/wastewater treatment, food processing, medical applications, and agriculture). This study investigated the effects of four types of NBs on seed germination and plant growth. Air, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide NBs were generated and dispersed in tap water. Different plants, including lettuce, carrot, fava bean, and tomato, were used in germination and growth tests. The seeds in water-containing NBs exhibited 6-25% higher germination rates. Especially, nitrogen NBs exhibited considerable effects in the seed germination, whereas air and carbon dioxide NBs did not significantly promote germination. The growth of stem length and diameter, leave number, and leave width were promoted by NBs (except air). Furthermore, the promotion effect was primarily ascribed to the generation of exogenous reactive oxygen species by NBs and higher efficiency of nutrient fixation or utilization.

  19. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  20. Experience with a uranyl nitrate/uranium dioxide conversion pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcuri, L.; Pietrelli, L.

    1984-01-01

    A plant for the precipitation of sinterable nuclear grade UO 2 powders is described in this report. The plant has been designed, built and set up by SNIA TECHINT. ENEA has been involved in the job as nuclear consultant. Main process steps are: dissolution of UO 2 powder or sintered UO 2 pellets, adjustment of uranyl nitrate solutions, precipitation of uranium peroxide by means of hydrogen peroxide, centrifugation of the precipitate, drying, calcination and reduction to uranium dioxide. The report is divided in two main section: the process description and the ''hot test'' report. Some laboratory data on precipitation of ammonium diuranate by means of NH 4 OH, are also reported

  1. Sulfur dioxide concentrations near thermoelectric power plant of Rossano Calabro (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the results of a one-year atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentration monitoring campaign conducted with the use of five detection stations situated near the 320 MW thermoelectric power plant serving the coastal town of Rossano Calabro (population 50,000). Apart from the analysis of sulfur dioxide concentrations, a meteorological study was carried out based on anemological data. Comparisons were made with reference to the relevant legal standards. It was thus possible to ascertain that air quality near the power station is quite high. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, due to the particular local meteorological situation strongly turbulent sea breezes, new detection stations should be opened in this area which may undergo significant industrial development

  2. Sulfur dioxide concentrations near thermoelectric power plant of Rossano Calabro (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    This article presents the results of a one-year atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentration monitoring campaign conducted with the use of five detection stations situated near the 320 MW thermoelectric power plant serving the coastal town of Rossano Calabro (population 50,000). Apart from the analysis of sulfur dioxide concentrations, a meteorological study was carried out based on anemological data. Comparisons were made with reference to the relevant legal standards. It was thus possible to ascertain that air quality near the power station is quite high. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, due to the particular local meteorological situation strongly turbulent sea breezes, new detection stations should be opened in this area which may undergo significant industrial development.

  3. Mechanistic modelling of Middle Eocene atmospheric carbon dioxide using fossil plant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Michaela; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Wilde, Volker; Konrad, Wilfried; Utescher, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Various proxies (such as pedogenic carbonates, boron isotopes or phytoplankton) and geochemical models were applied in order to reconstruct palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, partially providing conflicting results. Another promising proxy is the frequency of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gaseous exchange). In this project, fossil plant material from the Messel Pit (Hesse, Germany) is used to reconstruct atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in the Middle Eocene by analyzing stomatal density. We applied the novel mechanistic-theoretical approach of Konrad et al. (2008) which provides a quantitative derivation of the stomatal density response (number of stomata per leaf area) to varying atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The model couples 1) C3-photosynthesis, 2) the process of diffusion and 3) an optimisation principle providing maximum photosynthesis (via carbon dioxide uptake) and minimum water loss (via stomatal transpiration). These three sub-models also include data of the palaeoenvironment (temperature, water availability, wind velocity, atmospheric humidity, precipitation) and anatomy of leaf and stoma (depth, length and width of stomatal porus, thickness of assimilation tissue, leaf length). In order to calculate curves of stomatal density as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, various biochemical parameters have to be borrowed from extant representatives. The necessary palaeoclimate data are reconstructed from the whole Messel flora using Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) and the Coexistence Approach (CA). In order to obtain a significant result, we selected three species from which a large number of well-preserved leaves is available (at least 20 leaves per species). Palaeoclimate calculations for the Middle Eocene Messel Pit indicate a warm and humid climate with mean annual temperature of approximately 22°C, up to 2540 mm mean annual precipitation and the absence of extended periods of drought. Mean relative air

  4. Perspectives on plant vulnerabilities ampersand other plant and containment improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Kahn, J.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) Program was for licensees to identify plant-unique vulnerabilities and actions to address these vulnerabilities. A review of these vulnerabilities and plant improvements that were identified in the IPEs was performed as part of the IPE Insights Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this effort was to characterize the identified vulnerabilities and the impact of suggested plant improvements. No specific definition for open-quotes vulnerabilityclose quotes was provided in NRC Generic Letter 88-20 or in the subsequent NRC IPE submittal guidance documented in NUREG-1335. Thus licensees were left to use their own definitions. Only 20% of the plants explicitly stated that they had vulnerabilities. However, most licensees identified other plant improvements to address issues not explicitly classified as vulnerabilities, but pertaining to areas in which overall plant safety could potentially be increased. The various definitions of open-quotes vulnerabilityclose quotes used by the licensees, explicitly identified vulnerabilities, proposed plant improvements to address these vulnerabilities, and other plant improvements are summarized and discussed

  5. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO 2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca 2+ decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO 2 . Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO 2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO 2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO 2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using supercritical carbon dioxide: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Salim; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque; Easmin, Mst Sabina; Bt Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Bin Yunus, Kamaruzzaman

    2015-05-01

    Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC-CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC-CO2. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Plutonium uptake by plants from soil containing plutonium-238 dioxide particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-05-01

    Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation as indicated by the discrimination ratios for these species, after being exposed to the relatively insoluble PuO2, was similar to previously reported data using different chemical forms of plutonium. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of plutonium contained in the soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from the plant roots

  8. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.

  9. Silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticle toxicity in plants: A review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ashley; Venkatachalam, P; Sahi, Shivendra; Sharma, Nilesh

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have become widely used in recent years for many manufacturing and medical processes. Recent literature suggests that many metallic nanomaterials including those of silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) cause significant toxic effects in animal cell culture and animal models, however, toxicity studies using plant species are limited. This review examines current progress in the understanding of the effect of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on plant species. There are many facets to this ongoing environmental problem. This review addresses the effects of NPs on oxidative stress-related gene expression, genotoxicity, seed germination, and root elongation. It is largely accepted that NP exposure results in the cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to both positive and negative effects on plant growth. However, factors such as NP size, shape, surface coating and concentration vary greatly among studies resulting in conflicting reports of the effect at times. In addition, plant species tend to differ in their reaction to NP exposure, with some showing positive effects of NP augmentation while many others showing detrimental effects. Seed germination studies have shown to be less effective in gauging phytotoxicity, while root elongation studies have shown more promise. Given the large increase in nanomaterial applications in consumer products, agriculture and energy sectors, it is critical to understand their role in the environment and their effects on plant life. A closer look at nanomaterial-driven ecotoxicity is needed. Ecosystem-level studies are required to indicate how these nanomaterials transfer at the critical trophic levels affecting human health and biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Availability Improvement of German Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    High availability is important for the safety and economical performance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The strategy for availability improvement in a typical German PWR shall be discussed here. Key parameters for strategy development are plant design, availability of safety systems, component reliability, preventive maintenance and outage organization. Plant design, availability of safety systems and component reliability are to a greater extent given parameters that can hardly be influenced after the construction of the plant. But they set the frame for maintenance and outage organisation which have shown to have a large influence on the availability of the plant. (author)

  11. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Michele Greque de; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO 2 emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO 2 emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO 2 . When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO 2 , C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P max ) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO 2 . For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO 2 . We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO 2 , indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO 2 in thermoelectric power plants

  12. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Morais, M.G.; Costa, J.A.V. [Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO{sub 2}, C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate ({lambda}{sub max}) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P-max) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO{sub 2}. For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO{sub 2}. We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO{sub 2}, indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO{sub 2} in thermoelectric power plants.

  13. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Michele Greque de [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry Engineering, Federal University Foundation of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry Engineering, Federal University Foundation of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: dqmjorge@furg.br

    2007-07-15

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO{sub 2}, C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate ({mu} {sub max}) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P {sub max}) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO{sub 2}. For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO{sub 2}. We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO{sub 2}, indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO{sub 2} in thermoelectric power plants.

  14. Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.

  15. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften; Roedseth, Kenneth Loevold [Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics and Logistics

    2013-07-01

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  16. Protein improvement in crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabson, R

    1974-07-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  17. Protein improvement in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabson, R.

    1974-01-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  18. Improvement of plant reliability in PT. Badak LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad, S.; Somantri, A.

    1997-01-01

    PT. Badak's LNG sales commitment has been steadily increasing, therefore, there has been more emphasis to improve and maintain the LNG plant reliability. From plant operation historical records, Badak LNG plant experienced a high number of LNG process train trips and down time for 1977 through 1988. The highest annual number of LNG plant trips (50 times) occurred in 1983 and the longest LNG process train down time (1259 train-hours) occurred in 1988. Since 1989, PT. Badak has been able to reduce the number of LNG process train trips and down time significantly. In 1994 the number of LNG process train trips and was 18 times and the longest LNG process train down time was 377 train-hours. This plant reliability improvement was achieved by implementing plant reliability improvement programs beginning with the design of the new facilities and continuing with the maintenance and modification of the existing facilities. To improve reliability of the existing facilities, PT. Badak has been implementing comprehensive maintenance programs, to reduce the frequency and down time of the plant, such as Preventive and Predictive Maintenance as well as procurement material improvement since PT. Badak location is in a remote area. By implementing the comprehensive reliability maintenance, PT. Badak has been able to reduce the LNG process train trips to 18 and down time to 337 train hours in 1994 with the subsequent maintenance cost reduction. The average PT. Badak plant availability from 1985 to 1995 is 94.59%. New facilities were designed according to the established PT. Badak design philosophy, master plan and specification. Design of new facilities was modified to avoid certain problems from past experience. (au)

  19. Influence of sulfur dioxide and ozone on vegetation of bean and barley plants under different soil moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowski, A; Grzesiak, S

    1974-01-01

    The effects of toxic gases on extent of injuries to assimilating surface, dry weight yields, and generative development in bean and barley were studied in three successive phases of vegetation under conditions of optimum soil moisture and of drought just above the wilting point. Experiments with ozone and sulfur dioxide on bean and SO/sub 2/ on barley demonstrate that the susceptibility of plants to toxic gases decrease under drought conditions that cause a temporary dehydration of tissues. Determinations of sulfate sulfur contents in different plant organs show that a lower hydration of tissues is accompanied by lower adsorption of sulfur dioxide.

  20. Plant improvement by known-function genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quiroz Chávez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant molecular improvement by recombinant DNA technology represents an advantage to obtain new varieties or traits. This technique is promised for genetic improvement of crop plants. Lines with increased yield, quality, disease resistance, or tolerant to abiotic stress have been obtained, with clear advantages for producers, marketers and consumers. However, they have several limitations in its application to agriculture because of its risk and hazards. The aim of the document is to show the advantages and disadvantages of GM crop plant, to develop represent an opportunity to have new exotic traits.

  1. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient levels stimulates growth and development of horticultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S.E.H.; Shigeto, J. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences; Sakamoto, A.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology

    2008-02-15

    Studies have demonstrated that ambient levels of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) can cause Nicotiana plumbaginifolia to double its biomass as well as its cell contents. This paper examined the influence of NO{sub 2} on lettuce, sunflower, cucumber, and pumpkin plants. Plants were grown in environments supplemented with stable isotope-labelled NO{sub 2} for approximately 6 weeks and irrigated with nitrates. Measured growth parameters included leaf number, internode number, stem length, number of flower buds, and root length. Results of the study demonstrated that the addition of NO{sub 2} doubled the aboveground and belowground biomass of sunflowers, while only the aboveground biomass of pumpkin, cucumbers, and lettuces was doubled. Levels of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also doubled in the lettuce samples. A mass spectrometry analysis showed that only a small percentage of total plant N was derived from NO{sub 2}. It was concluded that exogenous NO{sub 2} additions function as a signal rather than as a significant nutrient source in horticultural plants. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient levels stimulates growth and development of horticultural plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S.E.H.; Shigeto, J.; Sakamoto, A.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ambient levels of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) can cause Nicotiana plumbaginifolia to double its biomass as well as its cell contents. This paper examined the influence of NO 2 on lettuce, sunflower, cucumber, and pumpkin plants. Plants were grown in environments supplemented with stable isotope-labelled NO 2 for approximately 6 weeks and irrigated with nitrates. Measured growth parameters included leaf number, internode number, stem length, number of flower buds, and root length. Results of the study demonstrated that the addition of NO 2 doubled the aboveground and belowground biomass of sunflowers, while only the aboveground biomass of pumpkin, cucumbers, and lettuces was doubled. Levels of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also doubled in the lettuce samples. A mass spectrometry analysis showed that only a small percentage of total plant N was derived from NO 2 . It was concluded that exogenous NO 2 additions function as a signal rather than as a significant nutrient source in horticultural plants. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. An assessment of radioactivity in the environs of a titanium dioxide plant at Bunbury, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Williams, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    A study of radioactivity levels in environmental samples collected from the environs of a ttanium dioxide plant at Bunbury in Western Australia is described. Radioactivity levels were determined in samples of sediment, water, algae and seafood (crabs and mussels) from the Leschenault Inlet, close to the site at which the plant's liquid effluent is disposed, and from other areas along the south-west coast. Samples of town drinking water were also analysed. Radioactivity levels in the ilmenite feed and effluent of the plant are approximately half those observed in an earlier study. There is evidence for an enhancement of radionuclide concentrations in sediment from Leschenault Inlet originating from the plant effluent. Despite this effect, radioactivity levels in the sediment of the Inlet are no greater than those that occur at certain other locations along the south-west coast. The investigation of radioactivity levels in water, algae and seafood indicates that the only significant transfer of radionuclides from the sediment is the bioaccumulation of radium in algae. There is effectively no risk to the health of members of the public who consume crab flesh or mussels from Leschenault Inlet

  4. Rhizosphere pseudomonads as probiotics improving plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Anderson, Anne J

    2018-04-20

    Many root-colonizing microbes are multifaceted in traits that improve plant health. Although isolates designated as biological control agents directly reduce pathogen growth, many exert additional beneficial features that parallel changes induced in animal and other hosts by health-promoting microbes termed probiotics. Both animal and plant probiotics cause direct antagonism of pathogens and induce systemic immunity in the host to pathogens and other stresses. They also alter host development, and improve host nutrition. The probiotic root-colonizing pseudomonads are generalists in terms of plant hosts, soil habitats and the array of stress responses that are ameliorated in the plant. This review illustrates how the probiotic pseudomonads, nurtured by the C and N sources released by the plant in root exudates, form protective biofilms on the root surface and produce the metabolites or enzymes to boost plant health. The findings reveal the multifunctional nature of many of the microbial metabolites in the plant-probiotic interplay. The beneficial effects of probiotics on plant function can contribute to sustainable yield and quality in agricultural production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  6. Combined method for reducing emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Grachev, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    Discusses the method developed by the Fossil Energy Research Corp. in the USA for combined desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases from coal-fired power plants. The method combines two methods tested on a commercial scale: the dry additive method for suppression of sulfur dioxide and the selective noncatalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides using urea (the NOXOUT process). The following aspects of joint flue gas desulfurization and denitrification are analyzed: flowsheets of the system, chemical reactions and reaction products, laboratory tests of the method and its efficiency, temperature effects on desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases, effects of reagent consumption rates, operating cost, efficiency of the combined method compared to other conventional methods of separate flue gas desulfurization and denitrification, economic aspects of flue gas denitrification and desulfurization. 4 refs.

  7. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  8. Exchange of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) between plants and the atmosphere under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuninger, C.; Meixner, F. X.; Thielmann, A.; Kuhn, U.; Dindorf, T.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), often denoted as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3) are considered as most important compounds in atmospheric chemistry. In remote areas NOx concentration is related to biological activities of soils and vegetation. The emitted NOx will not entirely be subject of long range transport through the atmosphere. Aside oxidation of NO2 by the OH radical (forming HNO3), a considerable part of it is removed from the atmosphere through the uptake of NO2 by plants. The exchange depends on stomatal activity and on NO2 concentrations in ambient air. It is known that NO2 uptake by plants represents a large NO2 sink, but the magnitude and the NO2 compensation point concentration are still under discussion. Our dynamic chamber system allows exchange measurements of NO2 under field conditions (uncontrolled) as well as studies under controlled laboratory conditions including fumigation experiments. For NO2 detection we used a highly NO2 specific blue light converter (photolytic converter) with subsequent chemiluminescence analysis of the generated NO. Furthermore, as the exchange of NO2 is a complex interaction of transport, chemistry and plant physiology, in our field experiments we determined fluxes of NO, NO2, O3, CO2 and H2O. For a better knowledge of compensation point values for the bi-directional NO2 exchange we investigated a primary representative of conifers, Picea abies, under field and laboratory conditions, and re-analyzed older field data of the deciduous tree Quercus robur.

  9. Evaluating the impact of the carbon dioxide capturing process on the indices of economic efficiency in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukhyan, V.Z.; Elbakyan, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account the input of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the global warming process, the technological solutions of its capturing, and the implementation possibilities in environmentally safe thermal power plants are considered. In power plants equipped with effective systems for cleaning the fuel gas and the coal gasification, the influence of the CO 2 reduction and realization of quotes on the indices of economic efficiency is estimated

  10. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C; Yang, Y Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    For geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO2 stream separated from a CO2 control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO2 and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO2 could be included in the separated CO2 stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO2 of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO2 concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO2 stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO2 streams. In addition to SO2, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO2 streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning

  11. Role of RNA interference in plant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh Balkrishna; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant

    2011-06-01

    Research to alter crops for their better performance involving modern technology is underway in numerous plants, and achievements in transgenic plants are impacting crop improvements in unparalleled ways. Striking progress has been made using genetic engineering technology over the past two decades in manipulating genes from diverse and exotic sources, and inserting them into crop plants for inducing desirable characteristics. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been identified as a natural mechanism for regulation of gene expression in all higher organisms from plants to humans and promises greater accuracy and precision to plant improvement. The expression of any gene can be down-regulated in a highly explicit manner exclusive of affecting the expression of any other gene by using RNAi technologies. Additional research in this field has been focused on a number of other areas including microRNAs, hairpin RNA, and promoter methylation. Manipulating new RNAi pathways, which generate small RNA molecules to amend gene expression in crops, can produce new quality traits and having better potentiality of protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. Nutritional improvement, change in morphology, or enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis are some of the other advantages of RNAi technology. In addition to its roles in regulating gene expression, RNAi is also used as a natural defense mechanism against molecular parasites such as jumping genes and viral genetic elements that affect genome stability. Even though much advancement has been made on the field of RNAi over the preceding few years, the full prospective of RNAi for crop improvement remains to be fully realized. The intricacy of RNAi pathway, the molecular machineries, and how it relates to plant development are still to be explained.

  12. Role of RNA interference in plant improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh Balkrishna; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant

    2011-06-01

    Research to alter crops for their better performance involving modern technology is underway in numerous plants, and achievements in transgenic plants are impacting crop improvements in unparalleled ways. Striking progress has been made using genetic engineering technology over the past two decades in manipulating genes from diverse and exotic sources, and inserting them into crop plants for inducing desirable characteristics. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been identified as a natural mechanism for regulation of gene expression in all higher organisms from plants to humans and promises greater accuracy and precision to plant improvement. The expression of any gene can be down-regulated in a highly explicit manner exclusive of affecting the expression of any other gene by using RNAi technologies. Additional research in this field has been focused on a number of other areas including microRNAs, hairpin RNA, and promoter methylation. Manipulating new RNAi pathways, which generate small RNA molecules to amend gene expression in crops, can produce new quality traits and having better potentiality of protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. Nutritional improvement, change in morphology, or enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis are some of the other advantages of RNAi technology. In addition to its roles in regulating gene expression, RNAi is also used as a natural defense mechanism against molecular parasites such as jumping genes and viral genetic elements that affect genome stability. Even though much advancement has been made on the field of RNAi over the preceding few years, the full prospective of RNAi for crop improvement remains to be fully realized. The intricacy of RNAi pathway, the molecular machineries, and how it relates to plant development are still to be explained.

  13. Integrated strategy for N-methylformanilide production from carbon dioxide of flue gas in coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A ‘green’ N-methylformanilide production process based new carbon dioxide conversion technologies is developed. • Monoethanolamine-based system for capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is deployed. • Gamma-valerolactone is used a solvent and catalyst for converting carbon dioxide to N-methylformanilide. • New separations for recovery of N-methylformanilide and gamma-valerolactone are developed. • Economic evaluation of the proposed process is performed. - Abstract: In this work, an integrated strategy is developed for producing N-methylformanilide from the carbon dioxide of flue gas in a coal-fired power plant. Based on lab-scale experimental studies presenting maximum yields (96%) with low reaction concentrations (below 25 wt% reactants) using large volumes of gamma-valerolactone as a solvent and catalyst, the integrated strategy focuses on the development of commercial-scale processes that consist of a monoethanolamine-based carbon dioxide separation subsystem and a catalytic conversion subsystem of N-Methylaniline with carbon dioxide to N-methylformanilide. Moreover, a heat exchanger network is designed to minimize the total energy requirements by transferring the heat between subsystems. In the proposed integrated strategy, the energy efficiency after heat integration (77.5%) is higher than that before heat integration (74.5%). Economic analysis results show that the minimum selling price of N-methylformanilide ($1592.1 Mt"−"1 using the best possible parameters) for use in this integrated strategy is cost-competitive with the current market price ($2984 Mt"−"1).

  14. Exogenous sodium sulfide improves morphological and physiological responses of a hybrid Populus species to nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanbo; Bellaloui, Nacer; Sun, Guangyu; Tigabu, Mulualem; Wang, Jinghong

    2014-06-15

    Gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can disturb normal plant growth and trigger complex physiological responses. NO2-induced responses are influenced by biotic or abiotic factors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium sulfide (Na2S, 5mmolL(-1)) on epidermis and stomata related physico-chemical responses of hybrid poplar cuttings (Pouplus alba×P. berolinensis) to gaseous NO2 (4μl1(-1)) for three time periods (0, 14 and 48h). We also investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate reductase activity (NR) in control and Na2S treated plants. Our results showed that NO2 exposure for 48h led to the decline of NR, maximal PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and dark respiration rate (Rd). The maximum rate for the post-illumination carbon dioxide burst (PIB) occurred in 48-h exposed leaves 13-15s after darkening. Moreover, NO2 exposure resulted in a significant increase in nitrogen percentage (from 0 to 33%) and a decrease in the macro and micro-elements of leaf surface. Spraying Na2S aqueous solution on the leaf surfaces significantly increased the thicknesses of palisade/spongy tissue and H2S content. Na2S pretreatment alleviated NO2-caused toxic effects as indicated by increased NR and higher values of Pn, Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency in light (ФPSII) compared with the control. Na2S pretreatment had no significant impacts on PIB-based photorespiration or elements composition of a leaf surface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving chemistry performance in CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.; Guzonas, D.

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong interplay between coolant chemistry and materials selection in any nuclear power plant system. To achieve the design life of reactor components it is necessary to monitor and control relevant chemistry parameters, such as ionic conductivity, pH, concentrations of dissolved ions and redox species (e.g., hydrogen, hydrazine, oxygen) and the concentrations of suspended corrosion products. Chemistry specifications are set to achieve a balance between the sometimes conflicting requirements to minimize corrosion and radiological dose and to minimize operating and maintenance costs over the lifetime of the plant. For the past decade, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has taken a rigorous and disciplined approach to reviewing and updating all aspects of chemistry control in the CANDU® nuclear power plant (NPP). This approach has included proactively reviewing chemistry operating experience from existing CANDU® and other water-cooled NPPs worldwide to identify and address emerging issues, updating all of our chemistry control documentation to ensure that each chemistry parameter is linked to a specific requirement (e.g., reduce activity transport, monitor for condenser leak) and incorporating the latest results from our Research and Development (R and D) programs to ensure that all chemistry specifications are supported by a sound rationale. The results of this review and update have been incorporated into updated chemistry specifications and, in some cases, modified operating procedures for new and existing plants. In addition, recommendations have been made for design modifications to improve chemistry control in new build plants, especially during periods of shutdown and startup when chemistry control has traditionally been more challenging. Chemistry control in new-build CANDU® plants will rely increasingly on the use of on-line instrumentation interfaced directly to AECL's state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring, diagnostics and analysis

  16. XANES studies of titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by using Peltophorum pterocarpum plant extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, S. [Centre for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Sona College of Technology, Salem 636005, Tamilnadu (India); Balamurugan, M., E-mail: chem.muruga@gmail.com [Centre for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Sona College of Technology, Salem 636005, Tamilnadu (India); Lippitz, A. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, 6.8 Oberflächenanalytik und Grenzflächenchemie Unter den Eichen 44 – 46, 12203, Berlin (Germany); Fonda, E.; Swaraj, S. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’ormes des merisiers, Saint Aubin BP-48, 91192, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2016-12-15

    The preparation and characterization of a Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) by a simple, cost effective, facile and eco-friendly green synthesis method using Peltophorum pterocarpum plant extract is presented. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). XRD results show that the prepared TiO{sub 2} NPs were significantly crystalline with various percentages of anatase and rutile phases. The nanoparticles were found to have different diameters ranging from 20 to 80 nm. No evidence of any intermediate or different TiO{sub 2} phases were found in XANES measurements performed at the Ti K- and L-edge. It is shown that the TiO{sub 2} NPs with high uniformity, high surface area and minimum aggregation can be prepared with relative ease and the desired anatase: rutile phase ratio can be obtained by controlling the experimental conditions.

  17. Improvement of communications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depigny, C.; Ghertman, F.; Lestien, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1983, Electricite de France (EDF) has been engaged in a major project to improve nuclear power plant communications. This project was launched following a series of incidents in which inappropriate communications practices and equipment were shown to be an aggravating, or in some cases, the determining factor. This paper presents the program established by EDF to resolve communications problems in its nuclear power stations

  18. Human performance improvement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists NPP operating organizations to improve plant performance through a focus on human performance improvement in areas like organizational and leadership development, senior management decision making, organization and management of HPI programmes including tools needed for effective HPI implementation, safety culture enhancement, knowledge management, personnel selection and staffing, career development, training and development, work design, scheduling and conditions, procedure and other job-aid development and use, effective communications, human performance monitoring, motivation. Many NPP operating organizations in Member States, are not yet achieving the full potential of their NPP technology/equipment regarding safety, operational or economic performance due to human performance weaknesses. The IAEA's HPI (Human Performance Improvement) services provide a means for these organizations to efficiently and effectively learn from international experts and the experiences of others in improving plant performance through human performance improvements. NPP operating organizations can benefit from these services in a number of ways, including requesting a national project, participating in a regional project, or requesting an assist visit. The types of activities provided through these services include assistance in benchmarking practices of successful organizations, providing information exchange and reviews of current practices through assist missions, conducting workshops on focused human performance topics, evaluating current human performance methods, including assistance in implementing self assessment programmes and providing support to safety culture enhancement programmes based on self-assessment

  19. Optimization of a recompression supercritical carbon dioxide cycle for an innovative central receiver solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Belmonte, M.A.; Sebastián, A.; Romero, M.; González-Aguilar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Peculiar thermodynamic properties of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) when it is held at or above its critical condition (stated as supercritical CO 2 or sCO 2 ) have attracted the attention of many researchers. Its excellent thermophysical properties at medium-to-moderate temperature range have made it to be considered as the alternative working fluid for next power plant generation. Among those applications, future nuclear reactors, solar concentrated thermal energy or waste energy recovery have been shown as the most promising ones. In this paper, a recompression sCO 2 cycle for a solar central particles receiver application has been optimized, observing net cycle efficiency close to 50%. However, small changes on cycle parameters such as working temperatures, recuperators efficiencies or mass flow distribution between low and high temperature recuperators were found to drastically modify system overall efficiency. In order to mitigate these uncertainties, an optimization analysis based on recuperators effectiveness definition was performed observing that cycle efficiency could lie among 40%–50% for medium-to-moderate temperature range of the studied application (630 °C–680 °C). Due to the lack of maturity of current sCO 2 technologies and no power production scale demonstrators, cycle boundary conditions based on the solar application and a detailed literature review were chosen. - Highlights: • Mathematical modelling description for recompression sCO 2 cycle. • Split fraction and recuperators effectiveness effect into sCO 2 cycle performance. • Optimization methodology of sCO 2 cycle for an innovative solar central receiver. • Power generation using particles central receiver.

  20. Genetic plant improvement and climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of climate change for the agribusiness in Brazil have been widely debated. The issue isdiscussed in this publication to show the expected problems, particularly those associated with increases in temperature andwater stress. It is emphasized that the genetic improvement of plants, based on the experience in the past, has much tocontribute to mitigate these problems. To invest in the breeding of new cultivars, selected under stress conditions, is certainlythe best possible strategy for agriculture to cope with changes caused by climate alterations.

  1. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  2. Nuclear power plant licensing: opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    On April 20, 1977, the Commission directed that recently completed licensing actions be reviewed by the staff for the purpose of identifying ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of NRC nuclear power plant licensing activities. This report summarizes the results of a study undertaken by an internal ad hoc Study Group established in response to that directive. The Study Group limited its considerations to safety and environmental review activities. The background, scope, assumptions and objectives of the study are discussed. A prime assumption of this study was that improvements in the efficiency should not be permitted to reduce the current quality achieved in the licensing process. This consideration underlies the conclusions and recommendations of the study

  3. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Darrel [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Brown, Lewis [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Lynch, F. Leo [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Kirkland, Brenda L. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Collins, Krystal M. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Funderburk, William K. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2010-12-31

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115°C (239°F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66°C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 μm diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly

  4. Improved OMI Nitrogen Dioxide Retrievals Aided by NASA's A-Train High-Resolution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Marchenko, S. V.; Qin, W.; Yang, E. S.; Fasnacht, Z.; Haffner, D. P.; Swartz, W. H.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Joiner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Space-based global observation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is among the main objectives of the NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) mission, aimed at advancing our understanding of the sources and trends of nitrogen oxides (NOx). These applications benefit from improved retrieval techniques and enhancement in data quality. Here, we describe our recent and planned updates to the NASA OMI standard NO2 products. The products and documentation are publicly available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datasets/OMNO2_V003/summary/). The major changes include (1) improvements in spectral fitting algorithms for NO2 and cloud, (2) improved information in the vertical distribution of NO2, and (3) use of geometry-dependent surface reflectivity information derived from NASA's Aqua MODIS over land and the Cox-Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. These algorithm updates, which lead to more accurate tropospheric NO2 retrievals from OMI, are relevant for other past, contemporary, and future satellite instruments.

  5. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO 2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , higher than 1.78 × 10 −2 Ω −1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  6. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: bjia_li@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Ming [The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO{sub 2} tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, higher than 1.78 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1} for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  7. Surface Modification Reaction of Photocatalytic Titanium Dioxide with Triethoxysilane for Improving Dispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jin; Kim, Ji Ho; Park, Young Tae

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out the surface modification of photocatalytic TiO 2 with triethoxysilane through dehydrogenation reaction and characterized the modified photocatalyst by spectroscopic methods, such as FT-IR, solid-state 29 Si MAS NMR, XPS, and XRF, etc. We also examined photocatalytic activity of the immobilized photocatalytic titanium dioxide with triethoxysilane by decolorization reaction of dyes such as cong red and methylene blue under visible light. Dispersion test showed that the photocatalytic titanium dioxide immobilized with triethoxysilane group has kept higher dispersibility than titanium dioxide itself. No appreciable precipitation takes place even after standing for 24 h in the 4:6 mixture ratio of ethanol and water

  8. Total quality drives nuclear plant improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Total quality (TQ) at Carolina Power and Light (CP and L) is fulfilling a 1985 vision of Sherwood H. Smith, Jr., CP and L's chairman, president, and chief executive officer. The TQ concept has provided a way for employees to align their creative energies toward meeting the business needs of the company. Throughout CP and L, TQ has been recognized as the vehicle for reducing operating costs and improving customer satisfaction. Within the nuclear organization, application of the TQ process has helped to improve communications, resolve challenges, and provide more consistent work practices among CP and L's three nuclear plants. Total quality was introduced from the top down, with initial benefits coming from team interactions. Senior management at CP and L defined the corporate expectations and outlined the training requirements for implementing TQ. Management staffs at each organizational level became steering committees for TQ team activities within their departments. Teams of employees most knowledgeable about a given work area were empowered to solve problems or overcome obstacles related to that work area. Employees learned to become better team players and to appreciate the quality of decisions reached through group consensus. Now, formalized methods that started TQ are becoming part of the day-to-day work ethic

  9. Resilience improvements to UK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK nuclear safety regulator, undertook a series of reviews into the resilience of UK nuclear power plants to severe events. These reviews highlighted a number of areas in relation to electrical infrastructure where it considered licensees should review their arrangements, considering both onsite and offsite infrastructure as well as the ability to recover following a complete loss of site infrastructure. In response, UK licensees have been exploring four parallel approaches to improving the resilience for each of their sites. Firstly, through modifications on-site such as enhancements to the installed diesel generators and related systems. Secondly through improvements to the resilience of essential instrumentation to Station Black Out events. Thirdly, through the provision of off-site backup equipment that can be deployed to any site following a severe event. Finally, the provision of event qualified connection points on site to enable timely restoration of long term essential electrical supplies and cooling to key systems. This last item gives a central focus to the issues of switchboard availability and the resilience of the whole network to large potentially common cause internal and external hazards. This paper will discuss the electrically related findings of the ONR reviews, explore the reasoning behind those decisions, and describe the approaches being taken by UK licensees. (authors)

  10. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  11. TITANIUM DIOXIDE TRIADS FOR IMPROVED CHARGE-SEPARATION USING CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, T.M.; Gaylor, T.N.; de la Garza, L.; Rajh, T.

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially one of the best solutions to solar energy conversion because of the low cost of required materials and production processes. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticulate fi lms are the basis for one of these types of cells, providing large surface area for dye-sensitizer adsorption. Because TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms develop defects caused by oxygen defi ciency, deep reactive electron traps are formed. With the addition of an enediol ligand, these electron traps are deliberately removed, enhancing the conduction of electrons within the fi lm. In this project, TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms made by a layer-by-layer dip coating method were modifi ed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). DOPAC binds to the titanium atoms on the surface of the nanoparticles, restoring their octahedral geometry. This restructuring of the surface shifts the spectral properties of the TiO2 to the visible spectrum and improves the separation of charges which is observed using photoelectrochemistry. Furthermore, DOPAC enables the electronic attachment of other molecules to the surface of TiO2 fi lms, such as the conductive polymer polyaniline base. This conductive polymer provides an extended separation of charges which increases photocurrent production by forming a triad with the TiO2 semiconductor through the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid linker. The photocurrent increases due to the donor properties of the conductive polymer thereby decreasing charge pair recombination.

  12. Off-flavors removal and storage improvement of mackerel viscera by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Uddin, M Salim; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-07-01

    The oil in mackerel viscera was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and the fatty acids composition in the oil was identified. Also the off-flavors removal in mackerel viscera and the storage improvement of the oils were carried out. As results obtained, by increasing pressure and temperature, quantity was increased. The maximum yield of oils obtained from mackerel viscera by SCO, extraction was 118 mgg(-1) (base on dry weight of freeze-dried raw anchovy) at 50 degrees C, 350 bar And the extracted oil contained high concentration of EPA and DHA. Also it was found that the autoxidation of the oils using SCO2 extraction occurred very slowly compared to the oils by organic solvent extraction. The off-flavors in the powder after SCO2 extraction were significantly removed. Especially complete removal of the trimethylamine which influences a negative compound to the products showed. Also other significant off-flavors such as aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, ketones, acids or alcohols were removed by the extraction.

  13. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Poppendieck, D.G.; Grabanski, C.B.; Loehr, R.C. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (US). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from OG (oil gas) and CG (coal gas) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in the United States that had been closed for about 50 years were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt%. Supercritical carbon dioxide, SFE desorption and water/XAD{sub 2} desorption curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo-(ghi)perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition or 'hard' and 'soft' organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. F values for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies, using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms. 46 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Biomineralized diamond-like carbon films with incorporated titanium dioxide nanoparticles improved bioactivity properties and reduced biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F S; Oliveira, J R; Milani, J; Oliveira, L D; Machado, J P B; Trava-Airoldi, V J; Lobo, A O; Marciano, F R

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the development of coatings to protect biomedical alloys from oxidation, passivation and to reduce the ability for a bacterial biofilm to form after implantation has emerged. Diamond-like carbon films are commonly used for implanted medical due to their physical and chemical characteristics, showing good interactions with the biological environment. However, these properties can be significantly improved when titanium dioxide nanoparticles are included, especially to enhance the bactericidal properties of the films. So far, the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the film surface has been studied in order to improve biocompatibility and bioactive behavior. Herein, we developed a new route to obtain a homogeneous and crystalline apatite coating on diamond-like carbon films grown on 304 biomedical stainless steel and evaluated its antibacterial effect. For this purpose, films containing two different concentrations of titanium dioxide (0.1 and 0.3g/L) were obtained by chemical vapor deposition. To obtain the apatite layer, the samples were soaked in simulated body fluid solution for up to 21days. The antibacterial activity of the films was evaluated by bacterial eradication tests using Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and goniometry showed that homogeneous, crystalline, and hydrophilic apatite films were formed independently of the titanium dioxide concentration. Interestingly, the diamond-like films containing titanium dioxide and hydroxyapatite reduced the biofilm formation compared to controls. A synergism between hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide that provided an antimicrobial effect against opportunistic pathogens was clearly observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fly ashes from Polish power plants and combined heat and power plants and conditions of their application for carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, A.; Mokrzycki, E. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institute

    2006-09-15

    Poland has large resources of hard coal and brown coal. Therefore power industry is mostly based on these two original energy carriers. The power plants producing heat and electrical energy create combustion byproducts. These products include: fly ashes, slags, carbon dioxide and other gaseous compounds. In year 2003 fly ashes emission from hard coal combustion in Poland reached 37 000 tons and over 15 000 tons from brown coal combustion. Fly ashes are widely used in the economy. They are used in building materials industry, in road building and geotechnics. CO{sub 2} emission in Poland in 2003 originating from hard coal combustion was almost 91 million tons and from brown coal combustion-almost 58 million tons. High emissions of CO{sub 2} originating from power engineering processes of coal combustion are deleterious to the natural environment, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Presently there are carried out studies aimed at limiting CO{sub 2} emission coming from industrial processes. Fly ash properties are determined by qualitative characteristics of combusted coal, its chemical composition and combustion technology. Chemical composition of Polish fly ashes is very diversified. Fly ashes with high calcium oxide content can be used for carbon dioxide fixation. Fly ash carbonation is a complicated process however safe for natural environment. Polish fly ashes coming from power engineering, conditions of their use for the carbon dioxide utilization as well as their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are the subjects of this paper.

  16. Expert assessments of retrofitting coal-fired power plants with carbon dioxide capture technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Timothy S.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Johnson, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    A set of 13 US based experts in post-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion CO 2 capture systems responded to an extensive questionnaire asking their views on the present status and future expected performance and costs for amine-based, chilled ammonia, and oxy-combustion retrofits of coal-fired power plants. This paper presents the experts' responses for technology maturity, ideal plant characteristics for early adopters, and the extent to which R and D and deployment incentives will impact costs. It also presents the best estimates and 95% confidence limits of the energy penalties associated with amine-based systems. The results show a general consensus that amine-based systems are closer to commercial application, but potential for improving performance and lowering costs is limited; chilled ammonia and oxy-combustion offer greater potential for cost reductions, but not without greater uncertainty regarding scale and technical feasibility. - Highlights: → Study presents experts' views on CCS retrofit costs and performance. → Experts commented on amine-based systems, chilled ammonia, and oxy-fuel combustion. → Estimates of future energy penalty show uncertainty for the three technologies. → These estimates under an aggressive RD and D policy scenario narrow significantly. → The experts' judgments support the need for enhanced RD and D for post-combustion CCS.

  17. Expert assessments of retrofitting coal-fired power plants with carbon dioxide capture technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Timothy S. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., 110 Hartwell Avenue 1, Lexington, MA 02421-3134l (United States); Patino-Echeverri, Dalia, E-mail: dalia.patino@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 (United States); Johnson, Timothy L. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A set of 13 US based experts in post-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion CO{sub 2} capture systems responded to an extensive questionnaire asking their views on the present status and future expected performance and costs for amine-based, chilled ammonia, and oxy-combustion retrofits of coal-fired power plants. This paper presents the experts' responses for technology maturity, ideal plant characteristics for early adopters, and the extent to which R and D and deployment incentives will impact costs. It also presents the best estimates and 95% confidence limits of the energy penalties associated with amine-based systems. The results show a general consensus that amine-based systems are closer to commercial application, but potential for improving performance and lowering costs is limited; chilled ammonia and oxy-combustion offer greater potential for cost reductions, but not without greater uncertainty regarding scale and technical feasibility. - Highlights: > Study presents experts' views on CCS retrofit costs and performance. > Experts commented on amine-based systems, chilled ammonia, and oxy-fuel combustion. > Estimates of future energy penalty show uncertainty for the three technologies. > These estimates under an aggressive RD and D policy scenario narrow significantly. > The experts' judgments support the need for enhanced RD and D for post-combustion CCS.

  18. Information management systems improve advanced plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.S.; Serafin, S.A.; Leckley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering tools are proving invaluable in both the design and operation of nuclear power plants. ABB Combustion Engineering's Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) features a computerized Information Management System (IMS) as an integral part of the design. The System 80+IMS represents the most powerful information management tool for Nuclear Power Plants commercially available today. Developed by Duke Power Company specifically for use by nuclear power plant owner operators, the IMS consists of appropriate hardware and software to manage and control information flow for all plant related work or tasks in a systematic, consistent, coordinated and informative manner. A significant feature of this IMS is that it is primarily based on plant data. The principal design tool, PASCE (Plant Application and Systems from Combustion Engineering), is comprised of intelligent databases that describe the design and from which accurate plant drawings are created. Additionally the IMS includes, at its hub, a relational database management system and an associated document management system. The data-based approach and applications associated with the IMS were developed, and have proven highly effective, for plant modifications, configuration management, and operations and maintenance applications at Duke Power Company's operating nuclear plants. This paper presents its major features and benefits. 4 refs

  19. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  20. Novel process designs to improve the efficiency of postcombustion carbon dioxide capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.

    2013-01-01

    The term carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) refers to a range of technologies that can reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuels enabling the continued use of this fuel type without compromising the security of electricity supply. The technologies applicable to CCS differ in many key aspects; the

  1. Improvement of water resistance and dimensional stability of wood through titanium dioxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfeng Sun; Haipeng Yu; Yixing Liu; Jian Li; Yun Lu; John F. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    Moisture absorption and dimensional distortion are the major drawbacks of wood utilization as building material. In this study, poplar wood coated with a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by the cosolvent-controlled hydrothermal method. Subsequently, its moisture absorption and dimensional stability were examined. Scanning...

  2. Ion implantation to improve mechanical and electrical properties of resistive materials based on ruthenium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeli, A.V.; Shykh, S.K.; Beresina, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of ion implantation, using different chemical species, on the surface micromorphology, wear resistance, coefficient of friction and electrical resistivity, and its variation during friction for resistive materials based on ruthenium dioxide. It is demonstrated that nitrogen and hydrogen ions are the most effective for modifying surface properties. (Author)

  3. Improving retrieval of volcanic sulphur dioxide from backscattered UV satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Kai; Krotkov, N.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Carn, S.A.; Bhartia, P.K.; Levelt, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Existing algorithms that use satellite measurements of solar backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) radiances to retrieve sulfur dioxide (SO2) vertical columns underestimate the large SO2 amounts encountered in fresh volcanic eruption clouds. To eliminate this underestimation we have developed a new

  4. Balance of plant improvements for future reactor projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingshaus, H.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that improvements in portions of the plant other than the reactor systems can yield large cost savings during the design, construction, and operation of future reactor power plants. This portion is defined as the Balance of Plant which includes virtually everything except the equipment furnished by the Nuclear Steam Supply System manufacturer. It normally includes the erection of the entire plant including the NSSS. Cost of BOP equipment, engineering and construction work is therefore most of the cost of the plant. Improvements in the BOP have been identified that will substantially reduce nuclear plant cost and construction time while at the same time increasing availability and operability and improving safety. Improvements achieved through standardizatoin, simplification, three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design, modular construction, innovative construction techniques, and applications for Artificial Intelligence Systems are described. (author)

  5. Improvement on reliability of control system in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, S.; Mizumoto, T.; Hirose, Y.; Kashiwai, J.; Takami, I.; Shono, M.; Roji, Y.; Kizaki, S.

    1985-01-01

    Studies made of Japanese PWR operating experiences have revealed that failures in the control system are the primary causes of unscheduled shutdowns. An attempt has, therefore, been made to improve the reliability of the control system in order to raise the plant reliability. The following are the procedures applied to solve the issue; study of operating experiences, fault tree analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Improvement measures are developed for the control system whose failure threatens to cause the plant trip during the plant life. These systems are the main feedwater control system, rod control system, pressurizer control system and main steam control system in the primary control system. As a result, the plant unavailability is expected to be reduced significantly by applying the improvements. The improvements are applied to the plants under construction and the operating plants in co-operation with utilities and vendors. (author)

  6. Thermal diagnostics in power plant to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, H.

    1995-01-01

    The improvement of older power plants by changing poor performing components is a cost effective method to increase the capacity of the units. The necessary information for the detection of components that are to be replaced can be obtained from heat rate and component tests with accuracy instrumentation. The discussed methods and tools provided by ABB Were used with success in several power plants in Europe. These tools are in the process of permanent improvement and can be used in almost any type of power plant. Due to the reasons discussed above, there is a high potential for improvement of a lot of power plants in the next decade. (author)

  7. Improvement on main control room for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumiya, Masayuki

    1996-01-01

    The main control room which is the information center of nuclear power plant has been continuously improved utilizing the state of the art ergonomics, a high performance computer, computer graphic technologies, etc. For the latest Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant, the CRT monitoring system is applied as the major information source for facilitating operators' plant monitoring tasks. For an operating plant, enhancement of monitoring and logging functions has been made adopting a high performance computer

  8. Cost reductions on a titanium dioxide plant identified by a process integration study at Tioxide UK Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the most appropriate investment strategy which will realise the maximum energy cost savings consistent with a particular company's financial and operating criteria. The process integration method involves the rigorous application of thermodynamics and cost accounting, tempered by practical plant engineering and operability considerations. Tioxide UK Ltd is part of Tioxide Group plc and operates two UK sites for the production of titanium dioxide pigment. The site in question, Greatham works near Hartlepool, produces pigment via the chloride route. The energy costs at Greatham works can amount to pound5 - 6 million/year depending on production levels. (author).

  9. Application of Modern Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Productivity Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A. Naser

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain current high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, new requirements and commitments, unnecessary workloads and stress levels, and human errors. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by the commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the desire by many plants to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New productivity improvement capabilities with measurable economic benefits are needed so that a successful business case can be made for their use. Improved and new instrumentation and control, human-system interface, information and communications technologies used properly can address concerns about cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and enable shifts to even higher performance levels. This can be accomplished through the use of new technology implementations to improve productivity, reduce costs of systemic inefficiencies and avoid unexpected costs. Many of the same type of productivity improvements for operating plants will be applicable for new plants. As new plants are being built, it is important to include these productivity improvements or at least provide the ability to implement them easily later

  10. Improving plant availability by predicting reactor trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.; Epstein, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Management Ahnalysis Company (MAC) has developed and applied two complementary software packages called RiTSE and RAMSES. Together they provide an mini-computer workstation for maintenance and operations personnel to dramatically reduce inadvertent reactor trips. They are intended to be used by those responsible at the plant for authorizing work during operation (such as a clearance coordinator or shift foreman in U.S. plants). They discover and represent all components, processes, and their interactions that could case a trip. They predict if future activities at the plant would cause a reactor trip, provide a reactor trip warning system and aid in post-trip cause analysis. RAMSES is a general reliability engineering software package that uses concepts of artificial intelligence to provide unique capabilities on personal and mini-computers

  11. Improvements to thermal plants for generating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacault, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a procedure for superheating steam intended for steam cycled thermal plants of energy production, and particularly nuclear power plants. Said procedure combines two different working modes. According to the first working mode, the live steam is taken from the steam generator, mechanically compressed and the heat is partly transferred to the working fluid. According to the second working mode the heat is taken from an auxiliary fluid heated by an independent thermal source, distinct from the principal thermal source of the plant and this heat is partly transferred to the working fluid. A combination of both working modes enables the superheating of the working fluid to be obtained before it inflows the turbine and/or between two stages of said turbine [fr

  12. Fuel additive improves plant`s air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratch, K.

    1995-07-01

    Employees of a major pulp and paper manufacturer complained to the Michigan Department of Public Health that emissions from liquefied petroleum gas-powered fork-lifts used in one of the facility`s warehouses were making them ill. The new and tight building was locking in carbon monoxide emissions, according to the plant`s vehicle maintenance supervisor. Although LPG is a clean-burning fuel, it absorbs impurities from pipelines, resulting in emissions problems. After the company introduced a fuel additive to the LPG, employees` symptoms disappeared. According to the maintenance supervisor, there have been no complaints since the additive was introduced five years ago. A major US auto manufacturer also found the additive helpful in reducing carbon monoxide emissions from forklift trucks in a large parts warehouse to levels within OSHA limits. The carmaker conducted a test of 10 forklifts at its Toledo, Ohio, plant to determine the additive`s effectiveness. Trucks were equipped with new or rebuilt vaporizers, and their carburetors were adjusted for the lowest carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions levels prior to the test. According to Advanced Technology, five trucks were filled with LPG and treated with CGX-4, and five used fuel from the same stock but without the additive. All were operated 16 hours a day, six days a week without further tuning or adjusting. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were measured at 30-, 45- and 65-day intervals. Test results show that all of the trucks using the additive maintained low levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions longer than trucks not using the additive.

  13. Iron Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Effects on Plant Performance and Root Associated Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Burke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of positively and negatively charged Fe3O4 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs on the growth of soybean plants (Glycine max. and their root associated soil microbes. Soybean plants were grown in a greenhouse for six weeks after application of different amounts of NPs, and plant growth and nutrient content were examined. Roots were analyzed for colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria using DNA-based techniques. We found that plant growth was significantly lower with the application of TiO2 as compared to Fe3O4 NPs. The leaf carbon was also marginally significant lower in plants treated with TiO2 NPs; however, leaf phosphorus was reduced in plants treated with Fe3O4. We found no effects of NP type, concentration, or charge on the community structure of either rhizobia or AM fungi colonizing plant roots. However, the charge of the Fe3O4 NPs affected both colonization of the root system by rhizobia as well as leaf phosphorus content. Our results indicate that the type of NP can affect plant growth and nutrient content in an agriculturally important crop species, and that the charge of these particles influences the colonization of the root system by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

  14. Improvements in or relating to chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, A.L.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    In a plant in which irradiated nuclear fuels are reprocessed or in which plutonium-containing fuels are fabricated, the atmosphere is circulated by the driving force obtained from the condensation of at least part of the atmosphere in a heat exchanger and the evaporation of condensate from another heat exchanger. (U.K.)

  15. Process development and exergy cost sensitivity analysis of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat; Moftakhari Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-10-01

    An integrated power plant with a net electrical power output of 3.71 × 105 kW is developed and investigated. The electrical efficiency of the process is found to be 60.1%. The process includes three main sub-systems: molten carbonate fuel cell system, heat recovery section and cryogenic carbon dioxide capturing process. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic methods are used for analyzing the process. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is a comprehensive evaluation tool which combines an exergetic approach with economic analysis procedures. With this method, investment and exergy destruction costs of the process components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts. Results of the conventional exergoeconomic analyses demonstrate that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate (182 MW) and cost rate (13,100 /h). Also, the total process cost rate can be decreased by reducing the cost rate of the fuel cell and improving the efficiency of the combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator. Based on the total avoidable endogenous cost rate, the priority for modification is the heat recovery steam generator, a compressor and a turbine of the power plant, in rank order. A sensitivity analysis is done to investigate the exergoeconomic factor parameters through changing the effective parameter variations.

  16. Improving operator quality at Genkai Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Takeshi.

    1989-01-01

    Improvement in operator quality, or improvement in an operator's skill and professional knowledge, is of prime importance because of its great influence on safe and steady plant operation. This paper describes the education and training of reactor operators at the Genkai pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant with respect to the following topics: organization of Genkai power plant; education and training program management; training at the Nuclear Training Center; training and education on-site including emergency procedures training, normal operating procedures training, informational study of emergency conditions in existing plants, and all-around training of operators; qualifying tests for supervisors; and operator motivation

  17. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig

  18. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig.

  19. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    the 2-bed configuration with recirculation in both beds was 65-70% with a high flue gas CO₂ loading (~7%) and up to 85% with a low flue gas CO₂ loading (~4%). A sorbent regenerator system consisting of a pre-heater, desorber, and cooler is used to heat the CO₂-rich sorbent with direct and indirect steam producing a nearly 100% pure stream of CO₂. Parametric testing of the regenerator system demonstrated the impact of process conditions on both desorption rate and the heat of regeneration. Clear evidence of the use of specific process conditions that lower the overall energy of desorption was identified. This observation validates measurements made at the laboratory-scale. Several longer-term continuous tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the sorbent/process as a function of time. Using a 2-bed configuration, sustained capture efficiency of 40-60% with a high flue gas CO₂ loading (~8%) and 70-80% with a low flue gas CO₂ loading (~4%) were achieved. However, sorbent working capacity was found to be considerably lower than laboratory-scale measurements. The low working capacity is attributed to insufficient sorbent/gas contact time in the adsorber. Sorbent properties that had a significant impact on CO₂ capture performance were identified. The results show that controlling these sorbent properties substantially improves CO₂ capture performance, with preliminary estimates indicating that relative improvement of ~30% is possible. Testing culminated with an operationally trouble-free test of 15 hours with sustainable performance. Overall, several practical strategies to increase performance of the sorbent and process were identified. The initial technical and economic assessment of the CACHYS™ process estimated the cost of CO2 capture was $36.19/ton with a 48.6% increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the 550 MWe net plant. Using additional data gathered over the course of the project, and with revised technical and economic

  20. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Poppendieck, Dustin G; Grabanski, Carol B; Loehr, Raymond C

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from oil gas (OG) and coal gas (CG) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations (150-40,000 mg/kg) and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt %. SFE desorption (120 min) and water/XAD2 desorption (120 days) curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples, from ca. 10% to >90% for the two- and three-ring PAHs and from <1% to ca. 50% for the five- and six-ring PAHs. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition (C, H, N, S), or "hard" and "softs" organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. Fvalues for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well (linear correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.87, slope = 0.93), but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms.

  1. Refrigeration plants using carbon dioxide as refrigerant: measuring and modelling the solubility and diffusion of carbon dioxide in polymers used as sealing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Kristensen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Because of increased environmental pressure, there is currently a movement away from more traditional refrigerants such as HCFC's toward refrigerants with lower global warming potential such as carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the use of CO2 as a refrigerant requires a refrigeration cycle...

  2. Improved repowering techniques for power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbak, Niels; Andersen, Simon E.; Petersen, Stiig Bo

    1998-01-01

    Repowering of existing coal-fired power plants is often accomplished by adding gas turbines. In this paper we assume that the gas turbine exhaust is used for feed water preheating.Typical gas turbine exhaust temperatures are in the range 450-600C whereas typical boiler inlet temperatures are 250......-300C. The big difference in temperature between exhaust and water prevents an efficient exchange of heat. One way to lower the exhaust temperature is to expand the gas to sub atmospheric pressure. The result is a 50% increase in possible installed gas turbine power....

  3. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  4. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  5. Improved design on Qinshan 300 MWe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Peihua; Cheng Wanli; Lu Rongliang

    1993-01-01

    The main aim, guiding ideology, general performance and parameters of improved design on Qinshan 300 MWe nuclear power plant are presented. Improved items are also introduced including the characteristic of layout in nuclear island building, decreasing unnecessary devices increasing necessary safety facilities and unifying code and standard. The progress of improved design is presented

  6. Improved design on Qinshan 300 MWe nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peihua, Shi; Wanli, Cheng; Rongliang, Lu [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst. (China)

    1993-06-01

    The main aim, guiding ideology, general performance and parameters of improved design on Qinshan 300 MWe nuclear power plant are presented. Improved items are also introduced including the characteristic of layout in nuclear island building, decreasing unnecessary devices increasing necessary safety facilities and unifying code and standard. The progress of improved design is presented.

  7. The application of an isotopic ratio technique to a study of the atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the plume from a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.; Forrest, J.; Manowitz, B.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in the plume of a coal fired plant has been studied by using sampling with a single engine aircraft. A technique employing isotopic ratio measurements was utilized in conjunction with simultaneous concentration measurements of sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The use of sulfur hexafluroide as a conservative tracer was explored. The heterogeneous mechanism postulated in an oil fired plume study appears to pertain to the coal fired plume. However, the extent of oxidation seldom exceeded 5% and is limited by the relatively low particulate content of the coal fired plume. Evidence is presented for the apparent dropping out of sulfate from the plume. Implications pertaining to the ambient oxidation of sulfur dioxide are presented. (author)

  8. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world's most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America

  9. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world`s most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America Figs, tabs

  10. Photosynthesis of crop plants as influenced by light, carbon dioxide, temperature, and stomatal diffusion resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, P.

    1959-01-01

    The effect was estimated of light intensity, leaf temperature, and C0 2 concentration on photosynthetic rate in leaves of crop plants. The potential capacities of photochemical and biochemical processes and of C0 2 transport were compared.

    Resistance to C0 2

  11. Competitive interactions between native and invasive exotic plant species are altered under elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2011-03-01

    We hypothesized that the greater competitive ability of invasive exotic plants relative to native plants would increase under elevated CO(2) because they typically have traits that confer the ability for fast growth when resources are not limiting and thus are likely to be more responsive to elevated CO(2). A series of competition experiments under ambient and elevated CO(2) glasshouse conditions were conducted to determine an index of relative competition intensity for 14 native-invasive exotic species-pairs. Traits including specific leaf area, leaf mass ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and root weight ratio were measured. Competitive rankings within species-pairs were not affected by CO(2) concentration: invasive exotic species were more competitive in 9 of the 14 species-pairs and native species were more competitive in the remaining 5 species-pairs, regardless of CO(2) concentration. However, there was a significant interaction between plant type and CO(2) treatment due to reduced competitive response of native species under elevated compared with ambient CO(2) conditions. Native species had significantly lower specific leaf area and leaf area ratio under elevated compared with ambient CO(2). We also compared traits of more-competitive with less-competitive species, regardless of plant type, under both CO(2) treatments. More-competitive species had smaller leaf weight ratio and leaf area ratio, and larger relative growth rate and net assimilation rate under both ambient and elevated CO(2) conditions. These results suggest that growth and allocation traits can be useful predictors of the outcome of competitive interactions under both ambient and elevated CO(2) conditions. Under predicted future atmospheric CO(2) conditions, competitive rankings among species may not change substantially, but the relative success of invasive exotic species may be increased. Thus, under future atmospheric CO(2) conditions, the ecological and

  12. Northern peatland carbon biogeochemistry. The influence of vascular plants and edaphic factors on carbon dioxide and methane exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    2001-01-01

    The findings reported in this thesis and in the accompanying papers are based on both laboratory and field investigations of carbon transformation dynamics on the process scale and at the resolution of individual peatland plant communities. The data from one of the studies also is extrapolated in an attempt to identify environmental controls on regional scales in order to predict the response of northern peatlands to climate warming. The laboratory experiments focus on how climate variations, inducing fluctuations in groundwater level and also soil freeze-thaw cycles, influences organic matter mineralisation to carbon dioxide and methane. The field studies investigate year-to-year variations and interdecadal differences in carbon gas exchange at a subarctic peatland, and also how the physiological activities of vascular plants control methane emission rates. The main conclusions presented include: Soil freeze-thaw events may be very important for the annual carbon balance in northern peatlands, because they have the potential to increase mineralisation rates and alter biogeochemical degradation pathways. Vascular plants exert a strong influence on methane flux dynamics during the growing season, both by mediating methane transport and through substrate-based interactions with the soil microbial community. However, there are important species-related factors that govern the nature and extent of this influence. Caution has to be taken when extrapolating field data to estimate regional carbon exchange because the relevance of the specific environmental parameters that control this exchange varies depending on resolution. On broad spatial and temporal scales the best predictor of peatland methane emissions is mean soil temperature, but also microbial substrate availability (expressed as the organic acid concentration in peat water) is of importance. This temperature sensitivity represents a strong potential feedback mechanism on climate change

  13. Plant breeding: Induced mutation technology for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, F.J.; Brunner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Plant breeding requires genetic variation of useful traits for crop improvement, but the desired variation is often lacking. Mutagenic agents, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can be used to induce mutations and generate genetic variations from which desirable mutants may be selected. After a brief summary of the methods currently employed in plant breeding, especially those inducing genetic engineering, this article describes the activities of the Plant Breeding Unit of the IAEA Laboratories at Seibersdorf, summarizing the research and development areas currently being pursued. The banana plant is chosen to exemplify the Laboratories' research

  14. Developing methods for establishing improved plant reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Lapides, M.E.; Johnson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The current average capacity factor for nuclear electric generating facilities is approximately 60 percent, virtually the same as that for large, modern fossil-fired units. There is a clear cost advantage for nuclear electrical generation in comparison to coal-fired units at a common performance level. Because of the accelerated increase in capital and fuel costs of coal-fired units, the nuclear units will usually exhibit a cost advantage even when operating at lower capacity factor values. The incentives for improvement follow from the utility objectives to provide electricity at the most economical rates possible and are reflected in reduced system fuel costs and capital requirements. These objectives require maximizing the productivity of existing or planned investments in nuclear generation. The requirements are to: (1) achieve and sustain the highest capacity factor consistent with each utility's electric transmission system configuration and demand; (2) accelerate the rate of attainment of operational ''maturity'' of new generation; and (3) avoid low-probability but large-consequence forced-outage events. Nuclear unit productivity improvement involves utilities, regulatory agencies and industrial and government research and development organizations; the efforts appropriate to each organization were identified in a previous study. Since no foreseeable set of warranties begins to cover the consequential costs of low performance, the greatest incentive for improvement rests with each individual utility. The paper addresses the methodology and information sources for productivity actions by utilities during unit procurement and design phases

  15. Safety improvement of Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamos, G.

    1999-01-01

    Safety upgrading completed in the early nineties at the Paks NPP include: replacement of steam generator safety valves and control valves; reliability improvement of the electrical supply system; modification of protection logic; enhancement of the fire protection; construction of full scope Training Simulator. Design safety upgrading measures achieved in recent years were concerned with: relocation of steam generator emergency feed-water supply; emergency gas removal from the primary coolant system; hydrogen management in the containment; protection against sumps; preventing of emergency core cooling system tanks from refilling. Increasing seismic resistance, containment assessment, refurbishment of reactor protection system, improving reliability of emergency electrical supply, analysis of internal hazards are now being implemented. Safety upgrading measures which are being prepared include: bleed and feed procedures; reactor over-pressurisation protection in cold state; treatment of steam generator primary to secondary leak accidents. Operational safety improvements are dealing with safety culture, training measures and facilities; symptom based emergency operating procedures; in-service inspection; fire protection. The significance of international cooperation is emphasised in view of achieving nuclear safety standards recognised in EU

  16. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  17. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  18. System 80+ Design and Licensing : Improving Plant Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    The U. S. nuclear industry is striving to improve plant reliability and availability through improved plant design, component designs and plant maintenance. In an effort to improve safety and to demonstrate that commercial nuclear power is economically competitive with other energy sources, the utilities, nuclear vendors, architect engineers and constructors, and component suppliers are all participating in an industry-wide effort to develop improved Light Water Reactor (LWR) designs that are based upon the many years of successful LWR operation. In an age when the world faces the environmental pressures of the greenhouse effect and acid rain, electricity generated from nuclear energy must play an increasing role in the energy picture of Korea, the United States and the rest of the world. This paper discusses the plant availability requirement that has been established by the industry-wide effort mentioned above. After briefly describing Combustion Engineering's program for development of the System 80 Plus standard design and the participation of the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in the program, the paper then describes the design features that are being incorporated into System 80+. The industry ALRR Program has established a very ambitious criterion of 87% for the plant availability of future nuclear units. To satisfy such a requirement, the next generation of nuclear plants will include a great many design improvements that reflect the hundreds of years of operating experience that we have accrued. C-ESA's System 80+ will include a number of design changes that improve operating margins and make the plant easier to operate and maintain. Not surprisingly, there is a great deal of overlap between improved safety and improved reliability. In the end, our design will satisfy the future needs of the utilities, the regulators, and the public. C-E is very pleased that KAERI is working with US to achieve these important goals

  19. Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    A direct ethanol fuel cell has been operated under sinusoidal (AC) potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At 80 °C, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 25% have been achieved with a PtRu anode catalyst, while the maximum CO2 production at constant potential was 13%. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells, where the benefits of potential cycling are projected to increase as catalysts that produce CO2 more efficiently are implemented.

  20. Biochar Improves Performance of Plants for Mine Soil Revegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar (the solid by-product of pyrolysis of biomass), has the potential to improve plant performance for revegetation of mine soils by improving soil chemistry, fertility, moisture holding capacity and by binding heavy metals. We investigated the effect of gasified conifer sof...

  1. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  2. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  3. Opportunities for practical improvements in the management of plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to provide some perspectives on the steps involved in analyzing, evaluating, and implementing remedies for transients and for potentially severe events. The importance of improved response and control of plant transients is stressed. The main steps involved in the attainment of improved control of plant transients are listed. Topics considered include the acquisition of plant data, sensitivity and risk analysis, the options for improvements, the managerial role, and some priorities for data, analysis, and evaluation. The ten most frequent types of transients for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) are listed according to frequency of occurrence. It is concluded that the two main needs of transient management are to avoid preoccupation with end-of-spectrum accidents and to improve the rate of technology transfer from best-available analysis and implementation

  4. Starch accumulation during hydroponic growth of spinach and basil plants under carbon dioxide enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, G P; Hansen, J; Wallick, K; Zinnen, T M [North Illinois University, de Kalb, IL (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1993-04-01

    The effects of CO[sub 2] enrichment, photoperiod duration, and inorganic phosphate levels on growth and starch accumulaton by spinach and basil plants were studied in a commercial hydroponic facility. During a 3-week growth period, both species exhibited increased whole-plant fresh weight as a result of an increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration from 400 to 1500 mul/1. However, basil leaves exhibited a 1.5- to 2-fold greater increase in specific leaf weight (SLW), and accumulated starch to much greater levels than did leaves of spinach. At 1500 mul CO[sub 2]/1, starch accounted for up to 38% of SLW with basil compared to [lt] 10% of SLW with spinach. The maximum ratio of starch/chlorophyll was 55.0 in basil leaves vs 8.0 in spinach leaves. High ratio values were associated with the appearance of chlorotic symptoms in leaves of basil grown under CO[sub 2] enrichment, whereas spinach did not exhibit chlorosis. Increasing inorganic phosphate concentrations from 0.7 to 1.8 mM in the hydroponic medium did not appreciably affect leaf starch accumulation in either species. Starch accumulation in basil leaves was not consistently related to the duration of the photoperiod. However, photoperiod-induced changes in leaf starch levels were much greater in basil than spinach. The results clearly indicate that different horticultural crops can show diverse responses to CO[sub 2] enrichment, and thus highlight the need to develop individual growth strategies to optimize production quality of each species.

  5. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  6. Plants for Sustainable Improvement of Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Fares, Silvano; Ghirardo, Andrea; de Visser, Pieter; Calatayud, Vicent; Muñoz, Amalia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sebastiani, Federico; Alivernini, Alessandro; Varriale, Vincenzo; Menghini, Flavio

    2018-04-10

    Indoor pollution poses a serious threat to human health. Plants represent a sustainable but underexploited solution to enhance indoor air quality. However, the current selection of plants suitable for indoors fails to consider the physiological processes and mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. Therefore, the capacity of plants to remove indoor air pollutants through stomatal uptake (absorption) and non-stomatal deposition (adsorption) remains largely unknown. Moreover, the effects of the indoor plant-associated microbiome still need to be fully analyzed. Here, we discuss how a combination of the enhanced phytoremediation capacity of plants together with cutting-edge air-cleaning and smart sensor technologies can improve indoor life while reducing energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of shearing machine in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takae, Akiyoshi; Otani, Yoshikuni

    1994-01-01

    The shearing machine in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been improved and refurbished through its operational experience for about 20 years. Every component except the shear housing and magazine is changed for improved things by PNC, while the shearing machine had been designed and fabricated originally by a French Company. The improvement of the shearing machine was carried out for the purpose of settling the problems which were experienced in the past operation, and improving durability, remote maintainability, and operability. The details of their improvement work are described. (author)

  8. Improving carbon dioxide yields and cell efficiencies for ethanol oxidation by potential scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    An ethanol electrolysis cell with aqueous ethanol supplied to the anode and nitrogen at the cathode has been operated under potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At ambient temperature, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 26% have been achieved, while only transient CO2 production was observed at constant potential. Yields increased substantially at higher temperatures, with maximum values at Pt anodes reaching 45% at constant potential and 65% under potential cycling conditions. Use of a PtRu anode increased the cell efficiency by decreasing the anode potential, but this was offset by decreased CO2 yields. Nonetheless, cycling increased the efficiency relative to constant potential. The maximum yields at PtRu and 80 °C were 13% at constant potential and 32% under potential cycling. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO, which occurs at lower potentials on PtRu than on Pt. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells and for the electrolysis of ethanol to produce clean hydrogen.

  9. Effect of hypotension and carbon dioxide changes in an improved genuine closed cranial window rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Dyrby, Lone; Williamson, D

    2005-01-01

    The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) are perf......The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA......) are performed. The aim of this study was, in addition, to measure pial artery/arteriole (PA) diameter and cortical cerebral blood flux in the same cranial window. The model was evaluated by studying the effects of hypotension and changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2), because these parameters......-induced hypotension (-64+/-0.8 mmHg) caused an increase of MMA diameter of 11.8+/-8.4%, PA diameter of 61.2+/-7.7% and a decrease in LCBF(Flux) of -36.4+/-2.5%. The decrease in blood pressure did not significantly change the MMA (P=0.38); however, the PA diameter and the LCBF(Flux) were affected (P

  10. Improving Storability of Strawberries with Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide in Perforated Clamshell Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiabrando Valentina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A chlorine dioxide generating pad has been used as postharvest treatment to maintain the quality and safety of strawberries in two different storage conditions. During the short storage time (3 days at 4°C + 2 days at 20°C fruit treated with ClO2 maintained better quality parameters, as color, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity and lower values of weight loss. During the long storage time (12 days at 2°C, the parameters related to postharvest quality were generally preserved and the effect of ClO2 was positive to reduce the total yeast and mold, except the last period of the experiment when the ClO2 gas-generating pad was probably exhausted. The sensory evaluation revealed that the sanitization with ClO2 maintained a global positive acceptance in particular during the short storage time. The results suggest that this treatment may be suitable to maintain the quality during short storage and long storage until 8 days and it may be an important alternative sanitizer thanks to the positive action against the yeast and mold without modifying the quality of the strawberries.

  11. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition Improves the Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Balazs; Kiss, Istvan; Jencsik, Timea; Peter, Ivan; Kreska, Zita; Koszegi, Tamas; Miseta, Attila; Kustan, Peter; Boncz, Imre; Laczo, Andrea; Ajtay, Zeno

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) therapy on the nitric oxide (NO) pathway by monitoring plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations. Forty-seven hypertensive patients who underwent transcutaneous CO 2 therapy were enrolled. Thirty healthy individuals were recruited for the control group. Blood samples were taken one hour before, as well as one hour, 24 hours and 3 weeks after the first CO 2 treatment. Controls did not undergo CO 2 treatment. Plasma ADMA levels were measured by ELISA. ADMA levels decreased significantly one hour after the first CO2 treatment compared to the baseline concentrations (p=0.003). Significantly greater reduction was found among patients in whom angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were administered (p=0.019). The short- and long-term decrease of ADMA levels suggests that CO 2 is not only a vasodilator, but also has a beneficial effect on the NO pathway. ACE inhibition seems to enhance the effect of CO 2 treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical conversion of sulphur dioxide in a power plant plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, E.E.

    1978-03-01

    A review is given of the actual knowledge of SO 2 atmospheric processes gained from laboratory and field experiments. Implementation is described of the instrumentation, operational procedures and analytical methods in connection with a field study of the conversion and dispersion of SO 2 in an oil-fired power plant plume. Furthermore, the preliminary results are included of five experiments performed until the end of 1976. Measurements were performed from an aircraft and included continuous registration of NOsub(x), SO 2 , SF 6 , and particle concentrations, as well as temperature and humidity. It was planned to label sulphur from the source in question with sulphur-35. However, this part of the experiment had to be abandoned because of public opinion on the use of radioactive tracers. Sulphur hexafluoride was used as an internal tracer for the plume. A half-life for SO 2 of about 30 min was determined from one of the experiments. In this connection the possibility of using NOsub(x) as a conservative tracer is shown. Possible ways of removal are discussed and the rate of two of the processes is calculated by means of a model describing the chemical conversion in a dispersing plume. (author)

  13. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations

  14. Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Peter Shyr-Jye

    1997-09-01

    The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on coal-fired power plants for electricity, faces increasingly serious environmental challenges. This research project seeks to develop viable methodologies for reducing the potential global warming effects and serious air pollution arising from excessive coal burning. China serves as a case study for this research project. Major resolution strategies are developed through intensive literature reviews to identify sustainable technologies that can minimize adverse environmental impacts while meeting China's economic needs. The research thereby contributes technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. The research also integrates modern power generation technologies with China's current and future energy requirements. With these objectives in mind, this project examines how China's environmental issues are related to China's power generation methods. This study then makes strategic recommendations that emphasize low-carbon technologies as sustainable energy generating options to be implemented in China. These low-carbon technologies consist of three options: (1) using cleaner fuels converted from China's plentiful domestic coal resources; (2) applying high-efficiency gas turbine systems for power generation; and (3) integrating coal gasification processes with energy saving combined cycle gas turbine systems. Each method can perform independently, but a combined strategy can achieve the greatest COsb2 reductions. To minimize economic impacts caused by technological changes, this study also addresses additional alternatives that can be implemented in

  15. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  16. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W.; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E.

    2004-01-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  17. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E

    2004-06-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  18. Decellularized heart ECM hydrogel using supercritical carbon dioxide for improved angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoojin; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties. To overcome these limitations, in this study, we developed a supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol co-solvent (scCO 2 -EtOH) decellularization method, which is a detergent-free system that prevents ECM structure disruption and retains various angiogenic proteins in the heart dECM, and tested on rat heart tissues. The heart tissue was placed into the scCO 2 reactor and decellularized at 37 °C and 350 bar. After scCO 2 -EtOH treatment, the effects were evaluated by DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification and hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining to determine the absence of nucleic acids and preservation of heart ECM components. Similar to the native group, the scCO 2 -EtOH group contained more ECM components such as collagen, GAGs, collagen I, laminin, and fibronectin and angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor and others in comparison to the detergent group. In addition, to estimate angiogenesis of the dECM hydrogels, the neutralized dECM solution was injected in a rat subcutaneous layer (n = 6 in each group: collagen, scCO 2 -EOH, and detergent group), after which the solution naturally formed gelation in the subcutaneous layer. After 3 days, the gels were harvested and estimated by immunofluorescence staining and the ImageJ program for

  19. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser and its Combination with Subcision in Improving Atrophic Acne Scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Faghihi, Gita; Jaffary, Fariba; Haftbaradaran, Elaheh; Hoseini, Sayed Mohsen; Mazaheri, Nafiseh

    2017-01-01

    Acne is a very common skin disease in which scars are seen in 95% of the patients. Although numerous treatments have been recommended, researchers are still searching for a single modality to treat the complication due to its variety in shape and depth. We compared the effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser alone and in combination with subcision in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. This clinical trial study was performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Isfahan, Iran) during 2011-2012. Eligible patients with atrophic acne scars were treated with fractional CO 2 laser alone (five sessions with 3-week interval) on the right side of the face and fractional CO 2 laser plus subcision (one session using both with four sessions of fractional CO 2 laser, with 3-week interval) on the left side. The subjects were visited 1, 2, and 6 months after the treatment. Patient satisfaction rate was analyzed using SPSS 20 software. The average of recovery rate was 54.7% using the combination method and 43.0% using laser alone ( P < 0.001). The mean patient satisfaction was significantly higher with the combination method than laser alone (6.6 ± 1.2 vs. 5.2 ± 1.8; P < 0.001). Bruising was only seen with the combination method and lasted for 1 week in 57.0% and for 2 weeks in 43.0%. Erythema was seen in both methods. Postinflammatory pigmentation and hyperpigmentation were associated with combination method. No persistent side effects were seen after 6 months. Using a combination of subcision and laser had suitable results regarding scar recovery and satisfaction rate.

  20. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sintered uranium dioxide pellets composed of particles of size > 50 microns suitable for power reactor use are made by incorporating a small amount of sulphur into the uranium dioxide before sintering. The increase in grain size achieved results in an improvement in overall efficiency when such pellets are used in a power reactor. (author)

  1. Development of the ANL plant dynamics code and control strategies for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle and code validation with data from the Sandia small-scale supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle test loop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-11-07

    Significant progress has been made in the ongoing development of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code (PDC), the ongoing investigation and development of control strategies, and the analysis of system transient behavior for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles. Several code modifications have been introduced during FY2011 to extend the range of applicability of the PDC and to improve its calculational stability and speed. A new and innovative approach was developed to couple the Plant Dynamics Code for S-CO{sub 2} cycle calculations with SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor Code System calculations for the transient system level behavior on the reactor side of a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) or Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The new code system allows use of the full capabilities of both codes such that whole-plant transients can now be simulated without additional user interaction. Several other code modifications, including the introduction of compressor surge control, a new approach for determining the solution time step for efficient computational speed, an updated treatment of S-CO{sub 2} cycle flow mergers and splits, a modified enthalpy equation to improve the treatment of negative flow, and a revised solution of the reactor heat exchanger (RHX) equations coupling the S-CO{sub 2} cycle to the reactor, were introduced to the PDC in FY2011. All of these modifications have improved the code computational stability and computational speed, while not significantly affecting the results of transient calculations. The improved PDC was used to continue the investigation of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and transient behavior. The coupled PDC-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code capability was used to study the dynamic characteristics of a S-CO{sub 2} cycle coupled to a SFR plant. Cycle control was investigated in terms of the ability of the cycle to respond to a linear reduction in the electrical grid demand from 100% to 0% at a rate of 5

  2. Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lingbo; Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Liu, Huanbin; Li, Jigeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We audited a paper mill in China to reduce its energy use and CO 2 emissions. ► The energy use and CO 2 emissions of the mill and each paper machine are presented. ► The energy saving potential for the paper machine is estimated at 8–37%. ► The energy saving potential is 967.8 TJ, equal to 14.4% of the mill’s energy use. ► The CO 2 reduction potential is 93,453 tonnes CO 2 for the studied paper mill. -- Abstract: The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In 2007, it accounted for 5% of total global industrial energy consumption and 2% of direct industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. An energy audit is a primary step toward improving energy efficiency at the facility level. This paper describes a plant-wide energy audit aimed at identifying energy conservation and CO 2 mitigation opportunities at a paper mill in Guangdong province, China. We describe the energy audit methods, relevant Chinese standards, methods of calculating energy and carbon indicators, baseline energy consumption and CO 2 emissions of the audited paper mill, and nine energy-efficiency improvement opportunities identified by the audit. For each of the nine options, we evaluate the energy conservation and associated CO 2 mitigation potential. The total technical energy conservation potential for these nine opportunities is 967.8 terajoules (TJ), and the total CO 2 mitigation potential is equal to 93,453 tonnes CO 2 annually, representing 14.4% and 14.7%, respectively, of the mill’s total energy consumption and CO 2 emissions during the audit period.

  3. Cost benefit justification of nuclear plant reliability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.A.H.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the secondary steam loop of the nuclear power plant has a significant effect on the reliability of the plant. Moreover, the necessity to cool a reactor safely has increased the reliability demanded from the system. The rapidly rising construction costs and fuel prices in recent years have stimulated a great deal in optimizing the productivity of a nuclear power plant through reliability improvement of the secondary steamloop and the reactor cooling system. A method for evaluating the reliability of steam loop and cooling system of a nuclear power plant is presented. The method utilizes the cut-set technique. The developed method can be easily used to show to what extent the overall reliability of the nuclear plant is affected by the possible failures in the steam and cooling subsystem. A model for calculating the increase in the nuclear plant productivity resulting from a proposed improvement in the two subsystems reliability is discussed. The model takes into account the capital cost of spare parts for several components, replacement energy, operating and maintenance costs

  4. Use of nondestructive evaluation methods to improve power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    On an ever-increasing basis, utilities are relying on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) as a management and planning tool. In addition to the conventional ASME Code and Technical Specification-required examinations, progressive utilities are utilizing NDE sampling programs to monitor existing conditions and search for potential situations affecting plant safety and reliability. Improved NDE detection and sizing procedures give management personnel the accurate information needed to make the ''go/no go'' decisions on repair programs which can significantly affect plant availability. As the burden of regulatory-imposed inspection requirements increases, plant personnel are increasingly cognizant that NDE is a significant factor in their plant's outage schedule. Whether an outage is scheduled or forced, NDE becomes part of each plant's program to assure the safety and reliability of its critical components. Knowledge and planning of NDE application is important because of the time expended in examination performance and subsequent data evaluation. Managers who are knowledgeable in NDE application can effectively improve plant availability by scheduling NDE as an integral part of their maintenance programs. Examination results can then be used in making decisions directly affecting availability

  5. Improvement of nuclear power plant management applying the lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Active managment participation is a common thread among nuclear power plants with superior performance. Plants that benefit from the hands-on attention of senior managers are typically more reliable and can be expected to have higher margins of safety. There are numerous ways in which utilities are promoting management involvement in the day-to-day operations of their nuclear plants. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations' (INPO) Plant Performance Indicator Program provides utilities with data in key performance areas, allowing management to monitor performance and concentrate on areas needing attention. Utilities are also setting ambitious short and long-term goals in several performance areas. This increased management attention to nuclear plant operations is reflected in improved nuclear plant performance across the coutry. For instance, over the past five years, the number of significant events per unit has declined, unplanned automatic scrams have been reduced, equivalent availability is about the same (however, many units and the industry median has improved) and collentive radiation exposure and volume of low-level waste shipped per unit are both showing a decreasing trend. (author)

  6. Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production as a mechanism for carbon loss from plant litter in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, L. A.; Bohnet, C.; King, J. Y.

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the potential for abiotic mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) via photodegradation to account for carbon (C) loss from plant litter under conditions typical of arid ecosystems. We exposed five species of grass and oak litter collected from arid and mesic sites to a factorial design of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UV pass, UV block), and sterilization under dry conditions in the laboratory. UV pass treatments produced 10 times the amount of CO2 produced in UV block treatments. CO2 production rates were unaffected by litter chemistry or sterilization. We also exposed litter to natural solar radiation outdoors on clear, sunny days close to the summer solstice at midlatitudes and found that UV radiation (280-400 nm) accounted for 55% of photochemically induced CO2 production, while shortwave visible radiation (400-500 nm) accounted for 45% of CO2 production. Rates of photochemically induced CO2 production on a per-unit-mass basis decreased with litter density, indicating that rates depend on litter surface area. We found no evidence for leaching, methane production, or facilitation of microbial decomposition as alternative mechanisms for significant photochemically induced C loss from litter. We conclude that abiotic mineralization to CO2 is the primary mechanism by which C is lost from litter during photodegradation. We estimate that CO2 production via photodegradation could be between 1 and 4 g C m-2 a-1 in arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Taken together with low levels of litter production in arid systems, photochemical mineralization to CO2 could account for a significant proportion of annual carbon loss from litter in arid ecosystems.

  7. Availability improvement factors at Taipower's nuclear power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Sufficient electricity to meet the needs of a growing industrial economy, is one of the most important factors in the total economic development of a nation. Currently, nuclear power is considered one of the most economical and available sources of energy. To keep pace with Taiwan's rapid economic development, while also observing our government's policy of diversifying the requirements for imported forms of energy, Taiwan Power Company has embarked upon an ambitious of nuclear power plant construction. This paper discusses the improvement of Taiwan's nuclear power plants. At the present time, Taipower has completed three nuclear power plants. Two of these are located in northern Taiwan, along the East China Sea, while the third is on the southern tip of Taiwan, bordering the South China Sea. These three plants, each with two nuclear generating units, comprise a total nuclear generating capacity of 5144 MWe

  8. Improving plant bioaccumulation science through consistent reporting of experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Arnot, Jon A.; Doucette, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data and models for plant bioaccumulation of organic contaminants play a crucial role for assessing the potential human and ecological risks associated with chemical use. Plants are receptor organisms and direct or indirect vectors for chemical exposures to all other organisms. As new...... experimental data are generated they are used to improve our understanding of plant-chemical interactions that in turn allows for the development of better scientific knowledge and conceptual and predictive models. The interrelationship between experimental data and model development is an ongoing, never......-ending process needed to advance our ability to provide reliable quality information that can be used in various contexts including regulatory risk assessment. However, relatively few standard experimental protocols for generating plant bioaccumulation data are currently available and because of inconsistent...

  9. Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, Evangelos; Mercier, Arnaud; Cormos, Calin-Cristian; Peteves, Stathis D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from fossil fuel power plants on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulphur oxides (SO X ), which are acid gas pollutants. This was done by estimating the emissions of these chemical compounds from natural gas combined cycle and pulverized coal plants, equipped with post-combustion carbon capture technology for the removal of CO 2 from their flue gases, and comparing them with the emissions of similar plants without CO 2 capture. The capture of CO 2 is not likely to increase the emissions of acid gas pollutants from individual power plants; on the contrary, some NO X and SO X will also be removed during the capture of CO 2 . The large-scale implementation of carbon capture is however likely to increase the emission levels of NO X from the power sector due to the reduced efficiency of power plants equipped with capture technologies. Furthermore, SO X emissions from coal plants should be decreased to avoid significant losses of the chemicals that are used to capture CO 2 . The increase in the quantity of NO X emissions will be however low, estimated at 5% for the natural gas power plant park and 24% for the coal plants, while the emissions of SO X from coal fired plants will be reduced by as much as 99% when at least 80% of the CO 2 generated will be captured

  10. Predictive Maintenance: One key to improved power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley; Allen, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent developments in microprocessor technology has provided the ability to routinely monitor the actual mechanical condition of all rotating and reciprocating machinery and process variables (i.e. pressure, temperature, flow, etc.) of other process equipment within an operating electric power generating plant. This direct correlation between frequency domain vibration and actual mechanical condition of machinery and trending process variables of non-rotating equipment can provide the ''key'' to improving the availability and reliability, thermal efficiency and provide the baseline information necessary for developing a realistic plan for extending the useful life of power plants. The premise of utilizing microprocessor-based Predictive Maintenance to improve power plant operation has been proven by a number of utilities. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of the TEC approach to Predictive Maintenance and examples of successful programs

  11. Activating antioxidant enzymes, hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis of Hyoscyamus niger L. plants with nano-sized titanium dioxide and bulk application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour GHORBANPOUR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Application of nanotechnology is now widely distributed overall the life, especially in agricultural systems. This study intended to indicate the impacts of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles (NT and bulk (BT on antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT, and variations of two major tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine (HYO and scopolamine (SCO in Hyoscyamus niger L. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NT and BT (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg l-1. Alkaloids extracted were identified by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results showed that SOD activity increased with increasing titanium dioxide concentration in both nano-particles and bulk treated plants. However, the highest and the lowest POX activity were observed in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and control, respectively. Generally, all tested enzymes activities were higher in NT treated plants that those of BT except CAT activity at 80 mg l-1. The highest alkaloids content values, HYO: 0.286 g kg-1 and SCO: 0.126 g kg-1, were achieved in plants treated with NT at 80 and 20 mg l-1, respectively. The maximum and minimum plant biomass and subsequently total alkaloids yield were obtained in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and controls, respectively. Our results suggest that NT in appropriate level (40 mg l-1 may act as an elicitor for biochemical responses and tropane alkaloids biosynthesis in H. niger plants

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  13. Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, John; Mason, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants was convened May 19, 2016, by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and co-sponsored by Idaho Senator Mike Crapo to stress the importance of existing nuclear reactors in meeting our nation's energy goals. The summit was also designed to identify and discuss policy options that can be pursued at federal and state levels to address economic challenges, as well as technical options that utilities can use to improve the economic competitiveness of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) and avoid early plant retirements that are driven by temporary market conditions. The owners of NPPs face difficult economic decisions and are working to improve the performance of existing NPPs. However, it soon became clear that some of the actions taken by states and regional markets have had an impact on the economic viability of existing power plants, including carbon free NPPs. Summit speakers identified concepts and actions that could be taken at state and federal levels to improve the economics of the existing fleet within these regulated and restructured electricity markets. This report summarizes the speeches, concepts, and actions taken.

  14. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  15. South Ukraine NPP: Safety improvements through Plant Computer upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenman, O.; Chernyshov, M. A.; Denning, R. S.; Kolesov, S. A.; Balakan, H. H.; Bilyk, B. I.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Trosman, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes some results of the Plant Computer upgrade at the Units 2 and 3 of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A Plant Computer, which is also called the Computer Information System (CIS), is one of the key safety-related systems at VVER-1000 nuclear plants. The main function of the CIS is information support for the plant operators during normal and emergency operational modes. Before this upgrade, South Ukraine NPP operated out-of-date and obsolete systems. This upgrade project wax founded by the U.S. DOE in the framework of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP). The most efficient way to improve the quality and reliability of information provided to the plant operator is to upgrade the Human-System Interface (HSI), which is the Upper Level (UL) CIS. The upgrade of the CIS data-acquisition system (DAS), which is the Lower Level (LL) CIS, would have less effect on the unit safety. Generally speaking, the lifetime of the LL CIS is much higher than one of the UL CIS. Unlike Plant Computers at the Western-designed plants, the functionality of the WER-1000 CISs includes a control function (Centralized Protection Testing) and a number of the plant equipment monitoring functions, for example, Protection and Interlock Monitoring and Turbo-Generator Temperature Monitoring. The new system is consistent with a historical migration of the format by which information is presented to the operator away from the traditional graphic displays, for example, Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P and ID's), toward Integral Data displays. The cognitive approach to information presentation is currently limited by some licensing issues, but is adapted to a greater degree with each new system. The paper provides some lessons learned on the management of the international team. (authors)

  16. Improving plant bioaccumulation science through consistent reporting of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Arnot, Jon A; Doucette, William J

    2016-10-01

    Experimental data and models for plant bioaccumulation of organic contaminants play a crucial role for assessing the potential human and ecological risks associated with chemical use. Plants are receptor organisms and direct or indirect vectors for chemical exposures to all other organisms. As new experimental data are generated they are used to improve our understanding of plant-chemical interactions that in turn allows for the development of better scientific knowledge and conceptual and predictive models. The interrelationship between experimental data and model development is an ongoing, never-ending process needed to advance our ability to provide reliable quality information that can be used in various contexts including regulatory risk assessment. However, relatively few standard experimental protocols for generating plant bioaccumulation data are currently available and because of inconsistent data collection and reporting requirements, the information generated is often less useful than it could be for direct applications in chemical assessments and for model development and refinement. We review existing testing guidelines, common data reporting practices, and provide recommendations for revising testing guidelines and reporting requirements to improve bioaccumulation knowledge and models. This analysis provides a list of experimental parameters that will help to develop high quality datasets and support modeling tools for assessing bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in plants and ultimately addressing uncertainty in ecological and human health risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant improvements through the use of benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messmer, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As utilities approach the turn of the century, customer and shareholder satisfaction is threatened by rising costs. Environmental compliance expenditures, coupled with low load growth and aging plant assets are forcing utilities to operate existing resources in a more efficient and productive manner. PSI Energy set out in the spring of 1992 on a benchmarking mission to compare four major coal fired plants against others of similar size and makeup, with the goal of finding the best operations in the country. Following extensive analysis of the 'Best in Class' operation, detailed goals and objectives were established for each plant in seven critical areas. Three critical processes requiring rework were identified and required an integrated effort from all plants. The Plant Improvement process has already resulted in higher operation productivity, increased emphasis on planning, and lower costs due to effective material management. While every company seeks improvement, goals are often set in an ambiguous manner. Benchmarking aids in setting realistic goals based on others' actual accomplishments. This paper describes how the utility's short term goals will move them toward being a lower cost producer

  18. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs

  19. Upgrading and efficiency improvement in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Improving the efficiencies of the large number of older coal-fired power plants operating around the world would give major savings in CO2 emissions together with significant other benefits. This report begins with a summary of the ways efficiency can become degraded and of the means available to combat the decrease in performance. These include improvements to operating and maintenance practices and more major techniques that are available, including boiler and turbine retrofits. There is also an update on fuel drying developments as a route to higher efficiency in plants firing high moisture lignites. The largest chapter of the report contains a number of descriptions of case study improvement projects, to illustrate measures that have been applied, benefits that have been achieved and identify best practices, which are summarised. Major national and international upgrading programmes are described.

  20. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  1. Fuel Retention Improvement at High Temperatures in Tungsten-Uranium Dioxide Dispersion Fuel Elements by Plasma-Spray Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Caves, Robert M.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the feasibility of depositing integrally bonded plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings onto 80-volume-percent tungsten - 20-volume-percent uranium dioxide composites. These composites were face clad with thin tungsten foil to inhibit uranium dioxide loss at elevated temperatures, but loss at the unclad edges was still significant. By preheating the composite substrates to approximately 3700 degrees F in a nitrogen environment, metallurgically bonded tungsten coatings could be obtained directly by plasma spraying. Furthermore, even though these coatings were thin and somewhat porous, they greatly inhibited the loss of uranium dioxide. For example, a specimen that was face clad but had no edge cladding lost 5.8 percent uranium dioxide after 2 hours at 4750 dgrees F in flowing hydrogen. A similar specimen with plasma-spray-coated edges, however, lost only 0.75 percent uranium dioxide under the same testing conditions.

  2. Improving the environmental sustainability of a waste processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Tom [AREVA RMC, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Watson, Stuart [RSRL, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes how the level of environmental sustainability at the Solid Waste Processing plant at Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) Harwell was measured and improved. It provides reasons to improve environmental performance in an organisation, states best practice on how improvement should be conducted, and gives first-hand experience on how changes were implemented. In this paper sustainability is defined as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. A baseline for environmental sustainability was created, by looking at multiple attributes. From this, a matrix was created to show how the baseline environmental performance compared to best practice, and a gap analysis was performed. Results from this analysis showed areas for potential systematic improvement, and actions were created. Nearly all actions were implemented within one year, and environmental sustainability improved significantly. Most improvements cost no money to implement, and the few that did had to pass criteria in a business case. Results from a company-wide survey showed that the vast majority of employees felt that environmental issues were important, and that they were willing to help improve performance. Environmental awareness training was given to everyone in the department, and individuals were given measurable improvement targets. A focus group was set up and met regularly to agree improvements and monitor results. Environmental performance was publicised regularly to highlight successes and seek further engagement and improvement. Improvement ideas were encouraged and managed in a transparent way which showed clear prioritisation and accountability. The culture of environmental improvement changed visibly and results at the end of the first year showed that electricity consumption had reduced by 12.5%, and gas consumption had reduced by 7.3%. In less than two years over UK Pound 60,000 was saved

  3. Improving the environmental sustainability of a waste processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Tom; Watson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how the level of environmental sustainability at the Solid Waste Processing plant at Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) Harwell was measured and improved. It provides reasons to improve environmental performance in an organisation, states best practice on how improvement should be conducted, and gives first-hand experience on how changes were implemented. In this paper sustainability is defined as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. A baseline for environmental sustainability was created, by looking at multiple attributes. From this, a matrix was created to show how the baseline environmental performance compared to best practice, and a gap analysis was performed. Results from this analysis showed areas for potential systematic improvement, and actions were created. Nearly all actions were implemented within one year, and environmental sustainability improved significantly. Most improvements cost no money to implement, and the few that did had to pass criteria in a business case. Results from a company-wide survey showed that the vast majority of employees felt that environmental issues were important, and that they were willing to help improve performance. Environmental awareness training was given to everyone in the department, and individuals were given measurable improvement targets. A focus group was set up and met regularly to agree improvements and monitor results. Environmental performance was publicised regularly to highlight successes and seek further engagement and improvement. Improvement ideas were encouraged and managed in a transparent way which showed clear prioritisation and accountability. The culture of environmental improvement changed visibly and results at the end of the first year showed that electricity consumption had reduced by 12.5%, and gas consumption had reduced by 7.3%. In less than two years over UK Pound 60,000 was saved

  4. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic Tool to actual plants (FDT{sup S}), With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and High Energy Arcing Faults (HEAF) fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, and CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena. Trial simulation of HEAF accident of Onagawa NPP in Tohoku earthquake. (author)

  5. Improvements of radioactive waste management at WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This report is part of a systematic IAEA effort to improve waste management practices at WWER plants and to make them consistent with the current requirements and standards for safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The report reviews the wet and dry solid waste management practices at the various types of WWER nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes approaches and recent achievements in waste minimization. Waste minimization practices in use at western PWRs are reviewed and compared, and their applicability at WWER plants is evaluated. Radioactive waste volume reduction issues and waste management practices are reflected in many IAEA publications. However, aspects of waste minimization specific to individual WWER nuclear power plant designs and WWER waste management policies are not addressed extensively in those publications. This report covers the important aspects applicable to the improvement of waste management at WWER NPP, including both plant-level and country-level considerations. It is recognized that most WWER plants are already implementing many of these concepts and recommendations with varying degrees of success; others will benefit from the included considerations. The major issues addressed are: - Review of current waste management policies and practices related to WWERs and western PWRs, including the influence of the original design concepts and significant modifications, liquid waste discharge limits and dry solid waste clearance levels applied in individual countries, national policies and laws, and other relevant aspects affecting the nature and quantities of waste arisings; - Identification of strategies and methods for improving the radioactive waste management generated in normal operation and maintenance at WWERs. This report is a composite (combination) of the two separate initiatives mentioned above. The first draft report was prepared at the meeting 26-30 May 1997 by five consultants. The draft was improved during an

  6. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, Ulrich; Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    The power generation sector is currently confronted with new challenges relating to the conservation of dwindling fuel reserves. At the same time we must reduce CO2 emissions in order to counteract global warming. This paper shows that power plant operation, which employs shutdowns during periods of low load demand coupled with the optimization of startup procedures are a key to reducing CO2 emissions and to conserving resources. The startup technology developed by Siemens also offers grid support in the event of naturally occurring failures of renewable energy sources. Additionally, plant profitability is improved due to the resulting savings in fuel.

  7. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic tool to actual plants, With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and oil fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena, Trial simulation of fire hazard as Metal-Clad Switch Gear Fire of ONAGAWA NPP in Tohoku earthquake (HEAF accident). (author)

  8. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the final two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding with particular objectives and the methodology of mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Using international experience to improve performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.; Csik, B.J.; Strickert, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Information on performance achievements will assist nuclear power plant operating organizations to develop initiatives for improved or continued high performance of their plants. The paper describes the activities of the IAEA in reviewing and analysing the reasons for good performance by contacting operating organizations identified by its Power Reactor Information System as showing continued good performance. Discussions with operations personnel of utilities have indicated practices which have a major positive impact on good performance and which are generally common to all well performing organizations contacted. The IAEA also promotes further activities directed primarily to the achievement of standards of excellence in nuclear power operation. These are briefly commented

  10. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the first two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding in particular countries and crop-specific mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

  12. Audits and their effectiveness in improving plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    For several years, the NRC's performance appraisal teams (PATs) have been assessing the effectiveness of the various audit programs established by operating nuclear power plants. A major focus of the PAT assessments is on the audit programs mandated by 10 CFR, technical specifications, industry codes and standards, and NRC operating license conditions. These audits are typically performed by a plant's quality assurance organization, and program oversight is often provided at the corporate level by a safety review committee. The scope of these audit programs is broad, typically including such functional areas as maintenance, operations, health physics, emergency preparedness, training, procurement, and security. For an audit program to be truly effective in improving plant performance beyond the minimum level established by regulatory requirements, the audits must first be effective in identifying deficiencies that go beyond minimum regulatory requirements. The PAT experience to date is that typical industry audit programs are not designed to identify these types of deficiencies

  13. Advanced digital technology - improving nuclear power plant performance through maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.; Senechal, R.R.; Altenhein, G.D.; Harvey, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    In today's energy sector there is ever increasing pressure on utilities to operate power plants at high capacity factors. To ensure nuclear power is competitive into the next century, it is imperative that strategic design improvements be made to enhance the performance of nuclear power plants. There are a number of factors that affect a nuclear power plant's performance; lifetime maintenance is one of the major contributors. The maturing of digital technology has afforded ABB the opportunity to make significant design improvements in the area of maintainability. In keeping with ABB's evolutionary advanced nuclear plant design approach, digital technology has systematically been incorporated into the control and protection systems of the most recent Korean nuclear units in operation and under construction. One example of this was the multi-functional design team approach that was utilized for the development of ABB's Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS). The design team consisted of engineers, maintenance technicians, procurement specialists and manufacturing personnel in order to provide a complete perspective on all facets of the design. The governing design goals of increased reliability and safety, simplicity of design, use of off-the-shelf products and reduced need for periodic surveillance testing were met with the selection of proven ABB-Advant Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) as the heart of the DPPS. The application of digital PLC technology allows operation for extended periods without requiring routine maintenance or re-calibration. A well documented commercial dedication program approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) as part of the System 80+ TM Advanced Light Water Reactor Design Certification Program, allowed the use of off-the shelf products in the design of the safety protection system. In addition, a number of mechanical and electrical improvements were made which support maintainability. The result is a DPPS

  14. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  15. Design basis programs and improvements in plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE and G) Company operates three commercial nuclear power plants in southern New Jersey. The three plants are of different designs and vintages (two pressurized water reactors licensed in 1976 and 1980 and one boiling water reactor licensed in 1986). As the industry recognized the need to develop design basis programs, PSE and G also realized the need after a voluntary 52-day shutdown of one unit because of electrical design basis problems. In its drive to be a premier electric utility, PSE and G has been aggressively active in developing design basis documents (DBDs) with supporting projects and refined uses to obtain the expected value and see the return on investment. Progress on Salem is nearly 75% complete, while Hope Creek is 20% complete. To data, PSE and G has experienced success in the use of DBDs in areas such as development of plant modifications, development of the reliability-centered maintenance program, procedure upgrades, improved document retrieval, resolution of regulatory issues, and training. The paper examines the design basis development process, supporting projects, and expected improvements in plant operations as a result of these efforts

  16. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Sandra; Núñez-López, Lizeth; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca E.; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize) or proposed species (large grass families). The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass. PMID:28951875

  17. The experiences to improve plant performance and reliability of Ko-Ri nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Weon [Korea Electric Power Corp. Ko-Ri nuclear power division, Ko-Ri (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    This paper provides a discussion of the lessons learned from operational experience and the future plans to improve performance of the Ko-Ri plant. To operate nuclear power plants safely with good performance is the only way to mitigate the negative image of nuclear power generation to the public and to enhance the economical benefit compared to other electrical generation method. Therefore, in a continuous effort to overcome a negative challenge from outside, we have driven an aggressive 'OCTF' campaign as part of safety. As a result of our efforts, the following remarkable achievements have been accomplished. (1) 3 times of OCTF during recent three years (2) Selected twice as a top notch power plant on the list of NEI magazine in terms of plant capacity factor (3) No scram recorded in 1997 for all 4 units at Ko-Ri site. Ko-Ri is now undergoing the large scale plant betterment projects for retaking-off our operating performance to the level of new challenge target. Such improvement of critical components in the reactor coolant system and turbine system greatly contribute to increase the safety and reliability of the plant and to shortening of the planned outage period as well as to reduction of radiation exposure and radwaste. (Cho, G. S.). 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. The experiences to improve plant performance and reliability of Ko-Ri nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ho Weon

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of the lessons learned from operational experience and the future plans to improve performance of the Ko-Ri plant. To operate nuclear power plants safely with good performance is the only way to mitigate the negative image of nuclear power generation to the public and to enhance the economical benefit compared to other electrical generation method. Therefore, in a continuous effort to overcome a negative challenge from outside, we have driven an aggressive 'OCTF' campaign as part of safety. As a result of our efforts, the following remarkable achievements have been accomplished. (1) 3 times of OCTF during recent three years (2) Selected twice as a top notch power plant on the list of NEI magazine in terms of plant capacity factor (3) No scram recorded in 1997 for all 4 units at Ko-Ri site. Ko-Ri is now undergoing the large scale plant betterment projects for retaking-off our operating performance to the level of new challenge target. Such improvement of critical components in the reactor coolant system and turbine system greatly contribute to increase the safety and reliability of the plant and to shortening of the planned outage period as well as to reduction of radiation exposure and radwaste. (Cho, G. S.). 5 tabs., 10 figs

  19. Improved technical specifications and related improvements to safety in commercial Nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.; Demitrack, T.; Schiele, R.; Jones, J.C. [EXCEL Services Corporation, 11921 Rockville Pike, Suite 100, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)]. e-mail: donaldh@excelservices.com

    2004-07-01

    Many of the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (US) have been converting a portion of the plant operating license known as the Technical Specifications (TS) in accordance with a document published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The TS prescribe commercial nuclear power plant operating requirements. There are several types of nuclear power plants in the US, based on the technology of different vendors, and there is an NRC document that supports each of the five different vendor designs. The NRC documents are known as the Improved Standard Technical Specifications (ISTS) and are contained in a separate document (NUREG series) for each one of the designs. EXCEL Services Corporation (hereinafter EXCEL) has played a major role in the development of the ISTS and in the development, licensing, and implementation of the plant specific Improved Technical Specifications (ITS) (which is based on the ISTS) for the commercial nuclear power plants in the US that have elected to make this conversion. There are currently 103 operating commercial nuclear power plants in the US and 68 of them have successfully completed the conversion to the ITS and are now operating in accordance with their plant specific ITS. The ISTS is focused mainly on safety by ensuring the commercial nuclear reactors can safely shut down and mitigate the consequences of any postulated transient and accident. It accomplishes this function by including requirements directly associated with safety in a document structured systematically and taking into account some key human factors and technical initiatives. This paper discusses the ISTS including its format, content, and detail, the history of the ISTS, the ITS development, licensing, and implementation process, the safety improvements resulting from a plant conversion to ITS, and the importance of the ITS Project to the industry. (Author)

  20. Improved technical specifications and related improvements to safety in commercial Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.R.; Demitrack, T.; Schiele, R.; Jones, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (US) have been converting a portion of the plant operating license known as the Technical Specifications (TS) in accordance with a document published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The TS prescribe commercial nuclear power plant operating requirements. There are several types of nuclear power plants in the US, based on the technology of different vendors, and there is an NRC document that supports each of the five different vendor designs. The NRC documents are known as the Improved Standard Technical Specifications (ISTS) and are contained in a separate document (NUREG series) for each one of the designs. EXCEL Services Corporation (hereinafter EXCEL) has played a major role in the development of the ISTS and in the development, licensing, and implementation of the plant specific Improved Technical Specifications (ITS) (which is based on the ISTS) for the commercial nuclear power plants in the US that have elected to make this conversion. There are currently 103 operating commercial nuclear power plants in the US and 68 of them have successfully completed the conversion to the ITS and are now operating in accordance with their plant specific ITS. The ISTS is focused mainly on safety by ensuring the commercial nuclear reactors can safely shut down and mitigate the consequences of any postulated transient and accident. It accomplishes this function by including requirements directly associated with safety in a document structured systematically and taking into account some key human factors and technical initiatives. This paper discusses the ISTS including its format, content, and detail, the history of the ISTS, the ITS development, licensing, and implementation process, the safety improvements resulting from a plant conversion to ITS, and the importance of the ITS Project to the industry. (Author)

  1. Improved verification methods for safeguards verifications at enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, A.; Kane, S. C.; Bourva, L.; Poirier, S.; Loghin, N. E.; Langlands, D.

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a coordinated research and development programme to improve its verification methods and equipment applicable to enrichment plants. The programme entails several individual projects to meet the objectives of the IAEA Safeguards Model Approach for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants updated in 2006. Upgrades of verification methods to confirm the absence of HEU (highly enriched uranium) production have been initiated and, in particular, the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) has been redesigned to reduce its weight and incorporate an electrically cooled germanium detector. Such detectors are also introduced to improve the attended verification of UF 6 cylinders for the verification of the material balance. Data sharing of authenticated operator weighing systems such as accountancy scales and process load cells is also investigated as a cost efficient and an effective safeguards measure combined with unannounced inspections, surveillance and non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement. (authors)

  2. Improved verification methods for safeguards verifications at enrichment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, A.; Kane, S. C.; Bourva, L.; Poirier, S.; Loghin, N. E.; Langlands, D. [Department of Safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a coordinated research and development programme to improve its verification methods and equipment applicable to enrichment plants. The programme entails several individual projects to meet the objectives of the IAEA Safeguards Model Approach for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants updated in 2006. Upgrades of verification methods to confirm the absence of HEU (highly enriched uranium) production have been initiated and, in particular, the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) has been redesigned to reduce its weight and incorporate an electrically cooled germanium detector. Such detectors are also introduced to improve the attended verification of UF{sub 6} cylinders for the verification of the material balance. Data sharing of authenticated operator weighing systems such as accountancy scales and process load cells is also investigated as a cost efficient and an effective safeguards measure combined with unannounced inspections, surveillance and non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement. (authors)

  3. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  4. Biological processing of carbon dioxide. ; Photosynthetic function of plants, and carbon dioxide fixing function of marine organisms. Nisanka tanso no seibutsuteki shori. ; Shokubutsu no kogosei kino to kaiyo seibutsu no nisanka tanso kotei kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, M [National Research Inst. for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1991-02-15

    This paper describes photosynthetic function of plants, and CO {sub 2} fixing function of marine organisms. Among the photosythetic reaction systems, the C {sub 3} type reaction carries out CO {sub 2} fixation using the Calvin cycle, and takes out the carbon dioxide out of the system through enzymatic reactions of 3-phosphoglycerate {yields} fructose-6-phosphate. The C {sub 4} type reaction has a special cycle to supply CO {sub 2} to the Calvin cycle, i. e. C {sub 4} dicarboxylic acid cycle. The CAM type reaction enables the photosynthetic type to be converted according to variations in the growing environment. The majority of the surace agricultural crops are from C {sub 3} plants, of which yield may be increased when grown in a high CO {sub 2} atmosphere. On the one hand, gene engineering may make possible breeding of plants having high CO {sub 2} fixing capability. In the area of marine organisms, lime algae growing in clusters around coral reefs form and deposit CaCO {sub 3}. Reef creating corals have symbiotically in their stomach layer brown algae having photosynthetic function to build CaCO {sub 3} skeleton. The corals calcify algae quickly and in a large quantity, hence play an important role in fixing underwater CO {sub 2}. 2 tabs.

  5. Basic study of the plant maintenance model considering plant improvement/modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumaya, Akira; Inoue, Kazuya; Mochizuki, Masahito; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Arai, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a maintenance activity model that considers not only routine maintenance activity but also functional maintenance including improvement/modification. Required maintenance types are categorized, and limitation of Activity Domain Integration Diagram (ADID) proposed by ISO18435 are discussed based on framework for life cycle maintenance management of manufacturing assets. Then, we proposed extension ADID model for plant maintenance activity model considering functional improvement/modification. (author)

  6. Improving indoor air quality through the use of continual multipoint monitoring of carbon dioxide and dew point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearg, D W

    1998-09-01

    This article summarizes an approach for improving the indoor air quality (IAQ) in a building by providing feedback on the performance of the ventilation system. The delivery of adequate quantities of ventilation to all building occupants is necessary for the achievement of good IAQ. Feedback on the performance includes information on the adequacy of ventilation provided, the effectiveness of the distribution of this air, the adequacy of the duration of operation of the ventilation system, and the identification of leakage into the return plenum, either of outdoor or supply air. Keeping track of ventilation system performance is important not only in terms of maintaining good IAQ, but also making sure that this system continues to perform as intended after changes in building use. Information on the performance of the ventilation system is achieved by means of an automated sampling system that draws air from multiple locations and delivers it to both a carbon dioxide monitor and dew point sensor. The use of single shared sensors facilitates calibration checks as well as helps to guarantee data integrity. This approach to monitoring a building's ventilation system offers the possibility of achieving sustainable performance of this important aspect of good IAQ.

  7. Improving the neutronic characteristics of a boiling water reactor by using uranium zirconium hydride fuel instead of uranium dioxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galahom, Ahmed Abdelghafar [Higher Technological Institute, Ramadan (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    The present work discusses two different models of boiling water reactor (BWR) bundle to compare the neutronic characteristics of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) and uranium zirconium hydride (UZrH{sub 1.6}) fuel. Each bundle consists of four assemblies. The BWR assembly fueled with UO{sub 2} contains 8 × 8 fuel rods while that fueled with UZrH{sub 1.6} contains 9 × 9 fuel rods. The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code, based on the Mont Carlo method, is used to design three dimensional models for BWR fuel bundles at typical operating temperatures and pressure conditions. These models are used to determine the multiplication factor, pin-by-pin power distribution, axial power distribution, thermal neutron flux distribution, and axial thermal neutron flux. The moderator and coolant (water) are permitted to boil within the BWR core forming steam bubbles, so it is important to calculate the reactivity effect of voiding at different values. It is found that the hydride fuel bundle design can be simplified by eliminating water rods and replacing the control blade with control rods. UZrH{sub 1.6} fuel improves the performance of the BWR in different ways such as increasing the energy extracted per fuel assembly, reducing the uranium ore, and reducing the plutonium accumulated in the BWR through burnup.

  8. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R L Anderegg

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  9. Review of plants to mitigate particulate matter, ozone as well as nitrogen dioxide air pollutants and applicable recommendations for green roofs in Montreal, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, Shannon

    2018-05-28

    In urbanized regions with expansive impervious surfaces and often low vegetation cover, air pollution due to motor vehicles and other combustion sources, is a problem. The poor air quality days in Montreal, Quebec are mainly due to fine particulate matter and ozone. Businesses using wood ovens are a source of particulates. Careful vegetation selection and increased green roof usage can improve air quality. This paper reviews different green roofs and the capability of plants in particulate matter (PM), ozone (O 3 ) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) level reductions. Both the recommended green roof category and plants to reduce these pollutants in Montreal's zone 5 hardiness region are provided. Green roofs with larger vegetation including shrubs and trees, or intensive green roofs, remove air pollutants to a greater extent and are advisable to implement on existing, retrofitted or new buildings. PM is most effectively captured by pines. The small Pinus strobus 'Nana', Pinus mugho var. pumilio, Pinus mugho 'Slowmound' and Pinus pumila 'Dwarf Blue' are good candidates for intensive green roofs. Drought tolerant, deciduous broadleaved trees with low biogenic volatile organic compound emissions including Japanese Maple or Acer palmatum 'Shaina' and 'Mikawa-Yatsubusa' are options to reduce O 3 levels. Magnolias are tolerant to NO 2 and it is important in their metabolic pathways. The small cold-tolerant Magnolia 'Genie' is a good option to remove NO 2 in urban settings and to indirectly reduce O 3 formation. Given the emissions by Montreal businesses' wood ovens, calculations performed based on their respective complex roof areas obtained via Google Earth Pro indicates 88% Pinus mugho var. pumilio roof coverage can annually remove 92.37 kg of PM 10 of which 35.10 kg is PM 2.5 . The removal rates are 4.00 g/m 2 and 1.52 g/m 2 for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively. This paper provides insight to addressing air pollution through urban rooftop greening. Copyright

  10. Development of improved space sampling strategies for ocean chemical properties: Total carbon dioxide and dissolved nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyet, Catherine; Davis, Daniel; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale ocean observing programs such as the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) today, must face the problem of designing an adequate sampling strategy. For ocean chemical variables, the goals and observing technologies are quite different from ocean physical variables (temperature, salinity, pressure). We have recently acquired data on the ocean CO2 properties on WOCE cruises P16c and P17c that are sufficiently dense to test for sampling redundancy. We use linear and quadratic interpolation methods on the sampled field to investigate what is the minimum number of samples required to define the deep ocean total inorganic carbon (TCO2) field within the limits of experimental accuracy (+/- 4 micromol/kg). Within the limits of current measurements, these lines were oversampled in the deep ocean. Should the precision of the measurement be improved, then a denser sampling pattern may be desirable in the future. This approach rationalizes the efficient use of resources for field work and for estimating gridded (TCO2) fields needed to constrain geochemical models.

  11. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of computer codes to improve nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.; Polak, V.; Filo, J.; Gatas, J.

    1985-01-01

    For safety and economic reasons, the scope for carrying out experiments on operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very limited and any changes in technical equipment and operating parameters or conditions have to be supported by theoretical calculations. In the Nuclear Power Plant Scientific Research Institute (NIIAEhS), computer codes are systematically used to analyse actual operating events, assess safety aspects of changes in equipment and operating conditions, optimize the conditions, preparation and analysis of NPP startup trials and review and amend operating instructions. In addition, calculation codes are gradually being introduced into power plant computer systems to perform real time processing of the parameters being measured. The paper describes a number of specific examples of the use of calculation codes for the thermohydraulic analysis of operating and accident conditions aimed at improving the operation of WWER-440 units at the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. These examples confirm that computer calculations are an effective way of solving operating problems and of further increasing the level of safety and economic efficiency of NPP operation. (author)

  13. Carbon dioxide evolution and temperature factors in early growth of plastic mulched plants. [Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, C.; Ruf, R.H. Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa) were grown in the greenhouse in redwood boxes with bare and plastic mulched soil. Soil temperature in the bare boxes was equated to the plastic mulch with buried temperature coils. Bottled CO/sub 2/ was used to bring the concentration around the plants in bare soil up to the concentration around mulched plants. Carbon dioxide was sampled in leaf canopy. The temperature treatment increased the yields of the bare soil so that they were comparable to those of the plastic mulched soil. Yields from the soil with the auxiliary CO/sub 2/ were lower than those of the mulched treatment.

  14. Tomatoes in oil recovery. [Plant waste additives improve yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The waste from processing tomato, squash and pepper stalks found unexpected use in recovery of oil. Even a negligible amount thereof in an aqueous solution pumped into an oil-bearing formation turned out to be sufficient to increase the yield. Substances of plant origin, which improve dramatically the oil-flushing properties of water, not only increase the recovery of oil, but reduce the volume of fluid to be pumped into the stratum. The staff of the Institute of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, who proved the technological and economical advantages of using the waste from plant processing, transmitted their findings to the oil workers of Baku. The scientists have concluded that there is a good raw material base in this republic for utilizing this method on oil-bearing formations.

  15. Risk management: A tool for improving nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This technical document on risk management as a tool for improving nuclear power plant (NPP) operations is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other reports developed through this project have identified overall strategies and techniques that NPP operating organization managers can use to succeed in more competitive energy markets. For example, in IAEA-TECDOC-1123, Strategies for Competitive Nuclear Power Plants, one of the most important strategies identified was integrated risk management. This publication provides a recommended structure for risk management along with examples of how NPP operating organizations are using this tool to help them integrate safety, operational and economic related risks in a changing business environment

  16. A Microalgae-Based Platform for the Beneficial Re-use of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Mark; Groppo, Jack; Kesner, Stephanie; Mohler, Daniel; Pace, Robby; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo; Wilson, Michael; Schambach, Jenna; Stewart, Jennifer; Zeller, Ashton

    2018-02-02

    This project sought to address the technical and economic barriers to carbon dioxide capture and utilization using microalgae. Operating data were collected in 2016 and 2017 during cultivation of Scenedesmus acutus at Duke Energy’s East Bend Station – a coal-fired power plant located in northern Kentucky – using flue gas as the CO2 source. Algae were grown in a 1200 L “cyclic flow” photobioreactor (PBR) designed by the University of Kentucky. A key finding was that the harvested algae contained only very low concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Hg, Se), consistent with heavy metals incorporation from the supplied nutrients. This indicates that algal biomass produced from coal-derived flue gas would be suitable for a variety of applications, including the production of bioplastics, use as fertilizer, etc. A lifecycle assessment showed that the UK-designed PBR employed in this work qualifies as a net CO2 capture technology. Indeed, over a 30-year period, net CO2 capture would equate to 43% of the targeted amount, i.e., the amount captured from the supplied flue gas. A techno-economic analysis indicated that the minimum production cost of Scenedesmus acutus biomass in the US is in the order of $875/ton, excluding the cost of capital. While this figure is not too dissimilar to values reported for open raceway ponds in similar scenarios, it emphasizes that for current cultivation technology any pathway to economic viability will require applications for which algal boimass can be sold at prices in excess of $1,000/ton. Currently, such applications represent relatively small markets, such as pigments (e.g., astaxanthin) and nutraceuticals (ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids), as well as nutritional supplements (whole algae) for human consumption and for use in pet food. Consequently, the commercialization of large-scale algae-based CO2 capture and utilization will require the development of new technologies to reduce the cost of

  17. Improved expression of recombinant plant-made hEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David Rhys; Walmsley, Amanda Maree

    2014-11-01

    The yield of recombinant hEGF was increased approximately tenfold through a range of optimisations. Further, the recombinant protein was found to have biological activity comparable to commercial hEGF. Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a powerful mitogen that can enhance the healing of a wide range of injuries, including burns, cuts, diabetic ulcers and gastric ulcers. However, despite its clinical value, hEGF is only consistently used for the treatment of chronic diabetic ulcers due to its high cost. In this study, hEGF was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and targeted to the apoplast, ER and vacuole. Several other approaches were also included in a stepwise fashion to identify the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant hEGF. Expression was found to be highest in the vacuole, while targeting hEGF to the ER caused a decrease in total soluble protein (TSP). Using a codon optimised sequence was found to increase vacuolar targeted hEGF yield by ~34 %, while it was unable to increase the yield of ER targeted hEGF. The use of the P19 silencing inhibitor was able to further increase expression by over threefold, and using 5-week-old plants significantly increased expression compared to 4- or 6-week-old-plants. The combined effect of these optimisations increased expression tenfold over the initial apoplast targeted construct to an average yield of 6.24 % of TSP. The plant-made hEGF was then shown to be equivalent to commercial E. coli derived hEGF in its ability to promote the proliferation of mouse keratinocytes. This study supports the potential for plants to be used for the commercial production of hEGF, and identifies a potential limitation for the further improvement of recombinant protein yields.

  18. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  19. Transportation of part supply improvement in agricultural machinery assembly plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saysaman, Anusit; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    This research focused on the problem caused by the transportation of part supply in agricultural machinery assembly plant in Thailand, which is one of the processes that are critical to the whole production process. If poorly managed, it will affect transportation of part supply, the emergence of sink cost, quality problems, and the ability to respond to the needs of the customers in time. Since the competition in the agricultural machinery market is more intense, the efficiency of part transportation process has to be improved. In this study, the process of transporting parts of the plant was studied and it was found that the efficiency of the process of transporting parts from the sub assembly line to its main assembly line was 83%. The approach to the performance improvement is done by using the Lean tool to limit wastes based on the ECRS principle and applying pull production system by changing the transportation method to operate as milkrun for transportation of parts to synchronize with the part demands of the main assembly line. After the transportation of parts from sub-assembly line to the main assembly line was improved, the efficiency raised to 98% and transportation process cost was saved to 540,000 Baht per year.

  20. Reproductive allocation in plants as affected by elevated carbon dioxide and other environmental changes: a synthesis using meta-analysis and graphical vector analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhong; Taub, Daniel R; Jablonski, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction is an important life history trait that strongly affects dynamics of plant populations. Although it has been well documented that elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere greatly enhances biomass production in plants, the overall effect of elevated CO2 on reproductive allocation (RA), i.e., the proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive structures, is little understood. We combined meta-analysis with graphical vector analysis to examine the overall effect of elevated CO2 on RA and how other environmental factors, such as low nutrients, drought and elevated atmospheric ozone (O3), interacted with elevated CO2 in affecting RA in herbaceous plants. Averaged across all species of different functional groups and environmental conditions, elevated CO2 had little effect on RA (-0.9%). RA in plants of different reproductive strategies and functional groups, however, differed in response to elevated CO2. For example, RA in iteroparous wild species decreased by 8%, while RA in iteroparous crops increased significantly (+14%) at elevated CO2. RA was unaffected by CO2 in plants grown with no stress or in low-nutrient soils. RA decreased at elevated CO2 and elevated O3, but increased in response to elevated CO2 in drought-stressed plants, suggesting that elevated CO2 could ameliorate the adverse effect of drought on crop production to some extent. Our results demonstrate that elevated CO2 and other global environmental changes have the potential to greatly alter plant community composition through differential effects on RA of different plant species and thus affect the dynamics of natural and agricultural ecosystems in the future.

  1. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...... reference tracking and disturbance rejection in an economically optimal way. The performance function is chosen as a mixture of the `1-norm and a linear weighting to model the economics of the system. Simulations show a significant improvement of the performance of the MPC compared to the current...

  2. Highly active vitrification plant remote handling operational experience and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgate, I.

    1996-01-01

    All the main process plant and equipment at the Sellafield Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) is enclosed in heavily shielded concrete walled cells. There is a large quantity of relatively complex plant and equipment which must be remotely operated, maintained or replaced in-cell in a severe environment. The WVP has five in-cell polar cranes which are of modular construction to aid replacement of failed components. Each can be withdrawn into a shielded cell extension for decontamination and hands-on maintenance. The cells have a total of 80 through wall tube positions to receive Master Slave Manipulators (MSMs). The MSMs are used where possible for ''pick and place'' purposes but are often called upon to position substantial pieces of mechanical equipment and thus are subject to heavy loading and high failure rates. An inward flow of air is maintained in the active cells. The discharged air passes through a filter cell where remote damper operation filter changing and maintenance is carried out by means of a PAR3000 manipulator. A Nuclear Engineered Advanced Teleoperated Robot (Neater) swabs the vitrified product container to ensure cleanliness before storage. There is a significant arising of solid radioactive waste from replaced in-cell items which undergoes sorting and size reduction in a breakdown cell equipped with a large reciprocating saw and a hydraulic shear. Improvements to the remote handling facilities made in the light of operational experience are described. (UK)

  3. Improvement of ALARA in Taiwan Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, H. M.; Chang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The ALARA(as low as reasonable achievable ) principle is a basic spirit of radiation safety culture and the most important element of a successful radiation safety program. In recent years, the ALARA principle and practices have been widely applied to the three operating nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Through the effective communication and fully cooperation between the authority and utility, the performance goals of improving radiation safety program have been set, and the implementation plans have been proposed and followed. Taking Chinshan nuclear power station as an example, in 2004, the occupational individual dose was 1.13mSv/ person in average,no one exceeded 20mSv ,and the collective dose was 1.03man-Sv/unit which achieved the best record of BWR plant in Taiwan. The radiation reduction approaches and tools adopted by the plants include removing radiation sources, setting radiation shieding, optimizing and controlling the schedule of radiation practices, considering the occupancy factors, and better administrative management to keep exposure ALARA will be discussed in this paper

  4. Good practices for improved nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of operational principles, practice and improvements which have contributed to good performance of eight selected world nuclear power stations. The IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) was used to identify a population of good performers. It is recognized that there are many other good performing nuclear power stations not included in this report. Specific criteria described in the introduction were used in selecting these eight stations. The information contained in this report was obtained by the staff from IAEA, Division of Nuclear Power. This was accomplished by visits to the stations and visits to a number of utility support groups and three independent organizations which provide support to more than one utility. The information in this report is intended as an aid for operating organizations to identify possible improvement initiatives to enhance plant performance. Figs and tabs

  5. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes have consequences for ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and N retention. In a 13-year grassland experiment, we evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter soil N cycling. We focused on soil inorganic N pools, including ammonium and nitrate, and two N fluxes, net N mineralization and net nitrification. In contrast with existing hypotheses, such as progressive N limitation, and with observations from other, often shorter, studies, elevated CO2 had relatively static and small, or insignificant, effects on soil inorganic N pools and fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization had inconsistent effects on soil N transformations, but increased soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations. Plant species richness had increasingly positive effects on soil N transformations over time, likely because in diverse subplots the concentrations of N in roots increased over time. Species richness also had increasingly positive effects on concentrations of ammonium in soil, perhaps because more carbon accumulated in soils of diverse subplots, providing exchange sites for ammonium. By contrast, subplots planted with 16 species had lower soil nitrate concentrations than less diverse subplots, especially when fertilized, probably due to greater N uptake capacity of subplots with 16 species. Monocultures of different plant functional types had distinct effects on N transformations and nitrate concentrations, such that not all monocultures differed from diverse subplots in the same manner. The first few years of data would not have adequately forecast the effects of N fertilization and diversity on soil N cycling in later years; therefore, the dearth of long-term manipulations of plant species richness and N inputs is a hindrance to forecasting the state of the soil N cycle and ecosystem functions in extant plant communities. © 2012 Blackwell

  6. Cost benefit justification of nuclear plant reliability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.A.H.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power costs are evaluated on the bases of general ground rules (a) vary from time to time (b) vary from country to another (c) even vary from one reactor type to another. The main objective of an electric utility is to provide the electric energy to the different consummers at the lowest possible cost with reasonable reliability level. Rapid increase of the construction costs and fuel prices in recent years have stimulated a great deal of interest in improving the reliability and productivity of new and existing power plants. One of the most important areas is the improvement of the secondary steam loop and the reactor cooling system. The method for evaluating the reliability of steam loop and cooling system utilizes the cut-set technique. The developed method can be easily used to show to what extent the overall reliability of the nuclear plant is affected by the possible failures in the steam and cooling subsystem. The cost reliability trade-off analysis is used to evaluate alternative schemes in the design with a view towards meeting a high reliability goal. Based on historical or estimated failure and repair rate, the reliability of the alternate scheme can be calculated

  7. Reducing the occurrence of plant events through improved human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.; Burkhart, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    During a routine control room surveillance, the reactor operator is distracted by an alarming secondary annunciator and a telephone call. When the reactor operator resumes the surveillance, he inadvertently performs the procedural steps out of order. This causes a reportable nuclear event. How can procedure-related human performance problems such as this be prevented? The question is vitally important for the nuclear industry. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data observed, open-quotes With the perceived reduction in the number of events caused by equipment failures, INPO and other industry groups and human performance experts agree that a key to continued improvement in plant performance and safety is improved human performance.close quotes In fact, open-quotes more than 50% of the reportable events occurring at nuclear power plants involve human error.close quotes Prevention (or correction) of a human performance problem is normally based on properly balancing the following three factors: (1) supervisory involvement; (2) personnel training; and (3) procedures. The nuclear industry is implementing a formula known as ACME, which better balances supervisory involvement, personnel training, and procedures. Webster's New World Dictionary defines acme as the highest point, the peak. ACME human performance is the goal: ACME Adherence to and use of procedures; Self-Checking; Management Involvement; and Event Investigations

  8. Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSRTI, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biochar on soil properties, growth, yield and foliar disease incidence of mulberry plant. The study consisted of 6 treatments: control, basal dose of NPK, rice husk biochar, mineral enriched biochar, basal dose + rice husk biochar and basal dose + mineral enriched biochar. Growth parameters such as node/meter, total branch number/plant, total leaf yield/hectare/year were significantly increased in basal dose + mineral enriched biochar treated plot in second year compared with the other fertilizer treatments. In second year, the total leaf yield/hectare/year were also 142.1% and 115.9% higher in combined application of basal dose + mineral enriched biochar and basal dose + rice husk biochar, respectively, than the control treatment. The soil properties such as organic matter, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc percentage were significantly increased with both the (mineral enriched and rice husk biochar treated soil applied with or without recommended basal dose of NPK than the control and only the recommended basal dose of NPK, respectively. Further, the lowest incidences of tukra (6.4%, powdery mildew (10.4% and leaf spot (7.6% disease were observed in second year under mineral enriched biochar treated plot than the others. The findings revealed that utilization of biochar has positive effect on the improvement of soil fertility and productivity as well as disease suppression of mulberry plant.

  9. Natural radioactivity in the production of titanium dioxide pigment: a study of the Laporte Plant and environment behaviour of radionuclides at Bunbury, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Statham, J.R.; Williams, G.A.

    1981-10-01

    A study of radioactivity levels in samples collected at a titanium dioxide plant at Bunbury in Western Australia is described. The radioactivities of the principal radionuclides present in the ilmenite feed ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 228 Th) are followed throughout the pigment production process. It is found that approximately 67 MBq/day of activity due to each of 228 Ra and 228 Th enters the plant (equivalent to 17.8 kg of thorium), and approximately 14 MBq/day of activity due to 226 Ra. Essentially all of this radioactivity leaves the plant in the form of acidic effluent, which is pumped to disposal lagoons and allowed to neutralise and drain away. A preliminary study of possible environmental effects of radioactivity in the effluent is presented. It was established that in the presence of high sulphate ion concentrations in both the plant feed liquor and the effluent, thorium remains in solution whereas radium, which forms an insoluble sulphate compound, tends to coprecipitate and is found in solid residues throughout the process

  10. Improved liquid waste processing system of PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Kazuyasu

    1977-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has engaged in the improvement and enhancement of waste-processing facilities for PWR power stations, and recently established the improved processing system. With this system, it becomes possible to contain radioactive waste gas semi-permanently within plants and to recycle waste liquid after the treatment, thus to make the release of radioactive wastes practically zero. The improved system has the following features, namely the recycling system is adopted, drain is separated and each separated drain is treated by specialized process, the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are used, and the leakless construction is adopted for the equipments. The radioactive liquid wastes in PWR power stations are classified into coolant drain, drain from general equipments, chemical drain and cleaning water. The outline of the improved processing system and the newly developed equipments such as the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are explained. With the evaporator, the concentration rate of waste liquid can be raised to about three times, and foaming waste can be treated efficiently. The decontamination performance is excellent. The reverse osmosis treatment is stable and reliable method, and is useful for the treatment of cleaning water. It is also effective for concentrating treatment. The unmanned automatic operation is possible. (Kako, I.)

  11. Contribution of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide exposure from power plant emissions on respiratory symptom and disease prevalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amster, Eric D.; Haim, Maayan; Dubnov, Jonathan; Broday, David M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to ambient NO x and SO 2 originating from power plant emissions and prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease and related symptoms. The Orot Rabin coal-fired power plant is the largest power generating facility in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two novel methods assessing exposure to power plant-specific emissions were estimated for 2244 participants who completed the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The “source approach” modeled emissions traced back to the power plant while the “event approach” identified peak exposures from power plant plume events. Respiratory symptoms, but not prevalence of asthma and COPD, were associated with estimates of power plant NO x emissions. The “source approach” yielded a better estimate of exposure to power plant emissions and showed a stronger dose–response relationship with outcomes. Calculating the portion of ambient pollution attributed to power plants emissions can be useful for air quality management purposes and targeted abatement programs. -- Highlights: • Two methods assessing NO x and SO 2 exposure attributed to a coal-fired power plant are utilized. • Exposure estimates are compared with respiratory outcomes in 2244 participants. • Power plant nitrogen oxide emissions are associated with respiratory symptoms. • Stack emission models correlated closest with health outcomes. -- Chronic cough, nocturnal dyspnea, chronic phlegm, and shortness of breath were significantly associated with exposure estimates of power plant-specific NO x emissions

  12. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Kevin [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Anasti, William [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Fang, Yichuan [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Subramanyan, Karthik [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Leininger, Tom [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  13. Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Jayaraman, Ambalavanan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Dietz, Steven [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2016-03-03

    .90 and $39.71 per tonne compared to $65.46 and $66.56 per tonne for amine based system on 2011 $ basis, providing 40% lower cost of CO2 captured. In this analysis we have used a sorbent life of 4 years. If a longer sorbent life can be maintained (which is not unreasonable for fixed bed commercial PSA systems), this would lower the cost of CO2 captured by $0.05 per tonne (e.g., to $38.85 and $39.66 per tonne at 5 years sorbent replacement). These system analysis results suggest that TDA’s VSA-based post-combustion capture technology can substantially improve the power plant’s thermal performance while achieving near zero emissions, including greater than 90% carbon capture. The higher net plant efficiency and lower capital and operating costs results in a substantial reduction in the cost of carbon capture and cost of electricity for the power plant equipped with TDA’s technology.

  14. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  15. Which plant trait explains the variations in relative growth rate and its response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes derived from a variety of habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-03-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) enhances plant growth, but this enhancement varies considerably. It is still uncertain which plant traits are quantitatively related to the variation in plant growth. To identify the traits responsible, we developed a growth analysis model that included primary parameters associated with morphology, nitrogen (N) use, and leaf and root activities. We analysed the vegetative growth of 44 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. grown at ambient and elevated [CO2] (800 μmol mol(-1)). The 44 ecotypes were selected such that they were derived from various altitudes and latitudes. Relative growth rate (RGR; growth rate per unit plant mass) and its response to [CO2] varied by 1.5- and 1.7-fold among ecotypes, respectively. The variation in RGR at both [CO2]s was mainly explained by the variation in leaf N productivity (LNP; growth rate per leaf N),which was strongly related to photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). The variation in the response of RGR to [CO2] was also explained by the variation in the response of LNP to [CO2]. Genomic analyses indicated that there was no phylogenetic constraint on inter-ecotype variation in the CO2 response of RGR or LNP. We conclude that the significant variation in plant growth and its response to [CO2] among ecotypes reflects the variation in N use for photosynthesis among ecotypes, and that the response of PNUE to CO2 is an important target for predicting and/or breeding plants that have high growth rates at elevated [CO2].

  16. Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Plant Performance in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer technologies, signal processing, analytical modeling, and the advent of wireless sensors have provided the nuclear industry with ample means to automate and optimize maintenance activities and improve safety, efficiency, and availability, while reducing costs and radiation exposure to maintenance personnel. This paper provides a review of these developments and presents examples of their use in the nuclear power industry and the financial and safety benefits that they have produced. As the current generation of nuclear power plants have passed their mid-life, increased monitoring of their health is critical to their safe operation. This is especially true now that license renewal of nuclear power plants has accelerated, allowing some plants to operate up to 60 years or more. Furthermore, many utilities are maximizing their power output through uprating projects and retrofits. This puts additional demand and more stress on the plant equipment such as the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems and the reactor internal components making them more vulnerable to the effects of aging, degradation, and failure. In the meantime, the nuclear power industry is working to reduce generation costs by adopting condition-based maintenance strategies and automation of testing activities. These developments have stimulated great interest in on-line monitoring (OLM) technologies and new diagnostic and prognostic methods to anticipate, identify, and resolve equipment and process problems and ensure plant safety, efficiency, and immunity to accidents. The foundation for much of the required technologies has already been established through 40 years of research and development (R and D) efforts performed by numerous organizations, scientists, and engineers around the world including the author. This paper provides examples of these technologies and demonstrates how the gap between some of the more important R and D efforts and end users have been filled

  17. Improving nuclear power plant safety through operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    In October 1986, the IAEA convened a one-week Technical Committee Meeting on Improving Nuclear Power Plant Safety Through Operator Aids. The term ''operator aid'' or more formally ''operator support system'' refers to a class of devices designed to be added to a nuclear power plant control station to assist an operator in performing his job and thereby decrease the probability of operator error. The addition of a carefully planned and designed operator aid should result in an increase in nuclear power plant safety and reliability. Operator aids encompass a wide range of devices from the very simple, such as color coding a display to distinguish it out of a group of similar displays, to the very complex, such as a computer-generated video display which concentrates a number of scattered indicator readings located around a control room into a concise display in front of the operator. This report provides guidelines and information to help make a decision as to whether an operator aid is needed, what kinds of operator aids are available and whether it should be purchased or developed by the utility. In addition, a discussion is presented on advanced operator aids to provide information on what may become available in the future. The broad scope of these guidelines makes it most suitable for use by a multi-disciplinary team. The document consists of two parts. The recommendations and results of the meeting discussions are given in the first part. The second part is the annex where the papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are printed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Effects of combined action of γ-irradiation and sulfur dioxide or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin on bacteria and higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Lotareva, O.V.; Spirin, D.A.; Karaban', R.T.; Mal'tseva, L.N.; Ignat'ev, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of combined action of of gamma-irradiation and sulfur dioxide or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin on baceria (Bacillus subtilis) and higher plants (Hordeum vulgare L., Pinus sylvestris L.) have been studied. The number of barley germ root cells with chromosomal aberrations depends on the order of treatment with the studied agents. The coefficients of SO 2 and gamma-irradiation correlation fluctuate from 1,3 to 2,6 in the above experiments. In experiments with pine seedlings, these correlation coefficients were similar to additive ones. The data obtained suggest that the pattern of action of the agents is determined by the radiation sensitivity of objects and the order of action of the agents

  19. Retrofit of ammonia plant for improving energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjeshahi, M.H.; Ghasemian Langeroudi, E.; Tahouni, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform a retrofit study of an ammonia plant, in purpose of improving energy efficiency. As a common practice, one can divide an ammonia plant into two parts: the hot-end and the cold-end. In the hot section, two different options are investigated that both lead to a threshold condition and achieve maximum energy saving. The first option covers only process-to-process energy integration, while the second option considers some modification in the convection section of the primary reformer through a new arrangement of the heating coils. Thus, a considerable reduction in cooling water, HP steam and fuel gas consumption is achieved. In the cold section, retrofit study is dominated by reducing the amount of shaft work or power consumption in the refrigeration system. Application of the Combined Pinch and Exergy Analysis revealed that part of the shaft work, which was originally being used, was inefficient and could have been avoided in a well-integrated design. Therefore, by proposing optimum refrigeration levels, reasonable saving (15%) in power consumption was observed without the need for new investment

  20. Total quality management to improve gas plant profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.; Wood, G.; Thompson, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of total quality management (TQM) techniques to the gas processing industry. It also assesses the profit potential for applying TQM in a typical plant situation. Companies utilizing TQM techniques will enjoy a competitive advantage. It represents a new way of doing business for the gas processing industry and incorporates many of Dr. W. Edwards Deming's methods which are often cited as one of the competitive advantages used by the Japanese. TQM can be described as a collection of systems or techniques that work toward two major objectives: To continuously improve the process or operation; and To view meeting the customer's needs as an important criterion for success. As applied to a typical U.S. gas processing operation, it involves several different techniques which are outlined in the paper. The benefits of TQM are detailed in this paper. All of these benefits go directly to a plant's bottom line profitability. The paper also describes ho to establish a program and identifies the factors necessary for successful implementation

  1. A plant defensin gene from Orychophragmus violaceus can improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of Ovd in the sense plant line was stronger than non-transformed plant and antisense plant. The lesion size on detached leaves of the transgenic plants and nontransformed control caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycelia was examined. Lesion size was reduced in sense ...

  2. Improvements in steam cycle electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a steam cycle electric energy generating plants of the type comprising a fossil or nuclear fuel boiler for generating steam and a turbo alternator group, the turbine of which is fed by the boiler steam. The improvement is characterized in that use is made of a second energy generating group in which a fluid (e.g. ammoniac) undergoes a condensation cycle the heat source of said cycle being obtained through a direct or indirect heat exchange with a portion of the boiler generated steam whereby it is possible without overloading the turbo-alternator group, to accomodate any increase of the boiler power resulting from the use of another fuel while maintaining a maximum energy output. This can be applied to electric power stations [fr

  3. Developing Predictive Maintenance Expertise to Improve Plant Equipment Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    On-line equipment condition monitoring is a critical component of the world-class production and safety histories of many successful nuclear plant operators. From addressing availability and operability concerns of nuclear safety-related equipment to increasing profitability through support system reliability and reduced maintenance costs, Predictive Maintenance programs have increasingly become a vital contribution to the maintenance and operation decisions of nuclear facilities. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the quality and portability of many of the instruments being used, and software improvements have been made as well. However, the single most influential component of the success of these programs is the impact of a trained and experienced team of personnel putting this technology to work. Changes in the nature of the power generation industry brought on by competition, mergers, and acquisitions, has taken the historically stable personnel environment of power generation and created a very dynamic situation. As a result, many facilities have seen a significant turnover in personnel in key positions, including predictive maintenance personnel. It has become the challenge for many nuclear operators to maintain the consistent contribution of quality data and information from predictive maintenance that has become important in the overall equipment decision process. These challenges can be met through the implementation of quality training to predictive maintenance personnel and regular updating and re-certification of key technology holders. The use of data management tools and services aid in the sharing of information across sites within an operating company, and with experts who can contribute value-added data management and analysis. The overall effectiveness of predictive maintenance programs can be improved through the incorporation of newly developed comprehensive technology training courses. These courses address the use of

  4. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M

    2010-03-01

    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  5. Improvement of in-service inspection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    During the nuclear power plant's (NPPs) operating lifetime, the operating organisation should examine the systems, structures and components (SSCs) for possible deterioration so as to determine whether they are acceptable for continued safe operation or whether remedial measures should be taken. In-service inspection (ISI) provides the systematic framework for these examinations. An effective ISI programme ensures both that the safety of the plant is not adversely affected after the commencement of operation and that the levels of reliability and availability of all plant SSCs remain in accordance with the assumptions and intent of the design and, consequently, a cost effective electricity generation is guaranteed. This report was prepared under one of the IAEA projects, 'Integrated NPP life cycle management including decommissioning'. The main objective of an integrated life cycle management programme is to enable NPPs to compete, without compromising safety, successfully in the changing energy markets throughout their service life and to facilitate life extension and eventual decommissioning through improved engineering, technological, economic and managerial actions. The Technical Working Group on NPP Life Management and other advisory groups nominated by the Member States provide recommendations on high priority needs of Member States in this area. The purpose of this TECDOC is to: discuss and evaluate the status of ISI and its evolution in NPPs of IAEA Member States; discuss and evaluate the criteria for effective ISI and the constitutive elements; discuss and evaluate the implication of the introduction of risk informed ISI (RI-ISI) concepts; generate a common recommendation as to how to benefit from utilising the potential of RI-ISI concepts for further development and, possibly, improvement of ISI effectiveness. The specific concept of this report is to treat the two key issues, i.e. inspection qualification and RI-ISI, and their complementarities, to

  6. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types

  7. To improve nuclear plant safety by learning from accident's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hidezo; Kida, Masanori; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Shin-ichi

    1994-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this study is to produce an expert system that enables the experience (records and information) gained from accidents to be put to use towards improving nuclear plant safety. A number of examples have been investigated, both domestic and overseas, in which experience gained from accidents was utilized by utilities in managing and operating their nuclear power stations to improve safety. The result of investigation has been used to create a general 'basic flow' to make the best use of experience. The ultimate goal is achieved by carrying out this 'basic flow' with artificial intelligence (AI). To do this, it is necessary (1) to apply language analysis to process the source information (primary data base; domestic and overseas accident's reports) into the secondary data base, and (2) to establish an expert system for selecting (screening) significant events from the secondary data base. In the processing described in item (1), a multi-lingual thesaurus for nuclear-related terms become necessary because the source information (primary data bases) itself is multi-lingual. In the work described in item (2), the utilization of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), for example, is a candidate method for judging the significance of events. Achieving the goal thus requires developing various new techniques. As the first step of the above long-term study project, this report proposes the 'basic flow' and presents the concept of how the nuclear-related AI can be used to carry out this 'basic flow'. (author)

  8. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and N2 fixation of young Robinia pseudoacacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z; Flessa, H.; Dyckmans, J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbon and nitrogen uptake and nitrogen source partitioning were determined in one year-old locust trees using a dual 13 C and 15 N continuous labelling experiment. Elevated carbon dioxide increased the fraction of new carbon in total carbon, but it did not alter carbon partitioning among plant compartments. Elevated carbon dioxide also increased the fraction of new nitrogen in total nitrogen. This was coupled with a shift in nitrogen source partitioning toward nitrogen fixation. Soil nitrogen uptake was not affected, but nitrogen fixation was markedly increased by elevated carbon dioxide treatment. The increased nitrogen fixation tended to decrease the C/N ratio in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide. Total dry mass of root nodules doubled in response to elevated carbon dioxide, however, this effect was not considered significant because of the great variability in root nodule formation. Overall, it was concluded that the growth of locust trees in an elevated carbon dioxide environment will not primarily be limited by nitrogen availability, giving the R. pseudoacacia species a competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing tree species. It was also suggested that the increase in nitrogen fixation observed in response to elevated carbon dioxide treatment may play a key role in the growth response of forest ecosystems to elevated carbon dioxide by improving nitrogen availability for non-nitrogen-fixing trees. 51 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  9. Transportable nuclear power plant T3C-M with two reactor plants of improved safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogloblin, B.G.; Gromov, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    Development and cultivating of districts in Siberia, North, Far East, Kamchatka and other remote or almost inaccessible district of the country depends to a large degree on their providing with power. The specific character of these districts imposes in turn a wide variety of special requirements upon the power sources. In particular, it is essential to provide the following; maximum manufacture availability of the whole equipment at the minimum volume of construction and installation work on operation site, high safety, longterm service life, ecologically, minimum scope of work on equipment in-service maintenance and inspection, etc. Taking into account the well-known difficulties connected with the delivery of conventional energy carriers to the above-mentioned districts and the situation with the alternative power sources, the application of the low-power nuclear plants (NPP) for these purposes looks definitely promising. Among the probable trends in creating the NPPs of this type as very promising is considered the possibility to apply the two-circuit reactor plant of the vessel type with the liquid lead as a primary coolant and free air as a secondary coolant and working medium in the open gas-turbine cycle. The nuclear plant T3C-M of improved safety with two of this type reactor plants with total electric power of 8 MW is developed by CDB of Machine Building with participation of several enterprises of St. Petersburg under the scientific leadership and is intended for generation of electric power and up to 4 Gcal/h of heat for populated areas and installations placed at long distance from the main electric power supply sources where it is difficult or non-efficient economically to deliver the conventional kinds of fuel. The main principles being laid as a basis when developing the proposed NPP will allow one to create mobile power sources which possess a high degree of safety and inherent self-protection

  10. Plant-based raw material: Improved food quality for better nutrition via plant genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der I.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants form the basis of the human food chain. Characteristics of plants are therefore crucial to the quantity and quality of human food. In this review, it is discussed how technological developments in the area of plant genomics and plant genetics help to mobilise the potential of plants to

  11. Combined cycle power plants: technological prospects for improving the efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauri, R.

    2009-01-01

    The combined cycle power plants characteristics are better than one course open to a closed loop presenting an electrical efficiency close to 60% do not reach for gas turbine engines for power plants and conventional steam engines. [it

  12. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paez-Garcia; Christy M. Motes; Wolf-Rüdiger Scheible; Rujin Chen; Elison B. Blancaflor; Maria J. Monteros

    2015-01-01

    Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, wa...

  13. Issues to improve the prospects of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A changing global environment with increasing energy consumption and a need for international energy security is influencing nuclear power projects and the means of obtaining financial backing for such projects. The development of a national nuclear infrastructure can provide significant benefits that influence financial resources. The effects of other factors - such as financing arrangements for capital intensive plants, international design acceptance, harmonization of codes and standards, and assurances of fuel cycle services - need to be considered. An improvement in international cooperation may lower investment risks and contribute to reducing costs. The effects of all these issues need to be assessed and means for supporting the application of nuclear power in the current changing social and commercial environment need to be developed. A key question addressed in this publication is whether financing is the real barrier to nuclear power development or if financing difficulties are simply a consequence of other barriers. It recognizes that there is no single solution and that circumstances in different countries, with different starting points, ambitions and drivers, inevitably affect the balance of approaches followed. The importance of credible, practical, costed and substantiated plans is emphasized. Risks have to be mitigated through an effective strategy and the allocation of risks between parties must be logical. A project has to be demonstrably viable to attract financing. There are three broad areas which must be addressed to improve prospects of investment in nuclear power reactor construction. The first area, and probably the most important, is government and utility commitment and preparedness to adopt and implement a nuclear power programme using internationally recognized standards of safety. The second area is the application of lessons learned from technological and project developments. The third area is financing itself. The conclusions

  14. The use of plant experience for maintaining and improving competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics to be covered in this report are: documentation of plant experience (esp. operational events), derivation of training subjects and training goals, implementation of subjects and goals into retraining, effects of plant experience on tuning and refitting of nuclear power plant simulators and other training equipment. (orig.)

  15. Weight-correction of carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) reduces its inter-individual variability and improves its correlation with blood carbon dioxide levels in neonates receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belteki, Gusztav; Lin, Benjamin; Morley, Colin J

    2017-10-01

    Carbon-dioxide elimination during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is thought to be proportional to the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO 2 ) which is calculated as frequency x (tidal volume) 2 . DCO 2 can be used to as an indicator of CO 2 elimination but values obtained in different patients cannot be directly compared. To analyze the relationship between DCO 2 , the weight-corrected DCO 2 (DCO 2 corr) and blood gas PCO 2 values obtained from infants receiving HFOV. DCO 2 data were obtained from 14 infants at 1/s sampling rate and the mean DCO 2 was determined over 10 min periods preceding the time of the blood gas. DCO 2 corr was calculated by dividing the DCO 2 by the square of the body weight in kg. Weight-correction significantly reduced the inter-individual variability of DCO 2 . When data from all the babies were combined, standard DCO 2 showed no correlation with PCO 2 but DCO 2 corr showed a weak but statistically significant inverse correlation. The correlation was better when the endotracheal leak was correlation between the HFOV tidal volume (VThf) and the PCO 2 . In any baby, DCO 2 corr >50 mL 2 /sec/kg 2 or VThf > 2.5 mL/kg was rarely needed to avoid hypercapnia. Weight-correction of DCO 2 values improved its comparability between patients. Weight-corrected DCO 2 correlated better with PCO 2 than uncorrected DCO 2 but the correlation was weak. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An Improved Metabolism Grey Model for Predicting Small Samples with a Singular Datum and Its Application to Sulfur Dioxide Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an improved metabolism grey model [IMGM(1,1] to predict small samples with a singular datum, which is a common phenomenon in daily economic data. This new model combines the fitting advantage of the conventional GM(1,1 in small samples and the additional advantages of the MGM(1,1 in new real-time data, while overcoming the limitations of both the conventional GM(1,1 and MGM(1,1 when the predicted results are vulnerable at any singular datum. Thus, this model can be classified as an improved grey prediction model. Its improvements are illustrated through a case study of sulfur dioxide emissions in China from 2007 to 2013 with a singular datum in 2011. Some features of this model are presented based on the error analysis in the case study. Results suggest that if action is not taken immediately, sulfur dioxide emissions in 2016 will surpass the standard level required by the Twelfth Five-Year Plan proposed by the China State Council.

  17. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  18. Improving plant state information for better operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.; Olivier, E.; Grimaldi, X.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety is strongly dependent on components' reliability and particularly on plant state information reliability. This information, used by the plant operators in order to produce appropriate actions, have to be of a high degree of confidence, especially in accidental conditions where safety is threatened. In this perspective, FRAMATOME, EDF and CEA have started a joint research program to prospect different solutions aiming at a better reliability for critical information needed to safety operate the plant. This paper gives the main results of this program and describes the developments that have been made in order to assess reliability of different information systems used in a Nuclear Power Plant. (Author)

  19. Summary of EPRI projects for improving power plant maintenance and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugars, H.G.; Poole, D.N.; Pack, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is sponsoring projects to improve power plant maintenance and maintainability. Areas presently being emphasized are improvements in plant design for maintainability, improvements in performing nuclear plant refuelings, and development of on-line monitoring and diagnostic systems for various plant components. The seven projects are reviewed. They are: (1) human factors review of power plant maintainability; (2) refueling outage improvement; (3) on-line monitoring and diagnostics for power plant machinery; (4) acoustic emission and vibrati1on signature analysis of fossil fuel plant components; (5) acoustic monitoring of power plant valves; (6) on-line monitoring and diagnostics for generators; and (7) detection of water induction in steam turbines. Each project contractor and the project manager are listed for reference. 8 references

  20. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Ohresser, Sylvia; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    One of the major global challenges of the present time is the reduction of CO2 emissions. Provisions for integration of a CO2 capture plant are already required today in new power plant construction projects in order to enable current plants to also benefit from the possibilities of carbon capture systems to be developed in the future. These provisions for integration should account for the fact that the scrubbing processes are still in the optimization phase. Requisite process parameters may still change in the future. In the development of a plant interface, the paper describes a concept developed by Siemens which ensures maximum flexibility with simultaneous optimization of the plant for the capture process. Emphasis was placed on the following points in the development of this interface and the associated connection concepts: Maximum plant efficiency before and after modification; Maximum flexibility with regard to future process parameters; Optimization of customer investment cash flow; and, Applicability also to existing plants. According to the paper, Siemens can offer a concept which enables future conversion in accordance with the specified criteria. This concept requires no compromises with regard to plant efficiency in process optimization for either current power plant operation without carbon capture or for future operation with carbon capture. The concept also enables retrofitting of existing plants which are not yet capture-ready. However, retrofitting of power plants which are not prepared for operation with carbon capture is considerably more elaborate in most cases, as corridors must frequently still be cleared for the connecting piping.

  1. Silicone rubbers for dielectric elastomers with improved dielectric and mechanical properties as a result of substituting silica with titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    One prominent method of modifying the properties of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is by adding suitable metal oxide fillers. However, almost all commercially available silicone elastomers are already heavily filled with silica to reinforce the otherwise rather weak silicone network and the resulting...... and dynamic viscosity. Filled silicone elastomers with high loadings of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles were also studied. The best overall performing formulation had 35 wt.% TiO2 nanoparticles in the POWERSIL® XLR LSR, where the excellent ensemble of relative dielectric permittivity of 4.9 at 0...

  2. Perspectives in the use of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aresta Michele

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitigation of carbon dioxide is one of the scientific and technological challenges of the 2000s. Among the technologies that are under assessment, the recovery of carbon dioxide from power plants or industrial flue gases plays a strategic role. Recovered carbon dioxide can be either disposed in natural fields or used. The availability of large amounts of carbon dioxide may open new routes to its utilisation in biological, chemical and innovative technological processes. In this paper, the potential of carbon dioxide utilisation in the short-, medium-term is reviewed.

  3. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Andreas [AREVA GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). Plant Control/Training; Klaus, Peter [E.ON NPP Isar 2, Essenbach (Germany). Plant Operation/Production Engineering

    2016-07-01

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1,500 MW, the general objectives are the main automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM {sup registered} XS) enable the automation of the operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity management in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  4. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Andreas [AREVA GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). Section Manager Training; Klaus, Peter [Preussenelektra NPP, Essenbach (Germany). Production Engineering

    2017-03-15

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1500 MW, the general objectives are several automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM {sup registered} XS) enable the automation of this operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity manage - ment in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  5. Performance analysis of PV plants: Optimization for improving profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díez-Mediavilla, M.; Alonso-Tristán, C.; Rodríguez-Amigo, M.C.; García-Calderón, T.; Dieste-Velasco, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Real PV production from two 100 kW p grid-connected installations is conducted. ► Data sets on production were collected over an entire year. ► Economic results highlight the importance of properly selecting the system components. ► Performance of PV plants is directly related to improvements of all components. - Abstract: A study is conducted of real PV production from two 100 kW p grid-connected installations located in the same area, both of which experience the same fluctuations in temperature and radiation. Data sets on production were collected over an entire year and both installations were compared under various levels of radiation. The installations were assembled with mono-Si panels, mounted on the same support system, and the power supply was equal for the inverter and the measurement system; the same parameters were also employed for the wiring, and electrical losses were calculated in both cases. The results, in economic terms, highlight the importance of properly selecting the system components and the design parameters for maximum profitability.

  6. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  7. New plant improves radwaste processing at the Tokai-2 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    New plant for radiowaste processing at the Tokaj-2 NPP, put in operation in September, 1986, is described. The plant includes five systems providing processing of drianage water, solid waste combustion, decrease of volume and solidification of concentrated wastes, waste storage and flushing water processing. Pressed tablets represent the final product of the waste processing. New plant enables to reduce sufficiently the volume of radioactive wastes

  8. Improving Chemical Plant Safety Training Using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Nasios, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    The chemical engineering industry often requires people to work in hazardous environments and to operate complicated equipment which often limits the type of training that be carried out on site. The daily job of chemical plant operators is becoming more demanding due to the increasing plant complexity together with increasing requirements on plant safety, production capacity, product quality and cost effectiveness. The importance of designing systems and environments that are as safe as poss...

  9. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Romero, Dalia; Baez, Antonino; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis Ernesto; Bustillos-Cristales, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Morales-García, Yolanda Elizabeth; Munive, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  10. Ways of improving preparatory stage and reconstruction of coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfel' d, M.S.; Martynenko, V.M.; Svyatogorov, A.A.; Kvitkin, I.A.; Zhurba, A.I.; Gurtovnik, P.F.

    1987-06-01

    Discusses economic and technological aspects of coking plant reconstruction and modernization in the USSR. Effects of standardized technologies on plant reconstruction are analyzed. A standardized planning procedure jointly developed by research institutes in the USSR for plant modernization or reconstruction is discussed: selecting the optimum reconstruction and repair time, sequence of operations without stoppage of a coke oven battery, coke oven cooling, repair of coke oven liners, heating systems, coke oven equipment, drying, initial heating, testing battery equipment. The procedure is aimed at reducing coke losses and eliminating delays during reconstruction operations. A graphic method for modelling plant reconstruction is discussed.

  11. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Molina-Romero

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02 strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  12. Action of Gibberellins on Growth and Metabolism of Arabidopsis Plants Associated with High Concentration of Carbon Dioxide1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Dimas M.; Araújo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Although the positive effect of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on plant growth is well known, it remains unclear whether global climate change will positively or negatively affect crop yields. In particular, relatively little is known about the role of hormone pathways in controlling the growth responses to elevated [CO2]. Here, we studied the impact of elevated [CO2] on plant biomass and metabolism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in relation to the availability of gibberellins (GAs). Inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO2] (350 µmol CO2 mol−1) was reverted by elevated [CO2] (750 µmol CO2 mol−1). Thus, we investigated the metabolic adjustment and modulation of gene expression in response to changes in growth of plants imposed by varying the GA regime in ambient and elevated [CO2]. In the presence of PAC (low-GA regime), the activities of enzymes involved in photosynthesis and inorganic nitrogen assimilation were markedly increased at elevated [CO2], whereas the activities of enzymes of organic acid metabolism were decreased. Under ambient [CO2], nitrate, amino acids, and protein accumulated upon PAC treatment; however, this was not the case when plants were grown at elevated [CO2]. These results suggest that only under ambient [CO2] is GA required for the integration of carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism underlying optimal biomass determination. Our results have implications concerning the action of the Green Revolution genes in future environmental conditions. PMID:23090585

  13. Carbon sequestration by mangrove forest: One approach for managing carbon dioxide emission from coal-based power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Raghab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Mangroves are known as natural carbon sinks, taking CO2 out of the atmosphere and store it in their biomass for many years. This study aimed to investigate the capacity of world's largest mangrove, the Sundarbans (Indian part) to sequester anthropogenic CO2 emitted from the proximate coal-based thermal power plant in Kolaghat (∼100 km away from mangrove site). Study also includes Kolkata, one of the largest metropolises of India (∼150 km away from mangrove site) for comparing micrometeorological parameters, biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange fluxes and atmospheric pollutants between three distinct environments: mangrove-power plant-metropolis. Hourly sampling of atmospheric CO2 in all three sites (late December 2011 and early January 2012) revealed that CO2 concentrations and emission fluxes were maximum around the power plant (360-621 ppmv, 5.6-56.7 mg m-2s-1 respectively) followed by the metropolis (383-459 ppmv, 3.8-20.4 mg m-2s-1 respectively) and mangroves (277-408 ppmv, -8.9-11.4 mg m-2s-1, respectively). Monthly coal consumption rates (41-57, in 104 ton month-1) were converted to CO2 suggesting that 2.83 Tg C was added to the atmosphere in 2011 for the generation of 7469732 MW energy from the power plant. Indian Sundarbans (4264 km2) sequestered total of 2.79 Tg C which was 0.64% of the annual fossil fuel emission from India in the same time period. Based on these data from 2010 to 2011, it is calculated that about 4328 km2 mangrove forest coverage is needed to sequester all CO2 emitted from the Kolaghat power plant.

  14. Challenges and opportunities for improving food quality and nutrition through plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Finer, John J; Grotewold, Erich

    2017-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology. The recently acquired ability to precisely edit plant genomes by modifying native genes without introducing new genetic material offers new opportunities to rapidly exploit natural variation, create new variation and incorporate changes with the goal to generate more productive and nutritious plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plants for Sustainable Improvement of Indoor Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilli, Federico; Fares, Silvano; Ghirardo, Andrea; Visser, de Pieter; Calatayud, Vicent; Muñoz, Amalia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sebastiani, Federico; Alivernini, Alessandro; Varriale, Vincenzo; Menghini, Flavio

    2018-01-01

    Indoor pollution poses a serious threat to human health. Plants represent a sustainable but underexploited solution to enhance indoor air quality. However, the current selection of plants suitable for indoors fails to consider the physiological processes and mechanisms involved in phytoremediation.

  16. An improved method of DNA extraction from plants for pathogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based applications in plant molecular biology and molecular diagnostics for plant pathogens require good quality DNA for reliable and reproducible results. Leaf tissue is often the choice for DNA extraction, but the use of other sources such as tubers, stems, or seeds, is not uncommon.

  17. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  18. Growth of bean and tomato plants as affected by root absorbed growth substances and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, F; Halevy, A H; Wittwer, S H

    1967-01-01

    Bean and tomato plants were grown in solution culture root media containing pre-determined concentrations of gibberellin A/sub 3/ (GA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), N/sup 6/-benzyladenine (BA), (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CCC), and at atmospheric levels of 300 and 1000 ppm of CO/sub 2/. Net assimilation rates (NAR), relative growth rates (RGR), leaf area ratios (LAR), root to top dry weight ratios (R/T) and changes in dry weight, size, and form of each organ were recorded. Gibberellin had no effect on RGR of either plant species but increased the NAR of tomatoes at 1000 ppm CO/sub 2/. Total dry weight was only slightly affected by GA but root growth and R/T were markedly depressed. CCC had no effect on NAR, but decreased RGR and LAR. Root growth of beans and R/T in both plants were promoted by CCC. NAR and RGR were strongly inhibited by BA and NAA. Inhibition of stem and leaf growth by CCC and NAA was greater than that for roots; thus, R/T ratios were increased. Root branching was promoted by NAA. High (1000 ppm), compared to the low (300 ppm), atmospheric levels of CO/sub 2/ generally promoted root growth and produced an increase in the R/T, both in the absence and presence of chemical treatment. The multiplicity of effects of the root-absorbed chemical growth substances and CO/sub 2/ on growth and photosynthesis is discussed.

  19. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed

  20. Improving planting pattern for intercropping in the whole production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Rubber Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, ... important crops, most of which are heliophilous plants of ... spacing of 4 m and 20 m gap between double rows. ... Data analysis.

  1. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanovskii, A. G., E-mail: vti@vti.ru; Olkhovsky, G. G. [JSC “All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  2. Improved iodine and tritium control in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Schmieder, H.; Roesch, W.; Weirich, F.

    1981-01-01

    During spent fuel processing, iodine and tritium are distributed in many aqueous, organic and gaseous process streams, which complicates their control. Small modifications of conventional purex flow sheets, compatible with processing in the headend and the first extraction cycle are necessary to confine the iodine and the tritium to smaller plant areas. The plant area connected to the dissolver off-gas (DOG) system is suited to confine the iodine and the plant area connected to the first aqueous cycle is suited to confine the tritium. A more clear and convenient iodine and tritium control will be achieved. Relevant process steps have been studied on a lab or a pilot plant scale using I-123 and H-3 tracer

  3. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Garcia, Ana; Motes, Christy M; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Chen, Rujin; Blancaflor, Elison B; Monteros, Maria J

    2015-06-15

    Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics) and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs.

  4. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paez-Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Embolism during Laparoscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2012-01-01

    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22476987

  6. Use of passive systems to improve plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.

    2000-01-01

    In a deregulated future, a utility's strength will depend on its ability to be cost competitive in the marketplace. However, the competitive advantage of nuclear power will depend on each owner's ability to reduce Operating and Maintenance (O and M) costs without sacrificing nuclear safety. The use of passive systems (i.e., systems without any moving parts) can reduce plant O and M costs while increasing safety in nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  8. Applying carbon dioxide, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and EDTA can enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of ryegrass in a soil polluted with zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junkang; Feng, Renwei; Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Ruigang

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the use of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54 (PGPR) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of ryegrass in response to multiple heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soil containing zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). All of the single or combined CO2, PGPR and EDTA treatments promoted ryegrass growth. The stimulation of ryegrass growth by CO2 and PGPR could primarily be attributed to the regulation of photosynthesis rather than decreased levels of Zn, As and Cd in the shoots. Most treatments seemed to reduce the Zn, As and Cd contents in the shoots, which might be associated with enhanced shoot biomass, thus causing a "dilution effect" regarding their levels. The combined treatments seemed to perform better than single treatments in removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from soil, judging from the larger biomass and relatively higher total amounts (TAs) of Zn, As, Cd and Pb in both the shoots and roots. Therefore, we suggest that the CO2 plus PGPR treatment will be suitable for removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soils using ryegrass as a phytoremediation material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strobilurin fungicides induce changes in photosynthetic gas exchange that do not improve water use efficiency of plants grown under conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Mark A; Farrar, John; Bartlett, David

    2007-12-01

    The effects of five strobilurin (beta-methoxyacrylate) fungicides and one triazole fungicide on the physiological parameters of well-watered or water-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and soya (Glycine max Merr.) plants were compared. Water use efficiency (WUE) (the ratio of rate of transpiration, E, to net rate of photosynthesis, A(n)) of well-watered wheat plants was improved slightly by strobilurin fungicides, but was reduced in water-stressed plants, so there is limited scope for using strobilurins to improve the water status of crops grown under conditions of drought. The different strobilurin fungicides had similar effects on plant physiology but differed in persistence and potency. When applied to whole plants using a spray gun, they reduced the conductance of water through the epidermis (stomatal and cuticular transpiration), g(sw), of leaves. Concomitantly, leaves of treated plants had a lower rate of transpiration, E, a lower intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, c(i), and a lower net rate of photosynthesis, A(n), compared with leaves of control plants or plants treated with the triazole. The mechanism for the photosynthetic effects is not known, but it is hypothesised that they are caused either by strobilurin fungicides acting directly on ATP production in guard cell mitochondria or by stomata responding to strobilurin-induced changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. The latter may be important since, for leaves of soya plants, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F(v)/F(m) (an indication of the potential quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry) was reduced by strobilurin fungicides. It is likely that the response of stomata to strobilurin fungicides is complex, and further research is required to elucidate the different biochemical pathways involved. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Carbon dioxide and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed ''An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO 2 Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO 2 concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration

  11. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  12. Cisgenesis strongly improves introgression breeding and induced translocation breeding of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    There are two ways for genetic improvement in classical plant breeding: crossing and mutation. Plant varieties can also be improved through genetic modification; however, the present GMO regulations are based on risk assessments with the transgenes coming from non-crossable species. Nowadays, DNA

  13. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  14. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr

    2016-12-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  15. A model for continuous improvement at a South African minerals benefication plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ras, Eugene Ras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a variety of mineral resources, and several minerals beneficiation plants are currently in operation. These plants must be operated effectively to ensure that the end-users of its products remain internationally competitive. To achieve this objective, plants need a sustainable continuous improvement programme. Several frameworks for continuous improvement are used, with variable success rates, in beneficiation plants around the world. However, none of these models specifically addresses continuous improvement from a minerals-processing point of view. The objective of this research study was to determine which factors are important for a continuous improvement model at a minerals beneficiation plant, and to propose a new model using lean manufacturing, six sigma, and the theory of constraints. A survey indicated that managers in the industry prefer a model that combines various continuous improvement models.

  16. Nuclear techniques and in vitro culture for plant improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The continuous series of food shortages in many parts of the world have led scientists to consider the possibilities of using the new techniques to develop better varieties of plants. The basis for plant breeding is suitable genetic variability and mutation induction as the means to create additional variation. In vitro techniques are a relatively new tool in practical plant breeding. These Proceedings contain 62 papers and posters presented at the symposium, as well as excerpts from the discussions. The Symposium presentations are divided into the following sessions: Genetic variation from in vitro culture; Genetic stability of in vitro cultures; In vitro culture with application of mutagens; Haploids; In vitro mutant selection; Use of genetic variation derived by in vitro culture; In vitro techniques as aids in mutation breeding and Genetic engineering. A separate abstract is prepared for each of these papers and posters

  17. How to improve plant efficiency through leading plant monitoring and control system technology-Almaraz NPP Samo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.; Schwee, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently faced with an intense pressure to reduce the cost of electric production. To achieve these cost reductions, utilities are changing the way they have traditionally operated. They are embracing innovative processes and systems to fundamentally change the way they have operated and maintained their plants. Plant monitoring and control technology has been instrumental in affecting these rapid and proactive changes. Our challenge is to use these new technologies in ways that improve plant reliability while lowering operation and maintenance costs. What must we do to increase operational time, improve safety and reliability while reducing all costs including fixed as well as labor? We will discuss an overall plant monitoring system vision that will allow these changes in operational practices. (Author)

  18. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Monge; Jesús Cruz

    2015-01-01

    A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12) and large (28) manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, howe...

  19. Improving ITS sequence data for identification of plant pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Henrik Nilsson; Kevin D. Hyde; Julia Pawłowska; Martin Ryberg; Leho Tedersoo; Anders Bjørnsgard Aas; Siti A. Alias; Artur Alves; Cajsa Lisa Anderson; Alexandre Antonelli; A. Elizabeth Arnold; Barbara Bahnmann; Mohammad Bahram; Johan Bengtsson-Palme; Anna Berlin; Sara Branco; Putarak Chomnunti; Asha Dissanayake; Rein Drenkhan; Hanna Friberg; Tobias Guldberg Frøslev; Bettina Halwachs; Martin Hartmann; Beatrice Henricot; Ruvishika Jayawardena; Ari Jumpponen; Håvard Kauserud; Sonja Koskela; Tomasz Kulik; Kare Liimatainen; Björn D. Lindahl; Daniel Lindner; Jian-Kui Liu; Sajeewa Maharachchikumbura; Dimuthu Manamgoda; Svante Martinsson; Maria Alice Neves; Tuula Niskanen; Stephan Nylinder; Olinto Liparini Pereira; Danilo Batista Pinho; Teresita M. Porter; Valentin Queloz; Taavi Riit; Marisol Sánchez-García; Filipe de Sousa; Emil Stefańczyk; Mariusz Tadych; Susumu Takamatsu; Qing Tian; Dhanushka Udayanga; Martin Unterseher; Zheng Wang; Saowanee Wikee; Jiye Yan; Ellen Larsson; Karl-Henrik Larsson; Urmas Kõljalg; Kessy Abarenkov

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi are a large and diverse assemblage of eukaryotes with substantial impacts on natural ecosystems and human endeavours. These taxa often have complex and poorly understood life cycles, lack observable, discriminatory morphological characters, and may not be amenable to in vitro culturing. As a result, species identification is frequently difficult...

  20. A plant defensin gene from Orychophragmus violaceus can improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... seedlings and plants from attacking of soil-bore patho- gens (Terras et al., ..... The boxes were covered with plastic film and then kept at. 20°C in dark. ... form four structure-stabilizing disulfide bridges as reported before which ...

  1. Plant type improvement of indigenous rice cultivars through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihupi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A high yielding, locally adapted cultivar 'Afaa Mwanza 1/159' of rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is tall and late in maturity, was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 170, 210 and 250 Gy to shorten plant height and time of maturity. Twelve mutants were selected, and evaluated for yield performance in field trials from M 6 to M 9 generations. All the mutants were shorter in plant height, and gave higher mean yield than the parent. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the number of productive tillers, number of panicles per square meter and grain filling in the panicle were important characters which influenced yield. On the other hand, panicle length had negative influence on yield. Cv. 'Supa India' and 'Salama' were also irradiated with doses of 170, 210, 240 Gy gamma rays. Analysis of M 2 populations of these cultivars indicated that mutagenesis created a lot of variation in plant height, maturity, spikelet fertility and panicle length. The induced variation shall be useful in selecting desired plant types. (author). 16 refs, 12 tabs

  2. Plant type improvement of indigenous rice cultivars through induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihupi, A [Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania)

    1997-07-01

    A high yielding, locally adapted cultivar `Afaa Mwanza 1/159` of rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is tall and late in maturity, was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 170, 210 and 250 Gy to shorten plant height and time of maturity. Twelve mutants were selected, and evaluated for yield performance in field trials from M{sub 6} to M{sub 9} generations. All the mutants were shorter in plant height, and gave higher mean yield than the parent. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the number of productive tillers, number of panicles per square meter and grain filling in the panicle were important characters which influenced yield. On the other hand, panicle length had negative influence on yield. Cv. `Supa India` and `Salama` were also irradiated with doses of 170, 210, 240 Gy gamma rays. Analysis of M{sub 2} populations of these cultivars indicated that mutagenesis created a lot of variation in plant height, maturity, spikelet fertility and panicle length. The induced variation shall be useful in selecting desired plant types. (author). 16 refs, 12 tabs.

  3. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  4. Foundational and Translational Research Opportunities to Improve Plant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelmore, Richard; Coaker, Gitta; Bart, Rebecca; Beattie, Gwyn; Bent, Andrew; Bruce, Toby; Cameron, Duncan; Dangl, Jeff; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Edwards, Rob; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Gassmann, Walter; Greenberg, Jean; Harrison, Richard; He, Ping; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Harvey, Jagger; Huffaker, Alisa; Hulbert, Scot; Innes, Roger; Jones, Jonathan; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Kamoun, Sophien; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Leach, Jan; Ma, Wenbo; McDowell, John; Medford, June; Meyers, Blake; Nelson, Rebecca; Oliver, Richard; Qi, Yiping; Saunders, Diane; Shaw, Michael; Smart, Christine; Subudhi, Prasanta; Torrance, Lesley; Tyler, Bret; Valent, Barbara; Walsh, John

    2018-01-01

    Summary This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses. These threats are aggravated by climate change, the globalization of agriculture, and an over-reliance on non-sustainable inputs. New analytical and computational technologies are providing unprecedented resolution at a variety of molecular, cellular, organismal, and population scales for crop plants as well as pathogens, pests, beneficial microbes, and weeds. It is now possible to both characterize useful or deleterious variation as well as precisely manipulate it. Data-driven, informed decisions based on knowledge of the variation of biotic challenges and of natural and synthetic variation in crop plants will enable deployment of durable interventions throughout the world. These should be integral, dynamic components of agricultural strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:28398839

  5. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...

  6. Transgenic plants to improve rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sylvestre, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2009), s. 242-247 ISSN 0958-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bacterial dioxygenases * GM- plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 7.820, year: 2009

  7. Improving planting pattern for intercropping in the whole production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... vegetable for the people or to enrich biodiversity of rubber plantations in the area of hundred-miles rubber ..... Influence of rubber canopy on intercrop productivity. Trans. Malaysian Soc. Plant Physiol. 2: 75-79. Lin Weifu, Zhou Zhongyu, Huang Shoufeng (1999). A review and prospect of intercropping in ...

  8. A modelling framework for improving plant establishment during ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants seeded during ecological restoration projects often perish en masse, and researchers are currently searching for traits promoting increased survival. In this study of a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystem, we found survivorship rankings of seeded grass species varied across 3...

  9. A basic plan for the environment-friendly aspects of improved Korean standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoon-Seok; Lee, Yong-Koo; Kim, Kwang-Ho

    2006-01-01

    The Improved Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP+) design has been made possible on the basis of engineering experiences and referring to an in-depth analysis of the design and construction of all the domestic nuclear power plants in operation. The KSNP+ is designed for improved safety, better economics, operability and maintainability by means of advanced technology expecting to demonstrate enhanced performance. The plant also has incorporated several environmentally friendly features through the restoration of excavated areas using an ecological approach, external coloring, figure of turbine generator building and landscaping around nuclear power plant. This is the first time that KOPEC has embarked on inducing environmentally friendly features into the basic plan. This is expected to mitigate the negative perceptions held by the residents in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and will contribute to a new and improved image of nuclear power plants. (authors)

  10. Improvements in the nuclear power plants - a permanent task for the plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1991-01-01

    The main motives of the operators of nuclear power plants for carrying out backfitting measures are given by the following objectives: (1) to operate the nuclear power plants, older ones too, at a high level of safety, and to keep a lowest possible difference to the respective level of science and technology, (2) to ensure preconditions for a best possible economical operation, also with changing cost structures, (3) to create preconditions for the longest possible operational time. Operational times of more than 40 years have been throught to be realistic. A constant analysis of the operational safety of the whole plant is necessary for laying down the measures for backfitting of the plant. This analysis must also include the valuation of the nuclear safety in accordance with the progressive level of sience and technology. The proccess of backfitting in the German nuclear power plants will be illustrated with the help of several examples. (orig.) [de

  11. Understanding plant response to nitrogen limitation for the improvement of crop nitrogen use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2011-02-01

    Development of genetic varieties with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is essential for sustainable agriculture. Generally, NUE can be divided into two parts. First, assimilation efficiency involves nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation and second utilization efficiency involves N remobilization. Understanding the mechanisms regulating these processes is crucial for the improvement of NUE in crop plants. One important approach is to develop an understanding of the plant response to different N regimes, especially to N limitation, using various methods including transcription profiling, analysing mutants defective in their normal response to N limitation, and studying plants that show better growth under N-limiting conditions. One can then attempt to improve NUE in crop plants using the knowledge gained from these studies. There are several potential genetic and molecular approaches for the improvement of crop NUE discussed in this review. Increased knowledge of how plants respond to different N levels as well as to other environmental conditions is required to achieve this.

  12. Improvements in the construction of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines activities to minimize the amount of work at a construction site by employing installation method with large size blocks and shop-assembled units, improvement in facilities such as mechanization of welding and huge roof cover which enables work in all weather conditions, and administration systems using computer for the work activity control as well as quality and progress control for construction work. These improvements are only achieved when supported by related system improvements at the design and fabrication stage, and these improvements contributed a great deal to the quality assurance and the shorter construction period. (author)

  13. Food synergies for improving bioavailability of micronutrients from plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K Madhavan; Augustine, Little Flower

    2018-01-01

    Plant foods are endowed with micronutrients but an understanding of bioavailability is essential in countries primarily dependent on plant based foods. Bioavailability depends majorly on food synergies. This review examines the nature of certain food synergies and methods to screen and establish it as a strategy to control micronutrient deficiency in the populations. Strong evidence on the synergistic effect of inclusion of vitamin C rich fruits and non-vegetarian foods in enhancing the bioavailability of iron has been demonstrated. Fat is found to be synergistic for vitamin A absorption. Red wine and protein have been explored for zinc absorption and effect of fat has been studied for vitamin D. Methods for screening of bioavailability, and biomarkers to demonstrate the synergistic effects of foods are required. Translation of food synergy as a strategy requires adaptation to the context and popularization of intelligent food synergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety improvement plant modifications at Forsmark 3, 1986-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellander, M. [Kaernkraftsaekerhet och utbildning, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    All important plant modifications implemented in safety-related equipment or software at Forsmark 3 are compiled in this report. The report covers the period from the start of commercial operation in 1985 up to and including 1995. The plant modifications, which were carried out by different suppliers during the guarantee period, are not included in the report since they have not been administered by the Forsmark organisation. The report contains references to relevant modification notices and to files and file divider numbers. These data refer to the Safety Department central archives. The report is based on Forsmark 3 Technical Specifications (STF) which means that Chapter 3 is divided into the same sections as in the STF. Modifications, which cannot be directly attributed to any specific STF chapter, and major modifications are described separately

  15. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  16. Technical concepts of further improvement of nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochor, R.

    1983-01-01

    The following technical concepts are described which secure the integrity of the containment in case of an accident whose scale exceeds the so-called design basis accident: siting nuclear power plants underground which raises construction costs by 20 - 25%; completing the containment with equipment preventing the outflow of molten corium; completing the containment with emergency pressure space for discharging overpressure - this emergency space is filled with gravel which will trap approximately 50% of fission waste. (Ha)

  17. Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

  18. A predictive maintenance approach for improved nuclear plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.M.P.; Pandya, M.B.; Kini, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    Predictive maintenance programme as against preventive maintenance programme aims at diagnosing, inspecting, monitoring, and objective condition-checking of equipment. It helps in forecasting failures, and scheduling the optimal frequencies for overhauls, replacements, lubrication etc. It also helps in establishing work load, manpower, resource planning and inventory control. Various stages of predictive maintenance programme for a nuclear power plant are outlined. A partial list of instruments for predictive maintenance is given. (M.G.B.)

  19. Improvement of the nuclear plant analyzer for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Soo; Han, Byoung Sub; Suh, Jae Seung; Son, Dae Seong

    2005-04-01

    Accurate analysis of the operating characteristics of Nuclear Power Plants provides valuable information for both norman and abnormal operation. The information can be used for the enhancement of plant performance and safety. Usually, such analysis is performed using computer codes used for plant design or simulators. However, their usages are limited because special expertise is required to use the computer codes and simulators are not portable. Therefore, it deemed necessary to develop an NPA which minimizes those limitations and can be used for the analysis and simulation of Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this study is to develop a real-time best-estimate NPA for the Korean Nuclear Power Plants(KSNP). The NPA is an interactive, high fidelity engineering simulator. NPA combines the process model simulating the plant behavior with the latest computer technology such as Graphical User Interface(GUI) and simulation executive for enhanced user interface. The process model includes models for a three-dimensional reactor core, the NSSS, secondary system including turbine and feedtrain, safety auxiliary systems, and various control systems. Through the verification and validation of the NPA, it was demonstrated that the NPA can realistically simulate the plant behaviors during transient and accident conditions

  20. Improving the safety of future nuclear fission power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Gros, G.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives and principles in nuclear fission reactor safety are presented, e.g. the defence in depth strategy and technical principles such as redundancy, diversity and physical separation. After a brief historical review of the continuous development of safety improvement, the most recent international discussion is presented. This includes mainly the international activities within IAEA and its International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG). The safety improvement, presented in recommendations of IAEA and INSAG is expressed as an improvement of all elements and all levels of the defence in depth concept. Special emphasis is put on improvement of the highest level, which requires the implementation of means to mitigate consequences of accidents with severe core damage. The different future concepts are briefly characterised. Some examples from the French-German safety approach are taken to demonstrate how requirements for safety improvement by means of an enhancement of the defence in depth principle are developed

  1. Transportable nuclear power plant TEC-M with two reactor plants of improved safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogloblin, B.G.; Sazonov, A.G.; Svishchev, A.M.; Gromov, B.F.; Zelensky, V.N.; Komkova, O.I.; Sidorov, V.I.; Tolstopyatov, V.P.; Toshinsky, G.I.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid metals are the best to meet the requirements of inherently safety nuclear power plants among the coolants used. A great experience has been gained in lead coolant power plant development and operation as applied to transportable power set-ups. Low chemical activity of this coolant with respect to air-water interaction is a determining factor for this coolant. The transportable nuclear power plant is described. It is intended to generate electric power for populated areas placed a long distance from the main electric power supply sources where it is difficult or not economical to deliver the conventional types of fuel. There are several remote areas in Siberia, Kamchatka in need of this type of power plant

  2. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...

  3. Application of artificial intelligence to improve plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.; Epstein, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using artificial intelligence software techniques, Management Analysis Company (MAC) has developed two complementary software packages that together provide a workstation environment for maintenance and operations personnel to dramatically reduce inadvertent reactor trips. They are called the Reactor Trip Simulation Environment (RTSE) and the Key Component Generation Environment (KCGE). They are not proposed or being designed. They are in use today. The plants component and process interdependencies are modeled within RTSE - using modeling practices and notations familiar to engineers which accelerated the acceptance of the software. KCGE provides the groups of key components that would cause a reactor trip

  4. Improving nuclear power plant reliability through predictive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geilhausen, R.; Kunze, U.

    1996-01-01

    Maintenance strategies can be assigned to one of three categories: failure maintenance, periodic maintenance or condition-oriented maintenance. The optimum maintenance scheme can be selected on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis but the safety of life and limb or the political climate for NPP can hardly expressed in numbers. The implementation of preventive maintenance needs two preconditions: high-performance instrumentation in the form of stationary and mobile monitoring systems for the determination of the condition of the nuclear power plant components and provision of a tool that can handle both the organization of the work and the evaluation of the results obtained. (authors)

  5. More bad news about carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2000-01-01

    The affect that increased carbon dioxide concentrations has on plants and animals was discussed. Most research focuses on the impacts that carbon dioxide concentrations has on climatic change. Recent studies, however, have shown that elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by burning fossils fuels changes the chemical structure of plants and could lead to significant disruptions in ecological food chains. High carbon dioxide levels cause plants to speed up photosynthesis, take in the gas, and use the carbon to produce more fibre and starch while giving off oxygen as a byproduct. As plants produce more carbon, their levels of nitrogen diminish making them less nutritious for the insects and animals that feed on them. This has serious implications for farmers, as pests would have to eat more of their crops to survive. In addition, farmers would have to supplement livestock with nutrients

  6. Improving the traditional sesame seed planting with seed pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 1Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey. 2Fethiye ... the pelleted sesame seeds improved the yield significantly ... Sesame holds a special importance in the world's oil.

  7. Improved Nuclear Power Plant maintenance. Application to Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradell, V.

    2002-01-01

    The Industrial Safety and Environment Group (MEDASEGI) of the Valencia Polytechnic University (UPV) develops its activities in the fields of environmental radioactivity metrology and risk analysis and management aimed at improving industrial safety. The different lines of research developed by this group include collaboration with Cofrentes NPP. This collaboration began in 1993 and has primarily focused on issues related to improved maintenance and currently on life management. (Author)

  8. An Improved Setpoint Determination Methodology for the Plant Protection System Considering Beyond Design Basis Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.J.; Baik, K.I.; Baek, S.M.; Park, K.-M.; Lee, S.J.

    2013-06-01

    According to the nuclear regulations and industry standards, the trip setpoint and allowable value for the plant protection system have been determined by considering design basis events. In order to improve the safety of a nuclear power plant, an attempt has been made to develop an improved setpoint determination methodology for the plant protection system trip parameter considering not only a design basis event but also a beyond design basis event. The results of a quantitative evaluation performed for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 nuclear power plant in Korea are presented herein. The results confirmed that the proposed methodology is able to improve the nuclear power plant's safety by determining more reasonable setpoints that can cover beyond design basis events. (authors)

  9. Absorption of carbon dioxide in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Air flow rates and carbon dioxide concentrations of air entering and exiting eight H-Area waste tanks were monitored for a period of one year. The average instanteous concentration of carbon dioxide in air is within the range reported offsite, and therefore is not affect by operation of the coal-fired power plant adjacent to the tank farm. Waste solutions in each of the tanks were observed to be continuously absorbing carbon dioxide. The rate of absorption of carbon dioxide decreased linearly with the pH of the solution. Personnel exposure associated with the routine sampling and analysis of radioactive wastes stored at SRP to determine the levels of corrosion inhibitors in solution could be reduced by monitoring the absorption of carbon dioxide and using the relationship between pH and carbon dioxide absorption to determine the free hydroxide concentration in solution

  10. Plant plasma membrane proteomics for improving cold tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eTakahashi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are always exposed to various stresses. We have focused on freezing stress, which causes serious problems for agricultural management. When plants suffer freeze-induced damage, the plasma membrane is thought to be the primary site of injury because of its central role in regulation of various cellular processes. Cold tolerant species, however, adapt to such freezing conditions by modifying cellular components and functions (cold acclimation. One of the most important adaptation mechanisms to freezing is alteration of plasma membrane compositions and functions. Advanced proteomic technologies have succeeded in identification of many candidates that may play roles in adaptation of the plasma membrane to freezing stress. Proteomics results suggest that adaptations of plasma membrane functions to low temperature are associated with alterations of protein compositions during cold acclimation. Some of proteins identified by proteomic approaches have been verified their functional roles in freezing tolerance mechanisms further. Thus, accumulation of proteomic results in the plasma membrane is of importance for application to molecular breeding efforts to increase cold tolerance in crops.

  11. Safety assessment of proposed improvements to RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the findings and recommendations of a Consultants Meeting convened by the IAEA in Vienna (27 October - 5 November 1992) to review new design features and modifications proposed or already implemented for RBMK reactors. This information was provided in four technical areas, namely: Core Monitoring and Control, Pressure Boundary Integrity, Accident Mitigation and Electric Power Supply. The report also presents the status of the modifications at the plants as given by the RBMK specialists. The limited information available and the time constraints did not allow the review to be conducted at the level of a peer review, and the findings and recommendations made reflect the limited scope of the review. More detailed reviews and analysis focusing on selected safety issues are required and should be conducted on a generic and plant specific basis as appropriate. In Chapters 2-5 of the report the main findings and recommendations for the four topical areas reviewed are summarized. Appendices I-IV reflect the results of the discussions held at the meeting and provide more detailed information on the review. 17 refs, 27 figs, 17 tabs

  12. Liquid radioactive waste processing improvement of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, Renata Wolter dos Reis; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Monteiro, Jose Luiz Fontes

    2005-01-01

    The study evaluate an inorganic ion exchange to process the low level liquid radwaste of PWR nuclear plants, so that the level of the radioactivity in the effluents and the solid waste produced during the treatment of these liquid radwaste can be reduced. The work compares two types of ion exchange materials, a strong acid cation exchange resin, that is the material typically used to remove radionuclides from PWR nuclear plants wastes, and a mordenite zeolite. These exchange material were used to remove cesium from a synthetic effluent containing only this ion and another effluent containing cesium and cobalt. The breakthrough curves of the zeolite and resin using a fix bed reactor were compared. The results demonstrated that the zeolite is more efficient than the resin in removing cesium from a solution containing cesium and cobalt. The results also showed that a bed combining zeolite and resin can process more volume of an effluent containing cesium and cobalt than a bed resin alone. (author)

  13. Halophytic Companion Plants Improve Growth and Physiological Parameters of Tomato Plants Grown under Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, S.; Cullu, M. A.; Kaya, C.; Dikilitas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium. Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses. Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. SC2121) grown with or without halophytic companion plants (SalsolasodaL. and Portulacaoleracea L.) were investigated in pot experiment. Treatments consist of four soil type (collected from Harran plain-Turkey) with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity (EC): 0.9, 4.2, 7.2, and 14.1 dS m/sup -1/. The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight (4.2dS m/sup -1/), moderate (7.2 dS m/sup -1/) and high (14.1 dS m/sup -1/) salinity as compared to non-saline soil (0.9 dS m/sup -1/), respectively. Leaf content of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) enzyme activity increased with increasing level of salinity. In tomato plants grown in consociation with Salsolasoda, salinity induced DM decrease was only 6, 12 and 28% in soils with slight, moderate and high salinity as compared to non-saline soil, respectively. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. (author)

  14. Alternative off-site power supply improves nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorgiev, Blaže; Volkanovski, Andrija; Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Additional power supply for mitigation of the station blackout event in NPP is used. • A hydro power plant is considered as an off-site alternative power supply. • An upgrade of the probabilistic safety assessment from its traditional use is made. • The obtained results show improvement of nuclear power plant safety. - Abstract: A reliable power system is important for safe operation of the nuclear power plants. The station blackout event is of great importance for nuclear power plant safety. This event is caused by the loss of all alternating current power supply to the safety and non-safety buses of the nuclear power plant. In this study an independent electrical connection between a pumped-storage hydro power plant and a nuclear power plant is assumed as a standpoint for safety and reliability analysis. The pumped-storage hydro power plant is considered as an alternative power supply. The connection with conventional accumulation type of hydro power plant is analysed in addition. The objective of this paper is to investigate the improvement of nuclear power plant safety resulting from the consideration of the alternative power supplies. The safety of the nuclear power plant is analysed through the core damage frequency, a risk measure assess by the probabilistic safety assessment. The presented method upgrades the probabilistic safety assessment from its common traditional use in sense that it considers non-plant sited systems. The obtained results show significant decrease of the core damage frequency, indicating improvement of nuclear safety if hydro power plant is introduced as an alternative off-site power source

  15. PGPR Potentially Improve Growth of Tomato Plants in Salt-Stressed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Zameer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are colonized bacterial species that has the capability to improve plant growth by certain direct and indirect means. Environmental factors including both biotic and abiotic stresses are among the major constraints to crop production. In the current study, the effectiveness of microbial inoculation (Bacillus megaterium for enhancing growth of tomato plants under salt stress conditions has been investigated. Significant improvement in shoot length, root length, leaf surface area, number of leaves, total weight of the shoot and root was observed in tomato plants inoculated with zm7 strain post 15 and 30 days of its application. Zm3, Zm4 and Zm6 strains improved the morphological parameters as compared to the control. Chlorophyll content a, chlorophyll content b, anthocyanin and carotenoid content was increased in tomato plants subjected to Zm7, Zm6 and Zm4 strains. Stress responsive genes; metallothionein and glutothion gene were found highly expressed in Zm7 treated tomato plants as compared to control, untreated plants. Significant correlation of anthocyanin was reported for carotenoids, chlorophyll-b, shoot weight and total weight of seedling while carotenoids were significantly correlated with leaf surface area, root length, chlorophyll-b and anthocyanin. Overall, Zm7 strain proved best for improvement in salt stressed plant’s morphological parameters and biochemical parameters as compared to control, untreated plants.

  16. Improvement of nuclear power plant operation and maintenance in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazushige Hamazaki

    1987-01-01

    Following the inauguration of commercial nuclear power generation in Japan in 1966, capacity factors were held in the relatively low level until around 1975 due to initial-period troubles. With subsequent improvement, however, capacity factors have climbed steadily and recently been sustaining more than 70%. To obtain this successful result, a various kind of improvement have been made not only for the operation management area but also for the maintenance management area in conjunction with the successive effort to reflect the operating experiences to the early stage design. Nowadays nuclear generation has assumed increasing importance for Japan's electrical power needs, and is making a great contribution to stabilizing power supply costs. (author)

  17. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  18. The nuclear technology in the plants improvement; La tecnologia nuclear en el mejoramiento de las plantas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jgj@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Conjunctively the biological knowledge of the genes and that of the physics of the radiations, today we can accelerate the process of obtaining of new varieties of plants and to improve vegetable, more useful and more productive species. (Author)

  19. Improved anchorage of steel linings at WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouda, M.; Cepicky, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three variants were tested of anchoring the steel lining of special structures of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors, such as the containment, viz.: point anchorage with pins according to a Czechoslovak design, and two methods of linear anchorage according to a Soviet design and a design by the Institute for Industrial Construction of the GDR. Graphically shown are some results of the tests of the point anchorage with pins that showed the reliability of the method with respect to deformation and strain of the lining and of the anchoring elements at a lining temperature of up to 300 degC, which significantly exceeded the design-basis accident temperature of 150 degC. The advantages of the variant include a lower content of labour and an increased quality of welding jobs thanks to the application of the Nelson semi-automatic welding technique. (Z.M.). 10 figs., 7 refs

  20. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  1. Safety Performance Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants Utilizing THOMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won June; Ryu, Jung Uk; Suh, Kune Y.

    2005-01-01

    THOMAS (Thermal Hydraulics Online Monitoring Advisory System) is equipped with a couple of salient features compared with existing monitoring systems. The first has to do with the three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique to support the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators and personnel using the virtual reality (VR) technology. VR depicts an environment simulated by a computer. Most of the VR environments primarily include visual experiences, displayed either on a monitor or though special stereoscopic goggles. Users can often interactively manipulate a VR environment, either through standard input devices like a keyboard, or through specially designed devices like a cybergloves. Additional devices were not applied the in THOMAS. The visualized model file is brought to the VR space from the computer-aided design (CAD) tool. In the VR space, using mapping, the component color is changed with linked value of the safety variables. Operators thus can easily recognize the plant condition. This is related with the human factor engineering. The second is the function of decision making using the influence diagram logic. The influence diagram logic is based on the total probability and Bayesian theory. The accident modeling is rooted in the emergency operating procedure (EOP). The final goal of this system is, in the accident situation, to present a success path to the operator for the recovery of the NPP system. At the current developing level, the database signals THOMAS. In other words, a spectrum of system analysis codes provides the safety parameter values to the database, which are subsequently supplied to THOMAS through the network

  2. The basic planning for the environmental relationship of improved nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seungho; Jung, Hoonseok; Lee, Dongheup

    2003-01-01

    The Improved Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) which design has been emphasized on the safety, technology and environmental relationship is about to be realized after hard works of design improvements, largely changes made from existing PWR nuclear power plants for three years. It will undoubtedly play a leading role of nuclear power generation industry as a main electric power source and secure a place as a successful issue between development and environment throughout nation-wide understanding and support. (author)

  3. Improving the safety of workers in the vicinity of mobile plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report investigates possible approaches and technologies to improve the safety of pedestrians around mobile plant. The study has considered mobile plant in underground mining, surface mineral extraction and warehousing and materials handling. It investigates vehicle ergonomics and visual task analysis, aids to improve reversing and sight lines, direct body detection techniques, conventional transponder (RFID) and VLF magnetic dipole detection technologies. 43 refs., 5 apps.

  4. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  5. Improvement of QA/QC activities in the construction of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinji Tomita; Shigetaka Tomaru

    1987-01-01

    Construction of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan started at around 1965. In this presentation are described quality assurance (QA) activities of a plant supplier who is a manufacturer of the key components as well. The QA activities until now are divided into several periods of the construction history in Japan. First term is 1960's when the QA activities are featured as the study and implementation through the construction of imported plants. Since then technologies and procedures of our own have been established and improved for the construction of high reliability plants. Our present QA activities are based on the active reflection of those lessons learned of past experiences. (author)

  6. Improvement of water desalination technologies in reverse osmosis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskii, S. P.; Konoval'chik, M. V.; Gul'ko, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening of requirements for the protection of surface-water sources and increases in the cost of reagents lead to the necessity of using membrane (especially, reverse osmosis) technologies of water desalination as an alternative to ion-exchange technologies. The peculiarities of using reverse osmosis technologies in the desalination of waters with an increased salinity have been discussed. An analogy has been made between the dependence of the adsorptive capacity of ion-exchange resins on the reagent consumption during ion exchange and the dependence of the specific ion flux on the voltage in the electrodialysis and productivity of membrane elements on the excess of the pressure of source water over the osmotic pressure in reverse osmosis. It has been proposed to regulate the number of water desalination steps in reverse osmosis plants, which makes it possible to flexibly change the productivity of equipment and the level of desalinization, depending on the requirements for the technological process. It is shown that the selectivity of reverse osmotic membranes with respect to bivalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and sulfates) is approximately four times higher than the selectivity with respect to monovalent ions (sodium and chlorine). The process of desalination in reverse osmosis plants depends on operation factors, such as the salt content and ion composition of source water, the salt content of the concentrate, and the temperatures of solution and operating pressure, and the design features of devices, such as the length of the motion of the desalination water flux, the distance between membranes, and types of membranes and turbulators (spacers). To assess the influence of separate parameters on the process of reverse osmosis desalination of water solutions, we derived criteria equations by compiling problem solution matrices on the basis of the dimensional method, taking into account the Huntley complement. The operation of membrane elements was

  7. Inpo programs for improvement of nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward Moore, C.

    1989-01-01

    The talk shows how key INPO programs help foster improved nuclear power operations. The talk focuses on the results being seen from six key efforts: evaluations, training and accreditation, assistance, events analysis and information exchange, human performance and maintenance. The talk stresses that all INPO programs are geared toward enhanced performance and that progress in key performance areas since 1980 shows that INPO and U.S. industry efforts are achieving desired results

  8. A numerical study on improving the thermal hydraulic performance of printed circuit heat exchanger using the supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bo Guen; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Jin Taek [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to propose a new channel shape that improves thermal-hydraulic performance. The existing Zigzag channel has high pressure loss due to flow separation and reverse flow. To improve this disadvantage, partial straight channel is inserted into bended points. Also, the effects of straight channel's length change on heat transfer and pressure loss are analyzed. Thermal-hydraulic performance of the new shape and existing Zigzag channel are quantitatively compared in terms of Goodness Factor. Mass flow rate was changed from 1.41 x 10{sup -4} kg/s to 2.48 x 10{sup -4} kg/s . The average volume goodness factor of 1mm straight channel shape was increased by 25% compared to the Zigzag channel.

  9. Improvement of cement plant dust emission by bag filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Purnomo, Chandra; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Alfisyah, Muziibu; Triyono

    2018-03-01

    The limestone quarry in PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (ITP) in Cirebon is considered as a complex quarry in terms of chemical composition and material hardness. From the beginning of the plant operation up to the end of 2015, the dust removal was rely on electrostatic precipitator (EP) system. Whenever limestone from specific quarry zones were incorporated into Raw Mill (RM) feed or there was an upset condition, the dust emission increased significantly. Beside higher demand of electricity, an EP system requires lower gas inlet temperature in order to remove the dust effectively which requires larger cooling water in the previous gas conditioning tower to cool down gas from 400 °C to about 100 °C. By considering the drawbacks, the EP system was replaced by a bag filter (BF) system. The BF allows higher temperature of gas inlet and it has higher dust removal efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of the two different dust removal systems is compared. The effect of process variables i.e. RM feed, kiln feed, inlet temperature and pressure, and small size particle fraction to the dust emission are studied by multivariate linier regression analysis. It is observed that the BF system can reduce significantly the dust emission from 30 to 6 mg/m3 and in the same time reducing CO2 emission by 0.24 ton/year from the electricity consumption saving.

  10. An overview of the United States Department of Energy Plant Lifetime Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Clauss, J.M.; Harrison, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE'S Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues, including degradation of long-lived components, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement management approaches, and analytical methodologies to characterize RPV integrity. (author)

  11. Overexpression of monoubiquitin improves photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants following high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fengxia; Gong, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Yanan; Wang, Guokun; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (Ub/26S) is implicated in abiotic stress responses in plants. In this paper, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 from wheat were used to study the functions of Ub in the improvement of photosynthesis under high temperature (45°C) stress. We observed higher levels of Ub conjugates in transgenic plants under high temperature stress conditions compared to wild type (WT) as a result of the constitutive overexpression of Ta-Ub2, suggesting increased protein degradation by the 26S proteasome system under high temperature stress. Overexpressing Ub increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of transgenic tobacco plants, consistent with the improved ATPase activity in the thylakoid membrane and enhanced efficiency of PSII photochemistry. The higher D1 protein levels following high temperature stress in transgenic plants than WT were also observed. These findings imply that Ub may be involved in tolerance of photosynthesis to high temperature stress in plants. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants showed lower protein carbonylation and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature stress. These findings suggest that the improved antioxidant capacity of transgenic plants may be one of the most important mechanisms underlying Ub-regulated high temperature tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. POWER-GEN '90 conference papers: Volume 7 (Fossil plant performance availability and improvement) and Volume 8 (Nuclear power issues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This is book 4 of papers presented at the Third International Exhibition and Conference for the Power Generation Industries, December 4-6, 1990. This book contains Volume 7, Fossil Plant Performance Availability and Improvement, and Volume 8, Nuclear Power Issues. The topics of the papers include computer applications in plant operations and maintenance, managing aging plants, plant improvements, plant operations and maintenance, the future of nuclear power, achieving cost effective plant operation, managing nuclear plant aging and license renewal, and the factors affecting a decision to build a new nuclear plant

  13. Understanding nitrate uptake, signaling and remobilisation for improving plant nitrogen use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya

    2018-02-01

    The majority of terrestrial plants use nitrate as their main source of nitrogen. Nitrate also acts as an important signalling molecule in vital physiological processes required for optimum plant growth and development. Improving nitrate uptake and transport, through activation by nitrate sensing, signalling and regulatory processes, would enhance plant growth, resulting in improved crop yields. The increased remobilisation of nitrate, and assimilated nitrogenous compounds, from source to sink tissues further ensures higher yields and quality. An updated knowledge of various transporters, genes, activators, and microRNAs, involved in nitrate uptake, transport, remobilisation, and nitrate-mediated root growth, is presented. An enhanced understanding of these components will allow for their orchestrated fine tuning in efforts to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation analysis of capacity and performance improvement in wastewater treatment plants: Case study of Alexandria eastern plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursy, Aly; Sorour, Mohamed T.; Moustafa, Medhat; Elbarqi, Walid; Fayd, Mai; Elreedy, Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    This study concerns the upgrading of a real domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) supported by simulation. The main aims of this work are to: (1) decide between two technologies to improve WWTP capacity and its nitrogen removal efficiency; membrane bioreactor (MBR) and integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS), and (2) perform a cost estimation analysis for the two proposed solutions. The model used was calibrated based on data from the existing WWTP, namely, Eastern plant and located in Alexandria, Egypt. The activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1) was considered in the model analysis by GPS-X 7 software. Steady-state analysis revealed that high performances corresponded to high compliance with Egyptian standards were achieved by the two techniques; however, MBR was better. Nonetheless, the two systems showed poor nitrogen removal efficiency according to the current situation, which reveals that the plant needs a modification to add an anaerobic treatment unit before the aerobic zone.

  15. Do plant-based amendments improve soil physiochemical and microbiological properties and plant growth in dryland ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Background Land intensive practices including mining have contributed to the degradation of landscapes globally. Current challenges in post-mine restoration revolve around the use of substrates poor in organic materials (e.g. overburden and waste rock) and lack of original topsoil which may result in poor seedling recruitment and in later stages in soil nutrient deficiency, metal toxicity, decreased microbial activity and high salinity (Bateman et al., 2016; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Despite continuous efforts and advances we have not proportionally advanced our capability to successfully restore these landscapes following mining. Recent attempts to improve plant establishment in arid zone restoration programs have included the application of plant based amendments to soil profiles. This approach usually aims to accelerate soil reconstruction via improvement of soil aggregate stability and increase of soil organic carbon, and water holding capacity. Whilst a significant amount of recent research has focused on the application of such amendments, studies on the potential application of plant based materials to recover soil functionality and re-establish plant communities in post-mined landscapes in arid regions are limited. Here we will discuss our work investigating the application of a plant based amendment on soil substrates commonly used in post mining restoration in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Methodology The study was conducted in a glasshouse facility where environmental conditions were continuously monitored. Using two growth materials (topsoil and waste rock) and a plant based amendment (dry biomass of the most common grass in the Pilbara, Triodia wiseana) five different treatments were tested. Treatments consisted of control soil treatments (topsoil, waste and a mixture of the former soil types (mixture)) and two amended soil treatments (waste amended and mixture amended). Additionally, three different vegetation communities were studies

  16. Potential of in vitro mutation breeding for the improvement of vegetatively propagated crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Significant progress has been realized in a number of technologies (e.g., protoplast cultures), collectively referred to as plant cell and tissue culture, within the last decade. In vitro culture technologies offer great potentials for the improvement of crop plants, both sexually and asexually propagated; however, to realize these potentials plant regeneration from selected cells must be achieved for the species of interest. Where whole plants have been regenerated from selected cells, the mutant trait was expressed in some but not in all cases, and the inheritance patterns included maternal, recessive, semi-dominant and dominant (epigenetic events have also been reported). Improved cultivars of sugarcane have been developed from in vitro culture selections. In vitro mutation breeding can be done using an array of physical and chemical mutagens that has been found to be effective in the treatment of seeds, pollen, vegetative plant parts and growing plants. Selection at the cell level for a range of mutant traits has been demonstrated; however, innovative selection schemes will have to be developed to select for agriculturally important traits such as date of maturity, resistance to lodging, height etc. An interdisciplinary team approach involving the combined use of in vitro culture technology, mutagenesis, and plant breeding/genetics offers the greatest probability for success in crop improvement. (author)

  17. Improving CANDU plant operation and maintenance through retrofit information technology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, L.R.; Judd, R.A.; MacBeth, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    CANDU plant owners are facing an increasingly competitive environment for the generation of electricity. To meet this challenge, all owners have identified that information technology offers opportunities for significant improvements in CANDU operation, maintenance and administration (OM and A) costs. Targeted information technology application areas include instrumentation and control, engineering, construction, operations and plant information management. These opportunities also pose challenges and issues that must be addressed if the full benefits of the advances in information technology are to be achieved. Key among these are system hardware and software maintenance, and obsolescence protection; AECL has been supporting CANDU stations with the initial development and evaluation of systems to improve plant performance and cost. Key initiatives that have been implemented or are in the process of being implemented in some CANDU plants to achieve operational benefits include: critical safety parameter monitor system; advanced computerized annunciation system; plant historical data system; and plant display system. Each system will be described in terms of its role in enhancing current CANDU plant performance and how they will contribute to future CANDU plant performance

  18. Improving CANDU plant operation and maintenance through retrofit information technology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, L. R.; Judd, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    CANDU plant owners are facing an increasingly competitive environment for the generation of electricity. To meet this challenge, all owners have identified that information technology offers opportunities for significant improvements in CANDU operation, maintenance and administration (OM and A) costs. Targeted information technology application areas include instrumentation and control, engineering, construction, operations and plant information management. These opportunities also pose challenges and issues that must be addressed if the full benefits of the advances in information technology are to be achieved. Key among these are system hardware and software maintenance, and obsolescence protection. AECL has been supporting CANDU stations with the initial development and evaluation of systems to improve plant performance and cost. Five key initiatives that have been implemented or are in the process of being implemented in some CANDU plants to achieve cooperational benefits include: critical safety parameter monitor system; advanced computerized annunciation system; plant historical data system; plant display system; and digital protection system. Each system will be described in terms of its role in enhancing current CANDU plant performance and how they will contribute to future CANDU plant performance. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  20. Present status and recent improvements of water chemistry at Russian VVER plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamet, V.; Yurmanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    Water chemistry is an important contributor to reliable plant operation, safety barrier integrity, plant component lifetime, radiation safety, environmental impact. Primary and secondary water chemistry guidelines of Russian VVER plants have been modified to meet the new safety standards. At present 14 VVER units of different generation are in operation at 5 Russian NPPs. There are eight 4-loop pressurised water reactors VVER-1000 (1000 MWe) and six 6-loop pressurised water reactors VVER-440 (440 MWe). Generally, water chemistry at East European VVER plants (about 40 VVER-440 and VVER-1000 units in Ukraine, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Finland and Armenia) is similar to water chemistry at Russian VVER plants. Due to similar design and structural materials some water chemistry improvements were introduced at East European plants after they has been successfully implemented at Russian plants and vice versa. Some water chemistry improvements will be implemented at modern VVER plants under construction in Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Iran, China, India. (R.P.)

  1. Water quality improving device of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tsuguo.

    1994-01-01

    In the device of the present invention, the amount of an oxygen injected to an inlet of a recombiner is automatically controlled by detecting an oxygen concentration at the exit of the recombiner. Accordingly, the range for the concentration of dissolved oxygen at the exit of the recombiner is appropriately maintained. That is, the device of the present invention comprises a hydrogen injection means, hydrogen concentration measuring means, oxygen injection means, oxygen concentration measuring means and control means. If a hydrogen gas is injected to condensates which are to be coolants of the reactor, it is combined with the dissolved oxygen in the coolants. Excessive hydrogen in this case is measured by an off-gas system, and oxygen of an amount corresponding to the amount for combining the excessive hydrogen is injected to the inlet of the recombiner. The oxygen concentration at the exit of the recombiner is measured. If the result of the measurement is out of a predetermined range, the injection amount of oxygen is increased or decreased to conduct automatic control so that oxygen is within a predetermined range. As a result, the improvement for the water quality of the reactor coolants and processing of the excessive hydrogen gas can be conducted smoothly, stably and safely. (I.S.)

  2. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  3. Simulating future wheat yield under climate change, carbon dioxide enrichment and technology improvement in Iran. Case study: Azarbaijan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, H.; Raei, Y.; Zaeim, A.N.

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and technology development can affect crop productivity in future conditions. Precise estimation of crops yield change as affected by climate and technology in the future is an effective approach for management strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the impacts of climate change, technology improvement, CO2 enrichment, and overall impacts on wheat yield under future conditions. Wheat yield was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) compared to baseline year (2011) under two scenarios of IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) including SRES-A2 as regional economic scenario and SRES-B1 as global environmental scenario in Azarbaijan region (NW of Iran). A linear regression model, describing the relationship between wheat yield and historical year, was developed to investigate technology development effect. The decision support system for agro-technology transfer (DSSAT4.5) was used to evaluate the influence of climate change on wheat yield. The most positive effects were found for wheat yield as affected by technology in all studied regions. Under future climate change, the SRES projected a decrease in yield, especially in West Azarbaijan region. When the effects of elevated CO2 were considered, all regions resulted to increase in wheat yield. Considering all components effect in comparison with baseline (2011), yield increase would range from 5% to 38% across all times, scenarios and regions. According to our findings, it seems that we may expect a higher yield of wheat in NW Iran in the future if technology development continues as well as past years. (Author)

  4. Adapting plant measurement data to improve hardware fault detection performance in pressurised water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilliers, A.C.; Mulder, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Attempt was to use available resources at a nuclear plant in a value added fashion. ► Includes plant measurement data and plant training and engineering simulator capabilities. ► Solving the fault masking effect by the distributed control systems in the plant. ► Modelling the effect of inaccuracies in plant models used in the simulators. ► Combination of above resulted in the development of a deterministic fault identifications system. -- Abstract: With the fairly recent adoption of digital control and instrumentation systems in the nuclear industry a lot of research now focus on the development expert fault identification systems. The fault identification systems enable detecting early onset faults of fault causes which allows maintenance planning on the equipment showing signs of deterioration or failure. This includes valve and leaks and small cracks in steam generator tubes usually detected by means of ultrasonic inspection. Detecting faults early during transient operation in NPPs is problematic due to the absence of a reliable reference to compare plant measurements with during transients. The distributed application of control systems operating independently to keep the plant operating within the safe operating boundaries complicates the problem since the control systems would not only operate to reduce the effect of transient disturbances but fault disturbances as well. This paper provides a method to adapt the plant measurements that isolates the control actions on the fault and re-introduces it into the measurement data, thereby improving plant diagnostic performance.

  5. Engineering Mycorrhizal Symbioses to Alter Plant Metabolism and Improve Crop Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. French

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Creating sustainable bioeconomies for the 21st century relies on optimizing the use of biological resources to improve agricultural productivity and create new products. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (phylum Glomeromycota form symbiotic relationships with over 80% of vascular plants. In return for carbon, these fungi improve plant health and tolerance to environmental stress. This symbiosis is over 400 million years old and there are currently over 200 known arbuscular mycorrhizae, with dozens of new species described annually. Metagenomic sequencing of native soil communities, from species-rich meadows to mangroves, suggests biologically diverse habitats support a variety of mycorrhizal species with potential agricultural, medical, and biotechnological applications. This review looks at the effect of mycorrhizae on plant metabolism and how we can harness this symbiosis to improve crop health. I will first describe the mechanisms that underlie this symbiosis and what physiological, metabolic, and environmental factors trigger these plant-fungal relationships. These include mycorrhizal manipulation of host genetic expression, host mitochondrial and plastid proliferation, and increased production of terpenoids and jasmonic acid by the host plant. I will then discuss the effects of mycorrhizae on plant root and foliar secondary metabolism. I subsequently outline how mycorrhizae induce three key benefits in crops: defense against pathogen and herbivore attack, drought resistance, and heavy metal tolerance. I conclude with an overview of current efforts to harness mycorrhizal diversity to improve crop health through customized inoculum. I argue future research should embrace synthetic biology to create mycorrhizal chasses with improved symbiotic abilities and potentially novel functions to improve plant health. As the effects of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance increase, the global diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi should be monitored

  6. Nonthermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in buffered peptone water using a pilot-plant scale supercritical carbon dioxide system with gas-liquid porous metal contractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) system, with a gas-liquid CO2 contactor, for reducing Escherichia coli K12 in diluted buffered peptone water. 0.1% (w/v) buffered peptone water inoculated with E. coli K12 was processed using the SCCO2 system at CO2 con...

  7. Final Research Performance Report - Small Molecular Associative Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Robert M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The initial objective of this project was to promote the application of a CO2 thickener for improved mobility control during CO2 EOR based on solubility tests, viscosity tests, and core floods. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the CO2-soluble polymeric thickeners are much better suited for use a CO2-soluble conformance control agents for diverting the flow of CO2 away from thief zones. Our team generated several effective small molecule CO2 thickeners with ARPA-e funding. Unfortunately, none of these small molecule thickeners could dissolve in CO2 without the addition of unacceptably large amounts of hexane or toluene as a co-solvent Therefore none were viable candidates for the core flooding studies associated with NETL award. Therefore during the entire core flood testing program associated with this NETL award, our team used only the most promising polymeric CO2 thickener, a polyfluoroacrylate (PFA). In order to produce an environmentally benign polymer, the monomer used to make the new polymers used in this study was a fluoroacrylate that contains only six fluorinated carbons. We verified CO2 solubility with a phase behavior cell. The thickening potential of all polymer samples was substantiated with a falling ball viscometer and a falling cylinder viscometer at Pitt. Two different viscometers were used to determine the increase in CO2 viscosity that could be achieved via the dissolution of PFA. Praxair, which has an interest in thickening CO2 for pilot EOR projects and for waterless hydraulic fracturing, agreed to measure the viscosity of CO2-PFA solutions at no cost to the project. Falling cylinder viscometery was conducted at Pitt in our windowed high pressure phase behavior cell. Both apparatuses indicated that at very low shear rates the CO2 viscosity increased by a factor of roughly 3.5 when 1wt% PFA was

  8. PIPEX - A model of a design concept for reprocessing plants with improved containment and surveillance features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This paper explains that the PIPEX concept is essentially a reprocessing plant using the PUREX process but with in-built improved containment and surveillance features resulting in increased health protection and environmental safety as well as higher resistance to diversion of fissile material. The paper gives a general description of the design and operating philosophy of such a plant and goes on to examine the safeguards and safety principles and implications

  9. Grain and straw for whole plant: implications for crop management and genetic improvement strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Schiere, J.B.; Joshi, A.L.; Seetharam, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Goodchild, A.V.; Deinum, B.; Keulen, van, H.

    2004-01-01

    Straws and stovers are often called `by-products` of grain production even though they are increasingly important, e.g. for animal feed, thatching, soil improvement, mushroom production and industrial use. As a result, plant breeders, agronomists, economists and animal nutritionists have to pay more attention than before to the total value of crops, i.e. whole plant value in which straws and grain both play a part. This paper reviews literature about the technical potential of breeding and/or...

  10. Primary water chemistry improvement for radiation exposure reduction at Japanese PWR Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Eiichi [Omiya Technical Institute, Saitama-ken (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Radiation exposure during the refueling outages at Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Plants has been gradually decreased through continuous efforts keeping the radiation dose rates at relatively low level. The improvement of primary water chemistry in respect to reduction of the radiation sources appears as one of the most important contributions to the achieved results and can be classified by the plant operation conditions as follows

  11. Radiation induced sulfur dioxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The biggest source of air pollution is the combustion of fossil fuels, were pollutants such as particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted. Among these pollutants, sulfur dioxide plays the main role in acidification of the environment. The mechanism of sulfur dioxide transformation in the environment is partly photochemical. This is not direct photooxidation, however, but oxidation through formed radicals. Heterogenic reactions play an important role in this transformation as well; therefore, observations from environmental chemistry can be used in air pollution control engineering. One of the most promising technologies for desulfurization of the flue gases (and simultaneous denitrification) is radiation technology with an electron accelerator application. Contrary to the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) removal processes, which is based on pure radiation induced reactions, sulfur dioxide removal depends on two pathways: a thermochemical reaction in the presence of ammonia/water vapor and a radiation set of radiochemical reactions. The mechanism of these reactions and the consequent technological parameters of the process are discussed in this paper. The industrial application of this radiation technology is being implemented in an industrial pilot plant operated by INCT at EPS Kaweczyn. A full-scale industrial plant is currently in operation in China, and two others are under development in Japan and Poland. (author)

  12. Pressure pumping of carbon dioxide from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. S. Takle; J. R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; R. Garcia; I. V. Litvina; G. Doyle; X. Zhou; Q. Hou; C. W. Rice; W. J. Massman

    2000-01-01

    Recent interest in atmospheric increases in carbon dioxide have heightened the need for improved accuracy in measurements of fluxes of carbon dioxide from soils. Diffusional movement has long been considered the dominant process by which trace gases move from the subsurface source to the surface, although there has been some indication that atmospheric pressure...

  13. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... tests on a 265 MW coal-fired power-plant unit reveals that the maximum allowable load gradient that can be imposed on the plant, can be increased from 4 MW/min. to 8 MW/min....

  14. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... tests on a 265 MW coal-fired power-plant unit reveals that the maximum allowable load gradient that can be imposed on the plant, can be increased from 4 MW/min. to 8 MW/min....

  15. Plant probiotic bacteria Bacillus and Paraburkholderia improve growth, yield and content of antioxidants in strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosaddiqur; Sabir, Abdullah As; Mukta, Julakha Akter; Khan, Md Mohibul Alam; Mohi-Ud-Din, Mohammed; Miah, Md Giashuddin; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Islam, M Tofazzal

    2018-02-06

    Strawberry is an excellent source of natural antioxidants with high capacity of scavenging free radicals. This study evaluated the effects of two plant probiotic bacteria, Bacillus amylolequefaciens BChi1 and Paraburkholderia fungorum BRRh-4 on growth, fruit yield and antioxidant contents in strawberry fruits. Root dipping of seedlings (plug plants) followed by spray applications of both probiotic bacteria in the field on foliage significantly increased fruit yield (up to 48%) over non-treated control. Enhanced fruit yield likely to be linked with higher root and shoot growth, individual and total fruit weight/plant and production of phytohormone by the probiotic bacteria applied on plants. Interestingly, the fruits from plants inoculated with the isolates BChi1 and BRRh-4 had significantly higher contents of phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins over non-treated control. Total antioxidant activities were also significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fruits of strawberry plants treated with both probiotic bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of significant improvement of both yield and quality of strawberry fruits by the application of plant probiotic bacteria BChi1 and BRRh-4 in a field condition. Further study is needed to elucidate underlying mechanism of growth and quality improvement of strawberry fruits by probiotic bacteria.

  16. Application of neural network technology to nuclear plant thermal efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doremus, Rick; Allen Ho, S.; Bailey, James V.; Roman, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Due to the tremendous cost of building new nuclear power plants, it has become increasingly attractive to increase the power output from the existing operating power plants. There are two options that may be available to accomplish this goal. One option is to uprate the plant through licensing modification for a comfortably achievable goal of 4% to 6%. However, the licensing efforts required are no small task, vary from plant to plant, and may take years to accomplish. Some nuclear power plants may not have this option because of design, environmental, political, or geographical limitations. A second option exists that is simpler and more immediate. It focuses on improving the plant operating conditions using adaptive software that could increase the total plant output by approximately one-half percent by adjusting certain key operating parameters. No design basis analyses, hardware modifications, or licensing changes are required. In fact, this technique can be used on a plant that has already obtained licensing modification to obtain an additional one-half percent on top of the 4% to 6% increase. Public Service Electric and Gas and ARD Corporation are jointly investigating the creation of a Plant Optimization System, called POSITIVE. POSITIVE is an adaptive software tool that enables a user to analyze current plant data to identify potential problem areas and to obtain recommendations for increasing the plant's electric output. POSITIVE uses a combination of expert systems and adaptive software to analyze the thermal performance of a nuclear power plant. Historical data, obtained while the plant was above 93% power, is used to train neural networks to determine the current electric output of the plant. Once sufficiently trained, new data can be processed through the neural network. The neural network first determines the electric output associated with the current data. If the actual power matches the power predicted by the network, the neural network can be used

  17. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture. Study of sulfur dioxide effects on phosphorus metabolism in plants using 32-P as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, M.

    1977-07-01

    Exposure of bean plants to low sulphur dioxide concentrations (0.02-0.32 ppm, up to 72 hours) stimulated the incorporation of 32 P into RNA, DNA, phospholipids and the acid soluble fraction, without altering the total phosphorus content. Statistically significant 32 P increases were only observed with RNA. Uptake of 35 SO 2 (14 ppm) by bean leaves was shown to be fairly rapid and the radioactivity was translocated in the roots within 1 to 6 hours following exposure. Subcellular leaf fractions showed that the supernatant contained 60-90% of the absorbed radioactivity. The chloroplasts and microsomes showed higher 35 S content than the mitochondrial fraction. In vitro studies on pea-derived chloroplasts included photosynthetic phosphorylation and electron transport. Phosphorylation was found to be inhibited in presence of SO 2 (I 50 =3.7 mM). The nature of inhibition seems to be of the reversible-competitive type with an apparent inhibitor constant (Ki) of 1.5 mM. The electron transport system remained unaffected. It is maintained that the identification of some lesions in this study would contribute to a better understanding of the nature of the complex interactions between cultivated plants and sulphur dioxide

  18. Reliability database development and plant performance improvement effort at Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S. J.; Hwang, S. W.; Na, J. H.; Lim, H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear utilities in recent years have focused on improved plant performance and equipment reliability. In U.S., there is a movement toward process integration. Examples are INPO AP-913 equipment reliability program and the standard nuclear performance model developed by NEI. Synergistic effect from an integrated approach can be far greater than as compared to individual effects from each program. In Korea, PSA for all Korean NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) has been completed. Plant performance monitoring and improvement is an important goal for KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company) and a risk monitoring system called RIMS has been developed for all nuclear plants. KHNP is in the process of voluntarily implementing maintenance rule program similar to that in U.S. In the future, KHNP would like to expand the effort to equipment reliability program and to achieve highest equipment reliability and improved plant performance. For improving equipment reliability, the current trend is moving toward preventive/predictive maintenance from corrective maintenance. With the emphasis on preventive maintenance, the failure cause and operation history and environment are important. Hence, the development of accurate reliability database is necessary. Furthermore, the database should be updated regularly and maintained as a living program to reflect the current status of equipment reliability. This paper examines the development of reliability database system and its application of maintenance optimization or Risk Informed Application (RIA). (authors)

  19. Improvement in the bioenergetics system of plants under metal stress environment via seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Askari, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Hg and its remediation through seaweeds on seedlings were escorted in a greenhouse experiment in a randomized block design. The effects of Hg were monitored in relation with bioenergetics system of Trigonella foenumgraecum plant at test site scale. Plants that were exposed to Hg, showed affect in diverse ways, including affinity to suffer in morphological as well as on sugar metabolism. The stress imposed by Hg exposure also extends to chloroplast pigments that lead to the distorted photosynthetic apparatus. The outcomes of reduced contents of photosynthetic machinery related with reduced contents of glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars and carbohydrate contents of plants. These contents plays vital rule for providing bioenergy to the plant growth regulation. It was suggested that Hg is lethal for plant bioenergetics system due to which plants fail to survive under stress. The lethal effects of Hg were tried to remediate through green seaweeds (Codium iyengrii). It was observed that seaweeds successfully controlled the mobility of Hg metal and improves the plant growth regulatory system at lower applied dose only. While at higher dose of Hg, seaweeds were also effective but to a certain limits. It was established that continuous addition of Hg in soil and aquatic resources execute to the plant productivity. It is demand of time to develop alternative eco-friendly remediation technologies for controlling, cleaning Hg-polluted zones. (author)

  20. Mutation breeding in sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) for improving plant as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    1998-01-01

    Mutation breeding using gamma irradiation in sorghum was aimed at improving the quality and production of sorghum plant as ruminant feed. Seeds of local sorghum variety Keris with moisture of about 14% were irradiated with gamma rays from Cobalt-60 source using the dose levels up to 0.5 kgy. The MI plant were grown in Pasar Jumat, the M2 and M3 were grown in Citayam experimental station. The M2 plants were harvested 40 days after sowing by cutting plants 20 cm above ground surface. Two weeks later observations for the ability of plants to produce new buds (buds variable). The plants green products in green products in from of their dry weight (product variable) were collected 40 days after harvesting and drying process in oven at 105 0 C for 24 hours. Plant selections with intensity of 20% were done for the bud variable among samples of M2 plants. Selection responses in the M3 were found to vary from the lowest at 0.5 kgy population (R s = 0.8507). The share of genetic factors to selection responses in bud variable varied from 7.25% at 0,5 kgy population to 22.35% at 0.3 kgy population. Selection for bud variable gave directly impact in increasing product variable in the M3. (author)

  1. Availability Improvement Program for Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoneaux, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Middle South Utilities System (MSUS) began an Availability Improvement Program (AIP) in the late nineteen-seventies for the benefit of all the operating units making up the System. This paper describes the methodology that is being employed in implementing a formal Avalability Improvement Program for a new nuclear unit known as Waterford 3. The tasks needed to install and maintain the AIP at Waterford 3 are discussed in terms of Analytical Methodology, Avalability Data System, and Plant Imvolvement. In particular, the AIP will provide: Management reporting; External reporting; A self-sufficient core of trained avalability personnel; Procedures and methodologies to monitor plant availability and to analyze availability problems

  2. Process improvement technology for petrochemical plant; Sekiyu kagaku puranto ni okesu purosesu kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shin

    1999-05-05

    Before, GTC technology Co. was a manufacturer of the tray as a Greenwich technology. It is the subsidiary, which undertakes technology and licence of the engineering firm in U.S.A. at present. It carries out besides the technology licence support in the startup for the prolonged driving of technical service, operating condition of the plant of improvement and optimization and, etc. Has made separation and purification technology, which made extractive distillation to be a beginning good and has the process improvement technology to the PTA (high-pure terephthalic acid) from BTX (benzene toluene xylene) of petrochemical plant. (NEDO)

  3. A performance improvement program applied to the Perry Nuclear Power Plant instrumentation and control section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The management at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company sought to avoid problems typically encountered in the start-up of new nuclear generating units. In response to early indications that such problems may have been developing at their Perry Nuclear Power Plant, several performance improvement initiatives were undertaken. One of these initiatives was a performance improvement evaluation (PIE) for the instrumentation and control (IandC) section at Perry. The IandC PIE, which used a method designed to be adaptable to other disciplines as well, had important results that are applicable to other nuclear power plants

  4. Effect of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) on largely improving solar reflectance and cooling property of high density polyethylene (HDPE) by influencing its crystallization behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shichao; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@njtech.edu.cn

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • HDPE/TiO{sub 2} composites have more perfect crystal structure. • Refractive index is the key factor affecting the final solar reflectance. • HDPE/TiO{sub 2} composites can achieve high solar reflectance. • The real cooling property is in accordance with solar reflectance. - Abstract: In this study, the different crystal forms of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were added into high density polyethylene (HDPE) to fabricate cool material. Crystal structure, crystallization behavior, crystal morphology were investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe dispersion of TiO{sub 2} particles in the HDPE matrix and the cross section morphology. The solar reflectance and actual cooling property were evaluated by UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer and a self-designed device. By adding TiO{sub 2} particles into HDPE matrix, the polymer chain could crystallize into more perfect and thermal stable lamella. The presence of TiO{sub 2} particles dramatically increased the number of nucleation site therefore decreased the crystal size. The subsequent solar reflectance was related to the degree of crystallinity, the spherulite size of HDPE, refractive index, and distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles in HDPE matrix. It was found the rutile TiO{sub 2} could largely improve the total solar reflectance from 28.2% to 51.1%. Finally, the temperature test showed that the composites had excellent cooling property, which was in accordance with solar reflectance result.

  5. Effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on largely improving solar reflectance and cooling property of high density polyethylene (HDPE) by influencing its crystallization behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shichao; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HDPE/TiO 2 composites have more perfect crystal structure. • Refractive index is the key factor affecting the final solar reflectance. • HDPE/TiO 2 composites can achieve high solar reflectance. • The real cooling property is in accordance with solar reflectance. - Abstract: In this study, the different crystal forms of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were added into high density polyethylene (HDPE) to fabricate cool material. Crystal structure, crystallization behavior, crystal morphology were investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe dispersion of TiO 2 particles in the HDPE matrix and the cross section morphology. The solar reflectance and actual cooling property were evaluated by UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer and a self-designed device. By adding TiO 2 particles into HDPE matrix, the polymer chain could crystallize into more perfect and thermal stable lamella. The presence of TiO 2 particles dramatically increased the number of nucleation site therefore decreased the crystal size. The subsequent solar reflectance was related to the degree of crystallinity, the spherulite size of HDPE, refractive index, and distribution of TiO 2 particles in HDPE matrix. It was found the rutile TiO 2 could largely improve the total solar reflectance from 28.2% to 51.1%. Finally, the temperature test showed that the composites had excellent cooling property, which was in accordance with solar reflectance result

  6. Improvement of cesium retention in uranium dioxide by additional phases; Amelioration de la retention du cesium dans le dioxyde d`uranium au moyen de phases exogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamaury Dubois, S

    1995-09-19

    The objective of this study is to improve the cesium retention in nuclear fuel. A bibliographic survey indicates that cesium is rapidly released from uranium dioxide in an accident condition. At temperatures higher than 1500 deg C or in oxidising conditions, our experiments show the difficulty of maintaining cesium inside simulated fuel. Two ternary systems are potentially interesting for the retention of cesium and to reduce the kinetics of release from the fuel: Cs{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} et Cs{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}. The compounds CsAISi{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} were studied from 1200 deg C to 2000 deg C by thermogravimetric analysis. The volumetric diffusion coefficients of cesium in these structures, in solid state as well as in liquid one, were measured. A fuel was sintered with (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SiO{sub 2}) or (ZrO{sub 2} + SiO{sub 2}) and the intergranular phase was characterized. In the presence of (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SiO{sub 2}), the sintering is realized at 1610 deg C in H{sub 2}. It is a liquid phase sintering. On the other end, with (ZrO{sub 2} + SiO{sub 2}), the sintering is a low temperature one in oxidising atmosphere. Finally, cesium containing simulated fuels were produced with these additives. According to the effective diffusion coefficients that were measured, the additives improved the retention of cesium. We have predicted the improvement that could be hoped for in a nuclear reactor, depending on the dispersion of the intergranular additives, the temperature and the degree of oxidation of the UO{sub 2+x}. We wait for a factor of 2 for x=0 and more than 8 for x=0.05, up to 2000 deg C. (author). 148 refs., 122 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. A Study on Nonconformance and Construction Method Improvement for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Yeob; Roh, Myung Sub

    2014-01-01

    Advanced power reactor was developed by domestic technology, and finally exported to abroad. In order to place the current nuclear power industrial base, construction has played a big role. Without magnificent construction technology, it would have been impossible to get a safe nuclear power plant on time and in budget. Construction industry occupies very large portion of the economy in South Korea and it has been a core of South Korea's economic growth. With a competitive construction industry and advanced nuclear power plant construction know-how, South Korea could provide safe and reliable nuclear power plants in domestic and world. However there are many repairs and number of corrective actions are in actual construction. Thus, this paper suggested the result of nonconformance and construction method improvement for nuclear power plant. Constructional engineering is a kind of science that has a variety of disciplines including structure, geology, mechanical equipment and other fields. Thus, the development of constructional engineering is closely associated with experience from failure and application advanced construction method. The recent experience in nuclear power plants construction has shown that those improved methods are fully applicable and can help shorten the construction schedule. The future of nuclear power plant construction seems to be more encouraged, even though it has many obstacles

  8. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    The project on open-quotes Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performanceclose quotes has been undertaken in order to address the important problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Most of the creativity in formulating such concepts has focused upon improving the mechanical reliability of safety related plant systems. However, the lack of a mature theory has retarded similar progress in reducing the likely frequencies of human errors. The main design mechanism used to address this class of concerns has been to reduce or eliminate the human role in plant operations and accident response. The plan of work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subject who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants. In the tests the systems are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds. Ultimately this computer is also to be used in compiling the results of the project. The work of this project is focused upon nuclear power plant applications. However, the persuasiveness of human errors in using all sorts of electromechanical machines gives it a much greater potential importance. Because of this we are attempting to pursue our work in a fashion permitting broad generalizations

  9. Improving Aquatic Plant Management in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Potter, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Management of aquatic weeds in complex watersheds and river systems present many challenges to assessment, planning and implementation of management practices for floating and submerged aquatic invasive plants. The Delta Region Areawide Aquatic Weed Project (DRAAWP), a USDA sponsored area-wide project, is working to enhance planning, decision-making and operational efficiency in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Satellite and airborne remote sensing are used map (area coverage and biomass), direct operations, and assess management impacts on plant communities. Archived satellite records going are used to review results from previous climate and management events and aide in developing long-term strategies. Modeling at local and watershed scales provides insight into land-use effects on water quality. Plant growth models informed by remote sensing are being applied spatially across the Delta to balance location and type of aquatic plant, growth response to altered environments, phenology, environmental regulations, and economics in selection of management practices. Initial utilization of remote sensing tools developed for mapping of aquatic invasive weeds improved operational efficiency by focusing limited chemical use to strategic areas with high plant-control impact and incorporating mechanical harvesting when chemical use is restricted. These assessment methods provide a comprehensive and quantitative view of aquatic invasive plants communities in the California Delta, both spatial and temporal, informed by ecological understanding with the objective of improving management and assessment effectiveness.

  10. Improvement of layout and piping design for PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozue, Kosei; Waki, Masato; Kashima, Hiroo; Yoshioka, Tsuyoshi; Obara, Ichiro.

    1983-01-01

    For a nuclear power plant, a period of nearly ten years is required from the initial planning stage to commencement of transmission after passing through the design, manufacturing, installation and trial running stages. In the current climate there is a trend that the time required for nuclear power plant construction will further increase when locational problems, thorough explanation to residents in the neighborhood of the construction site and their under-standing, subsequent safety checks and measures to be taken in compliance with various controls and regulations which get tighter year after year, are taken into account. Under such circumstances, in order to satisfy requirements such as improving the reliability of the nuclear power plant design, manufacturing and construction departments, improvements in the economy as well as the quality and shortening of construction periods, the design structure for Mitsubishi PWR nuclear power plants was thoroughly consolidated with regard to layout and piping design. At the same time, diversified design improvements were made with the excellent domestic technology based on plant designs imported from the U.S.A. An outline of the priority items is introduced in this paper. (author)

  11. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  12. Hunting and hallucinogens: The use psychoactive and other plants to improve the hunting ability of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Alarcón, Rocío

    2015-08-02

    Cultures throughout the world give plants to their dogs in order to improve hunting success. These practices are best developed in lowland Ecuador and Peru. There is no experimental evidence for the efficacy of these practices nor critical reviews that consider possible pharmacological effects on dogs based on the chemistry of the ethnoverterinary plants. This review has three specific aims: (1) determine what plants the Ecuadorian Shuar and Quichua give to dogs to improve their hunting abilities, (2) determine what plants other cultures give to dogs for the same purpose, and (3) assess the possible pharmacological basis for the use of these plants, particularly the psychoactive ones. We gathered Shuar (Province of Morona-Santiago) and Quichua (Napo and Orellano Provinces) data from our previous publications and field notes. All specimens were vouchered and deposited in QCNE with duplicates sent to NY and MO. Data presented from other cultures derived from published studies on ethnoveterinary medicine. Species names were updated, when necessary, and family assignments follow APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121). Chemical data were found using PubMed and SciFinder. The Shuar and Quichua of Ecuador use at least 22 species for ethnoveterinary purposes, including all but one of their principal hallucinogens. Literature surveys identified 43 species used in other cultures to improve hunting ability. No published studies have examined the pharmacological active of these plant species in dogs. We, thus, combined phytochemical data with the ethnobotanical reports of each plant and then classified each species into a likely pharmacological category: depuratives/deodorant, olfactory sensitizer, ophthalmic, or psychoactive. The use of psychoactive substances to improve a dog׳s hunting ability seems counterintuitive, yet

  13. Method for improving accident sequence recognition in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Dinsmore, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This work adapts fault trees from plant-specific probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs) to construct and quantitatively evaluate an alarm analysis system for the engineered safety features (ESFs). The purpose is to help improve reactor operator recognition and identification of potential accident sequences. The PRA system fault trees provide system failure mode information which can be used to construct alarm trees. These alarm trees provide a framework for assessing the plant indicators so that the plant conditions are made more readily apparent to plant personnel. In the alarm tree, possible states of each instrumented alarem are identified as true or false. In addition, a warning status is defined and integrated into an alarm analysis routine. The impact of this additional status conditioned on the Boolean laws used to evaluate the alarm trees is examined. An application is described for BWR high pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) that would be utilized during many severe reactor accidents

  14. Using systematic aging assessments to improve effectiveness of plant maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, P.; Yang, J.X.; Dam, R.F.; Nickerson, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear plant equipment aging assessment studies provided by AECL include life assessments, condition assessments or systematic assessments of maintenance. AECL has developed several tools to apply the results of aging assessment studies to improve the effectiveness of actual plant maintenance programs. The Systematic Assessment of Maintenance and the SYSTMS tool generate maintenance tasks for a system. The System Maintenance Datastore tool assesses the maintenance resources on a system basis, and can thus quantify the savings realized by optimizing the maintenance program. Long term trends in condition-based maintenance due to component aging can be predicted, and resource savings due to optimum timing of component replacement or general plant refurbishment can be quantified. The System based Adaptive Maintenance Process ensures the maintenance program is continually updated to reflect the latest plant equipment condition and maintenance strategy information. (author)

  15. INPO's role in the improvement of nuclear plant safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Z.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) is a nonprofit, nongovernment corporation dedicated to promoting safe and reliable operation and quality construction of nuclear power plants. The institute is supported by the US nuclear utility industry. All US utilities building or operating nuclear power plants are INPO members. INPO's many activities fall within four major program areas: (1) Evaluations: INPO conducts detailed evaluations of all US operating plants, utility corporate support of nuclear programs, and nuclear projects under active construction. Events analysis and information exchange: INPO reviews plant reports of abnormal or unusual events and reports the lessons learned to the industry. INPO also fosters improved industry communications through a worldwide telecommunications network. (3) Training and accreditation: INPO assists utilities, including international participants, in developing quality training programs; and (4) Assistance: the Institute provides various forms of assistance to members and participants. INPO places emphasis on visits to facilities to aid members and participants in various program or operational areas

  16. What Is There in Seeds? Vertically Transmitted Endophytic Resources for Sustainable Improvement in Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytobeneficial microbes, particularly endophytes, such as fungi and bacteria, are concomitant partners of plants throughout its developmental stages, including seed germination, root and stem growth, and fruiting. Endophytic microbes have been identified in plants that grow in a wide array of habitats; however, seed-borne endophytic microbes have not been fully explored yet. Seed-borne endophytes are of great interest because of their vertical transmission; their potential to produce various phytohormones, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, and other secondary metabolites; and improve plant biomass and yield under biotic and abiotic stresses. This review addresses the current knowledge on endophytes, their ability to produce metabolites, and their influence on plant growth and stress mitigation.

  17. A comparison of improved power plant technologies on lignite with (PFBC) and (IGCC) cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Ilija

    1997-01-01

    Technologies and process diagrams descriptions for PFBC (Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) are presented as for improved cycles with modern clean coal technologies, the most popular currently. A special attention is paid to the possibilities for Macedonian lignites use on the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles. The comparison of the above mention technologies has been done particularly on the desulfurization, NO x reduction, ash elimination and its use in the building and construction industries. A comparison between the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles is made by the following criteria: cycle efficiency, desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, power plant complexity and their cost, as well as plant reliability. (Author)

  18. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety.

  19. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  20. Natural Ecosystem Surrounding a Conventional Banana Crop Improves Plant Health and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Castelan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems near agricultural landscapes may provide rich environments for growing crops. However, the effect of a natural ecosystem on crop health and fruit quality is poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated whether the presence of a natural ecosystem surrounding a crop area influences banana plant health and fruit postharvest behavior. Plants from two conventional banana crop areas with identical planting time and cultural practices were used; the only difference between banana crop areas is that one area was surrounded by a natural forest (Atlantic forest fragment (Near-NF, while the other area was inserted at the center of a conventional banana crop (Distant-NF. Results showed that bananas harvested from Near-NF showed higher greenlife and a more homogeneous profile during ripening compared to fruits harvested from Distant-NF. Differences in quality parameters including greenlife, carbohydrate profile, and pulp firmness between fruits harvested from Near-NF and Distant-NF are explained, at least partly, by differences in the balance of plant growth regulators (indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in bananas during ripening. Furthermore, plants from Near-NF showed a lower severity index of black leaf streak disease (BLSD and higher levels of phenolic compounds in leaves compared to plants from Distant-NF. Together, the results provide additional evidence on how the maintenance of natural ecosystems near conventional crop areas could be a promising tool to improve plant health and fruit quality.

  1. Genetic engineering of cytokinin metabolism: prospective way to improve agricultural traits of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalabák, David; Pospíšilová, Hana; Šmehilová, Mária; Mrízová, Katarína; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are ubiquitous phytohormones that participate in development, morphogenesis and many physiological processes throughout plant kingdom. In higher plants, mutants and transgenic cells and tissues with altered activity of CK metabolic enzymes or perception machinery, have highlighted their crucial involvement in different agriculturally important traits, such as productivity, increased tolerance to various stresses and overall plant morphology. Furthermore, recent precise metabolomic analyses have elucidated the specific occurrence and distinct functions of different CK types in various plant species. Thus, smooth manipulation of active CK levels in a spatial and temporal way could be a very potent tool for plant biotechnology in the future. This review summarises recent advances in cytokinin research ranging from transgenic alteration of CK biosynthetic, degradation and glucosylation activities and CK perception to detailed elucidation of molecular processes, in which CKs work as a trigger in model plants. The first attempts to improve the quality of crop plants, focused on cereals are discussed, together with proposed mechanism of action of the responses involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear power plant safety and reliability improvements derived from operational experience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Rosen, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of significant events at operating nuclear power plants can be used as one of several indices to obtain a preliminary indication of unit and/or utility performance in the development and implementation of improvements aimed at reducing the probability or consequences of troublesome events. Initial data of this type are presented along with qualifications on the validity of such indicators. Planned further steps to improve this as a performance indicator are noted

  3. Use of visualization technology to improve decision-making performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, Lewis F.; Naser, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains a description of modern 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology that may be applied to improve human situation awareness and decision-making in nuclear power plants. Visualization technology is being applied widely and successfully in several industries. Examples are presented of successful applications in the military, aviation, medical, entertainment, and nuclear industries. Additional opportunities are identified in the nuclear industry that may benefit from improved visualization

  4. Model predictive control as a tool for improving the process operation of MSW combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskens, M.; Kessel, L.B.M. van; Bosgra, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a feasibility study is presented on the application of the advanced control strategy called model predictive control (MPC) as a tool for obtaining improved process operation performance for municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion plants. The paper starts with a discussion of the operational objectives and control of such plants, from which a motivation follows for applying MPC to them. This is followed by a discussion on the basic idea behind this advanced control strategy. After that, an MPC-based combustion control system is proposed aimed at tackling a typical MSW combustion control problem and, using this proposed control system, an assessment is made of the improvement in performance that an MPC-based MSW combustion control system can provide in comparison to conventional MSW combustion control systems. This assessment is based on simulations using an experimentally obtained process and disturbance model of a real-life large-scale MSW combustion plant

  5. An overview of the US Department of Energy Plant Lifetime Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonka, A.K.; Harrison, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE's) cooperative effort with the nuclear industry to develop technology to manage the effects of material degradation in systems, structures and components (SSCs) that impact plant safety or can significantly improve plant performance/economics and to establish and demonstrate the license renewal process. Also included are efforts to reduce decontamination/decommission costs, and reduce the uncertainty in long-term service-life decision making. During 1995, the Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program was renamed the Commercial Operating Light Water Reactor (COLWR) Program activities are focused on sustaining the LWR option for domestic electricity generation by supporting operation of existing LWRs as long as they are safe, efficient, and economical. The status of the key projects is discussed in this paper

  6. An overview of the United States Department of Energy plant lifetime improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Clauss, J.M.; Harrison, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US. The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: (1) establishment of the regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; (2) development, verification, and validation of the various technical criteria and bases for needed monitoring, refurbishment, or replacement of plant equipment; and (3) demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE's Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues, including degradation of long-lived components, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement management approaches, and analytical methodologies to characterize RPV integrity

  7. 3D representation of radioisotopic dose rates within nuclear plants for improved radioprotection and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vabo, Rune; Rindahl, Grete; Piotrowski, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A better awareness of the origin and nature of gamma doses in nuclear environments is demonstrated by visualizing the dose maps created by individual radionucleides that are present in radioactive contaminations. This isotopic representation of doses is much more informative than showing a map of the measured total doses. Two practical examples are given : (a) the placing of protections, and (b) using radiation decay to help plan dismantling operations. The necessary radionucleide information can be easily obtained by the new EDF CZT gamma spectrometer that is now used by all its NPPs. Defining radioactive sources based on such information enables the reconstruction of the radiation situation in a virtual 3-D environment. In such a virtual environment, dose rates can be calculated in any position in space and information about how much each radionucleide contributes can be extracted. Such 3D visualisations increase the awareness and knowledge of the distribution of radiation in a nuclear facility and can be considered as an educational tool for training and improved ALARA procedures. (author)

  8. Some possibilities for improvement of fuel utilization in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.; Marinkovic, N.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for improving the nuclear fuel utilization with the emphasis on LWRs are being dealt with in this paper. Some basic results concerning tubular fuel pellets of the Krsko nuclear power plants are presented, showing promising possibilities for uranium saving from the neutronics point of view. (author)

  9. Research needs and improvement of standards for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Moreadith, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for research and improvement of code requirements, for both economy and safety reasons is discussed for the following topics relevant to nuclear power plant structural analysis: Earthquake definition; dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads; design for postulated pipe rupture; code requirements for loading combinations for concrete structures, reinforcing steel splicing, reinforced concrete structural design for thermal effects. (Auth.)

  10. Genetic engineering in the improvement of plants for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karenlampi, S.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.; Verkley, J.A.C.; van der Lelie, D.; Mergeay, M.; Tervahauta, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soils are locally quite high, and are still increasing due to many human activities, leading to elevated risk for health and the environment. Phytoremediation may offer a viable solution to this problem, and the approach is gaining increasing interest. Improvement of plants

  11. Improvement of maintenance engineering using plant network and personal digital assistant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Yohei; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Hoshino, Masateru; Kato, Takahisa; Yokoi, Miki

    2015-01-01

    Toshiba has developed and adopted wired and/or wireless maintenance network at nuclear power plant in cooperate with industry. Toshiba also developed a tablet PC based field testing tool that enables to display test procedures and record test results in the field to improve the efficiency of such testing. Recently, we have adopted remote desktop protocol that enables to support the operator. (author)

  12. A New Approach of Modeling an Ultra-Super-Critical Power Plant for Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolian Hou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A suitable model of coordinated control system (CCS with high accuracy and simple structure is essential for the design of advanced controllers which can improve the efficiency of the ultra-super-critical (USC power plant. Therefore, with the demand of plant performance improvement, an improved T-S fuzzy model identification approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the improved entropy cluster algorithm is applied to identify the premise parameters which can automatically determine the cluster numbers and initial cluster centers by introducing the concept of a decision-making constant and threshold. Then, the learning algorithm is used to modify the initial cluster center and a new structure of concluding part is discussed, the incremental data around the cluster center is used to identify the local linear model through a weighted recursive least-square algorithm. Finally, the proposed approach is employed to model the CCS of a 1000 MW USC one-through boiler power plant by using on-site measured data. Simulation results show that the T-S fuzzy model built in this paper is accurate enough to reflect the dynamic performance of CCS and can be treated as a foundation model for the overall optimizing control of the USC power plant.

  13. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  14. Computer aided piping layout design in radiochemical plants- an improved software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, R.P.; Siddiqui, H.R.

    1995-01-01

    A software package was developed and it was successfully implemented for the piping layout design of the four process cells of the Kalpakkam Reprocessing Project. This paper discusses in detail all the improvements and modifications that are being carried out in the package so that it becomes more meaningful and useful for implementation for the forthcoming radiochemical plants

  15. Summit on Improving the Economics of America's Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mason, Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Summit on Improving the Economics of America’s Nuclear Power Plants was convened May 19, 2016, by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and co-sponsored by Idaho Senator Mike Crapo to stress the importance of existing nuclear reactors in meeting our nation’s energy goals. The summit was also designed to identify and discuss policy options that can be pursued at federal and state levels to address economic challenges, as well as technical options that utilities can use to improve the economic competitiveness of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) and avoid early plant retirements that are driven by temporary market conditions. The owners of NPPs face difficult economic decisions and are working to improve the performance of existing NPPs. However, it soon became clear that some of the actions taken by states and regional markets have had an impact on the economic viability of existing power plants, including carbon free NPPs. Summit speakers identified concepts and actions that could be taken at state and federal levels to improve the economics of the existing fleet within these regulated and restructured electricity markets. This report summarizes the speeches, concepts, and actions taken.

  16. Improved design for vibration-proof platinum RTD in special position of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhuo; Ma Jinna; Wu Bin

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the actual situation for the vibration of violence in a special position of nuclear power plant, an improved design for platinum RTD was proposed. The structure design is verified to meet the measure requirement in the special position. (authors)

  17. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that e...

  18. Improved methods for irrigation and planting of major crops in waterlogged areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Raoof, A.

    2002-01-01

    The improved irrigation methods for wheat and cotton were evaluated in the fordwah Eastern Sadigia (South) Irrigation and Drainage Project area, during 1996-97 and 1997-98 cropping seasons, under three water table depths. Irrigation methods for wheat included 70, 95 and 120 cm Beds, with Flat Basin, as a check for comparative evaluation. Cotton had Ridge-planting on the top and side, Bed and Furrow, and Flat Basin as control. These irrigation methods were compared at water table depths of < 1 m, 1-2 and 2-3 m. The wheat variety inqalab-91, and cotton cultivar, CIM-109, were planted during the 3rd week of November and May every year. All the inputs and management practices, such as seed-rate, fertilizer, seeding method, weed control, plant-protection measures, etc. were kept common. The results on cotton indicated maximum water-use efficiency with the Bed and Furrow Method of irrigation Followed by ridge planting. The traditional Flat-planting had the lowest yield and the highest water-consumption, resulting in the minimum water-use efficiency. In harmony with cotton, the Flat Method of planting had maximum water-consumption. For wheat crop, the water-use efficiency was in descending order, with 120, 95 and 70 cm for Bed and Flat Methods. Bed planting of 95 cm had a fairly high water-use efficiency and yields were more were more comparable than Flat planting. This method had a high level of adaptabilities, especially when the groundwater was close to the root-zone and higher possibilities, especially when the groundwater was close to the root-zone and higher possibility of crop-submergence are existent during rainy spells. The results of the investigation strongly favoured the Bed and furrow methods to irrigate cotton and wheat. However, under well-drained soil conditions, Bed planting of wheat is not recommended. (author)

  19. Improvement potential of a real geothermal power plant using advanced exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gökgedik, Harun; Yürüsoy, Muhammet; Keçebaş, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate thermodynamic performance of a geothermal power plant (GPP) from potential for improvement point of view. Thus, sources of inefficiency and irreversibilities can be determined through exergy analysis. The advanced exergy analysis is more appropriate to determine real potential for thermodynamic improvements of the system by splitting exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable portions. The performance critical components and the potential for exergy efficiency improvement of a GPP were determined by means of the advanced exergy analysis. This plant is the Bereket GPP in Denizli/Turkey as a current operating system. The results show that the avoidable portion of exergy destruction in all components except for the turbines is higher than the unavoidable value. Therefore, much can be made to lessen the irreversibilities for components of the Bereket GPP. The total exergy efficiency of the system is found to be 9.60%. Its efficiency can be increased up to 15.40% by making improvements in the overall components. Although the heat exchangers had lower exergy and modified exergy efficiencies, their exergy improvement potentials were high. Finally, in the plant, the old technology is believed to be one of the main reasons for low efficiencies. - Highlights: • Evaluation of potential for improvement of a GPP using advanced exergy analysis. • Efficiency can be increased up to 15.40% by making improvements in the components. • Heat exchangers are the highest avoidable values, making them the least efficient components in plant. • The main reasons for low efficiencies are believed to be the old technology.

  20. Nuclear power and carbon dioxide free automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been developed as a major source of electric power in Canada. Electricity from nuclear energy already avoids the emission of about 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in Canada. This is a significant fraction of the 619 million tonnes of Canadian greenhouse gas emissions in 1995. However, the current scope of application of electricity to end use energy needs in Canada limits the contribution nuclear energy can make to carbon dioxide emission reduction. Nuclear energy can also contribute to carbon dioxide emissions reduction through expansion of the use of electricity to less traditional applications. Transportation, in particular contributed 165 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the Canadian atmosphere in 1995. Canada's fleet of personal vehicles consisted of 16.9 million cars and light trucks. These vehicles were driven on average 21,000 km/year and generated 91 million tonnes of greenhouse gases expressed as a C02 equivalent. Technology to improve the efficiency of cars is under development which is expected to increase the energy efficiency from the 1995 level of about 10 litres/100 km of gasoline to under 3 litres/100km expressed as an equivalent referenced to the energy content of gasoline. The development of this technology, which may ultimately lead to the practical implementation of hydrogen as a portable source of energy for transportation is reviewed. Fuel supply life cycle greenhouse gas releases for several personal vehicle energy supply systems are then estimated. Very substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible due to efficiency improvements and changing to less carbon intensive fuels such as natural gas. C02 emissions from on board natural gas fueled versions of hybrid electric cars would be decreased to approximately 25 million t/year from the current 91 million tonnes/year. The ultimate reduction identified is through the use of hydrogen fuel produced via electricity from CANDU power

  1. Study of Potential Extension For Improving Knowledge Society in Ngadas Village about Medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajmia guswika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Society knowledge in Ngadas village about medicinal plants began to fade, as people do not know the plants that can be consume as a drug around them. However, the treatment by plant utilizing is a traditional medicine that has become a cultural heritage that should be conserved and has been recommended by the WHO as the effort back to nature for the maintenance of public health, prevention and treatment of disease. Wild plant that has potential as a drug in the village Ngadas big enough examples adas, ajeran, akasia duri, anting-anting, alang-alang, patikan kebo, pegagan, semanggi gunung, kersen, krisan, kecubung gunung, tempuyung, etc. The purpose of writing this article is to examine the potential of extension as a efforts on improving knowledge of society. The method used is to review literature of some journal that examines the educational efforts to improve public knowledge. Based on data obtained from reviewing the literature, extension activities proved potentially in increasing knowledge of society. Thus it is needed to do extension in an effort to provide information on the potential of medicinal plants in the Ngadas villages.

  2. The continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera C, A.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde and the achievements in implementing the same and additionally two study cases are presents. In February 2009 is noteworthy because the World Association of Nuclear Operators we identified as a learning organization, qualification which shows that the continuous improvement system has matured, and this system will expose as I get to learn to capitalize on our own experiences and external experiences diffused by the nuclear industry. In 2007 the management of nuclear power plants integrates its improvement systems and calls it continuous improvement system and is presented in the same extensive report that won the National Quality Award. This system is made up of 5 subsystems operating individually and are also related 1) human performance; 2) referential comparison or benchmarking; 3) self-assessment; 4) corrective action and 5) external operating experience. Five subsystems that plan, generate, capture, manage, communicate and protect the knowledge generated during the processes execution of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, as well as from external sources. The target set in 2007 was to increase the intellectual capital to always give response to meeting the security requirements, but creating a higher value to quality, customer, environment protection and society. In brief each of them, highlighting the objective, expectations management, implementation and some benefits. At the end they will describe two study cases selected to illustrate these cases as the organization learns by their continuous improvement system. (Author)

  3. Plan for research to improve the safety of light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This is the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's first annual report to Congress on recommendations for research on improving the safety of light-water nuclear power plants. Suggestions for reactor safety research were identified in, or received from, various sources, including the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, the NRC regulatory staff, and the consultants to the Research Review Group. After an initial screening to eliminate those not related to improved reactor safety, all the suggestions were consolidated into research topics. It is recommended that the following research projects be carried out: alternate containment concepts, especially vented containments; alternate decay heat removal concepts, especially add-on bunkered systems; alternate emergency core cooling concepts; improved in-plant accident response; and advanced seismic designs

  4. Improving energy efficiency of an Olefin plant – A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahouni, Nassim; Bagheri, Narges; Towfighi, Jafar; Hassan Panjeshahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The retrofit of an Olefin plant is studied to improve the overall energy efficiency. • Three levels of retrofit and optimization of this process are suggested. • A simultaneous method is presented to optimize low-temperature separation processes. - Abstract: Low-temperature gas separation processes are the most important gas separation routes. There is a complex interaction between core process (separation columns), associated heat exchanger network and refrigeration cycles in sub ambient processes. The aim of this paper is performing a comprehensive retrofit study of an Olefin plant (as an industrial example) to improve the overall energy efficiency. In this regard, the effect of improving column operating parameters and refrigeration cycles are first evaluated separately. Then, column operating parameters and refrigeration cycles as well as heat exchanger network are optimized simultaneously using genetic algorithm or simulated annealing. Having compared all results, one can conclude that simultaneous optimization leads to higher efficiency of the overall system

  5. Technical improvement of ATE system of Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xingbao; Xiong Jingchuan; Liang Qiaohong

    2009-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the content of SO 4 2- in Steam Generator significantly increased beyond the criteria after the use of the condensate treatment (ATE) system in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant Phase I, technical improvement have been conducted on the sizes of the fore cation bed and the mixed bed, water distributing devices, ion exchange resins and separation facility. The effectiveness for the ion exchange of the mixed bed is improved, the resolved substance of cation resin is decreased; it is more impossible for fragments and powder which would lead high SO 4 2- content in Steam Generator. Finally, the quality of the steam-water could be improved and ensured. (authors)

  6. Use of audits and reviews to improve plant performance, INPO'S experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Coy, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    INPO's primary mission is to assist utilities in improving their nuclear plants performance. Consequently, the author has viewed utility audits and reviews as potential tools for improving plant performance. He has attempted to find examples where these tools are used effectively, and to find common elements of effective utility audit and review programs. One thing the author noted was that the words ''audit'' and ''review'' were not consistently used or understood. So to begin, he likes to stick to Webster's definitions in the context of nuclear power activities. First, Webster defines the verb audit as ''to examine with intent to verify.'' In this context this means to verify compliance with requirements. Second, Webster defines a review as ''a general survey'' or ''a critical evaluation.'' In this context this means an evaluation of an activity or program for effectiveness in accomplishing its intended purpose. INPO's evaluations are reviews, not audits, and they are intended to provide information to utility managers upon which they may make changes to improve performance. INPO does make ''recommendations'' based on effective practices seen at other plants, but the author insists that line management develop the corrective action. INPO provides follow-up at the next evaluation to ensure the corrective actions taken by management were effective. INPO bases most of its findings on observations of work and conditions in the plant as noted by knowledgeable personnel trained in observation techniques

  7. Improvements and standardization of communication means for control room personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.; Eggerdinger, C.; Sieber, R.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the findings of an investigation into selected communication means for control room personnel in nuclear power stations. The study can be seen as a contribution to the systematic analysis of major problem areas which were identified in the general study 'Human factors in the nuclear power plant'. The subjects under investigation were the 'Shift book', 'Simulation book', and 'Technical and organisational changes and their records'. It was intended to analyse both the communication, processes and the associated written documentation in order to determine areas for potential improvement and possibilities for standardization. Information was obtained by interviewing shift members and their supervisors, by general observation, and by compilation and evaluation of the extensive dokumentation. Assessment criteria were developed on a scientific basis and in the course of the investigation, in particular from ergonomic findings, as well as from standards and regulations and comparison between the plants. General practical suggestions were developed for the improvement of the communication forms and the formal design of the documents and their contents. The transfer of the recommendations to practical use in the plants presupposes the consideration of plant-specific frames of reference. The report includes a compilation and listing of suggestions for improvement in topical subdivisions. (orig.) [de

  8. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to Cd-contaminated soil and N. officinale was then planted; the study assessed the effect of hyperaccumulator straw on the growth and Cd accumulation of N. officinale. The results showed that application of hyperaccumulator species straws increased the biomass and photosynthetic pigment content and reduced the root/shoot ratio of N. officinale. All straw treatments significantly increased Cd content in roots, but significantly decreased Cd content in shoots of N. officinale. Applying hyperaccumulator straw significantly increased the total Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and whole plants of N. officinale. Therefore, application of straw from four hyperaccumulator species promoted the growth of N. officinale and improved the phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale in Cd-contaminated paddy field soil; the straw of Y. erythrocarpa provided the most improvement.

  9. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O ampersand M Improvement Program. O ampersand M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O ampersand M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O ampersand M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O ampersand M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O ampersand M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts

  10. A study on the efficiency improvement of the plant secondary System in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Ho; Song Jong Sun [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The ultimate objective of the diagnostic test for thermal performance of generation facilities is to assist in making an economic decision on operation optimization of power plants by understanding the degree of heat aging due to operation of relevant facilities and planning on this basis the maintenance and repair. In this thesis, the trend in performance change was analyzed against the acceptance performance test conducted after the replacement of the high pressure turbine in 2007, through thermal performance diagnosis conducted at 100 % reactor thermal output after the 19th planned preventive maintenance of Yonggwang Nuclear Units 1 and 2, and the power plant operation was optimized by acquiring base line data for management of performance record for each major facility of the secondary system and by improving efficiency of unit instruments and peripheral instruments of the secondary system. As a result derived from the thermal performance analysis, the increase in electric output of the power plants was achieved through such operation optimizations of efficiency affecting instruments as optimization of the continuous exhaust flow rate for water supply heaters, vacuum improvement of condensers due to opening the upper/lower screens of heat transfer pipe washing system for condensers during summer, and flow rate optimization of the water vapor supplied to MSR (Moisture Separator Re heater) high pressure re heaters. This improves operation of the existing power plants without additional expense and so requires expert review by responsible personnel for practical application.

  11. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  12. Utilization of ionizing radiations and radioisotopes in plant breeding and crop improvement in Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.

    1983-01-01

    A review for research work in the field of utilizing ionizing radiations and radioisotopes in plant breeding and crop improvement conducted in Arab countries has been summerized and discussed in the light of some economic features of the crop or the plant on national or regional (arab) level. Among the 241 articles in the above mentioned fields reviewed, around 230 articles were conducted in Egypt, 6 in Iraq, 2 in Algeria and 2 in Sudan. Some of the articles dealing with more than one crop and/or more than one type of radiation or radioisotope

  13. Photovoltaic Plants Generation Improvement Using Li-Ion Batteries as Energy Buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Luna, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the PV power plants operability improvement obtained when introducing energy storage (ES) systems which allow decoupling the power received from the sun on the photovoltaic (PV) panels from the power injected by the power plant into the grid. Two energy management strategies a...... are presented and analyzed, using Li-ion batteries as the energy storage buffer. The generated power redistribution and its variability reduction are All the results obtained in this paper are based on one year long simulations which used real irradiance data sampled every two minutes....

  14. Commonalty initiatives in US nuclear power plants to improve radiation protection culture and worker efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.; Miller, D.

    2003-01-01

    Many US nuclear power plants have learned that common procedures, policies, instrumentation, tools and work practices achieve improvements to the radiation protection culture. Significant worker efficiency achievements are accomplished especially during refuelling outages. This paper discusses commonalty initiatives currently being implemented at many US Plants to address management challenges presented by deregulation of the US electric industry, reduction in the pool of outage contractors and aging of the experienced radiation worker population. The new INPO 2005 dose goals of 650 person-mSv/year for PWRs and 1200 person-mSv/yr for PWRs will require new approaches to radiation protection management to achieve these challenging goals by 2005. (authors)

  15. Improvement of pulse crops through induced mutations: Reconstruction of plant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.H.; Tickoo, J.L.; Ram, H.; Jain, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    Many species of grain legumes, because of their cultivation under marginal conditions for centuries, have retained a number of semi-wild characteristics, such as a bushy and spreading growth, which contribute to their adaptability but reduce their yields. The observations presented here indicate that induced mutations may prove effective in generating new plant-types in these crops, which are marked by an improvement in the harvest index and which will show a response to increased plant densities. The present report describes observations on the M 2 progenies of pigeon pea and mung bean on which work has been initiated. (author)

  16. Improvement of performance operation and cycle efficiency of Al Anbar combined power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, Mohammed Q.

    2014-01-01

    The present work will be focusing on available solution which can serve to increase total efficiency of Al Anbar combined cycle power plant - CCPP, and thus to improve the operation performance as much as possible in order to decrease hydrocarbon, CO2, NOx emissions to environment.The simulation and calculations were performed by program software cycle-tempo software. The results were compared with basic design of Alanbar power plant after making modernization with solar tower receiver system-STRS, which represented a heat source in preheat process for a compressor air. Key Words: CCPP, STRS, Solar potential energy, fuel consumption, hydrocarbon emission

  17. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  18. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  19. Advancements in valve technology and industry lessons lead to improved plant reliability and cost savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Plant reliability and safety hinges on the proper functioning of several valves. Recent advancements in valve technology have resulted in new analytical and test methods for evaluating and improving valve and actuator reliability. This is especially significant in critical service applications in which the economic impact of a valve failure on production, outage schedules and consequential damages far surpasses the initial equipment purchase price. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in valve technology driven by reliability concerns and cost savings objectives without comprising safety in the Nuclear Power Industry. This overview is based on over 27 years of experience in supporting US and International nuclear power utilities, and contributing to EPRI, and NSSS Owners' Groups in developing generic models/methodologies to address industry wide issues; performing design basis reviews; and implementing plant-wide valve reliability improvement programs. Various analytical prediction software and hardware solutions and training seminars are now available to implement valve programs covering power plants' lifecycle from the construction phase through life extension and power up rate. These tools and methodologies can enhance valve-engineering activities including the selection, sizing, proper application, condition monitoring, failure analysis, and condition based maintenance optimization with a focus on potential bad actors. This paper offers two such examples, the Kalsi Valve and Actuator Program (KVAP) and Check Valve Analysis and Prioritization (CVAP) [1-3, 8, 9, 11-13]. The advanced, validated torque prediction models incorporated into KVAP software for AOVs and MOVs have improved reliability of margin predictions and enabled cost savings through elimination of unwarranted equipment modifications. CVAP models provides a basis to prioritize the population of valves recommended for preventive maintenance, inspection and/or modification, allowing

  20. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development of safety culture by improving risk communication in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiman, Toshio; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2004-01-01

    Safety culture is conceptually examined from the viewpoint of activity theory proposed by Engestroem. The theory is instrumental in broadening our scope of views to the extent that a particular (group of person(s) and his/her (their) environment are regarded as a part of activity of a larger collectivity consisting of people and their physical and institutional environments. Overwhelming orientation toward an unmanned plant is reflected in object → outcome and mediating artifacts in the structure of activity in a nuclear power plant while it is contradicted with another orientation toward the improvement of employee's ability in community, rules, and division of labor. Three possible ways to transform a currently dominant activity into a new form were suggested depending on a preliminary study of our research project headed by the seconds author. First, community of a nuclear power plant may as well be expanded to the extent that nuclear experts outside the plant, especially those working for a plant/equipment manufacturing company, can share information with workers inside the plant through internet system that has been developed in our project. Second, community of workplace may as well be reexamined concerning division of labor between a supervisor and subordinates. Among all, leader behaviors of a supervisor that were effective to reduce psychological stress of subordinates, which, in turn, make positive contribution to safety culture, were identified by a questionnaire survey. Last, a minority of workers who tend to take risks for radiation exposure more seriously than the majority and share similar risk cognition with ordinary citizens may as well be utilized as linking pin that brings a warning signal from both a minority of nuclear experts outside the plant and ordinary citizens to the majority of workers in the plant who tend to be devoted to implementing everyday job. (author)

  2. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The project on ''Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance'' was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds

  3. Civil ships propulsion reactor plants development and operation experience, and prospects for their improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V.I.; Kiryushin, A.I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    Russia is alone country in the World possessing nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. Phases of creation in Russia of several propulsion nuclear reactor plant generations are considered. By present 8 nuclear ice-breakers and a nuclear-powered cargo ship (lighter carrier) have been constructed, for which three of propulsion NSSS generations were developed. Their brief description, main performance indicators and results of operation since 1959 are given. It is shown that gradual evolution of NSSS design features has ensured creation of reliable, safe and environmentally friendly propulsion reactor plants. Issues of the propulsion NSSS life extension and improvement for new generation of nuclear ice-breakers, cargo ships, floating heat and power plants, sea water desalination and power generating complexes are considered with account for the gained operating experience. Activities on creation of new generation nuclear-powered ships and floating NPPs are considered as prospective sphere of Russia's collaboration with other countries of the World community. (author)

  4. Strategy for improving instrumentation and control in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad Bassols, L.; Nino Perote, R.

    1996-01-01

    There are three basic reasons why nuclear power plants need to systematically upgrade their instrumentation and control equipment: Obsolete instrumentation and lack spares Little capacity of flexibility for extension Possibility of attaining better systems integration and improving systems-operations interface This article shows how to approach these issues using the following strategies: Use of distributed control systems and PLCs for control, signalling, command, communications, etc, in both nuclear and conventional applications Upgrading of process instrumentation equipment, sensors, transmitters, etc Upgrading of alarm-signalling systems In each group of equipment items consideration should be given to: Aspects regarding manufacturers-suppliers Effects on design, adaptation and documentation of operating plants Effects on the training and handling skills of operation and maintenance staff Strategy for incorporating the new system into the Plant with minimum impact on operation (Author)

  5. Tilting Plant Metabolism for Improved Metabolite Biosynthesis and Enhanced Human Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekumthetho Ncube

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The immense chemical diversity of plant-derived secondary metabolites coupled with their vast array of biological functions has seen this group of compounds attract considerable research interest across a range of research disciplines. Medicinal and aromatic plants, in particular, have been exploited for this biogenic pool of phytochemicals for products such as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, dyes, and insecticides, among others. With consumers showing increasing interests in these products, innovative biotechnological techniques are being developed and employed to alter plant secondary metabolism in efforts to improve on the quality and quantity of specific metabolites of interest. This review provides an overview of the biosynthesis for phytochemical compounds with medicinal and other related properties and their associated biological activities. It also provides an insight into how their biosynthesis/biosynthetic pathways have been modified/altered to enhance production.

  6. Recent achivements of the introduction and improvment of native medicinal plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadian, Javad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Iran is the country of different climates and rich genepool of different medicinal herbs. Both climate variation and available genetic resources, make possible the introduction and improvement of new plant varieties into agriculture. Artemisia dracunculus has been cultivated in different parts of Iran since unknown time. Satureja rechingeri is a wild endemic species growing in desert area of south west of Iran with annual rainfall of less than 250mm while, Solidago virgaurea and Equisetum arvence are native to north and northwest of Iran with more than 700 mm annual rainfall. Several experimets were conducted to introduce new varieties of these plants for economic and high quality plant material production in agricultural systems. Here some of the results are presented.

  7. Supplemental Blue LED Lighting Array to Improve the Signal Quality in Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Mahlein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400–500 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs with an emission peak at 470 nm.

  8. Entomopathogenic fungi-based mechanisms for improved Fe nutrition in sorghum plants grown on calcareous substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raya-Díaz

    Full Text Available Although entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are best known for their ability to protect crops against insect pests, they may have other beneficial effects on their host plants. These effects, which include promoting plant growth and conferring resistance against abiotic stresses, have been examined in recent years to acquire a better understanding of them. The primary purposes of the present study were (i to ascertain in vitro whether three different strains of EPF (viz., Metarhizium, Beauveria and Isaria would increase the Fe bioavailability in calcareous or non-calcareous media containing various Fe sources (ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite and (ii to assess the influence of the EPF inoculation method (seed dressing, soil treatment or leaf spraying on the extent of the endophytic colonization of sorghum and the improvement in the Fe nutrition of pot-grown sorghum plants on an artificial calcareous substrate. All the EPFs studied were found to increase the Fe availability during the in vitro assay. The most efficient EPF was M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su, which lowered the pH of the calcareous medium, suggesting that it used a different strategy (organic acid release than the other two fungi that raised the pH of the non-calcareous medium. The three methods used to inoculate sorghum plants with B. bassiana and M. brunneum in the pot experiment led to differences in re-isolation from plant tissues and in the plant height. These three inoculation methods increased the leaf chlorophyll content of young leaves when the Fe deficiency symptoms were most apparent in the control plants (without fungal inoculation as well as the Fe content of the above-ground biomass in the plants at the end of the experiment. The total root lengths and fine roots were also increased in response to fungal applications with the three inoculation methods. However, the soil treatment was the most efficient method; thus, its effect on the leaf chlorophyll content was the most

  9. Improving energy efficiency of cyclone circuits in coal beneficiation plants by pump-storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pump-storage system (PSS) is introduced in a coal washing plant to reduce energy consumption and cost. • Optimal operation of the PSS under TOU tariff is formulated and solved. Life cycle cost analysis of the design is done. • Simulation results show the effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement and load shifting effect of the proposed approach. • An annual 38% reduction of overall cost of the coal washing plant with 2.86 years payback period is achieved. • Capacity improvement of power plants contracted to the coal mine is expected as less electricity is required to get fuel. - Abstract: A pump storage system (PSS) is introduced to the coal preparation dense medium cyclone (DMC) plants to improve their energy efficiency while maintaining the required medium supply. The DMC processes are very energy intensive and inefficient because the medium supply pumps are constantly over-pumping. The PSS presented is to reduce energy consumption and cost by introducing an addition medium circulation loop. The corresponding pump operation optimization problem in the PSS scheme under time-based electricity tariff is formulated and solved, based on which the financial benefits of the design is investigated using life cycle cost analysis. A case study based on the operation status of a South African coal mine is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is demonstrated that the energy cost can be reduced by more than 50% in the studied case by introducing a 160 m 3 storage tank. According to life cycle analysis, the PSS Option 1 yields an annual 38% reduction of the overall cost for the beneficiation plant with a payback period of 2.68 years

  10. A method for systematic resource allocation for improved nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doboe, L.; Golay, M.; Todreas, N.; Li, F.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was made on plant improvement investments in terms of the methods and criteria used in cooperation with the staffs of a group of nuclear power plants, aiming to understand better the methods used within US nuclear power plants for allocating investments. Cost analyses were being used the authors translated the process into a mathematical format. A spectrum of practices, ranging from use of informal power relationship-based processes to format benefit was found among different organizations. Cost-based processes structured to take into account a broad range of decision factors. Factors such as cost results, risk aversion and required uncertainty premiums were included in the treatment. Ultimately, competing investments can be ranked using the method presented in order of their return upon investment at an equivalent level of uncertainty. A method for ranking the attractiveness of nuclear power plant investments is presented which takes into account consistently factors of return upon investment, uncertainty and decision-maker risk aversion. Hopefully its use will result in improved decisions. (M.N.)

  11. A Review on Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction.

  12. Modern Breeding Methods for Improving Protein Quality and Quantity in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanovic, J.; Ehrenberg, L. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1968-07-01

    Against the background of the world's urgent need for increased protein production and for an improved quality of vegetable proteins, the ability of plant breeding to contribute to this need is discussed. With examples especially from maize and wheat, existing variations in protein content and protein composition are surveyed, together with the interdependence of these characteristics and their co-variation with the yield. It is shown that plant breeding has a great potential for improving the world's food situation. It is also shown that more rapid achievements are possible than is generally considered to be characteristic of plant-breeding techniques. Special emphasis is stressed on: (a) The capacity of mutation breeding, alone and in conjunction with other methods, to contribute to an increased production of high quality protein; (b) The necessity for the success of programmes whereby fast, cheap, and if possible non-destructive analytical procedures are developed to determine protein and amino acids; (c) The importance of the close collaboration of plant breeders with specialists in related subjects such as soil fertilization, physiology and nutrition, food technology, and biochemistry; (d) The importance of international co-operation and co-ordination. (author)

  13. Realizing the benefits of improved plant monitoring in DCC upgrade applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    The basic design of current CANDU control centres was established in the early 1970's and plants constructed since then have maintained the same basic design. Over the ensuing years AECL and utility owners have implemented an evolutionary approach to ensuing years AECL and utility owners have implemented an evolutionary approach to control centre improvements. This continues to be the approach as refurbishment and retrofits are being considered for aging CANDU plants. The Advanced Control Centre information System (ACCIS), AECL's plant display system product, can be applied in an evolutionary manner within the control centre. ACCIS provides users with the advanced information necessary to meet the key operational goals of safety and production. AECL is presently deploying ACCIS in the Qinshan Unit l and 2 Control Centres and the Training Simulator. In this installation ACCIS provides supplemental display capabilities together with an integrated DCC/ACCIS annunciation function. This solution provides a working example of how ACCIS could be applied in a retrofit situation and provides useful information on its utilization in future retrofits. This paper describes ACCIS functionality, particularly focusing on features and functions critical to providing improved monitoring. The applications of these functions are described within the context of the Qinshan Plant Display System (QPDS) installation. This information is then extended to its application within future retrofits. (author)

  14. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-01-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ''like for like'' replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants

  15. An improved electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction method for highly sensitive detection of plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yabing; Xing Da; Zhu Debin; Liu Jinfeng

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we have reported an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection of genetically modified organisms. The ECL-PCR method was further improved in the current study by introducing a multi-purpose nucleic acid sequence that was specific to the tris(bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR) labeled probe, into the 5' terminal of the primers. The method was applied to detect plant viruses. Conserved sequence of the plant viruses was amplified by PCR. The product was hybridized with a biotin labeled probe and a TBR labeled probe. The hybridization product was separated by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signals of the TBR labeled. Under the optimized conditions, the experiment results show that the detection limit is 50 fmol of PCR products, and the signal-to-noise ratio is in excess of 14.6. The method was used to detect banana streak virus, banana bunchy top virus, and papaya leaf curl virus. The experiment results show that this method could reliably identity viruses infected plant samples. The improved ECL-PCR approach has higher sensitivity and lower cost than previous approach. It can effectively detect the plant viruses with simplicity, stability, and high sensitivity

  16. Improved methods for prediction of creep-fatigue in next generation conventional and nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payten, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Materials technology poses a major challenge in the design and construction of next generation super critical/ultra super critical power plant (SC/USC) and Generation IV (GenIV) nuclear plant. New plant is expected to have in the order of a 60 year life-time, imposing complex design difficulties in areas of creep rupture and creep fatigue damage. For SC/USC plant, the main goal is the enhancement of performance by raising the steam pressure and temperatures. In order to achieve these goals materials with acceptable creep rupture strength at design temperatures and pressures must be used. In GenIV designs, the issue is more complex, with both low and high tempera-ture designs. A key requirement in the majority of the designs, however, will be acceptable resistance to creep rupture, fatigue cracking, creep fatigue interactions, with the additional effects of void swelling and irradiation creep. The accumulation of creep fatigue damage over time in both SC/USC and GenIV plant will be one of the principal damage mechanisms. This will eventually lead to crack initiation in critical high temperature equipment. Hence, improved knowledge of creep and fatigue interactions is a necessary development as components in power-generating plants move to operate at high temperature under cyclic conditions. The key to safe, reliable operation of these high-energy plants will depend on understanding the factors that affect damage initiation and propagation, as well as developing and validating technologies to predict the accumulation of damage in systems and components.

  17. Improving configuration management of thermalhydraulic analysis by automating the linkage between pipe geometry and plant idealization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.; Girard, R.; Thompson, W.

    1997-01-01

    All safety analysis codes require some representation of actual plant data as a part of their input. Such representations, referred to at Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) as plant idealizations, may include piping layout, orifice, pump or valve opening characteristics, boundary conditions of various sorts, reactor physics parameters, etc. As computing power increases, the numerical capabilities of thermalhydraulic analysis tools become more sophisticated, requiring more detailed assessments, and consequently more complex and complicated idealizations of the system models. Thus, a need has emerged to create a precise plant model layout in electronic form which ensures a realistic representation of the plant systems, and form which analytical approximations of any chosen degree of accuracy may be created. The benefits of this process are twofold. Firstly, the job of developing a plant idealization is made simpler, and therefore is cheaper for the utility. More important however, are the improvements in documentation and reproducibility that this process imparts to the resultant idealization. Just as the software that performs the numerical operations on the input data must be subject to verification/validation, equally robust measures must be taken to ensure that these software operations are being applied to valid idealizations, that are formally documented. Since the CATHENA Code is one of the most important thermalhydraulic code used for safety analysis at PLGS the main effort was directed towards the systems plant models for this code. This paper reports the results of the work carried on at PLGS and ANSL to link the existing piping data base to the actual CATHENA plant idealization. An introduction to the concept is given first, followed by a description of the databases, and the supervisory tool which manages the data, and associated software. An intermediate code, which applied some thermalhydraulic rules to the data, and translated the resultant data

  18. Towards an Enhanced Understanding of Plant-Microbiome Interactions to Improve Phytoremediation: Engineering the Metaorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie eThijs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising technology to clean-up contaminated soils based on the synergistic actions of plants and microorganisms. However, to become a widely accepted, and predictable remediation alternative, a deeper understanding of the plant-microbe interactions is needed. A number of studies link the success of phytoremediation to the plant-associated microbiome functioning, though whether the microbiome can exist in alternative, functional states for soil remediation, is incompletely understood. Moreover, current approaches that target the plant host, and environment separately to improve phytoremediation, potentially overlook microbial functions and properties that are part of the multiscale complexity of the plant-environment wherein biodegradation takes place. In contrast, in situ studies of phytoremediation research at the metaorganism level (host and microbiome together are lacking. Here, we discuss a competition-driven model, based on recent evidence from the metagenomics level, and hypotheses generated by microbial community ecology, to explain the establishment of a catabolic rhizosphere microbiome in a contaminated soil. There is evidence to ground that if the host provides the right level and mix of resources (exudates over which the microbes can compete, then a competitive catabolic and plant-growth promoting (PGP microbiome can be selected for as long as it provides a competitive superiority in the niche. The competition-driven model indicates four strategies to interfere with the microbiome. Specifically, the rhizosphere microbiome community can be shifted using treatments that alter the host, resources, environment, and that take advantage of prioritization in inoculation. Our model and suggestions, considering the metaorganism in its natural context, would allow to gain further knowledge on the plant-microbial functions, and facilitate translation to more effective, and predictable phytotechnologies.

  19. Means of evaluating and improving the effectiveness of training of nuclear power plant personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In 1996 the IAEA published a guidebook on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, which constitutes the recommendations of the IAEA with respect to development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further details concerning the effectiveness of NPP personnel training. As the nuclear power industry continues to be challenged by increasing safety requirements, a high level of competition and decreasing budgets, it becomes more important than ever to have some methodology of ensuring that training contributes a value to the organization. The actual determination of training effectiveness is not an easy task because of the many variables associated with personnel performance. For example, for training to make a difference in job performance, line management should be involved prior to training delivery to identify what performance is desired, but not being achieved. Then, training is developed to meet desired performance, which is followed by practice and continued management reinforcement. Because of these other variables, it is very difficult to prove that training had a sole contribution to performance improvement, but rather one of many contributors needed for performance improvement. The difficulty to isolate training as a sole contributor has been documented in a number of research studies over the recent years. Due to these limitations, a base assumption must be made in order to use any methodology for training effectiveness evaluation. That assumption is that there are some basic principles for developing training and if training programmes are developed and maintained using these principles, then the training provided should be an effective tool to improve the line organization performance. By monitoring various types of training effectiveness indications

  20. Means of evaluating and improving the effectiveness of training of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    In 1996 the IAEA published a guidebook on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, which constitutes the recommendations of the IAEA with respect to development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further details concerning the effectiveness of NPP personnel training. As the nuclear power industry continues to be challenged by increasing safety requirements, a high level of competition and decreasing budgets, it becomes more important than ever to have some methodology of ensuring that training contributes a value to the organization. The actual determination of training effectiveness is not an easy task because of the many variables associated with personnel performance. For example, for training to make a difference in job performance, line management should be involved prior to training delivery to identify what performance is desired, but not being achieved. Then, training is developed to meet desired performance, which is followed by practice and continued management reinforcement. Because of these other variables, it is very difficult to prove that training had a sole contribution to performance improvement, but rather one of many contributors needed for performance improvement. The difficulty to isolate training as a sole contributor has been documented in a number of research studies over the recent years. Due to these limitations, a base assumption must be made in order to use any methodology for training effectiveness evaluation. That assumption is that there are some basic principles for developing training and if training programmes are developed and maintained using these principles, then the training provided should be an effective tool to improve the line organization performance. By monitoring various types of training effectiveness indications

  1. Research highlights on: the use of induced mutations for plant improvement in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear techniques play an increasingly valuable role in agricultural research and development. The collaborative work of IAEA and FAO has been instrumental to the progress. The nuclear techniques are now used in a wide range of applications including crop improvement. In the initial years, many plant breeders had difficulty in believing that induced mutations through radiation had any relevance to their conventional procedures. But attitudes have greatly changed, in great part due to the Joint Division's programmes. The result was a high number of improved new varieties bred to date with the help of induced mutations, including some in this country. This publication is intended primarily to gather and put in order all information on the research and work on the use of induced mutations for plant breeding in the country. Its main purpose is to see if ensuing research efforts could be better coordinated, focused and enhanced in order to supplement the plant improvement programmes in the country. The task of collating the relevant information was not without difficulty since many of the work had been carried out long time ago; their objectives generally were quite broad; and the results essentially not published, with some exceptions. Section I begins with thefntroduction, giving a brief account of the developments of induced mutations in Malaysia, the facilities available in various institutions and the role played by the National Committee on the Use of Mutations in Plant Breeding. The collaborative efforts of IAEA and IFNCC are also briefly described here, together with all the activates which they had supported in the past. Section 11 briefly describes the induced mutations and how they are produced and utilised in the plant improvement programmes, taking into consideration the safety precautions required, and the requirements of different crop species. Section III describes in greater details all the research that had been carried out in the country. The

  2. Improvements done at Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) to increase the standards of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.S.; Gupta, R.V.; Pandey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Heavy Water Plant at Manuguru is designed to produce 185 MTY of nuclear grade heavy water based on bithermal H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process and handles large inventory of H 2 S gas (about 400 MT). As H 2 S gas is very toxic, corrosive and hazardous in nature, extreme care has been taken in the design of plant, selection of equipment and materials adhering to stringent fabrication procedures and codes to ensure the production of heavy water in a safe manner. This paper highlights the improvements done at Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) to increase the standards of environmental protection. The safety assessment of a hazardous plant is a continuous process. Apart from the extreme care taken in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the plant, review of each and every safety related unusual occurrence by various levels of review committees as stipulated and speedy implementation of the recommendations goes in a long way in increasing the standards of environmental protection

  3. Improvement of Salt Tolerance in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. var. PEB by Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The crop yield is reduced under saline conditions and this hampers agricultural productivity. The incorporation of plant growth regulators (PGRs during presoaking treatments in many crops has improved seed performance under saline conditions. In order to study the ameliorative effect of plant growth regulators, experiments were conducted to study the variation in organic constituents in the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. var.PEB, where the seeds were primed with different plant growth regulators and grown under NaCl salinity. After a pre-soaking treatment of six hours in 20 mg L-1 solutions of gibberllic acid (GA3, 6-furfuryladenine (Kinetin and benzyl adenine (BA, the seeds were allowed to germinate and grow for forty-five days under saline conditions. On the analysis of mature leaves, it was observed that chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll and protein showed an increase in PGR-treated plants compared to the untreated set. The accumulation of the stress metabolite such as proline and sugars, which increase under saline conditions, showed a significant decrease in the plants pretreated with PGRs.

  4. The Green Roof Microbiome: Improving Plant Survival for Ecosystem Service Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fulthorpe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are key contributors to ecosystem services delivered by green roofs in cities including stormwater capture, temperature regulation, and wildlife habitat. As a result, current research has primarily focused on their growth in relationship to extensive green roof (e.g., substrates <15 cm depth ecosystem services. Green roofs are exposed to a variety of harsh abiotic factors such as intense solar radiation, wind, and isolation from ground-level habitats, making survival exceedingly difficult. Plants in natural habitats benefit from a variety of interactions with fungi and bacteria. These plant-microbial interactions improve mechanisms of survival and productivity; however, many green roof substrates are sterilized prior to installation and lack microbial communities with unstudied consequences for green roof plant health and subsequent survival and performance. In this paper, we present six hypotheses on the positive role of microbes in green roof applications. In natural and experimental systems, microbial interactions have been linked to plant (1 drought tolerance, (2 pathogen protection, (3 nutrient availability, (4 salt tolerance, (5 phytohormone production, and (6 substrate stabilization, all of which are desirable properties of green roof ecosystems. As few studies exist that directly examine these relationships on green roofs, we explore the existing ecological literature on these topics to unravel the mechanisms that could support more complex green roof ecosystem and lead to new insight into the design, performance, and broader applications in green infrastructure.

  5. Evaluation and improvement of wastewater treatment plant performance using BioWin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Cao, Jiashun; Feng, Qian; Wang, Gan; Xue, Zhaoxia; Fang, Fang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the activated sludge model implemented in the BioWin® software was validated against full-scale wastewater treatment plant data. Only two stoichiometric parameters ( Y p/acetic and the heterotrophic yield ( Y H)) required calibration. The value 0.42 was used for Y p/acetic in this study, while the default value of the BioWin® software is 0.49, making it comparable with the default values of the corresponding parameter (yield of phosphorus release to substrate uptake ) used in ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3P, respectively. Three scenarios were evaluated to improve the performance of the wastewater treatment plant, the possibility of wasting sludge from either the aeration tank or the secondary clarifier, the construction of a new oxidation ditch, and the construction of an equalization tank. The results suggest that construction of a new oxidation ditch or an equalization tank for the wastewater treatment plant is not necessary. However, sludge should be wasted from the aeration tank during wet weather to reduce the solids loading of the clarifiers and avoid effluent violations. Therefore, it is recommended that the design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should include flexibility to operate the plants in various modes. This is helpful in selection of the appropriate operating mode when necessary, resulting in substantial reductions in operating costs.

  6. A strategy for improving the profitability of utility power plants in a deregulated industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    When deregulation of the utility industry becomes a reality in the near future, power plant managers and engineers will face a completely changed business climate. Surviving in a competitive business world will require a dramatic alteration in the way most utility power plants are maintained and upgraded, and in their budget planning. Strategies will have to be developed and implemented that follow the guidelines of good business practices in competitive industries. Some utilities have already started to reduce overhead maintenance costs. Key aspects of their programs can serve as examples to other utilities who want to develop a strategy to improve their operating cost effectiveness. Cost-cutting measures have included development of procedures and data bases that allowed utilities to become independent of original equipment manufacturer (OEM) support and to keep their costs for maintenance, repairs, and replacement of power plant components to a minimum. Also, scheduled power plant outages based on the concepts of reliability-centered maintenance (Smith, 1993), remaining life assessment, and advanced integrity monitors instead of a fixed calendar (Swanekamp, 1996), have allowed utilities to extend the time between some outages by several years. These and other innovative approaches will become critical to power plants operating in the new, deregulated business climate. Examples of actual cost savings are presented here

  7. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar contracts. 644.486 Section 644.486 National... Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar...

  8. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  9. Optimization of Boiler Control for Improvement of Load Following Capabilities of Existing Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    An An optimizing control system for improving the load following capabilities of power plant units has been developed. The system is implemented as a complement producing additive control signals to the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms...... of implementation and commissioning. The optimizing control system takes into account the multivariable and nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process as a gain-scheduled LQG-controller is utilized. Simulation results indicate that a reduction of steam temperature deviations of about 75% can be obtained.......optimizing control system for improving the load following capabilities of power plant units has been developed. The system is implemented as a complement producing additive control signals to the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms of implementation...

  10. Overview of human performance improvement initiatives in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are very complex systems. Diverse, multiple and redundant technological systems are used for effective control and safety of the NPPs. The increased numbers of such systems require increased operator attention. Additionally, the control stations (man-machine interfaces) are to be kept manageable in size. This sometimes reduces the scope for truly ergonomic design. These limitations, coupled with the shortcomings of human nature, led to unintended human performance problems and errors resulting into poor plant performance worldwide. Some organisational weaknesses, managerial decisions and latent errors also aided and abetted human errors. In view of this, a need was felt for development of performance culture at all levels in NPP organisations. Towards this end, ready-to-use performance improvement tools were developed and used for individual performers, supervisors and managers in the NPPs. This paper describes the experiences of the global nuclear electricity generating industry towards human performance improvement and error reduction. (author)

  11. Improved people detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B., E-mail: seixas@lps.ufrj.br, E-mail: eduardo@smt.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica; Waintraub, Fabio, E-mail: fabiowaintraub@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Eletronica e de Computacao

    2013-07-01

    This work describes improvements in a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The objective is to track people online in video, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during working tasks executed in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a nuclear research reactor, Argonauta. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta room, supplying the data needed. Video processing methods were combined for detecting and tracking people in video. More specifically, segmentation, performed by background subtraction, was combined with a tracking method based on color distribution. The use of both methods improved the overall results. An alternative approach was also evaluated, by means of blind source signal separation. Results are commented, along with perspectives. (author)

  12. Improved people detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B.; Waintraub, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    This work describes improvements in a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The objective is to track people online in video, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during working tasks executed in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a nuclear research reactor, Argonauta. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta room, supplying the data needed. Video processing methods were combined for detecting and tracking people in video. More specifically, segmentation, performed by background subtraction, was combined with a tracking method based on color distribution. The use of both methods improved the overall results. An alternative approach was also evaluated, by means of blind source signal separation. Results are commented, along with perspectives. (author)

  13. Safety improvements at Canadian nuclear power plants in the aftermath of Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzentkowski, G.; Khouaja, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the safety review of operating nuclear power plants undertaken by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission in light of the March 11, 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The review confirmed that the Canadian NPPs are robust and have a strong design relying on multiple layers of defence to protect the public from credible external events. Nevertheless, in the spirit of continuous safety improvements, the review identified a number of recommendations to further strengthen reactor defence-in-depth in preventing and mitigating the consequences of beyond design basis accidents, enhance onsite and offsite emergency response, and improve the CNSC regulatory framework. Progress achieved to date, in implementing these measures, is described in this paper along with a summary of safety benefits for each level of the reactor defence-in-depth. (author)

  14. Safety improvements at Canadian nuclear power plants in the aftermath of Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzentkowski, G.; Khouaja, H. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the safety review of operating nuclear power plants undertaken by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission in light of the March 11, 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The review confirmed that the Canadian NPPs are robust and have a strong design relying on multiple layers of defence to protect the public from credible external events. Nevertheless, in the spirit of continuous safety improvements, the review identified a number of recommendations to further strengthen reactor defence-in-depth in preventing and mitigating the consequences of beyond design basis accidents, enhance onsite and offsite emergency response, and improve the CNSC regulatory framework. Progress achieved to date, in implementing these measures, is described in this paper along with a summary of safety benefits for each level of the reactor defence-in-depth. (author)

  15. Uranium dioxide calcining apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.; Peterson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved continuous calcining apparatus for consistently and controllably producing from calcinable reactive solid compounds of uranium, such as ammonium diuranate, uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) having an oxygen to uranium ratio of less than 2.2. The apparatus comprises means at the outlet end of a calciner kiln for receiving hot UO 2 , means for cooling the UO 2 to a temperature of below 100 deg C and conveying the cooled UO 2 to storage or to subsequent UO 2 processing apparatus where it finally comes into contact with air, the means for receiving cooling and conveying being sealed to the outlet end of the calciner and being maintained full of UO 2 and so operable as to exclude atmospheric oxygen from coming into contact with any UO 2 which is at elevated temperatures where it would readily oxidize, without the use of extra hydrogen gas in said means. (author)

  16. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has therefore been developed. The system is implemented as a complement, producing control signals to be added to those of the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advanta...

  17. The Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve the Traffic Tolerance and Repair of Overseeded Bermudagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Christopher Scott

    2007-01-01

    An active football season during the fall acclimation period tests the traffic tolerance of bermudagrass. Exogenous applications of synthetic cytokinins or cytokinin-enhancing plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as trinexapac-ethyl, may improve the traffic tolerance of "Patriot" and "Tifsport" hybrid berudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis). This study was designed to mimic the agronomic practices and traffic stresses experienced at Virginia Tech's Worsham Fiel...

  18. Lean Maintenance Applied to Improve Maintenance Efficiency in Thermoelectric Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Duran; Andrea Capaldo; Paulo Andrés Duran Acevedo

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric power plants consist of a set of critical equipment that require high levels of availability and reliability. Due to this, maintenance of these physical assets is gaining momentum in industry. Maintenance is considered as an activity that contributes to improving the availability, efficiency and productivity of each piece of equipment. Several techniques have been used to achieve greater efficiencies in maintenance, among which we can find the lean maintenance philosophy. Despi...

  19. Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve Branching of Herbaceous Perennial Liners

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Mara Celeste

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PGRs to improve branching during production of herbaceous perennial liners and finished plants. The effects of benzyladenine (BA) on the branching and root and shoot growth of Agastache Clayt. Ex Gronov. 'Purple Hazeâ , Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. & A. Gray 'Siskiyou Pink', Lavandula à intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Provence', Leucanthemum à superbum (Bergmans ex J.W. Ingram) Bergmans ex Kent. 'Snowcap', and Salvia à sylv...

  20. IAEA activities to improve occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, M.; Webb, G.A.M.; )

    1998-01-01

    The following aspects are highlighted: developing standards, ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure), providing assistance, and intercomparisons. By means of these coordinated efforts, the IAEA aims at improving occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe. The objective is not only transfer of knowledge and technology but also encouraging cooperation between health physicists in those countries as well as with health physicists in Western countries. (P.A.)