WorldWideScience

Sample records for diode laser absorption

  1. Investigation of Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Atmospheric Transmission Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Optics Letters, 28(23):2336–2338, 2003. 48. Lavan, M. “High Energy Laser Systems for Short Range Defense”. Acta Physica Polonica -Series A General Physics...able diode laser spectrometer for the remote sensing of vehicle emissions”. Spec- trochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 60...P. “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas mon- itors”. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 54

  2. Influence of the laser-diode temperature on crystal absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we studied the influence of heat loaded into the laser crystal in an end- pumped solid-state Nd:YVO4 high power laser. We have shown experimentally that the optimum value of the laser-diode temperature for the maximum pump power absorption by the Nd:YVO4 crystal and the maximum Nd:YVO4 ...

  3. Methanogenic activity tests by Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Escobar-Orozco, Nayeli; Thalasso, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    Methanogenic activity (MA) tests are commonly carried out to estimate the capability of anaerobic biomass to treat effluents, to evaluate anaerobic activity in bioreactors or natural ecosystems, or to quantify inhibitory effects on methanogenic activity. These activity tests are usually based on the measurement of the volume of biogas produced by volumetric, pressure increase or gas chromatography (GC) methods. In this study, we present an alternative method for non-invasive measurement of methane produced during activity tests in closed vials, based on Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (MA-TDLAS). This new method was tested during model acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity tests and was compared to a more traditional method based on gas chromatography. From the results obtained, the CH(4) detection limit of the method was estimated to 60 ppm and the minimum measurable methane production rate was estimated to 1.09(.)10(-3) mg l(-1) h(-1), which is below CH(4) production rate usually reported in both anaerobic reactors and natural ecosystems. Additionally to sensitivity, the method has several potential interests compared to more traditional methods among which short measurements time allowing the measurement of a large number of MA test vials, non-invasive measurements avoiding leakage or external interferences and similar cost to GC based methods. It is concluded that MA-TDLAS is a promising method that could be of interest not only in the field of anaerobic digestion but also, in the field of environmental ecology where CH(4) production rates are usually very low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Gas pipeline leak detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Xing; Wang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Bing-Hai; Cai, Ting-Li; Qiao, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2009-08-01

    The principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and harmonic detection technique was introduced. An experimental device was developed by point sampling through small multi-reflection gas cell. A specific line near 1 653. 7 nm was targeted for methane measurement using a distributed feedback diode laser as tunable light source. The linearity between the intensity of second harmonic signal and the concentration of methane was determined. The background content of methane in air was measured. The results show that gas sensors using tunable diode lasers provide a high sensitivity and high selectivity method for city gas pipeline leak detection.

  5. Blue Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Pulsed Magnetron Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Do, H.T.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, 10B (2006), s. 8090-8094 ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100100563; GA ČR GA202/05/2242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : laser absorption spectroscopy * pulsed magnetron * sputtering parameters Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2006

  6. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 −5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm −3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  7. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph [Physics Department, The College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10{sup −5} are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10{sup 4} atoms cm{sup −3}. The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  8. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 -5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm -3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  9. A Novel Temperature Measurement Approach for a High Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Using Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leiweke, R. J; Ganguly, B. N

    2006-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopic technique is used to measure both electronically excited state production efficiency and gas temperature rise in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon...

  10. Monitoring Temperature in High Enthalpy Arc-heated Plasma Flows using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marcel Nations; Chang, Leyen S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Driver, David M.; Raiche, George

    2013-01-01

    A tunable diode laser sensor was designed for in situ monitoring of temperature in the arc heater of the NASA Ames IHF arcjet facility (60 MW). An external cavity diode laser was used to generate light at 777.2 nm and laser absorption used to monitor the population of electronically excited oxygen atoms in an air plasma flow. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements were obtained on four lines-of-sight, which enabled evaluation of the temperature uniformity in the plasma column for different arcjet operating conditions.

  11. Element selective detection of molecular species applying chromatographic techniques and diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, K; Zybin, A; Koch, J; Franzke, J; Miclea, M; Niemax, K

    2004-12-01

    Tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (DLAAS) combined with separation techniques and atomization in plasmas and flames is presented as a powerful method for analysis of molecular species. The analytical figures of merit of the technique are demonstrated by the measurement of Cr(VI) and Mn compounds, as well as molecular species including halogen atoms, hydrogen, carbon and sulfur.

  12. Quasi zero-background tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy employing a balanced Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zuguang; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2008-12-22

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) normally observes small fractional absorptive reductions in the light flux. We show, that instead a signal increase on a zero background can be obtained. A Michelson interferometer, which is initially balanced out in destructive interference, is perturbed by gas absorption in one of its arms. Both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration show that the proposed zero-background TDLS can improve the achievable signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. Time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of pulsed plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Petr; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 14 (2013), s. 2428-2430 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12045; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA MŠk LD12002; GA MŠk LH12043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode laser s * plasma diagnostics * absorption spectroscopy * time resolved Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2013

  14. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  15. Natural gas pipeline leak detector based on NIR diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fan, Hong; Huang, Teng; Wang, Xia; Bao, Jian; Li, Xiaoyun; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2006-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of an integrated natural gas pipeline leak detector based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The detector transmits a 1.653 microm DFB diode laser with 10 mW and detects a fraction of the backscatter reflected from the topographic targets. To eliminate the effect of topographic scatter targets, a ratio detection technique was used. Wavelength modulation and harmonic detection were used to improve the detection sensitivity. The experimental detection limit is 50 ppmm, remote detection for a distance up to 20 m away topographic scatter target is demonstrated. Using a known simulative leak pipe, minimum detectable pipe leak flux is less than 10 ml/min.

  16. Measurements of sulfur compounds in CO2 by diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, J.; Stancu, D.G.; Niemax, K.

    2003-01-01

    Two simple methods for the analysis of the total concentration of sulfur in CO 2 by diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry of excited, metastable sulfur atoms in a direct current discharge are presented. In the first method, the CO 2 sample gas is mixed with the plasma gas (Ar or He) while the second is based on reproducible measurements of the sulfur released from the walls in a helium discharge after being deposited as a result of operating the discharge in pure CO 2 sample gas. The detection limits obtained satisfy the requirements for the control of sulfur compounds in CO 2 used in the food and beverage industry

  17. Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jonathan T.C.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Gruber, Mark R.; Carter, Campbell D.; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2005-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 μm spectral region (2v1and v1+ v3overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations

  18. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Mathew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.

  19. Comparison of electrothermal atomization diode laser Zeeman- and wavelength-modulated atomic absorption and coherent forward scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecker, Carlo R.; Hermann, Gerd M.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic absorption and coherent forward scattering spectrometry by using a near-infrared diode laser with and without Zeeman and wavelength modulation were carried out with graphite furnace electrothermal atomization. Analytical curves and limits of detection were compared. The magnetic field was modulated with 50 Hz, and the wavelength of the diode laser with 10 kHz. Coherent forward scattering was measured with crossed and slightly uncrossed polarizers. The results show that the detection limits of atomic absorption spectrometry are roughly the same as those of coherent forward scattering spectrometry with crossed polarizers. According to the theory with bright flicker noise limited laser sources the detection limits and linear ranges obtained with coherent forward scattering spectrometry with slightly uncrossed polarizers are significantly better than those obtained with crossed polarizers and with atomic absorption spectrometry. This is due to the fact that employing approaches of polarization spectroscopy reduce laser intensity fluctuations to their signal carried fractions

  20. Application of mid-infrared tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepcke, J; Lombardi, G; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B

    2006-01-01

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy over a region from 3 to 17μm and based on tuneable lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy or TDLAS, has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry in molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has led to further applications of TDLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. TDLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetic phenomena. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from TDLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected by TDLAS. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes. The aim of the present paper is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid-infrared

  1. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  2. Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhechao; Steinvall, Erik; Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M

    2016-04-05

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer-Lambert's law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950-1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor.

  3. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  4. Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.

  5. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  6. Measurement of the population densities in Gd atomic vapor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy in UV transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Duck Hee; Jung, E. C.; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Tack Soo

    2003-01-01

    We report on the ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy of atomic Gd at 394-554 nm where two transition lines are place very closely by using a frequency-doubled beam of external-cavity diode laser (ECDL). One is from 999.121 to 26337.071 cm -1 and the other from 0 to 25337.755 cm -1 . If two transition lines are placed closely within a continuous fine tuning range, the real-time measurement of the atomic excitation temperature is possible without any significant time consumption because at least two transition lines originating from different low-lying energy levels need to be investigated for the Boltzmann-plot. Since the spectral difference between the two transitions is only about 0.195 cm -1 (5.85 GHz), it is possible to record both the absorption spectra simultaneously as shown in Fig. 1. But the transition probabilities (or oscillator strengths) of these lines have not been measured accurately yet to the best of our knowledge. We report on the newly measured transition probabilities by analyzing their absorption spectra at known vapor density conditions. The simultaneous measurement of the atomic excitation temperature and the vapor density demonstrated. In addition we present another ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy of atomic Gd at 403.540 nm by means of a commercial blue diode laser and investigate the characteristics of the blue diode laser as well.

  7. Absorption Spectroscopy in Hollow-Glass Waveguides Using Infrared Diode Lasers[4817-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Kelly, James F.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Hartman, John S.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Alan Fried

    2002-01-01

    Near- and mid-infrared diode lasers combined with flexible, hollow waveguides hold the promise of light weight, field portable, fast response gas sensors. The advantages of using the waveguides compared to White or Herriott multireflection cells include a small gas volume, a high photon fill factor in the waveguide, which increases molecule-light interactions, and reduction or elimination of optical fringing, which usually sets the practical limit of detectivity in absorption spectroscopy. Though hollow waveguides have been commercially available for several years, relatively few results have been reported in the literature. We present here results from our laboratory where we have injected infrared laser light into straight and coiled lengths of hollow waveguides and performed direct and wavelength modulated absorption spectroscopy on nitrous oxide, ethylene, and nitric oxide. Using a 1 mm bore, 3 meter long coiled waveguide coated for the near infrared, nitrous oxide transitions near 6595 cm-1 were observed under flowing conditions. Signal-to-noise ratios on the order of 1500:1 with RMS noise equal to 2 X 10-5 were measured. In the mid-infrared light from either a 10.1 or 5.3 micron lead salt diode laser was injected into a three meter length of 1 mm bore hollow waveguide coated for the mid-infrared. The waveguide was coiled with one loop at a diameter of 52 cm. Ethylene transitions were observed in the vicinity of 985 cm-1 with a static fill of 0.2 Torr of pure ethylene in the waveguide and nitric oxide transitions were observed in the vicinity of 1906 cm-1 using either a flow or a static fill of 1 ppm NO in nitrogen. In direct absorption the NO transitions are observed to have a signal-to-noise of approximately 5:1 for transitions with absorbances on the order of 10-3. Using wavelength modulated techniques the signal-to-noise ratio improves at least an order of magnitude. These encouraging results indicate that waveguides can be used for in situ gas monitoring

  8. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Matulková, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 408-420 ISSN 1230-3402 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FTIR spectroscopy * absorption spectroscopy * laser diodes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2010

  9. A method of reducing background fluctuation in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rendi; Dong, Xiaozhou; Bi, Yunfeng; Lv, Tieliang

    2018-03-01

    Optical interference fringe is the main factor that leads to background fluctuation in gas concentration detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The interference fringes are generated by multiple reflections or scatterings upon optical surfaces in optical path and make the background signal present an approximated sinusoidal oscillation. To reduce the fluctuation of the background, a method that combines dual tone modulation (DTM) with vibration reflector (VR) is proposed in this paper. The combination of DTM and VR can make the unwanted periodic interference fringes to be averaged out and the effectiveness of the method in reducing background fluctuation has been verified by simulation and real experiments in this paper. In the detection system based on the proposed method, the standard deviation (STD) value of the background signal is decreased to 0.0924 parts per million (ppm), which is reduced by a factor of 16 compared with that of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The STD value of 0.0924 ppm corresponds to the absorption of 4 . 328 × 10-6Hz - 1 / 2 (with effective optical path length of 4 m and integral time of 0.1 s). Moreover, the proposed method presents a better stable performance in reducing background fluctuation in long time experiments.

  10. Combined tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry in ammonium dinitramide-based thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Ou, Dongbin; Chen, Lianzhong; Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong

    2018-02-01

    Nonintrusive temperature measurements for a real ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based thruster by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry are proposed. The ADN-based thruster represents a promising future space propulsion employing green, nontoxic propellant. Temperature measurements in the chamber enable quantitative thermal analysis for the thruster, providing access to evaluate thermal properties of the thruster and optimize thruster design. A laser-based sensor measures temperature of combustion gas in the chamber, while a monochromatic thermometry system based on thermal radiation is utilized to monitor inner wall temperature in the chamber. Additional temperature measurements of the outer wall temperature are conducted on the injector, catalyst bed, and combustion chamber of the thruster by using thermocouple, respectively. An experimental ADN thruster is redesigned with optimizing catalyst bed length of 14 mm and steady-state firing tests are conducted under various feed pressures over the range from 5 to 12 bar at a typical ignition temperature of 200°C. A threshold of feed pressure higher than 8 bar is required for the thruster's normal operation and upstream movement of the heat release zone is revealed in the combustion chamber out of temperature evolution in the chamber.

  11. Selection of the optimal combination of water vapor absorption lines for detection of temperature in combustion zones of mixing supersonic gas flows by diode laser absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironenko, V.R.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Bolshov, M.A.; Liger, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of a gas medium temperature by diode laser absorption spectrometry (DLAS) is based on the measurement of integral intensities of the absorption lines of a test molecule (generally water vapor molecule). In case of local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature is inferred from the ratio of the integral intensities of two lines with different low energy levels. For the total gas pressure above 1 atm the absorption lines are broadened and one cannot find isolated well resolved water vapor absorption lines within relatively narrow spectral interval of fast diode laser (DL) tuning range (about 3 cm"−"1). For diagnostics of a gas object in the case of high temperature and pressure DLAS technique can be realized with two diode lasers working in different spectral regions with strong absorption lines. In such situation the criteria of the optimal line selection differs significantly from the case of narrow lines. These criteria are discussed in our work. The software for selection the optimal spectral regions using the HITRAN-2012 and HITEMP data bases is developed. The program selects spectral regions of DL tuning, minimizing the error of temperature determination δT/T, basing on the attainable experimental error of line intensity measurement δS. Two combinations of optimal spectral regions were selected – (1.392 & 1.343 μm) and (1.392 & 1.339 μm). Different algorithms of experimental data processing are discussed.

  12. A Compact Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer to Monitor CO2 at 2.7 µm Wavelength in Hypersonic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphäel Vallon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Mars planet exploration, the characterization of carbon dioxide hypersonic flows to simulate a spaceship’s Mars atmosphere entry conditions has been an important issue. We have developed a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer with a new room-temperature operating antimony-based distributed feedback laser (DFB diode laser to characterize the velocity, the temperature and the density of such flows. This instrument has been tested during two measurement campaigns in a free piston tunnel cold hypersonic facility and in a high enthalpy arc jet wind tunnel. These tests also demonstrate the feasibility of mid-infrared fiber optics coupling of the spectrometer to a wind tunnel for integrated or local flow characterization with an optical probe placed in the flow.

  13. Application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in the detection of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Jin, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Most aircrafts is driven by chemic energy which is released in the combustion process. For improving the capability of engine and controlling the running on-time, the processes of fuel physics and chemistry need to be analysis by kinds of high quality sensor. In the research of designing and improving the processes of fuel physics and chemistry, the concentration, temperature and velocity of kinds of gas in the combustor need to be detected and measured. In addition, these engines and research equipments are always in the harsh environment of high temperature, high pressure and high speed. The harsh environment needs the sensor to be high reliability, well repetition, no cross- sensitivity between gases, and the traditional measurement system can't satisfy the metrical requirement well. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) analytic measurement technology can well satisfy the measurement in the harsh environment, which can support the whole measurement plan and high quality measurement system. Because the TDLAS sensor has the excellence of small bulk, light weight, high reliability and well specifically measurement, the TDLAS measurement technology has wide prospects. Different from most measurements, only a beam of laser can be pass through the measured environment by TDLAS, and the measurement equipment needn't be set in the harsh environment. So, the TDLAS equipment can't be interrupted by the measured equipment. The ability of subsistence in the harsh environment is very valuable, especially in the measurement on the subject of aerospace with environment of high speed, combustion and plasma. This paper focuses on the collecting the articles on the subject of oxygen detection of TDLAS. By analyzing the research and results of the articles, we conclude the central issues, difficulties and results. And we can get some instructive conclusions.

  14. Diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, S.; Weckwerth, T.; Repasky, K. S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Carbone, R.

    2012-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating the performance of an eye-safe, low-cost, diode-laser-based, water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler. This class of instrument may be capable of providing continuous water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles at high vertical resolution in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for periods of months to years. The technology potentially fills a national long term observing facility gap and could greatly benefit micro- and meso-meteorology, water cycle, carbon cycle and, more generally, biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interaction research at both weather and climate variability time scales. For the evaluation, the Montana State University 3rd generation water vapor DIAL was modified to enable unattended operation for a period of several weeks. The performance of this V3.5 version DIAL was tested at MSU and NCAR in June and July of 2012. Further tests are currently in progress with Howard University at Beltsville, Maryland; and with the National Weather Service and Oklahoma University at Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The presentation will include a comparison of DIAL profiles against meteorological "truth" at the aforementioned locations including: radiosondes, Raman lidars, microwave and IR radiometers, AERONET and SUOMINET systems. Instrument reliability, uncertainty, systematic biases, detection height statistics, and environmental complications will be evaluated. Performance will be judged in the context of diverse scientific applications that range from operational weather prediction and seasonal climate variability, to more demanding climate system process studies at the land-canopy-ABL interface. Estimating the extent to which such research and operational applications can be satisfied with a low cost autonomous network of similar instruments is our principal objective.

  15. outcome of diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in neovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duke

    including, ruby, ND:YAG, argon, krypton and, more recently, trans scleral cyclophotocoagulation with the diode laser, which has been shown to be more effective with less side effects than the others. The diode laser, 810nm, has. 4,5 greater melanin absorption compared to other lasers. Of the various cyclodestructive laser ...

  16. Diode-Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of an Optically Thick Plasma in Combination with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nomura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion of laser-induced fluorescence profiles attributable to optical absorption and saturation broadening was corrected in combination with laser absorption spectroscopy in argon plasma flow. At high probe-laser intensity, saturated absorption profiles were measured to correct probe-laser absorption. At low laser intensity, nonsaturated absorption profiles were measured to correct fluorescence reabsorption. Saturation broadening at the measurement point was corrected using a ratio of saturated to non-saturated broadening. Observed LIF broadening and corresponding translational temperature without correction were, respectively, 2.20±0.05 GHz and 2510±100 K and corrected broadening and temperature were, respectively, 1.96±0.07 GHz and 1990±150 K. Although this correction is applicable only at the center of symmetry, the deduced temperature agreed well with that obtained by LAS with Abel inversion.

  17. Analyses of absorption distribution of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a Laser-Diode-Array (LDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Han, Juhong; Rong, Kepeng; Wang, Shunyan; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Qiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You

    2018-01-01

    A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has been regarded as one of the most potential candidates to achieve high power performances of next generation. In this paper, we investigate the physical properties of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a Laser-Diode-Array (LDA) in this study. As the saturated concentration of a gain medium inside a vapor cell is extremely sensitive to the temperature, the populations of every energy-level of the atomic alkali are strongly relying on the vapor temperature. Thus, the absorption characteristics of a DPAL are mainly dominated by the temperature distribution. In this paper, the temperature, absorption, and lasing distributions in the cross-section of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a LDA are obtained by means of a complicated mathematic procedure. Based on the original end-pumped mode we constructed before, a novel one-direction side-pumped theoretical mode has been established to explore the distribution properties in the transverse section of a rubidium vapor cell by combining the procedures of heat transfer and laser kinetics together. It has been thought the results might be helpful for design of a side-pumped configuration in a high-powered DPAL.

  18. Fixed-wavelength H2O absorption spectroscopy system enhanced by an on-board external-cavity diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittelle, Mack S; Simms, Jean M; Sanders, Scott T; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a system designed to perform fixed-wavelength absorption spectroscopy of H 2 O vapor in practical combustion devices. The system includes seven wavelength-stabilized distributed feedback (WSDFB) lasers, each with a spectral accuracy of  ±1 MHz. An on-board external cavity diode laser (ECDL) that tunes 1320–1365 nm extends the capabilities of the system. Five system operation modes are described. In one mode, a sweep of the ECDL is used to monitor each WSDFB laser wavelength with an accuracy of  ±30 MHz. Demonstrations of fixed-wavelength thermometry at 10 kHz bandwidth in near-room-temperature gases are presented; one test reveals a temperature measurement error of ∼0.43%. (paper)

  19. Progress in Applying Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Scramjet Isolators and Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    us ing a T exas Instruments OPA380 transimpedance amplifier /op amp for each photodiode. This amplifier with 90 MHz of gain bandwidth is a single...spectra 4 2 Boltzmann plot for Run AC 6 3 CFD Simulations for isolator 7 4 Optical layout for diode laser system 11 5 Optical amplifier circuit 11 6...designed InGaAs photodiode arrays. These custom designed arrays amplify the signal f rom 2m m di ameter FGA21 phot odiodes ( FGA 21 f rom T horLabs

  20. Optical gain and absorption of 420 nm InGaN-based laser diodes grown on m-plane GaN substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Segmented contact method was utilized to measure the gain and absorption spectra at below and above threshold for 420nm m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diode with a comparatively higher peak modal gain of 29.2 cm-1.

  1. H2O temperature sensor for low-pressure flames using tunable diode laser absorption near 2.9 νm

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie; Farooq, Aamir; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Making use of a newly available rapid-tuning diode laser operating at wavelengths up to 2.9 νm, an absorption-based temperature sensor was developed for in situ measurements in low-pressure flames. Based on the systematic analysis of H2O vapor

  2. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  3. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  4. Research on atmospheric CO2 remote sensing with open-path tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and comparison methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxin; Guo, Jinjia; Sun, Jiayun; Li, Jie; Zhao, Chaofang; Liu, Zhishen

    2017-06-01

    An open-path atmospheric CO2 measurement system was built based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The CO2 absorption line near 2 μm was selected, measuring the atmospheric CO2 with direct absorption spectroscopy and carrying on the comparative experiment with multipoint measuring instruments of the open-path. The detection limit of the TDLAS system is 1.94×10-6. The calibration experiment of three AZ-7752 handheld CO2 measuring instruments was carried out with the Los Gatos Research gas analyzer. The consistency of the results was good, and the handheld instrument could be used in the TDLAS system after numerical calibration. With the contrast of three AZ-7752 and their averages, the correlation coefficients are 0.8828, 0.9004, 0.9079, and 0.9393 respectively, which shows that the open-path TDLAS has the best correlation with the average of three AZ-7752 and measures the concentration of atmospheric CO2 accurately. Multipoint measurement provides a convenient comparative method for open-path TDLAS.

  5. Diode laser absorption spectroscopy for process control: Sensor system design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzins, L.V.; Anklam, T.M.; Chambers, F.; Galanti, S.; Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-03-01

    A laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for process control. LAS has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both density and composition. In this paper the important features and components of an industrial LAS diagnostic are described. Application of this approach to vaporization processes requires careful selection of the species and transitions to be monitored The relative vapor pressure, hyperfine structure, isotopic frequency shifts, and electronic temperature all effect the selection of a particular transition. In this paper we describe the methodology for choosing the optimal transition or transitions. Coevaporation of a titanium-niobium alloy is used to illustrate the methodology. In a related paper, T.M. Anklam et al describe the application of this diagnostic to monitoring and controlling composition in a physical vapor deposition process of industrial interest

  6. Powering laser diode systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trestman, Grigoriy A

    2017-01-01

    This Tutorial Text discusses the competent design and skilled use of laser diode drivers (LDDs) and power supplies (PSs) for the electrical components of laser diode systems. It is intended to help power-electronic design engineers during the initial design stages: the choice of the best PS topology, the calculation of parameters and components of the PS circuit, and the computer simulation of the circuit. Readers who use laser diode systems for research, production, and other purposes will also benefit. The book will help readers avoid errors when creating laser systems from ready-made blocks, as well as understand the nature of the "mystical failures" of laser diodes (and possibly prevent them).

  7. Tracing Acetylene Dissolved in Transformer Oil by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Ming; Zhao, Shu-Jing; Jiang, Jun; Song, Hong-Tu; Li, Cheng-Rong; Luo, Ying-Ting; Wu, Hao

    2017-11-02

    Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is widely used in monitoring and diagnosing of power transformer, since the insulation material in the power transformer decomposes gases under abnormal operation condition. Among the gases, acetylene, as a symbol of low energy spark discharge and high energy electrical faults (arc discharge) of power transformer, is an important monitoring parameter. The current gas detection method used by the online DGA equipment suffers from problems such as cross sensitivity, electromagnetic compatibility and reliability. In this paper, an optical gas detection system based on TDLAS technology is proposed to detect acetylene dissolved in transformer oil. We selected a 1530.370 nm laser in the near infrared wavelength range to correspond to the absorption peak of acetylene, while using the wavelength modulation strategy and Herriott cell to improve the detection precision. Results show that the limit of detection reaches 0.49 ppm. The detection system responds quickly to changes of gas concentration and is easily to maintenance while has no electromagnetic interference, cross-sensitivity, or carrier gas. In addition, a complete detection process of the system takes only 8 minutes, implying a practical prospect of online monitoring technology.

  8. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor for Calibration Free Humidity Measurements in Pure Methane and Low CO2 Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaboh, Javis Anyangwe; Pratzler, Sonja; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-05-01

    We report a new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor for absolute measurements of H 2 O in methane, ethane, propane, and low CO 2 natural gas. The sensor is operated with a 2.7 µm DFB laser, equipped with a high pressure single pass gas cell, and used to measure H 2 O amount of substance fractions in the range of 0.31-25 000 µmol/mol. Operating total gas pressures are up to 5000 hPa. The sensor has been characterized, addressing the traceability of the spectrometric results to the SI and the evaluation of the combined uncertainty, following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). The relative reproducibility of H 2 O amount of substance fraction measurements at 87 µmol/mol is 0.26% (0.23 µmol/mol). The maximum precision of the sensor was determined using a H 2 O in methane mixture, and found to be 40 nmol/mol for a time resolution of 100 s. This corresponds to a normalized detection limit of 330 nmol mol -1 ·m Hz -1/2 . The relative combined uncertainty of H 2 O amount fraction measurements delivered by the sensor is 1.2%.

  9. Low absorption loss p-AlGaN superlattice cladding layer for current-injection deep ultraviolet laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, M.; Kuhn, C.; Ziffer, E.; Simoneit, T.; Rass, J.; Wernicke, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kueller, V.; Knauer, A.; Einfeldt, S.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    Current injection into AlGaN-based laser diode structures with high aluminum mole fractions for deep ultraviolet emission is investigated. The electrical characteristics of laser diode structures with different p-AlGaN short period superlattice (SPSL) cladding layers with various aluminum mole fractions are compared. The heterostructures contain all elements that are needed for a current-injection laser diode including cladding and waveguide layers as well as an AlGaN quantum well active region emitting near 270 nm. We found that with increasing aluminum content in the p-AlGaN cladding, the diode turn-on voltage increases, while the series resistance slightly decreases. By introducing an SPSL instead of bulk layers, the operating voltage is significantly reduced. A gain guided broad area laser diode structure with transparent p-Al{sub 0.70}Ga{sub 0.30}N waveguide layers and a transparent p-cladding with an average aluminum content of 81% was designed for strong confinement of the transverse optical mode and low optical losses. Using an optimized SPSL, this diode could sustain current densities of more than 4.5 kA/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Low absorption loss p-AlGaN superlattice cladding layer for current-injection deep ultraviolet laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, M.; Kuhn, C.; Ziffer, E.; Simoneit, T.; Rass, J.; Wernicke, T.; Kueller, V.; Knauer, A.; Einfeldt, S.; Weyers, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2016-01-01

    Current injection into AlGaN-based laser diode structures with high aluminum mole fractions for deep ultraviolet emission is investigated. The electrical characteristics of laser diode structures with different p-AlGaN short period superlattice (SPSL) cladding layers with various aluminum mole fractions are compared. The heterostructures contain all elements that are needed for a current-injection laser diode including cladding and waveguide layers as well as an AlGaN quantum well active region emitting near 270 nm. We found that with increasing aluminum content in the p-AlGaN cladding, the diode turn-on voltage increases, while the series resistance slightly decreases. By introducing an SPSL instead of bulk layers, the operating voltage is significantly reduced. A gain guided broad area laser diode structure with transparent p-Al_0_._7_0Ga_0_._3_0N waveguide layers and a transparent p-cladding with an average aluminum content of 81% was designed for strong confinement of the transverse optical mode and low optical losses. Using an optimized SPSL, this diode could sustain current densities of more than 4.5 kA/cm"2.

  11. Time-resolved diode laser infrared absorption spectroscopy of the nascent HCl in the infrared laser chemistry of 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Quack, Martin; Seyfang, George

    1990-04-01

    The IR multiphoton excitation and the frequency, fluence and intensity dependence of the IR-laser chemical yields of CF 2ClCH 2Cl have been studied in the fluence range of 1 to 10 J cm -2 yielding a steady-state constant k(st)/ I=0.74×10 6 s -1 MW -1 cm 2 which is approximately independent of intensity. Time-resolved IR absorption spectroscopy with diode laser sources has been used to observe the nascent HCl during the first few 100 ns indicating a population inversion between the levels ν=1, J=4 and ν=2, J=5. At low reactant pressures ( p⩽10 Pa) the time-resolved measurement gives a steady-state rate constant consistent with the theoretical result adjusted to the static yield measurements. The capability of state-selective and time-resolved IR spectroscopy is thus demonstrated, giving real-time determinations of rate constants.

  12. Performances of new reconstruction algorithms for CT-TDLAS (computer tomography-tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Min-Gyu; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Doh, Deog-Hee; Cho, Gyeong-Rae

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The measured data were successfully used for generating absorption spectra. • Four different reconstruction algorithms, ART, MART, SART and SMART were evaluated. • The calculation speed of convergence by the SMART algorithm was the fastest. • SMART was the most reliable algorithm for reconstructing the multiple signals. - Abstract: Recent advent of the tunable lasers made to measure simultaneous temperature and concentration fields of the gases. CT-TDLAS (computed tomography-tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) is one the leading techniques for the measurements of temperature and concentration fields of the gases. In CT-TDLAS, the accuracies of the measurement results are strongly dependent upon the reconstruction algorithms. In this study, four different reconstruction algorithms have been tested numerically using experimental data sets measured by thermocouples for combustion fields. Three reconstruction algorithms, MART (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm, SART (simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm and SMART (simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm, are newly proposed for CT-TDLAS in this study. The calculation results obtained by the three algorithms have been compared with previous algorithm, ART (algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm. Phantom data sets have been generated by the use of thermocouples data obtained in an actual experiment. The data of the Harvard HITRAN table in which the thermo-dynamical properties and the light spectrum of the H_2O are listed were used for the numerical test. The reconstructed temperature and concentration fields were compared with the original HITRAN data, through which the constructed methods are validated. The performances of the four reconstruction algorithms were demonstrated. This method is expected to enhance the practicality of CT-TDLAS.

  13. Absorption spectroscopic studies of carbon dioxide conversion in a low pressure glow discharge using tunable infrared diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, F; Roepcke, J; Miethke, F; Wagner, H-E

    2002-01-01

    The time and spatial dependence of the chemical conversion of CO 2 to CO were studied in a closed glow discharge reactor (p = 50 Pa, I = 2-30 mA) consisting of a small plasma zone and an extended stationary afterglow. Tunable infrared diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been applied to determine the absolute ground state concentrations of CO and CO 2 . After a certain discharge time an equilibrium of the concentrations of both species could be observed. The spatial dependence of the equilibrium CO concentration in the afterglow was found to be varying less than 10%. The feed gas was converted to CO more predominantly between 43% and 60% with increasing discharge current, forming so-called quasi-equilibrium states of the stable reaction products. The formation time of the stable gas composition also decreased with the current. For currents higher than 10 mA the conversion rate of CO 2 to CO was estimated to be 1.2x10 13 molecules J -1 . Based on the experimental results, a plasma chemical modelling has been established

  14. Measurements of water molecule density by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in dielectric barrier discharges with gas-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Umekawa, Toyofumi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    We measured water molecule (H2O) density by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for applications in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with a gas-water interface. First, the effects of water temperature and presence of gas flow were tested using a Petri dish filled with water and a gas injection nozzle. Second, the TDLAS system was applied to the measurements of H2O density in two types of DBDs; one was a normal (non-inverted) type with a dielectric-covered electrode above a water-filled counter electrode and the other was an inverted type with a water-suspending mesh electrode above a dielectric-covered counter electrode. The H2O density in the normal DBD was close to the density estimated from the saturated vapor pressure, whereas the density in the inverted DBD was about half of that in the former type. The difference is attributed to the upward gas flow in the latter type, that pushes the water molecules up towards the gas-water interface.

  15. A compact tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer to monitor CO2 at 2.7 μm wavelength in hypersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Raphäel; Soutadé, Jacques; Vérant, Jean-Luc; Meyers, Jason; Paris, Sébastien; Mohamed, Ajmal

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Mars planet exploration, the characterization of carbon dioxide hypersonic flows to simulate a spaceship's Mars atmosphere entry conditions has been an important issue. We have developed a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer with a new room-temperature operating antimony-based distributed feedback laser (DFB) diode laser to characterize the velocity, the temperature and the density of such flows. This instrument has been tested during two measurement campaigns in a free piston tunnel cold hypersonic facility and in a high enthalpy arc jet wind tunnel. These tests also demonstrate the feasibility of mid-infrared fiber optics coupling of the spectrometer to a wind tunnel for integrated or local flow characterization with an optical probe placed in the flow.

  16. A combined application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and isothermal micro-calorimetry for calorespirometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, David; Solokhina, Anna; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Calorespirometry is the simultaneous analysis of the rate of heat emission (R q ), O 2 consumption (R O2 ) and CO 2 production (R CO2 ) by living systems such as tissues or organism cultures. The analysis provides useful knowledge about thermodynamic parameters relevant for e.g. biotechnology where parameter based yield maximization (fermentation) is relevant. The determination of metabolism related heat emission is easy and normally done by a calorimeter. However, measuring the amount of consumed O 2 and produced CO 2 can be more challenging, as additional preparation or instrumentation might be needed. Therefore, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was investigated as an alternative approach for respirometric analysis in order to facilitate the data collection procedure. The method determines by a spectroscopic laser non-invasively CO 2 and O 2 gas concentration changes in the respective vial headspaces. The gathered growth data from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultured in two different scarce media was used to compute respiratory quotient (RQ) and calorespirometric ratios (CR CO2 [R q /R CO2 ], CR O2 [R q /R O2 ]). A comparison of the computed (experimental) values (for RQ, CR CO2 and CR O2 ) with values reported in the literature confirmed the appropriateness of TDLAS in calorespirometric studies. Thus, it could be demonstrated that TDLAS is a well-performing and convenient way to evaluate non-invasively respiratory rates during calorespirometric studies. Therefore, the technique is definitively worth to be investigated further for its potential use in research and in diverse productive environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diode laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerlund, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  18. Time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of excited argon and ground-state titanium atoms in pulsed magnetron discharges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sushkov, V.; Do, H.T.; Čada, Martin; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), 1-10 ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA ČR GAP108/12/2104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : absorption spectroscopy * diode laser * magnetron * argon metastable * HiPIMS * titanium * time-resolved Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0963-0252/22/1/015002/

  19. Calibration-free sensor for pressure and H2O concentration in headspace of sterile vial using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tingdong; Gao, Guangzhen; Liu, Ying

    2013-11-10

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials using a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser near 1.4 μm are reported. A H2O line located near 7161.41 cm(-1) is selected based on its strong absorption strength and isolation from interference of neighboring transitions. Direct absorption spectra of H2O are obtained for the measurement path as well as the reference path by scanning the laser wavelength. The pressure and H2O vapor concentration in the headspace of a vial are inferred from a differential absorption signal, which is the difference between the measured and the referenced absorbance spectra. This sensor is calibration-free and no purge gas is needed. The demonstrated capability would enable measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials within 2.21% and 2.86%, respectively. A precision of 1.02 Torr and 390 ppm is found for the pressure and H2O concentration, respectively. A set of measurements for commercial freeze-dried products are also performed to illustrate the usefulness of this sensor.

  20. 'Intelligent' triggering methodology for improved detectability of wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectrometry applied to window-equipped graphite furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Joergen; Axner, Ove

    2003-01-01

    The wavelength modulation-diode laser absorption spectrometry (WM-DLAS) technique experiences a limited detectability when window-equipped sample compartments are used because of multiple reflections between components in the optical system (so-called etalon effects). The problem is particularly severe when the technique is used with a window-equipped graphite furnace (GF) as atomizer since the heating of the furnace induces drifts of the thickness of the windows and thereby also of the background signals. This paper presents a new detection methodology for WM-DLAS applied to a window-equipped GF in which the influence of the background signals from the windows is significantly reduced. The new technique, which is based upon a finding that the WM-DLAS background signals from a window-equipped GF are reproducible over a considerable period of time, consists of a novel 'intelligent' triggering procedure in which the GF is triggered at a user-chosen 'position' in the reproducible drift-cycle of the WM-DLAS background signal. The new methodology makes also use of 'higher-than-normal' detection harmonics, i.e. 4f or 6f, since these previously have shown to have a higher signal-to-background ratio than 2f-detection when the background signals originates from thin etalons. The results show that this new combined background-drift-reducing methodology improves the limit of detection of the WM-DLAS technique used with a window-equipped GF by several orders of magnitude as compared to ordinary 2f-detection, resulting in a limit of detection for a window-equipped GF that is similar to that of an open GF

  1. Determination of gas temperature and thermometric species in inductively coupled plasmas by emission and diode laser absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A; Cruden, Brett A; Sharma, Surendra P

    2004-01-01

    A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diode (VCSEL) was used as a spectrally tunable emission source for measurements of the radial-integrated gas temperature inside an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The data were obtained by profiling the Doppler-broadened absorption of metastable Ar atoms at 763.51 nm in argon and argon/nitrogen plasmas (3%, 45%, and 90% N 2 in Ar) at pressures of 0.5-70 Pa and inductive powers of 100 and 300 W. The results were compared to the rotational temperature derived from the N 2 emission at the (0,0) vibrational transition of the C 3 Π u -B 3 Π g system. The differences in integrated rotational and Doppler temperatures were attributed to non-uniform spatial distributions of both temperature and thermometric species (Ar * and N 2 *) that varied depending on the conditions. A two-dimensional, three-temperature fluid plasma simulation was employed to explain these differences. This work should facilitate further development of a miniature sensor for non-intrusive acquisition of data (temperature and densities of multiple plasma species) during micro- and nano-fabrication plasma processing, thus enabling diagnostic-assisted continuous optimization and advanced control over the processes. Such sensors would also enable us to track the origins and pathways of damaging contaminants, thereby providing real-time feedback for adjustment of processes. Our work serves as an example of how two line-of-sight integrated temperatures derived from different thermometric species make it possible to characterize the radial non-uniformity of the plasma

  2. Determination of gas temperature and thermometric species in inductively coupled plasmas by emission and diode laser absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bol' shakov, Alexander A; Cruden, Brett A; Sharma, Surendra P [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diode (VCSEL) was used as a spectrally tunable emission source for measurements of the radial-integrated gas temperature inside an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The data were obtained by profiling the Doppler-broadened absorption of metastable Ar atoms at 763.51 nm in argon and argon/nitrogen plasmas (3%, 45%, and 90% N{sub 2} in Ar) at pressures of 0.5-70 Pa and inductive powers of 100 and 300 W. The results were compared to the rotational temperature derived from the N{sub 2} emission at the (0,0) vibrational transition of the C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}-B {sup 3}{pi} {sub g} system. The differences in integrated rotational and Doppler temperatures were attributed to non-uniform spatial distributions of both temperature and thermometric species (Ar{sup *} and N{sub 2}*) that varied depending on the conditions. A two-dimensional, three-temperature fluid plasma simulation was employed to explain these differences. This work should facilitate further development of a miniature sensor for non-intrusive acquisition of data (temperature and densities of multiple plasma species) during micro- and nano-fabrication plasma processing, thus enabling diagnostic-assisted continuous optimization and advanced control over the processes. Such sensors would also enable us to track the origins and pathways of damaging contaminants, thereby providing real-time feedback for adjustment of processes. Our work serves as an example of how two line-of-sight integrated temperatures derived from different thermometric species make it possible to characterize the radial non-uniformity of the plasma.

  3. Analysis of algebraic reconstruction technique for accurate imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Hui-Hui; Kan Rui-Feng; Liu Jian-Guo; Xu Zhen-Yu; He Ya-Bai

    2016-01-01

    An improved algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) combined with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy(TDLAS) is presented in this paper for determining two-dimensional (2D) distribution of H 2 O concentration and temperature in a simulated combustion flame. This work aims to simulate the reconstruction of spectroscopic measurements by a multi-view parallel-beam scanning geometry and analyze the effects of projection rays on reconstruction accuracy. It finally proves that reconstruction quality dramatically increases with the number of projection rays increasing until more than 180 for 20 × 20 grid, and after that point, the number of projection rays has little influence on reconstruction accuracy. It is clear that the temperature reconstruction results are more accurate than the water vapor concentration obtained by the traditional concentration calculation method. In the present study an innovative way to reduce the error of concentration reconstruction and improve the reconstruction quality greatly is also proposed, and the capability of this new method is evaluated by using appropriate assessment parameters. By using this new approach, not only the concentration reconstruction accuracy is greatly improved, but also a suitable parallel-beam arrangement is put forward for high reconstruction accuracy and simplicity of experimental validation. Finally, a bimodal structure of the combustion region is assumed to demonstrate the robustness and universality of the proposed method. Numerical investigation indicates that the proposed TDLAS tomographic algorithm is capable of detecting accurate temperature and concentration profiles. This feasible formula for reconstruction research is expected to resolve several key issues in practical combustion devices. (paper)

  4. Experimental diode laser-assisted microvascular anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, U M; Gelli, R; Giannotti, V; Gori, F; Pratesi, R; Pini, R

    1993-05-01

    An experimental study to evaluate a diode-laser approach to microvascular end-to-end anastomoses is reported. Studies were carried out on the femoral arteries and veins of Wistar rats, and effective welding of vessel tissue was obtained at low laser power, by enhancing laser absorption with indocyanine green (Cardio-green) solution. The histologic and surgical effects of this laser technique were examined and compared with those of conventional microvascular sutured anastomoses.

  5. Measurement of the parameters of non-stationary gas flows by diode laser absorption spectroscopy in case of high temperature and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, M.A.; Liger, V.V.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Mironenko, V.R.; Ponurovskii, Ya.Ya.; Kolesnikov, O.M.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental version of diode laser absorption spectrometer (DLAS) for contactless measurements of temperature and water vapor concentration in supersonic gas flows is developed. The spectrometer can be used for the measurements of temperature up to 2500 K and total pressure up to 3 atm. The technique is based on the registration of the transient absorption spectra of a target molecules and fitting of the experimental spectra by the simulated ones constructed using the spectroscopic databases. The temperature is inferred from the ratio of the intensities of the absorption lines with different low energy levels. In gas media with the above parameters the absorption lines are broadened which demands the use of two diode lasers (DL) working in different spectral ranges. The software for selection of the optimal line combinations was developed. The combination of two strong lines in the spectral ranges 1.39 μ and 1.34 μ was selected as the optimal one. The efficiency of the developed technique was exemplified in the first set of the experiments in conditions of real propulsion in Zhukovsky Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) for the temperatures within 500-2200 K range and total pressure up to 3 atm.

  6. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm −1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm −1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis

  7. Progress towards an Autonomous Field Deployable Diode-Laser-Based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL for Profiling Water Vapor in the Lower Troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Repasky

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A laser transmitter has been developed and incorporated into a micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere as an important step towards long-term autonomous field operation. The laser transmitter utilizes two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR diode lasers to injection seed a pulsed tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA, and is capable of producing up to 10 mJ of pulse energy with a 1 ms pulse duration and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. The on-line wavelength of the laser transmitter can operate anywhere along the water vapor absorption feature centered at 828.187 nm (in vacuum depending on the prevailing atmospheric conditions, while the off-line wavelength operates at 828.287 nm. This laser transmitter has been incorporated into a DIAL instrument utilizing a 35.6 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and fiber coupled avalanche photodiode (APD operating in the photon counting mode. The performance of the DIAL instrument was demonstrated over a ten-day observation period. During this observation period, data from radiosondes were used to retrieve water vapor number density profiles for comparisons with the number density profiles retrieved from the DIAL data.

  8. Atomic spectroscopy with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tino, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Some applications of semiconductor diode lasers in atomic spectroscopy are discussed by describing different experiments performed with lasers emitting in the visible and in the near-infrared region. I illustrate the results obtained in the investigation of near-infrared transitions of atomic oxygen and of the visible intercombination line of strontium. I also describe how two offset-frequency-locked diode lasers can be used to excite velocity selective Raman transitions in Cs. I discuss the spectral resolution, the accuracy of frequency measurements, and the detection sensitivity achievable with diode lasers. (orig.)

  9. Laser diode technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, L.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of semiconductor laser technology, from new laser structures and laser design to applications in communications, remote sensing, and optoelectronics. The authors report on new laser diode physics and applications and present a survey of the state of the art as well as progress in new developments

  10. Diode laser spectroscopy of oxygen electronic band at 760 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchesini, A.; De Rosa, M.; Gozzini, S.

    1998-01-01

    Collisional broadening and shift coefficients have been obtained by analyzing the line shapes of oxygen absorptions in the 760 nm electronic band. By using a diode laser spectrometer with commercially available etherostructure Al x Ga 1-x As diode lasers operating in 'free-running mode', line shape parameters have been collected at room temperature by varying the gas pressure. A systematic study has been carried on seven absorption lines by scanning the diode laser emission wavelength around the gas resonances. The weak absorption lines have been detected by using the wavelength modulation (WM) spectroscopy technique with second-harmonic detection

  11. Enhanced vbasis laser diode package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J.; Chen, Diana; Bayramian, Andy; Freitas, Barry; Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-08-19

    A substrate having an upper surface and a lower surface is provided. The substrate includes a plurality of v-grooves formed in the upper surface. Each v-groove includes a first side and a second side perpendicular to the first side. A laser diode bar assembly is disposed within each of the v-grooves and attached to the first side. The laser diode bar assembly includes a first adhesion layer disposed on the first side of the v-groove, a metal plate attached to the first adhesion layer, a second adhesion layer disposed over the metal plate, and a laser diode bar attached to the second adhesion layer. The laser diode bar has a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) substantially similar to that of the metal plate.

  12. Development and Preliminary Tests of an Open-Path Airborne Diode Laser Absorption Instrument for Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Glenn S.; DiGangi, Joshua P.; Yang, Melissa; Slate, Thomas A.; Rana, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known for its importance as an atmospheric greenhouse gas, with many sources and sinks around the globe. Understanding the fluxes of carbon into and out of the atmosphere is a complex and daunting challenge. One tool applied by scientists to measure the vertical flux of CO2 near the surface uses the eddy covariance technique, most often from towers but also from aircraft flying specific patterns over the study area. In this technique, variations of constituents of interest are correlated with fluctuations in the local vertical wind velocity. Measurement requirements are stringent, particularly with regard to precision, sensitivity to small changes, and temporal sampling rate. In addition, many aircraft have limited payload capability, so instrument size, weight, and power consumption are also important considerations. We report on the development and preliminary application of an airborne sensor for the measurement of atmospheric CO2. The instrument, modeled on the successful DLH (Diode Laser Hygrometer) series of instruments, has been tested in the laboratory and on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. Performance parameters such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and temporal response are discussed in the context of typical atmospheric variability and suitability for flux measurement applications. On-aircraft, in-flight data have been obtained and are discussed as well. Performance of the instrument has been promising, and continued flight testing is planned during 2016.

  13. H2O temperature sensor for low-pressure flames using tunable diode laser absorption near 2.9 νm

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie

    2011-10-19

    Making use of a newly available rapid-tuning diode laser operating at wavelengths up to 2.9 νm, an absorption-based temperature sensor was developed for in situ measurements in low-pressure flames. Based on the systematic analysis of H2O vapor transitions in the fundamental vibrational bands (ν1 and ν3) of H2O in the range of 2.5-3.0 νm, an optimal closely-spaced spectral line pair near 2.9 νm was selected for its temperature sensitivity in the range of 1000-2500 K. The narrow-linewidth room-temperature laser was scanned repetitively across these spectral features at 5 kHz, enabling fast, accurate temperature sensing. Use of the temperature sensor was investigated in low-pressure flames supported on a McKenna burner at 15, 25 and 60 Torr. To avoid absorption by the cold gases in the flame edges and the recirculation region between the burner and the vacuum chamber wall, a variable-path in situ probe was designed and an optimal path length was determined to accurately measure the flame centerline temperature. Different flame conditions were investigated to illustrate the potential of this sensor system for sensitive measurements of combustion temperature in low-pressure flames. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Kinetic and diagnostic studies of molecular plasmas using laser absorption techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.; Rousseau, A.; Davies, P.B.; Röpcke, J.

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decade mid infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 µm, known as Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has

  15. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  16. Diode laser absorption spectrometry for (CO2)-C-13/(CO2)-C-12 isotope ratio analysis : Investigation on precision and accuracy levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrillo, A; Casa, G; Kerstel, E; Gianfrani, L

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared laser spectroscopy is used to measure the C-13/C-12 isotope abundance ratio in gas phase carbon dioxide. The spectrometer, developed expressly for field applications, is based on a 2 mu m distributed feedback diode laser in combination with sensitive wavelength modulation detection. It

  17. Diode laser-pumped Ho:YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports laser action in Ho:YLF at 2.06 μm following optical pumping with a cw diode laser array. Diode laser-pumped Nd-YAG and Ho:YAG have been reported recently. Lasers with a wavelength of 2 μm have medical and optical communication applications. The diode laser light is focused with a 60-mm focal length lens onto the YLF crystal. A high-reflectivity mirror with 100-mm radius of curvature was used as the output coupler. The lasing threshold was at 5 mWof incident power. This is higher than expected considering that a high reflector was used as the output coupler. However, a more uniform cooling of the crystal is expected to lower the lasing threshold. With 100 mW of pump power coupled into the crystal, --20 mW of 2-μm radiation was observed from this unoptimized setup. The 2-μm laser output is highly sensitive to output coupler alignment, YLF crystal temperature, and pump laser wavelength. The 20% optical conversion efficiency achieved in his preliminary measurements is expected to be improved by better crystal cooling, proper matching of laser wavelength to crystal absorption, variations in the concentration of Ho and sensitizers and use of a proper output coupler. A study of the parameters mentioned above and the effect of crystal temperature on the laser output is under way

  18. Diode pumped solid state laser by two diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingzhong; Zhang Xiaomin; Liang Yue; Man Yongzai; Zhou Pizhang

    1995-01-01

    A Nd: YLF laser is pumped by home-made quantum well diode lasers. Datum of laser output energy 60 μJ and peak power 120 mw are observed at wavelength 1.047 μm. On the same pumping condition, the output power synchronously pumped by two diodes is higher than the total output power pumped by two diodes separately. The fluctuation is <3%. The results agree with theoretical analysis

  19. Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers; Laser diode reiki Nd:YAG lasear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nakayama, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers are expected to be applied to laser processing fields such as welding, cutting, drilling, and marking due to their potential for high efficiency and compactness. We are designing and developing laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers using numerical analysis simulation techniques such as ray tracing and thermal analysis. We have succeeded in achieving a laser power of more than 3 kW with 20% efficiency, which is the best ever obtained. In addition, we have developed a laser-diode pumped green laser by second harmonic generation, for precision machining on silicon wafers. (author)

  20. Rapid freeze-drying cycle optimization using computer programs developed based on heat and mass transfer models and facilitated by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Computer programs in FORTRAN were developed to rapidly determine the optimal shelf temperature, T(f), and chamber pressure, P(c), to achieve the shortest primary drying time. The constraint for the optimization is to ensure that the product temperature profile, T(b), is below the target temperature, T(target). Five percent mannitol was chosen as the model formulation. After obtaining the optimal sets of T(f) and P(c), each cycle was assigned with a cycle rank number in terms of the length of drying time. Further optimization was achieved by dividing the drying time into a series of ramping steps for T(f), in a cascading manner (termed the cascading T(f) cycle), to further shorten the cycle time. For the purpose of demonstrating the validity of the optimized T(f) and P(c), four cycles with different predicted lengths of drying time, along with the cascading T(f) cycle, were chosen for experimental cycle runs. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to continuously measure the sublimation rate. As predicted, maximum product temperatures were controlled slightly below the target temperature of -25 degrees C, and the cascading T(f)-ramping cycle is the most efficient cycle design. In addition, the experimental cycle rank order closely matches with that determined by modeling.

  1. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as method of choice for non-invasive and automated detection of microbial growth in media fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, David; Roesti, David; Zuber, Ulrich; Sacher, Meik; Duncan, Derek; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-05-15

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was evaluated on its potential to detect bacterial growth of contaminated media fill vials. The target was a replacement/ automation of the traditional visual media fill inspection. TDLAS was used to determine non-invasively O 2 and/or CO 2 changes in headspaces of such vials being induced by metabolically active microorganisms. Four different vial formats, 34 microorganisms (inoculation volume<10 cells) and two different media (TSB/FTM) were tested. Applying parallel CO 2 and O 2 headspace measurements all format-organism combinations were detected within <11 days reliably with reproducible results. False negatives were exclusively observed for samples that were intentionally breached with syringes of 0.3mm in diameter. Overall it was shown that TDLAS functionality for a replacement of the visual media fill inspection is given and that investing in further validation and implementation studies is valuable. Nevertheless, some small but vincible challenges remain to have this technology in practical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Laser materials processing with diode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.

    1996-01-01

    Laser materials processing is currently dominated by CO2, Nd-YAG and Excimer lasers. Continuous advances in semiconductor laser technology over the last decade have increased the average power output of the devices annualy by two fold, resulting in the commercial availability of the diode lasers today with delivery output powers in excess of 60W in CW mode and 5kW in qasi-CW mode. The advantages of compactness, high reliability, high efficiency and potential low cost, due to the mass producti...

  3. Near-Infrared Diode Laser Absorption Diagnostic for Temperature and Water Vapor in a Scramjet Combustor (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jonathan T. C; Rieker, Gregory B; Jeffries, Jay B; Gruber, Mark R; Carter, Campbell D; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K

    2005-01-01

    ... to 1.47 mum spectral region (2v1 and v1 + v3 overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate...

  4. Progress in semiconductor laser diodes: SPIE volume 723

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains proceedings arranged under the following session headings: High power diode lasers; single emitters and arrays; Ultrahigh speed modulation of semiconductor diode lasers; Coherence and linewidth stabilized semiconductor lasers; and Growth, fabrication, and evaluation of laser diodes

  5. Stopping atoms with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.N.; Wieman, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of light pressure to cool and stop neutral atoms has been an area of considerable interest recently. Cooled neutral atoms are needed for a variety of interesting experiments involving neutral atom traps and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. Laser cooling of sodium has previously been demonstrated using elegant but quite elaborate apparatus. These techniques employed stabilized dye lasers and a variety of additional sophisticated hardware. The authors have demonstrated that a frequency chirp technique can be implemented using inexpensive diode lasers and simple electronics. In this technique the atoms in an atomic beam scatter resonant photons from a counterpropagating laser beam. The momentum transfer from the photons slows the atoms. The primary difficulty is that as the atoms slow their Doppler shift changes, and so they are no longer in resonance with the incident photons. In the frequency chirp technique this is solved by rapidly changing the laser frequency so that the atoms remain in resonance. To achieve the necessary frequency sweep with a dye laser one must use an extremely sophisticated high-speed electrooptic modulator. With a diode laser, however, the frequency can be smoothly and rapidly varied over many gigahertz simply by changing the injection current

  6. Simultaneous high-speed gas property measurements at the exhaust gas recirculation cooler exit and at the turbocharger inlet of a multicylinder diesel engine using diode-laser-absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P

    2015-02-10

    A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well

  7. Long-term field performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for analysis of carbon isotopes of CO2 in forest air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS is gaining in popularity for measuring the mole fraction [CO2] and stable isotopic composition (δ13C of carbon dioxide (CO2 in air in studies of biosphere-atmosphere gas exchange. Here we present a detailed examination of the performance of a commercially-available TDLAS located in a high-altitude subalpine coniferous forest (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, providing the first multi-year analysis of TDLAS instrument performance for measuring CO2 isotopes in the field. Air was sampled from five to nine vertical locations in and above the forest canopy every ten minutes for 2.4 years. A variety of methods were used to assess instrument performance. Measurement of two compressed air cylinders that were in place over the entire study establish the long-term field precision of 0.2 μmol mol−1 for [CO2] and 0.35‰ for δ13C, but after fixing several problems the isotope precision improved to 0.2permil (over the last several months. The TDLAS provided detail on variability of δ13C of atmospheric CO2 that was not represented in weekly flask samples, as well as information regarding the influence of large-scale (regional seasonal cycle and local forest processes on [CO2] and δ13C of CO2. There were also clear growing season and winter differences in the relative contributions of photosynthesis and respiration on the [CO2] and δ13C of forest air.

  8. Laser diode technology for coherent communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channin, D. J.; Palfrey, S. L.; Toda, M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of diode laser characteristics on the overall performance capabilities of coherent communication systems is discussed. In particular, attention is given to optical performance issues for diode lasers in coherent systems, measurements of key performance parameters, and optical requirements for coherent single-channel and multichannel communication systems. The discussion also covers limitations imposed by diode laser optical performance on multichannel system capabilities and implications for future developments.

  9. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  10. Computer Processing Of Tunable-Diode-Laser Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Randy D.

    1991-01-01

    Tunable-diode-laser spectrometer measuring transmission spectrum of gas operates under control of computer, which also processes measurement data. Measurements in three channels processed into spectra. Computer controls current supplied to tunable diode laser, stepping it through small increments of wavelength while processing spectral measurements at each step. Program includes library of routines for general manipulation and plotting of spectra, least-squares fitting of direct-transmission and harmonic-absorption spectra, and deconvolution for determination of laser linewidth and for removal of instrumental broadening of spectral lines.

  11. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  12. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J [Pleasanton, CA; Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA

    2011-09-13

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  13. AASERT-97 Development of New Diode Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    This research explored new ways for diode laser fabrications. Focused was on the development of efficient organic light emitting materials and the fabrication of laser structures incorporating these materials...

  14. Wavelength stabilized multi-kW diode laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Unger, Andreas; Kindervater, Tobias; Drovs, Simon; Wolf, Paul; Hubrich, Ralf; Beczkowiak, Anna; Auch, Stefan; Müntz, Holger; Biesenbach, Jens

    2015-03-01

    We report on wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser systems with enhanced spectral brightness by means of Volume Holographic Gratings. High-power diode laser modules typically have a relatively broad spectral width of about 3 to 6 nm. In addition the center wavelength shifts by changing the temperature and the driving current, which is obstructive for pumping applications with small absorption bandwidths. Wavelength stabilization of high-power diode laser systems is an important method to increase the efficiency of diode pumped solid-state lasers. It also enables power scaling by dense wavelength multiplexing. To ensure a wide locking range and efficient wavelength stabilization the parameters of the Volume Holographic Grating and the parameters of the diode laser bar have to be adapted carefully. Important parameters are the reflectivity of the Volume Holographic Grating, the reflectivity of the diode laser bar as well as its angular and spectral emission characteristics. In this paper we present detailed data on wavelength stabilized diode laser systems with and without fiber coupling in the spectral range from 634 nm up to 1533 nm. The maximum output power of 2.7 kW was measured for a fiber coupled system (1000 μm, NA 0.22), which was stabilized at a wavelength of 969 nm with a spectral width of only 0.6 nm (90% value). Another example is a narrow line-width diode laser stack, which was stabilized at a wavelength of 1533 nm with a spectral bandwidth below 1 nm and an output power of 835 W.

  15. Laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighineanu, I.; Dorogan, V.; Suruceanu, G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the technology of optoelectronic semiconductor devices and may be used in the production of laser semiconductor diodes integrated with optical nonlinear elements. The laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler includes a semiconductor substrate, a laser structure with waveguide. metal contacts in the waveguide of the laser structure it is formed a nanostructured field so that the nanostructure provides for the fulfillment of the phase synchronism conditions

  16. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  17. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  18. Measurement of the concentration ratio for 13N and 12N isotopes at atmospheric pressure by carbon dioxide absorption of diode laser radiation at ∼2 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironchuk, E S; Nikolaev, I V; Ochkin, Vladimir N; Rodionova, S S; Spiridonov, Maksim V; Tskhai, Sergei N

    2009-01-01

    The ratio of 12 NO 2 and 13 CO 2 concentrations in the human exhaled air is measured by the method of diode laser spectroscopy using a three-channel optical scheme and multipass cell. Unlike the previous measurements in the spectral range of ∼4.3 μm with a resolved rotational structure at low pressure of selected samples, the present measurements are performed in the range of ∼2 μm, in which weaker absorption bands of CO 2 reside. In this case, it is possible to employ lasers and photodetectors operating at room temperature. The thorough simulation of the spectrum with collisional broadening of lines and employment of regression analysis allow one to take measurements at atmospheric pressure with the accuracy of ∼0.04%, which satisfies the requirements to medical diagnostics of ulcers. (laser spectroscopy)

  19. Compact laser-diode-based femtosecond sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C T A; Cataluna, M A; Lagatsky, A A; Rafailov, E U; Agate, M B; Leburn, C G; Sibbett, W

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of compact femtosecond laser systems that are capable of being directly pumped by laser diodes or are based directly on laser diodes. The paper demonstrates the latest results in a highly efficient vibronic based gain medium and a diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser is reported that has a wall plug efficiency >14%. A Cr 4+ :YAG oscillator is described that generates transform-limited pulses of 81 fs duration at a pulse repetition frequency of >4 GHz. The development of Cr 3+ :LiSAF lasers that can be operated using power supplies based on batteries is briefly discussed. We also present a summary of work being carried out on the generation of fs-pulses from laser diodes and discuss the important issues in this area. Finally, we outline results obtained on the generation of pulses as short as 550 fs directly from a two-section quantum dot laser without any external pulse compression

  20. Diode lasers: From laboratory to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Hira; Jamil, Yasir

    2014-03-01

    The invention of first laser in 1960 triggered the discovery of several new families of lasers. A rich interplay of different lasing materials resulted in a far better understanding of the phenomena particularly linked with atomic and molecular spectroscopy. Diode lasers have gone through tremendous developments on the forefront of applied physics that have shown novel ways to the researchers. Some interesting attributes of the diode lasers like cost effectiveness, miniature size, high reliability and relative simplicity of use make them good candidates for utilization in various practical applications. Diode lasers are being used by a variety of professionals and in several spectroscopic techniques covering many areas of pure and applied sciences. Diode lasers have revolutionized many fields like optical communication industry, medical science, trace gas monitoring, studies related to biology, analytical chemistry including elemental analysis, war fare studies etc. In this paper the diode laser based technologies and measurement techniques ranging from laboratory research to automated field and industry have been reviewed. The application specific developments of diode lasers and various methods of their utilization particularly during the last decade are discussed comprehensively. A detailed snapshot of the current state of the art diode laser applications is given along with a detailed discussion on the upcoming challenges.

  1. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  2. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  3. Transurethral vaporesection of prostate: diode laser or thulium laser?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinji; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Dongjie; Chen, Xiong; Dai, Yuanqing; Gu, Jie; Chen, Mingquan; Hu, Sheng; Bai, Yao; Ning, Yu

    2018-05-01

    This study compared the safety and effectiveness of the diode laser and thulium laser during prostate transurethral vaporesection for treating benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We retrospectively analyzed 205 patients with BPH who underwent a diode laser or thulium laser technique for prostate transurethral vaporesection from June 2016 to June 2017 and who were followed up for 3 months. Baseline characteristics of the patients, perioperative data, postoperative outcomes, and complications were compared. We also assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), maximum flow rate (Q max ), average flow rate (AFR), and postvoid residual volume (PVR) at 1 and 3 months postoperatively to evaluate the functional improvement of each group. There were no significant differences between the diode laser and thulium laser groups related to age, prostate volume, operative time, postoperative hospital stays, hospitalization costs, or perioperative data. The catheterization time was 3.5 ± 0.8 days for the diode laser group and 4.7 ± 1.8 days for the thulium laser group (p diode laser and thulium laser contributes to safe, effective transurethral vaporesection in patients with symptomatic BPH. Diode laser, however, is better than thulium laser for prostate transurethral vaporesection because of its shorter catheterization time. The choice of surgical approach is more important than the choice of laser types during clinical decision making for transurethral laser prostatectomy.

  4. Seven-laser diode end-pumped Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, J.; Welch, D.F.; Streifer, W.; Scifres, D.R.; Smith, J.J.; Hoffman, H.J.; Peisley, D.; Radecki, D.

    1988-01-01

    End pumping of solid-state lasers by single semiconductor laser diode arrays (LDAs) is efficient, but the maximum pump power is limited by the source brightness and matching the TEM/sub 00/ Nd:YAG cavity mode. To increase the output power from a solid-state Nd:YAG laser, one option is to employ a multiplicity of LDA to provide more pump power than is available from a single source. The authors report herein a 660-mW cw TEM/sub 00/ Nd:YAG laser, end-pumped by seven LDA, with bundled optical fibers coupling the light from each diode to the Nd:YAG rod end. The maximum electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency attained was 4.7% at 560-mW Nd:YAG output power. The LDAs (SDL-2430-C, 100 μm wide) were mounted on separate thermoelectric coolers to tune emission wavelength to the Nd:YAG absorption bands. The diodes were operated at their rated output power (50,000 h mean time to failure). The 110/125-μm diam 0.37-N.A. fibers were butt coupled to the lasers and glued together into a hexagonal close pack. The authors have obtained the highest average power demonstrated to date in the TEM/sub 00/ mode from a Nd:YAG laser, reliably end-pumped by multiple laser diodes with good efficiency

  5. Semiconductor laser diodes and the design of a D.C. powered laser diode drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Joseph C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the design, development and operational analysis of a D.C. powered semiconductor laser diode drive unit. A laser diode requires an extremely stable power supply since a picosecond spike of current or power supply switching transient could result in permanent damage. The design offers stability and various features for operational protection of the laser diode. The ability to intensity modulate (analog) and pulse m...

  6. Transcanalicular laser dacryocystorhinostomy using low energy 810 nm diode laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Transcanalicular Laser DCR can be safely performed using a low power 810 nm diode laser. The surgery is elegant, minimally invasive, allows fast rehabilitation, and has an excellent success rate.

  7. Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven

    2015-11-03

    An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.

  8. Oxygen measurement by multimode diode lasers employing gas correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2009-02-10

    Multimode diode laser (MDL)-based correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC) was used to measure oxygen in ambient air, thereby employing a diode laser (DL) having an emission spectrum that overlaps the oxygen absorption lines of the A band. A sensitivity of 700 ppm m was achieved with good accuracy (2%) and linearity (R(2)=0.999). For comparison, measurements of ambient oxygen were also performed by tunable DL absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique employing a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. We demonstrate that, despite slightly degraded sensitivity, the MDL-based COSPEC-based oxygen sensor has the advantages of high stability, low cost, ease-of-use, and relaxed requirements in component selection and instrument buildup compared with the TDLAS-based instrument.

  9. Tunable diode-pumped-LNA laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassimi, A.; Hardy, V.; Hamel, J.; Leduc, M.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-pumped crystals provided recently new compact laser devices. We report the first end pumping of a La x Nd 1-x MgAl 11 O 19 (LNA) crystal using a 200mW diode array (Spectra Diode Lab). We also report the first results obtained with a 1mW diode (SONY). This C.W. laser can be tuned from 1.048μm to 1.086μm. Without selective elements in the cavity, the laser emits around 1.054μm with a threshold of 24mW and a slope efficiency of 4.4% (output mirror of transmission T = 1%) when pumped by the diode array. With the selective elements, the threshold increases to 100mW and we obtain a power of 4mW for a pump power of 200mW

  10. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  11. Self-broadening coefficients and positions of acetylene around 1.533 μm studied by high-resolution diode laser absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingsong; Durry, Georges; Cousin, Julien; Joly, Lilian; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zeninari, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The self-broadening coefficients of acetylene at room temperature have been measured for 10 lines in the P branch of the ν 1 +ν 3 (Σ u + )-0(Σ g + ) bands of 12 C 2 H 2 and 13 C 12 CH 2 near 1.533 μm, using a high resolution tunable diode laser spectrometer developed for the Martian space mission PHOBOS-Grunt. The collisional widths are obtained by fitting each recorded line with the Voigt profile as well as the Rautian profile accounting for the collisional Dicke narrowing effect. The standard Voigt model provides slightly smaller broadening coefficients than the Rautian model. Our data are thoroughly compared to the main atmospheric molecule database HITRAN and previous values in various bands of acetylene. Moreover, it is worth noting that a large number of new transitions not listed in the latest HITRAN08 were measured and identified for the first time.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  13. Diode lasers and their applications in spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavone, F.S.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of semiconductor diode laser in different fields ranging from communications to spectroscopy is becoming huge and pushes the research into developing sources satisfying the different requirements. For applications related to trace gas detection, the low amplitude noise in the light source of semiconductor diode laser is sufficient to obtain interesting results. Trace gas of molecular species as methane is interesting for different reason: it plays an important role in both radiative transport an photochemistry in the atmosphere

  14. Radiation effects in semiconductor laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation events are important for many of the present and future applications that involve optoelectronic components. Laser diodes show a strong resistance to degradation by gamma rays, prompt x-rays and (to a lesser extent), neutrons. This is due to the short carrier lifetime that is associated with stimulated emission and the high current injection conditions that are present in these devices. Radiation-resistant properties should carry over to many of the more recently developed devices such as multi-stripe array and broad area laser diodes. There are, however, additional considerations for radiation tolerance that are introduced by these devices. Arrays and other high power laser diodes have larger active region volumes than lower power single stripe devices. In addition, evanescent field coupling between stripes, the material quality available from newer MOCVD epitaxial growth techniques, and stripe definition methods may all influence the radiation tolerance of the high power laser diode devices. Radiation tests have been conducted on various GaAs-GaAlAs laser diode array and broad area devices. Tests involving total gamma dose have indicated that high power laser diodes and arrays have small degradations in light power output with current input after 4 MRad(Si) of radiation from a Co 60 source. Additional test results involving flash x-rays indicate that high power diode lasers and arrays are tolerant to 10 12 rads(Si)/sec, when observed on microsecond or millisecond time scales. High power diode laser devices were also irradiated with neutrons to a fluence of 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 with some degradation of threshold current level

  15. Next generation diode lasers with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, S.; Rauch, S.; Irmler, L.; Rikels, J.; Killi, A.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Sarailou, E.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    High-power diode lasers are nowadays well established manufacturing tools in high power materials processing, mainly for tactile welding, surface treatment and cladding applications. Typical beam parameter products (BPP) of such lasers range from 30 to 50 mm·mrad at several kilowatts of output power. TRUMPF offers a product line of diode lasers to its customers ranging from 150 W up to 6 kW of output power. These diode lasers combine high reliability with small footprint and high efficiency. However, up to now these lasers are limited in brightness due to the commonly used spatial and coarse spectral beam combining techniques. Recently diode lasers with enhanced brightness have been presented by use of dense wavelength multiplexing (DWM). In this paper we report on TRUMPF's diode lasers utilizing DWM. We demonstrate a 2 kW and a 4 kW system ideally suited for fine welding and scanner welding applications. The typical laser efficiency is in the range of 50%. The system offers plug and play exchange of the fiber beam delivery cable, multiple optical outputs and integrated cooling in a very compact package. An advanced control system offers flexible integration in any customer's shop floor environment and includes industry 4.0 capabilities (e.g. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance).

  16. Diode laser based light sources for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Marschall, Sebastian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2013-01-01

    Diode lasers are by far the most efficient lasers currently available. With the ever-continuing improvement in diode laser technology, this type of laser has become increasingly attractive for a wide range of biomedical applications. Compared to the characteristics of competing laser systems, diode...... imaging. This review provides an overview of the latest development of diode laser technology and systems and their use within selected biomedical applications....

  17. Detection of elemental mercury by multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wu, Shaohua

    2012-02-27

    We demonstrate a method for elemental mercury detection based on correlation spectroscopy employing UV laser radiation generated by sum-frequency mixing of two visible multimode diode lasers. Resonance matching of the multimode UV laser is achieved in a wide wavelength range and with good tolerance for various operating conditions. Large mode-hops provide an off-resonance baseline, eliminating interferences from other gas species with broadband absorption. A sensitivity of 1 μg/m3 is obtained for a 1-m path length and 30-s integration time. The performance of the system shows promise for mercury monitoring in industrial applications.

  18. Developments in lead-salt diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-chalcogenide diode lasers are useful as mid-infrared sources (2-1/2 <λ<30 μm), but have generally operated CW below 100K. A new materials system, PbEuSeTe, has been used to fabricate diode lasers operating from 10K (at 6.5 μm wavelength) up to 174K CW (at 4.4 μm) and up to 280K pulsed (at 3.8 μm). These are large optical cavity single quantum well devices grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These are currently the highest diode laser operating temperatures ever achieved at these wavelengths to our knowledge. Single ended output powers as high as 1 mW single mode (5 mW multimode) have been attained from mesa stripe diodes. These characteristics make these devices attractive for long wavelength fiber optic sensor/communications systems. The performance limits of these devices are discussed

  19. Integrated power conditioning for laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Farhoud, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    This compact modulator has demonstated its ability to efficiently and accurately drive a laser diode array. The addition of the crowbar protection circuit is an invaluable addition to the integrated system and is capable of protecting the laser diode array against severe damage. We showed that the correlation between measured data and simulation indicates that our modulator model is valid and can be used as a tool in the design of future systems. The spectrometer measurements that we conducted underline the imprtance of current regulation to stable laser operation

  20. Ultrafast photoconductor detector-laser-diode transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Davis, B.A.; Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Thomas, M.C.; Zagarino, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment in which we used an ultrafast, photoconductive, radiation detector to drive a fast laser-diode transmitter. When we irradiated the neutron-damaged Cr-doped GaAs detector with 17-MeV electron beams, the temporal response was measured to be less than 30 ps. The pulses from this detector modulated a fast GaAlAs laser diode to transmit the laser output through 30- and 1100-m optical fibers. Preliminary results indicate that 50- and 80-ps time resolutions, respectively, are obtainable with these fibers. We are now working to integrate the photoconductive detector and the laser diode transmitter into a single chip

  1. Ultrafast photoconductive detector-laser-diode transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Thomas, M.C.; Zagarino, P.A.; Davis, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the results of an experiment in which they used an ultrafast, photoconductive, radiation detector to drive a fast laser-diode transmitter. When they irradiated the neutron-damaged Cr-doped Ga/As detector with 17-MeV electron beams, the temporal response of was measured to be less than 30 ps. The pulses from this detector modulated a fast GaAlAs laser diode to transmit the laser output through 30- and 1100-m optical fibers. Preliminary results indicate that 50- and 80-ps time resolutions, respectively, are obtainable with these fibers. They are now working to integrate the photoconductive detector and the laser diode transmitter into a single chip

  2. Diode Laser Velocity Measurements by Modulated Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, J. J.; Varghese, P. L.; Jagodzinski, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of solid-state lasers to be tuned in operating frequency at MHz rates by input current modulation, while maintaining a relatively narrow line-width, has made them useful for spectroscopic measurements. Their other advantages include low cost, reliability, durability, compact size, and modest power requirements, making them a good choice for a laser source in micro-gravity experiments in drop-towers and in flight. For their size, they are also very bright. In a filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) experiment, a diode laser can be used to scan across an atomic or molecular absorption line, generating large changes in transmission at the resonances for very small changes in frequency. The hyperfine structure components of atomic lines of alkali metal vapors are closely spaced and very strong, which makes such atomic filters excellent candidates for sensitive Doppler shift detection and therefore for high-resolution velocimetry. In the work we describe here we use a Rubidium vapor filter, and work with the strong D(sub 2) transitions at 780 nm that are conveniently accessed by near infrared diode lasers. The low power output of infrared laser diodes is their primary drawback relative to other laser systems commonly used for velocimetry. However, the capability to modulate the laser frequency rapidly and continuously helps mitigate this. Using modulation spectroscopy and a heterodyne detection scheme with a lock-in amplifier, one can extract sub-microvolt signals occurring at a specific frequency from a background that is orders of magnitude stronger. The diode laser modulation is simply achieved by adding a small current modulation to the laser bias current. It may also be swept repetitively in wavelength using an additional lower frequency current ramp.

  3. Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation of choroidal neovascularizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Ulrich; Puliafito, Carmen A.; McCarthy, Dan; Reichel, Elias; Olk, Joseph; Lesiecki, Michael L.

    1994-06-01

    Dye-enhanced diode laser photocoagulation, using the dye indocyanine green (ICG), has shown some potential in the treatment of choroidal neovascularizations (CNV). A diode laser system was developed and optimized to emit at the absorption maximum of ICG. In a clinical study at two retinal centers, more than 70 patients, the majority of which had age-related macular degeneration, were treated. Eighteen cases with ill-defined subfoveal CNV were followed an average of 11 months after laser treatment. The results show success in resolving the CNV with an average long-term preservation of visual function equal to or superior to data provided by the Macular Photocoagulation Study for confluent burns of low intensity applied to the CNV. Details of the technique and discussion of the controversies inherent in such a treatment strategy will be presented.

  4. Theoretical and experimental aspects of laser cutting with a direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Rodrigues, G.; Pencinovsky, J.; Cuypers, M.; Duflou, J. R.

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in beam coupling techniques have made it possible to scale up the power of diode lasers with a laser beam quality suitable for laser cutting of metal sheets. In this paper a prototype of a Direct Diode Laser (DDL) source (BPP of 22 mm-mrad) is analyzed in terms of efficiency and cut performance and compared with two established technologies, CO2 and fiber lasers. An analytical model based on absorption calculations is used to predict the performance of the studied laser source with a good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore results of fusion cutting of stainless steel and aluminium alloys as well as oxygen cutting of structural steel are presented, demonstrating that industrial relevant cutting speeds with high cutting quality can now be achieved with DDL.

  5. Role of noise in the diode-laser spectroscopy of the spectral line profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhdinskii, Aleksandr I; Plotnichenko, V V; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya; Spiridonov, Maksim V

    2000-01-01

    Questions concerning precise measurements of the spectral-line-profile parameters by diode-laser spectroscopic methods were examined. The instrumental function of a distributed-feedback diode laser (λ =1.53 μm), consisting of the additive contributions of the noise due to spontaneous emission, frequency fluctuations, and intensity fluctuations, was investigated. An analytical formula was obtained for the spectrum of the diode-laser field formed by frequency fluctuations. The spectral density g 0 of the frequency fluctuations, determining the width of the central part of the emission line profile of a diode laser, was found by two independent methods (by fitting to a Doppler-broadened absorption line profile and by finding the intensity of the residual radiation and the saturated-absorption line width). The parameters Ω and Γ of the spectral density of the frequency fluctuations, coupled to the relaxation oscillations and determining the wing of the diode-laser emission line profile, were determined experimentally. By taking into account the instrumental function of the diode laser, involving successive convolution with the recorded emission spectra, it was possible to reproduce correctly the spectral line profile and to solve accurately the problem of the 'optical zero'. The role of the correlation between the intensity noise and the diode-laser frequency was considered. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  7. Iodine-stabilized single-frequency green InGaN diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsi; Lin, Wei-Chen; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Chui, Hsiang-Chen

    2018-01-01

    A 520-nm InGaN diode laser can emit a milliwatt-level, single-frequency laser beam when the applied current slightly exceeds the lasing threshold. The laser frequency was less sensitive to diode temperature and could be finely tuned by adjusting the applied current. Laser frequency was stabilized onto a hyperfine component in an iodine transition through the saturated absorption spectroscopy. The uncertainty of frequency stabilization was approximately 8×10 -9 at a 10-s integration time. This compact laser system can replace the conventional green diode-pumped solid-state laser and applied as a frequency reference. A single longitudinal mode operational region with diode temperature, current, and output power was investigated.

  8. High-power pure blue laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, M.; Ohizumi, Y.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Yabuki, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikeda, M. [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor Inc., Miyagi (Japan); Funato, K. [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We successfully developed high-power and long-lived pure blue laser diodes (LDs) having an emission wavelength of 440-450 nm. The pure-blue LDs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaN substrates. The dislocation density was successfully reduced to {proportional_to}10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} by optimizing the MOCVD growth conditions and the active layer structure. The vertical layer structure was designed to have an absorption loss of 4.9 cm{sup -1} and an internal quantum efficiency of 91%. We also reduced the operating current density to 6 kA/cm{sup 2} under 750 mW continuous-wave operation at 35 C by optimizing the stripe width to 12 {mu}m and the cavity length to 2000 {mu}m. The half lifetimes in constant current mode are estimated to be longer than 10000 h. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Quantitative Detection of Combustion Species using Ultra-Violet Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, J. S.; Peterson, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Sciences is developing a new microgravity combustion diagnostic based on UV diode lasers. The instrument will allow absolute concentration measurements of combustion species on a variety of microgravity combustion platforms including the Space Station. Our approach uses newly available room temperature UV diode lasers, thereby keeping the instrument compact, rugged and energy efficient. The feasibility of the technique was demonstrated by measurement of CH radicals in laboratory flames. Further progress in fabrication technology of UV diode lasers at shorter wavelengths and higher power will result in detection of transient species in the deeper UV. High sensitivity detection of combustion radicals is provided with wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy.

  10. The application of diode laser colorimetry coupled with fiber optic dipping probe for quantitative detection of a protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Yoo, Jong Shin

    1996-01-01

    The in-situ, simple and inexpensive analysis of protein was achieved by the portable diode laser absorption spectrometry, which consisted of visible diode laser, photodiode, optical fiber and dipping probe. It gives comparable detection limit to the use of conventional UV/Vis spectrometer for the determination of protein by Lowry method.

  11. The Beam Characteristics of High Power Diode Laser Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Fu, Yueming; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Direct diode lasers have some of the most attractive features of any laser. They are very efficient, compact, wavelength versatile, low cost, and highly reliable. However, the full utilization of direct diode lasers has yet to be realized. However, the poor quality of diode laser beam itself, directly affect its application ranges, in order to better use of diode laser stack, need a proper correction of optical system, which requires accurate understanding of the diode laser beam characteristics. Diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. Therefore diode laser cladding will open a new field of repairing for the damaged machinery parts which must contribute to recycling of the used machines and saving of cost.

  12. Recent advancements in spectroscopy using tunable diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, Hira; Jamil, Yasir

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopy using tunable diode lasers is an area of research that has gone through a dramatic evolution over the last few years, principally because of new exciting approaches in the field of atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This article attempts to review major recent advancements in the field of diode laser based spectroscopy. The discussion covers the developments made so far in the field of diode lasers and illustrates comprehensively the properties of free-running diode lasers. Since the commercially available free-running diode lasers are not suitable for high-precision spectroscopic studies, various techniques developed so far for converting these free-running diode lasers into true narrow linewidth tunable laser sources are discussed comprehensively herein. The potential uses of diode lasers in different spectroscopic fields and their extensive list of applications have also been included, which may be interesting for the novice and the advanced user as well. (topical review)

  13. Present state of applying diode laser in Toyota Motor Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masaki; Nakamura, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    Since the mid-1980s, Toyota Motor Corporation has applied CO2 lasers and YAG lasers to machine (welding, piercing, cutting, surface modifying etc.) automobile parts. In recent years diode lasers, which are excellent in terms of cost performance, are now available on the market as a new type of oscillator and are expected to bring about a new age in laser technology. Two current problems with these lasers, however, are the lack of sufficient output and the difficulty in improving the focusing the beam, which is why it has not been easy to apply them to the machining of metal parts in the past. On the other hand, plastics can be joined with low energy because they have a lower melting point than metal and the rate of absorption of the laser is easy to control. Moreover, because the high degree of freedom in molding plastic parts results in many complex shapes that need to be welded, Toyota is looking into the use of diode lasers to weld plastic parts. This article will introduce the problems of plastics welding and the methods to solve them referring to actual examples.

  14. Diode laser prostatectomy (VLAP): initial canine evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopchok, George E.; Verbin, Chris; Ayres, Bruce; Peng, Shi-Kaung; White, Rodney A.

    1995-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute and chronic effects of diode laser (960 nm) prostatectomy using a Prolase II fiber in a canine model (n equals 5). The laser fiber consists of a 1000 um quartz fiber which reflects a cone of laser energy, at 45 degree(s) to the axis of the fiber, into the prostatic urethra (Visual Laser Ablation of Prostate). Perineal access was used to guide a 15.5 Fr cystoscope to the level of the prostate. Under visual guidance and continual saline irrigation, 60 watts of laser power was delivered for 60 seconds at 3, 9, and 12 o'clock and 30 seconds at the 6 o'clock (posterior) positions for a total energy fluence of 12,600 J. One prostate received an additional 60 second exposure at 3 and 9 o'clock for a total fluence of 19,800 J. The prostates were evaluated at one day (n equals 1) and 8 weeks (n equals 4). The histopathology of laser effects at one day show areas of necrosis with loss of glandular structures and stromal edema. Surrounding this area was a zone of degenerative glandular structures extending up to 17.5 mm (cross sectional diameter). The histopathology of the 8 week laser treated animals demonstrated dilated prostatic urethras with maximum cross- sectional diameter of 23.4 mm (mean equals 18.5 +/- 3.9 mm). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of diode laser energy for prostatic tissue coagulation and eventual sloughing. The results also demonstrate the safety of diode laser energy, with similar tissue response as seen with Nd:YAG laser, for laser prostatectomy.

  15. Microring Diode Laser for THz Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, S.; Andronico, A.; Favero, I.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the modeling and optical characterization of AlGaAs/InAs quantum-dot microring diode lasers designed for terahertz (THz) difference frequency generation (DFG) between two whispering gallery modes (WGMs) around 1.3 $\\mu$m. In order to investigate the spectral features of this active...

  16. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis.

  17. Intensity and frequency stabilization of a laser diode by simultaneously controlling its temperature and current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Weiwei; Hu, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Binquan

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope (NMRG) detects the angular velocity of the vehicle utilizing the interaction between the laser beam and the alkali metal atoms along with the noble gas atoms in the alkali vapor cell. In order to reach high precision inertial measurement target, semiconductor laser in NMRG should have good intensity and frequency stability. Generally, laser intensity and frequency are stabilized separately. In this paper, a new method to stabilize laser intensity and frequency simultaneously with double-loop feedback control is presented. Laser intensity is stabilized to the setpoint value by feedback control of laser diode's temperature. Laser frequency is stabilized to the Doppler absorption peak by feedback control of laser diode's current. The feedback control of current is a quick loop, hence the laser frequency stabilize quickly. The feedback control of temperature is a slow loop, hence the laser intensity stabilize slowly. With the feedback control of current and temperature, the laser intensity and frequency are stabilized finally. Additionally, the dependence of laser intensity and frequency on laser diode's current and temperature are analyzed, which contributes to choose suitable operating range for the laser diode. The advantage of our method is that the alkali vapor cell used for stabilizing laser frequency is the same one as the cell used for NMRG to operate, which helps to miniaturize the size of NMRG prototype. In an 8-hour continuous measurement, the long-term stability of laser intensity and frequency increased by two orders of magnitude and one order of magnitude respectively.

  18. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, M.A.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Romanovskii, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review. - Highlights: • Overview of modern TDL-based sensors for combustion • TDL systems, methods of absorption detection and algorithms of data processing • Prominent examples of TDLAS diagnostics of the combustion facilities • Extension of the TDLAS on the tomographic imaging of combustion processes

  19. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  20. Spin polarization of {sup 87}Rb atoms with ultranarrow linewidth diode laser: Numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. G. [College of OptoElectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China); Interdisciplinary Center of Quantum Information, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China); Jiang, Q. Y.; Zhan, X.; Chen, Y. D.; Luo, H., E-mail: luohui.luo@163.com [College of OptoElectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China); Interdisciplinary Center of Quantum Information, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In order to polarize {sup 87}Rb vapor effectively with ultranarrow linewidth diode laser, we studied the polarization as a function of some parameters including buffer gas pressure and laser power. Moreover, we also discussed the methods which split or modulate the diode laser frequency so as to pump the two ground hyperfine levels efficiently. We obtained some useful results through numerical simulation. If the buffer gas pressure is so high that the hyperfine structure is unresolved, the polarization is insensitive to laser frequency at peak absorption point so frequency splitting and frequency modulation methods do not show improvement. At low pressure and laser power large enough, where the hyperfine structure is clearly resolved, frequency splitting and frequency modulation methods can increase polarization effectively. For laser diodes, frequency modulation is easily realized with current modulation, so this method is attractive since it does not add any other components in the pumping laser system.

  1. Nonimaging concentrators for diode-pumped slab lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, Philip; Gleckman, Philip L.; Holman, Robert L.; Winston, Roland

    1991-10-01

    Diode-pumped slab lasers require concentrators for high-average power operation. We detail the properties of diode lasers and slab lasers which set the concentration requirements and the concentrator design methodologies that are used, and describe some concentrator designs used in high-average power slab lasers at Lincoln Laboratory.

  2. Compact green-diode-based lasers for biophotonic bioimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diode lasers simultaneously offer tunability, high-power emission, and compact size at fairly low cost and are increasingly preferred for pumping titanium:sapphire lasers.......Diode lasers simultaneously offer tunability, high-power emission, and compact size at fairly low cost and are increasingly preferred for pumping titanium:sapphire lasers....

  3. Low level diode laser accelerates wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Salman, Saif Dawood

    2013-05-01

    The effect of wound illumination time by pulsed diode laser on the wound healing process was studied in this paper. For this purpose, the original electronic drive circuit of a 650-nm wavelength CW diode laser was reconstructed to give pulsed output laser of 50 % duty cycle and 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Twenty male mice, 3 months old were used to follow up the laser photobiostimulation effect on the wound healing progress. They were subdivided into two groups and then the wounds were made on the bilateral back sides of each mouse. Two sessions of pulsed laser therapy were carried along 15 days. Each mice group wounds were illuminated by this pulsed laser for 12 or 18 min per session during these 12 days. The results of this study were compared with the results of our previous wound healing therapy study by using the same type of laser. The mice wounds in that study received only 5 min of illumination time therapy in the first and second days of healing process. In this study, we found that the wounds, which were illuminated for 12 min/session healed in about 3 days earlier than those which were illuminated for 18 min/session. Both of them were healed earlier in about 10-11 days than the control group did.

  4. Internal optical losses in very thin CW heterojunction laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. K.; Kressel, H.; Ladany, I.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented showing the relationship between the internal laser absorption and structural parameters appropriate for CW room-temperature lasers. These diodes have submicron-thick recombination regions, and very small spacings between the heat sink and the recombination region to minimize the thermal resistance. The optical loss is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of radiation confinement to the active region. In particular, absorption in the surface GaAs layer providing the ohmic contact becomes very significant when the intermediate (AlGa)As layer is reduced below about 1 micron. It is further shown that excessive penetration into the GaAs regions gives rise to anomalies in the far-field radiation profiles in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane.

  5. Continuous Water Vapor Mass Flux and Temperature Measurements in a Model Scramjet Combustor Using a Diode Laser Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Upschulte, B. L; Miller, M. F; Allen, M. G; Jackson, K; Gruber, M; Mathur, T

    1998-01-01

    A sensor for simultaneous measurements of water vapor density, temperature and velocity has been developed based on absorption techniques using room temperature diode lasers (InGaAsP) operating at 1.31 micrometers...

  6. Diode Laser Sensor for Gas Temperature and H2O Concentration in a Scramjet Combustor Using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieker, Gregory B; Li, Jonathan T; Jeffries, Jay B; Mathur, Tarun; Gruber, Mark R; Carter, Campbell D

    2005-01-01

    A diode laser absorption sensor which probes three spectral features of water vapor in the near infrared region to infer gas temperature and water vapor concentration near the exit of a scramjet combustor is presented...

  7. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, C.; Hirota, E.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental and hot bands of the vibration--rotation transitions of 6 LiH, 7 LiH, 6 LiD, and 7 LiD were observed by infrared diode laser spectroscopy at Doppler-limited resolution. Lithium hydride molecules were produced by the reaction of the Li vapor with hydrogen at elevated temperatures. Some 40 transitions were observed and, after combined with submillimeter-wave spectra reported by G. M. Plummer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 4893 (1984)], were analyzed to yield Dunham-type constants with accuracies more than an order of magnitude higher than those published in the literature. It was clearly demonstrated that the Born--Oppenheimer approximation did not hold, and some parameters representing the breakdown were evaluated. The Born--Oppenheimer internuclear distance r/sup BO//sub e/ was derived to be 1.594 914 26 (59) A, where a new value of Planck's constant recommended by CODATA was employed. The relative intensity of absorption lines was measured to determine the ratio of the permanent dipole moment to its first derivative with respect to the internuclear distance: μ/sub e/ [(partialμpartialr)/sub e/ r/sub e/ ] = 1.743(86). The pressure broadening parameter Δν/sub p/ P was determined to be 6.40 (22) MHzTorr by measuring the linewidth dependence on the pressure of hydrogen, which was about four times larger than the value for the dipole--quadrupole interaction estimated by Kiefer and Bushkovitch's theory

  8. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  9. Visible high power fiber coupled diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Drovs, Simon; Stoiber, Michael; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Könning, Tobias; Biesenbach, Jens; König, Harald; Lell, Alfred; Stojetz, Bernhard; Löffler, Andreas; Strauß, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report on further development of fiber coupled high-power diode lasers in the visible spectral range. New visible laser modules presented in this paper include the use of multi single emitter arrays @ 450 nm leading to a 120 W fiber coupled unit with a beam quality of 44 mm x mrad, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power from 405 nm to 640 nm. However, as these lasers are based on single emitters, power scaling quickly leads to bulky laser units with a lot of optical components to be aligned. We also report on a new approach based on 450 nm diode laser bars, which dramatically reduces size and alignment effort. These activities were performed within the German government-funded project "BlauLas": a maximum output power of 80 W per bar has been demonstrated @ 450 nm. We show results of a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled 35 W source @ 450 nm, which has been reduced in size by a factor of 25 compared to standard single emitter approach. In addition, we will present a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled laser unit with an output power of 135 W.

  10. Gas detection by correlation spectroscopy employing a multimode diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2008-05-01

    A gas sensor based on the gas-correlation technique has been developed using a multimode diode laser (MDL) in a dual-beam detection scheme. Measurement of CO(2) mixed with CO as an interfering gas is successfully demonstrated using a 1570 nm tunable MDL. Despite overlapping absorption spectra and occasional mode hops, the interfering signals can be effectively excluded by a statistical procedure including correlation analysis and outlier identification. The gas concentration is retrieved from several pair-correlated signals by a linear-regression scheme, yielding a reliable and accurate measurement. This demonstrates the utility of the unsophisticated MDLs as novel light sources for gas detection applications.

  11. Efficient laser performance of a cryogenic Yb:YAG laser pumped by fiber coupled 940 and 969 nm laser diodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Miura, Taisuke; Těsnohlídková, L.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2015), "015002-1"-"015002-6" ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA ČR GA14-01660S Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cryogenic laser s * absorption * bandwidth * emission cross-section * absorption cross-section * diode pumping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2015

  12. Diode-laser-illuminated automotive lamp systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Michael A.; Remillard, Jeffrey T.

    1998-05-01

    We have utilized the high brightness of state-of-the-art diode laser sources, and a variety of emerging optical technologies to develop a new class of thin, uniquely styled automotive brake and signal lamps. Using optics based on thin (5 mm) plastic sheets, these lamps provide appearance and functional advantages not attainable with traditional automotive lighting systems. The light is coupled into the sheets using a 1 mm diameter glass fiber, and manipulated using refraction and reflection from edges, surfaces, and shaped cut-outs. Light can be extracted with an efficiency of approximately 50% and formed into a luminance distribution that meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) photometric requirements. Prototype lamps using these optics have been constructed and are less than one inch in thickness. Thin lamps reduce sheet metal costs, complexity, material usage, weight, and allow for increased trunk volume. In addition, these optics enhance lamp design flexibility. When the lamps are not energized, they can appear body colored, and when lighted, the brightness distribution across the lamp can be uniform or structured. A diode laser based brake lamp consumes seven times less electrical power than one using an incandescent source and has instant on capability. Also, diode lasers have the potential to be 10-year/150,000 mile light sources.

  13. High power visible diode laser for the treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Harlander, Maximilian; Nussbaumer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    We present a high power visible diode laser enabling a low-cost treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation, including the two leading causes of blindness worldwide (diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration) as well as retinopathy of prematurely born children, intraocular tumors and retinal detachment. Laser coagulation requires the exposure of the eye to visible laser light and relies on the high absorption of the retina. The need for treatment is constantly increasing, due to the demographic trend, the increasing average life expectancy and medical care demand in developing countries. The World Health Organization reacts to this demand with global programs like the VISION 2020 "The right to sight" and the following Universal Eye Health within their Global Action Plan (2014-2019). One major point is to motivate companies and research institutes to make eye treatment cheaper and easily accessible. Therefore it becomes capital providing the ophthalmology market with cost competitive, simple and reliable technologies. Our laser is based on the direct second harmonic generation of the light emitted from a tapered laser diode and has already shown reliable optical performance. All components are produced in wafer scale processes and the resulting strong economy of scale results in a price competitive laser. In a broader perspective the technology behind our laser has a huge potential in non-medical applications like welding, cutting, marking and finally laser-illuminated projection.

  14. The use of laser diodes for control of uranium vaporization rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagans, K.; Galkowski, J.

    1993-09-01

    Within the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program we have successfully used the laser absorption spectroscopy technique (LAS) to diagnose process physics performance and control vaporization rate. In the LAS technique, a narrow line-width laser is tuned to an absorption line of the species to be measured. The laser light that is propagated through the sample is and, from this data, the density of the species can be calculated. These laser systems have exclusively consisted of expensive, cumbersome, and difficult to maintain argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers. While the wavelength flexibility of dye lasers is very useful in a laboratory environment, these laser systems are not well suited for the industrial process control system under development for an AVLIS plant. Diode-lasers offer lower system costs, reduced man power requirements, reduced space requirements, higher system availability, and improved operator safety. We report the. successful deployment and test of a prototype laser diode based uranium vapor rate control system. Diode-laser generated LAS data was used to control the uranium vaporization rate in a hands-off mode for greater than 50 hours. With one minor adjustment the system successfully controlled the vaporization rate for greater than 147 hours. We report excellent agreement with ring dye laser diagnostics and uranium weigh-back measurements

  15. Absorptivity Measurements and Heat Source Modeling to Simulate Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Florian; Eisenbarth, Daniel; Wegener, Konrad

    The laser cladding process gains importance, as it does not only allow the application of surface coatings, but also additive manufacturing of three-dimensional parts. In both cases, process simulation can contribute to process optimization. Heat source modeling is one of the main issues for an accurate model and simulation of the laser cladding process. While the laser beam intensity distribution is readily known, the other two main effects on the process' heat input are non-trivial. Namely the measurement of the absorptivity of the applied materials as well as the powder attenuation. Therefore, calorimetry measurements were carried out. The measurement method and the measurement results for laser cladding of Stellite 6 on structural steel S 235 and for the processing of Inconel 625 are presented both using a CO2 laser as well as a high power diode laser (HPDL). Additionally, a heat source model is deduced.

  16. Diode Laser for Laryngeal Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Helena Hotz; Neri, Larissa; Fussuma, Carina Yuri; Imamura, Rui

    2016-04-01

    Introduction The diode laser has been frequently used in the management of laryngeal disorders. The portability and functional diversity of this tool make it a reasonable alternative to conventional lasers. However, whether diode laser has been applied in transoral laser microsurgery, the ideal parameters, outcomes, and adverse effects remain unclear. Objective The main objective of this systematic review is to provide a reliable evaluation of the use of diode laser in laryngeal diseases, trying to clarify its ideal parameters in the larynx, as well as its outcomes and complications. Data Synthesis We included eleven studies in the final analysis. From the included articles, we collected data on patient and lesion characteristics, treatment (diode laser's parameters used in surgery), and outcomes related to the laser surgery performed. Only two studies were prospective and there were no randomized controlled trials. Most of the evidence suggests that the diode laser can be a useful tool for treatment of different pathologies in the larynx. In this sense, the parameters must be set depending on the goal (vaporization, section, or coagulation) and the clinical problem. The literature lacks studies on the ideal parameters of the diode laser in laryngeal surgery. The available data indicate that diode laser is a useful tool that should be considered in laryngeal surgeries. Thus, large, well-designed studies correlated with diode compared with other lasers are needed to better estimate its effects.

  17. Quasi-CW Laser Diode Bar Life Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Krainak, Michael A.; Dallas, Joseph L.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is developing technology for satellite-based, high peak power, LIDAR transmitters requiring 3-5 years of reliable operation. Semi-conductor laser diodes provide high efficiency pumping of solid state lasers with the promise of long-lived, reliable operation. 100-watt quasi- CW laser diode bars have been baselined for the next generation laser altimeters. Multi-billion shot lifetimes are required. The authors have monitored the performance of several diodes for billions of shots and investigated operational modes for improving diode lifetime.

  18. Diode lasers optimized in brightness for fiber laser pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, M.; Gilly, J.; Friedmann, P.; Hilzensauer, S.; Ogrodowski, L.; Kissel, H.; Biesenbach, J.

    2018-02-01

    In diode laser applications for fiber laser pumping and fiber-coupled direct diode laser systems high brightness becomes essential in the last years. Fiber coupled modules benefit from continuous improvements of high-power diode lasers on chip level regarding output power, efficiency and beam characteristics resulting in record highbrightness values and increased pump power. To gain high brightness not only output power must be increased, but also near field widths and far field angles have to be below a certain value for higher power levels because brightness is proportional to output power divided by beam quality. While fast axis far fields typically show a current independent behaviour, for broadarea lasers far-fields in the slow axis suffer from a strong current and temperature dependence, limiting the brightness and therefore their use in fibre coupled modules. These limitations can be overcome by carefully optimizing chip temperature, thermal lensing and lateral mode structure by epitaxial and lateral resonator designs and processing. We present our latest results for InGaAs/AlGaAs broad-area single emitters with resonator lengths of 4mm emitting at 976nm and illustrate the improvements in beam quality over the last years. By optimizing the diode laser design a record value of the brightness for broad-area lasers with 4mm resonator length of 126 MW/cm2sr has been demonstrated with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of more than 70%. From these design also pump modules based on 9 mini-bars consisting of 5 emitters each have been realized with 360W pump power.

  19. Diode Laser Application in Soft Tissue Oral Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azma, Ehsan; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Discussion: Diode laser is one of laser systems in which photons are produced by electric current with wavelengths of 810, 940 and 980nm. The application of diode laser in soft tissue oral surgery has been evaluated from a safety point of view, for facial pigmentation and vascular lesions and in oral surgery excision; for example frenectomy, epulis fissuratum and fibroma. The advantages of laser application are that it provides relatively bloodless surgical and post surgical courses with minimal swelling and scarring. We used diode laser for excisional biopsy of pyogenic granuloma and gingival pigmentation. Conclusion: The diode laser can be used as a modality for oral soft tissue surgery PMID:25606331

  20. Theoretical study on the thermal and optical features of a diode side-pumped alkali laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juhong; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongyuan; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, You

    2018-03-01

    As one of the most hopeful candidates to achieve high power performances, a diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade. Comparing with a diode end-pumped alkali laser (DEPAL), a diode side-pumped alkali laser (DSPAL) has great potentiality to realize an even-higher output of alkali lasers. However, there are few related researching studies concern DSPAL. In this paper, we introduce a theoretical model to investigate the physical features of a double-directions side-pumped alkali laser. The distributions of the population density, temperature, and absorption power at the cross section of a vapor cell are systematically studied. The analyses should be valuable for design of a steady high-powered DPAL.

  1. Bistable optical devices with laser diodes coupled to absorbers of narrow spectral bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-06-20

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated with a combination of the following two effects: One is the decrease of the transmission of an Er-doped YAG crystal with increasing red shift of a laser diode resulting from an increase in the injection current, and the other is a negative nonlinear absorption in which the transmission decreases inversely with increasing laser intensity. Because a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of the laser diode, an optical bistability was observed in this system.

  2. Direct diode lasers with comparable beam quality to fiber, CO2, and solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Kaiman, Michael; Overman, Robert; Glenn, John D.; Tayebati, Parviz

    2012-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 2,040 W from a 50 μm core diameter, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.75 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 2-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers.

  3. Mode-locked solid state lasers using diode laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom, Gary R [Boston, MA

    2012-03-06

    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. An asymmetric cavity provides relatively large beam spot sizes in gain medium to permit efficient coupling to a volume pumped by a laser diode bar. The cavity can include a collimation region with a controlled beam spot size for insertion of a saturable absorber and dispersion components. Beam spot size is selected to provide stable mode locking based on Kerr lensing. Pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved in Yb:KGW.

  4. 700 W blue fiber-coupled diode-laser emitting at 450 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balck, A.; Baumann, M.; Malchus, J.; Chacko, R. V.; Marfels, S.; Witte, U.; Dinakaran, D.; Ocylok, S.; Weinbach, M.; Bachert, C.; Kösters, A.; Krause, V.; König, H.; Lell, A.; Stojetz, B.; Löffler, A.; Strauss, U.

    2018-02-01

    A high-power blue laser source was long-awaited for processing materials with low absorption in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range like copper or gold. Due to the huge progress of GaN-based semiconductors, the performance of blue diode-lasers has made a major step forward recently. With the availability of unprecedented power levels at cw-operating blue diode-lasers emitting at 450 nm, it was possible to set up a high-power diode-laser in the blue spectral range to address these conventional laser applications and probably beyond that to establish completely new utilizations for lasers. Within the scope of the research project "BlauLas", funded within the German photonic initiative "EFFILAS" [8] by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Laserline in cooperation with OSRAM aims to realize a cw fiber-coupled diode-laser exceeding 1 kW blue laser power. In this paper the conceptual design and experimental results of a 700 W blue fiber-coupled diode-laser are presented. Initially a close look had to be taken on the mounting techniques of the semiconductors to serve the requirements of the GaN laser diodes. Early samples were used for extensive long term tests to investigate degradation processes. With first functional laser-modules we set up fiber-coupled laser-systems for further testing. Besides adaption of well-known optical concepts a main task within the development of the laser system was the selection and examination of suitable materials and assembling in order to minimize degradation and reach adequate lifetimes. We realized R&D blue lasersystems with lifetimes above 5,000 h, which enable first application experiments on processing of various materials as well as experiments on conversion to white-light.

  5. Polarization methods for diode laser excitation of solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom, Gary R.

    2008-11-25

    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. A Yb-doped gain medium can be used that absorbs light having a first polarization and emits light having a second polarization. Using such pumping with laser cavity dispersion control, pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved.

  6. Laser Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Report N66001-83-C-0071, 17 April 1986, prepared for NOSC. 4.6 W.T. Welford, R. Winston , "The Option of Nonimaging Concentrators ," Academic Press, 1978...by non-imac optics such as reflective or refractive flux concentrators . Simple considerations regarding the optimum pumping configuration, high marks...reduced if the arrays can stand-off from the Nd:YAG laser. As mentioned before, compound parabolic concentrators or refractive optics cat employed to

  7. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a ∼ 200 (micro)s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  8. Narrow-line external cavity diode laser micro-packaging in the NIR and MIR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; Milde, T.; Staacke, N.; Aßmann, C.; Carpintero, G.; Sacher, J.

    2017-07-01

    Narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers are an important tool for spectroscopic instrumentation. Conventional external cavity diode lasers offer high output power and narrow linewidth. However, most external cavity diode lasers are designed as laboratory instrument and do not allow portability. In comparison, other commonly used lasers, like distributed feedback lasers (DFB) that are capable of driving a handheld device, are limited in power and show linewidths which are not sufficiently narrow for certain applications. We present new miniaturized types of tunable external cavity diode laser which overcome the drawbacks of conventional external cavity diode lasers and which preserve the advantages of this laser concept. Three different configurations are discussed in this article. The three types of miniaturized external cavity diode laser systems achieve power values of more than 50 mW within the 1.4 μm water vapor absorption band with excellent side-mode suppression and linewidth below 100 kHz. Typical features outstand with respect to other type of laser systems which are of extended use such as DFB laser diodes. The higher output power and the lower linewidth will enable a higher sensitivity and resolution for a wide range of applications.

  9. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André

    propagation parameters and therefore efficiently increases the brightness of compact and cost-effective diode laser systems. The condition of overlapping beams is an ideal scenario for subsequent frequency conversion. Based on sum-frequency generation of two beam combined diode lasers a 3.2 fold increase...... output power of frequency doubled single emitters is limited by thermal effects potentially resulting in laser degradation and failure. In this work new concepts for power scaling of visible diode laser systems are introduced that help to overcome current limitations and enhance the application potential....... Implementing the developed concept of frequency converted, beam combined diode laser systems will help to overcome the high pump thresholds for ultrabroad bandwidth titanium sapphire lasers, leading towards diode based high-resolution optical coherence tomography with enhanced image quality. In their entirety...

  10. Construction and Characterization of External Cavity Diode Lasers for Atomic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Kyle S.; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E.; Kuhn, Carlos C. N.; McDonald, Gordon D.; Robins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs1,2. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling1,2 makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman3, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included. PMID:24796259

  11. Construction and characterization of external cavity diode lasers for atomic physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Kyle S; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E; Kuhn, Carlos C N; McDonald, Gordon D; Robins, Nick

    2014-04-24

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included.

  12. Internal optical losses in very thin cw heterojunction laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.K.; Kressel, H.; Ladany, I.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented showing the relationship between the internal laser absorption and structural parameters appropriate for cw room-temperature lasers. These diodes have submicron-thick recombination regions, and very small spacings between the heat sink and the recombination region to minimize the thermal resistance. The optical loss is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of radiation confinement to the active region. In particular, absorption in the surface GaAs layer providing the ohmic contact becomes very significant when the intermediate (AlGa)As layer is reduced below about 1 μm. It is further shown that excessive penetration into the GaAs regions gives rise to anomalies in the far-field radiation profiles in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane. Proper design of the internal structure of the laser avoids large increases of the threshold current density as well as large decreases in the external differential quantum efficiency from interaction with the contact layer. The design curves presented can be used to predict the gain required at threshold for a broad range of structural parameters of interest in low-threshold laser design

  13. High power diode laser remelting of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmelickova, H; Tomastik, J; Ctvrtlik, R; Supik, J; Nemecek, S; Misek, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is focused on the laser surface remelting of the steel samples with predefined overlapping of the laser spots. The goal of our experimental work was to evaluate microstructure and hardness both in overlapped zone and single pass ones for three kinds of ferrous metals with different content of carbon, cast iron, non-alloy structural steel and tool steel. High power fibre coupled diode laser Laserline LDF 3600-100 was used with robotic guided processing head equipped by the laser beam homogenizer that creates rectangular beam shape with uniform intensity distribution. Each sample was treated with identical process parameters - laser power, beam diameter, focus position, speed of motion and 40% spot overlap. Dimensions and structures of the remelted zone, zone of the partial melting, heat affected zone and base material were detected and measured by means of laser scanning and optical microscopes. Hardness progress in the vertical axis of the overlapped zone from remelted surface layer to base material was measured and compared with the hardness of the single spots. The most hardness growth was found for cast iron, the least for structural steel. Experiment results will be used to processing parameters optimization for each tested material separately.

  14. Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrophotometry of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (less than 0.0005/ cm) solar spectra in the 9.6 micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 : 1 (35% of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 second can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0005 wavenumbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that. measured at the nearby National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado.

  15. Evaluation of automatic densitometer with laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrea Cox, Pedro J.; Hernandez Tabares, Lorenzo; Suarez San Pedro, Cirilo E.; Vazquez Cano, Aradys; Reyes Rodriguez, Marlen de los

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of a prototype of an automatic transmission scanning densitometer is presented. It contains a semiconductor diode laser as a light source, and is mainly oriented to the analysis of protein electrophoresis. It was developed on the Center for Technological Applications and Nuclear Development (CEADEN). Its technical specifications were established and certified by the National Institute of Researches on Metrology (INIMET), and also the equipment was submitted for assays to the Process Control Laboratory, that belongs to the 'Adalberto Pesant' Enterprise for Sera and Hemo derivatives Products, in Havana city, where it was employed to the partial quality control of products that are made there, achieving satisfactory results. (Author)

  16. A novel diode laser system for photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe, E.; Andersen, P. E.; Petersen, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a novel diode laser system for photodynamic therapy is demonstrated. The system is based on linear spatial filtering and optical phase conjugate feedback from a photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal. The spatial coherence properties of the diode laser are significantly improved. The system...

  17. Laser lipolysis: skin tightening in lipoplasty using a diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenson, Moisés; Hochman, Bernardo; Ferreira, Lydia Massako

    2015-05-01

    New devices have been developed for surgical repair of deformities caused by localized fat deposits associated with skin laxity. The use of these devices requires the adoption of safety parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate skin tightening by laser lipolysis, using a dual-wavelength diode laser. This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between June of 2008 and July of 2010 with 41 consecutive patients who underwent laser lipolysis to correct contour deformities. Laser lipolysis was performed with a diode laser operating at two wavelengths (924 and 975 nm) controlled independently, and using three different tip lengths, allowing treatment of small, medium, and large areas of adipose tissue. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia in a surgical setting. To calculate the optimal cumulative energy, a total energy dose of 5 kJ/10 × 10-cm skin area was used as a safety parameter to prevent treatment complications. The circumferences of body regions were measured preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and 90 days later. Measurements were compared using the Wilcoxon test at a significance level of 0.05 (p Laser lipolysis results in progressive skin tightening over time. Therapeutic, IV.

  18. MASERATI: a new rocket-borne diode laser absorption spectrometer for in-situ measurement of trace gases in the middle and upper atmosphere; MASERATI: Ein neues raketengetragenes Diodenlaser-Absorptionsspektrometer zur in situ-Messung von Spurengasen in der mittleren und oberen Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucke, H. von

    1999-09-01

    MASERATI (middle atmosphere spectrometric experiment on Rockets for the analysis of trace gas influences) is the first rocket-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS). It was developed to measure water vapor and carbon dioxide in the altitude range from 50 to 90 km and 120 km, respectively. Infrared absorption spectroscopy using two laser diodes is applied to measure both trace gases simultaneously. The laser beams are sent into an open multiple-pass absorption setup mounted on top of the sounding rocket. High sensitivity is achieved by means of frequency modulation and lock-in techniques. The results of several tests performed in the laboratory demonstrate that the instrument is capable of detecting relative absorbances down to 10{sup -4} - 10{sup -5} when integrating spectra for 1 s. Two almost identical MASERATI instruments have been built and launched on sounding rockets from the Andoeya rocket range (69 N, 16 E) in northern Norway during winter 1997/98. The results of these flights demonstrate that MASERATI is a new suitable tool for in situ studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. (orig.)

  19. Diode laser for abdominal tissue cauterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durville, Frederic M.; Rediker, Robert H.; Connolly, Raymond J.; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.; Lantis, John

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a new device to effectively and quickly stop bleeding. The new device uses a small, 5 W diode laser to heat-up the tip of a modified medical forceps. The laser beam is totally contained within a protective enclosure, satisfying the requirements for a Class I laser system, which eliminates the need to protective eyewear. The new device is used in a manner similar to that of a bipolar electrocautery device. After visual location, the bleeding site or local vessel(s) is grabbed and clamped with the tips of the forceps-like instrument. The laser is then activated for a duration of typically 5 sec or until traditional visual or auditory clues such as local blubbling and popping indicate that the targeted site is effectively cauterized. When the laser is activated, the tip of the instrument, thus providing hemostasis. The new device was evaluated in animal models and compared with the monopolar and bipolar electrocautery, and also with the recently developed ultrasound technology. It has new been in clinical trials for abdominal surgery since September 1997.

  20. Growth and characterization of visible diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, J.R.; Bour, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The (Al x Ga 1-x )yIn 1-y rho material system, lattice matched to GaAs substrates, has received much attention for use in visible laser diodes emitting in the spectral region λ--650-680 nm. When lattice matched to GaAs (y=0.5), this alloy spans a direct band gap range from --1.85 eV (at x=0) to --2.3 eV (near the T-X crossover at chi--0.7) It was only recently that device quality epitaxial layers have been prepared in this material due to difficulties with liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) and halide vapor phase epitaxial growth.Only organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth techniques have successfully produced AlGainP laser material

  1. A practical guide to handling laser diode beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2015-01-01

    This book offers the reader a practical guide to the control and characterization of laser diode beams.  Laser diodes are the most widely used lasers, accounting for 50% of the global laser market.  Correct handling of laser diode beams is the key to the successful use of laser diodes, and this requires an in-depth understanding of their unique properties. Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens.  The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams.  The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth meas...

  2. Photoluminescence excitation measurements using pressure-tuned laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercha, Artem; Ivonyak, Yurii; Medryk, Radosław; Trzeciakowski, Witold A.; Dybała, Filip; Piechal, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    Pressure-tuned laser diodes in external cavity were used as tunable sources for photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy. The method was demonstrated in the 720 nm-1070 nm spectral range using a few commercial laser diodes. The samples for PLE measurements were quantum-well structures grown on GaAs and on InP. The method is superior to standard PLE measurements using titanium sapphire laser because it can be extended to any spectral range where anti-reflection coated laser diodes are available.

  3. Photoluminescence excitation measurements using pressure-tuned laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercha, Artem; Ivonyak, Yurii; Mędryk, Radosław; Trzeciakowski, Witold A.; Dybała, Filip; Piechal, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-tuned laser diodes in external cavity were used as tunable sources for photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy. The method was demonstrated in the 720 nm-1070 nm spectral range using a few commercial laser diodes. The samples for PLE measurements were quantum-well structures grown on GaAs and on InP. The method is superior to standard PLE measurements using titanium sapphire laser because it can be extended to any spectral range where anti-reflection coated laser diodes are available

  4. Note: A flexible light emitting diode-based broadband transient-absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sean M.; Corley, Scott C.; Madsen, Dorte; Larsen, Delmar S.

    2012-05-01

    This Note presents a simple and flexible ns-to-ms transient absorption spectrometer based on pulsed light emitting diode (LED) technology that can be incorporated into existing ultrafast transient absorption spectrometers or operate as a stand-alone instrument with fixed-wavelength laser sources. The LED probe pulses from this instrument exhibit excellent stability (˜0.5%) and are capable of producing high signal-to-noise long-time (>100 ns) transient absorption signals either in a broadband multiplexed (spanning 250 nm) or in tunable narrowband (20 ns) operation. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated by measuring the photoinduced ns-to-ms photodynamics of the red/green absorbing fourth GMP phosphodiesterase/adenylyl cyclase/FhlA domain of the NpR6012 locus of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

  5. Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ Atmospheric Measurements of N(sub 2)0, CH(sub 4), CO, HCl, and NO(sub 2) from Balloon or RPA Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D.; Herman, R.; Webster, C.; May, R.; Flesch, G.; Moyer, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer II (ALIAS-II) is a lightweight, high-resolution (0.0003 cm-1), scanning, mid-infrared absorption spectrometer based on cooled (80 K) lead-salt tunable diode laser sources.

  6. Computer-Assisted Experiments with a Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    A laser diode from an inexpensive laser pen (laser pointer) is used in simple experiments. The radiant output power and efficiency of the laser are measured, and polarization of the light beam is shown. The "h/e" ratio is available from the threshold of spontaneous emission. The lasing threshold is found using several methods. With a…

  7. Nonintrusive gas monitoring in neonatal lungs using diode laser spectroscopy: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewander, Märta; Bruzelius, Anders; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina; Fellman, Vineta

    2011-12-01

    A feasibility study on noninvasive, real-time monitoring of gases in lungs of preterm infants is reported, where a laser-spectroscopic technique using diode lasers tuned to oxygen and water vapor absorption lines was employed on realistic tissue phantoms. Our work suggests that the technique could provide a new possibility for surveillance of the lung function of preterm infants, in particular the oxygenation, which is of prime importance in this patient group.

  8. TUNABLE DIODE LASER MEASUREMENTS OF NO2 NEAR 670 NM AND 395 NM. (R823933)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two single-mode diode lasers were used to record high-resolution absorption spectra of NO2 (dilute in Ar) near 670.2 and 394.5 nm over a range of temperatures (296 to 774 K) and total pressures (2.4 x 10(-2) to 1 atm). A commercial InGaAsP laser was tuned 1.3 cm(-1) at a repetiti...

  9. Simplified atom trap using a single microwave modulated diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, N.R.; Myatt, C.J.; Wieman, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    We have demonstrated microwave modulation of a diode laser which is operated with optical feedback from a diffraction grating. By directly modulating the diode laser current at frequencies up to 6.8 GHz, we observed 2-30% of the laser power in a single sideband for 20mW of microwave power. Using such a diode laser modulated at 6.6GHz, we have trapped 87 Rb in a vapor cell. With 10mW of microwave power, the number of trapped atoms was only 15% smaller than the number obtained using two lasers in the conventional manner. A microwave modulated diode laser should also be useful for driving stimulated Raman transitions between the hyperfine levels of Rb or Cs

  10. Generation conditions of CW Diode Laser Sustained Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koji; Matsui, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    Laser sustained plasma was generated using 1 kW class continuous wave diode laser. The laser beam was focused on the seed plasma generated by arc discharge in 1 MPa xenon lamp. The diode laser has advantages of high energy conversion efficiency of 80%, ease of maintenance, compact size and availability of conventional quartz based optics. Therefore, it has a prospect of further development compared with conventional CO2 laser. In this study, variation of the plasma shape caused by laser power is observed and also temperature distribution in the direction of plasma radius is measured by optical emission spectroscopy.

  11. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  12. Respiratory complications after diode-laser-assisted tonsillotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Miloš; Horn, Iris-Susanne; Quante, Mirja; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Schnoor, Jörg; Kaisers, Udo X; Dietz, Andreas; Kluba, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Children with certain risk factors, such as comorbidities or severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are known to require extended postoperative monitoring after adenotonsillectomy. However, there are no recommendations available for diode-laser-assisted tonsillotomy. A retrospective chart review of 96 children who underwent diode-laser-assisted tonsillotomy (07/2011-06/2013) was performed. Data for general and sleep apnea history, power of the applied diode-laser (λ = 940 nm), anesthesia parameters, the presence of postoperative respiratory complications and postoperative healing were evaluated. After initially uncomplicated diode-laser-assisted tonsillotomy, an adjustment of post-anesthesia care was necessary in 16 of 96 patients due to respiratory failure. Respiratory complications were more frequent in younger children (3.1 vs. 4.0 years, p = 0.049, 95 % CI -1.7952 to -0.0048) and in children who suffered from nocturnal apneas (OR = 5.00, p diode-laser power higher than 13 W could be identified as a risk factor for the occurrence of a postoperative oropharyngeal edema (OR = 3.45, p diode-laser-assisted tonsillotomy. We recommend a reduced diode-laser power (<13 W) to reduce oropharyngeal edema.

  13. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  14. Femtosecond Nonlinearities in Indium Gallium Arsenic Phosphide Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine Lavin

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers are receiving increasing attention for possible applications to broadband optical communication and switching systems. In this thesis we report the results of an extensive experimental study of the ultrafast gain and refractive index nonlinearities in 1.5 μm InGaAsP laser diode amplifiers. The temporal resolution afforded by the femtosecond optical pulses used in these experiments allows us to study carrier interactions with other carriers as well as carrier interactions with the lattice. The 100-200 fs optical pulses used in the pump -probe experiments are generated by an Additive Pulse Modelocked color center laser. The measured group velocity dispersion in the diodes ranged from -0.6 to -0.95 mu m^{-1 }. Differences in the group velocity for TE - and TM-polarized pulses suggested that cross-polarized pump-probe pulses walk off from each other in the diode. This walk-off can diminish the time resolution of some experiments. A novel heterodyne pump-probe technique was developed to distinguish collinear, copolarized, pump and probe pulses that were nominally at the same wavelength. Comparing cross-polarized and copolarized pump-probe results yielded new information about the physical mechanisms responsible for nonlinear gain in the diodes. We observed a gain compression across the entire bandwidth of the diode, associated with carrier heating. The hot carrier distribution cooled back to the lattice temperature with a 0.6 to 1.0 ps time constant, depending on the device structure. In addition, we observed a 0.1 to 0.25 ps delay in onset of carrier heating. Large gain compression due to two photon absorption was also observed. A small portion of the nonlinear gain is attributed to spectral hole burning. Pulsewidth-dependent output saturation energies were explained by a rate equation model that included the effect of carrier heating. Measurements of pump-induced probe phase changes revealed index nonlinearities due to delayed carrier

  15. Semipolar III-nitride laser diodes with zinc oxide cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myzaferi, Anisa; Reading, Arthur H; Farrell, Robert M; Cohen, Daniel A; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Incorporating transparent conducting oxide (TCO) top cladding layers into III-nitride laser diodes (LDs) improves device design by reducing the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. We investigate using ZnO instead of ITO as the top cladding TCO of a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD. Numerical modeling indicates that replacing ITO with ZnO reduces the internal loss in a TCO clad LD due to the lower optical absorption in ZnO. Lasing was achieved at 453 nm with a threshold current density of 8.6 kA/cm 2 and a threshold voltage of 10.3 V in a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD with ZnO top cladding.

  16. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  17. Investigation of diode-laser pumped thulium-doped fluoride lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Paulo Sergio Fabris de

    2006-01-01

    Tunable lasers emitting around 2.3 mum region are important in many areas, like gas detection, remote sensing and medical applications. Thulium has a large emission spectra around 2.3 mum with demonstrated tuning range of 2.2-2.45 mum using the YLF host. For efficient pump absorption, a high concentration sensitizer like ytterbium can be used. We demonstrate quasi-cw operation of the Yb:Tm:YLF laser, pumped at 960 nm with a 20 W diode bar achieving the highest output power reported so far of 620 mW. Simultaneous pumping of the 2.3 mm Yb:Tm:YLF laser at 685 nm and 960 nm is demonstrated, showing higher slope efficiency than 960 nm alone. Numerical simulations and analytical models show the best ratio of pump power between both wavelengths. (author)

  18. Mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillators pumped by wavelength-multiplexed laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Naoto; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2018-05-01

    We directly pumped a Ti:sapphire laser by combining 478 and 520 nm laser diodes to prevent the effect of absorption loss induced by the pump laser of shorter wavelengths (∼450 nm). We obtain a continuous-wave output power of 660 mW at a total incident pump power of 3.15 W. We demonstrate mode locking using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and 126 fs pulses were obtained at a repetition rate of 192 MHz. At the maximum pump power, the average output power is 315 mW. Shorter mode-locked pulses of 42 and 48 fs were respectively achieved by Kerr-lens mode locking with average output powers of 280 and 360 mW at a repetition rate of 117 MHz.

  19. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry using tunable diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Young, J.P.; Smith, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor diode lasers will find many important applications in atomic spectroscopy. They exhibit the desirable attributes of lasers: narrow bandwidth, tunability, and spatial coherence. At the same time, they possess few of the disadvantages of other tunable lasers. They require no alignment, are simple to operate, and are inexpensive. Practical laser spectroscopic instruments can be envisioned. The authors have applied diode lasers to resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) of some of the lanthanide elements. Sub-Doppler resolution spectra have been recorded and have been used for atomic hyperfine structure analysis. Isotopically-selective ionization has been accomplished, even in cases where photons from a broadband dye laser are part of the overall ionization process and where the isotopic spectral shift is very small. A convenient RIMS instrument for isotope ratio measurements that employs only diode lasers, along with electric field ionization, should be possible

  20. Low-cost 420nm blue laser diode for tissue cutting and hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the use of a 420 nm blue laser diode for possible surgery and hemostasis. The optical absorption of blood-containing tissue is strongly determined by the absorption characteristics of blood. Blood is primarily comprised of plasma (yellowish extracellular fluid that is approximately 95% water by volume) and formed elements: red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets. The RBCs (hemoglobin) are the most numerous, and due to the spectral absorption characteristics of hemoglobin, the optical absorption of blood has a strong relative maximum value in the 420 nm blue region of the optical spectrum. Small, low-cost laser diodes emitting at 420 nm with tens of watts of continuous wave (CW) optical power are becoming commercially available. Experiments on the use of such laser diodes for tissue cutting with simultaneous hemostasis were carried out and are here described. It was found that 1 mm deep x 1 mm wide cuts can be achieved in red meat at a focused laser power level of 3 W moving at a velocity of ~ 1 mm/s. The peripheral necrosis and thermal damage zone extended over a width of approximately 0.5 mm adjacent to the cuts. Preliminary hemostasis experiments were carried out with fresh equine blood in Tygon tubing, where it was demonstrated that cauterization can occur in regions of intentional partial tubing puncture.

  1. Computer-assisted experiments with a laser diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov, E-mail: krafty@mail.biu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2011-05-15

    A laser diode from an inexpensive laser pen (laser pointer) is used in simple experiments. The radiant output power and efficiency of the laser are measured, and polarization of the light beam is shown. The h/e ratio is available from the threshold of spontaneous emission. The lasing threshold is found using several methods. With a data-acquisition system, the measurements are possible in a short time. The frequency response of the laser diode is determined in the range 10-10{sup 7} Hz. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and for classroom demonstrations on semiconductors.

  2. Computer-assisted experiments with a laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    A laser diode from an inexpensive laser pen (laser pointer) is used in simple experiments. The radiant output power and efficiency of the laser are measured, and polarization of the light beam is shown. The h/e ratio is available from the threshold of spontaneous emission. The lasing threshold is found using several methods. With a data-acquisition system, the measurements are possible in a short time. The frequency response of the laser diode is determined in the range 10-10 7 Hz. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and for classroom demonstrations on semiconductors.

  3. Laser diagnostics on magnetically insulated flashover pulsed ion diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, K.; Tazima, N.; Fukui, T.; Kasuya, K.

    1989-01-01

    Our recent experimental results on the characteristics of a flashover-type applied-B magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode are described. The main issues are to investigate the cause of impurity of the extracted beam and to examine the effect of neutral particles on the diode characteristics. In the experiment, our main efforts were placed on laser diagnostics of the diode gap behavior. (author)

  4. A 1,470 nm diode laser in stapedotomy: Mechanical, thermal, and acoustic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenraads, Simone P C; de Boorder, Tjeerd; Grolman, Wilko; Kamalski, Digna M A

    2017-08-01

    Multiple laser systems have been investigated for their use in stapes surgery in patients with otosclerosis. The diode 1,470 nm laser used in this study is an attractive laser system because it is easily transported and relatively inexpensive in use. This wavelength has relative high absorption in water. This study aimed to investigate the mechanical, thermal, and acoustic effects of the diode 1,470 nm laser on a stapes in an inner ear model. Experiments were performed in an inner ear model including fresh frozen human stapes. High-speed imaging with frame rates up to 2,000 frames per second (f/s) was used to visualize the effects in the vestibule during fenestration of the footplate. A special high-speed color Schlieren technique was used to study thermal effects. The sound produced by perforation was recorded by a hydrophone. Single pulse settings of the diode 1,470 nm laser were 100 ms, 3 W. Diode 1,470 nm laser fenestration showed mechanical effects with small vapor bubbles and pressure waves pushed into the vestibule. Thermal imaging visualized an increase temperature underneath the stapes footplate. Acoustic effects were limited, but larger sounds levels were reached when vaporization bubbles arise and explode in the vestibule. The diode 1,470 nm laser highly absorbs in perilymph and is capable of forming a clear fenestration in the stapes. An overlapping laser pulse will increase the risk of vapor bubbles, pressure waves, and heating the vestibule. As long as we do not know the possible damage of these effects to the inner ear function, it seems advisable to use the laser with less potential harm. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:619-624, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Use of high-power diode lasers for hardening and thermal conduction welding of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Demmer, Axel; Zaboklicki, A.

    1997-08-01

    CO2 and Nd:YAG high power lasers have become established as machining tools in industrial manufacturing over the last few years. The most important advantages compared to conventional processing techniques lie in the absence of forces introduced by the laser into the workpiece and in the simple arid highly accurate control in terms ofpositioning and timing making the laser a universally applicable, wear-free and extremely flexible tool /1,2/. The laser can be utilised costeffectively in numerous manufacturing processes but there are also further applications for the laser which produce excellent results from a technical point of view, but are not justified in terms of cost. The extensive use of lasers, particularly in small companies and workshops, is hindered by two main reasons: the complexity and size ofthe laser source and plant and the high investment costs /3/. A new generation of lasers, the high power diode lasers (HDL), combines high performance with a compact design, making the laser a cheap and easy to use tool with many applications /3,4,5,6/. In the diode laser, the laser beam is generated by a microelectronic diode which transforms electrical energy directly into laser energy. Diode lasers with low power outputs have, for some time, been making their mark in our everyday lives: they are used in CD players, laser printers and scanners at cash tills. Modern telecommunications would be impossible without these lasers which enable information to be transmitted in the form oflight impulses through optical fibres. They can also be found in compact precision measurement instrumentation - range fmders, interferometers and pollutant analysis devices /3,6/. In the field of material processing, the first applications ofthe laser, such as for soldering, inscribing, surface hardening and plastic or heat conduction welding, will exceed the limits ofthe relatively low performance output currently available. The diode laser has a shorter wavelength than the CO2 and

  6. Micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty -- 180-degree treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Elina; Välimäki, Juha

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the outcome of 180° micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT) in patients with open-angle glaucoma. A retrospective review of 40 eyes of 29 MDLT-treated patients with a minimum follow-up time of 6 months. Successful outcome was defined as follows: (i) a ≥20% or (ii) a ≥3-mmHg decrease of intraocular pressure (IOP), no further need for laser- or incisional surgery and the number of glaucoma medication was the same or less than preoperative. These definitions will from now on be referred to as definition one and definition two. Life-table analysis showed an overall success rate of 2.5% (1/40) and 7.5% (3/40) (according to definitions one and two, respectively) after up to 19 months of follow-up. The average time for failure was by definition one 2.9 months (standard deviation, SD ± 3.5, range 1-12 months) and by definition two 3.3 months (SD ± 3.9, range 1-16 months). There were no intra- or postoperative complications caused by MDLT. Postoperative inflammatory reaction, cells and flare, was scanty. Our results suggest that 180° MDLT is a safe but ineffective treatment in patients with open-angle glaucoma. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2010 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  7. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep [Department of Physics, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351560, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser’s transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  8. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...

  9. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser’s transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  10. Diode Laser Raman Scattering Prototype Gas-Phase Environmental Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benner, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We proposed developing a diode-laser-based, full spectrum Raman scattering instrument incorporating a multipass, external cavity enhancement cell for full spectrum, gas phase analysis of environmental pollutants...

  11. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  12. Active Stabilization of a Diode Laser Injection Lock

    OpenAIRE

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudde...

  13. Laser diodes for sensing applications: adaptive cruise control and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerlein, Joerg; Morgott, Stefan; Ferstl, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Adaptive Cruise Controls (ACC) and pre-crash sensors require an intelligent eye which can recognize traffic situations and deliver a 3-dimensional view. Both microwave RADAR and "Light RADAR" (LIDAR) systems are well suited as sensors. In order to utilize the advantages of LIDARs -- such as lower cost, simpler assembly and high reliability -- the key component, the laser diode, is of primary importance. Here, we present laser diodes which meet the requirements of the automotive industry.

  14. Spectral beam combining of diode lasers with high efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2012-01-01

    Based on spectral beam combining we obtain 16 W of output power, combining two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. The spectral separation within the combined beam can be used for subsequent sum-frequency generation.......Based on spectral beam combining we obtain 16 W of output power, combining two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. The spectral separation within the combined beam can be used for subsequent sum-frequency generation....

  15. High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.

  16. Precision Spectroscopy, Diode Lasers, and Optical Frequency Measurement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, Leo (Editor); Fox, Richard (Editor); Waltman, Steve (Editor); Robinson, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    This compilation is a selected set of reprints from the Optical Frequency Measurement Group of the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and consists of work published between 1987 and 1997. The two main programs represented here are (1) development of tunable diode-laser technology for scientific applications and precision measurements, and (2) research toward the goal of realizing optical-frequency measurements and synthesis. The papers are organized chronologically in five, somewhat arbitrarily chosen categories: Diode Laser Technology, Tunable Laser Systems, Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Synthesis and Extended Wavelength Coverage, and Multi-Photon Interactions and Optical Coherences.

  17. Distributed-feedback single heterojunction GaAs diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.; Streifer, W.

    1974-01-01

    Laser operation of single-heterojunction GaAl As/GaAs diode lasers using a periodic structure within the gain medium of the device, thereby obviating the need for carefully cleaved end crystal faces to produce feedback, is reported. By varying the grating period, wavelengths from 8430 to 8560 A were observed. The threshold current densities were of the same order as for normal single heterojunction diode lasers. Some advantages in output wavelengths were observed over lasers with cleared faces. (U.S.)

  18. Development and optimization of a diode laser for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated the development of a laser system for cancer treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on a 635 nm laser diode. In order to optimize efficacy in PDT, the ideal laser system should deliver a homogeneous nondivergent light energy with a variable spot size and specific wavelength at a stable output power. We developed a digital laser beam controller using the constant current method to protect the laser diode resonator from the current spikes and other fluctuations, and electrical faults. To improve the PDT effects, the laser system should deliver stable laser energy in continuous wave (CW), burst mode and super burst mode, with variable irradiation times depending on the tumor type and condition. The experimental results showed the diode laser system described herein was eminently suitable for PDT. The laser beam was homogeneous without diverging and the output power increased stably and in a linear manner from 10 mW to 1500 mW according to the increasing input current. Variation between the set and delivered output was less than 7%. The diode laser system developed by the author for use in PDT was compact, user-friendly, and delivered a stable and easily adjustable output power at a specific wavelength and user-set emission modes.

  19. DFB laser diodes for sensing applications using photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeth, J; Fischer, M; Legge, M; Seufert, J; Roessner, K; Groninga, H

    2010-01-01

    We present typical device characteristics of novel DFB laser diodes which are employed in various sensing applications including high resolution photoacoustic spectroscopy. The laser diodes discussed are based on a genuine fabrication technology which allows for the production of ultra stable devices within a broad spectral range from 760 nm up to 3000 nm wavelength. The devices exhibit narrow linewidths down to <1 MHz which makes them ideally suited for all photoacoustic sensing applications where a high spectral purity is required. As an example we will focus on a typical medical application where these diodes are used for breath analysis using photoacoustic spectroscopy.

  20. Disruptive laser diode source for embedded LIDAR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Active imaging based on laser illumination is used in various fields such as medicine, security, defense, civil engineering and in the automotive sector. In this last domain, research and development to bring autonomous vehicles on the roads has been intensified these last years with an emphasis on lidar technology that is probably the key to achieve full automation level. Based on time-of-flight measurements, the profile of objects can be measured together with their location in various conditions, creating a 3D mapping of the environment. To be embedded on a vehicle as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), these sensors require compactness, low-cost and reliability, as it is provided by a flash lidar. An attractive candidate, especially with respect to cost reduction, for the laser source integrated in these devices is certainly laser diodes as long as they can provide sufficiently short pulses with a high energy. A recent breakthrough in laser diode and diode driver technology made by Quantel (Les Ulis, France) now allows laser emission higher than 1 mJ with pulses as short as 12 ns in a footprint of 4x5 cm2 (including both the laser diode and driver) and an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of the whole laser diode source higher than 25% at this level of energy. The components used for the laser source presented here can all be manufactured at low cost. In particular, instead of having several individual laser diodes positioned side by side, the laser diodes are monolithically integrated on a single semiconductor chip. The chips are then integrated directly on the driver board in a single assembly step. These laser sources emit in the range of 800-1000 nm and their emission is considered to be eye safe when taking into account the high divergence of the output beam and the aperture of possible macro lenses so that they can be used for end consumer applications. Experimental characterization of these state-of-the-art pulsed laser diode sources

  1. Blue laser diode (450 nm) systems for welding copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Sa, M.; Finuf, M.; Fritz, R.; Tucker, J.; Pelaprat, J.-M.; Zediker, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper will discuss the development of high power blue laser systems for industrial applications. The key development enabling high power blue laser systems is the emergence of high power, high brightness laser diodes at 450 nm. These devices have a high individual brightness rivaling their IR counterparts and they have the potential to exceed their performance and price barriers. They also have a very high To resulting in a 0.04 nm/°C wavelength shift. They have a very stable lateral far-field profile which can be combined with other diodes to achieve a superior brightness. This paper will report on the characteristics of the blue laser diodes, their integration into a modular laser system suitable for scaling the output power to the 1 kW level and beyond. Test results will be presented for welding of copper with power levels ranging from 150 Watts to 600 Watts

  2. High Power Diode Lasers with External Feedback: Overview and Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-01-01

    In summary, different external-cavity feedback techniques to improve the spatial beam quality and narrow the linewidth of the output beam from both BALs and TDLs are presented. Broad-area diode laser system with external-cavity feedback around 800 nm can produce several Watts of output power...... with a good beam quality. Tapered diode laser systems with external-cavity feedback around 800 and 1060 nm can deliver more than 2 W output power with diffraction-limited beam quality and can be operated in single-longitudinal mode. These high-brightness, narrow linewidth, and tunable external-cavity diode...... lasers emerge as the next generation of compact lasers that have the potential of replacing conventional high power laser systems in many existing applications....

  3. Overview on new diode lasers for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, Joerg

    2012-11-01

    Diode lasers have a broad wavelength range, from the visible to beyond 2.2μm. This allows for various applications in the defense sector, ranging from classic pumping of DPSSL in range finders or target designators, up to pumping directed energy weapons in the 50+ kW range. Also direct diode applications for illumination above 1.55μm, or direct IR countermeasures are of interest. Here an overview is given on some new wavelengths and applications which are recently under discussion. In this overview the following aspects are reviewed: • High Power CW pumps at 808 / 880 / 940nm • Pumps for DPAL - Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers • High Power Diode Lasers in the range market.

  4. A digital frequency stabilization system of external cavity diode laser based on LabVIEW FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuohuan; Hu, Zhaohui; Qi, Lu; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Frequency stabilization for external cavity diode laser has played an important role in physics research. Many laser frequency locking solutions have been proposed by researchers. Traditionally, the locking process was accomplished by analog system, which has fast feedback control response speed. However, analog system is susceptible to the effects of environment. In order to improve the automation level and reliability of the frequency stabilization system, we take a grating-feedback external cavity diode laser as the laser source and set up a digital frequency stabilization system based on National Instrument's FPGA (NI FPGA). The system consists of a saturated absorption frequency stabilization of beam path, a differential photoelectric detector, a NI FPGA board and a host computer. Many functions, such as piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sweeping, atomic saturation absorption signal acquisition, signal peak identification, error signal obtaining and laser PZT voltage feedback controlling, are totally completed by LabVIEW FPGA program. Compared with the analog system, the system built by the logic gate circuits, performs stable and reliable. User interface programmed by LabVIEW is friendly. Besides, benefited from the characteristics of reconfiguration, the LabVIEW program is good at transplanting in other NI FPGA boards. Most of all, the system periodically checks the error signal. Once the abnormal error signal is detected, FPGA will restart frequency stabilization process without manual control. Through detecting the fluctuation of error signal of the atomic saturation absorption spectrum line in the frequency locking state, we can infer that the laser frequency stability can reach 1MHz.

  5. Inhibition of enamel demineralisation using "Nd-YAG and diode laser assisted fluoride therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, B R; Kulkarni, S; Mishra, P

    2016-02-01

    This in vitro study was to evaluate the irradiation efficacy of the Diode laser and the Nd-YAG laser either un-assisted or assisted by acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) treatment on enamel's acid resistance. Seventy-two enamel samples, obtained from 12 extracted human molars, were randomly assigned to 6 groups as follows: (1) Control (C); (2) Exposed to APF gel (F); (3) Diode laser (DL); (4) Irradiated with Diode laser through APF gel (DL/F); (5) Nd-YAG laser (NL) and (6) Irradiated with Nd-YAG laser through APF gel (NL/F). The specimens were individually demineralised in an acidified hydroxyethylcellulose system, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion dissolution using atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of the calcium ion determined in groups 1 to 6 was 901, 757, 736, 592, 497 and 416 parts per million micrograms/gram, respectively. The results showed that demineralisation in the NL/F group was significantly less than the other groups and the control group was significantly greater than the other groups (P laser irradiation, used alone or in combination with APF, in decreasing the enamel demineralisation was greater than all the other groups.

  6. Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Linda; Andersson, Mats; Cassel-Engquist, Märta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel nonintrusive technique based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to investigate human sinuses in vivo. The technique relies on the fact that free gases have spectral imprints that are about 10.000 times sharper than spectral structures of the surrounding tissue. Two gases are detected; molecular oxygen at 760 nm and water vapor at 935 nm. Light is launched fiber optically into the tissue in close proximity to the particular maxillary sinus under study. When investigating the frontal sinuses, the fiber is positioned onto the caudal part of the frontal bone. Multiply scattered light in both cases is detected externally by a handheld probe. Molecular oxygen is detected in the maxillary sinuses on 11 volunteers, of which one had constantly recurring sinus problems. Significant oxygen absorption imprint differences can be observed between different volunteers and also left-right asymmetries. Water vapor can also be detected, and by normalizing the oxygen signal on the water vapor signal, the sinus oxygen concentration can be assessed. Gas exchange between the sinuses and the nasal cavity is also successfully demonstrated by flushing nitrogen through the nostril. Advantages over current ventilation assessment methods using ionizing radiation are pointed out.

  7. An absolute distance interferometer with two external cavity diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L; Meiners-Hagen, K; Abou-Zeid, A

    2008-01-01

    An absolute interferometer for length measurements in the range of several metres has been developed. The use of two external cavity diode lasers allows the implementation of a two-step procedure which combines the length measurement with a variable synthetic wavelength and its interpolation with a fixed synthetic wavelength. This synthetic wavelength is obtained at ≈42 µm by a modulation-free stabilization of both lasers to Doppler-reduced rubidium absorption lines. A stable reference interferometer is used as length standard. Different contributions to the total measurement uncertainty are discussed. It is shown that the measurement uncertainty can considerably be reduced by correcting the influence of vibrations on the measurement result and by applying linear regression to the quadrature signals of the absolute interferometer and the reference interferometer. The comparison of the absolute interferometer with a counting interferometer for distances up to 2 m results in a linearity error of 0.4 µm in good agreement with an estimation of the measurement uncertainty

  8. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  9. Power blue and green laser diodes and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Thomas; Strauß, Uwe; Eichler, Christoph; Vierheilig, Clemens; Tautz, Sönke; Brüderl, Georg; Stojetz, Bernhard; Wurm, Teresa; Avramescu, Adrian; Somers, André; Ristic, Jelena; Gerhard, Sven; Lell, Alfred; Morgott, Stefan; Mehl, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    InGaN based green laser diodes with output powers up to 50mW are now well established for variety of applications ranging from leveling to special lighting effects and mobile projection of 12lm brightness. In future the highest market potential for visible single mode profile lasers might be laser projection of 20lm. Therefore direct green single-mode laser diodes with higher power are required. We found that self heating was the limiting factor for higher current operation. We present power-current characteristics of improved R and D samples with up to 200mW in cw-operation. An optical output power of 100mW is reached at 215mA, a current level which is suitable for long term operation. Blue InGaN laser diodes are also the ideal source for phosphor based generation of green light sources of high luminance. We present a light engine based on LARP (Laser Activated Remote Phosphor) which can be used in business projectors of several thousand lumens on screen. We discuss the advantages of a laser based systems in comparison with LED light engines. LARP requires highly efficient blue power laser diodes with output power above 1W. Future market penetration of LARP will require lower costs. Therefore we studied new designs for higher powers levels. R and D chips with power-current characteristics up to 4W in continuous wave operation on C-mount at 25°C are presented.

  10. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.

    2004-03-09

    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  11. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  12. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  13. Sub-100 fs high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Markovic, Vesna; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    Ti:sapphire oscillators are a proven technology to generate sub-100 fs (even sub-10 fs) pulses in the near infrared and are widely used in many high impact scientific fields. However, the need for a bulky, expensive and complex pump source, typically a frequency-doubled multi-watt neodymium or optically pumped semiconductor laser, represents the main obstacle to more widespread use. The recent development of blue diodes emitting over 1 W has opened up the possibility of directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillators. Beside the lower cost and footprint, a direct diode pumping provides better reliability, higher efficiency and better pointing stability to name a few. The challenges that it poses are lower absorption of Ti:sapphire at available diode wavelengths and lower brightness compared to typical green pump lasers. For practical applications such as bio-medicine and nano-structuring, output powers in excess of 100 mW and sub-100 fs pulses are required. In this paper, we demonstrate a high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator without active cooling. The SESAM modelocking ensures reliable self-starting and robust operation. We will present two configurations emitting 460 mW in 82 fs pulses and 350 mW in 65 fs pulses, both operating at 92 MHz. The maximum obtained pulse energy reaches 5 nJ. A double-sided pumping scheme with two high power blue diode lasers was used for the output power scaling. The cavity design and the experimental results will be discussed in more details.

  14. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  15. Remote detection of methane with a 1.66-microm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, K; Tai, H

    1992-02-20

    High-sensitivity real-time remote detection of methane in air with a 1.66-microm distributed-feedback diode laser operating at room temperature is demonstrated by laboratory simulations. The laser current was modulated at a high frequency of ~5 MHz, and the laser-center frequency was locked onto a methane-absorption line. The laser light directed toward the probed region was received after one-way transmission or further reflection from a topographic target. The methane absorption was detected by the second-harmonic component in the optical-power variation. The minimum-detectable concentration-path-length product in the transmission scheme was 0.3 part in 10(6) m for a signal averaging time of 1.3 s. In the reflection scheme, the amount of methane could be measured from the ratio of the fundamental and second-harmonic signal intensities independently of the received power.

  16. Gradient heating protocol for a diode-pumped alkali laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, He; Wang, You; Han, Juhong; Yu, Hang; Rong, Kepeng; Wang, Shunyan; An, Guofei; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Yu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has gained rapid development in the recent years. Until now, the structure with single heater has been widely utilized to adjust the temperature of an alkali vapor cell in most of the literatures about DPALs. However, for an end-pumped DPAL using single heater, most pump energy is absorbed by the gain media near the entrance cell window because of the large absorption cross section of atomic alkali. As a result, the temperature in the pumping area around the entrance window will go up rapidly, especially in a case of high pumping density. The temperature rise would bring about some negative influences such as thermal effects and variations in population density. In addition, light scattering and window contamination aroused by the chemical reaction between the alkali vapor and the buffer gas will also affect the output performance of a DPAL system. To find a solution to these problems, we propose a gradient heating approach in which several heaters are tandem-set along the optical axis to anneal an alkali vapor cell. The temperature at the entrance window is adjusted to be lower than that of the other side. By using this novel scheme, one can not only achieve a homogeneous absorption of the pump energy along the cell axis, but also decrease the possibility of the window damage in a DPAL configuration. The theoretical simulation of the laser output features has been carried out for a configuration of multiple heaters. Additionally, the DPAL output performance under different gradient temperatures is also discussed in this paper. The conclusions might be helpful for development of a high-powered and high-beam-quality DPAL.

  17. Silicon monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, J. A.; Freitas, B. L.; Crawford, J.; Satariano, J.; Utterback, E.; DiMercurio, L.; Cutter, K.; Sutton, S.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array is demonstrated that allows multiple diode-bar mounting with negligible thermal cross talk. The heat sink comprises two main components: a wet-etched Si layer that is anodically bonded to a machined glass block. The continuous wave (cw) thermal resistance of the 10 bar diode array is 0.032 degree sign C/W, which matches the performance of discrete microchannel-cooled arrays. Up to 1.5 kW/cm 2 is achieved cw at an emission wavelength of ∼808 nm. Collimation of a diode array using a monolithic lens frame produced a 7.5 mrad divergence angle by a single active alignment. This diode array offers high average power/brightness in a simple, rugged, scalable architecture that is suitable for large two-dimensional areas. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Violet Laser Diode Enables Lighting Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wu, Tsai-Chen; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Li-Yin; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2017-09-05

    Violet laser diode (VLD) based white-light source with high color rendering index (CRI) for lighting communication is implemented by covering with Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ (YAG:Ce) or Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ /CaAlSiN 3 :Eu 2+ (LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu) phosphorous diffuser plates. After passing the beam of VLD biased at 70 mA (~2I th ) through the YAG:Ce phosphorous diffuser, a daylight with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5068 K and a CRI of 65 is acquired to provide a forward error correction (FEC) certified data rate of 4.4 Gbit/s. By using the VLD biased at 122 mA (~3.5I th ) to excite the LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphorous diffuser with 0.85-mm thickness, a warm white-light source with a CCT of 2700 K and a CRI of 87.9 is obtained at a cost of decreasing transmission capacity to 2.4 Gbit/s. Thinning the phosphor thickness to 0.75 mm effectively reduces the required bias current by 32 mA to achieve the same CCT for the delivered white light, which offers an enlarged CRI of 89.1 and an increased data rate of 4.4 Gbit/s. Further enlarging the bias current to 105 mA remains the white-light transmission capacity at 4.4 Gbit/s but reveals an increased CCT of 3023 K and an upgraded CRI of 91.5.

  19. GaN-based blue laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Takao; Yanashima, Katsunori; Funato, Kenji; Asatsuma, Tsunenori; Kobayashi, Toshimasa [CT Development Centre, CNC, Sony Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan); Tojyo, Tsuyoshi; Asano, Takeharu; Kijima, Satoru; Hino, Tomonori; Takeya, Motonobu; Uchida, Shiro; Ikeda, Masao [Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor Inc., Shiroishi, Miyagi (Japan); Tomiya, Shigetaka [Environment and Analyhsis Technology Department, Sony Corporation, Hodogaya, Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-08-13

    We report our recent progress on GaN-based high-power laser diodes (LDs), which will be applied as a light source in high-density optical storage systems. We have developed raised-pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (RP-MOCVD), which can reduce the threading-dislocation density in the GaN layer to several times 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}, and demonstrated continuous-wave (cw) operation of GaN-based LD grown by RP-MOCVD. Furthermore, we found that the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique is useful for further reducing threading-dislocation density to 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} and reducing the roughness of the cleaved facet. By using this growth technique and optimizing device parameters, the lifetime of LDs was improved to more than 1000 hours under 30 mW cw operation at 60 deg. C. Our results proved that reducing both threading-dislocation density and consumption power is a valid approach to realizing a practical GaN-based LD. On the other hand, the practical GaN-based LD was obtained when threading-dislocation density in ELO-GaN was only reduced to 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}, which is a relatively small reduction as compared with threading-dislocation density in GaAs- and InP-based LDs. We believe that the multiplication of non-radiative centres is very slow in GaN-based LDs, possibly due to the innate character of the GaN-based semiconductor itself. (author)

  20. Transscleral Diode Laser Cyclophotocoagulation in Refractory Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfidan Bitirgen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (TSDLC in advanced glaucoma refractory to medical or surgical treatment. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The data of subjects who were treated with TSDLC between 2009 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Intraocular pressure before and after treatment, visual acuity, the number of medications and complications were analysed. Success was defined as final IOP of 6-22 mmHg with or without antiglaucomatous medications. Re sults: Thirty seven eyes of 37 patients were included in the study. Mean age of patients and mean follow-up time were 61.73±17.13 years (range: 19-80 years and 8.06±5.81 months (range: 3-22 months, respectively. Mean pretreatment IOP was 38.68±8.94 mmHg and IOP was 26.46±11.34 mmHg (p <0.01 at the second week, whereas it was 24.97±10.84 mmHg (p<0.01 at the last visit. IOP of less than 22 mmHg was achieved in 40.5% of eyes at the last visit. Mean treatment number per eye was 1.48±0.73, and more than one treatment was required in 13 (35.1% eyes. Preoperative and postoperative mean total antiglaucomatous medications were 3.14±1.18 and 2.76±1.23, respectively. No phthisis bulbi or persistent hypotonia developed during the follow-up period. Dis cus si on: TSDLC is an effective and safe method for the treatment of refractory glaucoma. It also served to reduce the number of antiglaucoma medications, thus improving both the quality of life of the patients and their compliance to therapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 434-7

  1. Determination of QW laser diode degradation based on the emission spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliznyuk Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of laser diodes degradation control by monitoring of their spectrum is shown. For red and infra-red laser diodes, the time dependence of the radiation spectrum width was obtained.

  2. Portable Diode Laser Diagnostic System for Collaborative Research on Air-Breathing Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This equipment grant focused on four areas: (1) portable diode laser sensors with new fiber-coupled diode lasers and the support equipment to provide higher power with extended wavelength tuning range and speed; (2...

  3. Laser Absorption by Over-Critical Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.

    2015-11-01

    Absorption of high intensity laser light by matter has important applications to emerging sciences and technology, such as Fast Ignition ICF and ion acceleration. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of this absorption is key to developing these technologies. Critical features which distinguish the interaction of high intensity light - defined here as a laser field having a normalized vector potential greater than unity - are that the reaction of the material to the fields results in sharp high-density interfaces; and that the movement of the electrons is in general relativistic, both in a fluid and a thermal sense. The results of these features are that the absorption mechanisms are qualitatively distinct from those at lower intensities. We will review previous work, by our group and others, on the absorption mechanisms, and highlight current research. We will show that the standing wave structure of the reflected laser light is key to particle dynamics for normally incident lasers. The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy under contract DE-NA 0001833 and the National Science Foundation under contract ACI 1339893.

  4. 3.1 W narrowband blue external cavity diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jue; Ren, Huaijin; Zhou, Kun; Li, Yi; Du, Weichuan; Gao, Songxin; Li, Ruijun; Liu, Jianping; Li, Deyao; Yang, Hui

    2018-03-01

    We reported a high-power narrowband blue diode laser which is suitable for subsequent nonlinear frequency conversion into the deep ultraviolet (DUV) spectral range. The laser is based on an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system using a commercially available GaN-based high-power blue laser diode emitting at 448 nm. Longitudinal mode selection is realized by using a surface diffraction grating in Littrow configuration. The diffraction efficiency of the grating was optimized by controlling the polarization state of the laser beam incident on the grating. A maximum optical output power of 3.1 W in continuous-wave operation with a spectral width of 60 pm and a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) larger than 10 dB at 448.4 nm is achieved. Based on the experimental spectra and output powers, the theoretical efficiency and output power of the subsequent nonlinear frequency conversion were calculated according to the Boyd- Kleinman theory. The single-pass conversion efficiency and output power is expected to be 1.9×10-4 and 0.57 mW, respectively, at the 3.1 W output power of the ECDL. The high-power narrowband blue diode laser is very promising as pump source in the subsequent nonlinear frequency conversion.

  5. Frequency-doubled diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    . However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20...... fs are measured. These results open the opportunity of establishing diode laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers for e.g. biophotonic applications like retinal optical coherence tomography or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS microscopy.......A single-pass frequency doubled high-power tapered diode laser emitting nearly 1.3 W of green light suitable for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The pump efficiencies reached 75 % of the values achieved with a commercial solid-state pump laser...

  6. Mathematical modeling of a passively Q-switched diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.

    2009-11-01

    A mathematical model describing the dynamic emission of the intracavity frequency doubling (IFD) of a gain-switched InGaAs/GaAs/KTP and a gain-switched mode-locked two-sections tapered ridge-waveguide InGaAs/GaAs diode laser has been presented. The IFD of a gain-switched and a gain-switched mode-locked two-sections diode laser is modeled where one section is electrically pumped to proved gain while the second section is unpumped (reverse biased) to provide a saturable absorber. (author)

  7. Characteristic of laser diode beam propagation through a collimating lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Han, Yiping; Cui, Zhiwei

    2010-01-20

    A mathematical model of a laser diode beam propagating through a collimating lens is presented. Wave propagation beyond the paraxial approximation is studied. The phase delay of the laser diode wave in passing through the lens is analyzed in detail. The propagation optical field after the lens is obtained from the diffraction integral by the stationary phase method. The model is employed to predict the light intensity at various beam cross sections, and the computed intensity distributions are in a good agreement with the corresponding measurements.

  8. Direct-current polarization characteristics of various AlGaAs laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polarization characteristics of AlGaAs laser diodes having various device geometries have been measured. Measurements were performed with the laser diodes operating under dc conditions. Results show that laser diodes having different device geometries have optical outputs that exhibit varying degrees of polarization purity. Implications of this result, with respect to incoherent polarization-beam combining, are addressed.

  9. Infrared-laser spectroscopy using a long-pathlength absorption cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.C.; Briesmeister, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The absorption measurements in an ordinary cell may require typically a few torr pressure of sample gas. At these pressures the absorption lines are usually pressure-broadened and, therefore, closely spaced transitions are poorly resolved even at diode-laser resolution. This situation is greatly improved in Doppler-limited spectroscopy at extremely low sample pressures. Two very long-pathlength absorption cells were developed to be used in conjunction with diode lasers. They were designed to operate at controlled temperatures with the optical pathlength variable up to approx. 1.5 km. Not only very low sample pressures are used for studies with such cells but also the spectroscopic sensitivity is enhanced over conventional methods by a factor of 10 3 to 10 4 , improving the analytical capability of measuring particle densities to the order of 1 x 10'' molecules/cm 3 . This paper presents some analytical aspects of the diode laser spectroscopy using the long-pathlength absorption cells in the areas of absorption line widths, pressure broadening coefficients, isotope composition measurements and trace impurity analysis

  10. Comparative analysis of frequency and noise characteristics of Fabry – Perot and distributed feedback laser diodes with external optical injection locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonenko, A A; Dorogush, E S [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Malyshev, S A; Chizh, A L [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-11-30

    Using a system of coupled travelling wave equations, in the small-signal regime we analyse frequency and noise characteristics of index- or absorption-coupled distributed feedback laser diodes, as well as of Fabry – Perot (FP) laser diodes. It is shown that the weakest dependence of the direct modulation efficiency on the locking frequency in the regime of strong external optical injection locking is exhibited by a FP laser diode formed by highly reflective and antireflective coatings on the end faces of a laser structure. A reduction in the dependence of output characteristics of the laser diode on the locking frequency can be attained by decreasing the reflection coefficient of the antireflective FP mirror. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  11. High sensitivity spectroscopy with tunable diode lasers - detection of O2 quadrupole transitions and 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, tunable lead-salt diode lasers (TDLs) have found widespread application in all fields of infrared spectroscopy. However, most applications of TDLs utilise only the tunability and high resolution of these devices, and few experiments have employed the ability of the TDL to detect very small absorption coefficients. We have developed a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) which can detect absorption coefficients as small as 10 -6 to 10 -7 m -1 , while retaining the full tunability and resolution of the TDL. This instrument has been used as a point monitoring system for many trace gases of atmospheric significance. In this paper, we describe two additional applications of the LAS: (I) the detection of very weak transitions such as quadrupole lines in oxygen, and (II) the detection of rare isotopes, with 14 C in CO 2 as an example. Details are given in the following sections. (orig.)

  12. Resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG laser systems emitting at 1645 nm for methane detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, H; Lux, O; Wang, X; Zhao, Z; Eichler, H J

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of compact and frequency-stable Er:YAG laser systems emitting in the eye-safe spectral region. Resonant cw diode pumping provides 4.5 W output power in cw operation and 2.2 mJ in Q-switched operation with pulse duration of about 140 ns. The application of intra-cavity etalons allows for wavelength tuning from 1645.22 to 1646.33 nm while the frequency stability accounts for less than 50 MHz. The potential of the erbium laser sources in terms of methane detection was evaluated under laboratory conditions by absorption measurements employing a multi-pass absorption cell. The experimental investigations were accompanied by theoretical studies on the influence of pressure broadening on the absorption behavior of methane. (letter)

  13. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  14. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Arpad A.

    2004-01-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Arpad A [Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), 1133 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036-4329 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Direct pumping of ultrashort Ti:sapphire lasers by a frequency doubled diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser. Autocorrelation measurements show that pulse widths of less than 20 fs can be expected with an average power of 52 mW when using our laser. These results indicate the high potential of direct diode laser pumped Ti: sapphire lasers to be used in applications....... When using our diode laser system, the optical conversion efficiencies from green to near-infrared light reduces to 75 % of the values achieved with the commercial pump laser. Despite this reduction the overall efficiency of the Ti: sapphire laser is still increased by a factor > 2 due to the superior...... like retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS (coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy) microscopy....

  17. Diffraction-limited 577 nm true-yellow laser by frequency doubling of a tapered diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathias; Vilera, Mariafernanda; Noordegraaf, Danny; Hansen, Anders K.; Buß, Thomas; Jensen, Ole B.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2018-02-01

    A wide range of laser medical treatments are based on coagulation of blood by absorption of the laser radiation. It has, therefore, always been a goal of these treatments to maximize the ratio of absorption in the blood to that in the surrounding tissue. For this purpose lasers at 577 nm are ideal since this wavelength is at the peak of the absorption in oxygenated hemoglobin. Furthermore, 577 nm has a lower absorption in melanin when compared to green wavelengths (515 - 532 nm), giving it an advantage when treating at greater penetration depth. Here we present a laser system based on frequency doubling of an 1154 nm Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) tapered diode laser, emitting 1.1 W of single frequency and diffraction limited yellow light at 577 nm, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 30.5%. The frequency doubling is performed in a single pass configuration using a cascade of two bulk non-linear crystals. The system is power stabilized over 10 hours with a standard deviation of 0.13% and the relative intensity noise is measured to be 0.064 % rms.

  18. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  19. Method and system for homogenizing diode laser pump arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andy J

    2013-10-01

    An optical amplifier system includes a diode pump array including a plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars disposed in an array configuration and characterized by a periodic distance between adjacent semiconductor diode laser bars. The periodic distance is measured in a first direction perpendicular to each of the plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars. The diode pump array provides a pump output propagating along an optical path and characterized by a first intensity profile measured as a function of the first direction and having a variation greater than 10%. The optical amplifier system also includes a diffractive optic disposed along the optical path. The diffractive optic includes a photo-thermo-refractive glass member. The optical amplifier system further includes an amplifier slab having an input face and position along the optical path and separated from the diffractive optic by a predetermined distance. A second intensity profile measured at the input face of the amplifier slab as a function of the first direction has a variation less than 10%.

  20. High power cascade diode lasers emitting near 2 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoda, Takashi; Feng, Tao; Shterengas, Leon, E-mail: leon.shterengas@stonybrook.edu; Kipshidze, Gela; Belenky, Gregory [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    High-power two-stage cascade GaSb-based type-I quantum well diode lasers emitting near 2 μm were designed and fabricated. Coated devices with cavity length of 3 mm generated about 2 W of continuous wave power from 100-μm-wide aperture at the current of 6 A. The power conversion efficiency peaked at 20%. Carrier recycling between quantum well gain stages was realized using band-to-band tunneling in GaSb/AlSb/InAs heterostructure complemented with optimized electron and hole injector regions. Design optimization eliminated parasitic optical absorption and thermionic emission, and included modification of the InAs quantum wells of electron and composition and doping profile of hole injectors. Utilization of the cascade pumping scheme yielded 2 μm lasers with improved output power and efficiency compared to existing state-of-the-art diodes.

  1. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation by semiconductor diode laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by excessive deposition of melanin in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the epithelium. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign, cosmetic concerns are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. Various depigmentation techniques have been employed, such as scalpel surgery, gingivectomy, gingivectomy with free gingival autografting, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, chemical agents such as 90% phenol and 95% alcohol, abrasion with diamond burs, Nd:YAG laser, semiconductor diode laser, and CO 2 laser. The present case report describes simple and effective depigmentation technique using semiconductor diode laser surgery - for gingival depigmentation, which have produced good results with patient satisfaction.

  2. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  3. Advancements of ultra-high peak power laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D.; Thiagarajan, P.; Goings, J.; Caliva, B.; Smith, S.; Walker, R.

    2018-02-01

    Enhancements of laser diode epitaxy in conjunction with process and packaging improvements have led to the availability of 1cm bars capable of over 500W peak power at near-infrared wavelengths (770nm to 1100nm). Advances in cooler design allow for multi-bar stacks with bar-to-bar pitches as low as 350μm and a scalable package architecture enabled a single diode assembly with total peak powers of over 1MegaWatt of peak power. With the addition of micro-optics, overall array brightness greater than 10kW/cm2 was achieved. Performance metrics of barbased diode lasers specifically engineered for high peak power and high brightness at wavelengths and pulse conditions commonly used to pump a variety of fiber and solid-state materials are presented.

  4. High-brightness tapered laser diodes with photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Du, Weichuan; Kun, Zhou; Gao, Songxin; Ma, Yi; Tang, Chun

    2018-02-01

    Beam quality of tapered laser diodes is limited by higher order lateral mode. On purpose of optimizing the brightness of tapered laser diodes, we developed a novel design of tapered diodes. This devices based on InGaAs/AlGaAs asymmetry epitaxial structure, containing higher order lateral mode filtering schemes especially photonic crystal structures, which fabricated cost effectively by using standard photolithography and dry etch processes. Meanwhile, the effects of photonic crystal structures on mode control are also investigated theoretically by FDBPM (Finite-Difference Beam Propagation Method) calculation. We achieved a CW optical output power of 6.9W at 940nm for a single emitter with 4 mm cavity length. A nearly diffraction limited beam of M2 ≍1.9 @ 0.5W has been demonstrated, and a highest brightness of β =75MW/(cm2 ·sr) was reached.

  5. Diode lasers: A magical wand to an orthodontic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation is a powerful source of light, which has innumerable applications in all the fields of science including medicine and dentistry. It is one such technology that has become a desirable and an inseparable alternative to many traditional surgical procedures being held in the field of dentistry, and orthodontics is no exception. The current article describes the uses of a diode laser as an indispensable tool in an orthodontic office.

  6. Chirp of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, M.; Bischoff, S.; Franck, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    Spectrally resolved streak camera measurements of picosecond pulses emitted by hybridly colliding pulse mode-locked (CPM) laser diodes are presented in this letter. Depending on the modulation frequency both blue-chirped (upchirped) and red-chirped (downchirped) pulses can be observed. The two...... different regimes and the transition between them are characterized experimentally and the behavior is explained on the basis of our model for the CPM laser dynamics. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  7. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope...... been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order......, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation...

  8. Diode laser for the treatment of telangiectasias following hemangioma involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrati, Eric W; O, Teresa M; Chung, Hoyun; Waner, Milton

    2015-02-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are well known for their rapid growth during the first 6 to 9 months of life, followed by a spontaneous but slow involution. The standard of care is to treat these lesions at an early age with propranolol to expedite the involution process; however, surgery still remains an active component in the management. Medical treatment with propranolol or natural involution will often result in residual telangiectasias. We evaluated the efficacy of using a diode laser as a treatment for telangiectasias following cervicofacial infantile hemangioma involution. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care hospital and practice specializing in the care of vascular anomalies. Twenty patients, aged 4 months to 11 years (average 2.69 years), underwent treatment with a 532-nm diode laser to treat the residual telangiectasias following hemangioma involution. All procedures were performed in the operating room. To assess the efficacy, we independently evaluated pre- and posttreatment digital photographs and ranked them on a 0- to 4-point scale (0 = no change and 4 = complete response). Adverse reactions were also recorded. The telangiectasias showed considerable improvement following treatment. In more than half of the patients treated, the affected area demonstrated a complete response. No adverse reactions were noted. A 532-nm diode laser effectively treats the remaining telangiectasias following hemangioma involution. Whether used independently or in conjunction with other treatment modalities, the diode laser should be part of the surgical armamentarium when treating infantile hemangiomas. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  9. Efficient diode pumped ytterbium-doped fibre laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harun, S.W.; Paul, M.C.; Moghaddam, M.R.A.; Das, S.; Sen, R.; Dhar, Anirban; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S.K.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 68-69 ISSN 0013-5194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Fibre lasers * Oscillator * Diode-pumped Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.001, year: 2010

  10. Diode laser surgery versus scalpel surgery in the treatment of fibrous hyperplasia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M B F; de Ávila, J M S; Abreu, M H G; Mesquita, R A

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous hyperplasia is treated by surgical incision using a scalpel, together with removal of the source of chronic trauma. However, scalpel techniques do not provide the haemostasis that is necessary when dealing with highly vascular tissues. Diode laser surgery can be used in the management of oral tissues due to its high absorption by water and haemoglobin, and has provided good results in both periodontal surgery and oral lesions. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of diode laser surgery to those of the conventional technique in patients with fibrous hyperplasia. A randomized clinical trial was performed in which surgical and postoperative evaluations were analyzed. On comparison of the laser-treated (study group) patients to those treated with a scalpel (control group), significant differences were observed in the duration of surgery and the use of analgesic medications. Over a 3-week period, clinical healing of the postoperative wound was significantly faster in the control group as compared to the study group. In conclusion, diode laser surgery proved to be more effective and less invasive when compared to scalpel surgery in the management of fibrous hyperplasia. However, wound healing proved to be faster when using scalpel surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microjet-assisted dye-enhanced diode laser ablation of cartilaginous tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, John; Bell, Brent A.; Motamedi, Massoud; Frederickson, Chris J.; Wallace, David B.; Hayes, Donald J.; Cowan, Daniel

    1994-08-01

    Recent studies have established clinical application of laser ablation of cartilaginous tissue. The goal of this study was to investigate removal of cartilaginous tissue using diode laser. To enhance the interaction of laser light with tissue, improve the ablation efficiency and localize the extent of laser-induced thermal damage in surrounding tissue, we studied the use of a novel delivery system developed by MicroFab Technologies to dispense a known amount of Indocyanine Green (ICG) with a high spatial resolution to alter the optical properties of the tissue in a controlled fashion. Canine intervertebral disks were harvested and used within eight hours after collection. One hundred forty nL of ICG was topically applied to both annulus and nucleus at the desired location with the MicroJet prior to each irradiation. Fiber catheters (600 micrometers ) were used and positioned to irradiate the tissue with a 0.8 mm spot size. Laser powers of 3 - 10 W (Diomed, 810 nm) were used to irradiate the tissue with ten pulses (200 - 500 msec). Discs not stained with ICG were irradiated as control samples. Efficient tissue ablation (80 - 300 micrometers /pulse) was observed using ICG to enhance light absorption and confine thermal damage while there was no observable ablation in control studied. The extent of tissue damage observed microscopically was limited to 50 - 100 micrometers . The diode laser/Microjet combination showed promise for applications involving removal of cartilaginous tissue. This procedure can be performed using a low power compact diode laser, is efficient, and potentially more economical compared to procedures using conventional lasers.

  12. Laser frequency locking based on the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectroscopy of 87Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Jian-Hong; Liu Chang; Wang Yan-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical method to avoid the mis-locking phenomenon in the saturated-absorption-spectrum laser-frequency-locking system and set up a simple theoretical model to explain the abnormal saturated absorption spectrum. The method uses the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectra of the same transition 5 2 S 1/2 , F = 2–5 2 P 3/2 , F′ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87 Rb D 2 resonance line. After subtracting these two signals with the help of electronics, we can obtain a spectrum with a single peak to lock the laser. In our experiment, we use the normal and inverse signals of the transitions 5 2 S 1/2 , F = 2–5 2 P 3/2 , F′ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87 Rb D 2 resonance line to lock a 780-nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. This method improves the long-term locking performance and is suitable for other kinds of diode lasers. (paper)

  13. Novel diode-based laser system for combined transcutaneous monitoring and computer-controlled intermittent treatment of jaundiced neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-06-01

    The high efficacy of laser phototherapy combined with transcutaneous monitoring of serum bilirubin provides optimum safety for jaundiced infants from the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. In this paper the authors introduce the design and operating principles of a new laser system that can provide simultaneous monitoring and treatment of several jaundiced babies at one time. The new system incorporates diode-based laser sources oscillating at selected wavelengths to achieve both transcutaneous differential absorption measurements of bilirubin concentration in addition to the computer controlled intermittent laser therapy through a network of optical fibers. The detailed description and operating characteristics of this system are presented.

  14. Temperature effects on tunable cw Alexandrite lasers under diode end-pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge-Johns, William R; Damzen, Michael J

    2018-03-19

    Diode pumped Alexandrite is a promising route to high power, efficient and inexpensive lasers with a broad (701 nm to 858 nm) gain bandwidth; however, there are challenges with its complex laser dynamics. We present an analytical model applied to experimental red diode end-pumped Alexandrite lasers, which enabled a record 54 % slope efficiency with an output power of 1.2 W. A record lowest lasing wavelength (714 nm) and record tuning range (104 nm) was obtained by optimising the crystal temperature between 8 °C and 105 °C in the vibronic mode. The properties of Alexandrite and the analytical model were examined to understand and give general rules in optimising Alexandrite lasers, along with their fundamental efficiency limits. It was found that the lowest threshold laser wavelength was not necessarily the most efficient, and that higher and lower temperatures were optimal for longer and shorter laser wavelengths, respectively. The pump excited to ground state absorption ratio was measured to decrease from 0.8 to 0.7 by changing the crystal temperature from 10 °C to 90 °C.

  15. A comparative evaluation: Oral leukoplakia surgical management using diode laser, CO2 laser, and cryosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natekar, Madhukar; Raghuveer, Hosahallli-Puttaiah; Rayapati, Dilip-Kumar; Shobha, Eshwara-Singh; Prashanth, Nagesh-Tavane; Rangan, Vinod; Panicker, Archana G

    2017-06-01

    The comparatively evaluate the three surgical treatment modalities namely cryosurgery, diode and CO2 laser surgery in terms of healing outcomes on the day of surgery, first and second week post operatively and recurrence at the end of 18 months was assessed. Thirty selected patients were divided randomly into three groups. Each group comprising of ten patients were subjected to one of the three modalities of treatment namely cryosurgery, diode laser or CO2 laser surgery for ablation of OL. Obtained data was analyzed using mainly using Chi-square and Anova tests. Study showed statistical significant differences (p > 0.05) for evaluation parameters like pain, edema and scar. The parameters like infection, recurrence, bleeding showed no statistical significance. Pain was significantly higher in CO2 laser surgery group as compared with diode laser group. There was no recurrence observed at the end of the 6 months follow up period in all the three study groups. Observations from the study highlights that all three surgical modalities used in this study were effective for treatment of OL, and the overall summation of the results of the study showed that laser therapy (CO2 and Diode) seems to offer better clinically significant results than cryotherapy. Key words: Oral premalignant lesion, leukoplakia, cryosurgery, CO2 laser surgery, diode laser surgery.

  16. Absolute frequency atlas from 915 nm to 985 nm based on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölleke, Christian; Raab, Christoph; Neuhaus, Rudolf; Falke, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine gas between 915 nm and 985 nm. This wavelength range is scanned utilizing a narrow linewidth and mode-hop-free tunable diode-laser whose frequency is actively controlled using a calibrated wavelength meter. This allows us to provide an iodine atlas that contains almost 10,000 experimentally observed reference lines with an uncertainty of 50 MHz. For common lines, good agreement is found with a publication by Gerstenkorn and Luc (1978). The new rich dataset allows existing models of the iodine molecule to be refined and can serve as a reference for laser frequency calibration and stabilization.

  17. Endoscopic diode laser therapy for chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Lino; Marini, Lucia; Rizzato, Roberto; Picardi, Edgardo; Merigliano, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic diode laser therapy in patients presenting rectal bleeding due to chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). A retrospective analysis of CRP patients who underwent diode laser therapy in a single institution between 2010 and 2016 was carried out. The patients were treated by non-contact fibers without sedation in an outpatient setting. Fourteen patients (median age 77, range 73-87 years) diagnosed with CRP who had undergone high-dose radiotherapy for prostatic cancer and who presented with rectal bleeding were included. Six required blood transfusions. Antiplatelet (three patients) and anticoagulant (two patients) therapy was not suspended during the treatments. The patients underwent a median of two sessions; overall, a mean of 1684 J of laser energy per session was used. Bleeding was resolved in 10/14 (71%) patients, and other two patients showed improvement (93%). Only one patient, who did not complete the treatment, required blood transfusions after laser therapy; no complications were noted during or after the procedures. Study findings demonstrated that endoscopic non-contact diode laser treatment is safe and effective in CRP patients, even in those receiving antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy.

  18. Optical vortex generation from a diode-pumped alexandrite laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. M.; Minassian, A.; Damzen, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    We present the demonstration of an optical vortex mode directly generated from a diode-pumped alexandrite slab laser, operating in the bounce geometry. This is the first demonstration of an optical vortex mode generated from an alexandrite laser or from any other vibronic laser. An output power of 2 W for a vortex mode with a ‘topological charge’ of 1 was achieved and the laser was made to oscillate with both left- and right-handed vorticity. The laser operated at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously, 755 and 759 nm, due to birefringent filtering in the alexandrite gain medium. The result offers the prospect of broadly wavelength tunable vortex generation directly from a laser.

  19. Investigation of diode-laser pumped thulium-doped fluoride lasers; Investigacao de lasers de floureto dopados com tulio e bombeados por diodo-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Paulo Sergio Fabris de

    2006-07-01

    Tunable lasers emitting around 2.3 mum region are important in many areas, like gas detection, remote sensing and medical applications. Thulium has a large emission spectra around 2.3 mum with demonstrated tuning range of 2.2-2.45 mum using the YLF host. For efficient pump absorption, a high concentration sensitizer like ytterbium can be used. We demonstrate quasi-cw operation of the Yb:Tm:YLF laser, pumped at 960 nm with a 20 W diode bar achieving the highest output power reported so far of 620 mW. Simultaneous pumping of the 2.3 mm Yb:Tm:YLF laser at 685 nm and 960 nm is demonstrated, showing higher slope efficiency than 960 nm alone. Numerical simulations and analytical models show the best ratio of pump power between both wavelengths. (author)

  20. High current, high bandwidth laser diode current driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, David J.; Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A laser diode current driver has been developed for free space laser communications. The driver provides 300 mA peak modulation current and exhibits an optical risetime of less than 400 ps. The current and optical pulses are well behaved and show minimal ringing. The driver is well suited for QPPM modulation at data rates up to 440 Mbit/s. Much previous work has championed current steering circuits; in contrast, the present driver is a single-ended on/off switch. This results in twice the power efficiency as a current steering driver. The driver electrical efficiency for QPPM data is 34 percent. The high speed switch is realized with a Ku-band GaAsFET transistor, with a suitable pre-drive circuit, on a hybrid microcircuit adjacent to the laser diode.

  1. A high power gain switched diode laser oscillator and amplifier for the CEBAF polarized electron injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.; Hansknecht, J.

    1996-01-01

    The photocathode in the polarized electron source at Jefferson Lab is illuminated with pulsed laser light from a gain switched diode laser and diode optical amplifier. Laser pulse repetition rates up to 2,000 MHz, optical pulsewidths between 31 and 123 ps, and average power > 100 mW are demonstrated. The laser system is highly reliable and completely remotely controlled

  2. In vitro study of the diode laser effect on artificial demineralized surface of human dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In scientific literature there are many reports about fusion and resolidification of dental enamel after laser irradiation and their capability to generate surfaces with increased resistance to demineralization compared to non-irradiated areas. The use of high power diode laser on demineralized surfaces of human dental enamel is presented as a good alternative in caries prevention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes produced by the use of one high power diode laser on human dental enamel surface after demineralization treatment with lactic acid, under chosen parameters. Fifteen samples of human dental molars were used and divided in four groups: control - demineralization treatment with lactic acid and no irradiation, and demineralization treatment with lactic acid followed of irradiation with 212,20 mJ/cm 2 , 282,84 mJ/cm 2 and 325,38 mJ/cm 2 , respectively. The samples were irradiated with high power diode laser (808 nm) with a 300 μm diameter fiber optics. Black ink was used on enamel surface to enhance the superficial absorption. The samples were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Modifications on the enamel surfaces were observed. Such modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified region of the enamel. According with our results the best parameter was 2.0 W, presenting the most uniform surface. The use of high power diode laser as demonstrated in this study is able to promote melting and re-solidification on human dental enamel. (author)

  3. Resection of the Tooth Apex with Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Tz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An “in vitro” experimental study has been carried out on 70 extracted teeth. A laser resection of the root apex has been carried out with diode laser beam with a wavelength of - 810 ± 10 nm. Sequentially a radiation with increasing power has been applied, as follows: 1,3 W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W, 7W, in electro surgery mode. Successful resection of the tooth apex has been performed at: 3W; 4W; 5W; 6W and 7W power. It was established that when laser resected the tooth apex carbonizes.

  4. Comparison of SHG Power Modulation by Wavelength Detuning of DFB- and DBR-Tapered Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mathias; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2016-01-01

    of the response of the second harmonic light to perturbations of the infrared laser diode and compare how the response differs for DFB- and DBR-Tapered laser diodes. We show that the visible light can be modulated from CW to kHz with modulation depths above 90% by wavelength detuning the laser diode.......Pulsed visible lasers are used for a number of applications such as laser displays and medical treatments. Generating this visible light by direct frequency doubling of high power diode lasers opens new possibilities on how the power modulation can be performed. We present an investigation...

  5. Treatment of Gingival Hyperpigmentation by Diode Laser for Esthetical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. El Shenawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common esthetical concern in patients with gummy smile or excessive gingival display. Laser ablation has been recognized recently as the most effective, pleasant and reliable technique. It has the advantage of easy handling, short treatment time, hemostasis, decontamination, and sterilization effect. AIM: In the present study we wanted to explore the efficacy of a 980 nm wavelength diode laser in gingival depigmentation clinically by using both VAS and digital imaging method as means of assessment. METHODS: Diode laser ablation was done for 15 patients who requested cosmetic therapy for melanin pigmented gums. The laser beam delivered by fiberoptic with a diameter of 320 µm, the diode laser system has 980 nm wave lengths and 3 W irradiation powers, in a continuous contact mode in all cases, the entire surface of each pigmented maxillary and mandibular gingiva that required treatment was irradiated in a single session. Clinical examination and digital image analysis were done and the patients were followed up for 3 successive months. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant change in prevalence of bleeding after treatment, as none of the cases showed any signs of bleeding 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after ablation. No statistically significant change was observed in the prevalence of swelling after treatment The VAS evaluation demonstrated that only 4 patients complained of mild pain immediately after the procedure. No pain was perceived from the patients in the rest of the follow up period. There was no statistically significant change in prevalence of pain immediately after treatment compared to pain during treatment. There was a decrease in cases with mild pain after 1 week, 1 month as well as 3 months compared to pain during treatment and immediately after treatment. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, the use of diode laser was shown to be a safe and effective treatment

  6. Highly-reliable laser diodes and modules for spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichsel, E.

    2017-11-01

    Laser applications become more and more interesting in contemporary missions such as earth observations or optical communication in space. One of these applications is light detection and ranging (LIDAR), which comprises huge scientific potential in future missions. The Nd:YAG solid-state laser of such a LIDAR system is optically pumped using 808nm emitting pump sources based on semiconductor laser-diodes in quasi-continuous wave (qcw) operation. Therefore reliable and efficient laser diodes with increased output powers are an important requirement for a spaceborne LIDAR-system. In the past, many tests were performed regarding the performance and life-time of such laser-diodes. There were also studies for spaceborne applications, but a test with long operation times at high powers and statistical relevance is pending. Other applications, such as science packages (e.g. Raman-spectroscopy) on planetary rovers require also reliable high-power light sources. Typically fiber-coupled laser diode modules are used for such applications. Besides high reliability and life-time, designs compatible to the harsh environmental conditions must be taken in account. Mechanical loads, such as shock or strong vibration are expected due to take-off or landing procedures. Many temperature cycles with high change rates and differences must be taken in account due to sun-shadow effects in planetary orbits. Cosmic radiation has strong impact on optical components and must also be taken in account. Last, a hermetic sealing must be considered, since vacuum can have disadvantageous effects on optoelectronics components.

  7. Subpicosecond gain dynamics in GaAlAs laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.P.; Ippen, E.P.

    1987-11-30

    Ultrafast gain dynamics in GaAlAs diode amplifiers have been studied using 100 fs optical pulses. Pulse propagation through the amplifier resulted in temporal broadening and pulse shaping due to both gain saturation and material dispersion. Pump-probe experiments indicate the presence of two processes contributing to the gain dynamics but give no evidence of spectral hole burning. A dynamic carrier heating model is presented to explain all of the observed gain nonlinearities, and the implications of our results on the dynamic response of laser diodes are discussed.

  8. Diode Lasers used in Plastic Welding and Selective Laser Soldering - Applications and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinl, S.

    Aside from conventional welding methods, laser welding of plastics has established itself as a proven bonding method. The component-conserving and clean process offers numerous advantages and enables welding of sensitive assemblies in automotive, electronic, medical, human care, food packaging and consumer electronics markets. Diode lasers are established since years within plastic welding applications. Also, soft soldering using laser radiation is becoming more and more significant in the field of direct diode laser applications. Fast power controllability combined with a contactless temperature measurement to minimize thermal damage make the diode laser an ideal tool for this application. These advantages come in to full effect when soldering of increasingly small parts in temperature sensitive environments is necessary.

  9. Influence of the helium-pressure on diode-pumped alkali-vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Chen, Fei; Xie, Ji-jiang; Zhang, Lai-ming; Li, Dian-jun; Yang, Gui-long; Guo, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Diode-pumped alkali-vapor laser (DPAL) is a kind of laser attracted much attention for its merits, such as high quantum efficiency, excellent beam quality, favorable thermal management, and potential scalability to high power and so on. Based on the rate-equation theory of end-pumped DPAL, the performances of DPAL using Cs-vapor collisionally broadened by helium are simulated and studied. With the increase of helium pressure, the numerical results show that: 1) the absorption line-width increases and the stimulated absorption cross-section decreases contrarily; 2) the threshold pumping power decreases to minimum and then rolls over to increase linearly; 3) the absorption efficiency rises to maximum initially due to enough large stimulated absorption cross-section in the far wings of collisionally broadened D2 transition (absorption transition), and then begins to reduce; 4) an optimal value of helium pressure exists to obtain the highest output power, leading to an optimal optical-optical efficiency. Furthermore, to generate the self-oscillation of laser, a critical value of helium pressure occurs when small-signal gain equals to the threshold gain.

  10. Optical pumping of Rb by Ti:Sa laser and high-power laser diode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Rychnovský, Jan; Lazar, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2006), s. 350-354 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1065303; GA ČR GA102/04/2109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optical pumping * Ti:Sa laser * laser diode * emission linewidth * spectroscopy * laser frequency stabilization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2006

  11. Diode laser: In treatment of recurrent verrucous leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanti Giri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser first came into light in 1960 and had been used extensively in various fields of medicine. Laser has been experimented in the various dental field, and its utility is being recognized and established well in the dentistry. Lasers are widely used for a number of procedures such as cavity preparation, scaling, and root planning, surgical procedures like excision of soft tissue growths, etc., Improved healing, hemostasis, and sutureless excisions are some of the many advantages of laser over conventional treatment modalities. It is because of these advantages that laser is becoming more and more popular as a treatment option in various aspects of dentistry. We hereby present a case report, where we have used diode laser for surgical management of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL, because of its many advantages over conventional methods. It presents very specific characteristics, mainly a more aggressive biological behavior than other forms of leukoplakia expressed by: A tendency toward multifocality (field cancerization; a high prospect of recurrence; and a high rate of malignant transformation, which can range between 40% and 100% in a follow-up period of 4.4–11.6 years. In this case, we evaluated the advantages of diode laser for the treatment of verrucous leukoplakia, where the results that we obtained were excellent. The patient had come for evaluation till the time of complete healing.

  12. High temperature semiconductor diode laser pumps for high energy laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jenna; Semenic, Tadej; Guinn, Keith; Leisher, Paul O.; Bhunia, Avijit; Mashanovitch, Milan; Renner, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Existing thermal management technologies for diode laser pumps place a significant load on the size, weight and power consumption of High Power Solid State and Fiber Laser systems, thus making current laser systems very large, heavy, and inefficient in many important practical applications. To mitigate this thermal management burden, it is desirable for diode pumps to operate efficiently at high heat sink temperatures. In this work, we have developed a scalable cooling architecture, based on jet-impingement technology with industrial coolant, for efficient cooling of diode laser bars. We have demonstrated 60% electrical-to-optical efficiency from a 9xx nm two-bar laser stack operating with propylene-glycolwater coolant, at 50 °C coolant temperature. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency achieved from a diode stack using 50 °C industrial fluid coolant. The output power is greater than 100 W per bar. Stacks with additional laser bars are currently in development, as this cooler architecture is scalable to a 1 kW system. This work will enable compact and robust fiber-coupled diode pump modules for high energy laser applications.

  13. Characterization of diode-laser stacks for high-energy-class solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Jan; Sikocinski, Pawel; Pranowicz, Alina; Divoky, Martin; Crump, P.; Staske, R.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present a comparative study of high power diode stacks produced by world's leading manufacturers such as DILAS, Jenoptik, and Quantel. The diode-laser stacks are characterized by central wavelength around 939 nm, duty cycle of 1 %, and maximum repetition rate of 10 Hz. The characterization includes peak power, electrical-to-optical efficiency, central wavelength and full width at half maximum (FWHM) as a function of diode current and cooling temperature. A cross-check of measurements performed at HiLASE-IoP and Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH) shows very good agreement between the results. Our study reveals also the presence of discontinuities in the spectra of two diode stacks. We consider the results presented here a valuable tool to optimize pump sources for ultra-high average power lasers, including laser fusion facilities.

  14. Synergistic skin heat shock protein expression in response to combined laser treatment with a diode laser and ablative fractional lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Sonja, Grunewald; Haedersdal, Merete

    2014-06-01

    Diode laser-based skin heating has been shown to minimise scars by interfering with wound healing responses through the induction of heat shock proteins (HSP). HSP are also induced after ablative fractional laser (AFXL) wound healing. AFXL itself is highly recommended for scar treatment. Therefore, the sequential combination of both modalities may produce superior outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the pretreatment effects of a diode laser before AFXL on wound healing responses in terms of HSP up-regulation in an in vitro model. Immediate responses and responses on days 1, 3 or 6 post-procedure were studied in an in vitro porcine skin model (n = 240). Untreated samples served as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (Hsp70) was performed in all untreated controls, diode laser-, AFXL-, and in diode laser + AFXL-treated samples. Hsp70 was shown to be up-regulated by all interventions between days 1 and 6 after interventions. The largest effect was caused by the combination of a diode laser and an AFXL procedure. Diode laser exposure induces a skin HSP response that can be further enhanced by sequential AFXL treatment. Clinical studies are necessary to investigate the dose response of HSP on scar formation and refine suitable laser exposure settings.

  15. Saturable Absorption in 2D Ti3 C2 MXene Thin Films for Passive Photonic Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongchang; Chertopalov, Sergii; Maleski, Kathleen; Anasori, Babak; Hu, Longyu; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; Rao, Apparao M; Gogotsi, Yury; Mochalin, Vadym N; Podila, Ramakrishna

    2018-03-01

    MXenes comprise a new class of 2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides that exhibit unique light-matter interactions. Recently, 2D Ti 3 CNT x (T x represents functional groups such as OH and F) was found to exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption (SA) or increased transmittance at higher light fluences, which is useful for mode locking in fiber-based femtosecond lasers. However, the fundamental origin and thickness dependence of SA behavior in MXenes remain to be understood. 2D Ti 3 C 2 T x thin films of different thicknesses are fabricated using an interfacial film formation technique to systematically study their nonlinear optical properties. Using the open aperture Z-scan method, it is found that the SA behavior in Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene arises from plasmon-induced increase in the ground state absorption at photon energies above the threshold for free carrier oscillations. The saturation fluence and modulation depth of Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene is observed to be dependent on the film thickness. Unlike other 2D materials, Ti 3 C 2 T x is found to show higher threshold for light-induced damage with up to 50% increase in nonlinear transmittance. Lastly, building on the SA behavior of Ti 3 C 2 T x MXenes, a Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene-based photonic diode that breaks time-reversal symmetry to achieve nonreciprocal transmission of nanosecond laser pulses is demonstrated. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Measurements of gas parameters in plasma-assisted supersonic combustion processes using diode laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, Mikhail A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V; Mironenko, V R; Leonov, S B; Yarantsev, D A

    2009-01-01

    We report a procedure for temperature and water vapour concentration measurements in an unsteady-state combustion zone using diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The procedure involves measurements of the absorption spectrum of water molecules around 1.39 μm. It has been used to determine hydrogen combustion parameters in M = 2 gas flows in the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel. The relatively high intensities of the absorption lines used have enabled direct absorption measurements. We describe a differential technique for measurements of transient absorption spectra, the procedure we used for primary data processing and approaches for determining the gas temperature and H 2 O concentration in the probed zone. The measured absorption spectra are fitted with spectra simulated using parameters from spectroscopic databases. The combustion-time-averaged (∼50 ms) gas temperature and water vapour partial pressure in the hot wake region are determined to be 1050 K and 21 Torr, respectively. The large signal-to-noise ratio in our measurements allowed us to assess the temporal behaviour of these parameters. The accuracy in our temperature measurements in the probed zone is ∼40 K. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Advances in tunable diode laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W.

    1980-01-01

    The improvement of long-term reliability, the purification of mode properties, and the achievement of higher-temperature operation were examined. In reliability studies a slow increase in contact resistance during room temperature storage for lasers fabricated with In-Au or In-Pt contacts was observed. This increase is actually caused by the diffusion of In into the surface layer of laser crystals. By using a three layered structure of In-Au-Pt or In-Pt-Au, this mode of degradation was reduced. In characterizing the mode properties, it was found that the lasers emit in a highly localized, filamentary manner. For widestripe lasers the emission occurs near the corners of the junction. In order to achieve single-mode operation, stripe widths on the order of 8-10 micrometers are needed. Also, it was found that room temperature electroluminescence is possible near 4.6 micrometers.

  18. Determination of temperature and residual laser energy on film fiber-optic thermal converter for diode laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weichao; Kong, Yaqun; Shi, Xiafei; Dong, Xiaoxi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Jizhi; Li, Yingxin

    2017-12-01

    The diode laser was utilized in soft tissue incision of oral surgery based on the photothermic effect. The contradiction between the ablation efficiency and the thermal damage has always been in diode laser surgery, due to low absorption of its radiation in the near infrared region by biological tissues. Fiber-optic thermal converters (FOTCs) were used to improve efficiency for diode laser surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the photothermic effect by the temperature and residual laser energy on film FOTCs. The film FOTC was made by a distal end of optical fiber impacting on paper. The external surface of the converter is covered by a film contained amorphous carbon. The diode laser with 810 nm worked at the different rated power of 1.0 W, 1.5 W, 2.0 W, 3.0 W, 4.0 W, 5.0 W, 6.0 W, 7.0 W, 8.0 W in continuous wave (CW)and pulse mode. The temperature of the distal end of optical fiber was recorded and the power of the residual laser energy from the film FOTC was measured synchronously. The temperature, residual power and the output power were analyzed by linear or exponential regression model and Pearson correlations analysis. The residual power has good linearity versus output power in CW and pulse modes (R 2  = 0.963, P film FOTCs increases exponentially with adjusted R 2  = 0.959 in continuous wave mode, while in pulsed mode with adjusted R 2  = 0.934. The temperature was elevated up to about 210 °C and eventually to be a stable state. Film FOTCs centralized approximately 50% of laser energy on the fiber tip both in CW and pulsed mode while limiting the ability of the laser light to interact directly with target tissue. Film FOTCs can concentrate part of laser energy transferred to heat on distal end of optical fiber, which have the feasibility of improving efficiency and reducing thermal damage of deep tissue.

  19. Extremely high-brightness kW-class fiber coupled diode lasers with wavelength stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Glenn, John D.

    2011-06-01

    TeraDiode has produced ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 1,040 W from a 200 μm core diameter, 0.18 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 18 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. The laser has been used to demonstrate laser cutting and welding of steel sheet metal up to 6.65 mm thick. Higher brightness fiber-coupled diode lasers, including a module with 418 W of power coupled to a 100 μm, 0.15 NA fiber, have also been demonstrated.

  20. Theoretical interpretations of enhanced laser light absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Intense laser light is not efficiently absorbed classically but can be absorbed by its conversion to electron plasma waves near the critical density. The physical mechanisms for this conversion are discussed, and some simple estimates for heating by plasma waves are applied to some recent experiments. Several effects which strongly influence the absorption of high intensity light are emphasized, including a nonlinear steepening of the plasma density profile which is demonstrated in computer simulations. Finally the possibility of an induced reflection of laser light due to instabilities in the underdense plasma before the critical density is also discussed. Such stimulated reflection can be particularly important in plasmas with very long density gradients. (U.S.)

  1. Pump polarization insensitive and efficient laser-diode pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-Biao; Feng, Guo-Ying; Zhou, Shou-Huan

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically and experimentally report and evaluate a novel split laser-diode (LD) double-end pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast oscillator aimed at improving the performance of an ultrafast laser. Compared to a conventional unpolarized single-LD end-pumped ultrafast laser system, we improve the laser performance such as absorption efficiency, slope efficiency, cw mode-locking threshold, and output power by this new structure LD-pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast laser. Experiments were carried out with a 1 W output fiber-coupled LD. Experimental results show that the absorption increases from 38.7% to 48.4%, laser slope efficiency increases from 18.3% to 24.2%, cw mode-locking threshold decreases 12.7% from 630 to 550 mW in cw mode-locking threshold, and maximum output-power increases 28.5% from 158.4 to 221.5 mW when we switch the pump scheme from an unpolarized single-end pumping structure to a split LD double-end pumping structure.

  2. V-shaped resonators for addition of broad-area laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Yun; Braiman, Yehuda Y.

    2012-12-25

    A system and method for addition of broad-area semiconductor laser diode arrays are described. The system can include an array of laser diodes, a V-shaped external cavity, and grating systems to provide feedback for phase-locking of the laser diode array. A V-shaped mirror used to couple the laser diode emissions along two optical paths can be a V-shaped prism mirror, a V-shaped stepped mirror or include multiple V-shaped micro-mirrors. The V-shaped external cavity can be a ring cavity. The system can include an external injection laser to further improve coherence and phase-locking.

  3. Improving Lifetime of Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping 2-Micron Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Operating high power laser diode arrays in long pulse regime of about 1 msec, which is required for pumping 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers, greatly limits their useful lifetime. This paper describes performance of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse mode and presents experimental data on the active region temperature and pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling that are the primary cause of their premature failure and rapid degradation. This paper will then offer a viable approach for determining the optimum design and operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  4. ToF-SIMS characterization of robust window material for use in diode pumped alkali lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Aaron; Turner, David; Fairchild, Steven; Rice, Christopher; Pitz, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    Developments in diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) systems have been impeded because of the catastrophic failure of laser windows. The window's failure is caused by localized laser-induced heating of window material. This heating is believed to occur due to increases in absorption on or near the surface of the window. This increase is believed to be caused by either adsorption of carbon-based soot from the collisional gas or by the diffusion of rubidium into the bulk material. The work presented here will focus on the diffusion of Rb into the bulk window materials and will strive to identify a superior material to use as windows. The results of this research indicate that aluminum oxynitride (ALON), sapphire, MgAl2O4 (spinel), and ZrO2 are resistant to alkali-induced changes in optical properties.

  5. Diode laser for excisional biopsy of peripheral ossifying fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Chawla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma is one of the commonest occurring reactive lesions on gingiva. It is associated with local irritational factors and often interferes with speech, mastication and maintenance of oral hygiene, in addition to being aesthetically unpleasant. It is usually treated with surgical excision using scalpel and removal of irritational factors, often resulting in mucogingival defect. Other modalities such as radiosurgery and electrocautery have also been used for its management, but they cause changes in microarchitecture of biopsy specimen, altering the histologic picture for true diagnosis. We are presenting a case of excisional biopsy of this lesion in an adult female using a diode laser with excellent post-operative results, without affecting microarchitecture of biopsy specimen. The patient is being followed for last 1 year and no sign of recurrence has been found. A diode laser may offer a good alternative modality for management of such cases.

  6. Quench Propagation Ignition using Single-Mode Diode Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Trillaud, F; Devred, Arnaud; Fratini, M; Leboeuf, D; Tixador, P

    2005-01-01

    The stability of NbTi-based multifilamentary composite wires subjected to local heat disturbances of short durations is studied in pool boiling helium conditions. A new type of heater is being developed to characterize the superconducting to normal state transition. It relies on a single-mode Diode Laser with an optical fiber illuminating the wire surface. This first paper focuses mainly on the feasibility of this new heater technology and eventually discusses the difficulties related to it. A small overview of Diode Lasers and optical fibers revolving around our application is given. Then, we describe the experimental setup, and present some recorded voltage traces of transition and recovery processes. In addition, we present also some energy and Normal Zone Propagation Velocity data and we outline ameliorations that will be done to the system.

  7. Laser diode self-mixing technique for liquid velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, A., E-mail: a.alexandrova@liverpool.ac.uk [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Welsch, C.P. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-11

    Using the self-mixing technique, or optical feedback interferometry, fluid velocity measurements of water seeded with titanium dioxide have been performed using a laser diode to measure the effect of the seeding particle concentration and also the pump speed of the flow. The velocimeter utilises commercially available laser diodes with a built-in photodiode for detection of the self-mixing effect. The device has demonstrated an accuracy better than 10% for liquid flow velocities up to 1.5 m/s with a concentration of scattering particles in the range of 0.8–0.03%. This is an improvement of one order of magnitude compared to previous experiments. The proposed velocimeter is to be developed further for application in gas-jet measurements.

  8. Shot-Noise-Limited Dual-Beam Detector for Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring with Near-Infrared Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durry, Georges; Pouchet, Ivan; Amarouche, Nadir; Danguy, Théodore; Megie, Gerard

    2000-10-01

    A dual-beam detector is used to measure atmospheric trace species by differential absorption spectroscopy with commercial near-infrared InGaAs laser diodes. It is implemented on the Spectrom tre Diodes Laser Accordables, a balloonborne tunable diode laser spectrometer devoted to the in situ monitoring of CH 4 and H 2 O. The dual-beam detector is made of simple analogical subtractor circuits combined with InGaAs photodiodes. The detection strategy consists in taking the balanced analogical difference between the reference and the sample signals detected at the input and the output of an open optical multipass cell to apply the full dynamic range of the measurements (16 digits) to the weak molecular absorption information. The obtained sensitivity approaches the shot-noise limit. With a 56-m optical cell, the detection limit obtained when the spectra is recorded within 8 ms is 10 4 (expressed in absorbance units). The design and performances of both a simple substractor and an upgraded feedback substractor circuit are discussed with regard to atmospheric in situ CH 4 absorption spectra measured in the 1.653- m region. Mixing ratios are obtained from the absorption spectra by application of a nonlinear least-squares fit to the full molecular line shape in conjunction with in situ P and T measurements.

  9. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C. M.; Shaw, R. W.; Jennings, L. W.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Young, J. P.; Ramsey, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios in these samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of the measurement is discussed. Application of GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described

  10. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C.M.; Shaw, R.W.; Post-Zwicker, A., Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining isotopic ratios of 235 U/( 235 U + 238 U) in the above samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of he measurement is discussed. Application of the GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described

  11. Excision of Mucocele Using Diode Laser in Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are nonneoplastic cystic lesions of major and minor salivary glands which result from the accumulation of mucus. These lesions are most commonly seen in children. Though usually these lesions can be treated by local surgical excision, in our case, to avoid intraoperative surgical complications like bleeding and edema and to enable better healing, excision was done using a diode laser in the wavelength of 940 nm.

  12. Laser Thomson Scattering, Raman Scattering and laser-absorption diagnostics of high pressure microdischarges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Vincent M; Belostotskiy, Sergey G; Economou, Demetre J; Sadeghi, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Laser scattering experiments were performed in high pressure (100s of Torr) parallel-plate, slot-type DC microdischarges operating in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (n e ) and electron temperature (T e ). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300 - 700 Torr, LTS yielded T e = 0.9 ± 0.3 eV and n e = (6 ± 3)·10 13 cm -3 , in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (T g ) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with T g values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.

  13. Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, Umit; Schmalz, Michael; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Petrich, Gale S; Kolodziejski, Leslie A; Fujimoto, James G; Kärtner, Franz X; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

    2011-10-10

    We report compact, low-cost and efficient Cr:Colquiriite lasers that are pumped by high brightness tapered laser diodes. The tapered laser diodes provided 1 to 1.2 W of output power around 675 nm, at an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of about 30%. Using a single tapered diode laser as the pump source, we have demonstrated output powers of 500 mW and 410 mW together with slope efficiencies of 47% and 41% from continuous wave (cw) Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers, respectively. In cw mode-locked operation, sub-100-fs pulse trains with average power between 200 mW and 250 mW were obtained at repetition rates around 100 MHz. Upon pumping the Cr:Colquiriite lasers with two tapered laser diodes (one from each side of the crystal), we have observed scaling of cw powers to 850 mW in Cr:LiSAF and to 650 mW in Cr:LiCAF. From the double side pumped Cr:LiCAF laser, we have also obtained ~220 fs long pulses with 5.4 nJ of pulse energy at 77 MHz repetition rate. These are the highest energy levels reported from Cr:Colquiriite so far at these repetition rates. Our findings indicate that tapered diodes in the red spectral region are likely to become the standard pump source for Cr:Colquiriite lasers in the near future. Moreover, the simplified pumping scheme might facilitate efficient commercialization of Cr:Colquiriite systems, bearing the potential to significantly boost applications of cw and femtosecond lasers in this spectral region (750-1000 nm).

  14. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas-Montes, Rebeca; Melguizo-Rodríguez, Lucía; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco Javier; García-Martínez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2) using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed). The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing. PMID:28773152

  15. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Illescas-Montes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2 using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed. The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing.

  16. Future prospects of laser diodes and fiber lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2000-01-01

    For the next century we should develop new concepts for coherent control of light generation and propagation. Owing to the recent development of ultra fine structures in semiconductor lasers, fiber lasers, and various kinds of waveguide structure, we can make optical devices which control the light propagation artificially. But, the phase locking and phase control of multiple laser oscillators are one of the most important directions of laser science and technology. The coherent summation has been a dream of laser since 1960. Is it possible to solve this old and quite challenging problem for laser science? This is also a very basic concept because the laser action based on the stimulated emission is the process of coherent summation of huge number of photons emitted from individual atoms. In this paper, I discuss the fundamental direction of laser research in the next ten or twenty years. The active optics and laser technology should be combined intrinsically in near future. (author)

  17. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  18. Simple, low-noise piezo driver with feed-forward for broad tuning of external cavity diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doret, S Charles

    2018-02-01

    We present an inexpensive, low-noise (piezo driver suitable for frequency tuning of external-cavity diode lasers. This simple driver improves upon many commercially available drivers by incorporating circuitry to produce a "feed-forward" signal appropriate for making simultaneous adjustments to the piezo voltage and laser current, enabling dramatic improvements in a mode-hop-free laser frequency tuning range. We present the theory behind our driver's operation, characterize its output noise, and demonstrate its use in absorption spectroscopy on the rubidium D 1 line.

  19. Characteristics of the Single-Longitudinal-Mode Planar-Waveguide External Cavity Diode Laser at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Alalusi, Mazin; Stolpner, Lew; Margaritis, Georgios; Camp, Jordan; Krainak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of the planar-waveguide external cavity diode laser (PW-ECL). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first butterfly-packaged 1064 nm semiconductor laser that is stable enough to be locked to an external frequency reference. We evaluated its performance from the viewpoint of precision experiments. Using a hyperfine absorption line of iodine, we suppressed its frequency noise by a factor of up to 104 at 10 mHz. The PWECL's compactness and low cost make it a candidate to replace traditional Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillators and fiber lasers in applications that require a single longitudinal mode.

  20. Characterization of High-power Quasi-cw Laser Diode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Troupaki, Elisavet; Allan, Graham R.; Kashem, Nasir B.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s requirements for high reliability, high performance satellite laser instruments have driven the investigation of many critical components; specifically, 808 nm laser diode array (LDA) pump devices. Performance and comprehensive characterization data of Quasi-CW, High-power, laser diode arrays is presented.

  1. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-30

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  2. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  3. Diode Laser Assisted Filament Winding of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Squeo, Erica Anna; Prosperi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    A new consolidation method for the laser-assisted filament winding of thermoplastic prepregs is discussed: for the first time a diode laser is used, as well as long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene prepregs. A consolidation apparatus was built by means of a CNC motion table, a stepper motor and a simple tensioner. Preliminary tests were performed in a hoop winding configuration: only the winding speed was changed, and all the other process parameters (laser power, distance from the laser focus, consolidation force) were kept constant. Small wound rings with an internal diameter of 25 mm were produced and compression tests were carried out to evaluate the composite agglomeration in dependence of the winding speed. At lower winding speeds, a strong interpenetration of adjacent layers was observed.

  4. Diode Laser Assisted Filament Winding of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Prosperi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new consolidation method for the laser-assisted filament winding of thermoplastic prepregs is discussed: for the first time a diode laser is used, as well as long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene prepregs. A consolidation apparatus was built by means of a CNC motion table, a stepper motor and a simple tensioner. Preliminary tests were performed in a hoop winding configuration: only the winding speed was changed, and all the other process parameters (laser power, distance from the laser focus, consolidation force were kept constant. Small wound rings with an internal diameter of 25 mm were produced and compression tests were carried out to evaluate the composite agglomeration in dependence of the winding speed. At lower winding speeds, a stronginterpenetration of adjacent layers was observed.

  5. A diode laser-based velocimeter providing point measurements in unseeded flows using modulated filtered Rayleigh scattering (MFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Jeremy James

    2007-12-01

    The development to date of a diode-laser based velocimeter providing point-velocity-measurements in unseeded flows using molecular Rayleigh scattering is discussed. The velocimeter is based on modulated filtered Rayleigh scattering (MFRS), a novel variation of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS), utilizing modulated absorption spectroscopy techniques to detect a strong absorption of a relatively weak Rayleigh scattered signal. A rubidium (Rb) vapor filter is used to provide the relatively strong absorption; alkali metal vapors have a high optical depth at modest vapor pressures, and their narrow linewidth is ideally suited for high-resolution velocimetry. Semiconductor diode lasers are used to generate the relatively weak Rayleigh scattered signal; due to their compact, rugged construction diode lasers are ideally suited for the environmental extremes encountered in many experiments. The MFRS technique utilizes the frequency-tuning capability of diode lasers to implement a homodyne detection scheme using lock-in amplifiers. The optical frequency of the diode-based laser system used to interrogate the flow is rapidly modulated about a reference frequency in the D2-line of Rb. The frequency modulation is imposed on the Rayleigh scattered light that is collected from the probe volume in the flow under investigation. The collected frequency modulating Rayleigh scattered light is transmitted through a Rb vapor filter before being detected. The detected modulated absorption signal is fed to two lock-in amplifers synchronized with the modulation frequency of the source laser. High levels of background rejection are attained since the lock-ins are both frequency and phase selective. The two lock-in amplifiers extract different Fourier components of the detected modulated absorption signal, which are ratioed to provide an intensity normalized frequency dependent signal from a single detector. A Doppler frequency shift in the collected Rayleigh scattered light due to a change

  6. Collisional absorption of two laser beams in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.; Acharya, R.

    1977-04-01

    The collisional absorption of two laser beams is considered by solving the kinetic equation for the plasma electron. Results show that the simultaneous effect of two laser beams on the heating rate is greater as compared with the individual contribution of each laser beam when the two laser beams have a difference of frequencies equal to the plasma frequency

  7. Dual-beam, second-derivative tunable diode-laser infrared spectroscopy applied to trace-gas measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallant, D.R.; Jungst, R.G.

    1981-04-01

    A dual beam diode laser spectrometer has been constructed using off-axis reflective optics. The spectrometer can be amplitude modulated for direct absorption measurements or frequency modulated to obtain derivative spectra. The spectrometer has high throughput, is easy to operate and align, provides good dual beam compensation, and has no evidence of the interference effects that have been observed in diode laser spectrometers using refractive optics. Unpurged, using second derivative techniques, the instrument has measured 108 parts-per-million CO (10 cm absorption cell, atmospheric pressure-broadened) with good signal/noise. With the replacement of marginal instrumental components, the signal/noise should be substantially increased. This instrument was developed to monitor the evolution of decomposition gases in sealed containers of small volume at atmospheric pressure

  8. Near-infrared tunable laser diode spectroscopy: an easy way for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larive, Marc; Henriot, V.

    1997-05-01

    A gas sensor using optical spectrometry and dedicated to a specific gas is studied. It should be able to operate out of laboratories with a very long life and a low maintenance requirement. It is based on TLDS (tunable laser diode spectroscopy) and uses a standard Perot-Fabry laser diode already developed for telecommunications. The mode selection is realized by a passband filter and the wavelength tuning is performed via the diode temperature or its injection current. A PIN photodiode is used for detection, however a rough photoacoustic solution is intended for the future. Absorptions as low as 3.10-3 are detected with this rough system and a limit detection of 10-3 is available with a signal to noise ratio of unity. Experiments have shown that this system is strongly selective for the specified gas (currently the methane). A simulation has been performed which very well fits the experiment and allows us to extrapolate the performances of the system for other gases.

  9. Power Scaling of Nonlinear Frequency Converted Tapered Diode Lasers for Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Diode lasers have proven to be versatile light sources for a wide range of applications. Nonlinear frequency conversion of high brightness diode lasers has recently resulted in visible light power levels in the watts range enabling an increasing number of applications within biophotonics. This re...... and efficiency are included. Application examples within pumping of mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers and implementation of such lasers in optical coherence tomography are presented showing the application potential of these lasers....

  10. Three hundred patients treated with ultrapulsed 980 nm diode laser for skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of lasers in skin diseases is quite common. In contrast to other laser types, medical literature about 980 nm ultrapulsed diode laser is sparse in dermatology. Herein, we report the use of ultrapulsed diode 980 nm laser in 300 patients with vascular lesions, cysts and pseudocysts, infectious disease, and malignant tumors. This laser is a versatile tool with excellent safety and efficacy in the hands of the experienced user.

  11. Three Hundred Patients Treated with Ultrapulsed 980 nm Diode Laser for Skin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The use of lasers in skin diseases is quite common. In contrast to other laser types, medical literature about 980 nm ultrapulsed diode laser is sparse in dermatology. Herein, we report the use of ultrapulsed diode 980 nm laser in 300 patients with vascular lesions, cysts and pseudocysts, infectious disease, and malignant tumors. This laser is a versatile tool with excellent safety and efficacy in the hands of the experienced user. PMID:27688445

  12. Tunable high-power narrow-linewidth green external-cavity GaN diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system.......A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system....

  13. Demonstrations of diode-pumped and grating-tuned ZnSe:Cr2+ lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.H.; Skidmore, J.A.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-09-01

    Within the last few years, divalent-transition-metal-doped II-VI material class has been proposed as source of new tunable mid-IR lasers. Cr 2+ is a prime laser candidate on account of its high luminescence quantum yield and the expectation that ESA would be absent. The first ZnSe:Cr 2+ laser demonstrations were conducted in an end-pumped geometry with a tightly focused (0.2 mm spot) MgF 2 -Co 2+ laser beam, for a peak pump intensity well over 100 kW/cm 2 , so laser threshold was easily reached. Grating tuning experiments were done by replacing the cavity high-reflector with a diffraction grating. The diode array was removed and pump beam from a MgF 2 :Co 2+ laser was focused onto the crystal using the same cylindrical lens. Output wavelengths were checked with a monochromator. The long-wavelength limit of operation was 2799 nm. Short-wavelength cutoff was 2134 nm; even though the emission cross section remains substantial, self-absorption inhibits laser operation

  14. Comparison of diode laser and Er:YAG lasers in the treatment of ankyloglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Mutan Hamdi; Göregen, Mustafa; Güngörmüş, Metin; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerance of lingual frenectomy with regard to a local anesthesia requirement and comparison of postsurgical discomfort experienced by patients operated on with both diode and erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) lasers. Ankyloglossia, commonly known as tongue-tie, is a congenital oral anomaly characterized by a short lingual frenulum. A short lingual frenulum may contribute to feeding, speech, and mechanical tongue problems. Sixteen referred patients with tongue mobility complaints were included in this study. A GaAlAs laser device with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm was used in the diode group. Frenulums were incised by applying 2 W of laser power. The Er:YAG laser device with a continuous wavelength of 2940 nm was used in the Er:YAG group. Frenulums were incised by applying 1 W of laser power. The acceptability of the lingual frenectomy without local anesthesia and the degree of the postsurgical discomfort were evaluated. Although the majority of patients (six) could be operated on without local anesthesia in the Er:YAG group, all patients could not be operated on without local anesthetic agent in the diode group. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to pain, chewing, and speaking on the first or seventh day after surgery, whereas patients had more pain in the Er:YAG group than in the diode group the first 3 h after surgery. The results indicate that only the Er:YAG laser can be used for lingual frenectomy without local anesthesia, and there was no difference between the two groups regarding the degree of the postsurgical discomfort except in the first 3 h. In conclusion, these results indicate that the Er:YAG laser is more advantageous than the diode laser in minor soft-tissue surgery because it can be performed without local anesthesia and with only topical anesthesia.

  15. Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Boix, Pablo P; Yantara, Natalia; Li, Mingjie; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2016-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have cemented their position as an exceptional class of optoelectronic materials thanks to record photovoltaic efficiencies of 22.1%, as well as promising demonstrations of light-emitting diodes, lasers, and light-emitting transistors. Perovskite materials with photoluminescence quantum yields close to 100% and perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 8% and current efficiencies of 43 cd A(-1) have been achieved. Although perovskite light-emitting devices are yet to become industrially relevant, in merely two years these devices have achieved the brightness and efficiencies that organic light-emitting diodes accomplished in two decades. Further advances will rely decisively on the multitude of compositional, structural variants that enable the formation of lower-dimensionality layered and three-dimensional perovskites, nanostructures, charge-transport materials, and device processing with architectural innovations. Here, the rapid advancements in perovskite light-emitting devices and lasers are reviewed. The key challenges in materials development, device fabrication, operational stability are addressed, and an outlook is presented that will address market viability of perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Programmable current source for diode lasers stabilized optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Camas, J.; Garcia, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the electronic design of a programmable stabilized current source. User can access to the source through a password, which, it has a database with the current and voltage operating points. This source was successfully used as current source in laser diode in optical fiber sensors. Variations in the laser current were carried out by a monitoring system and a control of the Direct Current (DC), which flowing through a How land source with amplifier. The laser current can be stabilized with an error percent of ± 1 μA from the threshold current (Ith) to its maximum operation current (Imax) in DC mode. The proposed design is reliable, cheap, and its output signal of stabilized current has high quality. (Author)

  17. Demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for quantitative profiling of clouds and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott

    2017-11-27

    We present a demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar. It is capable of performing calibrated retrievals of aerosol and cloud optical properties at a 150 m range resolution with less than 1 minute integration time over an approximate range of 12 km during day and night. This instrument operates at 780 nm, a wavelength that is well established for reliable semiconductor lasers and detectors, and was chosen because it corresponds to the D2 rubidium absorption line. A heated vapor reference cell of isotopic rubidium 87 is used as an effective and reliable aerosol signal blocking filter in the instrument. In principle, the diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar can be made cost competitive with elastic backscatter lidar systems, yet delivers a significant improvement in data quality through direct retrieval of quantitative optical properties of clouds and aerosols.

  18. 808-nm diode-pumped continuous-wave Tm:GdVO4 laser at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yoshiharu; Wada, Satoshi

    2005-05-01

    A high-quality gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4) crystal with 7-at. % thulium as the starting material was grown by the Czochralski technique. The measured absorption spectra exhibited sufficient absorption coefficients for laser diodes (LDs) for neodymium laser pumping: 6.0 cm^-1 for pi polarization and 6.2 cm^-1 for sigma polarization at 808 nm. Laser oscillation was carried out with single-stripe 808-nm LDs in an end-pumping configuration. A slope efficiency of 28% and a threshold of 750 mW were exhibited with respect to the absorbed pump power. An output power of 420 mW was achieved at an absorbed power of 2.4 W. It was demonstrated that Tm:GdVO4 is a useful material for 2-μm lasers, particularly in a compact LD-pumped system.

  19. Transected sciatic nerve repair by diode laser protein soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mortezai, Omid; Pedram, MirSepehr; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Joharchi, Khojasteh; Mansoori, Korosh; Ebrahimi, Roja; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-08-01

    Despite advances in microsurgical techniques, repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) is still a major challenge in regenerative medicine. The standard treatment for PNI includes suturing and anasthomosis of the transected nerve. The objective of this study was to compare neurorraphy (nerve repair) using standard suturingto diode laser protein soldering on the functional recovery of transected sciatic nerves. Thirty adult male Fischer-344 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1. The control group, no repair, 2. the standard of care suture group, and 3. The laser/protein solder group. For all three groups, the sciatic nerve was transected and the repair was done immediately. For the suture repair group, 10.0 prolene suture was used and for the laser/protein solder group a diode laser (500mW output power) in combination with bovine serum albumen and indocyanine green dye was used. Behavioral assessment by sciatic functional index was done on all rats biweekly. At 12weeks post-surgery, EMG recordings were done on all the rats and the rats were euthanized for histological evaluation of the sciatic nerves. The one-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The average time required to perform the surgery was significantly shorter for the laser-assisted nerve repair group compared to the suture group. The EMG evaluation revealed no difference between the two groups. Based on the sciatic function index the laser group was significantly better than the suture group after 12weeks (pneurorraphy using standard suturing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design windows of laser fusion power plants and conceptual design of laser-diode pumped slab laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Y.; Eguchi, T.; Izawa, Y.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the design space available to laser fusion power plants has been carried out, in terms of design key parameters such as target gain, laser energy and laser repetition rate, the number of fusion react ion chambers, and plant size. The design windows of economically attractive laser fusion plants is identified with the constraints of key design parameters and the cost conditions. Especially, for achieving high repetition rate lasers, we have proposed and designed a diode-pumped solid-state laser driver which consists of water-cooled zig-zag path slab amplifiers. (author)

  1. Spherical distribution structure of the semiconductor laser diode stack for pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tianzhuo; Yu Jin; Liu Yang; Zhang Xue; Ma Yunfeng; Fan Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A semiconductor laser diode stack is used for pumping and 8 semiconductor laser diode arrays of the stack are put on a sphere, and the output of every bar is specially off-axis compressed to realize high coupling efficiency. The output beam of this semiconductor laser diode stack is shaped by a hollow duct to the laser active medium. The efficiency of the hollow light pipe, which is used for semiconductor laser diode stack coupling, is analyzed by geometric optics and ray tracing. Geometric optics analysis diagnoses the reasons for coupling loss and guides the design of the structure. Ray tracing analyzes the relation between the structural parameters and the output characteristics of this pumping system, and guides parameter optimization. Simulation and analysis results show that putting the semiconductor laser diode arrays on a spherical surface can increase coupling efficiency, reduce the optimum duct length and improve the output energy field distribution. (semiconductor devices)

  2. A new design of pulsed laser diode driver system for multistate quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. S.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Witjaksono, G.; Mokhtar, M. H. H.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a new design of laser diode driver system based on MOSFET current mirror and digital signal controller (DSC). The system is designed to emit stream pairs of photons from three semiconductor laser diodes. The DSC is able to switch between the three laser diodes at constant rate. The duty cycle is maintained at 1% in order to reduce its thermal effect and thus prolong the laser diodes' life cycles. The MOSFET current mirror circuits are capable of delivering constant modulation current with peak current up to 58 mA to each laser diode. This laser driver system will allow the generating biphotons automatically with qubit rate around 8-13% for μ less than or equal to 1, thus making it practical for six-states quantum key distribution implementation.

  3. Diode pumped cascade Er:Y2O3 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanamyan, T

    2015-01-01

    A cascade, diode-pumped, continuous wave (CW), dual-wavelength operation in a 0.5% Er 3+ :Y 2 O 3 cryogenic ceramic laser is demonstrated for the first time. The laser operates on cascaded Er ( 4 I 11/2   →   4 I 13/2   →   4 I 15/2 ) transitions and can deliver 24 and 13 W at 1.6 and 2.7 μm, respectively. The overall efficiency with respect to the absorbed ∼980 nm power was 62%. This is, to our best knowledge, the first demonstration of an efficient, high power, cascade, erbium laser achieved in bulk solid-state lasers. The analysis of the output power, the laser’s wavelengths and slope efficiency for each individual laser transition are presented for pure CW operation mode. Also presented are the temporal behaviors of each laser line as a function of pump pulse duration in the quasi-CW regime. (letter)

  4. Blue diode laser: a new approach in oral surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Selleri, Stefano; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of diode lasers in dentistry had several advantages, principally consisting on the reduced size, reduced cost and possibility to beam delivering by optical fibbers. Up today two diode wavelengths, 810 and 980 nm, were the most utilized in oral surgery but recently a new wavelength emitting in the blue had been proposed. The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the efficacy of five laser wavelengths (450, 532, 808, 1064 and 1340 nm) for the ablation of soft tissues. Specimens were surgically collected from the dorsal surface of four bovine tongues and irradiated by the five different wavelengths. Thermal increase was measured by two thermocouples, the first at a depth of 0.5 mm, and the second at a depth of 2 mm while initial and final surface temperatures were recorded by IR thermometer. The quality of the incision was histologically evaluated by a pathologist by giving a score from 0 to 5. The time necessary to perform the excision varied between 215 seconds (1340 nm, 5W) and 292 seconds (808 nm, 3W). Surface temperature increase was highest for 1340 nm, 5W and lowest for 405 nm, 4 W. The most significant deep temperature increase was recorded by 1340 nm, 5 W and the lowest by 450 nm, 2 W. The quality of incision was better and the thermal elevation lower in the specimens obtained with shortest laser wavelength (450 nm).

  5. Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity by Diode Laser: A Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH is characterized by pain after stimuli that usually provoke no symptoms. This study compared the effectiveness of GaAlAs diode laser alone and with topical sodium fluoride gel (NaF. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 10 patients (8 F/2 M, age 25–60 and 115 teeth with DH assessed by air and tactile stimuli measured by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS. Teeth were randomly divided into G1 (34 teeth treated by 1.25% NaF; G2 (33 teeth lased at 0.5 W PW (T on 100 m and T off 100 ms, fluence 62.2 J/cm2 in defocused mode with a 320 μ fiber. Each tooth received three 1′ applications; G3 (48 teeth received NaF gel plus laser at same G2 parameters. NRS was checked at each control. Results. Significant pain reduction was showed. The NRS reduction percentages were calculated, and there was a concrete decrease of DH above all in G3 than G2 and G1. Conclusion. Diode laser is a useful device for DH treatment if used alone and mainly if used with NaF gel.

  6. A compact frequency stabilized telecom laser diode for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, C.; Holleville, D.; Le Targat, R.; Wolf, P.; Leveque, T.; Le Goff, R.; Martaud, E.; Acef, O.

    2017-09-01

    We report on a Telecom laser diode (LD) frequency stabilization to a narrow iodine hyperfine line in the green range, after frequency tripling process using fibered nonlinear waveguide PPLN crystals. We have generated up to 300 mW optical power in the green range ( 514 nm) from 800 mW of infrared power ( 1542 nm), corresponding to a nonlinear conversion efficiency h = P3?/P? 36%. Less than 10 mW of the generated green power are used for Doppler-free spectroscopy of 127I2 molecular iodine, and -therefore- for the frequency stabilization purpose. The frequency tripling optical setup is very compact (test the potential of this new frequency standard based on the couple "1.5 ?m laser / iodine molecule". We have already demonstrated a preliminary frequency stability of 4.8 x 10-14 ? -1/2 with a minimum value of 6 x 10-15 reached after 50 s of integration time, conferred to a laser diode operating at 1542.1 nm. We focus now our efforts to expand the frequency stability to a longer integration time in order to meet requirements of many space experiments, such earth gravity missions, inters satellites links or space to ground communications. Furthermore, we investigate the potential of a new approach based on frequency modulation technique (FM), associated to a 3rd harmonic detection of iodine lines to increase the compactness of the optical setup.

  7. Diode Laser Diagnostics of High Speed Flows (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Skip; Barone, Dominic; Barhorst, Todd; Jackson, Kevin; Lin, K. C; Masterson, Pat; Zhao, Qingchun; Sappey, Andrew D

    2006-01-01

    ... of 60,000-90,000 ft with an average Mach number of 7.5 over this range. The concept involves the direct measurement of oxygen concentration via absorption spectroscopy, and gas velocity via the Doppler shift of laser light transiting the flowpath...

  8. Experimental transconjunctival diode laser retinal photocoagulation through silicone scleral exoplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, S K; Han, D P

    1995-07-01

    To study the feasibility of inducing a chorioretinal lesion under a previously placed scleral buckle by experimental transconjunctival diode laser photocoagulation. We performed transconjunctival diode laser photocoagulation in the peripheral retinas of seven pigmented rabbit eyes with a silicone exoplant (No. 42 band or No. 276 tire) and seven eyes without an exoplant. Each eye received burns with an intensity of grades 1 to 3 in different quadrants at varying power levels, with a 0.5-second duration and 650-micron spot size. Eyes were enucleated for histopathologic studies 1 day and 1 week after treatment. Although the irradiance emitted through the No. 42 band and the No. 276 tire was attenuated by 17% and 23%, respectively, the range of threshold powers needed to produce grades 1 to 3 burns was similar between eyes with and without a silicone exoplant. At 1 day, full-thickness coagulative necrosis was observed in all lesions, except that the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer were preserved in two of four grade 1 burns and the ganglion cell layer was intact in one of six grade 2 burns. Inner scleral changes were noted acutely in three of five grade 3 lesions. At 1 week, burns of all intensity grades showed a full-thickness atrophic chorioretinal lesion with inner scleral changes. Experimental transconjunctival diode laser photocoagulation through hard silicone elements reproducibly created a chorioretinal lesion with histopathologic findings similar to those of lesions obtained without these elements. Although retinal photocoagulative effects were prominent, inner scleral abnormalities were also observed histologically.

  9. Turn-on delay of QD and QW laser diodes: What is the difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovskii, G S; Dudelev, V V; Kolykhalova, E D; Deryagin, A G; Maximov, M V; Nadtochiy, A M; Kuchinskii, V I; Mikhrin, S S; Livshits, D A; Viktorov, E A; Erneux, T

    2013-01-01

    Turn-on delay of laser diodes with quantum-sized active media is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In this research we show the striking difference in turn-on delay of quantum dot and quantum well laser diodes: With quantum-well lasers turn on delay tends to zero in the limit of high pumping, while with quantum dot lasers turn-on delay has the non-vanishing component which is independent of pumping

  10. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C.M.; Shaw, R.W.; Jennings, L.W.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios in these samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of the measurement is discussed. Application of GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. High-power non linear frequency converted laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Hansen, Anders Kragh

    2015-01-01

    We present different methods of generating light in the blue-green spectral range by nonlinear frequency conversion of tapered diode lasers achieving state-of-the-art power levels. In the blue spectral range, we show results using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) as well as cavity enh...... enhanced sum frequency generation (SFG) with watt-level output powers. SHG and SFG are also demonstrated in the green spectral range as a viable method to generate up to 4 W output power with high efficiency using different configurations....

  12. Thermal and infrared-diode laser effects on indocyanine-green-treated corneal collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T.; Patmore, Ann; Shallal, Assaad; McHugh, Dominic; Marshall, John

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that laser welds of collagenous tissues form by interdigitation and chemical bonding of thermally 'unraveled' collagen fibrils. We investigated this proposal by attempting to weld highly collagenous, avascular corneal tissue with an infrared (IR) diode laser as follows. First, the temperature at which corneal collagen shrinks and collagen fibrils 'split' into subfibrillary components was determined. Second, since use of a near-IR laser wavelength necessitated addition of an absorbing dye (indocyanine green (ICG) to the cornea, we measured absorption spectra of ICG-treated tissue to ensure that peak ICG absorbance did not change markedly when ICG was present in the cornea. Third, using gel electrophoresis of thermally altered corneal collagen, we searched for covalently crosslinked compounds predicted by the proposed welding mechanism. Finally, we attempted to weld partial thickness corneal incisions infused with ICG. Principal experimental findings were as follows: (1) Human corneal (type I) collagen splits into subfibrillary components at approximately 63 degree(s)C, the same temperature that produces collagen shrinkage. (2) Peak ICG absorption does not change significantly in corneal stroma or with laser heating. (3) No evidence was found for the formation of novel compounds or the loss of proteins as a result of tissue heating. All tissue treated with ICG, however, exhibited a novel 244 kD protein band indicating chemical activity between collagen and corneal stromal components. (4) Laser welding corneal incisions was unsuccessful possibly due to shrinkage of the sides of the incision, lack of incision compression during heating, or a less than optimal combination of ICG concentration and radiant exposure. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the biochemical and morphological complexity of ICG-enhanced IR laser-tissue welding and the need for further investigation of laser welding mechanisms.

  13. Low-loss, low-confinement GaAs-AlGaAs DQW laser diode with optical trap layer for high-power operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, M.; Vleuten, van der W.C.; Iordache, G.; Acket, G.A.; Roer, van de T.G.; Es, van C.M.; Roy, van B.H.; Smalbrugge, E.

    1999-01-01

    A low-confinement asymmetric GaAs-AlGaAs double-quantum-well molecular-beam-epitaxy grown laser diode structure with optical trap layer is characterized, The value of the internal absorption coefficient is as low as 1.4 cm-1, while keeping the series resistance at values comparable cm with

  14. Deep modulation of second-harmonic light by wavelength detuning of a laser diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mathias; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2017-01-01

    ) master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser diode with separate electrical contacts for the MO and the PA. A modulation depth in excess of 97% from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz is demonstrated. This is done by wavelength tuning of the laser diode using only a 40 mA adjustment of the current through the MO...

  15. High power CW output from low confinement asymmetric structure diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordache, G.; Buda, M.; Acket, G.A.; Roer, van de T.G.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.; Karouta, F.; Jagadish, C.; Tan, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    High power continuous wave output from diode lasers using low loss, low confinement, asymmetric structures is demonstrated. An asymmetric structure with an optical trap layer was grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Gain guided 50 µm wide stripe 1-3 mm long diode lasers were studied. 1.8 W

  16. QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY IMPORTANT DYES USING DIODE LASER/FIBER-OPTIC RAMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact diode laser/fiber-optic Raman spectrometer is used for quantitative detection of environmentally important dyes. This system is based on diode laser excitation at 782 mm, fiber optic probe technology, an imaging spectrometer, and state-of-the-art scientific CCD camera. ...

  17. Effect of the Bit Rate on the Pulses of the Laser Diodes | Ayadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualities required for Laser Diodes are their spatial and temporal coherence, and their performance in terms modulation. This paper presents the effect data rate of optical pulses delivered by diode laser using software COMSIS. Two types of modulation have been considered: direct modulation and external modulation.

  18. Comparison of the noise performance of 10GHz QW and QD mode-locked laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Thompson, Mark G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes.......This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes....

  19. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Afandy, Rami; Aljabr, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III

  20. Optical signal inverter of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with red shift of laser diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-08-10

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated in a simple structure that combined a laser diode with Er-doped YAG crystal. The optical signal inversion occurred at a response time of 7 ns and was caused by the decrease of transmission of Er:YAG against the red shift of the wavelength of the laser diode.

  1. The amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrarov, S.M.; Karimov, Kh.S.; Akhmedov, Kh.M.

    2001-01-01

    Present article is devoted to amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors. The modulator based on laser diode and the emission amplitude modulation of which is performed by electric field impact on antireflection piezo films applied on mirrors was studied.

  2. Short-Term Audiological Results of Diode Laser in Comparison with Manual Perforation in Stapes Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Saab, Stephanie Sbizera; Carvalho, Bettina; Carmo, Carolina do

    2018-04-01

    Introduction  Diode laser is a new alternative in stapes surgery for otosclerosis. The present study is the first to compare the short-term results of the surgery performed using diode laser to those obtained through the conventional fenestration technique. Objective  To use audiometry to establish a comparative analysis between the functional results obtained through surgery for otosclerosis using diode laser and the conventional technique. Method  Audiometric evaluation of 12 patients submitted to stapes surgery for otosclerosis, using diode laser or conventional fenestration by needle and drills, between 2014 and 2015. Each group was composed of 6 patients. Pre and post-operative measures were compared for three months in both groups. The speech recognition threshold, the air and bone conduction threshold, as well as the gap between them at 500 Hz, 1 KHz, 2 KHz and 4 KHz were measured. Results  Significant difference in bone conduction and SRT was observed when compared post- and preoperative results in the diode group. However diode and conventional technique groups presented significant differences in air conduction and air-bone gap, suggesting that both can provide functional improvement. Conclusion  Laser stapedotomy is a safe technique with good results. Both laser surgery and the conventional technique have improved the hearing of patients with a discreet advantage for the diode laser. Further prospective and randomized clinical trials are required to disclose all possible benefits of the stapes surgery using diode laser.

  3. Electrical and optical response of a laser diode to transient ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggio, J.; Brisset, C.; Sommer, J.L.; D'hose, C.; Lalande, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied transient irradiation effects on the optical and electrical responses of a laser diode. The influence of dose rate, ranging from 10 9 to 10 12 rad(Si)/s, has been investigated through a complete experimental study. Dose rate vulnerability of the laser diode has been observed. Electrical and optical transient responses are determined by the dose rate, the diode structure, and its operating point

  4. Development of laser diode pumped Nd:glass slab laser driver for the inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Kanabe, Tadashi; Yasuhara, Ryo

    2002-01-01

    A diode-pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is promising candidate of reactor driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). As a first step of a driver development for the IFE, we are developing a laser diode pumped zig-zag Nd:glass slab laser amplifier system HALNA 10 (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application) which can generated an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig zag Nd:glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803 nm AIGaAs laser diode (LD) module, each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generate in total 218 (max.) kW peak power with 2.6 kW/cm 2 peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in first-stage experiment 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with a beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern, which nearly confirmed our conceptual design. Since the key issue for the IFE DPSSL drive module were almost satisfactory, we have a confidence that a next 100 J x 10 Hz DPSSL module (HALNA 100) can be constructed. Thermal effects in laser slab, Faraday rotator, Faraday isolator and Pockets cell and their managements are discussed.

  5. Diode-pumped two micron solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, I.F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents an investigation of diode-pumped two micron solid-state lasers, concentrating on a comparison of the cw room temperature operation of Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF. Dopant concentrations in YAP were 4.2% thulium and 0.28% holmium; in YLF they were 6% thulium and 0.4% holmium. Thermal modelling was carried out in order to provide an insight into the thermal lensing and population distributions in these materials. Laser operation was achieved utilising an end-pumping geometry with a simple two mirror standing wave resonator. The pump source for these experiments was a 3 W laser diode. Maximum output power was achieved with Tm:YAP, generating 730 mW of laser output, representing 42% conversion efficiency in terms of absorbed pump power. Upper bounds on the conversion efficiency of Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF laser crystal of 14% and 30% were obtained, with corresponding output powers of 270 and 660 mW. In all three cases, the output beam was TEM 00 in nature. Visible upconversion fluorescence bands in the green and red were identified in Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF, with additional blue emission from the latter, all assigned to transitions on holmium. The principal upconversion mechanisms in these materials all involved the holmium first excited state. Upconversion in Tm:YAP was negligible. The spectral output of Tm:YAP consisted of a comb of lines in the range 1.965 to 2.020 μm. For both the double-doped crystals, the laser output was multilongitudinal mode on a single transition, wavelength 2.120 μm in YAP, 2.065 μm in YLF. In the time domain the output of Tm:YAP was dominated by large amplitude spiking, unlike both of the double-doped laser crystals. The long lifetime of the thulium upper laser level (4.4 ms) provided very weak damping of the spiking. Excitation sharing between thulium and holmium, with a measured characteristic lifetime in YAP of 11.9 μs and YLF of 14.8 μs, provided strong damping of any spiking behaviour. (author)

  6. Modeling of the gain distribution for diode pumping of a solid-state laser rod with nonimaging optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, R J; Walmsley, I A

    1993-03-20

    We investigate the absorption distribution in a cylindrical gain medium that is pumped by a source of distributed laser diodes by means of a pump cavity developed from the edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics. The performance of this pumping arrangement is studied by using a nonsequential, numerical, three-dimensional ray-tracing scheme. A figure of merit is defined for the pump cavities that takes into account the coupling efficiency and uniformity of the absorption distribution. It is found that the nonimaging pump cavity maintains a high coupling efficiency with extended two-dimensional diode arrays and obtains a fairly uniform absorption distribution. The nonimaging cavity is compared with two other designs: a close-coupled side-pumped cavity and an imaging design in the form of a elliptical cavity. The nonimaging cavity has a better figure of merit per diode than these two designs. It also permits the use of an extended, sparse, two-dimensional diode array, which reduces thermal loading of the source and eliminates all cavity optics other than the main reflector.

  7. Fiber Bragg Grating vibration sensor with DFB laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, Petr; Brozovic, Martin; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Vitasek, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Latal, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are nowadays used in many applications. Thanks to its quite big sensitivity to a surrounding environment, they can be used for sensing of temperature, strain, vibration or pressure. A fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor, which is interrogated by a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB) is demonstrated in this article. The system is based on the intensity modulation of the narrow spectral bandwidth of the DFB laser, when the reflection spectrum of the FBG sensor is shifted due to the strain that is applied on it in form of vibrations caused by acoustic wave pressure from loud speaker. The sensor's response in frequency domain and strain is measured; also the factor of sensor pre-strain impact on its sensitivity is discussed.

  8. Defects in degraded GaN-based laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiya, Shigetaka [Materials Analysis Center, GPS, Sony Corporation, 2-1-1 Shin-sakuragaoka, Hodogaya, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 240-0036 (Japan); Goto, Shu; Takeya, Motonobu; Ikeda, Masao [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor, Inc., 3-53-2 Shiratori, Shiroishi, Miyagi, 989-0734 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    We investigate degraded GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) fabricated on epitaxial lateral overgrown (ELO) GaN layers using transmission electron microscopy. The dislocation density in the wing region of the ELO is of the order of 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} and there are approximately ten threading dislocations in the laser stripe. Neither dislocation multiplication from the threading dislocations nor any structural changes of the threading dislocations were observed in the devices, which were degraded within approximately one hundred hours under 30 mW continuous operation at 25 C. We can, therefore, conclude that degradation in GaN-based LDs is not responsible for the recombination enhanced dislocation motion that is usually observed in zincblende structure-based LDs. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Study of pseudo noise CW diode laser for ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo S.; Ramaswami, Ravi

    1992-01-01

    A new Pseudo Random Noise (PN) modulated CW diode laser radar system is being developed for real time ranging of targets at both close and large distances (greater than 10 KM) to satisy a wide range of applications: from robotics to future space applications. Results from computer modeling and statistical analysis, along with some preliminary data obtained from a prototype system, are presented. The received signal is averaged for a short time to recover the target response function. It is found that even with uncooperative targets, based on the design parameters used (200-mW laser and 20-cm receiver), accurate ranging is possible up to about 15 KM, beyond which signal to noise ratio (SNR) becomes too small for real time analog detection.

  10. Light absorption and scattering mechanisms in laser fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Estabrook, K.G.; Kruer, W.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Lasinski, B.F.; Max, C.E.; Randall, C.; Thomson, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The picture of laser light absorption and scattering which is emerging from theory and computer simulation studies of laser-plasma interactions is described. On the subject of absorption, we discuss theoretical and experimental evidence that resonance absorption in a steepened density profile is a dominant absorption mechanism. Recent work also indicates the presence of critical surface ripples, which we study using two and three dimensional computer simulations. Predictions of hot electron spectra due to resonance absorption are described, as are effects of plasma outflow. We then discuss two regimes where stimulated scattering may occur. Brillouin scattering is expected in the underdense target blow-off, for long laser pulses, and is limited by ion heating. Raman scattering in the background gas of a reactor target chamber is predicted to be at most a 10 percent effect for 1 μm lasers

  11. Histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis: pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser versus cw 980-nm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge; Eymard-Maurin, Anne Françoise; Wassmer, Benjamin; Ringot, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The use of the laser as an auxiliary tool has refined the traditional technique for lipoplasty. During laser lipolysis, the interaction between the laser and the fat produced direct cellular destruction before the suction, reduced bleeding, and promoted skin tightening. This study sought to perform a comparative histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis with the pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser versus a continuous 980-nm diode laser. A pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG (Smart-Lipo; Deka, Italy) and a CW 980-nm diode laser (Pharaon, Osyris, France) were evaluated at different energy settings for lipolysis on the thighs of a fresh cadaver. The lasers were coupled to a 600-microm optical fiber inserted in a 1-mm diameter cannula. Biopsy specimens were taken on irradiated and non-irradiated areas. Hematoxylin-erythrosin-safran staining and immunostaining (anti-PS100 polyclonal antibody) were performed to identify fat tissue damage. In the absence of laser exposures (control specimens), cavities created by cannulation were seen; adipocytes were round in appearance and not deflated. At low energy settings, tumescent adipocytes were observed. At higher energy settings, cytoplasmic retraction, disruption of membranes, and heat-coagulated collagen fibers were noted; coagulated blood cells were also present. For the highest energy settings, carbonization of fat tissue involving fibers and membranes was clearly seen. For equivalent energy settings, 1064-nm and 980-nm wavelengths gave similar histologic results. Laser lipolysis is a relatively new technique that is still under development. Our histologic findings suggest several positive benefits of the laser, including skin retraction and a reduction in intraoperative bleeding. The interaction of the laser with the tissue is similar at 980 nm and 1064 nm with the same energy settings. Because higher volumes of fat are removed with higher total energy, a high-power 980-nm diode laser could offer an interesting alternative to the 1064-nm Nd

  12. Endoscopic diode-laser applications in airway surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Michail M.; Wang, Zhi; Rebeiz, Elie E.; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; Shapshay, Stanley M.; Gleich, Lyon L.

    1994-09-01

    A technique was developed to secure small mucosal grafts onto the airway wound with fibrin/albumin tissue adhesive mixed with ICG dye and irradiated with a 810 nm diode laser. An in vitro study of the tensile strength produced strong mucosal soldering which was adequate to fix grafts in place. In vivo studies showed that wounds with mucosal grafts were completely covered by regenerated squamous cells in 1 week and by ciliated epithelium in 2 weeks. Excellent healing was observed at 6 and 14 days postoperatively and the histology at 28 days found normal epithelium over the vocal cord lesion. This soldering technique is a less traumatic treatment for patients with extensive lesions of the larynx of various origin. Diode laser soldering with ICG-doped fibrin tissue adhesive was evaluated in tracheal anastomosis as a substitute for absorbable sutures. In vitro studies demonstrated strong anastomoses with minimal tissue damage. In vivo animal study showed that these anastomoses had less fibrosis and tissue damage than control animals repaired with sutures only.

  13. CO2 and diode laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinhong; Li Lin; Liu Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are being increasingly used in automotive and aerospace structures. Laser welding is an important joining method in such applications. There are several kinds of industrial lasers available at present, including the conventional CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers as well as recently available high power diode lasers. A 1.5 kW diode laser and a 2 kW CO 2 laser are used in the present study for the welding of AZ31 alloys. It is found that different welding modes exist, i.e., keyhole welding with the CO 2 laser and conduction welding with both the CO 2 and the diode lasers. This paper characterizes welds in both welding modes. The effect of beam spot size on the weld quality is analyzed. The laser processing parameters are optimized to obtain welds with minimum defects

  14. Diode-Pumped Thulium (Tm)/Holmium (Ho) Composite Fiber 2.1-Micrometers Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Schematic of the 800-nm diode pumped Tm/Ho composite fiber laser 8 Under quasi-continuous wave (Q- CW ) pumping conditions of 1-ms duration and a...Fig. 9 (Top) Schematic of the 800-nm diode -pumped Tm/Ho composite fiber laser with outcoupler. (Left) Q- CW laser performance of the Tm/Ho composite...ARL-TR-7452 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Diode -Pumped Thulium (Tm)/Holmium (Ho) Composite Fiber 2.1-μm Laser by G

  15. Laser diode stack beam shaping for efficient and compact long-range laser illuminator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Y.; Poyet, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Laser diode stacks are interesting laser sources for active imaging illuminators. They allow the accumulation of large amounts of energy in multi-pulse mode, which is best suited for long-range image recording. Even when the laser diode stacks are equipped with fast-axis collimation (FAC) and slow-axis collimation (SAC) micro-lenses, their beam parameter products BPP are not compatible with direct use in highly efficient and compact illuminators. This is particularly true when narrow divergences are required such as for long-range applications. A solution to overcome these difficulties is to enhance the poor slow-axis BPP by virtually restacking the laser diode stack. We present a beam shaping and homogenization method that is low-cost and efficient and has low alignment sensitivity. After conducting simulations, we have realized and characterized the illuminator. A compact long-range laser illuminator has been set up with a divergence of 3.5×2.6 mrad and a global efficiency of 81%. Here, a projection lens with a clear aperture of 62 mm and a focal length of 571 mm was used.

  16. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) System with a Tunable Diode Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jong; Do, Jeong Jun; You, Hyun Jong; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Myoung Jae; Chung, Kyu Sun

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is known as one of the most powerful techniques for measurements of ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) and ion temperature by means of Doppler broadening and Doppler shift. The dye lasers are generally used for LIF system with 611.66 nm (in vac.) for Ar ion, the low power diode laser was also proposed by Severn et al with the wavelength of 664.55 nm and 668.61 nm (in vac.) for Ar ion. Although the diode laser has the disadvantages of low power and small tuning range, it can be used for LIF system at the low temperature plasmas. A tunable diode laser with 668.614 nm of center wavelength and 10 GHz mode hop free tuning region has been used for our LIF system and it can be measured the ion temperature is up to 1 eV. The ion temperature and velocity distribution function have been measured with LaB6 plasma source, which is about 0.23 eV with Ar gas and 2.2 mTorr working pressure

  17. Laser-diode pumped 40-W Yb:YAG ceramic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Li, Wenxue; Pan, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Benxue; Pan, Yubai; Zeng, Heping

    2009-09-28

    We demonstrated a high-power continuous-wave (CW) polycrystalline Yb:YAG ceramic laser pumped by fiber-pigtailed laser diode at 968 nm with 400 mum fiber core. The Yb:YAG ceramic laser performance was compared for different Yb(3+) ion concentrations in the ceramics by using a conventional end-pump laser cavity consisting of two flat mirrors with output couplers of different transmissions. A CW laser output of 40 W average power with M(2) factor of 5.8 was obtained with 5 mol% Yb concentration under 120 W incident pump power. This is to the best of our knowledge the highest output power in end-pumped bulk Yb:YAG ceramic laser.

  18. Efficient laser-diode end-pumped Nd:GGG lasers at 1054 and 1067 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Camy, P; Doualan, J L; Moncorgé, R

    2014-10-10

    Efficient and compact laser-diode end-pumped Nd:GGG simultaneous multiwavelength continuous-wave lasers at ∼1059, ∼1060 and ∼1062  nm were first demonstrated in a free-running 30 mm plano-concave laser cavity. The maximum output power was up to 3.92 W with a slope efficiency of about 53.6% with respect to the absorbed pump power. By inserting a 0.1 mm optical glass plate acting as a Fabry-Pérot etalon, a single-wavelength laser at ∼1067  nm with a maximum output power of 1.95 W and a slope efficiency of 28.5% can be obtained. Multiwavelength lasers, including those at ∼1054 or ∼1067  nm, were also achievable by suitably tilting the glass etalon. These simultaneous multiwavelength lasers provide a potential source for terahertz wave generation.

  19. Diode laser heat treatment of lithium manganese oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Mangang, A.; Ulrich, S.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H.J.; Pfleging, W.

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization of lithium manganese oxide thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates under 10 Pa argon pressure is demonstrated by a laser annealing technique. Laser annealing processes were developed as a function of annealing time and temperature with the objective to form an electrochemically active lithium manganese oxide cathode. It is demonstrated, that laser annealing with 940 nm diode laser radiation and an annealing time of 2000 s at 600 °C delivers appropriate parameters for formation of a crystalline spinel-like phase. Characteristic features of this phase could be detected via Raman spectroscopy, showing the characteristic main Raman band at 627 cm -1 . Within cyclic voltammetric measurements, the two characteristic redox pairs for spinel lithium manganese oxide in the 4 V region could be detected, indicating that the film was well-crystallized and de-/intercalation processes were reversible. Raman post-analysis of a cycled cathode showed that the spinel-like structure was preserved within the cycling process but mechanical degradation effects such as film cracking were observed via scanning electron microscopy. Typical features for the formation of an additional surface reaction layer could be detected using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  20. Effect of laser-diode light on growth of Lactuca sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, H.; Miyajima, H.; Honma, T.; Kan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Development of an effective, high-power, low-cost, artificial light source for use in plant-growing facilities would be very beneficial for plant production. Recently, the laser-diode lamp was proposed as a new type of light source for plant production. The advantages of the laser-diode lamp over conventional light sources are its high electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency, low thermal radiation, easy set-up for high power and pulse irradiation, small weight and small volume for mounting, and selectivity for proper wavelength. Because laser light itself differs from the light sources presently used in plant growing, we confirmed the possibility of growing plants under the laser-diode light using lettuces. Lettuce seedlings with 5-6 leaves were grown under a laser-diode lamp panel with 30 pieces of high-power and high-efficiency AlGaInP laser-diodes. The power of each laser-diode lamp was 500 mW, and the wavelength was 680 nm, which was efficient for photosynthesis. The lettuce plants were able to grow under the laser-diode light. However, plants were lighter and had thinner leaves than those grown under high-pressure sodium lamps. (author)

  1. Ultra-high brightness wavelength-stabilized kW-class fiber coupled diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Glenn, John D.

    2011-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced a fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 1,040 W from a 200 μm core diameter, 0.18 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 18 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. The laser has been used to demonstrate laser cutting and welding of steel sheet metal up to 6.65 mm thick. Further advances of these ultra-bright lasers are also projected.

  2. Investigations of mechanism of laser radiation absorption at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinowska, Z.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 227-230 ISSN 0029-5922. [International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (PLASMA)2011. Warsaw, 12.09.2011-16.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : collisional absorption * crater volume * electron density distribution * interferometry * iodine laser * resonance absorption * Laser radiation * inverse bremsstrahlung * laser interferometry * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2012 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol57_2012/v57n2p227f.pdf

  3. Diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in Indian eyes: efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kirti; Jain, Divya; Veerwal, Vikas

    2017-02-01

    Diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (DLCP) has emerged as a time-tested procedure for end-stage glaucoma with fewer complications. By means of this study, we have evaluated its wide indications, its efficacy, and safety in darkly pigmented Asian Indian eyes. Ninety-one eyes with uncontrolled glaucoma presenting to glaucoma clinic of a tertiary care center over a period of 6 years were scheduled for DLCP. The semiconductor diode laser with a G probe was used with laser energy delivered about 1.5 mm behind the surgical limbus. The extent of clock hours of laser application was determined by pretreatment intraocular pressure (IOP) and superior area was spared in cases where future filtration surgery was contemplated. The DLCP was repeated earliest at 1 month in case of non-response and a maximum of three laser procedures were performed for any patient. Ninety-one eyes of 89 patients (40 males, 49 females) were included. Common indications included secondary glaucoma (37.3 %), failed trabeculectomies (27.4 %), angle closure glaucoma (17.5 %), etc. Laser power delivered ranged from 990 to 1800 mW, (mean 1396 + 182.14 mW) with an average of 17 spots. Patients improved from pretreatment IOP of 38.18 + 8.96 mmHg (range 20.6-64) to post treatment IOP of 17.86 + 7.75 mmHg (range 10-42). Qualified success was defined as final IOP of 20 mm Hg or less on topical medications that could be achieved in 70 % eyes with one or repeat treatment. Pre op visual acuity ranged from PL+ to 6/18 showing a slight improvement to PL+ to 6/12 post op. A 58.5 % reduction of IOP was noted. No incidence of serious complications was noted during follow-up ranging from 9 months to 3 years. DLCP is an effective and safe tool to be used in Indian population for control of IOP. It can be safely used as a primary modality to bring IOP to permissible levels before trabeculectomy.

  4. High power multiple wavelength diode laser stack for DPSSL application without temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Yin, Xia; Wang, Jingwei; Chen, Shi; Zhan, Yun; Li, Xiaoning; Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode laser stack is widely used in pumping solid-state laser for years. Normally an integrated temperature control module is required for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser, as the output power of the solid-state laser highly depends on the emission wavelength and the wavelength shift of diode lasers according to the temperature changes. However the temperature control module is inconvenient for this application, due to its large dimension, high electric power consumption and extra adding a complicated controlling system. Furthermore, it takes dozens of seconds to stabilize the output power when the laser system is turned on. In this work, a compact hard soldered high power conduction cooled diode laser stack with multiple wavelengths is developed for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser in a certain temperature range. The stack consists of 5 laser bars with the pitch of 0.43mm. The peak output power of each bar in the diode laser stack reaches as much as 557W and the combined lasing wavelength spectrum profile spans 15nm. The solidstate laser, structured with multiple wavelength diode laser stacks, allows the ambient temperature change of 65°C without suddenly degrading the optical performance.

  5. Diode-pumped Tm:YAP/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiaqun; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guodong; Cheng, Ping; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The laser performance based on YVO 4 Raman conversion in a diode-pumped actively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser is demonstrated for the first time. With an incident diode power of 10.9 W and a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz, the average output powers for the first Stokes laser at 2.4 μm is about 270 mW. (paper)

  6. Modulation of Frequency Doubled DFB-Tapered Diode Lasers for Medical Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mathias; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2017-01-01

    have demonstrated power modulation from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz at 532 nm with a modulation depth above 97% by wavelength detuning of the laser diode. The laser diode is a 1064 nm monolithic device with a distributed feedback (DFB) laser as the master oscillator (MO), and a tapered power amplifier (PA......). The MO and PA have separate electrical contacts and the modulation is achieved with wavelength tuning by adjusting the current through the MO 40 mA....

  7. The Effect of Diode Laser With Different Parameters on Root Fracture During Irrigation Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ertuğrul; Arslan, Hakan; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Yılmaz, Cenk Burak; Yeter, Kübra Yesildal; Ayrancı, Leyla Benan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of a single diode laser application and agitation of EDTA with diode laser with different parameters at different time intervals on root fracture. Ninety mandibular incisors were instrumented except the negative control group. The specimens were divided randomly into 10 groups according to final irrigation procedure: (G1) non-instrumented; (G2) distilled water; (G3) 15% EDTA; (G4) ultrasonically agitated EDTA; (G5) single 1.5W/100 Hz Diode laser; (G6) single 3W/100 Hz Diode laser; (G7) 1.5W/100 Hz Diode laser agitation of EDTA for 20 s; (G8) 1.5W/100 Hz Diode laser agitation of EDTA for 40 s; (G9) 3W/100 Hz Diode laser agitation of EDTA for 20 s; and (G10) 3W/100 Hz Diode laser agitation of EDTA for 40 s. The specimens were filled, mounted in acrylic resin, and compression strength test was performed on each specimen. Statistical analysis was carried out using one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (P = 0.05). The statistical analysis revealed that there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P Laser-agitated irrigation with a 3W/100 Hz Diode laser for both 20 s and 40 s decreased the fracture resistance of teeth. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology.

  9. Ultrasensitive, real-time trace gas detection using a high-power, multimode diode laser and cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Qiao, Yuhao; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2016-06-01

    We present a simplified cavity ringdown (CRD) trace gas detection technique that is insensitive to vibration, and capable of extremely sensitive, real-time absorption measurements. A high-power, multimode Fabry-Perot (FP) diode laser with a broad wavelength range (Δλlaser∼0.6  nm) is used to excite a large number of cavity modes, thereby reducing the detector's susceptibility to vibration and making it well suited for field deployment. When detecting molecular species with broad absorption features (Δλabsorption≫Δλlaser), the laser's broad linewidth removes the need for precision wavelength stabilization. The laser's power and broad linewidth allow the use of on-axis cavity alignment, improving the signal-to-noise ratio while maintaining its vibration insensitivity. The use of an FP diode laser has the added advantages of being inexpensive, compact, and insensitive to vibration. The technique was demonstrated using a 1.1 W (λ=400  nm) diode laser to measure low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in zero air. A sensitivity of 38 parts in 1012 (ppt) was achieved using an integration time of 128 ms; for single-shot detection, 530 ppt sensitivity was demonstrated with a measurement time of 60 μs, which opens the door to sensitive measurements with extremely high temporal resolution; to the best of our knowledge, these are the highest speed measurements of NO2 concentration using CRD spectroscopy. The reduced susceptibility to vibration was demonstrated by introducing small vibrations into the apparatus and observing that there was no measurable effect on the sensitivity of detection.

  10. Direct diode lasers and their advantages for materials processing and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Haro; Ferrario, Fabio; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Pahl, Ulrich; Pflueger, Silke; Grohe, Andreas; Gries, Wolfgang; Eibl, Florian; Kohl, Stefanie; Dobler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The brightness of diode lasers is improving continuously and has recently started to approach the level of some solid state lasers. The main technology drivers over the last decade were improvements of the diode laser output power and divergence, enhanced optical stacking techniques and system design, and most recently dense spectral combining. Power densities at the work piece exceed 1 MW/cm2 with commercially available industrial focus optics. These power densities are sufficient for cutting and welding as well as ablation. Single emitter based diode laser systems further offer the advantage of fast current modulation due their lower drive current compared to diode bars. Direct diode lasers may not be able to compete with other technologies as fiber or CO2-lasers in terms of maximum power or beam quality. But diode lasers offer a range of features that are not possible to implement in a classical laser. We present an overview of those features that will make the direct diode laser a very valuable addition in the near future, especially for the materials processing market. As the brightness of diode lasers is constantly improving, BPP of less than 5mm*mrad have been reported with multikW output power. Especially single emitter-based diode lasers further offer the advantage of very fast current modulation due to their low drive current and therefore low drive voltage. State of the art diode drivers are already demonstrated with pulse durations of direct current control allows pulses of several microseconds with hundreds of watts average power. Spot sizes of less than 100 μm are obtained at the work piece. Such a diode system allows materials processing with a pulse parameter range that is hardly addressed by any other laser system. High productivity material ablation with cost effective lasers is enabled. The wide variety of wavelengths, high brightness, fast power modulation and high efficiency of diode lasers results in a strong pull of existing markets, but

  11. Optical beam induced current measurements based on two-photon absorption process in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, H.; Raynaud, C.; Bevilacqua, P.; Tournier, D.; Planson, D. [Ampère Laboratory - UMR 5005, 21, Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Vergne, B. [Franco-Allemand Institute of Saint-Louis ISL, 5, Rue du Général Cassagnou, 68300 Saint-Louis (France)

    2014-02-24

    Using a pulsed green laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, a duration pulse of ∼1 ns, and a mean power varying between 1 and 100 mW, induced photocurrents have been measured in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes. Considering the photon energy (2.33 eV) and the bandgap of 4H-SiC (3.2 eV), the generation of electron-hole pair by the conventional single photon absorption process should be negligible. The intensity of the measured photocurrents depends quadratically on the power beam intensity. This clearly shows that they are generated using two-photon absorption process. As in conventional OBIC (Optical Beam Induced Current), the measurements give an image of the electric field distribution in the structure under test, and the minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the decrease of the photocurrent at the edge of the structure. The extracted minority carrier lifetime of 210 ns is consistent with results obtained in case of single photon absorption.

  12. Optical beam induced current measurements based on two-photon absorption process in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, H.; Raynaud, C.; Bevilacqua, P.; Tournier, D.; Planson, D.; Vergne, B.

    2014-01-01

    Using a pulsed green laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, a duration pulse of ∼1 ns, and a mean power varying between 1 and 100 mW, induced photocurrents have been measured in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes. Considering the photon energy (2.33 eV) and the bandgap of 4H-SiC (3.2 eV), the generation of electron-hole pair by the conventional single photon absorption process should be negligible. The intensity of the measured photocurrents depends quadratically on the power beam intensity. This clearly shows that they are generated using two-photon absorption process. As in conventional OBIC (Optical Beam Induced Current), the measurements give an image of the electric field distribution in the structure under test, and the minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the decrease of the photocurrent at the edge of the structure. The extracted minority carrier lifetime of 210 ns is consistent with results obtained in case of single photon absorption

  13. Green high-power tunable external-cavity GaN diode laser at 515 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    A 480 mW green tunable diode laser system is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. The laser system is based on a GaN broad-area diode laser and Littrow external-cavity feedback. The green laser system is operated in two modes by switching the polarization direction of the laser beam...... incident on the grating. When the laser beam is p-polarized, an output power of 50 mW with a tunable range of 9.2 nm is achieved. When the laser beam is s-polarized, an output power of 480 mW with a tunable range of 2.1 nm is obtained. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode...... laser system....

  14. Ultra-narrow band diode lasers with arbitrary pulse shape modulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr I.; Smirnov, Vadim; Mokhun, Oleksiy; Glebov, Alexei L.; Glebov, Leon B.

    2017-03-01

    Wideband emission spectra of laser diode bars (several nanometers) can be largely narrowed by the usage of thick volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive glass. Such narrowband systems, with GHz-wide emission spectra, found broad applications for Diode Pumped Alkali vapor Lasers, optically pumped rare gas metastable lasers, Spin Exchange Optical Pumping, atom cooling, etc. Although the majority of current applications of narrow line diode lasers require CW operation, there are a variety of fields where operation in a different pulse mode regime is necessary. Commercial electric pulse generators can provide arbitrary current pulse profiles (sinusoidal, rectangular, triangular and their combinations). The pulse duration and repetition rate however, have an influence on the laser diode temperature, and therefore, the emitting wavelength. Thus, a detailed analysis is needed to understand the correspondence between the optical pulse profiles from a diode laser and the current pulse profiles; how the pulse profile and duty cycle affects the laser performance (e.g. the wavelength stability, signal to noise ratio, power stability etc.). We present the results of detailed studies of the narrowband laser diode performance operating in different temporal regimes with arbitrary pulse profiles. The developed narrowband (16 pm) tunable laser systems at 795 nm are capable of operating in different pulse regimes while keeping the linewidth, wavelength, and signal-to-noise ratio (>20 dB) similar to the corresponding CW modules.

  15. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL's). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL's which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL's are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications

  16. High-power direct diode laser output by spectral beam combining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Meng, Huicheng; Ruan, Xu; Du, Weichuan; Wang, Zhao

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate a spectral beam combining scheme based on multiple mini-bar stacks, which have more diode laser combining elements, to increase the combined diode laser power and realize equal beam quality in both the fast and slow axes. A spectral beam combining diode laser output of 1130 W is achieved with an operating current of 75 A. When a 9.6 X de-magnifying telescope is introduced between the output mirror and the diffraction grating, to restrain cross-talk among diode laser emitters, a 710 W spectral beam combining diode laser output is achieved at the operating current of 70 A, and the beam quality on the fast and slow axes of the combined beam is about 7.5 mm mrad and 7.3 mm mrad respectively. The power reduction is caused by the existence of a couple resonator between the rear facet of the diode laser and the fast axis collimation lens, and it should be eliminated by using diode laser chips with higher front facet transmission efficiency and a fast axis collimation lens with lower residual reflectivity.

  17. A randomised controlled trial of coblation, diode laser and cold dissection in paediatric tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadawey, M R; Hegazy, H M; Eltahan, A E; Powell, J

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of diode laser, coblation and cold dissection tonsillectomy in paediatric patients. A total of 120 patients aged 10-15 years with recurrent tonsillitis were recruited. Participants were prospectively randomised to diode laser, coblation or cold dissection tonsillectomy. Operative time and blood loss were recorded. Pain was recorded on a Wong-Baker FACES(®) pain scale. The operative time (10 ± 0.99 minutes), blood loss (20 ± 0.85 ml) and pain were significantly lower with coblation tonsillectomy than with cold dissection tonsillectomy (20 ± 1.0 minutes and 30 ± 1.0 ml; p = 0.0001) and diode laser tonsillectomy (15 ± 0.83 minutes and 25 ± 0.83 ml; p = 0.0001). Diode laser tonsillectomy had a shorter operative time (p = 0.0001) and less blood loss (p = 0.001) compared with cold dissection tonsillectomy. However, at post-operative day seven, the diode laser tonsillectomy group had significantly higher pain scores compared with the cold dissection (p = 0.042) and coblation (p = 0.04) tonsillectomy groups. Both coblation and diode laser tonsillectomy are associated with significantly reduced blood loss and shorter operative times compared with cold dissection tonsillectomy. However, we advocate coblation tonsillectomy because of the lower post-operative pain scores compared with diode laser and cold dissection tonsillectomy.

  18. Comparison of the effect of diode laser versus intense pulsed light in axillary hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiga, Patricia; Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Boechat, Alvaro; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-10-01

    Devices such as diode laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) are in constant development aiming at permanent hair removal, but there are few comparative studies between these technologies. The objective was to comparatively assess axillary hair removal performed by diode laser and IPL and to obtain parameters of referred pain and evolution response for each method. A comparative prospective, double-blind, and randomized study of axillary hair removal performed by the diode laser and IPL was conducted in 21 females. Six sessions were held with application of the diode laser in one axilla and the IPL in the other, with intervals of 30 days and follow-up of 6 months after the last session. Clinical photographs and digital dermoscopy for hair counts in predefined and fixed fields of the treated areas were performed before, 2 weeks after the sixth session, and 6 months after the end of treatment. A questionnaire to assess the pain was applied. The number of hair shafts was significantly reduced with the diode laser and IPL. The diode laser was more effective, although more painful than the IPL. No serious, adverse, or permanent effects were observed with both technologies. Both diode laser and the IPL are effective, safe, and able to produce lasting results in axillary hair removal.

  19. High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Leonard, John T.; Pourhashemi, Arash; Oubei, Hassan M.; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    To date, solid-state lighting (SSL), visible light communication (VLC) and optical clock generation functionalities in the blue-green color regime have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, including light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, and transverse-transmission modulators. This work presents the first integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) at 448 nm, offering the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power-consumption. A high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V, deriving from a large extinction ratio of 9.4 dB and a low operating voltage range of 3.5 V, was measured. The electroabsorption characteristics revealed that the modulation effect, as observed from the red-shifting of the absorption edge, was resulted from the external-field-induced quantum-confined-Stark-effect (QCSE). A comparative analysis of the photocurrent versus wavelength spectra in semipolar- and polar-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) confirmed that the IWM-LD based on semipolar (20¯2 ¯1) QWs was able to operate in a manner similar to other III-V materials typically used in optical telecommunications, due to the reduced piezoelectric field. Utilizing the integrated modulator, a -3dB bandwidth of ~1 GHz was measured, and a data rate of 1 Gbit/s was demonstrated using on-off keying (OOK) modulation. Our experimental investigation highlighted the advantage of implementing the IWM-LD on the same semipolar QW epitaxy in enabling a high-efficiency platform for SSL-VLC dual-functionalities.

  20. High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-01-25

    To date, solid-state lighting (SSL), visible light communication (VLC) and optical clock generation functionalities in the blue-green color regime have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, including light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, and transverse-transmission modulators. This work presents the first integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) at 448 nm, offering the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power-consumption. A high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V, deriving from a large extinction ratio of 9.4 dB and a low operating voltage range of 3.5 V, was measured. The electroabsorption characteristics revealed that the modulation effect, as observed from the red-shifting of the absorption edge, was resulted from the external-field-induced quantum-confined-Stark-effect (QCSE). A comparative analysis of the photocurrent versus wavelength spectra in semipolar- and polar-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) confirmed that the IWM-LD based on semipolar (20¯2 ¯1) QWs was able to operate in a manner similar to other III-V materials typically used in optical telecommunications, due to the reduced piezoelectric field. Utilizing the integrated modulator, a -3dB bandwidth of ~1 GHz was measured, and a data rate of 1 Gbit/s was demonstrated using on-off keying (OOK) modulation. Our experimental investigation highlighted the advantage of implementing the IWM-LD on the same semipolar QW epitaxy in enabling a high-efficiency platform for SSL-VLC dual-functionalities.

  1. Complete indium-free CW 200W passively cooled high power diode laser array using double-side cooling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwei; Zhu, Pengfei; Liu, Hui; Liang, Xuejie; Wu, Dihai; Liu, Yalong; Yu, Dongshan; Zah, Chung-en; Liu, Xingsheng

    2017-02-01

    High power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. To meet the requirements of high power and high reliability, passively cooled single bar CS-packaged diode lasers must be robust to withstand thermal fatigue and operate long lifetime. In this work, a novel complete indium-free double-side cooling technology has been applied to package passively cooled high power diode lasers. Thermal behavior of hard solder CS-package diode lasers with different packaging structures was simulated and analyzed. Based on these results, the device structure and packaging process of double-side cooled CS-packaged diode lasers were optimized. A series of CW 200W 940nm high power diode lasers were developed and fabricated using hard solder bonding technology. The performance of the CW 200W 940nm high power diode lasers, such as output power, spectrum, thermal resistance, near field, far field, smile, lifetime, etc., is characterized and analyzed.

  2. Enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser integrated with an electro-absorption modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Jongseong; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2016-09-01

    We report on the enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser diode integrated with an electro-absorption modulator. A directly- modulated dual-section laser can provide improved modulation performance under a low bias level ( i.e., below the threshold level) compared with a standard directly-modulated laser. By combining the extinction ratio from a dual-section laser with that from an electro-absorption modulator section, a total extinction ratio of 49.6. dB are successfully achieved.

  3. High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B

    1999-01-01

    A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M(sup 2)= 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M(sup 2) value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M(sup 2) and lt; 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods

  4. High-power laser diodes with high polarization purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Yanson, Dan; Peleg, Ophir; Blonder, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Klumel, Genady

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diode modules employ power scaling of single emitters for fiber laser pumping. To this end, techniques such as geometrical, spectral and polarization beam combining (PBC) are used. For PBC, linear polarization with high degree of purity is important, as any non-perfectly polarized light leads to losses and heating. Furthermore, PBC is typically performed in a collimated portion of the beams, which also cancels the angular dependence of the PBC element, e.g., beam-splitter. However, we discovered that single emitters have variable degrees of polarization, which depends both on the operating current and far-field divergence. We present data to show angle-resolved polarization measurements that correlate with the ignition of high-order modes in the slow-axis emission of the emitter. We demonstrate that the ultimate laser brightness includes not only the standard parameters such as power, emitting area and beam divergence, but also the degree of polarization (DoP), which is a strong function of the latter. Improved slow-axis divergence, therefore, contributes not only to high brightness but also high beam combining efficiency through polarization.

  5. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB, continuous wave (CW 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF, a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA coefficient of 1.8 × 10−5 cm−1W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  6. High-Power DFB Diode Laser-Based CO-QEPAS Sensor: Optimization and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Tong, Yao; He, Ying; Yu, Xin; Tittel, Frank K

    2018-01-04

    A highly sensitive carbon monoxide (CO) trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was demonstrated. A high-power distributed feedback (DFB), continuous wave (CW) 2.33 μm diode laser with an 8.8 mW output power was used as the QEPAS excitation source. By optimizing the modulation depth and adding an optimum micro-resonator, compared to a bare quartz tuning fork (QTF), a 10-fold enhancement of the CO-QEPAS signal amplitude was achieved. When water vapor acting as a vibrational transfer catalyst was added to the target gas, the signal was further increased by a factor of ~7. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 11.2 ppm and a calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.8 × 10 -5 cm -1 W/√Hz were obtained for the reported CO-QEPAS sensor.

  7. Temperature-Corrected Oxygen Detection Based on Multi-Mode Diode Laser Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutao Lou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-corrected oxygen measurements were performed by using multi-mode diode laser correlation spectroscopy at temperatures ranging between 300 and 473 K. The experiments simulate in situ monitoring of oxygen in coal-combustion exhaust gases at the tail of the flue. A linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of −0.999 was found between the evaluated concentration and the gas temperature. Temperature effects were either auto-corrected by keeping the reference gas at the same conditions as the sample gas, or rectified by using a predetermined effective temperature-correction coefficient calibrated for a range of absorption wavelengths. Relative standard deviations of the temperature-corrected oxygen concentrations obtained by different schemes and at various temperatures were estimated, yielding a measurement precision of 0.6%.

  8. Diode laser heterodyne observations of silicon monoxide in sunspots - A test of three sunspot models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenar, D. A.; Deming, D.; Jennings, D. E.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Absorption features from the 8 micron SiO fundamental (upsilon = 1-0) and hot bands (upsilon = 2-1) have been observed in sunspots at sub-Doppler resolution using a ground-based tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer. The observed line widths suggest an upper limit of 0.5 km/s for the microturbulent velocity in sunspot umbrae. Since the silicon monoxide abundance is very sensitive to sunspot temperature, the measured equivalent widths permit an unambiguous determination of the temperature-pressure relation in the upper layers of the umbral atmosphere. In the region of SiO line formation (log P sub g = 3.0-4.5), the results support the sunspot model suggested by Stellmacher and Wiehr (1970).

  9. [Study on remote sensing of methane leakage using a tunable diode laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Bao, Jian; Wang, Xia; Huang, Teng; Huang, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Song; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2006-08-01

    The leak of natural gas is not only an economic loss, but also the fountain of danger. Conventional detection techniques of natural gas pipe leak have low efficiency and slow respond time, therefore, it is difficult for them to suit practice application. Optical sensors based on NIR tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy were widely used because of high sensitivity, small volume and less maintenance. In the present paper, a portable remote sensor of natural gas pipeline leak was reported. The sensor used a ratio of second to first harmonic signals as calibration method, and the results show a good consistency between the concentrations and the ratios of second to first harmonic signals. The effect of different topographic scattering targets on the ratio detection was measured and analyzed. The results show that the ratio of second to first harmonic signals can be used in practical application.

  10. Temperature issues with white laser diodes, calculation and approach for new packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Stephan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class systems mainly use HID or LED light sources. As a further step laser diode based systems offer a high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new dynamic and adaptive light functions and styling concepts. The use of white laser diode systems in automotive applications is still limited to laboratories and prototypes even though announcements of laser based front lighting systems have been made. But the environment conditions for vehicles and other industry sectors differ from laboratory conditions. Therefor a model of the system's thermal behavior is set up. The power loss of a laser diode is transported as thermal flux from the junction layer to the diode's case and on to the environment. Therefor its optical power is limited by the maximum junction temperature (for blue diodes typically 125 - 150 °C), the environment temperature and the diode's packaging with its thermal resistances. In a car's headlamp the environment temperature can reach up to 80 °C. While the difference between allowed case temperature and environment temperature is getting small or negative the relevant heat flux also becomes small or negative. In early stages of LED development similar challenges had to be solved. Adapting LED packages to the conditions in a vehicle environment lead to today's efficient and bright headlights. In this paper the need to transfer these results to laser diodes is shown by calculating the diodes lifetimes based on the presented model.

  11. Surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser in treatment of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, J; Akashi, G; Moriya, K; Hirai, Y; Hatayama, H; Inoue, A; Miyazaki, H

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using tuna tissue, which was irradiated with a 405-nm diode laser at output powers of 400 mW (694 W/cm 2 ) to 1 W (1735 W/cm 2 ) on a motorized stage moving at a rate of 1 mm/sec. As a control, a 920-nm diode laser was used with the same irradiation conditions. After irradiation, the thickness of ablation and coagulation was measured by stereoscopic microscopy and evaluated statistically. Ablation and coagulation zones were obtained with 405-nm laser irradiation, but not with irradiation at 920 nm. Ablation depth increased significantly with output power and a thick coagulation zone was observed with 405-nm irradiation. The 405-nm diode laser performed well for incising and coagulating soft tissue at a low power density

  12. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Vishwa; Ghosh, R; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2011-01-01

    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, α. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through α in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as α varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to α.

  13. Diode laser pumped solid state laser. Part IV. ; Noise analysis. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 4. ; Noise kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, H.; Seno, T.; Tanabe, Y. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-10

    Concerning the second harmonic generation(SHG) of diode laser pumped solid state laser using a nonlinear optical material, the researches are carried out to pracitically apply to the optical pickup. Therefore, the reduction of output optical noise has become the important researching subject. The theoretical and experimental analyses of noise generating mechanism were carried out for the system in which Nd;YAG as the laser diode and KTP (KTiOPO {sub 4}) as the nonlinear optical crystal were used. The following findings for the noise generating mechanism could be obtained: The competitive interaction between the polarization modes was dominant noise mechanism in the high frequency range from 1 to 20MHz and the noise could be removed sufficiently by using the QWP(quarter wave plate). On the other hand, the noise observed in the low frequency range from 100 to 200kHz depended on the resonance length, agreed qualitatively with the theoretical analysis of the noise to the competitive longitudinal modes and agreed quantitatively with the noise generating frequency range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Laser diode with thermal conducting, current confining film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylo, Frank Z. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A laser diode formed of a rectangular parallelopiped body of single crystalline semiconductor material includes regions of opposite conductivity type indium phosphide extending to opposite surfaces of the body. Within the body is a PN junction at which light can be generated. A stripe of a conductive material is on the surface of the body to which the P type region extends and forms an ohmic contact with the P type region. The stripe is spaced from the side surfaces of the body and extends to the end surfaces of the body. A film of germanium is on the portions of the surface of the P type region which is not covered by the conductive stripe. The germanium film serves to conduct heat from the body and forms a blocking junction with the P type region so as to confine the current through the body, across the light generating PN junction, away from the side surfaces of the body.

  15. Hyperchaotic Dynamics for Light Polarization in a Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cristian

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that a highly randomlike behavior of light polarization states in the output of a free-running laser diode, covering the whole Poincaré sphere, arises as a result from a fully deterministic nonlinear process, which is characterized by a hyperchaotic dynamics of two polarization modes nonlinearly coupled with a semiconductor medium, inside the optical cavity. A number of statistical distributions were found to describe the deterministic data of the low-dimensional nonlinear flow, such as lognormal distribution for the light intensity, Gaussian distributions for the electric field components and electron densities, Rice and Rayleigh distributions, and Weibull and negative exponential distributions, for the modulus and intensity of the orthogonal linear components of the electric field, respectively. The presented results could be relevant for the generation of single units of compact light source devices to be used in low-dimensional optical hyperchaos-based applications.

  16. Comparison of laser diode response to pulsed electrical and radiative excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggio, J.; Rainsant, J.M.; D'hose, C.; Lalande, P.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied the electrical and optical response of two laser diodes under transient irradiation. Both diodes exhibit a positive photocurrent, which adds to the bias current, and a decrease of the optical power until extinction when dose rate is increased. Direct carrier generation in the laser cavity is a second order phenomena. The diode overall response is driven by both the substrate photocurrent and the transient conduction of current confinement regions, which decrease the net current density in the cavity and switches-off the laser emission. This behavior is in good agreement with pulsed electrical characterizations and 2D simulations

  17. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  18. Frequency-comb-assisted broadband precision spectroscopy with cascaded diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Junqiu; Brasch, Victor; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-comb-assisted diode laser spectroscopy, employing both the accuracy of an optical frequency comb and the broad wavelength tuning range of a tunable diode laser, has been widely used in many applications. In this Letter, we present a novel method using cascaded frequency agile diode lasers......, which allows us to extend the measurement bandwidth to 37.4 THz (1355-1630 nm) at megahertz resolution with scanning speeds above 1 THz/s. It is demonstrated as a useful tool to characterize a broadband spectrum for molecular spectroscopy, and in particular it enables us to characterize the dispersion...

  19. The application of diode laser in the treatment of oral soft tissues lesions. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Concepción, Daniel; Cano-Durán, Jorge A; Peña-Cardelles, Juan-Francisco; Paredes-Rodríguez, Víctor-Manuel; González-Serrano, José; López-Quiles, Juan

    2017-07-01

    Since its appearance in the dental area, the laser has become a treatment of choice in the removal of lesions in the oral soft tissues, due to the numerous advantages they offer, being one of the most used currently the diode laser. The aim of this review was to determine the efficacy and predictability of diode laser as a treatment of soft tissue injuries compared to other surgical methods. A literature review of articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases between 2007 and 2017 was performed. "Diode laser", "soft tissue", "oral cavity" and "oral surgery" were employed for the search strategy. Only articles published English or Spanish were selected. The diode laser is a minimally invasive technology that offers great advantages, superior to those of the conventional scalpel, such as reduction of bleeding, inflammation and the lower probability of scars. Its effectiveness is comparable to that of other types of lasers, in addition to being an option of lower cost and greater ease of use. Its application in the soft tissues has been evaluated, being a safe and effective method for the excision of lesions like fibromas, epulis fissuratum and the accomplishment of frenectomies. The diode laser can be used with very good results for the removal of lesions in soft tissues, being used in small exophytic lesions due to their easy application, adequate coagulation, no need to suture and the slightest inflammation and pain. Key words: Diode laser, soft tissues, oral cavity, oral surgery.

  20. Investigation into the accuracy of a proposed laser diode based multilateration machine tool calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, S; Longstaff, A P; Myers, A

    2005-01-01

    Geometric and thermal calibration of CNC machine tools is required in modern machine shops with volumetric accuracy assessment becoming the standard machine tool qualification in many industries. Laser interferometry is a popular method of measuring the errors but this, and other alternatives, tend to be expensive, time consuming or both. This paper investigates the feasibility of using a laser diode based system that capitalises on the low cost nature of the diode to provide multiple laser sources for fast error measurement using multilateration. Laser diode module technology enables improved wavelength stability and spectral linewidth which are important factors for laser interferometry. With more than three laser sources, the set-up process can be greatly simplified while providing flexibility in the location of the laser sources improving the accuracy of the system

  1. Compact 2100 nm laser diode module for next-generation DIRCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinelis, Edgaras; Greibus, Mindaugas; TrinkÅ«nas, Augustinas; NaujokaitÄ--, Greta; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Dominykas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas

    2017-10-01

    Compact high-power 2100 nm laser diode module for next-generation directional infrared countermeasure (DIRCM) systems is presented. Next-generation DIRCM systems require compact, light-weight and robust laser modules which could provide intense IR light emission capable of disrupting the tracking sensor of heat-seeking missile. Currently used solid-state and fiber laser solutions for mid-IR band are bulky and heavy making them difficult to implement in smaller form-factor DIRCM systems. Recent development of GaSb laser diode technology greatly improved optical output powers and efficiencies of laser diodes working in 1900 - 2450 nm band [1] while also maintaining very attractive size, weight, power consumption and cost characteristics. 2100 nm laser diode module presented in this work performance is based on high-efficiency broad emitting area GaSb laser diode technology. Each laser diode emitter is able to provide 1 W of CW output optical power with working point efficiency up to 20% at temperature of 20 °C. For output beam collimation custom designed fast-axis collimator and slow-axis collimator lenses were used. These lenses were actively aligned and attached using UV epoxy curing. Total 2 emitters stacked vertically were used in 2100 nm laser diode module. Final optical output power of the module goes up to 2 W at temperature of 20 °C. Total dimensions of the laser diode module are 35 x 25 x 16 mm (L x W x H) with a weight of 28 grams. Finally output beam is bore-sighted to mechanical axes of the module housing allowing for easy integration into next-generation DIRCM systems.

  2. Effect of thermal processes on critical operation conditions of high-power laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashchuk, V V [Institute of Physics, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Vu Doan Mien [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2013-10-31

    Using numerical and analytical techniques in a threedimensional approximation, we have modelled the effect of spatial thermoelastic stress nonuniformity in a laser diode – heat sink system on the output characteristics of the device in different operation modes. We have studied the influence of the pulse duration, the geometry of the laser system and its thermophysical parameters on the critical pump current density, in particular for state-of-the-art heat conductive substrate materials. The proposed approach has been used to optimise the laser diode assembly process in terms of the quality of laser crystal positioning (bonding) on a heat sink. (lasers)

  3. GaSb based lasers operating near 2.3 .mu.m for high resolution absorption spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Horká-Zelenková, Veronika; Šimeček, Tomislav; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Petříček, Otto; Rouillard, C.; Alibert, C.; Werner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2005), s. 3066-3069 ISSN 1386-1425 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104; GA AV ČR IAA4040104; GA MŠk OC 715.50 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : laser diode * absorption spectroscopy * gas detection * methane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2005

  4. An analysis of transient thermal properties for high power GaN-based laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Seungtaek; Kang, Sung Bok; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Hoon; Lee, Kyeongkyun; Kim, Jongseok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 35-3 Hongcheon-Ri, Ipjang-Myeon, Cheonan, Chungnam 331-825 (Korea); Lee, Sangdon; Suh, Dongsik [QSI Co., Ltd., 315-9 Cheonheung-Ri, Sungger-Eup, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-836 (Korea); Yi, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Yoonho; Jung, Seok Gu; Noh, Minsoo [LG Electronics Advanced Research Institute, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-724 (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    Thermal properties of 405 nm GaN-based laser diodes were investigated by employing a transient heating response method based on the temperature dependence of diode forward voltage. Thermal resistances of materials consisting of packaged laser diodes were differentiated in transient thermal response curves at a current below threshold current. With a current above threshold current, no significant change in thermal resistances and difference between junction-up and junction-down laser diodes was observed at pulses shorter than 3 sec. From an analysis with long current injections, thermal resistance of a packaged laser diode with a junction-up bonding was {proportional_to}45 C/W which was higher than that of a junction-down bonded laser diode by {proportional_to}10 C/W. Further analyses based on parameters obtained from voltage recovery curves indicated that the time constant for cooling is directly related to the thermal resistance and thermal capacitance of a laser diode package. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Laser Absorption Spectrometry: Automated Environmental Sampling and Laser-Based Analysis for HEU Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear power, and consequently the uranium enrichment industry, requires the development of new safeguards technology to mitigate proliferation risks. Current enrichment monitoring instruments exist that provide only yes/no detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) production. More accurate accountancy measurements are typically restricted to gamma-ray and weight measurements taken in cylinder storage yards. Analysis of environmental and cylinder content samples have much higher effectiveness, but this approach requires onsite sampling, shipping, and time-consuming laboratory analysis and reporting. Given that large modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) can quickly produce a significant quantity (SQ ) of HEU, these limitations in verification suggest the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended safeguards instrument concept, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely analysis of enrichment levels within low enriched uranium facilities. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy to characterize the uranium isotopic ratio through subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths. Environmental sampling (ES) media from an integrated aerosol collector is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes material from a 10 to 20-(micro)m diameter spot of the surface of the sampling media. The plume of ejected material begins as high-temperature plasma that yields ions and atoms, as well as molecules and molecular ions. We concentrate on the plume of atomic vapor that remains after the plasma has expanded and then cooled by the surrounding cover gas. Tunable diode lasers are directed through this plume and each isotope is detected by monitoring absorbance

  6. Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Olsen, Ben A.; Marsland, Robert III; McGuyer, Bart H.; Happer, William

    2011-01-01

    Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines.

  7. Cryogenic Yb:YAG laser pumped by VBG-stabilized narrowband laser diode at 969 nm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Horáčková, Lucie; Navrátil, Petr; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 12 (2016), s. 1328-1331 ISSN 1041-1135 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA ČR GA14-01660S Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Diode-pumped * cryogenic * volume Bragg grating * Yb doped * solid state lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  8. Observation of enhanced infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with gold by pulsed laser melting of nanometer-thick gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philippe K.; Yang, Wenjie; Hudspeth, Quentin; Lim, Shao Qi; Williams, Jim S.; Warrender, Jeffrey M.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that pulsed laser melting (PLM) of thin 1, 5, and 10 nm-thick vapor-deposited gold layers on silicon enhances its room-temperature sub-band gap infrared absorption, as in the case of ion-implanted and PLM-treated silicon. The former approach offers reduced fabrication complexity and avoids implantation-induced lattice damage compared to ion implantation and pulsed laser melting, while exhibiting comparable optical absorptance. We additionally observed strong broadband absorptance enhancement in PLM samples made using 5- and 10-nm-thick gold layers. Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering analysis indicate that such an enhancement could be explained by absorption by a metastable, disordered and gold-rich surface layer. The sheet resistance and the diode electrical characteristics further elucidate the role of gold-supersaturation in silicon, revealing the promise for future silicon-based infrared device applications.

  9. Absorption of femtosecond laser pulses by atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jingquan; Zhang Jie; Li Yingjun; Chen Liming; Lu Tiezheng; Teng Hao

    2001-01-01

    Energy absorption by Xe, Ar, He atomic clusters are investigated using laser pulses with 5 mJ energy in 150 fs duration. Experimental results show that the size of cluster and laser absorption efficiency are strongly dependent on several factors, such as the working pressure of pulse valve, atomic number Z of the gas. Absorption fraction of Xe clusters is as high as 45% at a laser intensity of 1 x 10 15 W/cm 2 with 20 x 10 5 Pa gas jet backing pressure. Absorption of the atomic clusters is greatly reduced by introducing pre-pulses. Ion energy measurements confirm that the efficient energy deposition results in a plasma with very high ion temperature

  10. Analysis of High-Power Diode Laser Heating Effects on HY-80 Steel for Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechec, Maxwell; Baker, Brad; McNelley, Terry; Matthews, Manyalibo; Rubenchik, Alexander; Rotter, Mark; Beach, Ray; Wu, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    In this research, several conditions of high power diode laser heated HY-80 steel were characterized to determine the viability of using such lasers as a preheating source before friction stir welding in order to reduce frictional forces thereby reducing tool wear and increasing welding speeds. Differences in microstructures within heat affected zones were identified at specific laser powers and traverse speeds. Vickers hardness values were recorded and analyzed to validate the formation of additional martensite in diode laser heated regions of HY-80 steel. Conditions that produced little to no additional martensite were identified and relationships among high power diode laser power, traverse speed, and martensite formation were determined. The development of heat affected zones, change in grain structure, and creation of additional martensite in HY-80 can be prevented through the optimization of laser amperage and transverse speed.

  11. Femtosecond laser irradiation-induced infrared absorption on silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The near-infrared (NIR absorption below band gap energy of crystalline silicon is significantly increased after the silicon is irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at a simple experimental condition. The absorption increase in the NIR range primarily depends on the femtosecond laser pulse energy, pulse number, and pulse duration. The Raman spectroscopy analysis shows that after the laser irradiation, the silicon surface consists of silicon nanostructure and amorphous silicon. The femtosecond laser irradiation leads to the formation of a composite of nanocrystalline, amorphous, and the crystal silicon substrate surface with microstructures. The composite has an optical absorption enhancement at visible wavelengths as well as at NIR wavelength. The composite may be useful for an NIR detector, for example, for gas sensing because of its large surface area.

  12. High-power pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Larry R.; Hays, A. D.; Kaz, Alex; Kasinski, Jeff; Burnham, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of both pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers are presented. The pulsed laser produced 1.0 mJ with pulsewidths of 90 psec at 20 Hz. The CW pumped laser produced 6 W output at 1.064 microns and 3 W output at 532 nm.

  13. Kilowatt average power 100 J-level diode pumped solid state laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, P.; Divoký, Martin; Ertel, K.; Pilař, Jan; Butcher, T.; Hanuš, Martin; Banerjee, S.; Phillips, J.; Smith, J.; De Vido, M.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Edwards, C.; Mocek, Tomáš; Collier, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2017), s. 438-439 ISSN 2334-2536 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode-pumped * solid state * laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 7.727, year: 2016

  14. Colliding Pulse Mode-Locked Laser Diode using Multimode Interference Reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon Gallegos, Carlos; Guzmán, R.C.; Jimenez, A.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Carpintero, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel fully monolithic Colliding Pulse Mode-Locked Laser Diode (CPML) using Multimode Interference Reflectors (MMIRs) to create the laser resonator. We demonstrate experimentally for the first time to our knowledge the Colliding Pulse mode-locking of a laser using MMIRs by observation

  15. A 1,470 nm diode laser in stapedotomy : Mechanical, thermal, and acoustic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraads, Simone P.C.; de Boorder, Tjeerd; Grolman, Wilko; Kamalski, Digna M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Multiple laser systems have been investigated for their use in stapes surgery in patients with otosclerosis. The diode 1,470 nm laser used in this study is an attractive laser system because it is easily transported and relatively inexpensive in use. This wavelength has

  16. A simulation of laser energy absorption by nanowired surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Miguel F.S.; Ramos, Alexandre F., E-mail: miguel.vasconcelos@usp.br, E-mail: alex.ramos@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades

    2017-07-01

    Despite recent advances on research about laser inertial fusion energy, to increase the portion of energy absorbed by the target's surface from lasers remains as an important challenge. The plasma formed during the initial instants of laser arrival shields the target and prevents the absorption of laser energy by the deeper layers of the material. One strategy to circumvent that effect is the construction of targets whose surfaces are populated with nanowires. The nanowired surfaces have increased absorption of laser energy and constitutes a promising pathway for enhancing laser-matter coupling. In our work we present the results of simulations aiming to investigate how target's geometrical properties might contribute for maximizing laser energy absorption by material. Simulations have been carried out using the software FLASH, a multi-physics platform developed by researchers from the University of Chicago, written in FORTRAN 90 and Python. Different tools for generating target's geometry and analysis of results were developed using Python. Our results show that a nanowired surfaces has an increased energy absorption when compared with non wired surface. The software for visualization developed in this work also allowed an analysis of the spatial dynamics of the target's temperature, electron density, ionization levels and temperature of the radiation emitted by it. (author)

  17. A simulation of laser energy absorption by nanowired surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Miguel F.S.; Ramos, Alexandre F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent advances on research about laser inertial fusion energy, to increase the portion of energy absorbed by the target's surface from lasers remains as an important challenge. The plasma formed during the initial instants of laser arrival shields the target and prevents the absorption of laser energy by the deeper layers of the material. One strategy to circumvent that effect is the construction of targets whose surfaces are populated with nanowires. The nanowired surfaces have increased absorption of laser energy and constitutes a promising pathway for enhancing laser-matter coupling. In our work we present the results of simulations aiming to investigate how target's geometrical properties might contribute for maximizing laser energy absorption by material. Simulations have been carried out using the software FLASH, a multi-physics platform developed by researchers from the University of Chicago, written in FORTRAN 90 and Python. Different tools for generating target's geometry and analysis of results were developed using Python. Our results show that a nanowired surfaces has an increased energy absorption when compared with non wired surface. The software for visualization developed in this work also allowed an analysis of the spatial dynamics of the target's temperature, electron density, ionization levels and temperature of the radiation emitted by it. (author)

  18. New class of compact diode pumped sub 10 fs lasers for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.; Mueller, A.; Sumpf, B.

    2016-01-01

    Diode-pumping Ti: sapphire lasers promises a new approach to low-cost femtosecond light sources. Thus in recent years much effort has been taken just to overcome the quite low power and low beam qualities of available green diodes to obtain output powers of several hundred milliwatts from a fs-la...

  19. Chemical kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions using tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, Douglas R.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    IR absorption using tunable diode laser spectroscopy provides a sensitive and quantitative detection method for laboratory kinetic studies of atmospheric trace gases. Improvements in multipass cell design, real time signal processing, and computer controlled data acquisition and analysis have extended the applicability of the technique. We have developed several optical systems using off-axis resonator mirror designs which maximize path length while minimizing both the sample volume and the interference fringes inherent in conventional 'White' cells. Computerized signal processing using rapid scan (300 kHz), sweep integration with 100 percent duty cycle allows substantial noise reduction while retaining the advantages of using direct absorption for absolute absorbance measurements and simultaneous detection of multiple species. Peak heights and areas are determined by curve fitting using nonlinear least square methods. We have applied these techniques to measurements of: (1) heterogeneous uptake chemistry of atmospheric trace gases (HCl, H2O2, and N2O5) on aqueous and sulfuric acid droplets; (2) vapor pressure measurements of nitric acid and water over prototypical stratospheric aerosol (nitric acid trihydrate) surfaces; and (3) discharge flow tube kinetic studies of the HO2 radical using isotopic labeling for product channel and mechanistic analysis. Results from each of these areas demonstrate the versatility of TDL absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric chemistry applications.

  20. Kinetic and Diagnostic Studies of Molecular Plasmas Using Laser Absorption Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, S; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B; Roepcke, J

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decade mid infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 μm, known as Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry of molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has lead to further applications of IRLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. IRLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetics. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from IRLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected, especially using TDLs. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of QCLs offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes as well as for highly time-resolved studies on the kinetics of plasma processes. The aim of the present article is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals, and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid infrared

  1. Preliminary Demonstration of Power Beaming With Non-Coherent Laser Diode Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kare, Jordin

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary demonstration of free-space electric power transmission has been conducted using non-coherent laser diode arrays as the transmitter and standard silicon photovoltaic cell arrays as the receiver...

  2. Developing a Methodology for Elaborating a Pulsed Optical Safety Area for High Power Laser Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yankov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    The laser diodes are efficient sources of optical radiation. The maximum optical peak power depends on the pulse duration of the driving current pulse - reducing the pulse duration the safety peak power is increased...

  3. Non-invasive diagnostics of the maxillary and frontal sinuses based on diode laser gas spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewander, Märta; Lindberg, Sven; Svensson, Tomas; Siemund, Roger; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Suspected, but objectively absent, rhinosinusitis constitutes a major cause of visits to the doctor, high health care costs, and the over-prescription of antibiotics, contributing to the serious problem of resistant bacteria. This situation is largely due to a lack of reliable and widely applicable diagnostic methods. A novel method for the diagnosis of rhinosinusitis based on non-intrusive diode laser gas spectroscopy is presented. The technique is based on light absorption by free gas (oxygen and water vapour) inside the sinuses, and has the potential to be a complementary diagnostic tool in primary health care. The method was evaluated on 40 patients with suspected sinus problems, referred to the diagnostic radiology clinic for low-dose computed tomography (CT), which was used as the reference technique. The data obtained with the new laser-based method correlated well with the grading of opacification and ventilation using CT. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated to be 93% and 61%, respectively, for the maxillary sinuses, and 94% and 86%, respectively, for the frontal sinuses. Good reproducibility was shown. The laser-based technique presents real-time clinical data that correlate well to CT findings, while being non-intrusive and avoiding the use of ionizing radiation.

  4. Combining high power diode lasers using fiber bundles for beam delivery in optoacoustic endoscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Sandeep Babu; Leggio, Luca; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Dadrasnia, Ehsan; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-05-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) effect refers to the generation of the acoustic waves due to absorption of light energy in a biological tissue. The incident laser pulse is absorbed by the tissue, resulting in the generation of ultrasound that is typically detected by a piezoelectric detector. Compared to other techniques, the advantage of OA imaging (OAI) technique consists in combining the high resolution of ultrasound technique with the high contrast of optical imaging. Generally, Nd:YAG and OPO systems are used for the generation of OA waves but their use in clinical environment is limited for many aspects. On the other hand, high-power diode lasers (HPDLs) emerge as potential alternative. However, the power of HPDLs is still relatively low compared to solid-state lasers. We show a side-by-side combination of several HPDLs in an optical fiber bundle to increase the amount of power for OA applications. Initially, we combine the output optical power of several HPDLs at 905 nm using two 7 to 1 round optical fiber bundles featuring a 675 μm and 1.2 mm bundle aperture. In a second step, we couple the output light of these fiber bundles to a 600 μm core diameter endoscopic fiber, reporting the corresponding coupling efficiencies. The fiber bundles with reasonable small diameter are likely to be used for providing sufficient light energy to potential OA endoscopy (OAE) applications.

  5. Ultra-Short Laser Absorption In Solid Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfouche, A.; Bendib, A.

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development and continuously improving technology of subpicosecond laser pulse generation, new interesting physical problems are now investigated. Among them the laser light absorption in solid targets. During the interaction with solid targets, high intensity laser pulses are absorbed by electrons in optical skin depths, leading to rapid ionization before that significant ablation of solid material takes place. The ultra-short laser is absorbed in the overdense plasma through the electron-ion collisions (normal skin effect) or collisionless mechanisms (anomalous skin effect or sheath inverse bremsstrahlung). These two regimes depend on the laser intensity, the plasma temperature and the ionization state Z. In this work we solve numerically the Fokker-Planck equation to compute the electron distribution function in the skin layer. In the second step we compute the surface impedance and we deduce the absorption coefficient.

  6. Generating a high brightness multi-kilowatt laser by dense spectral combination of VBG stabilized single emitter laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, H.; Koch, Ralf; Krusche, B.; Ferrario, F.; Grohe, Andreas; Pflueger, S.; Gries, W.

    2014-05-01

    Generating high power laser radiation with diode lasers is commonly realized by geometrical stacking of diode bars, which results in high output power but poor beam parameter product (BPP). The accessible brightness in this approach is limited by the fill factor, both in slow and fast axis. By using a geometry that accesses the BPP of the individual diodes, generating a multi kilowatt diode laser with a BPP comparable to fiber lasers is possible. We will demonstrate such a modular approach for generating multi kilowatt lasers by combining single emitter diode lasers. Single emitter diodes have advantages over bars, mainly a simplified cooling, better reliability and a higher brightness per emitter. Additionally, because single emitters can be arranged in many different geometries, they allow building laser modules where the brightness of the single emitters is preserved. In order to maintain the high brightness of the single emitter we developed a modular laser design which uses single emitters in a staircase arrangement, then coupling two of those bases with polarization combination which is our basic module. Those modules generate up to 160 W with a BPP better than 7.5 mm*mrad. For further power scaling wavelength stabilization is crucial. The wavelength is stabilized with only one Volume Bragg Grating (VBG) in front of a base providing the very same feedback to all of the laser diodes. This results in a bandwidth of BPP better than 7.5 mm*mrad, which can easily coupled into a 100 μm fiber and 0.15 NA.

  7. GreenLight laser vs diode laser vaporization of the prostate: 3-year results of a prospective nonrandomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sanwei; Müller, Georg; Bonkat, Gernot; Püschel, Heike; Gasser, Thomas; Bachmann, Alexander; Rieken, Malte

    2015-04-01

    Laser vaporization of the prostate is one of the alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate. Short-term studies report a comparable outcome after laser vaporization with the 532 nm 120-W GreenLight high-performance system (HPS) laser and the 980 nm 200 W high-intensity diode (diode) laser. In this study, we analyzed the intermediate-term results of both techniques. From January 2007 to January 2008, 112 consecutive patients with symptomatic benign prostate enlargement were nonrandomly assigned to treatment with the GreenLight laser or the diode laser. Perioperative parameters, postoperative functional outcome, complications, and the reoperation rate at 3 years were analyzed. Improvement of voiding symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score, quality-of-life) and micturition parameters (maximum flow rate, postvoid residual volume) showed no significant difference between the HPS group and the diode group. A significantly higher reoperation rate was observed in the diode group in comparison to the HPS group (37.5% vs 8.9%, p=0.0003) due to obstructive necrotic tissue (16.1% vs 0%, p=0.0018), bladder neck stricture (16.1% vs 1.8%, p=0.008), and persisting or recurrent adenoma (5.4% vs 7.1%, p=0.70), respectively. Both lasers lead to comparable improvement of voiding parameters and micturition symptoms. Treatment with the 200 W diode laser led to a significantly higher reoperation rate, which might be attributed to a higher degree of coagulation necrosis. Thus, a careful clinical application of this diode laser type is warranted.

  8. High-efficiency diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Wei, Z.Y.; Zou, Y.W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient diode-end-pumped femtosecond Yb:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser was demonstrated. Pumped by a 968 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, 1.9 W mode-locked output power at a repetition rate of 64.27 MHz was obtained with 3.5 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope...... efficiency of 76%. Our measurement showed that the pulse duration was 418 fs with the central wavelength of 1048 nm....

  9. Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy for Carbon Isotope Analysis with 2 μm Diode Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, K.; Tomita, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have made a prototype based on CRDS with 2 μm diode laser for carbon isotope analysis of CO 2 in air. The carbon isotope ratio was obtained to be (1.085±0.012)x10 -2 which shows good agreement with the isotope ratio measured by the magnetic sector-type mass spectrometer within uncertainty. Hence, we demonstrated the carbon isotope analysis based on CRDS with 2 μm tunable diode laser.

  10. Emission characteristics of laser and superluminescent diodes with a gradient-index waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, A.E.; Garmash, I.A.; Goldobin, I.S.; Eliukhin, V.A.; Pak, G.T.

    1987-05-01

    A study is made of the emission characteristics of laser and superluminescent diodes with gradient-index waveguides based on Al(x)Ga(1-x)As solid solutions, operating in the CW mode at room temperature. The coupling coefficients for a single-mode fiber are 25 and 18 percent for laser and superluminescent diodes, respectively, when an interface device consisting of three microlenses is used. 6 references.

  11. Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6... High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers Report Term: 0-Other Email: leon.shterengas@stonybrook.edu Distribution Statement: 1-Approved

  12. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marynowicz Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples’ surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  13. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowicz, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples' surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  14. Complicações na dacriocistorrinostomia transcanalicular com laser diodo: complications Transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy with diode laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alonso Garcia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as complicações da aplicação do laser de diodo para o tratamento da obstrução nasolacrimal adquirida. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados 44 procedimentos (dacriocistorrinostomia transcanalicular com laser de diodo com intubação bicanalicular de silicone sob anestesia local entre fevereiro de 2002 a novembro de 2007 em 41 pacientes (3 bilateralmente, sendo 32 mulheres e 9 homens. RESULTADOS: As complicações mais frequentes no intraoperatório foram: dificuldade de passar a sonda de Crawford (13,6% e passagem da fibra óptica dificultada (11,3%. No pós-operatório, a epífora foi a ocorrência mais frequente (15,9%, seguida pela retirada acidental do silastic (11,3%. CONCLUSÃO: Os índices de complicações intra e pós-operatórias se equivalem aos artigos publicados com a mesma técnica cirúrgica (e mesmo tipo de laser.PURPOSE: To evaluate the complications of the use of diode laser in the treatment of acquired nasolacrimal obstruction. METHODS: Forty four procedures (transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy with diode laser with bicanalicular silicone tube intubation and local anesthesia where performed from February 2002 to November 2007 in 41 patients (3 bilaterally, 32 women and 9 men. RESULTS: The most common intraoperative complications were disability to pass the Crawford probe (13.6% and the laser probe (11.3%. Regarding postoperative complications, epiphora was the event of higher frequency (15.9% followed by the non-intentional silastic extrusion by the patient (11.3%. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative and postoperative complications rate were similar of others articles that demonstrated the same surgical technique (with same laser.

  15. External cavity diode laser-based detection of trace gases with NICE-OHMS using current modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, R; Mandon, J; Cristescu, S M; Axner, O; Harren, F J M

    2015-03-09

    We combine an external cavity diode laser with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) using current modulation. With a finesse of 1600, we demonstrate noise equivalent absorption sensitivities of 4.1 x 10(-10) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), resulting in sub-ppbv detection limits for Doppler-broadened transitions of CH(4) at 6132.3 cm(-1), C(2)H(2) at 6578.5 cm(-1) and HCN at 6541.7 cm(-1). The system is used for hydrogen cyanide detection from sweet almonds.

  16. Comparison of effects of diode laser and CO2 laser on human teeth and their usefulness in topical fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alberto; de Dios López-González, Juan; del Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Villalba-Moreno, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Various authors have reported more effective fluoridation from the use of lasers combined with topical fluoride than from conventional topical fluoridation. Besides the beneficial effect of lasers in reducing the acid solubility of an enamel surface, they can also increase the uptake of fluoride. The study objectives were to compare the action of CO(2) and GaAlAs diode lasers on dental enamel and their effects on pulp temperature and enamel fluoride uptake. Different groups of selected enamel surfaces were treated with amine fluoride and irradiated with CO(2) laser at an energy power of 1 or 2 W or with diode laser at 5 or 7 W for 15 s each and compared to enamel surfaces without treatment or topical fluoridated. Samples were examined by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Surfaces of all enamel samples were then acid-etched, measuring the amount of fluoride deposited on the enamel by using a selective ion electrode. Other enamel surfaces selected under the same conditions were irradiated as described above, measuring the increase in pulp temperature with a thermocouple wire. Fluorination with CO(2) laser at 1 W and diode laser at 7 W produced a significantly greater fluoride uptake on enamel (89 ± 18 mg/l) and (77 ± 17 mg/l) versus topical fluoridation alone (58 ± 7 mg/l) and no treatment (20 ± 1 mg/l). Diode laser at 5 W produced a lesser alteration of the enamel surface compared to CO(2) laser at 1 W, but greater pulp safety was provided by CO(2) laser (ΔT° 1.60° ± 0.5) than by diode laser (ΔT° 3.16° ± 0.6). Diode laser at 7 W and CO(2) laser at 2 W both caused alterations on enamel surfaces, but great pulp safety was again obtained with CO(2) (ΔT° 4.44° ± 0.60) than with diode (ΔT° 5.25° ± 0.55). Our study demonstrates that CO(2) and diode laser irradiation of the enamel surface can both increase fluoride uptake; however, laser energy parameters must be carefully

  17. Laser diode pumped ND: Glass slab laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, M.; Kanabe, T.; Matsui, H.

    2001-01-01

    As a first step of a driver development for the inertial fusion energy, we are developing a laser-diode-pumped zig-zag Nd:glass slab laser amplifier system HALNA 10 (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application) which can generate an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig-zag Nd:glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803-nm AlGaAs laser-diode(LD) module; each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generated in total 218 (max.) kW peak power with 2.6kW/cm 2 peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in a preliminary experiment a 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern, which nearly confirmed our conceptual design. (author)

  18. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  19. An in vitro antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles activated by diode laser to Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, S. D.; Kharisma, D. H.; Kholimatussa'diah, S.; Zaidan, A. H.

    2017-09-01

    Microbial infectious diseases and increased resistance to antibiotics become urgent problems requiring immediate solutions. One promising alternative is the using of silver nanoparticles. The combination of the microbial inhibition characteristic of silver nanotechnology enhances the activity of antimicrobial effect. This study aims to determine effectiveness of antifungal silver nanoparticles with the activation of the diode laser on Candida albicans. The samples were culture of Candida albicans. Candida albicans cultures were incubated with silver nanoparticles (concentration 10-4 M) and treated with various exposure time of diode laser (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90)s. The suspension was planted on Sabouraud Dextrone Agar sterile media and incubated for 24 hours at temperature of 37oC. The number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) was determined after incubation. The results were log-transformed and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this analysis, P value ≤0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The result of this study showed the quantum yield of silver nanoparticles with diode laser 450 nm was 63,61%. Irradiating with diode laser 450 nm for 75 s resulted in the highest decreasing percentage of Candida albicans viability 65,03%. Irradiating with diode laser 450 nm 75 s with silver nanoparticles resulted in the higest decreasing percentage of Candida albicans viability 84,63%. Therefore, silver nanoparticles activated with diode laser irradiation of 450 nm resulted antifungal effect to Candida albicans viability.

  20. Blue diode laser versus traditional infrared diode laser and quantic molecular resonance scalpel: clinical and histological findings after excisional biopsy of benign oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Margherita; Bussani, Rossana; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Rupel, Katia; Bevilaqua, Lorenzo; Ottaviani, Giulia; Biasotto, Matteo

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to compare the use of the innovative blue diode laser (BLUE group) with two traditional surgical techniques: the infrared diode laser (IR group) and the quantic molecular resonance scalpel (QMR group) in the excision of benign oral lesions. Ninety-three patients underwent surgical excision of a benign oral lesion and were followed up for 30 days for pain (0 to 10 visual analogue scale), bleeding, and painkillers' assumption (yes/no). A blind pathologist evaluated the thermal damage along the cutting margin. Although referred pain was lowest in the BLUE group from day 7 on (plaser minimizes risk of bleeding with limited thermal damage.

  1. Wavelength beam combining of a 980-nm tapered diode laser bar in an external cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    solution for preserving the beam quality of the bar in the range of that of a single emitter and at the same time, enabling the power scaling. We report spectral beam combining applied to a 12 emitter tapered laser bar at 980 nm. The external cavity has been designed for a wavelength separation of 4.0 nm......High power diode lasers are used in a large number of applications. A limiting factor for more widespread use of broad area lasers is the poor beam quality. Gain guided tapered diode lasers are ideal candidates for industrial applications that demands watt level output power with good beam quality...

  2. Route to broadband chaos in a chaotic laser diode subject to optical injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Bang; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, Juan-Fen

    2009-04-15

    We experimentally and numerically demonstrate a route to bandwidth-enhanced chaos that is induced by an additional optical injection for a chaotic laser diode with optical feedback. The measured and calculated optical spectra consistently reveal that the mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is the interaction between the injection and chaotic laser field via beating. The bandwidth can be maximized only when the injected light is detuned into the edge of the optical spectrum of the chaotic laser field and the beating frequency exceeds the original bandwidth. The simulated dynamics maps indicate that 20 GHz broadband chaos can be obtained by commonly used laser diodes.

  3. Frequency locking of compact laser-diode modules at 633 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölleke, Christian; Leisching, Patrick; Blume, Gunnar; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Pohl, Johannes; Feise, David; Sahm, Alexander; Paschke, Katrin

    2018-02-01

    This work reports on a compact diode-laser module emitting at 633 nm. The emission frequency can be tuned with temperature and current, while optical feedback of an internal DBR grating ensures single-mode operation. The laser diode is integrated into a micro-fabricated package, which includes optics for beam shaping, a miniaturized optical isolator, and a vapor cell as frequency reference. The achieved absolute frequency stability is below 10-8 , while the output power can be more than 10 mW. This compact absolute frequency-stabilized laser system can replace gas lasers and may be integrated in future quantum technology devices.

  4. Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy using an optical fiber delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Ruxton, Keith; Johnstone, Walter; Lengden, Michael; Duffin, Kevin

    2009-06-08

    A new fiber-optic technique to eliminate residual amplitude modulation in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy is presented. The modulated laser output is split to pass in parallel through the gas measurement cell and an optical fiber delay line, with the modulation frequency / delay chosen to introduce a relative phase shift of pi between them. The two signals are balanced using a variable attenuator and recombined through a fiber coupler. In the absence of gas, the direct laser intensity modulation cancels, thereby eliminating the high background. The presence of gas induces a concentration-dependent imbalance at the coupler's output from which the absolute absorption profile is directly recovered with high accuracy using 1f detection.

  5. Novel 755-nm diode laser vs. conventional 755-nm scanned alexandrite laser: Side-by-side comparison pilot study for thorax and axillary hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Wagner, Justinus A; Paasch, Hartmut W

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrite (755 nm) and diode lasers (800-810 nm) are commonly used for hair removal. The alexandrite laser technology is somewhat cumbersome whereas new diode lasers are more robust. Recently, alexandrite-like 755 nm wavelength diodes became available. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a 755 nm diode laser operated in conventional (HR) and non-conventional in-motion (SHR) modes with a conventional scanned alexandrite 755 nm laser for chest and axillary hair removal. A prospective, single-center, proof of principle study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and handling of a 755 nm diode laser system in comparison to a standard alexandrite 755 nm scanning hair removal laser. The new 755 nm diode is suitable to be used in SHR and HR mode and has been tested for its safety, efficacy and handling in a volunteer with success. Overall, both systems showed a high efficacy in hair reduction (88.8% 755 nm diode laser vs. 77.7% 755 nm alexandrite laser). Also, during the study period, no severe adverse effects were reported. The new 755 nm diode laser is as effective and safe as the traditional 755 nm alexandrite laser. Additionally, treatment with the 755 nm diode laser with HR and SHR modes was found to be less painful.

  6. Sub-parts-per-quadrillion-level graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry based on laser wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickadeit, Fritz K; Berniolles, Sandrine; Kemp, Helen R; Tong, William G

    2004-03-15

    Nonlinear laser wave mixing in a common graphite furnace atomizer is presented as a zeptomole-level, sub-Doppler, high-resolution atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. A nonplanar three-dimensional wave-mixing optical setup is used to generate the signal beam in its own space. Signal collection is efficient and convenient using a template-based optical alignment. The graphite furnace atomizer offers advantages including fast and convenient introduction of solid, liquid, or gas analytes, clean atomization environment, and minimum background noise. Taking advantage of the unique features of the wave-mixing optical method and those of the graphite furnace atomizer, one can obtain both excellent spectral resolution and detection sensitivity. A preliminary concentration detection limit of 0.07 parts-per-quadrillion and a preliminary mass detection limit of 0.7 ag or 8 zmol are determined for rubidium using a compact laser diode as the excitation source.

  7. Exciplex formation and electroluminescent absorption in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Zhang Hao; Xu Tao; Wei Bin; Zhang Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the formation of exciplex and electroluminescent absorption in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes (UV OLEDs) using different heterojunction structures. It is found that an energy barrier of over 0.3 eV between the emissive layer (EML) and adjacent transport layer facilitates exciplex formation. The electron blocking layer effectively confines electrons in the EML, which contributes to pure UV emission and enhances efficiency. The change in EML thickness generates tunable UV emission from 376 nm to 406 nm. In addition, the UV emission excites low-energy organic function layers and produces photoluminescent emission. In UV OLED, avoiding the exciplex formation and averting light absorption can effectively improve the purity and efficiency. A maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.2% with a UV emission peak of 376 nm is realized. (paper)

  8. A comparative study of modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy versus conventional transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Eduardo Damous; Caixeta, Juliana Alves; de Souza Nery, Ana Carla; Limongi, Roberto Murillo; Matayoshi, Suzana

    2017-08-01

    External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the gold standard surgical technique for the treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO). However, new techniques such as endoscopic DCR and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy (T-DCR) are being studied in an attempt to reduce surgical time, avoid external scarring and preserve the lacrimal pump while achieving the same efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy between conventional T-DCR and modified transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy (MT-DCR) in patients with PANDO. MT-DCR is performed to remove nasal mucosa prior to laser osteotomy. This is a comparative, prospective, interventionist and randomized study. Patients with PANDO were selected to undergo MT-DCR or T-DCR by blocked randomization. PANDO was diagnosed based on clinical presentation, dye disappearance test and dacryocystography. All of the procedures were performed by the same surgery team members. Anatomical success outcome was defined as positive lacrimal syringing and functional success outcome was defined as the absence or improvement of epiphora. A total of 44 surgical procedures were performed (22 MT-DCR and 22 T-DCR). In the case of MT-DCR, the anatomical and functional success rates after 12 months were 90 and 86%, respectively. After T-DCR, these rates were 77 and 72%, respectively (p = 0.162). MT-DCR and T-DCR are both safe and fast procedures with low morbidity and well-tolerated.

  9. Diagnostic studies of molecular plasmas using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röpcke, J.; Welzel, S.; Lang, N.; Hempel, F.; Gatilova, L.; Guaitella, O.; Rousseau, A.; Davies, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 µm, known as infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has

  10. Diode laser soft-tissue surgery: advancements aimed at consistent cutting, improved clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-01-01

    Laser dentistry and soft-tissue surgery, in particular, have become widely adopted in recent years. Significant cost reductions for dental lasers and the increasing popularity of CADCAM, among other factors, have contributed to a substantial increase in the installed base of dental lasers, especially soft-tissue lasers. New development in soft-tissue surgery, based on the modern understanding of laser-tissue interactions and contact soft-tissue surgery mechanisms, will bring a higher quality and consistency level to laser soft-tissue surgery. Recently introduced diode-laser technology enables enhanced control of side effects that result from tissue overheating and may improve soft-tissue surgical outcomes.

  11. Treatment of keloid scars with a 1210-nm diode laser in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philandrianos, Cécile; Bertrand, Baptiste; Andrac-Meyer, Lucile; Magalon, Guy; Casanova, Dominique; Kerfant, Nathalie; Mordon, Serge

    2015-12-01

    A temperature increase can improve wound healing by activation of heat shock protein 70 and stimulation of fibroblasts. Since keloids are a dysfunction of collagen fiber synthesis and organization, this study aimed to evaluate if a 1,210 nm diode laser could have effects in a new animal model of keloid scars. A total of 39 nude mice were used for this study. Phototypes IV and V human keloids were grafted into their backs and after 1 month of healing, the mice were divided into four groups: Control, Laser, Resection, Resection/Laser. In the Laser group, the keloids were treated with a 1,210-nm diode-laser with the following parameters: 4 W; 10 seconds; fluence: 51 J/cm(2) ; spot: 18.9 × 3.7 mm(2) . In the Resection group, surgical intra-lesional excision was performed. In the Resection/Laser group, keloids were treated with the 1,210-nm laser-diode after surgical intra-lesional excision. Temperature measurements were made during the laser treatment. Clinical examination and histological study were performed on the day of treatment and 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months later. Mean temperature measurement was of 44.8°C (42-48°) in the Laser groups. No healing complications or keloid proliferation was observed in any group. Keloid histologic characters were confirmed in all grafts. No histologic particularity was observed in the laser groups in comparison with the Control and Resection groups. First, this keloid animal model appears to be adapted for laser study. Secondly, the 1,210-nm diode laser does not induce keloid thermal damage in vivo. Further studies with different 1,210-nm laser diode parameters should be performed in order to observe significant effects on keloids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Laservaporization of the prostate: current status of the greenlight and diode laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieken, M; Bachmann, A; Gratzke, C

    2013-03-01

    In the last decade laser vaporization of the prostate has emerged as a safe and effective alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). This was facilitated in particular by the introduction of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with a 532 nm 80 W KTP laser in 2002. Prospective randomized trials comparing PVP and TURP with a maximum follow-up of 3 years mostly demonstrated comparable functional results. Cohort studies showed a safe application of PVP in patients under oral anticoagulation and with large prostates. Systems from various manufacturers with different maximum power output and wavelengths are now available for diode laser vaporization of the prostate. Prospective randomized trials comparing diode lasers and TURP are not yet available. In cohort studies and comparative studies PVP diode lasers are characterized by excellent hemostatic properties but functional results vary greatly with some studies reporting high reoperation rates.

  13. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control.

  14. Diode and Nd:YAG laser in a case of refractory acne keloidalis nuchae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN is a disease of unclear etiology that mainly affects males. Medical treatment of AKN is difficult, with refractory cases often requiring ablation by laser or surgical resection. We report herein, a 23-year-old male with refractory AKN treated successfully with combined laser ablation, using an 810-nm diode laser and a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser.

  15. Modulation of distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with the autonomous Chua's circuit: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla Mbé, Jimmi Hervé; Woafo, Paul

    2018-03-01

    We report on a simple way to generate complex optical waveforms with very cheap and accessible equipments. The general idea consists in modulating a laser diode with an autonomous electronic oscillator, and in the case of this study, we use a distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode pumped with an electronic Chua's circuit. Based on the adiabatic P-I characteristics of the laser diode at low frequencies, we show that when the total pump is greater than the laser threshold, it is possible to convert the electrical waveforms of the Chua's circuit into optical carriers. But, if that is not the case, the on-off dynamical behavior of the laser permits to obtain many other optical waveform signals, mainly pulses. Our numerical results are consistent with experimental measurements. The work presents the advantage of extending the range of possible chaotic dynamics of the laser diodes in the time domains (millisecond) where it is not usually expected with conventional modulation techniques. Moreover, this new technique of laser diodes modulation brings a general benefit in the physical equipment, reduces their cost and congestion so that, it can constitute a step towards photonic integrated circuits.

  16. 2000W high beam quality diode laser for direct materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-bin; Liu, You-qiang; Cao, Yin-hua; Gao, Jing; Pan, Fei; Wang, Zhi-yong

    2011-11-01

    This article describes high beam quality and kilowatt-class diode laser system for direct materials processing, using optical design software ZEMAX® to simulate the diode laser optical path, including the beam shaping, collimation, coupling, focus, etc.. In the experiment, the diode laser stack of 808nm and the diode laser stack of 915nm were used for the wavelength coupling, which were built vertical stacks up to 16 bars. The threshold current of the stack is 6.4A, the operating current is 85A and the output power is 1280W. Through experiments, after collimating the diode laser beam with micro-lenses, the fast axis BPP of the stack is less than 60mm.mrad, and the slow-axis BPP of the stack is less than 75mm.mrad. After shaping the laser beam and improving the beam quality, the fast axis BPP of the stack is still 60mm.mrad, and the slow-axis BPP of the stack is less than 19mm.mrad. After wavelength coupling and focusing, ultimately the power of 2150W was obtained, focal spot size of 1.5mm * 1.2mm with focal length 300mm. The laser power density is 1.2×105W/cm2, and that can be used for metal remelting, alloying, cladding and welding. The total optical coupling conversion efficiency is 84%, and the total electrical - optical conversion efficiency is 50%.

  17. Temperature evaluation of dental implant surface irradiated with high-power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, F G; Viana, E R; Ribeiro, G M; González, J C; Abelenda, A; Peruzzo, D C

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis and the absence of a standard approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface have led to searches for effective therapies. Since the source of diode lasers is portable, has reduced cost, and does not cause damage to the titanium surface of the implant, high-power diode lasers have been used for this purpose. The effect of laser irradiation on the implants is the elevation of the temperature surface. If this elevation exceeds 47 °C, the bone tissue is irreversibly damaged, so for a safety therapy, the laser parameters should be controlled. In this study, a diode laser of GaAsAl was used to irradiate titanium dental implants, for powers 1.32 to 2.64 W (real) or 2.00 to 4.00 W (nominal), in continuous/pulsed mode DC/AC, with exposure time of 5/10 s, with/without air flow for cooling. The elevation of the temperature was monitored in real time in two positions: cervical and apical. The best results for decontamination using a 968-nm diode laser were obtained for a power of 1.65 and 1.98 W (real) for 10 s, in DC or AC mode, with an air flow of 2.5 l/min. In our perspective in this article, we determine a suggested approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface using a 968-nm diode laser.

  18. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, b...

  19. Improvement of a triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, P C; Hu, H L; Wang, J B

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a simple construct of a tunable triple-wavelength fiber ring laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and an optical tunable bandpass filter. An optical tunable bandpass filter is used within the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber laser to select the lasing wavelength. Because the Fabry–Perot laser diode is in combination with the tunable bandpass filter, the erbium-doped fiber laser can stably lase three wavelengths simultaneously. Moreover, this laser is easily tuned dynamically. This triple-wavelength output performs satisfactorily, with its optical side-mode-suppression-ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. Furthermore, the wavelength tuning range of this triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is greater than 27 nm. (paper)

  20. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-10-18

    Picosecond absorption relaxation-central to many disciplines-is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural-including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent-materials.

  1. LASER PLASMA AND LASER APPLICATIONS: Plasma transparency in laser absorption waves in metal capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu

    1988-12-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.

  2. New alternatives for laser vaporization of the prostate: experimental evaluation of a 980-, 1,318- and 1,470-nm diode laser device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Felix; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Huck, Nina; Bach, Thorsten; Weiss, Christel; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Häcker, Axel

    2010-04-01

    Several diode laser systems were introduced in recent years for the minimal-invasive surgical therapy of benign prostate enlargement. We investigated the ablation capacities, hemostatic properties and extend of tissue necrosis of different diode lasers at wavelengths of 980, 1,318 and 1,470 nm and compared the results to the 120 W GreenLight HPS laser. The laser devices were evaluated in an ex vivo model using isolated porcine kidneys. The weight difference of the porcine kidneys after 10 min of laser vaporization defined the amount of ablated tissue. Blood loss was measured in blood-perfused kidneys following laser vaporization. Histological examination was performed to assess the tissue effects. The side-firing 980 and 1,470 nm diode lasers displayed similar ablative capacities compared to the GreenLight HPS laser (n.s.). The 1,318-nm laser, equipped with a bare-ended fiber, reached a higher ablation rate compared to the other laser devices (each P laser with a bare-ended fiber reached the highest rate compared to the side-firing devices (each P diode lasers showed superior hemostatic properties compared to the GreenLight HPS laser (each P laser), respectively. The diode lasers offered similar ablative capacities and improved hemostatic properties compared to the 120 W GreenLight HPS laser in this experimental ex vivo setting. The higher tissue penetration of the diode lasers compared to the GreenLight HPS laser may explain improved hemostasis.

  3. In Vitro Study of Dentin Hypersensitivity Treated by 980-nm Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yan; Xu, Shuaimei; Zhan, Xueling; Wu, Buling

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the ultrastructural changes of dentin irradiated with 980-nm diode laser under different parameters and to observe the morphological alterations of odontoblasts and pulp tissue to determine the safety parameters of 980-nm diode laser in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Twenty extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into four areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser under different parameters: Group A: control group, 0 J/cm(2); Group B: 2 W/CW (continuous mode), 166 J/cm(2); Group C: 3W/CW, 250 J/cm(2); and Group D: 4W/CW, 333 J/cm(2). Ten additional extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into two areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser: Group E: control group, 0 J/cm(2); and Group F: 2.0 W/CW, 166 J/cm(2). The morphological alterations of the dentin surfaces and odontoblasts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue irradiated by laser were observed with an upright microscope. The study demonstrated that dentinal tubules can be entirely blocked after irradiation by 980-nm diode laser, regardless of the parameter setting. Diode laser with settings of 2.0 W and 980-nm sealed exposed dentin tubules effectively, and no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation. Irradiation with 980-nm diode laser could be effective for routine clinical treatment of DH, and 2.0W/CW (166 J/cm(2)) was a suitable energy parameter due to its rapid sealing of the exposed dentin tubules and its safety to the odontoblasts and pulp tissue.

  4. In Vitro Study of Dentin Hypersensitivity Treated by 980-nm Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yan; XU, Shuaimei; Zhan, Xueling; Wu, Buling

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To investigate the ultrastructural changes of dentin irradiated with 980-nm diode laser under different parameters and to observe the morphological alterations of odontoblasts and pulp tissue to determine the safety parameters of 980-nm diode laser in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods: Twenty extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into four areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser under different parameters: Group A: control group, 0 J/cm2; Group B: 2 W/CW (continuous mode), 166 J/cm2; Group C: 3W/CW, 250 J/cm2; and Group D: 4W/CW, 333 J/cm2. Ten additional extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into two areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser: Group E: control group, 0 J/cm2; and Group F: 2.0 W/CW, 166 J/cm2. The morphological alterations of the dentin surfaces and odontoblasts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue irradiated by laser were observed with an upright microscope. Results: The study demonstrated that dentinal tubules can be entirely blocked after irradiation by 980-nm diode laser, regardless of the parameter setting. Diode laser with settings of 2.0 W and 980-nm sealed exposed dentin tubules effectively, and no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation. Conclusions: Irradiation with 980-nm diode laser could be effective for routine clinical treatment of DH, and 2.0W/CW (166 J/cm2) was a suitable energy parameter due to its rapid sealing of the exposed dentin tubules and its safety to the odontoblasts and pulp tissue. PMID:25606318

  5. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF THE DIODE-PUMPED SOLID-STATE LASER FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Arkhipov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Thermophysical and optical techniques of parameter regulation for diode pumped solid-state laser are studied as applied to space laser communication and laser ranging lines. Methods. The investigations are carried out on the base of the original design of diode pumped solid-state laser module that includes the following: Nd:YAG slab element, diode pumped by 400W QCW produced by NORTHROP GRUMMAN; two-pass unstable resonator with rotation of the laser beam aperture about its axis through 1800; the output mirror of the resonator with a variable reflection coefficient; hyperthermal conductive plates for thermal stabilization of the laser diode generation modes. The presence of thermal conductive plates excludes conventional running water systems applied as cooling systems for solid-state laser components. The diodes temperature stabilization is achieved by applying the algorithm of pulse-width modulation of power of auxiliary electric heaters. To compensate for non-stationary thermal distortions of the slab refractive index, the laser resonator scheme comprises a prism reflector with an apex angle of 1200. Narrow sides of the prism are covered with reflective coating, and its wide side is sprayed with antireflection coating. The beam aperture is turned around its axis through 1800 because of triple reflection of the beam inside the prism. The turning procedure leads to compensating for the output beam phase distortions in view of symmetric character of the aberrations of slab refractive index. To suppress parasitic oscillations inside the slab, dielectric coatings of wide sides of the slab are used. Main Results. We have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the usage of hyperthermal conductive plates together with the algorithm of pulse-width modulation provides stabilizing of the diode substrate temperature accurate within ± 0.1 °С and smoothing the temperature distribution along the plate surface accurate

  6. Update on the use of diode laser in the management of benign prostate obstruction in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusuardi, Lukas; Mitterberger, Michael; Hruby, Stephan; Kunit, Thomas; Kloss, Birgit; Engelhardt, Paul F; Sieberer, Manuela; Janetschek, Günter

    2015-04-01

    To determine the status quo in respect of various diode lasers and present the techniques in use, their results and complications. We assess how these compare with transurethral resection of the prostate and other types of laser in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When adequate RCTs were not available, case studies and reports were evaluated. Laser for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has aroused the interest and curiosity of urologists as well as patients. The patient associates the term laser with a successful and modern procedure. The journey that started with coagulative necrosis of prostatic adenoma based on neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has culminated in endoscopic "enucleation" with holmium laser. Diode laser is being used in urology for about 10 years now. Various techniques have been employed to relieve bladder outlet obstruction due to BPH. The diode laser scenario is marked by a diversity of surgical techniques and wavelengths. We summarize the current published literature in respect of functional results and complications. More randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the position and the ideal technique of diode laser treatment for BPH.

  7. The Versatility of 980 nm Diode Laser in Dentistry: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikvand, Nahid; Chinipardaz, Zahra; Ghasemi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Laser surgery has been considered a popular alternative over conventional modalities in dentistry during the last few years. Among different types of lasers, diode lasers have gained special attention in oral soft tissue surgery. Case Reports: Five patients were referred to a private office. After careful evaluation of medical history and oral examination, oral diagnosis and treatment plan of each patient was established as follows: (1) A 21-year-old female with ankyloglossia (tongue-tie); (2) A 65-year-old female with a poor denture fit needing vestibuloplasty and frenectomy; (3) A 10-year-old male patient with pigmented gingiva in mandible and maxilla; (4) A 14-year-old female needing exposure of maxillary right canine for bracket bonding; and (5) A 25-year-old female patient who has a gingival maxillary frenum with a nodule. The treatment plan for all the patients was laser surgery with diode laser at 980 nm, in continuous mode. Results: All the patients experienced normal healing process with no postoperative complications. Favorable outcomes of laser surgery were observed on follow-up sessions. Conclusion: Considering the versatility of the 980 nm diode laser in oral soft tissue surgeries and the advantages of laser surgery, this study suggests the use of 980 nm diode laser in this regard.

  8. Analysis of photoisomerizable dyes using laser absorption and fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, R.; Di Paolo, R.E.; Scaffardi, L.; Tocho, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    The attention of the present report has been directed mainly to the description of laser-based techniques developed in order to obtain kinetic and spectroscopic properties of polymethine cyanine dyes in solution. Special attention was dedicated to photoisomerizable molecules where the absorption spectra of both isomers are strongly overlapped. As an example, measurements of two different dyes of laser technological interest, DTCI and DODCI were performed. The developed methods provide a complete quantitative description of photophysical processes. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  9. Simple and efficient method of spin-polarizing a metastable helium beam by diode laser optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitza, B.; Salvietti, M.; Torello, E.; Mattera, L.; Sasso, A.

    1995-01-01

    Diode laser optical pumping to produce a highly spin-polarized metastable He beam to be used in a spin-polarized metastable atom deexcitation spectroscopy experiment on magnetized surfaces is described. Efficient pumping of the beam is performed by means of an SDL-6702 distributed Bragg reflector diode laser which yields 50 mW of output power in a single longitudinal mode at 1083 nm, the resonance wavelength for the 2 3 S→2 3 P 0,1,2 (D 0 , D 1 , and D 2 ) transitions of He*. The light is circularly polarized by a quarter-wave plate, allowing easy change of the sense of atomic polarization. The laser frequency can be locked to the atomic transition for several hours by phase-sensitive detection of the saturated absorption signal in a He discharge cell. Any of the three transitions of the triplet system can be pumped with the laser but the maximum level of atomic polarization of 98.5% is found pumping the D 2 line. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  10. Application of the diode laser for welding in tairoled blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocos, J. L.; Zubiri, F.; Garciandia, F.; Pena, J.; Cortiella, A.; Berrueta, J. M.; Zapirain, F.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years, one of the most interesting subjects in the automotive industry is the weight reduction of the automobile, and so to diminish the fuel consumption. Among other performance, the use in the body car of materials which have high mechanical resistance must be considered for the weight reduction of the automobile and maintaining high benefits. In this work, it has been studied the utilization of the diode laser for high resistance steel sheets welding, concretely microalloying steels (ZStE), DP dual phase and TRIP transformation induced plasticity. These steels can be employed in tailored blanks, which are defined as two or more separate pieces of flat material of dissimilar thickness and/or physical properties joined together before forming, to provide superior qualities in the finished stamped part. In this study, the metallographic characterization has been realised in the welding seams, and the mechanical behaviour has been analysed employing the following tests: microhardenss, drawing, tensile and fatigue. (Author) 15 refs

  11. Tuneable diode laser spectroscopy correction factor investigation on ammonia measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nilton; El-Hamalawi, Ashraf; Baxter, Jim; Barrett, Richard; Wheatley, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Current diesel engine aftertreatment systems, such as Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) use ammonia (NH3) to reduce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) into Nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O). However, if the reaction between NH3 and NOx is unbalanced, it can lead either NH3 or NOx being released into the environment. As NH3 is classified as a dangerous compound in the environment, its accurate measurement is essential. Tuneable Diode Laser (TDL) spectroscopy is one of the methods used to measure raw emissions inside engine exhaust pipes, especially NH3. This instrument requires a real-time exhaust temperature, pressure and other interference compounds in order to adjust itself to reduce the error in NH3 readings. Most researchers believed that exhaust temperature and pressure were the most influential factors in TDL when measuring NH3 inside exhaust pipes. The aim of this paper was to quantify these interference effects on TDL when undertaking NH3 measurement. Surprisingly, the results show that pressure was the least influential factor when compared to temperature, H2O, CO2 and O2 when undertaking NH3 measurement using TDL.

  12. Water vapor absorption of carbon dioxide laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.; Margolis, J. S.; Rosengren, L.-G.

    1976-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector or spectrophone has been used to perform detailed measurements of the absorptivity of mixtures of water vapor in air. A (C-12) (O-16)2 laser was used as the source, and measurements were made at forty-nine different wavelengths from 9.2 to 10.7 microns. The details of the optoacoustic detector and its calibration are presented, along with a discussion of its performance characteristics. The results of the measurements of water vapor absorption show that the continuum absorption in the wavelength range covered is 5-10% lower than previous measurements.

  13. Multi-kW high-brightness fiber coupled diode laser based on two dimensional stacked tailored diode bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Andreas; Unger, Andreas; Köhler, Bernd; Küster, Matthias; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Irwin, David A.; Bodem, Christian; Plappert, Nora; Kersten, Maik; Biesenbach, Jens

    2016-03-01

    The demand for high brightness fiber coupled diode laser devices in the multi kW power region is mainly driven by industrial applications for materials processing, like brazing, cladding and metal welding, which require a beam quality better than 30 mm x mrad and power levels above 3kW. Reliability, modularity, and cost effectiveness are key factors for success in the market. We have developed a scalable and modular diode laser architecture that fulfills these requirements through use of a simple beam shaping concept based on two dimensional stacking of tailored diode bars mounted on specially designed, tap water cooled heat sinks. The base element of the concept is a tailored diode laser bar with an epitaxial and lateral structure designed such that the desired beam quality in slow-axis direction can be realized without using sophisticated beam shaping optics. The optical design concept is based on fast-axis collimator (FAC) and slow-axis collimator (SAC) lenses followed by only one additional focusing optic for efficient coupling into a 400 μm fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.12. To fulfill the requirements of scalability and modularity, four tailored bars are populated on a reduced size, tap water cooled heat sink. The diodes on these building blocks are collimated simply via FAC and SAC. The building blocks can be stacked vertically resulting in a two-dimensional diode stack, which enables a compact design of the laser source with minimum beam path length. For a single wavelength, up to eight of these building blocks, implying a total of 32 tailored bars, can be stacked into a submodule, polarization multiplexed, and coupled into a 400 μm, 0.12NA fiber. Scalability into the multi kW region is realized by wavelength combining of replaceable submodules in the spectral range from 900 - 1100 nm. We present results of a laser source based on this architecture with an output power of more than 4 kW and a beam quality of 25 mm x mrad.

  14. Red laser-diode pumped 806 nm Tm3+: ZBLAN fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, M.; Mejía, E. B.

    2017-06-01

    A Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) fibre laser operating CW at 806 nm when diode-pumped at 687 nm is described for the first time. This device is based on the 3F4  →  3H6 transition, and is suitable for first telecom window and sensing applications. A slope efficiency of 50.3% and low threshold pump-power of 11.6 mW were obtained. Maximum output power of 15 mW for 40 mW coupled pump was achieved.

  15. Coherent addition of high power broad-area laser diodes with a compact VBG V-shaped external Talbot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Braiman, Yehuda

    2018-05-01

    We introduced a compact V-shaped external Talbot cavity for phase locking of high power broad-area laser diodes. The length of compact cavity is ∼25 mm. Near diffraction-limit coherent addition of 10 broad-area laser diodes indicated that high quality phase locking was achieved. We measured the near-field emission mode of each individual broad-area laser diode with different feedback, such as a volume Bragg grating and a high reflection mirror. We found out that the best result of phase locking broad-area laser diodes was achieved by the compact V-shaped external Talbot cavity with volume Bragg grating feedback.

  16. Absorption of turbulent laser plasma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.

    1979-02-01

    Some theoretical results relating to the interaction of high-power laser radiation with a plasma are presented including the development of a theory of parametric instabilities in an inhomogeneous laser plasma which shows that the size of the spatial region in which the turbulent state develops is comparable with the characteristic dimension of a several-fold fluctuation in the plasma density close to its critical value. The conditions are identified under which parametric turbulence gives an anomalous effective collision frequency substantially greater than the normal electron-ion collision frequency. Even during the build-up of strong parametric turbulence, conditions are found for the development of anomalous dissipation which results in heating of the bulk of the electrons. Under opposite conditions, the dynamic behaviour due to the influence of the ponderomotive forces associated with the p component of the radiation field shows that under slow plasma flow conditions, a considerable proportion of the laser energy absorbed by the plasma is transferred to the fast electrons. Suppression of the Cherenkov mechanism for generation of the fast electron component is observed on transition to fast plasma flow conditions. (author)

  17. Diode-pumped efficient laser operation and spectroscopy of Tm,Ho:YVO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Yao, B. Q.; Meng, P. B.; Duan, X. M.; Ju, Y. L.; Wang, Y. Z.

    2011-04-01

    Spectroscopic characterization of co-doped Tm,Ho:YVO 4 crystal grown by the Czochralski method has been performed including absorption spectrum, emitting spectrum and luminescence decay lifetime. The polarization emitting spectrum around 2 μm is accomplished by exciting a singly Ho 3+ doped YVO 4 crystal to exclude the influence of Tm 3+3F 4- 3H 6 transition and the emission cross section is deduced from both Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (F-L) equation and reciprocity method (RM). In addition, we report up to 10.4 W continuous wave (CW) output with a conversion efficiency of 40% and 10.3 W Q-Switch output with 12.5 kHz pulse repetition rate of diode-pumped cryogenic Tm,Ho:YVO 4 laser. For Q-Switch operation, the minimum pulse width of 28.2 ns is obtained, all of which demonstrate that the Tm,Ho:YVO 4 is excellent laser material for 2 μm radiation.

  18. High speed gain coupled DFB laser diode integrated with MQW electroabsorption modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Gyoo; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Seong Su; Oh, Dae Kon; Lee, Hee Tae; Kim, Hong man; Pyun, Kwang Eui

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated stable modulation characteristics of the gain coupled distributed feedback(GC-DFB) laser diode integrated with butt-coupled InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW(multiple-Quantum-well) modulator for high speed optical transmission. For this purpose, we have adopted the InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW structure for the EA modulator and n-doped InGaAs absorptive grating for DFB laser. The typical threshold current and slope efficiency were about 15 mA and 0.1 mW/mA, respectively. The extinction ratio of fabricated integrated device was about 15 dB at -2 V, and the small signal bandwidth was shown to be around 17GHz. We also found that the α parameter becomes negative at below a -0.6 V bias voltage. We transmitted 10 Gbps NRZ electrical signal over 90 km of standard single mode optical fiber (SMF). A clearly opened eye diagram was observed in the modulated output

  19. High speed gain coupled DFB laser diode integrated with MQW electroabsorption modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M G; Park, S S; Oh, D K; Lee, H T; Kim, H M; Pyun, K E

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated stable modulation characteristics of the gain coupled distributed feedback(GC-DFB) laser diode integrated with butt-coupled InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW(multiple-Quantum-well) modulator for high speed optical transmission. For this purpose, we have adopted the InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW structure for the EA modulator and n-doped InGaAs absorptive grating for DFB laser. The typical threshold current and slope efficiency were about 15 mA and 0.1 mW/mA, respectively. The extinction ratio of fabricated integrated device was about 15 dB at -2 V, and the small signal bandwidth was shown to be around 17GHz. We also found that the alpha parameter becomes negative at below a -0.6 V bias voltage. We transmitted 10 Gbps NRZ electrical signal over 90 km of standard single mode optical fiber (SMF). A clearly opened eye diagram was observed in the modulated output.

  20. Carbon dioxide laser absorption spectra of toxic industrial compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loper, G.L.; Sasaki, G.R.; Stamps, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    CO 2 laser absorption cross-section data are reported for acrolein, styrene, ethyl acrylate, trichloroethylene, vinyl bromide, and vinylidene chloride. These data indicate that sub parts per billion level, interference-free detection limits should be possible for these compounds by the CO 2 laser photoacoustic technique. Photoacoustic detectabilities below 40 ppb should be possible for these compounds in the presence of ambient air concentrations of water vapor and other anticipated interferences. These compounds are also found not to be important inerference in the detection of toxic hydrazine-based rocket fuels by CO 2 laser spectroscopic techniques