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Sample records for dimorphic fungus paracoccidioides

  1. The Cell Wall-Associated Proteins in the Dimorphic Pathogenic Species of Paracoccidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccia, Rosana; Vallejo, Milene C; Longo, Larissa V G

    2017-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). They are dimorphic ascomycetes that grow as filaments at mild temperatures up to 28oC and as multibudding pathogenic yeast cells at 37oC. Components of the fungal cell wall have an important role in the interaction with the host because they compose the cell outermost layer. The Paracoccidioides cell wall is composed mainly of polysaccharides, but it also contains proportionally smaller rates of proteins, lipids, and melanin. The polysaccharide cell wall composition and structure of Paracoccidioides yeast cells, filamentous and transition phases were studied in detail in the past. Other cell wall components have been better analyzed in the last decades. The present work gives to the readers a detailed updated view of cell wall-associated proteins. Proteins that have been localized at the cell wall compartment using antibodies are individually addressed. We also make an overview about PCM, the Paracoccidioides cell wall structure, secretion mechanisms, and fungal extracellular vesicles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Proteomic analysis reveals that iron availability alters the metabolic status of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Ana F A Parente

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways.

  3. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

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    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  4. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  5. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

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    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  6. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Johann, Susana; Sá, Nívea P; Lima, Luciana A R S; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Cota, Betania B; Alves, Tânia M A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Zani, Carlos L

    2010-10-12

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds.

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  8. Multifaceted roles of metabolic enzymes of the Paracoccidioides species complex

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    Caroline Maria Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi, and are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a serious disease of multiple organs. The large number of tissues colonized by this fungus suggests the presence of a variety of surface molecules involved in adhesion. A surprising finding is that the majority of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and glyoxylate cycle in Paracoccidioides spp. has adhesive properties that aid in the interaction with the host extracellular matrix, and so act as ‘moonlighting’ proteins. Moonlighting proteins have multiple functions and add another dimension to cellular complexity, while benefiting cells in several ways. This phenomenon occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. For example, moonlighting proteins from the glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle can play roles in bacterial pathogens, either by acting as proteins secreted in a conventional pathway or not and/or as cell surface component that facilitate adhesion or adherence . This review outlines the multifuncionality exposed by a variety of Paracoccidioides spp. enzymes including aconitase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, triose phosphate isomerase, fumarase and enolase. The roles that moonlighting activities play in the virulence characteristics of this fungus and several other human pathogens during their interactions with the host are discussed.

  9. The telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit from the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis.

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    Dolores Bautista-España

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein (Trt1 contains 1371 amino acids and all of the characteristic TERT motifs. Mutants created by disrupting trt1 had senescent traits, such as delayed growth, low replicative potential, and reduced survival, that were reminiscent of the traits observed in est2 budding yeast mutants. Telomerase activity was observed in wild-type fungus sporidia but not those of the disruption mutant. The introduction of a self-replicating plasmid expressing Trt1 into the mutant strain restored growth proficiency and replicative potential. Analyses of trt1 crosses in planta suggested that Trt1 is necessary for teliospore formation in homozygous disrupted diploids and that telomerase is haploinsufficient in heterozygous diploids. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment analysis in the progeny hinted at alternative survival mechanisms similar to those of budding yeast.

  10. Proteomic profile response of Paracoccidioides lutzii to the antifungal argentilactone

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    Renata Silva Do Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a mycosis of high incidence in Brazil. The toxicity of drug treatment and the emergence of resistant organisms have led to research for new candidates for drugs. In this study, we demonstrate that the natural product argentilactone was not cytotoxic or genotoxic to MRC5 cells at the IC50 concentration to the fungus. We also verified the proteomic profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii after incubation with argentilactone using a label free quantitative proteome nanoUPLC-MSE. The results of this study indicated that the fungus has a global metabolic adaptation in the presence of argentilactone. Enzymes of important pathways, such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the glyoxylate cycle, were repressed, which drove the metabolism to the methylcytrate cycle and beta-oxidation. Proteins involved in cell rescue, defense and stress response were induced. In this study, alternative metabolic pathways adopted by the fungi were elucidated, helping to elucidate the course of action of the compound studied.

  11. Identification of microRNA-like RNAs in mycelial and yeast phases of the thermal dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

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    Susanna K P Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Penicillium marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in China and Southeast Asia. While miRNAs are increasingly recognized for their roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in animals and plants, miRNAs in fungi were less well studied and their potential roles in fungal dimorphism were largely unknown. Based on P. marneffei genome sequence, we hypothesize that miRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs may be expressed in the dimorphic fungus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We attempted to identify milRNAs in P. marneffei in both mycelial and yeast phase using high-throughput sequencing technology. Small RNAs were more abundantly expressed in mycelial than yeast phase. Sequence analysis revealed 24 potential milRNA candidates, including 17 candidates in mycelial and seven in yeast phase. Two genes, dcl-1 and dcl-2, encoding putative Dicer-like proteins and the gene, qde-2, encoding Argonaute-like protein, were identified in P. marneffei. Phylogenetic analysis showed that dcl-2 of P. marneffei was more closely related to the homologues in other thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungi than to Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus spp., suggesting the co-evolution of dcl-2 among the thermal dimorphic fungi. Moreover, dcl-2 demonstrated higher mRNA expression levels in mycelial than yeast phase by 7 folds (P<0.001. Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, only in mycelial phase. Using dcl-1(KO, dcl-2(KO, dcl(DKO and qde-2(KO deletion mutants, we showed that the biogenesis of both milRNAs were dependent on dcl-2 but not dcl-1 or qde-2. The mRNA expression levels of three predicted targets of PM-milR-M1 were upregulated in knockdown strain PM-milR-M1 (KD, supporting regulatory function of milRNAs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provided the first evidence for differential expression of milRNAs in different growth phases of thermal dimorphic

  12. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

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    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  13. Morphology and physiology of the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides (syn. M. racemosus) during anaerobic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The dimorphic Mucor circinelloides requires an anaerobic atmosphere and the presence of 30% CO2 to grow as a multipolar budding yeast, otherwise hyphal growth predominates. Establishing other means to control the morphology would be a distinct advantage in the development of a fermentation process...

  14. Calcineurin orchestrates dimorphic transitions, antifungal drug responses and host-pathogen interactions of the pathogenic mucoralean fungus Mucor circinelloides.

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    Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Alicia; Calo, Silvia; Inoue, Makoto; Tonthat, Nam K; Bain, Judith M; Louw, Johanna; Shinohara, Mari L; Erwig, Lars P; Schumacher, Maria A; Ko, Dennis C; Heitman, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Calcineurin plays essential roles in virulence and growth of pathogenic fungi and is a target of the natural products FK506 and Cyclosporine A. In the pathogenic mucoralean fungus Mucor circinelloides, calcineurin mutation or inhibition confers a yeast-locked phenotype indicating that calcineurin governs the dimorphic transition. Genetic analysis in this study reveals that two calcineurin A catalytic subunits (out of three) are functionally diverged. Homology modeling illustrates modes of resistance resulting from amino substitutions in the interface between each calcineurin subunit and the inhibitory drugs. In addition, we show how the dimorphic transition orchestrated by calcineurin programs different outcomes during host-pathogen interactions. For example, when macrophages phagocytose Mucor yeast, subsequent phagosomal maturation occurs, indicating host cells respond appropriately to control the pathogen. On the other hand, upon phagocytosis of spores, macrophages fail to form mature phagosomes. Cytokine production from immune cells differs following exposure to yeast versus spores (which germinate into hyphae). Thus, the morphogenic transition can be targeted as an efficient treatment option against Mucor infection. In addition, genetic analysis (including gene disruption and mutational studies) further strengthens the understanding of calcineurin and provides a foundation to develop antifungal agents targeting calcineurin to deploy against Mucor and other pathogenic fungi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of Argentilactone on the Transcriptional Profile, Cell Wall and Oxidative Stress of Paracoccidioides spp.

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    Araújo, Felipe Souto; Coelho, Luciene Melo; Silva, Lívia do Carmo; da Silva Neto, Benedito Rodrigues; Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Fernandes, Gabriel da Rocha; Hernández, Orville; Ochoa, Juan Guillermo McEwen; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). PCM is an endemic disease that affects at least 10 million people in Latin America, causing severe public health problems. The drugs used against pathogenic fungi have various side effects and limited efficacy; therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for the development of new antifungal drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii exposed to argentilactone, a constituent of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia. A total of 1,058 genes were identified, of which 208 were up-regulated and 850 were down-regulated. Cell rescue, defense and virulence, with a total of 26 genes, was a functional category with a large number of genes induced, including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp), the hemoglobin ligand RBT5 (rbt5) and superoxide dismutase (sod). Quantitative real-time PCR revealed an increase in the expression level of all of those genes. An enzymatic assay showed a significant increase in SOD activity. The reduced growth of Pbhsp90-aRNA, Pbccp-aRNA, Pbsod-aRNA and Pbrbt5-aRNA isolates in the presence of argentilactone indicates the importance of these genes in the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to argentilactone. The response of the P. lutzii cell wall to argentilactone treatment was also evaluated. The results showed that argentilactone caused a decrease in the levels of polymers in the cell wall. These results suggest that argentilactone is a potential candidate for antifungal therapy.

  16. Effects of Argentilactone on the Transcriptional Profile, Cell Wall and Oxidative Stress of Paracoccidioides spp.

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    Felipe Souto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. PCM is an endemic disease that affects at least 10 million people in Latin America, causing severe public health problems. The drugs used against pathogenic fungi have various side effects and limited efficacy; therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for the development of new antifungal drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii exposed to argentilactone, a constituent of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia. A total of 1,058 genes were identified, of which 208 were up-regulated and 850 were down-regulated. Cell rescue, defense and virulence, with a total of 26 genes, was a functional category with a large number of genes induced, including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90, cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp, the hemoglobin ligand RBT5 (rbt5 and superoxide dismutase (sod. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed an increase in the expression level of all of those genes. An enzymatic assay showed a significant increase in SOD activity. The reduced growth of Pbhsp90-aRNA, Pbccp-aRNA, Pbsod-aRNA and Pbrbt5-aRNA isolates in the presence of argentilactone indicates the importance of these genes in the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to argentilactone. The response of the P. lutzii cell wall to argentilactone treatment was also evaluated. The results showed that argentilactone caused a decrease in the levels of polymers in the cell wall. These results suggest that argentilactone is a potential candidate for antifungal therapy.

  17. Functional analysis of atfA gene to stress response in pathogenic thermal dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

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    Panjaphorn Nimmanee

    Full Text Available Penicillium marneffei, the pathogenic thermal dimorphic fungus is a causative agent of a fatal systemic disease, penicilliosis marneffei, in immunocompromised patients especially HIV patients. For growth and survival, this fungus has to adapt to environmental stresses outside and inside host cells and this adaptation requires stress signaling pathways and regulation of gene expression under various kinds of stresses. In this report, P. marneffei activating transcription factor (atfA gene encoding bZip-type transcription factor was characterized. To determine functions of this gene, atfA isogenic mutant strain was constructed using the modified split marker recombination method. The phenotypes and susceptibility to varieties of stresses including osmotic, oxidative, heat, UV, cell wall and cell membrane stresses of the mutant strain were compared with the wild type and the atfA complemented strains. Results demonstrated that the mRNA expression level of P. marneffei atfA gene increased under heat stress at 42°C. The atfA mutant was more sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulphate, amphotericin B and tert-butyl hydroperoxide than the wild type and complemented strains but not hydrogen peroxide, menadione, NaCl, sorbitol, calcofluor white, itraconazole, UV stresses and heat stress at 39°C. In addition, recovery of atfA mutant conidia after mouse and human macrophage infections was significantly decreased compared to those of wild type and complemented strains. These results indicated that the atfA gene was required by P. marneffei under specific stress conditions and might be necessary for fighting against host immune cells during the initiation of infection.

  18. Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

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    Demicheli, Marina C.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Goes, Alfredo Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

  19. Fungal dimorphism in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium rileyi: detection of an in vivo quorum-sensing system

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    This investigation documents the expression of the in vivo dimorphic program exhibited by insect mycopathogen M. rileyi replicating. This insect mycopathogen represents the key mortality factor regulating various caterpillar populations in various legumes, including subtropical and tropical soybeans...

  20. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

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    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  1. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

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    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com

  2. Fungal dimorphism: the switch from hyphae to yeast is a specialized morphogenetic adaptation allowing colonization of a host.

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    Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The ability of pathogenic fungi to switch between a multicellular hyphal and unicellular yeast growth form is a tightly regulated process known as dimorphic switching. Dimorphic switching requires the fungus to sense and respond to the host environment and is essential for pathogenicity. This review will focus on the role of dimorphism in fungi commonly called thermally dimorphic fungi, which switch to a yeast growth form during infection. This group of phylogenetically diverse ascomycetes includes Talaromyces marneffei (recently renamed from Penicillium marneffei), Blastomyces dermatitidis (teleomorph Ajellomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides species (C. immitis and C. posadasii), Histoplasma capsulatum (teleomorph Ajellomyces capsulatum), Paracoccidioides species (P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii) and Sporothrix schenckii (teleomorph Ophiostoma schenckii). This review will explore both the signalling pathways regulating the morphological transition and the transcriptional responses necessary for intracellular growth. The physiological requirements of yeast cells during infection will also be discussed, highlighting recent advances in the understanding of the role of iron and calcium acquisition during infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. New developments of RNAi in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: prospects for high-throughput, genome-wide, functional genomics.

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    Tercio Goes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fungal Genome Initiative of the Broad Institute, in partnership with the Paracoccidioides research community, has recently sequenced the genome of representative isolates of this human-pathogen dimorphic fungus: Pb18 (S1, Pb03 (PS2 and Pb01. The accomplishment of future high-throughput, genome-wide, functional genomics will rely upon appropriate molecular tools and straightforward techniques to streamline the generation of stable loss-of-function phenotypes. In the past decades, RNAi has emerged as the most robust genetic technique to modulate or to suppress gene expression in diverse eukaryotes, including fungi. These molecular tools and techniques, adapted for RNAi, were up until now unavailable for P. brasiliensis.In this paper, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of yeast cells for high-throughput applications with which higher transformation frequencies of 150±24 yeast cell transformants per 1×106 viable yeast cells were obtained. Our approach is based on a bifunctional selective marker fusion protein consisted of the Streptoalloteichus hindustanus bleomycin-resistance gene (Shble and the intrinsically fluorescent monomeric protein mCherry which was codon-optimized for heterologous expression in P. brasiliensis. We also report successful GP43 gene knock-down through the expression of intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA from a Gateway-adapted cassette (cALf which was purpose-built for gene silencing in a high-throughput manner. Gp43 transcript levels were reduced by 73.1±22.9% with this approach.We have a firm conviction that the genetic transformation technique and the molecular tools herein described will have a relevant contribution in future Paracoccidioides spp. functional genomics research.

  4. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  5. Employing proteomic analysis to compare Paracoccidioides lutzii yeast and mycelium cell wall proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Danielle Silva; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Melo Bailão, Alexandre; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2017-11-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus. During the infective process, the cell wall acts at the interface between the fungus and the host. In this way, the cell wall has a key role in growth, environment sensing and interaction, as well as morphogenesis of the fungus. Since the cell wall is absent in mammals, it may present molecules that are described as target sites for new antifungal drugs. Despite its importance, up to now few studies have been conducted employing proteomics in for the identification of cell wall proteins in Paracoccidioides spp. Here, a detailed proteomic approach, including cell wall-fractionation coupled to NanoUPLC-MS E , was used to study and compare the cell wall fractions from Paracoccidioides lutzii mycelia and yeast cells. The analyzed samples consisted of cell wall proteins extracted by hot SDS followed by extraction by mild alkali. In summary, 512 proteins constituting different cell wall fractions were identified, including 7 predicted GPI-dependent cell wall proteins that are potentially involved in cell wall metabolism. Adhesins previously described in Paracoccidioides spp. such as enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified. Comparing the proteins in mycelium and yeast cells, we detected some that are common to both fungal phases, such as Ecm33, and some specific proteins, as glucanase Crf1. All of those proteins were described in the metabolism of cell wall. Our study provides an important elucidation of cell wall composition of fractions in Paracoccidioides, opening a way to understand the fungus cell wall architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome Profile of the Response of Paracoccidioides spp. to a Camphene Thiosemicarbazide Derivative.

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    Lívia do Carmo Silva

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic granulomatous human mycosis caused by fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides, which is geographically restricted to Latin America. Inhalation of spores, the infectious particles of the fungus, is a common route of infection. The PCM treatment of choice is azoles such as itraconazole, but sulfonamides and amphotericin B are used in some cases despite their toxicity to mammalian cells. The current availability of treatments highlights the need to identify and characterize novel targets for antifungal treatment of PCM as well as the need to search for new antifungal compounds obtained from natural sources or by chemical synthesis. To this end, we evaluated the antifungal activity of a camphene thiosemicarbazide derivative (TSC-C compound on Paracoccidioides yeast. To determine the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to TSC-C, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of the fungus after 8 h of contact with the compound. The results demonstrate that Paracoccidioides lutzii induced the expression of genes related to metabolism; cell cycle and DNA processing; biogenesis of cellular components; cell transduction/signal; cell rescue, defense and virulence; cellular transport, transport facilities and transport routes; energy; protein synthesis; protein fate; transcription; and other proteins without classification. Additionally, we observed intensely inhibited genes related to protein synthesis. Analysis by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that the compound induced the production of reactive oxygen species. Using an isolate with down-regulated SOD1 gene expression (SOD1-aRNA, we sought to determine the function of this gene in the defense of Paracoccidioides yeast cells against the compound. Mutant cells were more susceptible to TSC-C, demonstrating the importance of this gene in response to the compound. The results presented herein suggest that TSC-C is a promising candidate for PCM treatment.

  7. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

  8. In-silico gene co-expression network analysis in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with reference to haloacid dehalogenase superfamily hydrolase gene

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    Raghunath Satpathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease globally affecting millions of people. The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD superfamily hydrolases enzyme in the fungi, in particular, is known to be responsible in the pathogenesis by adhering to the tissue. Hence, identification of novel drug targets is essential. Aims: In-silico based identification of co-expressed genes along with HAD superfamily hydrolase in P. brasiliensis during the morphogenesis from mycelium to yeast to identify possible genes as drug targets. Materials and Methods: In total, four datasets were retrieved from the NCBI-gene expression omnibus (GEO database, each containing 4340 genes, followed by gene filtration expression of the data set. Further co-expression (CE study was performed individually and then a combination these genes were visualized in the Cytoscape 2. 8.3. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and standard deviation value of the HAD superfamily hydrolase gene was obtained from the expression data and this value was subsequently used for the CE calculation purpose by selecting specific correlation power and filtering threshold. Results: The 23 genes that were thus obtained are common with respect to the HAD superfamily hydrolase gene. A significant network was selected from the Cytoscape network visualization that contains total 7 genes out of which 5 genes, which do not have significant protein hits, obtained from gene annotation of the expressed sequence tags by BLAST X. For all the protein PSI-BLAST was performed against human genome to find the homology. Conclusions: The gene co-expression network was obtained with respect to HAD superfamily dehalogenase gene in P. Brasiliensis.

  9. Low-level laser therapy to the mouse femur enhances the fungicidal response of neutrophils against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Eva Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils (PMN play a central role in host defense against the neglected fungal infection paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, which is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. PCM is of major importance, especially in Latin America, and its treatment relies on the use of antifungal drugs. However, the course of treatment is lengthy, leading to side effects and even development of fungal resistance. The goal of the study was to use low-level laser therapy (LLLT to stimulate PMN to fight Pb in vivo. Swiss mice with subcutaneous air pouches were inoculated with a virulent strain of Pb or fungal cell wall components (Zymosan, and then received LLLT (780 nm; 50 mW; 12.5 J/cm2; 30 seconds per point, giving a total energy of 0.5 J per point on alternate days at two points on each hind leg. The aim was to reach the bone marrow in the femur with light. Non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The number and viability of the PMN that migrated to the inoculation site was assessed, as well as their ability to synthesize proteins, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and their fungicidal activity. The highly pure PMN populations obtained after 10 days of infection were also subsequently cultured in the presence of Pb for trials of protein production, evaluation of mitochondrial activity, ROS production and quantification of viable fungi growth. PMN from mice that received LLLT were more active metabolically, had higher fungicidal activity against Pb in vivo and also in vitro. The kinetics of neutrophil protein production also correlated with a more activated state. LLLT may be a safe and non-invasive approach to deal with PCM infection.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Dimorphic Fungus Sporothrix pallida, a Nonpathogenic Species Belonging to Sporothrix, a Genus Containing Agents of Human and Feline Sporotrichosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Alessandro, Enrico; Giosa, Domenico; Huang, Lilin; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Wenchao; Brankovics, Balázs; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Scordino, Fabio; Lo Passo, Carla; Criseo, Giuseppe; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Huang, Huaiqiu; de Hoog, G Sybren; Romeo, Orazio

    2016-01-01

    Sporothrix pallidais considered to be a mostly avirulent environmental fungus, phylogenetically closely related to the well-known pathogenSporothrix schenckii Here, we present the first assembly of its genome, which provides a valuable resource for future comparative genomic studies between

  11. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae

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    Nilma Maciel Garcia

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  12. Cell organisation, sulphur metabolism and ion transport-related genes are differentially expressed in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelium and yeast cells

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    Passos Geraldo AS

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycelium-to-yeast transition in the human host is essential for pathogenicity by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and both cell types are therefore critical to the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. The infected population is of about 10 million individuals, 2% of whom will eventually develop the disease. Previously, transcriptome analysis of mycelium and yeast cells resulted in the assembly of 6,022 sequence groups. Gene expression analysis, using both in silico EST subtraction and cDNA microarray, revealed genes that were differential to yeast or mycelium, and we discussed those involved in sugar metabolism. To advance our understanding of molecular mechanisms of dimorphic transition, we performed an extended analysis of gene expression profiles using the methods mentioned above. Results In this work, continuous data mining revealed 66 new differentially expressed sequences that were MIPS(Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences-categorised according to the cellular process in which they are presumably involved. Two well represented classes were chosen for further analysis: (i control of cell organisation – cell wall, membrane and cytoskeleton, whose representatives were hex (encoding for a hexagonal peroxisome protein, bgl (encoding for a 1,3-β-glucosidase in mycelium cells; and ags (an α-1,3-glucan synthase, cda (a chitin deacetylase and vrp (a verprolin in yeast cells; (ii ion metabolism and transport – two genes putatively implicated in ion transport were confirmed to be highly expressed in mycelium cells – isc and ktp, respectively an iron-sulphur cluster-like protein and a cation transporter; and a putative P-type cation pump (pct in yeast. Also, several enzymes from the cysteine de novo biosynthesis pathway were shown to be up regulated in the yeast form, including ATP sulphurylase, APS kinase and also PAPS reductase. Conclusion Taken

  13. Sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of Mucor circinelloides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.H.; Cervantes, M.; Springer, D.J.; Boekhout, T.; Ruiz-Vazquez, R.M.; Torres-Martinez, S.R.; Heitman, J.; Lee, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. We have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. M. circinelloides is a

  14. Incubation Period and Early Natural History Events of the Acute Form of Paracoccidioidomycosis: Lessons from Patients with a Single Paracoccidioides spp. Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Renata; Khoury, Zarifa; Barata, Luis Carlos Barradas; Benard, Gil

    2016-06-01

    Several aspects of the natural history of paracoccidioidomycosis are still poorly understood. Different from the most prevalent, chronic form of the disease, the acute form represents a continuum from the initial respiratory infection to the full-blown disease, thus providing an opportunity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the early phase of this mycosis. We describe, for the first time, two patients with a single time point exposure to Paracoccidioides spp., for whom we were able to determine the time lapsed between exposure to the fungus Paracoccidioides spp. and the onset of signs and symptoms. In case 1, the pulmonary infection was unapparent, and the first manifestations of the acute/subacute form of the disease presented 4 months after Paracoccidioides spp. In case 2, self-limited, non-specific respiratory and systemic symptoms presented 45 days after infection. Thus, our patients confirm that, within a few weeks of infection, Paracoccidioides spp. affects the pulmonary lymphatic system and initially causes no or mild-to-moderate self-limited symptoms, eventually causing abnormalities on a chest X-ray, all of which spontaneously subside. These cases provide some insight into the natural history of this mycosis, the extent of the host exposure to the fungus, and the determination of its incubation period.

  15. Transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides induced by oenothein B, a potential antifungal agent from the Brazilian Cerrado plant Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia Fernanda; Tomazett, Patrícia Kott; Santos, Suzana Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Martins, Wellington Santos; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Pereira, Maristela

    2013-10-12

    The compound oenothein B (OenB), which is isolated from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, interferes with Paracoccidioides yeast cell morphology and inhibits 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation, which is involved in cell wall synthesis. In this work we examined the gene expression changes in Paracoccidioides yeast cells following OenB treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. We constructed differential gene expression libraries using Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) of Paracoccidioides yeast cells treated with OenB for 90 and 180 min. Treatment for 90 min resulted in the identification of 463 up-regulated expressed sequences tags (ESTs) and 104 down-regulated ESTs. For the 180 min treatment 301 up-regulated ESTs and 143 down-regulated were identified. Genes involved in the cell wall biosynthesis, such as GLN1, KRE6 and FKS1, were found to be regulated by OenB. Infection experiments in macrophages corroborated the in vitro results. Fluorescence microscopy showed increased levels of chitin in cells treated with OenB. The carbohydrate polymer content of the cell wall of the fungus was also evaluated, and the results corroborated with the transcriptional data. Several other genes, such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e., membrane maintenance, stress and virulence) were found to be up-regulated in response to OenB treatment. The exposure of Paracoccidioides to OenB resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the changes may represent specific adaptive responses to this compound in this important pathogenic fungus.

  16. The Paracoccidioides cell wall: past and present layers towards understanding interaction with the host

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    Rosana ePuccia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cell wall of pathogenic fungi plays import roles in interaction with the host, so that its composition and structure may determine the course of infection. Here we present an overview of the current and past knowledge on the cell wall constituents of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. These are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic granulomatous and debilitating disease. Focus is given on cell wall carbohydrate and protein contents, their immune-stimulatory features, adhesion properties, drug target characteristics, and morphological phase specificity. We offer a journey towards the future understanding of the dynamic life that takes place in the cell wall and of the changes that it may suffer when living in the human host.

  17. Exploring potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates of varying virulence through quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Daniele G; Chaves, Alison F A; Xander, Patricia; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Serrano, Solange M T; Tashima, Alexandre K; Batista, Wagner L

    2014-10-03

    Few virulence factors have been identified for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the protein composition of P. brasiliensis in the yeast phase using minimal and rich media to obtain a better understanding of its virulence and to gain new insights into pathogen adaptation strategies. This analysis was performed on two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles in B10.A mice. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified and quantified 316 proteins in minimal medium, 29 of which were overexpressed in virulent Pb18. In rich medium, 29 out of 295 proteins were overexpressed in the virulent fungus. Three proteins were found to be up-regulated in both media, suggesting the potential roles of these proteins in virulence regulation in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, genes up-regulated in virulent Pb18 showed an increase in its expression after the recovery of virulence of attenuated Pb18. Proteins up-regulated in both isolates were grouped according to their functional categories. Virulent Pb18 undergoes metabolic reorganization and increased expression of proteins involved in fermentative respiration. This approach allowed us to identify potential virulence regulators and provided a foundation for achieving a molecular understanding of how Paracoccidioides modulates the host-pathogen interaction to its advantage.

  18. Growth physiology and dimorphism of Mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcintyre, Mhairi; Breum, J.; Arnau, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides is being investigated as a possible host for the production of heterologous proteins. Thus, the environmental conditions defining the physiology and morphology of this dimorphic fungus have been investigated in submerged batch cultivation. The optimal conditions for growth...

  19. Functionality of the Paracoccidioides mating α-pheromone-receptor system.

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    Jéssica A Gomes-Rezende

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that Paracoccidioides species have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction, although no sexual cycle has been identified either in nature or under laboratory conditions. In the present work we detected low expression levels of the heterothallic MAT loci genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, the α-pheromone (PBα gene, and the α- and a-pheromone receptor (PREB and PREA genes in yeast and mycelia forms of several Paracoccidioides isolates. None of the genes were expressed in a mating type dependent manner. Stimulation of P. brasiliensis MAT1-2 strains with the synthetic α-pheromone peptide failed to elicit transcriptional activation of MAT1-2, PREB or STE12, suggesting that the strains tested are insensitive to α-pheromone. In order to further evaluate the biological functionality of the pair α-pheromone and its receptor, we took advantage of the heterologous expression of these Paracoccidioides genes in the corresponding S. cerevisiae null mutants. We show that S. cerevisiae strains heterologously expressing PREB respond to Pbα pheromone either isolated from Paracoccidioides culture supernatants or in its synthetic form, both by shmoo formation and by growth and cell cycle arrests. This allowed us to conclude that Paracoccidioides species secrete an active α-pheromone into the culture medium that is able to activate its cognate receptor. Moreover, expression of PREB or PBα in the corresponding null mutants of S. cerevisiae restored mating in these non-fertile strains. Taken together, our data demonstrate pheromone signaling activation by the Paracoccidioides α-pheromone through its receptor in this yeast model, which provides novel evidence for the existence of a functional mating signaling system in Paracoccidioides.

  20. Differential Metabolism of a Two-Carbon Substrate by Members of the Paracoccidioides Genus

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    Lilian C. Baeza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Paracoccidioides comprises known fungal pathogens of humans and can be isolated from different infection sites. Metabolic peculiarities in different members of the Paracoccidioides led us to perform proteomic studies in the presence of the two-carbon molecule acetate, which predominates in the nutrient-poor environment of the phagosome. To investigate the expression rates of proteins of different members of Paracoccidioides, including one isolate of P. lutzii (Pb01 and three isolates of P. brasiliensis (Pb03, Pb339, and PbEPM83, using sodium acetate as a carbon source, proteins were quantified using label-free and data-independent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Protein profiles of the isolates were statistically analyzed, revealing proteins that were differentially expressed when the fungus was cultivated in a non-preferential carbon source rather than glucose. A total of 1,160, 1,211, 1,280, and 1,462 proteins were reproducibly identified and relatively quantified in P. lutzii and the P. brasiliensis isolates Pb03, Pb339, and PbEPM83, respectively. Notably, 526, 435, 744, and 747 proteins were differentially expressed among P. lutzii and the P. brasiliensis isolates Pb03, Pb339, and PbEPM83, respectively, with a fold-change equal to or higher than 1.5. This analysis revealed that reorganization of metabolism occurred through the induction of proteins related to gluconeogenesis, glyoxylic/glyoxylate cycle, response to stress, and degradation of amino acids in the four isolates. The following differences were observed among the isolates: higher increases in the expression levels of proteins belonging to the TCA and respiratory chain in PbEPM83 and Pb01; increase in ethanol production in Pb01; utilization of cell wall components for gluconeogenesis in Pb03 and PbEPM83; and increased β-oxidation and methylcitrate cycle proteins in Pb01and PbEPM83. Proteomic profiles indicated that the four isolates reorganized their metabolism

  1. Melanin as a virulence factor of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi: a minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Taborda, Carlos P.; da Silva, Marcelo B.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2008-01-01

    Melanin pigments are substances produced by a broad variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and helminths. Microbes predominantly produce melanin pigment via tyrosinases, laccases, catecholases, and the polyketide synthase pathway. In fungi, melanin is deposited in the cell wall and cytoplasm, and melanin particles (“ghosts”) can be isolated from these fungi that have the same size and shape of the original cells. Melanin has been reported in several human pathogenic ...

  2. Antibodies against glycolipids enhance antifungal activity of macrophages and reduce fungal burden after infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Renata Amelia eBueno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  3. Kinetic analysis of gene expression during mycelium to yeast transition and yeast to mycelium germination in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Análisis de la cinética de expresión de genes durante la transición de micelio a levadura y la germinación levadura a micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Ana María García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus that in tissues and cultures at 37ºC grows as a yeast while at lower temperatures (less than 24 ºC it becomes a mold; however the genes that rule these processes and their expression are poorly understood.
    Objective.This research focused on the kinetic expression of certain genes in P. brasiliensis throughout the dimorphic process, one that involves the transition from the mycelium-to-yeast(M-Y forms and the germination from the yeast-to-mycelium(Y- M form.
    Materials and methods. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR was optimized to measure the expression of ten genes connected with diverse cellular functions including cell synthesis and wall structure, oxidative stress response, heat shock response, metabolism, proteins' processing, solute transport across the cell membrane and signal transduction pathways at different time points during the M-Y transition, as well as in the Y-M germination processes.
    Results.Genes involved in cell synthesis and wall structure, metabolism and signal transduction were differentially expressed and highly up-regulated during the Y-M germination process; on the other hand, genes involved in heat shock response, cell synthesis and wall structure were highly up-regulated during the M-Y transition process. The remaining genes were differentially regulated during both processes.
    Conclusion.In this work the up-regulation of certain genes involved in the morphological changes occurring in P. brasiliensis yeast and mycelia forms were confirmed, indicating that these biological processes play an important role during the host-pathogen interactions, as well as in the fungus adaptation to environmental conditions
    Introducción. La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica causada por el hogo termo-dimórfico Paracoccidioides

  4. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia B; Bosco, Sandra M G; Theodoro, Raquel C; Barrozo, Lígia; Pedrini, Silvia C B; Rosa, Patrícia S; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2009-11-17

    Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla), by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i) from road-killed animals (n = 6); ii) from naturally dead animals (n = 8); iii) from animals that died in captivity (n = 9); and iv) from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2). Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus) and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla). The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  5. Osmotic stress adaptation of Paracoccidioides lutzii, Pb01, monitored by proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leandro Nascimento da Silva; Brito, Wesley de Almeida; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Weber, Simone Schneider; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Casaletti, Luciana; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2016-10-01

    The ability to respond to stressful conditions is essential for most living organisms. In pathogenic organisms, this response is required for effective transition from a saprophytic lifestyle to the establishment of pathogenic interactions within a susceptible host. Hyperosmotic stress has been used as a model to study signal transduction and seems to cause many cellular adaptations, including the alteration of protein expression and cellular volume as well as size regulation. In this work, we evaluated the proteomic profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii Pb01 yeast cells during osmotic stress induced by potassium chloride. We performed a high accuracy proteomic technique (NanoUPLC-MS(E)) to identify differentially expressed proteins during osmotic shock. The data describe an osmoadaptative response of this fungus when subjected to this treatment. Proteins involved in the synthesis of cell wall components were modulated, which suggested cell wall remodeling. In addition, alterations in the energy metabolism were observed. Furthermore, proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and hydrogen peroxide detoxification were modulated during osmotic stress. Our study suggests that P. lutzii Pb01. presents a vast osmoadaptative response that is composed of different proteins that act together to minimize the effects caused by osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.

  7. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

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    Pereira Maristela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin.

  8. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Pedrini Silvia CB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Findings This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla, by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i from road-killed animals (n = 6; ii from naturally dead animals (n = 8; iii from animals that died in captivity (n = 9; and iv from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2. Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla. The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Conclusion Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  9. Fungal spore germination into yeast or mycelium: possible implications of dimorphism in evolution and human pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, M. V.

    The ability of dimorphism in fungi is conventionally regarded as a reversible change between the two vegetative forms, yeast and mycelium, in response to environmental change. A zygomycetous isolate, Benjaminiella poitrasii, exhibited yeast-mycelium transition in response to the change in temperature (37-28 °C) and decrease in glucose concentration. For the first time the presence of dimorphic response during asexual and sexual spore germination is reported under the dimorphism-triggering conditions in B. poitrasii. The zygospores germinated into budding yeast when subjected to yeast-form supporting conditions. The mycelium-form favoring conditions gave rise to true mycelium. Similarly, the asexual spores displayed a dimorphic response during germination. Our observations suggest that dimorphism is an intrinsic ability present in the vegetative, asexual, and sexual forms of the fungus. As dimorphic fungi are intermediate to the unicellular yeast and the filamentous forms, understanding of the dimorphic character could be useful to trace the evolutionary relationships among taxonomically different fungi. Moreover, the implications of spore germination during the onset of pathogenesis and in drug development for human health care are discussed.

  10. Dimorphism and patellofemoral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2006-10-01

    Sex is defined as the classification of living things according to their chromosomal compliment. Gender is defined as a person's self-representation as a male or female or how social institutions respond to that person on the basis of his or her gender presentation. One frequently divides the topic or dimorphism into the biologic response inherent in their sex and the environmental response that might be better termed "gender differences." Clinicians have anecdotally agreed for years that patellofemoral disorders are more common in women. Given the difficulty in classifying patellofemoral disorders, literature support for this assumption is meager. For the purposes of this article we divide patellofemoral disorders into three categories: patellofemoral pain, patellofemoral instability, and patellofemoral arthritis. possible sex difference in these disorders are reviewed.

  11. Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2007-11-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis.

  12. Glutathione-dependent extracellular ferric reductase activities in dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Robert; Woods, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase (GSH-FeR) activities in different dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species were characterized. Supernatants from Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in their yeast form were able to reduce iron enzymically with glutathione as a cofactor. Some variations in the level of reduction were noted amongst the strains. This activity was stable in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline environments and was inhibited when trivalent aluminium and gallium ions were present. Using zymography, single bands of GSH-FeRs with apparent molecular masses varying from 430 to 460 kDa were identified in all strains. The same molecular mass range was determined by size exclusion chromatography. These data demonstrate that dimorphic zoopathogenic fungi produce and secrete a family of similar GSH-FeRs that may be involved in the acquisition and utilization of iron. Siderophore production by these and other fungi has sometimes been considered to provide a full explanation of iron acquisition in these organisms. Our work reveals an additional common mechanism that may be biologically and pathogenically important. Furthermore, while some characteristics of these enzymes such as extracellular location, cofactor utilization and large size are not individually unique, when considered together and shared across a range of fungi, they represent an important novel physiological feature. PMID:16000713

  13. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  14. Matrix metalloproteinases with gelatinolytic activity induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina; Molina, Raphael Fagnani Sanchez; Albe, Bernardo Paulo; Cunha, Cláudia da Silva; Burger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modulate extracellular matrix turnover, inflammation and immunity. We studied MMP-9 and MMP-2 in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. At 15 and 120 days after infection (DAI) with virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, MMP-9 was positive by immunohistochemistry in multinucleated giant cells, in mononuclear cells with macrophage and lymphocyte morphologies and also in fungal cells in the lesions of susceptible and resistant mice. Using gelatin zymography, pro- and active MMP-9 and active MMP-2 were detected in all infected mice, but not in controls. Gelatinolytic activity was not observed in P. brasiliensis extracts. Semiquantitative analysis of gelatinolytic activities revealed weak or absent MMP-2 and strong MMP-9 activity in both mouse strains at 15 DAI, declining at 120 DAI. Avirulent P. brasiliensis-infected mice had residual lesions with MMP-9-positive pseudoxantomatous macrophages, but no gelatinase activity at 120 DAI. Our findings demonstrate the induction of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, suggesting a possible influence in the pattern of granulomas and in fungal dissemination. PMID:19765107

  15. Data in support of quantitative proteomics to identify potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates

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    Alexandre Keiji Tashima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides genus are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Few virulence factors have been identified in these fungi. This paper describes support data from the quantitative proteomics of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis attenuated and virulent isolates [1]. The protein compositions of two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles were quantitatively assessed by stable isotopic dimethyl labeling and proteomic analysis. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with identifier PXD000804.

  16. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  17. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

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    S. DÍEZ

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de

  18. Molecular and biochemical characterization of carbonic anhydrases of Paracoccidioides

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    Mariana Vieira Tomazett

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbonic anhydrases (CA belong to the family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the present work, we characterized the cDNAs of four Paracoccidioides CAs (CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4. In the presence of CO2, there was not a significant increase in fungal ca1, ca2 and ca4 gene expression. The ca1 transcript was induced during the mycelium-to-yeast transition, while ca2 and ca4 gene expression was much higher in yeast cells, when compared to mycelium and mycelium-to-yeast transition. The ca1 transcript was induced in yeast cells recovered directly from liver and spleen of infected mice, while transcripts for ca2 and ca4 were down-regulated. Recombinant CA1 (rCA1 and CA4 (rCA4, with 33 kDa and 32 kDa respectively, were obtained from bacteria. The enzymes rCA1 (β-class and rCA4 (α-class were characterized regarding pH, temperature, ions and amino acids addition influence. Both enzymes were stable at pHs 7.5-8.5 and temperatures of 30-35 °C. The enzymes were dramatically inhibited by Hg+2 and activated by Zn+2, while only rCA4 was stimulated by Fe2+. Among the amino acids tested (all in L configuration, arginine, lysine, tryptophan and histidine enhanced residual activity of rCA1 and rCA4.

  19. Molecular and biochemical characterization of carbonic anhydrases of Paracoccidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazett, Mariana Vieira; Zanoelo, Fabiana Fonseca; Bailão, Elisa Flávia Cardoso; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) belong to the family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the present work, we characterized the cDNAs of four Paracoccidioides CAs (CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4). In the presence of CO2, there was not a significant increase in fungal ca1, ca2 and ca4 gene expression. The ca1 transcript was induced during the mycelium-to-yeast transition, while ca2 and ca4 gene expression was much higher in yeast cells, when compared to mycelium and mycelium-to-yeast transition. The ca1 transcript was induced in yeast cells recovered directly from liver and spleen of infected mice, while transcripts for ca2 and ca4 were down-regulated. Recombinant CA1 (rCA1) and CA4 (rCA4), with 33 kDa and 32 kDa respectively, were obtained from bacteria. The enzymes rCA1 (β-class) and rCA4 (α-class) were characterized regarding pH, temperature, ions and amino acids addition influence. Both enzymes were stable at pHs 7.5-8.5 and temperatures of 30-35 °C. The enzymes were dramatically inhibited by Hg+2 and activated by Zn+2, while only rCA4 was stimulated by Fe2+. Among the amino acids tested (all in L configuration), arginine, lysine, tryptophan and histidine enhanced residual activity of rCA1 and rCA4.

  20. Biochemical characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis α-1,3-glucanase Agn1p, and its functionality by heterologous Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

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    Héctor Villalobos-Duno

    Full Text Available α-1,3-Glucan is present as the outermost layer of the cell wall in the pathogenic yeastlike (Y form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on experimental evidence, this polysaccharide has been proposed as a fungal virulence factor. To degrade α-1,3-glucan and allow remodeling of the cell wall, α-1,3-glucanase is required. Therefore, the study of this enzyme, its encoding gene, and regulatory mechanisms, might be of interest to understand the morphogenesis and virulence process in this fungus. A single gene, orthologous to other fungal α-1,3-glucanase genes, was identified in the Paracoccidioides genome, and labeled AGN1. Transcriptional levels of AGN1 and AGS1 (α-1,3-glucan synthase-encoding gene increased sharply when the pathogenic Y phase was cultured in the presence of 5% horse serum, a reported booster for cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthesis in this fungus. To study the biochemical properties of P. brasiliensis Agn1p, the enzyme was heterologously overexpressed, purified, and its activity profile determined by means of the degradation of carboxymethyl α-1,3-glucan (SCMG, chemically modified from P. brasiliensis α-1,3-glucan, used as a soluble substrate for the enzymatic reaction. Inhibition assays, thin layer chromatography and enzymatic reactions with alternative substrates (dextran, starch, chitin, laminarin and cellulose, showed that Agn1p displays an endolytic cut pattern and high specificity for SCMG. Complementation of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe agn1Δ strain with the P. brasiliensis AGN1 gene restored the wild type phenotype, indicating functionality of the gene, suggesting a possible role of Agn1p in the remodeling of P. brasiliensis Y phase cell wall. Based on amino acid sequence, P. brasiliensis Agn1p, groups within the family 71 of fungal glycoside hydrolases (GH-71, showing similar biochemical characteristics to other members of this family. Also based on amino acid sequence alignments, we propose a subdivision of fungal

  1. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35 S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C 57 Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- 35 S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  2. Sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles H; Cervantes, Maria; Springer, Deborah J; Boekhout, Teun; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M; Torres-Martinez, Santiago R; Heitman, Joseph; Lee, Soo Chan

    2011-06-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. We have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. M. circinelloides is a heterothallic fungus: (+) sex allele encodes SexP and (-) sex allele SexM, both of which are HMG domain protein sex determinants. M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus (Mcl) (-) mating type isolates produce larger asexual sporangiospores that are more virulent in the wax moth host compared to (+) isolates that produce smaller less virulent sporangiospores. The larger sporangiospores germinate inside and lyse macrophages, whereas the smaller sporangiospores do not. sexMΔ mutants are sterile and still produce larger virulent sporangiospores, suggesting that either the sex locus is not involved in virulence/spore size or the sexP allele plays an inhibitory role. Phylogenetic analysis supports that at least three extant subspecies populate the M. circinelloides complex in nature: Mcl, M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus, and M. circinelloides f. circinelloides (Mcc). Mcc was found to be more prevalent among clinical Mucor isolates, and more virulent than Mcl in a diabetic murine model in contrast to the wax moth host. The M. circinelloides sex locus encodes an HMG domain protein (SexP for plus and SexM for minus mating types) flanked by genes encoding triose phosphate transporter (TPT) and RNA helicase homologs. The borders of the sex locus between the three subspecies differ: the Mcg sex locus includes the promoters of both the TPT and the RNA helicase genes, whereas the Mcl and Mcc sex locus includes only the TPT gene promoter. Mating between subspecies was restricted compared to mating within subspecies. These findings demonstrate that spore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of M. circinelloides species and that plasticity of the sex locus and adaptations in pathogenicity have

  3. Signature gene expression reveals novel clues to the molecular mechanisms of dimorphic transition in Penicillium marneffei.

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    Ence Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic dimorphic fungi cause more than one million new infections each year, ranking them among the significant public health challenges currently encountered. Penicillium marneffei is a systemic dimorphic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia. The temperature-dependent dimorphic phase transition between mycelium and yeast is considered crucial for the pathogenicity and transmission of P. marneffei, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we re-sequenced P. marneffei strain PM1 using multiple sequencing platforms and assembled the genome using hybrid genome assembly. We determined gene expression levels using RNA sequencing at the mycelial and yeast phases of P. marneffei, as well as during phase transition. We classified 2,718 genes with variable expression across conditions into 14 distinct groups, each marked by a signature expression pattern implicated at a certain stage in the dimorphic life cycle. Genes with the same expression patterns tend to be clustered together on the genome, suggesting orchestrated regulations of the transcriptional activities of neighboring genes. Using qRT-PCR, we validated expression levels of all genes in one of clusters highly expressed during the yeast-to-mycelium transition. These included madsA, a gene encoding MADS-box transcription factor whose gene family is exclusively expanded in P. marneffei. Over-expression of madsA drove P. marneffei to undergo mycelial growth at 37°C, a condition that restricts the wild-type in the yeast phase. Furthermore, analyses of signature expression patterns suggested diverse roles of secreted proteins at different developmental stages and the potential importance of non-coding RNAs in mycelium-to-yeast transition. We also showed that RNA structural transition in response to temperature changes may be related to the control of thermal dimorphism. Together, our findings have revealed multiple molecular mechanisms that may underlie the dimorphic transition

  4. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Luciana P. Ruas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro, leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis-infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  5. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Luciana P; Genaro, Livia M; Justo-Junior, Amauri S; Coser, Lilian O; de Castro, Lívia F; Trabasso, Plinio; Mamoni, Ronei L; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Blotta, Maria-Heloisa S L

    2018-01-01

    Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro . Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro , leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis -infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  6. in meat production III. Feeder - breeder dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeder- breeder dimorphism is advantageous when large offspring for slaughter is obtained from small breeding animals. The effect of feeder- breeder dimorphism on herd efficiency is evaluated for terminal crossbreeding and growth modification by biotechnological or dietary means. Selection criteria for breeds or lines in ...

  7. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  8. Molecular detection of airborne Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen, in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan S Schwartz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergomyces africanus is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a systemic mycosis in immunocompromised persons in South Africa. Infection is presumed to follow inhalation of airborne propagules. We developed a quantitative PCR protocol able to detect as few as 5 Es. africanus propagules per day. Samples were collected in Cape Town, South Africa over 50 weeks by a Burkard spore trap with an alternate orifice. We detected Es. africanus in air samples from 34 days (10% distributed over 11 weeks. These results suggest environmental exposure to airborne Es. africanus propagules occurs more commonly in endemic areas than previously appreciated.

  9. Molecular detection of airborne Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen, in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ilan S; McLoud, Josh D; Berman, Dilys; Botha, Alfred; Lerm, Barbra; Colebunders, Robert; Levetin, Estelle; Kenyon, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Emergomyces africanus is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a systemic mycosis in immunocompromised persons in South Africa. Infection is presumed to follow inhalation of airborne propagules. We developed a quantitative PCR protocol able to detect as few as 5 Es. africanus propagules per day. Samples were collected in Cape Town, South Africa over 50 weeks by a Burkard spore trap with an alternate orifice. We detected Es. africanus in air samples from 34 days (10%) distributed over 11 weeks. These results suggest environmental exposure to airborne Es. africanus propagules occurs more commonly in endemic areas than previously appreciated.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in hybrids rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Fernández, Rosa; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-12-06

    Laboratory rat strains descend from Wistar rats as a consequence of artificial selection. Previously we reported that the medial posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) was sexually dimorphic in Wistar and Long-Evans strains while the medial anterior division (BSTMA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) only showed sex differences in the ancestor Wistar strain. The lateral posterior division (BSTLP) was isomorphic in both strains. The present work studies the number of neurons in the BSTMP, BSTMA, BSTLP and LC of male and female Wistar and Long-Evans rats (F(0)) and their hybrid F(1) and F(2) generations. The BSTMP is sexually dimorphic in the F(0), F(1) and F(2) generations while sex differences in the LC are only seen in F(0) Wistar rats but not in the F(0) Long-Evans or the F(1) and F(2) hybrid generations. Sex differences in the BSTMA are seen in F(0) Wistar but not in F(0) Long-Evans rats and completely disappear in the F(2) generations. The number of neurons in the LC of both males and females decreased in heterozygotic individuals (F(1)) but increased in homozygotic (F(2)). However, the number of neurons in the BSTMP changes significantly over the generations, although the ratio of neurons (female/male) is stable and unaffected in homo- or heterozygosis. Thus, the mechanism that regulates the neuronal female/male ratio would be different from the one that controls the number of neurons. The facts that sex differences in the BSTMP are not affected by homo- or heterozygosis and that they are seen in several mammalian orders suggest the existence of a "fixed" type of brain sex differences in the Mammalia Class.

  11. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the

  12. Resposta imune humoral a antígenos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e P. Lutzii na paracoccidioidomicose humana

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Lenhard-Vidal

    2013-01-01

    A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma micose sistêmica causada pelo fungo termodimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (espécies filogenéticas S1, PS2 e PS3), sendo conhecida uma nova espécie, P. lutzii. Considerando-se que a diversidade genética do Paracoccidioides sp. possivelmente gera diferenças na resposta imune do hospedeiro, esta pesquisa objetivou determinar e correlacionar níveis de anticorpos IgG a antígenos de P. brasiliensis (S1, PS2) e P. lutzii em pacientes com PCM. Foram obtidos ...

  13. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  14. Sexual dimorphism in medulloblastoma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, Gian Franco; Ciucci, Alessandra; Marucci, Gianluca; Travaglia, Daniele; Stigliano, Egidio; Foschini, Maria Pia; Scambia, Giovanni; Gallo, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Male sex is a risk factor for medulloblastoma (MB), and is also a negative predictor for clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in tumour biological features and hormone receptor profiles in a cohort of MB patients. Sixty-four MBs and five normal cerebella were included in the study. Cell proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and microvessel density (CD31) were evaluated in tumours by immunohistochemistry. Tissues were analysed for oestrogen receptor (ER)α, ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ5 and androgen receptor (AR) expression. The results demonstrated sex-specific features in MBs, with tumours from females showing a higher apoptosis/proliferation ratio and less tumour vascularization than tumours from males. MBs were negative for ERα and AR, but expressed ERβ isoforms at similar levels between the sexes. Altogether, these findings indicate that signalling mechanisms that control cell turnover and angiogenesis operate more efficiently in females than in males. The lack of sex differences in the hormone receptor profiles suggests that circulating oestrogens could be the major determinants of the sexual dimorphism observed in MB features. Here, we provide molecular support for epidemiological data showing sex differences in MB incidence and outcome, completely defining the hormone receptor profile of the tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dendritic Cells Primed with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Peptide P10 Are Therapeutic in Immunosuppressed Mice with Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro B. R. Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are etiologic agents of the disease. The 15 amino acid peptide P10 is derived from gp43, the main diagnostic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We previously reported that P10-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs induce a protective response against P. brasiliensis. Presently, dexamethasone-treated BALB/c mice were intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis Pb18 to establish the therapeutic efficacy of P10-pulsed DCs. Immunosuppressed and infected animals that received DCs had a reduction in their fungal burden, and this result was most pronounced in mice receiving DCs primed with P10. The efficacy of therapeutic DCs was significantly augmented by concomitant treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Additionally, primed-DCs with or without the antifungal drug induced a beneficial Th1-biased immune response and significantly reduced tissue damage. In conclusion, these studies with immunocompromised mice demonstrate that P10-pulsed DCs with or without concomitant antifungal drugs are potently effective in combating invasive PCM. These findings support further translational studies to validate the use of P10-primed DCs for PCM in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts.

  16. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Zemp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism.

  17. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism.

  18. Identification of factors involved in dimorphism and pathogenicity of Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yemelin

    Full Text Available A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing filamentously, producing high amount of mycelium under different incubation conditions. Using genome walking approach previously established, the T-DNA integration sites were recovered and the disrupted genomic loci of corresponding mutants were identified and validated within reverse genetics approach. As prove of concept, two of the random mutants obtained were selected for further investigation using targeted gene inactivation. Both genes deduced were found to encode known factors, previously characterized in other fungi: Ssk1p being constituent of HOG pathway and Ade5,7p involved in de novo purine biosynthesis. The targeted mutant strains defective in these genes exhibit a drastically impaired virulence within infection assays on whole wheat plants. Moreover exploiting further physiological assays the predicted function for both gene products could be confirmed in concordance with conserved biological role of homologous proteins previously described in other fungal organisms.

  19. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Use of real-time O2 concentration measurements in shake-flask fermentations of the bioinsecticidal fungus Isaria fumosorosea for improved yields of blastospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroseus (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. For use in spray applications as a biological control agent against insect pests, the yeast-like (blastospore) mode of growth is preferred....

  1. Adherencia de levaduras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a proteínas de matriz extracelular: resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Cano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La adhesión de los microorganismos a células del hospedero o a proteínas de matriz extracelular (PMEC, representa el primer paso
    para establecer un proceso infeccioso (1. Así, se ha determinado que
    propágulas de hongos de importancia clínica se unen a diferentes
    PMEC. Recientemente se ha demostrado que conidias y micelios de
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis se unen a PMEC tales como laminina,
    fibrinógeno y fibronectina (2. Hasta el momento no se conoce cuál
    es la interacción entre levaduras de P. brasiliensis y PMEC.

  2. In Vitro Comparison of Activities of Terbinafine and Itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R. C.; Fontes, C. J. F.; Batista, R. D.; Hamdan, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro, terbinafine is highly active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic fungi. We evaluated the activities of terbinafine and itraconazole against 31 isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The tests were conducted by using a broth macrodilution procedure. MICs, in micrograms per milliliter, were as follows: terbinafine, 0.015 to 1.0 (geometric mean, 0.1188); itraconazole, 0.007 to 0.5 (geometric mean, 0.03165). The usual therapy for paracoccidioidomycosis is sulfonamides, amphotericin B, and azole derivatives (ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole). In comparison to amphotericin B, azole derivatives allow shorter treatment courses, can be administered orally, and are equally effective. Itraconazole has as high efficacy as ketoconazole, but with superior tolerance. It is the current drug of choice for treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. The data obtained in this study indicate that terbinafine is active against P. brasiliensis in vitro and suggest that this allylamine can be considered a new option as drug therapy for paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:12149337

  3. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Faveri Pitz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. Results The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. Conclusions The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  4. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Amanda de Faveri; Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Tavares, Eliandro Reis; Andrade, Fábio Goulart de; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Venancio, Emerson José

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR) assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  5. Captação de ferro mediada por sideróforos em Paracoccidioides spp

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mirelle Garcia

    2014-01-01

    O gênero Paracoccidioides inclui espécies fúngicas termodimórficas, causadoras da paracoccidioidomicose, uma micose sistêmica endêmica da América Latina. A infecção ocorre quando propágulos micelianos ou conídios são inalados pelo hospedeiro. Após conversão para levedura nos alvéolos pulmonares o fungo pode disseminar-se para outros órgãos e tecidos. O ferro é um micronutriente essencial para todos os eucariotos, pois participa de vários processos biológicos essenciais. Entretanto, a biodispo...

  6. Evaluation of the protection induced by the immunization with radioiodinated yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania Mara do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin American. To date, there is no effective vaccine. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory were developed yeast cells of P. brasiliensis attenuated by gamma radiation, which lose the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins, the oxidative metabolism and the expression of the antigens present in the native yeast. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protection elicited by the immunization with this cells in animal model. The virulence attenuated was evaluated in BALB/c and Nude-Nude mice. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. The mice were sacrificed 30 and 90 days after challenge. The removed organs were used for colony forming units (CFU's) recover, histopathological analysis and cytokine determination. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. To evaluate the type of elicited immune response the cytokines IFN - γ, TNF - α, IL - 10 and IL - 5 were determined by real time PCR. The radio attenuated yeast loses its virulence since fails in producing infection in BALB/c and Nude-Nude mice. No CFU's were recovered neither histological changes observed in the mice infected with the radio attenuated cells. The mice infected with the not irradiated P. brasiliensis showed a high level of antibody production while the infection with the radio attenuated yeast did not significantly change the antibody level. The mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast presented an increase in the IFN - γ and TNF - α production and an inhibition of the IL-10 synthesis, indicating a

  7. Attempted molecular detection of the thermally dimorphic human fungal pathogen Emergomyces africanus in terrestrial small mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronjé, Nadine; Schwartz, Ilan S; Retief, Liezl; Bastos, Armanda D S; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Bennett, Nigel C; Maphanga, Tsidiso; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Kenyon, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The ecological niche of Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), a dimorphic fungus that causes an AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa, is unknown. We hypothesized that natural infection with E. africanus occurs in wild small mammals. Using molecular detection with primers specific for E. africanus, we examined 1402 DNA samples from 26 species of mole-rats, rodents, and insectivores trapped in South Africa that included 1324 lung, 37 kidney, and 41 liver specimens. DNA of E. africanus was not detected in any animals. We conclude that natural infection of wild small mammals in South Africa with E. africanus has not been proven.

  8. The general transcriptional repressor Tup1 is required for dimorphism and virulence in a fungal plant pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical step in the life cycle of many fungal pathogens is the transition between yeast-like growth and the formation of filamentous structures, a process known as dimorphism. This morphological shift, typically triggered by multiple environmental signals, is tightly controlled by complex genetic pathways to ensure successful pathogenic development. In animal pathogenic fungi, one of the best known regulators of dimorphism is the general transcriptional repressor, Tup1. However, the role of Tup1 in fungal dimorphism is completely unknown in plant pathogens. Here we show that Tup1 plays a key role in orchestrating the yeast to hypha transition in the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. Deletion of the tup1 gene causes a drastic reduction in the mating and filamentation capacity of the fungus, in turn leading to a reduced virulence phenotype. In U. maydis, these processes are controlled by the a and b mating-type loci, whose expression depends on the Prf1 transcription factor. Interestingly, Δtup1 strains show a critical reduction in the expression of prf1 and that of Prf1 target genes at both loci. Moreover, we observed that Tup1 appears to regulate Prf1 activity by controlling the expression of the prf1 transcriptional activators, rop1 and hap2. Additionally, we describe a putative novel prf1 repressor, named Pac2, which seems to be an important target of Tup1 in the control of dimorphism and virulence. Furthermore, we show that Tup1 is required for full pathogenic development since tup1 deletion mutants are unable to complete the sexual cycle. Our findings establish Tup1 as a key factor coordinating dimorphism in the phytopathogen U. maydis and support a conserved role for Tup1 in the control of hypha-specific genes among animal and plant fungal pathogens.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  10. Detection of Anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in suspected tuberculosis patients = Detecção de anticorpos anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Dias Fraga Peron

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an important systemic mycosis in LatinAmerica that occurs as active disease in 1-2% of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected people. Like PCM, tuberculosis (TB affects mainly the lungs and the clinical and radiological aspects do notalways allow differentiation between them. The aim of this study was to carry out serological investigation for detecting anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies, by three serological methods, in patientswith symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB. From August 2005 to September 2006, 76 patients with pulmonary symptoms suspected for TB were attended at the Regional Specialties Center Laboratory in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil and submitted to microbiological TB research, ELISA, immunodiffusion and immunoblotting for PCM. Of all the individuals, 21 (27.63% were reactive to P. brasiliensis by ELISA and 11 (14.47% showed a laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Of all the individuals serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis, by ELISA, none had positive results by immunodiffusion and one reacted with antigen 43 kDa when Immunobloting was carried out. Our results lead us to reflect a necessity to obtain a more specific serologic test for diagnosis of PCM disease in patients with respiratory symptoms considering the high number of individuals reactive to P. brasiliensis especially in endemic areas.Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é importante micose sistêmica na América Latina, que ocorre como doença ativa em 1-2% dos indivíduos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Assim como a PCM, a tuberculose (TB afeta principalmente os pulmões, porém os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos nem sempre permitem a diferenciação entreessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inquérito sorológico para a detecção de anticorpos anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando três métodos sorológicos, em pacientes com sintomassugestivos de tuberculose pulmonar. De agosto de 2005 a setembro de

  11. Interação de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis com células endoteliais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.S. Mendes-Giannini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A paracoccidioidomicose apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, seu agente etiológico, pode atingir vários tecidos com ênfase ao pulmão. A migração de fungos patogênicos através da camada de células endoteliais é considerada pré-requisito para a invasão de múltiplos órgãos e sua disseminação. No presente estudo verificou-se a adesão de P. brasiliensis às células endoteliais in vitro e se esta adesão poderia representar um mecanismo para a disseminação do fungo. Para tanto, além da técnica convencional de microscopia ótica, uma outra metodologia foi desenvolvida, emblocando os cordões umbilicais em parafina, no intuito de detectar o fungo presente no material (in vivo. Experimento de migração de P. brasiliensis através da monocamada de células endoteliais também foi realizado, e nos poços sem células, a migração de células leveduriformes foi maior em menor período de tempo. Os fungos conseguiram passar através da monocamada, quando comparados com o controle sem as células, mas com redução em torno de 30%. Isso mostra que a monocamada foi parcialmente impediente para o fungo, mas que este foi capaz de migrar através dessas células. Em nossos experimentos com estas células, houve grande dificuldade de se encontrar P. brasiliensis aderido ao tapete celular nos períodos de tempo padronizados. Sugere-se com esses resultados que o fungo atravessa as células endoteliais de uma maneira muito rápida, que não pode ser detectada através do cultivo in vitro. Portanto, P. brasiliensis teria capacidade de atravessar rapidamente as células endoteliais e provavelmente alcançar tecidos mais profundos. Palavras-chave: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, células endoteliais, migração.

  12. Sexual size dimorphism, canine dimorphism, and male-male competition in primates: where do humans fit in?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcan, J Michael

    2012-03-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is generally associated with sexual selection via agonistic male competition in nonhuman primates. These primate models play an important role in understanding the origins and evolution of human behavior. Human size dimorphism is often hypothesized to be associated with high rates of male violence and polygyny. This raises the question of whether human dimorphism and patterns of male violence are inherited from a common ancestor with chimpanzees or are uniquely derived. Here I review patterns of, and causal models for, dimorphism in humans and other primates. While dimorphism in primates is associated with agonistic male mate competition, a variety of factors can affect male and female size, and thereby dimorphism. The causes of human sexual size dimorphism are uncertain, and could involve several non-mutually-exclusive mechanisms, such as mate competition, resource competition, intergroup violence, and female choice. A phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolution of dimorphism, including fossil hominins, indicates that the modern human condition is derived. This suggests that at least some behavioral similarities with Pan associated with dimorphism may have arisen independently, and not directly from a common ancestor.

  13. Remodelamento metabólico de Paracoccidioides lutzii durante a privação de cobre determinado por análises proteômicas

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Laura Maria Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides spp. é um fungo termodimórfico, agente etiológico da paracoccidioidomicose (PCM). Durante o processo de infecção Paracoccidioides spp. encontra ambientes com diferentes disponibilidades de micronutrientes essenciais como cobre, por exemplo. A obtenção de micronutrientes no hospedeiro é mecanismo crucial de estratégia adaptativa deste patógeno. Neste sentido, a identificação de proteínas relacionadas com captação/homeostase de metais traços, durante a infecção é importante par...

  14. Análise proteômica comparativa do processo de diferenciação celular do fungo patogênico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Alessandro Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioides spp. é o agente etiológico da paracoccidioidomicose, a mais importante micose sistêmica endêmica da América Latina. Paracoccidioides spp. é um fungo dimórfico, que apresenta alteração morfológica de acordo com a temperatura do ambiente. A forma miceliana é encontrada no solo a temperaturas inferiores a 25 ºC, enquanto que em tecidos do hospedeiro e sob temperaturas de 36-37 ºC o fungo assume forma leveduriforme. A infecção se inicia com a inalação de conídios p...

  15. Caracterização proteômica da fração nuclear da forma leveduriforme de espécies de Paracoccidioides

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Lucas Nojosa

    2014-01-01

    A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma doença endêmica da América Latina causada pelos fungos do gênero Paracoccidioides contituído de duas espécies P. lutzii e P.brasiliensis. O fungo cresce como micélio no ambiente saprofítico, e como levedura no hospdeiro. As células leveduriformes de Paracoccidioides spp. apresentam-se multinucleadas. Caracterizar o perfil protéico nuclear é um importante passo para compreender a biologia do fungo, e contribui pa...

  16. Observations on sexual dimorphism and social structure in the lizard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angolosaurus skoogi is a large, herbivorous lizard of the northern Namib dune sea. Adults are sexually dimorphic in body size and colouration and these differences may be related to social organization. Whether the observed dimorphism is a result of the mating system, as is the case with several other herbivorous lizards, ...

  17. Developmental neurogenetics of sexual dimorphism in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman-Scheel, Molly; Syed, Zainulabeuddin

    Sexual dimorphism, a poorly understood but crucial aspect of vector mosquito biology, encompasses sex-specific physical, physiological, and behavioral traits related to mosquito reproduction. The study of mosquito sexual dimorphism has largely focused on analysis of the differences between adult female and male mosquitoes, particularly with respect to sex-specific behaviors related to disease transmission. However, sexually dimorphic behaviors are the products of differential gene expression that initiates during development and therefore must also be studied during development. Recent technical advancements are facilitating functional genetic studies in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an emerging model for mosquito development. These methodologies, many of which could be extended to other non-model insect species, are facilitating analysis of the development of sexual dimorphism in neural tissues, particularly the olfactory system. These studies are providing insight into the neurodevelopmental genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in vector mosquitoes.

  18. Developmental neurogenetics of sexual dimorphism in Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eDuman-Scheel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism, a poorly understood but crucial aspect of vector mosquito biology, encompasses sex-specific physical, physiological, and behavioral traits related to mosquito reproduction. The study of mosquito sexual dimorphism has largely focused on analysis of the differences between adult female and male mosquitoes, particularly with respect to sex-specific behaviors related to disease transmission. However, sexually dimorphic behaviors are the products of differential gene expression that initiates during development and therefore must also be studied during development. Recent technical advancements are facilitating functional genetic studies in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an emerging model for mosquito development. These methodologies, many of which could be extended to other non-model insect species, are facilitating analysis of the development of sexual dimorphism in neural tissues, particularly the olfactory system. These studies are providing insight into the neurodevelopmental genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in vector mosquitoes.

  19. Immunogenic evaluation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells in murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Morais, Elis Araujo; Goes, Alfredo M.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin American, which is characterized by the formation of granulomatous lesions. To date, there is no effective vaccine to PCM or to any systemic mycosis. In an attempt to induce an efficient response to such agent in an animal model, gamma radiation attenuated P. brasiliensis yeast cells (LevRad) were developed at the Radiobiology Laboratory from CDTN/CNEN. A gamma radiation dose was defined in which the pathogen loses its ability to multiply, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and antigenic profile. The prophylactic potential of LevRad was assessed after its intravenous administration in male Balb/C mice, challenged 45 days after immunization with intratracheal administration of 3x105 cells of a highly virulent non-radiated P.brasiliensis isolate. At 30 and 90 days post challenge (dpc), lungs, spleen and liver were collected to analyse CFU (colony forming units) recovery, histology, cell proliferation, cytokine (IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) and iNOS production. The sera were used to evaluate the immunization efficacy, and to assess IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3) and total IgG levels. The present data show that there was no significant decrease in the CFU counts of the lungs of immunized animals 30 dpc. Nevertheless, no CFU or histopathological alterations were visualized at the organs of immunized animals at 90 dpc. During the same period, IgG2a, IgG2b, IFN-alpha and iNOS levels raised while IL-10, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and IL-4 maintained low levels, suggesting the prevalence of Th1 response profile. Our results confirmed the protective (author)

  20. Comparison of the Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and PbGP43 Genes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from Patients and Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Morais, Flavia V.; Montenegro, Mario R.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Montes, Beatriz; McEwen, Juan G.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Puccia, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates from 10 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were comparable with 19 clinical isolates by sequence analysis of the PbGP43 gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. In this original ITS study, eight isolates differed by one or three sites among five total substitution sites. PMID:14662970

  1. From so simple a beginning: Enzymatic innovation in fungus-growing ants involved a transition from individual symbiont selection to colony-level selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    of the partner species. Here we document such a sequence that was connected to a major evolutionary transition in the fungus-growing ants, when the ancestor of the derived leaf-cutting ants shifted from a diet of dry vegetative material to the almost exclusive use of freshly cut leaves. This shift generated...... visible adaptations in the host ants, such as increased worker dimorphism allowing large workers to cut fresh leaves, but comparative studies of the specific fungal adaptations that accompanied the transition have not been done. Here we report the first large comparative data set on enzymatic fungus...

  2. Dynamics evaluation of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in the serum of mice immunized with radioattenuated paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory we developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of the present work was to evaluate the antibody production dynamics in mice immunized with this cells. Were analyzed the IgG antibodies titers as well as the type of response by analyzing the IgG1 and IgG2a antibody pattern in the course of infection. The mice were divided in two groups that were immunized one time and two times respectively. The mice infected with the virulent P. brasiliensis showed a high level of antibody production while the infection with the radioattenuated yeast did not significantly change the antibody level. The level of IgG raised in both immunized groups after the challenge. In the group immunized one time was not observed a significant difference between the levels of both subclasses when compared with the control. After the challenge of the group immunized two times the IgG2a levels increased significantly when analyzed 90 days post challenge. We concluded that a pattern related to the disease control was apparent in the group submitted to two immunizations. The mice had not developed a totally polarized pattern of TH1/TH2 response but a trend to a TH1 response was evident. (author)

  3. Dynamics evaluation of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in the serum of mice immunized with radioattenuated paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia]. E-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br; goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory we developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of the present work was to evaluate the antibody production dynamics in mice immunized with this cells. Were analyzed the IgG antibodies titers as well as the type of response by analyzing the IgG1 and IgG2a antibody pattern in the course of infection. The mice were divided in two groups that were immunized one time and two times respectively. The mice infected with the virulent P. brasiliensis showed a high level of antibody production while the infection with the radioattenuated yeast did not significantly change the antibody level. The level of IgG raised in both immunized groups after the challenge. In the group immunized one time was not observed a significant difference between the levels of both subclasses when compared with the control. After the challenge of the group immunized two times the IgG2a levels increased significantly when analyzed 90 days post challenge. We concluded that a pattern related to the disease control was apparent in the group submitted to two immunizations. The mice had not developed a totally polarized pattern of TH1/TH2 response but a trend to a TH1 response was evident. (author)

  4. REML estimates of genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Full and half sibs were distinguished, in contrast to usual isofemale studies in which animals ... studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism in isofemale lines using ..... Muscovy ducks. Genet.

  5. 74_Asuku et al.,_Edited Bajopass, SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    mine sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters syndrome among ... eight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index BMI w protocol. .... erect in the frank forth plane and without shoes using a stadiometer.

  6. Fish Culture Data - Characterization of Sexual Growth Dimorphism in Sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...

  7. Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism in copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Major theories compete to explain the macroevolutionary trends observed in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Quantitative genetic theory suggests that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size, with covariation between all...

  8. Growth Data - Characterization of Sexual Growth Dimorphism in Sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...

  9. Physiology Data - Characterization of Sexual Growth Dimorphism in Sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...

  10. Dimorfismo y patogenia de Histoplasma capsulatum Dimorphism and pathogenesis of Histoplasma capsulatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasma capsulatum es un hongo patógeno dimorfo de importancia en todo el mundo, que causa un amplio espectro de enfermedades. Vive en estado saprobio en fase micelial, presentando hifas con dos tipos de conidios solitarios, macro y microconidias. La infección con H. capsulatum se inicia por vía respiratoria con la inhalación de propágulos fúngicos, constituidos principalmente por microconidios de 1-4 x 2-6 µm o de fragmentos hifales de 5 a 8 µm, que llegan a los bronquiolos terminales y alvéolos pulmonares. Los propágulos inhalados se convierten entonces a la fase levaduriforme, responsable de la patogénesis del H. capsulatum. Por ser un hongo del suelo sin requerimientos conocidos para interactuar con un hospedador mamífero como parte del ciclo de vida obligado, sus estrategias de patogénesis son particularmente notables. Entre éstas se incluyen la transición dimorfa micelio-levadura, entrada en las células fagocíticas del hospedador, localización subcelular, supervivencia y proliferación intracelular durante la infección activa y persistencia durante la infección clínicamente inaparente, con capacidad de reactivación. La patogénesis de H. capsulatum fue estudiada ampliamente a partir del aumento de pacientes inmunosuprimidos. Esta publicación presenta un resumen de los avances realizados en las investigaciones del dimorfismo y la patogénesis de H. capsulatum.Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungal pathogen with worldwide significance, which causes a broad spectrum of disease. In the saprophytic stage, it lives as a mycelial form consisting of hyphae bearing both macro and microconidia. Infection with H. capsulatum occurs by inhalation of microconidia (1-4 x 2-6 µm or small mycelia fragments (5-8 µm in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli of the lung. Inhaled conidia then convert into the yeast form that is responsible for the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. As a soil fungus with no known requirements for

  11. A semi-nested PCR assay for molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples Semi-nested PCR para a detecção molecular de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em amostras de tecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. METHODS: In this study, a semi-nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis was developed. The primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used in the first reaction, while the primers MJ03 and ITS1 primer were used in the second reaction. The semi-nested PCR was used to investigate biopsies of five patients with oral lesions that resembled paracoccidioidomycosis. RESULTS: The semi-nested PCR was positive for four samples and negative for a sample from a patient later diagnosed with leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: The new semi-nested PCR describe is useful for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis.INTRODUÇÃO: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma infecção sistêmica causada pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, uma semi-nested PCR foi desenvolvida para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose. Os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores ITS1 e ITS4 foram usados na primeira reação, enquanto os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MJ03 e ITS1 foram usados na segunda reação. A semi-nested PCR foi usada para investigar biopsias de cinco pacientes com lesões orais que se assemelhavam a paracoccidioidomicose. RESULTADOS: A semi-nested PCR foi positiva para quatro amostras e negativa para a amostra de um paciente, posteriormente diagnosticado com leishmaniose. CONCLUSÕES: A semi-nested PCR descrita aqui é útil para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.

  12. Evaluation of the role of natural killer cells (CD56+ cells) in the immunological response against paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Nara Alegrini Longhi

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Tradicionalmente o papel das células NK na resposta imunológica tem sido associado com a resistência à infecção viral e tumores, porém estudos recentes apontam para a participação destas células na resposta imunológica contra outras doenças infecciosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a possível participação de células NK (CD56+CD3-) na resposta imunológica ao fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Foram utilizadas células CD56+ isoladas por meio imunomagnético provenientes de pacie...

  13. Análise proteômica de paracoccidioides sp. isolado de um caso de fungemia

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Paulo Henrique Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioides spp. são agentes etiológicos da Paracoccidioidomicose uma micose sistêmica que afeta cerca de 10 milhões de pessoas nas regiões endêmicas. A incidência da doença é restrita à América Latina e a maioria dos casos são encontrados no Brasil. A doença é caracterizada por uma inflamação granulomatosa crônica, e os pacientes podem apresentar um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas. Após a inalação de conídios, ocorre a instalação do fungo nos pulmões, que posteriormente através...

  14. Intracellular Growth Is Dependent on Tyrosine Catabolism in the Dimorphic Fungal Pathogen Penicillium marneffei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Kylie J.; McLauchlan, Alisha; Schreider, Lena; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2015-01-01

    During infection, pathogens must utilise the available nutrient sources in order to grow while simultaneously evading or tolerating the host’s defence systems. Amino acids are an important nutritional source for pathogenic fungi and can be assimilated from host proteins to provide both carbon and nitrogen. The hpdA gene of the dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei, which encodes an enzyme which catalyses the second step of tyrosine catabolism, was identified as up-regulated in pathogenic yeast cells. As well as enabling the fungus to acquire carbon and nitrogen, tyrosine is also a precursor in the formation of two types of protective melanin; DOPA melanin and pyomelanin. Chemical inhibition of HpdA in P. marneffei inhibits ex vivo yeast cell production suggesting that tyrosine is a key nutrient source during infectious growth. The genes required for tyrosine catabolism, including hpdA, are located in a gene cluster and the expression of these genes is induced in the presence of tyrosine. A gene (hmgR) encoding a Zn(II)2-Cys6 binuclear cluster transcription factor is present within the cluster and is required for tyrosine induced expression and repression in the presence of a preferred nitrogen source. AreA, the GATA-type transcription factor which regulates the global response to limiting nitrogen conditions negatively regulates expression of cluster genes in the absence of tyrosine and is required for nitrogen metabolite repression. Deletion of the tyrosine catabolic genes in the cluster affects growth on tyrosine as either a nitrogen or carbon source and affects pyomelanin, but not DOPA melanin, production. In contrast to other genes of the tyrosine catabolic cluster, deletion of hpdA results in no growth within macrophages. This suggests that the ability to catabolise tyrosine is not required for macrophage infection and that HpdA has an additional novel role to that of tyrosine catabolism and pyomelanin production during growth in host cells. PMID:25812137

  15. Sexual dimorphism in the Bathonian morphoceratid ammonite Polysphinctites tenuiplicatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Parent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asphinctites tenuiplicatus [M] and Polysphinctites secundus [m] from the Asphinctites tenuiplicatus Zone (Early Bathonian, are usually considered as a sexual dimorphic pair, although authors describe them as separate species. We used statistical methods to test the sexual dimorphic correspondence between those morphospecies, based on a rather large sample of well-preserved macro- and microconchs derived from a single horizon of calcareous concretions in the Polish Jura. Our results indicate that both dimorphs or sexes have identical ontogeny up to a critical diameter, from which they diverge towards the characteristic morphology and sculpture of each dimorph. Thus, both dimorphs are described as a single species: Polysphinctites tenuiplicatus [M and m]. After review of the several nominal species usually assigned to the genera Asphinctites and Polysphinctites throughout their stratigraphic and biogeographic range in the Early Bathonian of the Tethys, it is concluded that they actually correspond to only two species of a single lineage. The corresponding name for the lineage should be Polysphinctites (= Asphinctites as a junior synonym.

  16. Sex dimorphism in seizure-controlling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Fillippo Sean; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Moshé, Solomon L

    2014-12-01

    Males and females show a different predisposition to certain types of seizures in clinical studies. Animal studies have provided growing evidence for sexual dimorphism of certain brain regions, including those that control seizures. Seizures are modulated by networks involving subcortical structures, including thalamus, reticular formation nuclei, and structures belonging to the basal ganglia. In animal models, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) is the best studied of these areas, given its relevant role in the expression and control of seizures throughout development in the rat. Studies with bilateral infusions of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol have identified distinct roles of the anterior or posterior rat SNR in flurothyl seizure control, that follow sex-specific maturational patterns during development. These studies indicate that (a) the regional functional compartmentalization of the SNR appears only after the third week of life, (b) only the male SNR exhibits muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects which, in older animals, is confined to the posterior SNR, and (c) the expression of the muscimol-sensitive anticonvulsant effects become apparent earlier in females than in males. The first three postnatal days are crucial in determining the expression of the muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects of the immature male SNR, depending on the gonadal hormone setting. Activation of the androgen receptors during this early period seems to be important for the formation of this proconvulsant SNR region. We describe molecular/anatomical candidates underlying these age- and sex-related differences, as derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as by [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. These involve sex-specific patterns in the developmental changes in the structure or physiology or GABA(A) receptors or of other subcortical structures (e.g., locus coeruleus, hippocampus) that may affect the function of seizure-controlling networks

  17. Cerebral sex dimorphism and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzouri, Amirhossein; Savic, Ivanka

    2018-03-01

    The neurobiology of sexual orientation is frequently discussed in terms of cerebral sex dimorphism (defining both functional and structural sex differences). Yet, the information about possible cerebral differences between sex-matched homo and heterosexual persons is limited, particularly among women. In this multimodal MRI study, we addressed these issues by investigating possible cerebral differences between homo and heterosexual persons, and by asking whether there is any sex difference in this aspect. Measurements of cortical thickness (Cth), subcortical volumes, and functional and structural resting-state connections among 40 heterosexual males (HeM) and 40 heterosexual females (HeF) were compared with those of 30 homosexual males (HoM) and 30 homosexual females (HoF). Congruent with previous reports, sex differences were detected in heterosexual controls with regard to fractional anisotropy (FA), Cth, and several subcortical volumes. Homosexual groups did not display any sex differences in FA values. Furthermore, their functional connectivity was significantly less pronounced in the mesial prefrontal and precuneus regions. In these two particular regions, HoM also displayed thicker cerebral cortex than other groups, whereas HoF did not differ from HeF. In addition, in HoM the parietal Cth showed "sex-reversed" values, not observed in HoF. Homosexual orientation seems associated with a less pronounced sexual differentiation of white matter tracts and a less pronounced functional connectivity of the self-referential networks compared to heterosexual orientation. Analyses of Cth suggest that male and female homosexuality are not simple analogues of each other and that differences from heterosexual controls are more pronounced in HoM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Desjardins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18 and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01. These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic

  19. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real time RT-PCR during dimorphism in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Maldonado, Marco I; Jácome-Galarza, Irvin E; Gutiérrez-Corona, Félix; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Campos-García, Jesús; Meza-Carmen, Víctor

    2015-03-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a dimorphic fungal model for studying several biological processes including cell differentiation (yeast-mold transitions) as well as biodiesel and carotene production. The recent release of the first draft sequence of the M. circinelloides genome, combined with the availability of analytical methods to determine patterns of gene expression, such as quantitative Reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the development of molecular genetic tools for the manipulation of the fungus, may help identify M. circinelloides gene products and analyze their relevance in different biological processes. However, no information is available on M. circinelloides genes of stable expression that could serve as internal references in qRT-PCR analyses. One approach to solve this problem consists in the use of housekeeping genes as internal references. However, validation of the usability of these reference genes is a fundamental step prior to initiating qRT-PCR assays. This work evaluates expression of several constitutive genes by qRT-PCR throughout the morphological differentiation stages of M. circinelloides; our results indicate that tfc-1 and ef-1 are the most stable genes for qRT-PCR assays during differentiation studies and they are proposed as reference genes to carry out gene expression studies in this fungus.

  20. Investigations of sexual dimorphism in live Kittlitz's Plover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... head length, bill length, tarsus length and height of the white forehead patch did not differ between sexes. We attribute this lack of any clear sexual dimorphism to the species' monogamous mating system and shared parental care, and to its simple terrestrial displays, which would likely result in weak intersexual selection.

  1. Cryptic sexual size dimorphism in Malagasy plovers Charadrius spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taken together, our work reports SSD in small African plovers that exhibit monomorphic plumage, and we propose that SSD may be more common than currently acknowledged; we term this 'cryptic sexual size dimorphism'. Our results also suggest sexual selection and/or natural selection exert different pressures on body ...

  2. Genetic variability of sexual size dimorphism in a natural population ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Most animal species exhibit sexual size dimorphism (SSD). SSD is a trait difficult to ...... 26, 15–28. Charnov E. L. 1982 The theory of sex allocation. Princeton .... success in Drosophila melanogaster: the roles of male and female behavior. Anim ...

  3. Sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visceral adipose tissue is considered the most important anatomic site of adipose tissue aggregation and is considered the hall mark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome ...

  4. Can evolution of sexual dimorphism be triggered by developmental temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketola, Tarmo; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kellermann, Vanessa M

    2012-01-01

    were split into four different developmental temperatures: two constant temperature treatments of 25 and 30oC and two cycling temperatures with means of 25 and 30oC, respectively. After emergence, we tested heat shock tolerance of adult flies. We found that sexual dimorphism was strongly affected...

  5. Ontogenetic variation and craniometric sexual dimorphism in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of maxillary molar tooth-row eruption and wear were used to assign samples of the social giant mole-rat, Fukomys mechowii, from Zambia, into nine relative age classes in order to assess ontogenetic (age) variation and craniometric sexual dimorphism, with reference to body mass. Univariate and multivariate ...

  6. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P Angel

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7% than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04. Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF stores, where TBF(% = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15. This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(% between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.

  7. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD, thioredoxins (THX and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP. Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  8. Identificação e caracterização das proteínas da parede celular em Paracoccidioides sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Danielle Silva

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomicose é uma importante micose sistêmica na América latina, com alta incidência no Brasil, Argentina, Colômbia e Venezuela. A doença é atribuída ao fungo termodimórfico Paracoccidioides spp.. Durante o processo infecioso podemos destacar o papel desempenhado pela parede celular, estrutura esta, vital para o crescimento, sobrevivência, e morfogênese do fungo, a qual está em constante mudança em resposta a sinais do ambiente. O interesse no estudo da parede celular de...

  9. Transcritoma e proteoma do fungo Paracoccidioides em condições de privação de glicose ou hipóxia

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Patrícia de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioides spp. causa a paracoccidioidomicose, uma das micoses mais frequentes na América Latina. O fungo cresce como micélio no meio ambiente, e como levedura, no hospedeiro. A fim de sobreviver no corpo humano, patógenos devem se adaptar nos microambientes os quais são frequentemente caracterizados por baixas disponibilidades de nutrientes e oxigênio. Uma das primeiras linhas de defesa deste fungo durante invasão no hospedeiro são os macrófagos residentes nos pulmões, considerados pob...

  10. Análise proteômica em células leveduriformes do fungo Paracoccidioides sp. em excesso de cobre

    OpenAIRE

    Portis, Igor Godinho

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomicose é a micose sistêmica mais prevalente da América Latina, causada por fungos do gênero Paracoccidioides spp. O fungo cresce como micélio no ambiente saprofítico, sendo a infecção causada por propágulos de micélio e ou conídios, que se diferenciam na forma leveduriforme no hospedeiro. O cobre é um micronutriente essencial para eucariotos e bactérias, de extrema importância a várias proteínas, sendo cofator de muitas enzimas e utilizado em diversos proces...

  11. Parental Investment and sexual immune dimorphism in cichlids ans syngnathids

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Isabel Salome

    2017-01-01

    I investigated how the interrelationship between parental investment and sexual immune dimorphism shape the evolution of parental care strategies within the cichlids and syngnathids. To understand why parental investment is displayed in such diversity in the animal kingdom, I assessed evolutionary and provisioning costs of parental investment in male pregnancy, biparental and maternal mouthbrooding. Additionally, to address the importance of parental investment, I tested for maternal effects ...

  12. Sexual dimorphism of maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz S. Tambawala

    2016-06-01

    The overall values of the parameters were significantly greater in the males as compared to the females with the right height (90.0% and the left height (83.3% being the best predictors. This study proposes the importance of sexual dimorphism of maxillary sinus dimensions particularly the sinus height, when other methods used in the field of forensics seem to be indecisive. It suggests the use of CBCT in forensics thus obviating the complete dependence on the usage of conventional CT.

  13. The Neuroanatomy of Sexual Dimorphism in Opioid Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    2012 for review). Studies utilizing orofacial , somatosensory or visceral pain assays typically report that morphine produces a significantly greater...Review The neuroanatomy of sexual dimorphism in opioid analgesia Dayna R. Loyd a, Anne Z. Murphy b,⁎ a Pain Management Research Area, United States...online 13 April 2014 Keywords: Pain Periaqueductal gray Morphine Mu opioid receptor The influence of sex has been neglected in clinical studies on pain

  14. Latitudinal variation in cranial dimorphism in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    This study examines latitudinal and insular variation in the expression of sexual dimorphism in cranial length in three geographical groupings of Macaca fascicularis. In addition, the relationship between cranial length dimorphism (CLD) and sex-specific size is examined. The results of the study identified a significant relationship between CLD and latitude for only one of the three geographic groupings. Sex-specific relationships between cranial length and CLD were detected. The pattern of these relationships varied by geographic grouping. This study is important because it demonstrates that despite very similar levels of CLD in a single primate species, there exists important geographic variability in the correlates of that dimorphism. I suggest that geographically varying ecological factors may influence sex-specific natural selection and the intensity of CLD in M. fascicularis. Gaining a better understanding of this geographical variability will require that future research examines morphological variation, including CLD, within its corresponding ecological and social contexts. Such research should be comparative, and incorporate multiple geographically separated populations with disparate environmental settings.

  15. Dimorphic magnetorheological fluids: exploiting partial substitution of microspheres by nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngatu, G T; Wereley, N M; Karli, J O; Bell, R C

    2008-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids typically are suspensions of spherical micron-sized ferromagnetic particles suspended in a fluid medium. They are usually thought of as Bingham-plastic fluids characterized by an apparent yield stress and viscosity. Partial substitution of the micron-sized iron particles with rod-shaped nanowires constitutes a dimorphic MR fluid. In this study, we investigate the influence that nanowires have on the magnetorheological and sedimentation properties of MR fluids. A variety of conventional and dimorphic MR fluid samples were considered for this study with iron loading ranging from 50 to 80 wt%. The nanowires used in this study have mean diameters of 230 nm and a length distribution of 7.6 ± 5.1 µm, while the spherical particles have a mean diameter of 8 ± 2 µm. Flow curves were measured using a parallel disk rheometer and a sedimentation measuring instrument was constructed for quantifying sedimentation velocity. The Bingham yield strength and sedimentation velocity of the dimorphic MR fluids are then compared to those of conventional MR fluids incorporating spherical particles

  16. Human fertility variation, size-related obstetrical performance and the evolution of sexual stature dimorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Guégan, Jean-François; Teriokhin, A.T.; Thomas, F.

    2000-01-01

    In several animal species, change in sexual size dimorphism is a correlated response to selection on fecundity. In humans, different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation of sexual dimorphism in stature, but no consensus has yet emerged. In this paper, we evaluate from a theoretical and an empirical point of view the hypothesis that the extent of sexual dimorphism in human populations results from the interaction between fertility and size-related obstetric complications. We ...

  17. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  18. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  19. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Young Women do it Better: Sexual Dimorphism in Temporal Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura Jane; Butler, John S; Molloy, Anna; McGovern, Eavan; Beiser, Ines; Kimmich, Okka; Quinlivan, Brendan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. TDTs are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to systematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 20-65 years, the distribution of TDTs with an analysis of the individual participant's responses, assessing the "point of subjective equality" and the "just noticeable difference" (JND). These respectively assess sensitivity and accuracy of an individual's response. In 175 participants (88 women) aged 20-65 years, temporal discrimination was faster in women than in men under the age of 40 years by a mean of approximately 13 ms. However, age-related decline in temporal discrimination was three times faster in women so that, in the age group of 40-65 years, the female superiority was reversed. The point of subjective equality showed a similar advantage in younger women and more marked age-related decline in women than men, as the TDT. JND values declined equally in both sexes, showing no sexual dimorphism. This observed sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination is important for both (a) future clinical research assessing disordered mid-brain covert attention in basal-ganglia disorders, and (b) understanding the biology of this sexual dimorphism which may be genetic or hormonal.

  1. Young women do it better: sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jane Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. Temporal discrimination thresholds are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to sytematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 20 to 65 years, the distribution of temporal discrimination thresholds with an analysis of the individual participant’s responses, assessing the point of subjective equality (PSE and the just noticeable difference (JND. These respectively assess sensitivity and accuracy of an individual’s response. In 175 participants (88 women aged 20-65 years, temporal discrimination was faster in women than in men under the age of 40 years by a mean of approximately 13ms. However age-related decline in temporal discrimination was three times faster in women so that, in the age group of 40-65 years, the female superiority was reversed. The point of subjective equality showed a similar advantage in younger women and more marked age-related decline in women than men, as the temporal discrimination threshold. Just noticeable difference values declined equally in both sexes showing no sexual dimorphism. This observed sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination is important for both a future clinical research assessing disordered mid-brain covert attention in basal-ganglia disorders and b understanding the biology of this sexual dimorphism which may be genetic or hormonal.

  2. Prevalence of sexual dimorphism in mammalian phenotypic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Natasha A.; Mason, Jeremy; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Benjamini, Yoav; Bower, Lynette; Braun, Robert E.; Brown, Steve D.M.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Flenniken, Ann M.; Fuchs, Helmut; Angelis, Martin Hrabe de; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Shiying; Greenaway, Simon; Heller, Ruth; Herault, Yann; Justice, Monica J.; Kurbatova, Natalja; Lelliott, Christopher J.; Lloyd, K.C. Kent; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Mank, Judith E.; Masuya, Hiroshi; McKerlie, Colin; Meehan, Terrence F.; Mott, Richard F.; Murray, Stephen A.; Parkinson, Helen; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Santos, Luis; Seavitt, John R.; Smedley, Damian; Sorg, Tania; Speak, Anneliese O.; Steel, Karen P.; Svenson, Karen L.; Obata, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tamura, Masaru; Kaneda, Hideki; Furuse, Tamio; Kobayashi, Kimio; Miura, Ikuo; Yamada, Ikuko; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ayabe, Shinya; Clary, David A.; Tolentino, Heather A.; Schuchbauer, Michael A.; Tolentino, Todd; Aprile, Joseph Anthony; Pedroia, Sheryl M.; Kelsey, Lois; Vukobradovic, Igor; Berberovic, Zorana; Owen, Celeste; Qu, Dawei; Guo, Ruolin; Newbigging, Susan; Morikawa, Lily; Law, Napoleon; Shang, Xueyuan; Feugas, Patricia; Wang, Yanchun; Eskandarian, Mohammad; Zhu, Yingchun; Nutter, Lauryl M. J.; Penton, Patricia; Laurin, Valerie; Clarke, Shannon; Lan, Qing; Sohel, Khondoker; Miller, David; Clark, Greg; Hunter, Jane; Cabezas, Jorge; Bubshait, Mohammed; Carroll, Tracy; Tondat, Sandra; MacMaster, Suzanne; Pereira, Monica; Gertsenstein, Marina; Danisment, Ozge; Jacob, Elsa; Creighton, Amie; Sleep, Gillian; Clark, James; Teboul, Lydia; Fray, Martin; Caulder, Adam; Loeffler, Jorik; Codner, Gemma; Cleak, James; Johnson, Sara; Szoke-Kovacs, Zsombor; Radage, Adam; Maritati, Marina; Mianne, Joffrey; Gardiner, Wendy; Allen, Susan; Cater, Heather; Stewart, Michelle; Keskivali-Bond, Piia; Sinclair, Caroline; Brown, Ellen; Doe, Brendan; Wardle-Jones, Hannah; Grau, Evelyn; Griggs, Nicola; Woods, Mike; Kundi, Helen; Griffiths, Mark N. D.; Kipp, Christian; Melvin, David G.; Raj, Navis P. S.; Holroyd, Simon A.; Gannon, David J.; Alcantara, Rafael; Galli, Antonella; Hooks, Yvette E.; Tudor, Catherine L.; Green, Angela L.; Kussy, Fiona L.; Tuck, Elizabeth J.; Siragher, Emma J.; Maguire, Simon A.; Lafont, David T.; Vancollie, Valerie E.; Pearson, Selina A.; Gates, Amy S.; Sanderson, Mark; Shannon, Carl; Anthony, Lauren F. E.; Sumowski, Maksymilian T.; McLaren, Robbie S. B.; Swiatkowska, Agnieszka; Isherwood, Christopher M.; Cambridge, Emma L; Wilson, Heather M.; Caetano, Susana S.; Mazzeo, Cecilia Icoresi; Dabrowska, Monika H.; Lillistone, Charlotte; Estabel, Jeanne; Maguire, Anna Karin B.; Roberson, Laura-Anne; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Birling, Marie-Christine; Marie, Wattenhofer-Donze; Jacquot, Sylvie; Ayadi, Abdel; Ali-Hadji, Dalila; Charles, Philippe; André, Philippe; Le Marchand, Elise; El Amri, Amal; Vasseur, Laurent; Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Becker, Lore; Treise, Irina; Moreth, Kristin; Stoeger, Tobias; Amarie, Oana V.; Neff, Frauke; Wurst, Wolfgang; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Ollert, Markus; Klopstock, Thomas; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Marschall, Susan; Brommage, Robert; Steinkamp, Ralph; Lengger, Christoph; Östereicher, Manuela A.; Maier, Holger; Stoeger, Claudia; Leuchtenberger, Stefanie; Yildrim, AliÖ; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M; Zimprich, Annemarie; Seisenberger, Claudia; Bürger, Antje; Graw, Jochen; Eickelberg, Oliver; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Busch, Dirk H; Klingenspor, Martin; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Beckers, Johannes; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Wakana, Shigeharu; West, David; Wells, Sara; Westerberg, Henrik; Yaacoby, Shay; White, Jacqueline K.

    2017-01-01

    The role of sex in biomedical studies has often been overlooked, despite evidence of sexually dimorphic effects in some biological studies. Here, we used high-throughput phenotype data from 14,250 wildtype and 40,192 mutant mice (representing 2,186 knockout lines), analysed for up to 234 traits, and found a large proportion of mammalian traits both in wildtype and mutants are influenced by sex. This result has implications for interpreting disease phenotypes in animal models and humans. PMID:28650954

  3. Genetic constraints and sexual dimorphism in immune defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Jens; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Coltman, David W.

    2005-01-01

    The absence of continued evolutionary change despite the presence of genetic variation and directional selection is very common. Genetic correlations between traits can reduce the evolvability of traits. One intriguing example might be found in a sexual conflict over sexually dimorphic traits......: a common genetic architecture constrains the response to selection on a trait subjected to sexually asymmetric selection pressures. Here we show that males and females of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor differ in the quantitative genetic architecture of four traits related to immune defense...

  4. Allometry, sexual size dimorphism, and niche partitioning in the Mediterranean gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Johnson; Lance D. McBrayer; Daniel Saenz

    2005-01-01

    Hemidactylus tucrius is a small gekkonid lizard native to the Middle East and Asia that is known to exhibit sexual dimorphism in head size. Several potential explanations exist for the evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism in lizards. We tested 2 of these competing hypotheses concerning diet partitioning and differential growth. We found no...

  5. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation; Atenuacao da forma leveduriforme do Paraccocidioides Brasiliensis por irradicao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L {sup 35}S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C{sub 57}Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- {sup 35}S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  6. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  7. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  8. Geosmithia-Ophiostoma: a New Fungus-Fungus Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepori, Alessia L; Bettini, Priscilla P; Comparini, Cecilia; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Bonini, Anna; Frascella, Arcangela; Ghelardini, Luisa; Scala, Aniello; Vannacci, Giovanni; Santini, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In Europe as in North America, elms are devastated by Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the alien ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Pathogen dispersal and transmission are ensured by local species of bark beetles, which established a novel association with the fungus. Elm bark beetles also transport the Geosmithia fungi genus that is found in scolytids' galleries colonized by O. novo-ulmi. Widespread horizontal gene transfer between O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia was recently observed. In order to define the relation between these two fungi in the DED pathosystem, O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species from elm, including a GFP-tagged strain, were grown in dual culture and mycelial interactions were observed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Growth and sporulation of O. novo-ulmi in the absence or presence of Geosmithia were compared. The impact of Geosmithia on DED severity was tested in vivo by co-inoculating Geosmithia and O. novo-ulmi in elms. A close and stable relation was observed between the two fungi, which may be classified as mycoparasitism by Geosmithia on O. novo-ulmi. These results prove the existence of a new component in the complex of organisms involved in DED, which might be capable of reducing the disease impact.

  9. A re-evaluation of subspecific variation and canine dimorphism in woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S R; Jungers, W L

    1994-12-01

    A recent study suggests that differing populations of woolly spider monkeys exhibit a substantial degree of morphological, cytogenetic, and behavioral variation. We re-evaluate the differences between populations in the degree of canine tooth height sexual dimorphism and in the frequency of thumbs. Statistical analysis of variation in the degree of canine sexual dimorphism between these populations fails to provide strong evidence for subspecific variation: differences in the degree of canine dimorphism cannot be considered statistically significant. Differences between populations in the frequency of thumbs are, however, statistically significant. The lack of clear distinctions between populations in the degree of canine dimorphism complicates assessments of behavioral variation between these populations. We suggest that the level of geographic variation in woolly spider monkey canine dimorphism is not consistent with subspecific status.

  10. Ancient balancing selection at tan underlies female colour dimorphism in Drosophila erecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Amir; Bastide, Héloïse; Chung, Henry; Veuille, Michel; David, Jean R; Pool, John E

    2016-01-18

    Dimorphic traits are ubiquitous in nature, but the evolutionary factors leading to dimorphism are largely unclear. We investigate a potential case of sexual mimicry in Drosophila erecta, in which females show contrasting resemblance to males. We map the genetic basis of this sex-limited colour dimorphism to a region containing the gene tan. We find a striking signal of ancient balancing selection at the 'male-specific enhancer' of tan, with exceptionally high sequence divergence between light and dark alleles, suggesting that this dimorphism has been adaptively maintained for millions of years. Using transgenic reporter assays, we confirm that these enhancer alleles encode expression differences that are predicted to generate this pigmentation dimorphism. These results are compatible with the theoretical prediction that divergent phenotypes maintained by selection can evolve simple genetic architectures.

  11. Production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and analyses of the results by image processing; Producao de interleucinas RNAm em camundongos BALB/c infectados por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, com analises dos resultados atraves de processamento de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Adriana; Pietro, Rosemeire C.L. Rodrigues; Silva, Celio L. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia; Rodrigues, Evandro L.L.; Franca, Celso A. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1996-12-31

    The production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is studied. It is reported that in the beginning of the disease with P. brasiliensis stimulated mice showed an analogous production between IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, however, there is a predominance of IL-2 mRNA in the lung and of IL-10 mRNA in the liver cells. In this model, there is a dynamic change in the levels of IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, suggesting the presence of both CD4+ T helper cells 7 refs., 6 figs.

  12. The ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism of a moth: when do males and females grow apart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig Stillwell

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high. We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults.

  13. Energetics, scaling and sexual size dimorphism of spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, B; Canals, M

    2015-03-01

    The extreme sexual size dimorphism in spiders has motivated studies for many years. In many species the male can be very small relative to the female. There are several hypotheses trying to explain this fact, most of them emphasizing the role of energy in determining spider size. The aim of this paper is to review the role of energy in sexual size dimorphism of spiders, even for those spiders that do not necessarily live in high foliage, using physical and allometric principles. Here we propose that the cost of transport or equivalently energy expenditure and the speed are traits under selection pressure in male spiders, favoring those of smaller size to reduce travel costs. The morphology of the spiders responds to these selective forces depending upon the lifestyle of the spiders. Climbing and bridging spiders must overcome the force of gravity. If bridging allows faster dispersal, small males would have a selective advantage by enjoying more mating opportunities. In wandering spiders with low population density and as a consequence few male-male interactions, high speed and low energy expenditure or cost of transport should be favored by natural selection. Pendulum mechanics show the advantages of long legs in spiders and their relationship with high speed, even in climbing and bridging spiders. Thus small size, compensated by long legs should be the expected morphology for a fast and mobile male spider.

  14. White matter sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourisly Ali K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-biased psychophysiology, behavior, brain function, and conditions are extensive, yet underlying structural brain mechanisms remain unclear. There is contradicting evidence regarding sexual dimorphism when it comes to brain structure, and there is still no consensus on whether or not there exists such a dimorphism for brain white matter. Therefore, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis along with global volume analysis for white matter across sex. We analyzed 384 T1-weighted MRI brain images (192 male, 192 female to investigate any differences in white matter (WM between males and females. In the VBM analysis, we found males to have larger WM, compared to females, in occipital, temporal, insular, parietal, and frontal brain regions. In contrast, females showed only one WM region to be significantly larger than males: the right postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe region. Although, on average, males showed larger global WM volume, we did not find any significant difference in global WM volume between males and females.

  15. Análises proteômicas de conídios do fungo patogênico humano Paracoccidioides sp

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, André Luís Elias

    2014-01-01

    A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma micose sistêmica causada pelo fungo termodimórfico Paracoccidioides spp.. A principal rota de infecção da PCM ocorre por inalação de conídios ou fragmentos de micélio. Até o momento, estudos proteômicos não foram realizados com conídios de Paracoccidoides sp. Neste sentido, caracterizar o proteoma do conídio poderá contribuir para o conhecimento detalhado das proteínas expressas durante a fase de propagação e seus potenciais papéis na virulência e patogenic...

  16. Caracterização da enolase de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e identificação proteômica de novas moléculas

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Caroline Maria [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é um importante patógeno humano que causa a paracoccidioidomicose (PCM), uma micose sistêmica com ampla distribuição na América Latina. A adesão e invasão de células são eventos cruciais envolvidos na infecção e disseminação do patógeno. Além disso, patógenos utilizam suas moléculas de superfície para se ligar aos componentes da matriz extracelular para estabelecer a infecção. Uma proteína antigênica de P. brasiliensis foi isolada de géis de eletroforese bidimens...

  17. Cross-sex genetic correlation does not extend to sexual size dimorphism in spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Eva; Kuntner, Matjaž; Kralj-Fišer, Simona

    2018-02-01

    Males and females are often subjected to different selection pressures for homologous traits, resulting in sex-specific optima. Because organismal attributes usually share their genetic architectures, sex-specific selection may lead to intralocus sexual conflict. Evolution of sexual dimorphism may resolve this conflict, depending on the degree of cross-sex genetic correlation ( r MF) and the strength of sex-specific selection. In theory, high r MF implies that sexes largely share the genetic base for a given trait and are consequently sexually monomorphic, while low r MF indicates a sex-specific genetic base and sexual dimorphism. Here, we broadly test this hypothesis on three spider species with varying degrees of female-biased sexual size dimorphism, Larinioides sclopetarius (sexual dimorphism index, SDI = 0.85), Nuctenea umbratica (SDI = 0.60), and Zygiella x-notata (SDI = 0.46). We assess r MF via same-sex and opposite-sex heritability estimates. We find moderate body mass heritability but no obvious patterns in sex-specific heritability. Against the prediction, the degree of sexual size dimorphism is unrelated to the relative strength of same-sex versus opposite-sex heritability. Our results do not support the hypothesis that sexual size dimorphism is negatively associated with r MF. We conclude that sex-specific genetic architecture may not be necessary for the evolution of a sexually dimorphic trait.

  18. Feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism in a speciose flower beetle clade (Hopliini: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan F. Colville

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism is examined in a speciose South African monkey beetle clade. We test whether feeding and mating at a fixed site (embedding guild is associated with greater levels of sexual dimorphism and possibly sexual selection than species using unpredictable feeding resources (non-embedding guild. Sexual dimorphism was measured using a point scoring system for hind leg and colour across the two feeding guilds for >50% of the regional fauna. Quantification of hind leg dimorphism using a scoring system and allometric scaling were used to identify traits subject to sexual selection. Feeding guild had a significant effect on hind leg dimorphism, with embedders having high and non-embedders low scores. The sessile and defendable distribution of females on stable platform flowers may favour contests and associated hind leg weaponry. In contrast, degree of colour dimorphism between the sexes was not associated with any particular feeding guild, and may serve to reduce male conflict and combat. Embedder males had high proportions (∼76% of species with positive allometric slopes for almost all hind leg traits. For male non-embedders, only ∼37% of species showed positive scaling relationships. Phylogenetic data, in conjunction with behavioural data on the function of leg weaponry and visual signalling among males is needed to better understand the link between sexual dimorphism and sexual selection in the radiation of the monkey beetles.

  19. From Lucy to Kadanuumuu: balanced analyses of Australopithecus afarensis assemblages confirm only moderate skeletal dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Reno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size is often used as a correlate of social and reproductive behavior in Australopithecus afarensis. In addition to a number of isolated specimens, the sample for this species includes two small associated skeletons (A.L. 288-1 or “Lucy” and A.L. 128/129 and a geologically contemporaneous death assemblage of several larger individuals (A.L. 333. These have driven both perceptions and quantitative analyses concluding that Au. afarensis was markedly dimorphic. The Template Method enables simultaneous evaluation of multiple skeletal sites, thereby greatly expanding sample size, and reveals that A. afarensis dimorphism was similar to that of modern humans. A new very large partial skeleton (KSD-VP-1/1 or “Kadanuumuu” can now also be used, like Lucy, as a template specimen. In addition, the recently developed Geometric Mean Method has been used to argue that Au. afarensis was equally or even more dimorphic than gorillas. However, in its previous application Lucy and A.L. 128/129 accounted for 10 of 11 estimates of female size. Here we directly compare the two methods and demonstrate that including multiple measurements from the same partial skeleton that falls at the margin of the species size range dramatically inflates dimorphism estimates. Prevention of the dominance of a single specimen’s contribution to calculations of multiple dimorphism estimates confirms that Au. afarensis was only moderately dimorphic.

  20. Reduction of sexual dimorphism in stream-resident forms of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, J.; Mori, S.; Peichel, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in geometric body shape and external morphology was compared between marine and stream-resident forms of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus collected from North America and Japan. Some aspects of sexual dimorphism were shared between ecotypes: males had larger heads than females with no significant effect of ecotype on the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. By contrast, a significant sex-by-ecotype interaction was found for body depth. Males tended to have deeper bodies than females in both forms, but the magnitude of sexual dimorphism was reduced in stream-resident forms. Although females were generally larger in standard length and had larger pelvic girdles, significant sexual dimorphism in these traits was not consistently found across populations or ecotypes. These results suggest that some aspects of sexual dimorphism were shared between ecotypes, while others were unique to each population. The results further suggest that ecology may influence the evolution of sexual dimorphism in some external morphological traits, such as body depth. PMID:22220894

  1. Males Resemble Females: Re-Evaluating Sexual Dimorphism in Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maiorino

    Full Text Available Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae is a well-known dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Some previous workers hypothesized sexual dimorphism in the cranial shape of this taxon, using qualitative and quantitative observations. In particular, width and height of the frill as well as the development of a nasal horn have been hypothesized as potentially sexually dimorphic.Here, we reassess potential sexual dimorphism in skulls of Protoceratops andrewsi by applying two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to 29 skulls in lateral and dorsal views. Principal Component Analyses and nonparametric MANOVAs recover no clear separation between hypothetical "males" and "females" within the overall morphospace. Males and females thus possess similar overall cranial morphologies. No differences in size between "males" and "females" are recovered using nonparametric ANOVAs.Sexual dimorphism within Protoceratops andrewsi is not strongly supported by our results, as previously proposed by several authors. Anatomical traits such as height and width of the frill, and skull size thus may not be sexually dimorphic. Based on PCA for a data set focusing on the rostrum and associated ANOVA results, nasal horn height is the only feature with potential dimorphism. As a whole, most purported dimorphic variation is probably primarily the result of ontogenetic cranial shape changes as well as intraspecific cranial variation independent of sex.

  2. Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S

    1993-08-01

    Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior.

  3. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - γ, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-γ production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was dominant. For

  5. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  6. The Sexual Dimorphism of Dietary Restriction Responsiveness in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko Honjoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species. Here, we report an extreme sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness to DR in C. elegans; the essential hermaphrodites show marked longevity responses to various forms of DR, but the males show few longevity responses and sustain reproductive ability. Our analysis reveals that the sex determination pathway and the steroid hormone receptor DAF-12 regulate the sex-specific DR responsiveness, integrating sex and environmental cues to determine organismal lifespan.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS), jealousy and mate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Riley, Charlene

    2010-10-02

    Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98) and women (n = 102) completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care). SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional) or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display).

  8. Sexual Dimorphism of Parental Care: From Genes to Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkha, Noga; Scott, Niv; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-07-25

    Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain. We argue that although several brain regions and circuits regulating parental care are shared by both sexes, some of the fundamental components comprising the maternal brain are innate and sex specific. Moreover, we suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms can be achieved by expanding the methodological toolbox, applying ethologically relevant approaches such as nontraditional wild-derived animal models and complex seminatural experimental set-ups.

  9. Sexual dimorphism in Ramphastos toco and Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Márcio S; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M; Rocha, Guaracy T

    2003-03-01

    Phenotypic sexual dimorphism seems to be rare in the Ramphastidae family, except in Pteroglossus viridis and in the genus Selenidera. Many breeders of wild birds believe that specimens of Ramphastos toco can be sexed using bill characteristics. In this study, various discriminant phenotypic variables were analyzed in birds which were sexed cytogenetically. Fifty-one specimens of R. toco and 20 R. dicolorus were studied. The statistically significant parameters which served to distinguish the sex in these species were the length of the culmen and tomium, length of the lower corneous beak and the cloaca. Using these parameters, captive bird breeders can determine sex of R. toco specimens by phenotypic analysis and form breeding couples more quickly.

  10. Discovery of sexual dimorphisms in metabolic and genetic biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Mittelstrass

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic profiling and the integration of whole-genome genetic association data has proven to be a powerful tool to comprehensively explore gene regulatory networks and to investigate the effects of genetic variation at the molecular level. Serum metabolite concentrations allow a direct readout of biological processes, and association of specific metabolomic signatures with complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders has been shown. There are well-known correlations between sex and the incidence, prevalence, age of onset, symptoms, and severity of a disease, as well as the reaction to drugs. However, most of the studies published so far did not consider the role of sexual dimorphism and did not analyse their data stratified by gender. This study investigated sex-specific differences of serum metabolite concentrations and their underlying genetic determination. For discovery and replication we used more than 3,300 independent individuals from KORA F3 and F4 with metabolite measurements of 131 metabolites, including amino acids, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, acylcarnitines, and C6-sugars. A linear regression approach revealed significant concentration differences between males and females for 102 out of 131 metabolites (p-values<3.8×10(-4; Bonferroni-corrected threshold. Sex-specific genome-wide association studies (GWAS showed genome-wide significant differences in beta-estimates for SNPs in the CPS1 locus (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1, significance level: p<3.8×10(-10; Bonferroni-corrected threshold for glycine. We showed that the metabolite profiles of males and females are significantly different and, furthermore, that specific genetic variants in metabolism-related genes depict sexual dimorphism. Our study provides new important insights into sex-specific differences of cell regulatory processes and underscores that studies should consider sex-specific effects in design and

  11. Sexual Dimorphism in the Early Embryogenesis in Zebra Finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhsud Tagirov

    Full Text Available Sex-specific gene expression before the onset of gonadogensis has been documented in embryos of mammals and chickens. In several mammalian species, differences in gene expression are accompanied by faster growth of pre-implantation male embryos. Here we asked whether avian embryos before gonadal differentiation are also sex-dimorphic in size and what genes regulate their growth. We used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata whose freshly laid eggs were artificially incubated for 36-40 hours. Analyses controlling for the exact time of incubation of 81 embryos revealed that males were larger than females in terms of Hamburger and Hamilton stage and number of somites. Expression of 15 genes involved in cell cycle regulation, growth, metabolic activity, steroidogenic pathway and stress modulation were measured using RT-PCR in 5 male and 5 female embryos incubated for exactly 36 h. We found that in the presence of equal levels of the growth hormone itself, the faster growth of male embryos is most likely achieved by the overexpression of the growth hormone receptor gene and three other genes responsible for cell cycle regulation and metabolism, all of them located on the Z chromosome. Autosomal genes did not show sex-specific expression, except for the steroidogenic factor 1 which was expressed only in female embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report of sexual size dimorphism before gonadogenesis in birds. The finding suggests that faster growth of early male embryos is conserved through the mammalian and bird phyla, irrespective of their differential sex chromosome systems.

  12. Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism in copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Major theories compete to explain the macroevolutionary trends observed in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Quantitative genetic theory suggests that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size, with covariation between allometric slopes (male to female size) and the strength of SSD across clades. Rensch's rule (RR) also suggests a correlation, but one in which males are always the more size variant sex. Examining free-living pelagic and parasitic Copepoda, we test these competing predictions. Females are commonly the larger sex in copepod species. Comparing clades that vary by four orders of magnitude in their degree of dimorphism, we show that isometry is widespread. As such we find no support for either RR or for covariation between allometry and SSD. Our results suggest that selection on both sexes has been equally important. We next test the prediction that variation in the degree of SSD is related to the adult sex ratio. As males become relatively less abundant, it has been hypothesized that this will lead to a reduction in both inter-male competition and male size. However, the lack of such a correlation across diverse free-living pelagic families of copepods provides no support for this hypothesis. By comparison, in sea lice of the family Caligidae, there is some qualitative support of the hypothesis, males may suffer elevated mortality when they leave the host and rove for sedentary females, and their female-biased SSD is greater than in many free-living families. However, other parasitic copepods which do not appear to have obvious differences in sex-based mate searching risks also show similar or even more extreme SSD, therefore suggesting other factors can drive the observed extremes. PMID:25100692

  13. A comparative, developmental and clinical perspective of neurobehavioral sexual dimorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Paz eViveros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.

  14. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

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    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  15. Sexually dimorphic characteristics of the small intestine and colon of prepubescent C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Pruis, Maurien Gm; Lendvai, Agnes; Verkade, Henkjan J; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and

  16. Apendicitis por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz MUÑOZ URRIBARRI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es la micosis más prevalente en Sudamérica. La forma aguda afecta el sistema fagocítico mononuclear de niños y personas inmunocomprometidas. El compromiso gastrointestinal es frecuente y su patogenia implica diseminación hematógena y linfática. La linfadenomegalia abdominal causa obstrucción intestinal y abdomen agudo. En este artículo damos a conocer el caso de un niño con compromiso gastrointestinal por apendicitis. Este es el primer caso reportado de apendicitis por esta patología. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:58-60.

  17. Apendicitis por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    MUÑOZ URRIBARRI, Ana Beatriz; CHAPARRO DAMMERT, Eduardo; FERRUFINO LLACH, Juan Carlos; VASQUEZ FLORES, Luciola

    2012-01-01

    La paracoccidioidomicosis es la micosis más prevalente en Sudamérica. La forma aguda afecta el sistema fagocítico mononuclear de niños y personas inmunocomprometidas. El compromiso gastrointestinal es frecuente y su patogenia implica diseminación hematógena y linfática. La linfadenomegalia abdominal causa obstrucción intestinal y abdomen agudo. En este artículo damos a conocer el caso de un niño con compromiso gastrointestinal por apendicitis. Este es el primer caso reportado de apendicitis p...

  18. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  19. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...

  20. Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Investigating sexual dimorphism is important for our understanding of its influence on reproductive strategies including male-male competition, mate choice, and sexual conflict. Measuring physical traits in wild animals can be logistically challenging and disruptive for the animals. Therefore body size and ornament variation in wild primates have rarely been quantified. Gorillas are amongst the most sexually dimorphic and dichromatic primates. Adult males (silverbacks) possess a prominent sagittal crest, a pad of fibrous and fatty tissue on top of the head, have red crest coloration, their saddle appears silver, and they possess a silverline along their stomach. Here we measure levels of sexual dimorphism and within-male variation of body length, head size, and sexual dichromatism in a population of wild western gorillas using photogrammetry. Digital photogrammetry is a useful and precise method to measure sexual dimorphism in physical traits yielding sexual dimorphism indices (ISD), similar to those derived from traditional measurements of skeletal remains. Silverbacks were on an average 1.23 times longer in body length than adult females. Sexual dimorphism of head size was highest in measures of crest size (max ISD: 60.4) compared with measures of facial height (max ISD: 24.7). The most sexually dimorphic head size measures also showed the highest within-sex variation. We found no clear sex differences in crest coloration but there was large sexual dichromatism with high within-male variation in saddle coloration and silverline size. Further studies should examine if these sexually dimorphic traits are honest signals of competitive ability and confer an advantage in reproductive success.

  1. Sexual dimorphism of head morphology in three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, W E; Akinpelu, O

    2010-09-01

    This study examined sexual dimorphism of head morphology in the ecologically diverse three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Male G. aculeatus had longer heads than female G. aculeatus in all 10 anadromous, stream and lake populations examined, and head length growth rates were significantly higher in males in half of the populations sampled, indicating that differences in head size increased with body size in many populations. Despite consistently larger heads in males, there was significant variation in size-adjusted head length among populations, suggesting that the relationship between head length and body length was flexible. Inter-population differences in head length were correlated between sexes, thus population-level factors influenced head length in both sexes despite the sexual dimorphism present. Head shape variation between lake and anadromous populations was greater than that between sexes. The common divergence in head shape between sexes across populations was about twice as important as the sexual dimorphism unique to each population. Finally, much of the sexual dimorphism in head length was due to divergence in the anterior region of the head, where the primary trophic structures were found. It is unclear whether the sexual dimorphism was due to natural selection for niche divergence between sexes or sexual selection. This study improves knowledge of the magnitude, growth rate divergence, inter-population variation and location of sexual dimorphism in G. aculeatus head morphology. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Genome-wide methylation analysis identified sexually dimorphic methylated regions in hybrid tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Lin, Grace; Wang, Le; Lin, Valerie C. L.; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is an interesting biological phenomenon. Previous studies showed that DNA methylation might play a role in sexual dimorphism. However, the overall picture of the genome-wide methylation landscape in sexually dimorphic species remains unclear. We analyzed the DNA methylation landscape and transcriptome in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) using whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We found 4,757 sexually dimorphic differentially methylated regions (DMRs), with significant clusters of DMRs located on chromosomal regions associated with sex determination. CpG methylation in promoter regions was negatively correlated with the gene expression level. MAPK/ERK pathway was upregulated in male tilapia. We also inferred active cis-regulatory regions (ACRs) in skeletal muscle tissues from WGBS datasets, revealing sexually dimorphic cis-regulatory regions. These results suggest that DNA methylation contribute to sex-specific phenotypes and serve as resources for further investigation to analyze the functions of these regions and their contributions towards sexual dimorphisms. PMID:27782217

  3. Dimorphism in the Size and Shape of the Birth Canal Across Anthropoid Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-01

    It has long been noted that the human female birth canal is well adapted to giving birth to large-brained neonates. However, several species of nonhuman primates give birth to large-headed neonates compared to the maternal birth canal. The presence of such large cephalopelvic proportions in nonhuman primates presents the question of whether dimorphism in the birth canals of these other species is related to obstetric demand, as such dimorphism is presumed to be in humans. In this study, the hypothesis that either the presence or magnitude of dimorphism in the birth canal is related to large cephalopelvic proportions among anthropoid primates is directly tested. This study shows that birth canal dimorphism is common among anthropoids regardless of cephalopelvic proportions, but taxa with large cephalopelvic proportions have a higher magnitude of dimorphism than those that give birth to relatively small-headed neonates. Furthermore, humans have exceptionally high levels of dimorphism that cannot be explained based on our large cephalopelvic proportions alone. Anat Rec, 300:870-889, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  5. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  7. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism

  8. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  9. Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum: Digital morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Changes in the morphology and the size of the corpus callosum, are related to various pathological conditions. An analysis of these changes requires data about sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum, which we tried to obtain in our study. We also investigated the method of digital morphometry and compared the obtained results with the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance imaging or by planimetry. Methods. A morphological research included 34 human brains (cadavers of both sexes − 19 female and 15 male aged 26−72 years. By digital morphometry using an AutoCAD software we performed measurements in the corpus callosum: the length (L, width in the half of its length (WW’, length of its cortical margin (LCM, area and perimeter of the anterior and posterior callosal segments, as well as the area and perimeter of the corpus callosum section area. The investigated parameters were analyzed and compared between the females and males. Results. There was not a statistically significant difference between the males and females in the investigated parameters of the corpus callosum (t test; p > 0.05, including the mean values of the two most important parameters, the surface of its midsagittal section area (males 654.11 mm2; females 677.40 mm2 and of its perimeter (males 19.61 cm; females 19.72 cm. The results obtained by digital morphometry were in the range of the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance and by planimetry. However, the value of Pearson coefficient of linear correlation between the section surface area and perimeter of the corpus callosum in the males was highly significant (rxy = 0.6943, p < 0.01, while in the females this value was statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Digital morphometry is accurate method in encephalometric investigations. Our results suggest that the problem of sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum is very complex, because the identical variables (section

  10. Introducing the refined gravity hypothesis of extreme sexual size dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corcobado Guadalupe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Explanations for the evolution of female-biased, extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD, which has puzzled researchers since Darwin, are still controversial. Here we propose an extension of the Gravity Hypothesis (i.e., the GH, which postulates a climbing advantage for small males that in conjunction with the fecundity hypothesis appears to have the most general power to explain the evolution of SSD in spiders so far. In this "Bridging GH" we propose that bridging locomotion (i.e., walking upside-down under own-made silk bridges may be behind the evolution of extreme SSD. A biomechanical model shows that there is a physical constraint for large spiders to bridge. This should lead to a trade-off between other traits and dispersal in which bridging would favor smaller sizes and other selective forces (e.g. fecundity selection in females would favor larger sizes. If bridging allows faster dispersal, small males would have a selective advantage by enjoying more mating opportunities. We predicted that both large males and females would show a lower propensity to bridge, and that SSD would be negatively correlated with sexual dimorphism in bridging propensity. To test these hypotheses we experimentally induced bridging in males and females of 13 species of spiders belonging to the two clades in which bridging locomotion has evolved independently and in which most of the cases of extreme SSD in spiders are found. Results We found that 1 as the degree of SSD increased and females became larger, females tended to bridge less relative to males, and that 2 smaller males and females show a higher propensity to bridge. Conclusions Physical constraints make bridging inefficient for large spiders. Thus, in species where bridging is a very common mode of locomotion, small males, by being more efficient at bridging, will be competitively superior and enjoy more mating opportunities. This "Bridging GH" helps to solve the controversial question of

  11. Biometrical studies upon hominoid teeth: the coefficient of variation, sexual dimorphism and questions of phylogenetic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, B

    1985-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism as a function of variation in hominoid tooth metrics has been investigated for four groups of taxa: Recent great apes (two subfamilies), Dryopiths (one subfamily), Ramapiths (one subfamily) and hominids (one family). Gorilla, and to a lesser extent Pan, appear characterized by very high levels of sexual dimorphism and meet several criteria for statistical outliers. Recent great apes are the only group exhibiting consistently high levels of sexual dimorphism. Ramapiths are the only group characterized by low levels of sexual dimorphism and their relative canine length is most similar to Dryopiths. Both Dryopiths and hominids contain taxa with low and intermediate levels of sexual dimorphism. The Gingerich and Shoeninger hypothesis relating coefficients of variation to occlusal complexity is supported. Non-parametric statistics suggest that homogeneity of coefficient of variation profiles over most of the tooth row is characteristic of only the Dryopiths and a composite data set composed of the Dryopith plus Ramapith tooth measurements. Oxnard's model for the multifactorial basis of multiple sexual dimorphisms is also supported. The Dryopith and hominid patterns of sexual dimorphism are similar, an observation that suggests phylogenetic relationship. At the taxonomic level of subfamily or family, sexual dimorphism is a character of cladistic usefulness and possible phylogenetic valence. Assuming that breeding system and sexual dimorphism are functional correlates as many workers suggest, then Ramapithecus sp. China, Sivapithecus indicus and possibly Australopithecus boisei are good candidates for having possessed monogamous breeding/social structures. All Dryopith taxa, S. sivalensis, Sivapithecus sp. China, A. afarensis, Homo habilis and H. erectus emerge as the best candidates for having possessed a polygynous breeding/social structure. No biometrical affinities of Ramapiths with hominids can be demonstrated and some phylogenetic relationship with

  12. Sexually Dimorphic Outcomes after Neonatal Stroke and Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cohort studies have demonstrated a higher vulnerability in males towards ischemic and/or hypoxic-ischemic injury in infants born near- or full-term. Male sex was also associated with limited brain repair following neonatal stroke and hypoxia-ischemia, leading to increased incidence of long-term cognitive deficits compared to females with similar brain injury. As a result, the design of pre-clinical experiments considering sex as an important variable was supported and investigated because neuroprotective strategies to reduce brain injury demonstrated sexual dimorphism. While the mechanisms underlining these differences between boys and girls remain unclear, several biological processes are recognized to play a key role in long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes: gonadal hormones across developmental stages, vulnerability to oxidative stress, modulation of cell death, and regulation of microglial activation. This review summarizes the current evidence for sex differences in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic and/or ischemic brain injury, considering the major pathways known to be involved in cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with damages of the developing brain.

  13. Assessment of Gender Dimorphism on Sagittal Cephalometry in Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamruddin, I.; Shahid, F.; Tanveer, S.; Mukhtiar, M.; Asim, Z.; Alam, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the cephalometric values among Pakistani males and females using commonly used sagittal skeletal measurements (ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle) and newly developed cephalometric analyses (Yen-angle and W-angle). Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontic Department of Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan, from August to October 2013. Methodology: A total of 209 pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontic patients were selected from departmental records, comprised of 92 males and 117 females. Radiographs were traced for measurements of ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle, W-angle and Yen-angle. Patients were categorized into skeletal classes I, II, and III on the basis of performed measurements, incisor classification, and profile recorded from their records. Descriptive analysis was used to obtain median interquartile range in both the genders and Mann-Whitney U-test was used to observe gender dimorphism. Result: Skeletal class II was the most prevalent type of malocclusion. There were no difference in the obtained measurements between males and females except the Wits appraisal and Beta-angle in class II patients, which showed significant difference in values (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pakistani population has no significant different difference in the craniofacial morphology of males and females, with the exception of Wits-appraisal and Beta-angle in class II cases. (author)

  14. Sexual Dimorphism and Mating Behavior in Anomala testaceipennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis . Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male’s last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

  15. Allometry of sexual size dimorphism in domestic dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available The tendency for male-larger sexual size dimorphism (SSD to scale with body size - a pattern termed Rensch's rule - has been empirically supported in many animal lineages. Nevertheless, its theoretical elucidation is a subject of debate. Here, we exploited the extreme morphological variability of domestic dog (Canis familiaris to gain insights into evolutionary causes of this rule.We studied SSD and its allometry among 74 breeds ranging in height from less than 19 cm in Chihuahua to about 84 cm in Irish wolfhound. In total, the dataset included 6,221 individuals. We demonstrate that most dog breeds are male-larger, and SSD in large breeds is comparable to SSD of their wolf ancestor. Among breeds, SSD becomes smaller with decreasing body size. The smallest breeds are nearly monomorphic.SSD among dog breeds follows the pattern consistent with Rensch's rule. The variability of body size and corresponding changes in SSD among breeds of a domestic animal shaped by artificial selection can help to better understand processes leading to emergence of Rensch's rule.

  16. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Symmetry is related to sexual dimorphism in faces: data across culture and species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Little

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals both display and assess multiple signals. Two prominently studied traits are symmetry and sexual dimorphism, which, for many animals, are proposed cues to heritable fitness benefits. These traits are associated with other potential benefits, such as fertility. In humans, the face has been extensively studied in terms of attractiveness. Faces have the potential to be advertisements of mate quality and both symmetry and sexual dimorphism have been linked to the attractiveness of human face shape. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that measurements of symmetry and sexual dimorphism from faces are related in humans, both in Europeans and African hunter-gatherers, and in a non-human primate. Using human judges, symmetry measurements were also related to perceived sexual dimorphism. In all samples, symmetric males had more masculine facial proportions and symmetric females had more feminine facial proportions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the claim that sexual dimorphism and symmetry in faces are signals advertising quality by providing evidence that there must be a biological mechanism linking the two traits during development. Such data also suggests that the signalling properties of faces are universal across human populations and are potentially phylogenetically old in primates.

  18. Evolution and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism: Aligning phylogenetic and experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz eKuntner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrating the insights derived from both phylogenetic and experimental approaches offers a more complete understanding of evolutionary patterns and processes, yet it is rarely a feature of investigations of the evolutionary significance of trait variation. We combine these approaches to reinterpret the patterns and processes in the evolution of female biased sexual size dimorphism in Nephilidae, a spider lineage characterized by the most extreme sexual size dimorphism among terrestrial animals. We use a molecular phylogeny to reconstruct the size evolution for each sex and reveal a case of sexually dimorphic gigantism: both sexes steadily outgrow their ancestral sizes, but the female and male slopes differ, and hence sexual size dimorphism steadily increases. A review of the experimental evidence reveals a predominant net selection for large size in both sexes, consistent with the phylogenetic pattern for females but not for males. Thus, while sexual size dimorphism in spiders most likely originates and is maintained by fecundity selection on females, it is unclear what selection pressures prevent males from becoming as large as females. This integrated approach highlights the dangers of inferring evolutionary significance from experimental studies that isolate the effects of single selection pressures.

  19. Sexual Dimorphism in Bite Performance Drives Morphological Variation in Chameleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jessica M.; Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G. John; Tolley, Krystal A.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal’s foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal’s performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive body size and

  20. Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morphological variation in chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M da Silva

    Full Text Available Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal's foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal's performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive

  1. Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morphological variation in chameleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jessica M; Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John; Tolley, Krystal A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal's foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal's performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive body size and

  2. Androgen receptor function links human sexual dimorphism to DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Ammerpohl

    Full Text Available Sex differences are well known to be determinants of development, health and disease. Epigenetic mechanisms are also known to differ between men and women through X-inactivation in females. We hypothesized that epigenetic sex differences may also result from sex hormone functions, in particular from long-lasting androgen programming. We aimed at investigating whether inactivation of the androgen receptor, the key regulator of normal male sex development, is associated with differences of the patterns of DNA methylation marks in genital tissues. To this end, we performed large scale array-based analysis of gene methylation profiles on genomic DNA from labioscrotal skin fibroblasts of 8 males and 26 individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS due to inactivating androgen receptor gene mutations. By this approach we identified differential methylation of 167 CpG loci representing 162 unique human genes. These were significantly enriched for androgen target genes and low CpG content promoter genes. Additional 75 genes showed a significant increase of heterogeneity of methylation in AIS compared to a high homogeneity in normal male controls. Our data show that normal and aberrant androgen receptor function is associated with distinct patterns of DNA-methylation marks in genital tissues. These findings support the concept that transcription factor binding to the DNA has an impact on the shape of the DNA methylome. These data which derived from a rare human model suggest that androgen programming of methylation marks contributes to sexual dimorphism in the human which might have considerable impact on the manifestation of sex-associated phenotypes and diseases.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in Ramphastos toco and Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Castro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia, en la familia Ramphastidae no hay un dimorfismo sexual aparente, excepto en Pteroglossus viridis y en el género Selenidera. Muchos criadores de aves silvestres creen que los especímenes de Ramphastos toco pueden ser sexados usando las caracteríticas del pico. En este estudio, fueron analizadas algunas variables feno-típicas discriminantes en aves cuyo sexo fue previamente determinado con metodos citogenéticos. Un total de 51 especimenes de R. toco y 20 de R. dicolorus fueron estudiados. Los parámetros estadísticos significativos que son útiles para distinguir el sexo en estas especies son la longitud del culmen y del tomium, la longitud del pico corneo inferior y de la cloaca. Usando estos parámetros, los criadores de aves cautivas pueden sexar los especimenes de Ramphastos toco mediante análisis fenotípico y formar parejas reproductoras más rapidamente.Phenotypic sexual dimorphism seems to be rare in the Ramphastidae family, except in Pteroglossus viridis and in the genus Selenidera. Many breeders of wild birds believe that specimens of Ramphastos toco can be sexed using bill characteristics. In this study, various discriminant phenotypic variables were analyzed in birds which were sexed cytogenetically. Fifty-one specimens of R. toco and 20 R. dicolorus were studied. The statistically significant parameters which served to distinguish the sex in these species were the length of the culmen and tomium, length of the lower corneous beak and the cloaca. Using these parameters, capitive bird breeders can determine sex of R. toco specimens by phenotypic analysis and form breeding couples more quickly.

  4. A new viewpoint on the evolution of sexually dimorphic human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Darren; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2010-10-21

    Human faces show marked sexual shape dimorphism, and this affects their attractiveness. Humans also show marked height dimorphism, which means that men typically view women's faces from slightly above and women typically view men's faces from slightly below. We tested the idea that this perspective difference may be the evolutionary origin of the face shape dimorphism by having males and females rate the masculinity/femininity and attractiveness of male and female faces that had been manipulated in pitch (forward or backward tilt), simulating viewing the face from slightly above or below. As predicted, tilting female faces upwards decreased their perceived femininity and attractiveness, whereas tilting them downwards increased their perceived femininity and attractiveness. Male faces tilted up were judged to be more masculine, and tilted down judged to be less masculine. This suggests that sexual selection may have embodied this viewpoint difference into the actual facial proportions of men and women.

  5. Dimorphous expressions of positive emotion: displays of both care and aggression in response to cute stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Oriana R; Clark, Margaret S; Dyer, Rebecca L; Bargh, John A

    2015-03-01

    Extremely positive experiences, and positive appraisals thereof, produce intense positive emotions that often generate both positive expressions (e.g., smiles) and expressions normatively reserved for negative emotions (e.g., tears). We developed a definition of these dimorphous expressions and tested the proposal that their function is to regulate emotions. We showed that individuals who express emotions in this dimorphous manner do so as a general response across a variety of emotionally provoking situations, which suggests that these expressions are responses to intense positive emotion rather than unique to one particular situation. We used cute stimuli (an elicitor of positive emotion) to demonstrate both the existence of these dimorphous expressions and to provide preliminary evidence of their function as regulators of emotion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A New Viewpoint on the Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Human Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Burke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human faces show marked sexual shape dimorphism, and this affects their attractiveness. Humans also show marked height dimorphism, which means that men typically view women's faces from slightly above and women typically view men's faces from slightly below. We tested the idea that this perspective difference may be the evolutionary origin of the face shape dimorphism by having males and females rate the masculinity/femininity and attractiveness of male and female faces that had been manipulated in pitch (forward or backward tilt, simulating viewing the face from slightly above or below. As predicted, tilting female faces upwards decreased their perceived femininity and attractiveness, whereas tilting them downwards increased their perceived femininity and attractiveness. Male faces tilted up were judged to be more masculine, and tilted down judged to be less masculine. This suggests that sexual selection may have embodied this viewpoint difference into the actual facial proportions of men and women.

  7. An Investigation into the Relationship between Human Cranial and Pelvic Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Kaleigh C; Garvin, Heather M; Cabo, Luis L

    2017-10-16

    When faced with commingled remains, it might be assumed that a more "masculine" pelvis is associated with a more "masculine" cranium, but this relationship has not been specifically tested. This study uses geometric morphometric analyses of pelvic and cranial landmarks to assess whether there is an intra-individual relationship between the degrees of sexual expression in these two skeletal regions. Principal component and discriminant function scores were used to assess sexual dimorphism in 113 U.S. Black individuals. Correlation values and partial least squares regression (PLS) were used to evaluate intra-individual relationships. Results indicate that the os coxae is more sexually dimorphic than the cranium, with element shape being more sexually dimorphic than size. PLS and correlation results suggest no significant intra-individual relationship between pelvic and cranial sexual size or shape expression. Thus, in commingled situations, associations between these skeletal elements cannot be inferred based on degree of "masculinity." © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Análise proteômica da fase leveduriforme do fungo patogênico Paracoccidioides sp durante a privação de nitrogênio

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Leite, Vanessa Rafaela Milhomem

    2014-01-01

    Os fungos do genêro Paracoccidioides sp são agentes etiológicos da doença paracoccidioidomicose (PCM), são termodimórficos e possuem a capacidade de transitar da forma miceliana para a forma de levedura à temperatura em torno de 37°C. A captação de nitrogênio é essencial para o crescimento e adaptação do fungo em tecido hospedeiro, onde vias dependentes de nitrogênio possuem estreita relação com a patogenicidade. Organismos patogênicos possuem um sistema regulatório conhecido ...

  9. Common Noctule Bats Are Sexually Dimorphic in Migratory Behaviour and Body Size but Not Wing Shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Teague O'Mara

    Full Text Available Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year. We tested for univariate and multivariate size and shape dimorphism using data sets derived from wing photos and biometric data collected during pre-migratory spring captures in Switzerland. Females had forearms that are on average 1% longer than males and are 1% heavier than males after emerging from hibernation, but we found no sex differences in other size, shape, or other functional characters in any wing parameters during this pre-migratory period. Female-biased size dimorphism without wing shape differences indicates that reproductive advantages of big mothers are most likely responsible for sexual dimorphism in this species, not load compensation or shape differences favouring aerodynamic efficiency during pregnancy or migration. Despite large behavioural and ecological sex differences, morphology associated with a specialized feeding niche may limit potential dimorphism in narrow-winged bats such as common noctules and the dramatic differences in migratory behaviour may then be accomplished through plasticity in wing kinematics.

  10. Distribution of dimorphic yeast species in commercial extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G

    2010-12-01

    Recent microbiological research has demonstrated the presence of a rich microflora mainly composed of yeasts in the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oil. Some of the yeasts are considered useful as they improve the organoleptic characteristics of the oil during preservation, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. However, some dimorphic species can also be found among the unwanted yeasts present in the oil, considered to be opportunistic pathogens to man as they have often been isolated from immunocompromised hospital patients. Present research demonstrates the presence of dimorphic yeast forms in 26% of the commercial extra virgin olive oil originating from different geographical areas, where the dimorphic yeasts are represented by 3-99.5% of the total yeasts. The classified isolates belonged to the opportunistic pathogen species Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii, while among the dimorphic yeasts considered not pathogenic to man, the Candida diddensiae species was highlighted for the first time in olive oil. The majority of the studied yeast strains resulted lipase positive, and can consequently negatively influence the oil quality through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. Furthermore, all the strains showed a high level of affinity with some organic solvents and a differing production of biofilm in "vitro" corresponded to a greater or lesser hydrophobia of their cells. Laboratory trials indicated that the dimorphic yeasts studied are sensitive towards some components of the oil among which oleic acid, linoleic acid and triolein, whereas a less inhibiting effect was observed with tricaprilin or when the total polyphenols extracted from the oil were used. The observations carried out on a scanning electron microscope (SEM), demonstrated the production of long un-branched pseudohyphae in all the tested dimorphic yeasts when cultivated on nutrient

  11. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  12. Adherencia de las conidias de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a proteínas de matriz extracelular y líneas celulares de mamífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Cano

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante la colonización exitosa y la producción de enfermedad
    por un patógeno es crítica su habilidad para adherirse a las superficies del hospedero ya que la invasión de los tejidos es estimulada por la unión a proteínas séricas o de matriz extracelular (MEC; éstas podrían funcionar como un puente entre el microorganismo y los receptores celulares o como un ligando opsónico (1. Poco se conoce sobre los mecanismos de patogenicidad empleados por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis durante los estados iniciales de la infección; hallazgos experimentales han mostrado que las propágulas infectantes del hongo (conidias una vez inhaladas, alcanzan los alvéolos pulmonares, se transforman en levaduras para finalmente diseminarse a órganos distantes (2. Aunque no existen datos concluyentes, la interacción inicial de las conidias con los tejidos del hospedero probablemente involucra algún proceso de reconocimiento específico de componentes de la MEC, así como de células epiteliales y/o endoteliales del pulmón (3. El
    presente trabajo pretende identificar las proteínas de matriz extracelular que representan un blanco potencial para la unión de conidias de P. brasiliensis, así como definir la naturaleza de los procesos de interacción con proteínas de MEC y líneas celulares de mamíferos.

  13. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAEROBIC FUNGUS FROM LLAMA FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; LAHPOR, GA; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic fungus was isolated from Hama faeces. Based on its morphological characteristics, polyflagellated zoospores, extensive rhizoid system and the formation of monocentric colonies, the fungus is assigned to the genus Neocallimastix. Neocallimastix sp. L2 is able to grow on several poly-,

  15. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  16. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  17. Microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki; Ueda, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (-)-isolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(3R)-3-hydroxy-isolongifolol and (-)-(9R)-9-hydroxy-isolongifolol by G. cingulata.

  18. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  19. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  20. The Sexual Dimorphic Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Working Memory in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Davis Moore, R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the sexual dimorphic patterns of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in preadolescent children (age range: 7.7-10.9). Data were collected in three separate studies (Study 1: n = 97, 42 females; Study 2: n = 95, 45 females; Study 3: n = 84, 37 females). All participants completed a cardiorespiratory…

  1. Sexual dimorphism in plumage and size in Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, Julia; Lourenco, Pedro M.; van der Velde, Marco; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Both, Christiaan; Piersma, Theunis; Heg, Dik

    2008-01-01

    Systematic sex-related differences in size and plumage are informative of sex-specific selection pressures. Here, we present an analysis of sexual dimorphism in body size and plumage of Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa from a breeding population in The Netherlands. Molecular methods were

  2. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  3. Reversal of normal cerebral sexual dimorphism in schizophrenia: evidence and speculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrek, Adrianna

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in epidemiology, clinical course and symptomatology of schizophrenia have been widely documented, but still relatively little is known about the brain sexual dimorphism in this psychiatric disorder. While some neuroanatomical and neuropsychological studies have reported existence of differences between male and female patients in a direction of normal sexual dimorphism, others did not find any effect. A few recent reports point to a peculiar disturbance of normal sexual dimorphism in brain regions implicated in the processing of emotions, including amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate. Prompted by these findings we compared cerebral activations between the sexes during performance of two emotion processing tasks and found overall much more extensive and intense cerebral activations in men than in women with schizophrenia. Moreover, the pattern of obtained sex differences in cerebral activation in patients differed significantly from what has been observed in the general population. Based on these preliminary structural and functional neuroimaging data, as well as some clinical reports, it is hypothesized in the present paper that schizophrenia is characterized by a reversed (or at least seriously disturbed) cerebral sexual dimorphism. It is further argued that this phenomenon stems from masculinization and/or un-feminization of females and feminizations and/or un-masculinization of males by sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, during both organizational and activational stages of neurodevelopment.

  4. Regional gray matter growth, sexual dimorphism, and cerebral asymmetry in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Prastawa, Marcel W; Looney, Christopher B; Vetsa, Y Sampath K; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Evans, Dianne D; Smith, J Keith; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Gerig, Guido

    2007-02-07

    Although there has been recent interest in the study of childhood and adolescent brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life. In older children, there are regional differences in cortical gray matter development, whereas cortical gray and white matter growth after birth has not been studied to a great extent. The adult human brain is also characterized by cerebral asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms, although very little is known about how these asymmetries and dimorphisms develop. We used magnetic resonance imaging and an automatic segmentation methodology to study brain structure in 74 neonates in the first few weeks after birth. We found robust cortical gray matter growth compared with white matter growth, with occipital regions growing much faster than prefrontal regions. Sexual dimorphism is present at birth, with males having larger total brain cortical gray and white matter volumes than females. In contrast to adults and older children, the left hemisphere is larger than the right hemisphere, and the normal pattern of fronto-occipital asymmetry described in older children and adults is not present. Regional differences in cortical gray matter growth are likely related to differential maturation of sensory and motor systems compared with prefrontal executive function after birth. These findings also indicate that whereas some adult patterns of sexual dimorphism and cerebral asymmetries are present at birth, others develop after birth.

  5. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bales, KL; Plotsky, PM; Young, LJ; Lim, MM; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, CS

    2007-01-01

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the lon...

  6. Rethinking our assumptions about the evolution of bird song and other sexually dimorphic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jordan Price

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is often cited as a classic example of a sexually-selected ornament, in part because historically it has been considered a primarily male trait. Recent evidence that females also sing in many songbird species and that sexual dimorphism in song is often the result of losses in females rather than gains in males therefore appears to challenge our understanding of the evolution of bird song through sexual selection. Here I propose that these new findings do not necessarily contradict previous research, but rather they disagree with some of our assumptions about the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in general and female song in particular. These include misconceptions that current patterns of elaboration and diversity in each sex reflect past rates of change and that levels of sexual dimorphism necessarily reflect levels of sexual selection. Using New World blackbirds (Icteridae as an example, I critically evaluate these past assumptions in light of new phylogenetic evidence. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such sexually dimorphic traits requires a clear understanding of their evolutionary histories. Only then can we begin to ask the right questions.

  7. Cloning and characterisation of a glucoamylase gene (GlaM) from dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houghton-Larsen, J.; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a novel strategy for the cloning of glucoamylase genes using conserved sequences and semi-nested PCR and its application in cloning the GlaM glucoamylase gene and cDNA from the dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides. The deduced 609-amino-acid enzyme (including signal...

  8. Novel host plant leads to the loss of sexual dimorphism in a sexually selected male weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-08-16

    In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible for much of the intraspecific variation in sexually selected ornaments and weapons in wild populations. Here we examined the consequences of developing on a novel plant for the expression of size and shape in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). The males of this species possess enlarged, sexually dimorphic femurs on their hind legs. These legs are used as weapons in male-male contests. Females are typically larger in overall body size. Our study revealed that developing upon a novel host can lead to pronounced phenotypically plastic change in sexually dimorphic traits. Male hind femurs were greatly impacted by the novel diet to the extent that the sexual dimorphism in hind femurs was lost. Further, dimorphism in body size increased, as males became tiny adults while females better maintained their body size. These patterns underscore the complex effects that novel species interactions may have on sexual phenotypes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Sexual dimorphism in the parasitoid wasps Aphidius balcanicus, Aphidius rosae, and Aphidius urticae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Mitrovski Bogdanović, A.; Starý, Petr; Ivanović, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 5 (2014), s. 1027-1032 ISSN 0013-8746 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : geometric morphometric * parasitoid wasp * sexual size dimorphism Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2014

  10. Signal trait sexual dimorphism and mutual sexual selection in Drosophila serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Stephen F; Blows, Mark W

    2003-10-01

    The evolution of sexual dimorphism may occur when natural and sexual selection result in different optimum trait values for males and females. Perhaps the most prominent examples of sexual dimorphism occur in sexually selected traits, for which males usually display exaggerated trait levels, while females may show reduced expression of the trait. In some species, females also exhibit secondary sexual traits that may either be a consequence of a correlated response to sexual selection on males or direct sexual selection for female secondary sexual traits. In this experiment, we simultaneously measure the intersex genetic correlations and the relative strength of sexual selection on males and females for a set of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila serrata. There was significant directional sexual selection on both male and female cuticular hydrocarbons: the strength of sexual selection did not differ among the sexes but males and females preferred different cuticular hydrocarbons. In contrast with many previous studies of sexual dimorphism, intersex genetic correlations were low. The evolution of sexual dimorphism in D. serrata appears to have been achieved by sex-limited expression of traits controlled by genes on the X chromosome and is likely to be in its final stages.

  11. Plasticity in sexual size dimorphism and Rensch's rule in Mediterranean blennies (Blenniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, W.; Didderen, K.; Cote, I. M.; van der Zee, E. M.; Snoek, R. C.; Reynolds, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative analyses of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) across species have led to the discovery of Rensch's rule. This rule states that SSD increases with body size when males are the largest sex, but decreases with increasing size when females are larger. Within-species comparisons of SSD in fish are

  12. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  13. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  14. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  16. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  17. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in bill size and shape of hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae): a role for ecological causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, Ethan J; Miller, Jill S; Rifkin, Joanna L

    2010-04-12

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism are rare, and the best evidence involves sexual differences in trophic morphology. We show that moderate female-biased sexual dimorphism in bill curvature is the ancestral condition in hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae), and that it is greatly amplified in species such as Glaucis hirsutus and Phaethornis guy, where bills of females are 60 per cent more curved than bills of males. In contrast, bill curvature dimorphism is lost or reduced in a lineage of short-billed hermit species and in specialist Eutoxeres sicklebill hermits. In the hermits, males tend to be larger than females in the majority of species, although size dimorphism is typically small. Consistent with earlier studies of hummingbird feeding performance, both raw regressions of traits and phylogenetic independent contrasts supported the prediction that dimorphism in bill curvature of hermits is associated with longer bills. Some evidence indicates that differences between sexes of hermit hummingbirds are associated with differences in the use of food plants. We suggest that some hermit hummingbirds provide model organisms for studies of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism because their sexual dimorphism in bill curvature provides a diagnostic clue for the food plants that need to be monitored for studies of sexual differences in resource use.

  18. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  19. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Correlation between investment in sexual traits and valve sexual dimorphism in Cyprideis species (Ostracoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Fernandes Martins

    Full Text Available Assessing the long-term macroevolutionary consequences of sexual selection has been hampered by the difficulty of studying this process in the fossil record. Cytheroid ostracodes offer an excellent system to explore sexual selection in the fossil record because their readily fossilized carapaces are sexually dimorphic. Specifically, males are relatively more elongate than females in this superfamily. This sexual shape difference is thought to arise so that males carapaces can accommodate their very large copulatory apparatus, which can account for up to one-third of body volume. Here we test this widely held explanation for sexual dimorphism in cytheroid ostracodes by correlating investment in male genitalia, a trait in which sexual selection is seen as the main evolutionary driver, with sexual dimorphism of carapace in the genus Cyprideis. We analyzed specimens collected in the field (C. salebrosa, USA; C. torosa, UK and from collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (C. mexicana. We digitized valve outlines in lateral view to obtain measures of size (valve area and shape (elongation, measured as length to height ratio, and obtained several dimensions from two components of the hemipenis: the muscular basal capsule, which functions as a sperm pump, and the section that includes the intromittent organ (terminal extension. In addition to the assessment of this primary sexual trait, we also quantified two dimensions of the male secondary sexual trait-where the transformed right walking leg functions as a clasping organ during mating. We also measured linear dimensions from four limbs as indicators of overall (soft-part body size, and assessed allometry of the soft anatomy. We observed significant correlations in males between valve size, but not elongation, and distinct structural parts of the hemipenis, even after accounting for their shared correlation with overall body size. We also found weak but significant

  1. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  2. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in two sexually dimorphic pinniped species - there a sex difference in immunity during early development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, A.J.; Engelhard, G.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Vecchione, A.; Burton, H.R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' predicts that highly sexually dimorphic and polygynous species will exhibit sex differences in immunity. We tested this hypothesis in southern elephant and grey seals during their early development by measuring the following parameters: leucocyte counts,

  3. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in two sexually dimorphic pinniped species - is there a sex difference in immunity during early development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, AJ; Englehard, GH; Brasseur, SMJM; Vecchione, A; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    2003-01-01

    The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' predicts that highly sexually dimorphic and polygynous species will exhibit sex differences in immunity. We tested this hypothesis in southern elephant and grey seals during their early development by measuring the following parameters: leucocyte counts,

  4. Immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis using a latex test: detection of specific antibody anti-gp43 and specific antigen gp43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Oliveira Dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a life-threatening systemic disease and is a neglected public health problem in many endemic regions of Latin America. Though several diagnostic methods are available, almost all of them present with some limitations.A latex immunoassay using sensitized latex particles (SLPs with gp43 antigen, the immunodominant antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, or the monoclonal antibody mAb17c (anti-gp43 was evaluated for antibody or antigen detection in sera, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL from patients with PCM due to P. brasiliensis. The gp43-SLPs performed optimally to detect specific antibodies with high levels of sensitivity (98.46%, 95% CI 91.7-100.0, specificity (93.94%, 95% CI 87.3-97.7, and positive (91.4% and negative (98.9% predictive values. In addition, we propose the use of mAb17c-SLPs to detect circulating gp43, which would be particularly important in patients with immune deficiencies who fail to produce normal levels of immunoglobulins, achieving good levels of sensitivity (96.92%, 95% CI 89.3-99.6, specificity (88.89%, 95% CI 81.0-94.3, and positive (85.1% and negative (97.8% predictive values. Very good agreement between latex tests and double immune diffusion was observed for gp43-SLPs (k = 0.924 and mAb17c-SLPs (k = 0.850, which reinforces the usefulness of our tests for the rapid diagnosis of PCM in less than 10 minutes. Minor cross-reactivity occurred with sera from patients with other fungal infections. We successfully detected antigens and antibodies from CSF and BAL samples. In addition, the latex test was useful for monitoring PCM patients receiving therapy.The high diagnostic accuracy, low cost, reduced assay time, and simplicity of this new latex test offer the potential to be commercialized and makes it an attractive diagnostic assay for use not only in clinics and medical mycology laboratories, but mainly in remote locations with limited laboratory infrastructure

  5. Sexual dimorphism in the mandible of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804) (Dasypodidae) from northern Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Squarcia, SM.; Sidorkewicj, NS.; Camina, R.; Casanave, EB.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the sexual dimorphism in adult Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804), from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Eight mandibular traits were measured in 37 males and 34 females. Univariate and multivariate morphometric analysis were applied to the data set. Results showed that C. villosus was sexually dimorphic, with higher absolute values corresponding to females. The total length of the mandible was the most important variable to discriminate sexes, followed...

  6. Validation and clinical application of a nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis in clinical samples from Colombian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Marcela; Rivera, Vanessa; Muñoz-Cadavid, Cesar; Cano, Luz Elena; Naranjo, Tonny Williams

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic and endemic mycosis, restricted to tropical and subtropical areas of Latin America. The infection is caused by the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. The diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis is usually performed by microscopic examination, culture and immunodiagnostic tests to respiratory specimens, body fluids and/or biopsies; however these methods require laboratory personnel with experience and several days to produce a result. In the present study, we have validated and evaluated a nested PCR assay targeting the gene encoding the Paracoccidioides gp43 membrane protein in 191 clinical samples: 115 samples from patients with proven infections other than paracoccidioidomycosis, 51 samples as negative controls, and 25 samples from patients diagnosed with paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, the specificity of the nested PCR assay was also evaluated using purified DNA isolated from cultures of different microorganisms (n=35) previously identified by culture and/or sequencing. The results showed that in our hands, this nested PCR assay for gp43 protein showed specificity and sensitivity rates of 100%. The optimized nested PCR conditions in our laboratory allowed detection down to 1fg of P. brasiliensis DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Species of Sexually Dimorphic Brittle Star of the Genus Ophiodaphne (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Hideyuki; Hirose, Mamiko; Igarashi, Hikaru; Kiyomoto, Masato; Komatsu, Miéko

    2017-08-01

    We describe a new species of sexually dimorphic brittle star, Ophiodaphne spinosa, from Japan associated with the irregular sea urchin, Clypeaster japonicus based on its external morphology, and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I). Females of this new species of Ophiodaphne are characterized mainly by the presence of wavy grooves on the surface of the radial shields, needle-like thorns on the oral skeletal jaw structures, and a low length-to-width ratio of the jaw angle in comparison with those of type specimens of its Ophiodaphne congeners: O. scripta, O. materna, and O. formata. A tabular key to the species characteristics of Ophiodaphne is provided. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the new species of Ophiodaphne, O. scripta, and O. formata are monophyletic. Our results indicate that the Japanese Ophiodaphne include both the new species and O. scripta, and that there are four Ophiodaphne species of sexually dimorphic brittle stars with androphorous habit.

  8. Evaluation of sexual dimorphism using permanent maxillary first molar in Sri Ganganagar population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: The aim is to evaluate existence of sexual dimorphism by variation in right and left permanent maxillary molars using buccolingual width (BLW and mesio-distal width (MDW measured intraorally and on study casts among Sri Ganganagar population. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (25 males and 25 females with 17–25 years of age were selected. Impressions of maxillary arch were taken and the BLW and MDW were measured using digital Vernier calipers on study casts and intraorally. Results: Highly significant correlation was found between MDW and BLW of both the maxillary permanent first molars for both genders (P < 0.05 intraorally. The MDW and BLW on study cast of both sides in both gender were more on left side in males while on right side in females. Conclusion: Left maxillary permanent first molar showed minimum mean difference of measurements on study cast and introrally than right, thus better predictor for gender dimorphism in forensics.

  9. Sexually-dimorphic effects of cannabinoid compounds on emotion and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana eRubino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of sex differences in the response to cannabinoid compounds focusing mainly on behaviours belonging to the cognitive and emotional sphere. Sexual dimorphism exists in the different components of the endocannabinoid system.. Males seem to have higher CB1 receptor binding sites than females, but females seem to possess more efficient CB1 receptors. Differences between sexes have been also observed in the metabolic processing of THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of marijuana. The consistent dimorphism in the endocannabinoid system and THC metabolism may justify at least in part the different sensitivity observed between male and female animals in different behavioural paradigms concerning emotion and cognition after treatment with cannabinoid compounds.On the bases of these observations, we would like to emphasize the need of including females in basic research and to analyze results for sex differences in epidemiological studies.

  10. Conservation of social effects (Ψ) between two species of Drosophila despite reversal of sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Sarah A; Abbasi, Mohammad; Marjoram, Paul; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2017-12-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe the effect of the genes of social partners on the phenotype of a focal individual. Here, we measure indirect genetic effects using the "coefficient of interaction" (Ψ) to test whether Ψ evolved between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans . We compare Ψ for locomotion between ethanol and nonethanol environments in both species, but only D. melanogaster utilizes ethanol ecologically. We find that while sexual dimorphism for locomotion has been reversed in D. simulans , there has been no evolution of social effects between these two species. What did evolve was the interaction between genotype-specific Ψ and the environment, as D. melanogaster  varies unpredictably between environments and D. simulans  does not. In this system, this suggests evolutionary lability of sexual dimorphism but a conservation of social effects, which brings forth interesting questions about the role of the social environment in sexual selection.

  11. Evaluating sexual dimorphism in the human mastoid process: A viewpoint on the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Sholts, Sabrina B; Slaus, Mario; Bosnar, Alan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2015-07-01

    The mastoid process is one of the most sexually dimorphic features in the human skull, and is therefore often used to identify the sex of skeletons. Numerous techniques for assessing variation in the size and shape of the mastoid process have been proposed and implemented in osteological research, but its complex form still presents difficulties for consistent and effective analysis. In this article, we compare the different techniques and variables that have been used to define, measure, and visually score sexual dimorphism in the mastoid process. We argue that the current protocols fail to capture the full morphological range of this bony projection, and suggest ways of improving and standardizing them, regarding both traditional and 3D-based approaches. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum studied by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elster, A.D.; DiPersio, D.A.; Moody, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 120 normal right-handed individuals (60 males, 60 females) to clarify existing contradictory data concerning possible sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum (CC). Five linear and three area measurements of the CC and brain were obtained directly at the MR scanner console from midline sagittal T1-weighted images. The anteroposterior length of the CC was significantly larger in males than in females (p=0.0005). No other differences in absolute callosal measurements between the sexes could be demonstrated. However, several size ratios did achieve statistical significance (p<0.05), being consistently larger in females: splenial width/length CC, splenial width/brain length, and area of CC/area of brain. Where no statistically significant differences were obtained, precision, tolerance, and confidence interval calculations are presented. The data in this large series support a limited but definite sexual dimorphism of the CC in right-handed individuals. (author)

  13. A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and evidence for taxol as a transient product in the culture. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  14. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts......Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...

  15. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to red kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungus to red kidney and wheat plants tolerance grown in heavy metal-polluted soil. ... artificially contaminated with high oncentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. ... strategies of remediation of highly heavy metal contaminated soils.

  16. Various Stages of Pink Fungus (Upasia salmonicolor in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarwati Harsojo Tjokrosoedarmo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pink fungus in Java is classified as Upasia salmonicolor (Basidiomycetes: Corticiaceae and its anamorph is Necator decretus. This fungus is a serious pathogen which attacks many woody plants. The pink fungus in Java exhibits five developmental stages on the surface of the host bark: I. An initial cobweb stage as thin, white, cobweb-like hyphal layer, which creeps over the surface of the bark, during which penetration of the host occurs; II. Pseudonodular stage, as conical white pustules occurring only on lenticels or cracks, and only on shady side of branches; III. Teleomorph, occurs as pink incrustation and pink pustules on shady side of branches; IV. Nodular stages, as globose white pustules occurring chiefly on intact bark, but also on the lenticels or cracks, on exposed side of branches; V. Anamorph, as small orange-red sporodochium, on exposed side of branches. Key words: pink fungus, Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes, Necator

  17. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.

  18. Screening of potent anticancer drug taxol from Entophytic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muthumary

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Isolation and detection of taxol, an anticancer drug produced from ... cancer cell line, taxol produced by the test fungus in MID culture medium was isolated for its .... then plotted on a graph. RESULTS AND ... Wavelength (nm).

  19. Dioecious Silene latifolia plants show sexual dimorphism in the vegetative stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žlůvová, Jitka; Žák, Jiří; Janoušek, Bohuslav; Vyskot, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 208 (2010), s. 1-5 ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600040801; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600040801; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sex dimorphism * Silene latifolia * dioecious plants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  20. Transcriptomic analyses of tributyltin-induced sexual dimorphisms in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Liang; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Er-Chao; Fan, Ming-Zhen; Huang, Mao-Xian

    2018-07-30

    The brain of fish displays sexual dimorphisms and exhibits remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. Although reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) in fish is well documented in fish, it remains unknown whether TBT interrupts sexual dimorphisms of fish brains. In this work, brain transcriptomic profiles of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was characterized and sex-biased genes were identified using RNA sequencing. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis were performed to reveal differences of gene products and pathways between the brains of male and female fish. Furthermore, transcriptomic responses of male and female brains to TBT at 10 ng/L were also investigated to understand effects of TBT on brain sexual dimorphisms. Only 345 male-biased and 273 female-biased genes were found in the brains. However, significant female-biased pathways of circadian rhythm and phototransduction were identified in the brains by enrichment analysis. Interestingly, following TBT exposure in the female fish, the circadian rhythm pathway was significantly disrupted based on enrichment analysis, while in the male fish, the phototransduction pathway was significantly disrupted. In the female fish, expression of genes (Per, Cry, Rev-Erb α, Ror, Dec and CK1δ/ε) in the circadian rhythm pathway was down-regulated after TBT exposure; while in the male fish, expression of genes (Rec, GNAT1_2, GNGT1, Rh/opsin, PDE and Arr) in the phototransduction pathway was up-regulated after TBT exposure. Overall, our results not only provide key data on the molecular basis of brain sexual dimorphisms in fish, but also offer valuable resources for investigating molecular mechanisms by which environmental chemicals might influence brain sexual plasticity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.

    1995-01-01

    This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic gl...

  2. Prevalence, association, and sexual dimorphism of Carabelli's molar and shovel incisor traits amongst Jordanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraisat, A; Taha, Sahar T; Jung, R E; Hattar, S; Smadi, L; Al-Omari, I K; Jarbawi, M

    2007-09-01

    The correlation between dental morphological traits can be used as an indicator to show major ethnic differences. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of Carabelli's molar and shovel incisor traits and tested their association and sexual dimorphism in Jordanian population. Three hundred subjects of school children at their 10th grade and of 15.5-year as an average age were involved. Alginate impressions for the maxillary arch were taken, poured, and casts were then trimmed. The selected accurate casts were of 132 male- and 155 female-students. The examined morphologic traits were Carabelli's trait on the maxillary first and second molars and shovel-shaped incisors. The relationship between different traits was investigated by Nonparametric Correlation analysis and Independent Sample t test was used to test sexual dimorphism in trait expression. The prevalence of Carabelli's trait in maxillary first molar and shovel trait in maxillary central incisor was relatively high (65.0 % and 53.0 %, respectively). The prevalence of Carabelli's trait on maxillary second molars was 3.8 %. Nonparametric Correlations revealed a strongest positive correlation between Carabelli's trait on maxillary first molar and shovel trait in males (P = 0.005). Significant sexual dimorphism was only found in the prevalence of Carabelli's trait on maxillary first molar (P = 0.013) and shovel trait (P = 0.038). The Jordanian Population had comparatively high prevalence of Carabelli's molar and shovel incisor traits. There was a positive association between Carabelli's trait on maxillary first molar and shovel trait in males. Sexual dimorphism was evident in Carabelli's trait on maxillary first molar and shovel trait.

  3. Deterioration of the Gαo vomeronasal pathway in sexually dimorphic mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Suárez

    Full Text Available In mammals, social and sexual behaviours are largely mediated by the vomeronasal system (VNS. The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB is the first synaptic locus of the VNS and ranges from very large in Caviomorph rodents, small in carnivores and ungulates, to its complete absence in apes, elephants, most bats and aquatic species. Two pathways have been described in the VNS of mammals. In mice, vomeronasal neurons expressing Gαi2 protein project to the rostral portion of the AOB and respond mostly to small volatile molecules, whereas neurons expressing Gαo project to the caudal AOB and respond mostly to large non-volatile molecules. However, the Gαo-expressing pathway is absent in several species (horses, dogs, musk shrews, goats and marmosets but no hypotheses have been proposed to date to explain the loss of that pathway. We noted that the species that lost the Gαo pathway belong to Laurasiatheria and Primates lineages, both clades with ubiquitous sexual dimorphisms across species. To assess whether similar events of Gαo pathway loss could have occurred convergently in dimorphic species we studied G-protein expression in the AOB of two species that independently evolved sexually dimorphic traits: the California ground squirrel Spermophilus beecheyi (Rodentia; Sciurognathi and the cape hyrax Procavia capensis (Afrotheria; Hyracoidea. We found that both species show uniform expression of Gαi2-protein throughout AOB glomeruli, while Gαo expression is restricted to main olfactory glomeruli only. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathway has occurred independently at least four times in Eutheria, possibly related to the emergence of sexual dimorphisms and the ability of detecting the gender of conspecifics at distance.

  4. Is Sexual Dimorphism in the Immune Response of Gryllodes sigillatus Related to the Quality of Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Galicia, Adolfo; Cueva del Castillo, Raúl; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Whereas some authors have proposed that sexual dimorphism in the immune response is fixed, others pose that it is dynamic and depends on diet. The aim of the present study was to explore the second hypothesis. Immunocompetence differences between females and males can be linked to resource availability. We tested this idea by providing a low or high quality diet to two groups of Gryllodes sigilatus during their developmental period. Then, at the adult phase half of each group was challenged w...

  5. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and

  6. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Ancestral Exposure to Vinclozolin on Stress Reactivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.; Gore, Andrea C.; Crews, David

    2014-01-01

    How an individual responds to the environment depends upon both personal life history as well as inherited genetic and epigenetic factors from ancestors. Using a 2-hit, 3 generations apart model, we tested how F3 descendants of rats given in utero exposure to the environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) vinclozolin reacted to stress during adolescence in their own lives, focusing on sexually dimorphic phenotypic outcomes. In adulthood, male and female F3 vinclozolin- or vehicle-linea...

  8. Estrogen regulation of microcephaly genes and evolution of brain sexual dimorphism in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Lin, Qiang; Su, Bing

    2015-06-30

    Sexual dimorphism in brain size is common among primates, including humans, apes and some Old World monkeys. In these species, the brain size of males is generally larger than that of females. Curiously, this dimorphism has persisted over the course of primate evolution and human origin, but there is no explanation for the underlying genetic controls that have maintained this disparity in brain size. In the present study, we tested the effect of the female hormone (estradiol) on seven genes known to be related to brain size in both humans and nonhuman primates, and we identified half estrogen responsive elements (half EREs) in the promoter regions of four genes (MCPH1, ASPM, CDK5RAP2 and WDR62). Likewise, at sequence level, it appears that these half EREs are generally conserved across primates. Later testing via a reporter gene assay and cell-based endogenous expression measurement revealed that estradiol could significantly suppress the expression of the four affected genes involved in brain size. More intriguingly, when the half EREs were deleted from the promoters, the suppression effect disappeared, suggesting that the half EREs mediate the regulation of estradiol on the brain size genes. We next replicated these experiments using promoter sequences from chimpanzees and rhesus macaques, and observed a similar suppressive effect of estradiol on gene expression, suggesting that this mechanism is conserved among primate species that exhibit brain size dimorphism. Brain size dimorphism among certain primates, including humans, is likely regulated by estrogen through its sex-dependent suppression of brain size genes during development.

  9. When the BRANCHED network bears fruit: how carpic dominance causes fruit dimorphism in Aethionema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenser, T.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Wilhelmsson, P.; Bennett, T.; Rensing, S. A.; Strnad, Miroslav; Theissen, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2018), s. 352-371 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aethionema arabicum * auxin * branched1 * carpic dominance * cytokinin * fruit development * fruit dimorphism * molecular evolution * phytohormones * shoot branching Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  10. ADR: An atypical presentation of rare dematiaceous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Karthika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of fungus in allergic fungal rhino sinusitis has been around 200 times in the world literature. As per the available literature, the most common agent identified so far appears to be ASPERGILLUS, though the condition is increasingly associated with Dematiaceous fungi. Here we report for the first time the presence of unusual fungus in allergic rhino sinusitis, which has not been reported so far.

  11. Phylogeny suggests nondirectional and isometric evolution of sexual size dimorphism in argiopine spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2014-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism describes substantial differences between male and female phenotypes. In spiders, sexual dimorphism research almost exclusively focuses on size, and recent studies have recovered steady evolutionary size increases in females, and independent evolutionary size changes in males. Their discordance is due to negative allometric size patterns caused by different selection pressures on male and female sizes (converse Rensch's rule). Here, we investigated macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Argiopinae, a global lineage of orb-weaving spiders with varying degrees of SSD. We devised a Bayesian and maximum-likelihood molecular species-level phylogeny, and then used it to reconstruct sex-specific size evolution, to examine general hypotheses and different models of size evolution, to test for sexual size coevolution, and to examine allometric patterns of SSD. Our results, revealing ancestral moderate sizes and SSD, failed to reject the Brownian motion model, which suggests a nondirectional size evolution. Contrary to predictions, male and female sizes were phylogenetically correlated, and SSD evolution was isometric. We interpret these results to question the classical explanations of female-biased SSD via fecundity, gravity, and differential mortality. In argiopines, SSD evolution may be driven by these or additional selection mechanisms, but perhaps at different phylogenetic scales. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  13. Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-12-01

    The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Life-history differences favor evolution of male dimorphism in competitive games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Johansson, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Many species exhibit two discrete male morphs: fighters and sneakers. Fighters are large and possess weapons but may mature slowly. Sneakers are small and have no weapons but can sneak matings and may mature quickly to start mating earlier in life than fighters. However, how differences in competitive ability and life history interact to determine male morph coexistence has not yet been investigated within a single framework. Here we integrate demography and game theory into a two-sex population model to study the evolution of strategies that result in the coexistence of fighters and sneakers. We incorporate differences in maturation time between the morphs and use a mating-probability matrix analogous to the classic hawk-dove game. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that male dimorphism evolves more easily in our model than in classic game theory approaches. Our results also revealed an interaction between life-history differences and sneaker competitiveness, which shows that demography and competitive games should be treated as interlinked mechanisms to understand the evolution of male dimorphism. Applying our approach to empirical data on bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and bullhorned dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus) indicates that observed occurrences of male dimorphism are in general agreement with model predictions.

  15. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  16. Coevolution between flight morphology, vertical stratification and sexual dimorphism: what can we learn from tropical butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, M B; Pequeno, P A C L; Franklin, E; Morais, J W

    2017-10-01

    Occurrence patterns are partly shaped by the affinity of species with habitat conditions. For winged organisms, flight-related attributes are vital for ecological performance. However, due to the different reproductive roles of each sex, we expect divergence in flight energy budget, and consequently different selection responses between sexes. We used tropical frugivorous butterflies as models to investigate coevolution between flight morphology, sex dimorphism and vertical stratification. We studied 94 species of Amazonian fruit-feeding butterflies sampled in seven sites across 3341 ha. We used wing-thorax ratio as a proxy for flight capacity and hierarchical Bayesian modelling to estimate stratum preference. We detected a strong phylogenetic signal in wing-thorax ratio in both sexes. Stouter fast-flying species preferred the canopy, whereas more slender slow-flying species preferred the understorey. However, this relationship was stronger in females than in males, suggesting that female phenotype associates more intimately with habitat conditions. Within species, males were stouter than females and sexual dimorphism was sharper in understorey species. Because trait-habitat relationships were independent from phylogeny, the matching between flight morphology and stratum preference is more likely to reflect adaptive radiation than shared ancestry. This study sheds light on the impact of flight and sexual dimorphism on the evolution and ecological adaptation of flying organisms. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Sexual Dimorphisms of Appendicular Musculoskeletal Morphology Related to Social Display in Cuban Anolis Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Wataru; Cádiz, Antonio; Endo, Hideki

    2015-10-01

    In Anolis lizards, sexual dimorphism has been reported in morphological and ecological traits. Males show larger body size and longer limbs related to territorial combat and courtship display with the dewlap. Although functional-anatomical traits are closely related to locomotor behaviors, differences between sexes in musculoskeletal traits on limbs remain unclear. We explored the relationships among sexual dimorphisms in musculoskeletal morphology, habitat, and locomotor traits in Anolis lizards. Specifically, we examined appendicular musculoskeletal morphology in three species of Cuban Anolis by measuring muscle mass and lengths of moment arms. Through comparisons of crossing locomotion, we found that the runner species possessed larger extensors in hindlimbs, which are advantageous for running, whereas the masses of the humeral and femoral retractors were larger in climber species, allowing these lizards to hold up their bodies and occupy tree substrates. Comparisons between the sexes showed different trends among the three species. Males of A. porcatus, which inhabit narrow branches or leaves, had stronger elbow extensors that maintain the display posture. In contrast, males of A. sagrei, which occupy broad surfaces, did not show sexual differences that affected social display. Moreover, A. bartschi indicated sexual differences despite the absence of dewlapping behavior. Our findings suggest that both sexes show fundamentally similar relationships between muscular morphology and locomotor habits to adapt arboreal or terrestrial substrates, and yet sexual dimorphism in forelimb muscles may additionally affected by male specific display with the dewlap.

  18. Sexually dimorphic traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are regulated by doublesex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhan, Shuai; Chen, Shuqing; Zeng, Baosheng; Li, Zhiqian; James, Anthony A; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    The DM domain genes, doublesex (dsx) in insects, or their structural homologs, male abnormal 3 (mab-3) in nematodes and Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) in mammals, are downstream regulators of the sex determination pathway that control sexually dimorphic development. Despite the functional importance of dsx and its potential applications in sterile insect technologies (SITs), the mechanisms by which it controls sexually dimorphic traits and the subsequent developmental gene networks in insects are poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that insect dsx genes have sex-specific alternative splicing isoforms, whereas other taxa do not. We exploited genome editing and transgenesis technologies to induce mutations in either the male-specific isoform (dsx M ) or common region (dsx C ) of dsx in the somatic tissues of the lepidopteran model insect Bombyx mori. Disruptions of gene function produced either male-specific sexually-dimorphic defects or intersexual phenotypes; these results differ from those observed in other insects, including Drosophila melanogaster. Our data provide insights into the divergence of the insect sex determination pathways related to the most conserved downstream component dsx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lip morphometry in 600 North Indian adults: a data base study for sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Archana; Patnaik, Vvg; Puri, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    The study comprised lip morphometry of 600 North Indian adults (300 males and 300 females). The aim of the study was to create base data of various linear and vertical measurements of the upper and lower lips and width of the mouth. This standard may serve as a guideline for sexual dimorphism as well as for restoration or enhancement of esthetic and plastic surgery for the lips in the north Indian population, which will enable the surgeon to offer a better cosmetic result. Prior informed written consent from all the subjects was obtained. The exclusion and inclusion criteria for the subjects were predefined. The analysis shows the sexual dimorphism in most parameters of lips being greater in males. The results were compared with the available data for north white Americans, Malays, Malaysian Indians, Italians, western Indians and Caucasians. In the population under study, the measurements differ in all dimensions with Malays, Italians and Caucasians and show resemblance to the Malaysian Indians. Knowledge of the proportion between the upper and lower lips helps in surgical correction of the region. This study highlights the applied significance of observations of the present study to forensic, namely racial and sex dimorphic, criteria of identification. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Gender-Dimorphic Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Proteins in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that sexual differences increase diabetic risk and contribute to the need for gender-specific care, there remain contradictory results as to whether or not sexual dimorphism increases susceptibility to the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: To examine gender-dimorphic regulation of skeletal muscle proteins between healthy control and STZ-induced diabetic rats of both genders, we performed differential proteome analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry. Results: Animal experiments revealed that STZ treatment rendered female rats more susceptible to induction of diabetes than their male littermates with significantly lower plasma insulin levels due to hormonal regulation. Proteomic analysis of skeletal muscle identified a total of 21 proteins showing gender-dimorphic differential expression patterns between healthy controls and diabetic rats. Most interestingly, gender-specific proteome comparison showed that male and female rats displayed differential regulation of proteins involved in muscle contraction, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative phosphorylation and cellular stress. Conclusion: The current proteomic study revealed that impaired protein regulation was more prominent in the muscle tissue of female diabetic rats, which were more susceptible to STZ-induced diabetes. We expect that the present proteomic data can provide valuable information for evidence-based gender-specific treatment of diabetes.

  1. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  2. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin George

    Full Text Available Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors.

  3. Sexually dimorphic regulation and induction of P450s by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.P.; Mota, L.C.; Huang, W.; Moore, D.D.; Baldwin, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a xenosensing nuclear receptor and regulator of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). However, the role of CAR as a basal regulator of CYP expression nor its role in sexually dimorphic responses have been thoroughly studied. We investigated basal regulation and sexually dimorphic regulation and induction by the potent CAR activator TCPOBOP and the moderate CAR activator Nonylphenol (NP). NP is an environmental estrogen and one of the most commonly found environmental toxicants in Europe and the United States. Previous studies have demonstrated that NP induces several CYPs in a sexually dimorphic manner, however the role of CAR in regulating NP-mediated sexually dimorphic P450 expression and induction has not been elucidated. Therefore, wild-type and CAR-null male and female mice were treated with honey as a carrier, NP, or TCPOBOP and CYP expression monitored by QPCR and Western blotting. CAR basally regulates the expression of Cyp2c29, Cyp2b13, and potentially Cyp2b10 as demonstrated by QPCR. Furthermore, we observed a shift in the testosterone 6α/15α-hydroxylase ratio in untreated CAR-null female mice to the male pattern, which indicates an alteration in androgen status and suggests a role for androgens as CAR inverse agonists. Xenobiotic-treatments with NP and TCPOBOP induced Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp3a11 in a CAR-mediated fashion; however NP only induced these CYPs in females and TCPOBOP induced these CYPs in both males and females. Interestingly, Cyp2a4, was only induced in wild-type male mice by TCPOBOP suggesting Cyp2a4 induction is not sensitive to CAR-mediated induction in females. Overall, TCPOBOP and NP show similar CYP induction profiles in females, but widely different profiles in males potentially related to lower sensitivity of males to either indirect or moderate CAR activators such as NP. In summary, CAR regulates the basal and chemically inducible expression of several sexually dimorphic xenobiotic metabolizing P

  4. Independent evolution of sexual dimorphism and female-limited mimicry in swallowtail butterflies (Papilio dardanus and Papilio phorcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Thompson, M J; Collins, S; Vogler, A P

    2017-03-01

    Several species of swallowtail butterflies (genus Papilio) are Batesian mimics that express multiple mimetic female forms, while the males are monomorphic and nonmimetic. The evolution of such sex-limited mimicry may involve sexual dimorphism arising first and mimicry subsequently. Such a stepwise scenario through a nonmimetic, sexually dimorphic stage has been proposed for two closely related sexually dimorphic species: Papilio phorcas, a nonmimetic species with two female forms, and Papilio dardanus, a female-limited polymorphic mimetic species. Their close relationship indicates that female-limited polymorphism could be a shared derived character of the two species. Here, we present a phylogenomic analysis of the dardanus group using 3964 nuclear loci and whole mitochondrial genomes, showing that they are not sister species and thus that the sexually dimorphic state has arisen independently in the two species. Nonhomology of the female polymorphism in both species is supported by population genetic analysis of engrailed, the presumed mimicry switch locus in P. dardanus. McDonald-Kreitman tests performed on SNPs in engrailed showed the signature of balancing selection in a polymorphic population of P. dardanus, but not in monomorphic populations, nor in the nonmimetic P. phorcas. Hence, the wing polymorphism does not balance polymorphisms in engrailed in P. phorcas. Equally, unlike in P. dardanus, none of the SNPs in P. phorcas engrailed were associated with either female morph. We conclude that sexual dimorphism due to female polymorphism evolved independently in both species from monomorphic, nonmimetic states. While sexual selection may drive male-female dimorphism in nonmimetic species, in mimetic Papilios, natural selection for protection from predators in females is an alternative route to sexual dimorphism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Effect of Target Sex, Sexual Dimorphism, and Facial Attractiveness on Perceptions of Target Attractiveness and Trustworthiness

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    Yuanyan Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial sexual dimorphism has widely demonstrated as having an influence on the facial attractiveness and social interactions. However, earlier studies show inconsistent results on the effect of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness judgments. Previous studies suggest that the level of attractiveness might work as a moderating variable among the relationship between sexual dimorphism and facial preference and have often focused on the effect of sexual dimorphism on general attractiveness ratings, rather than concentrating on trustworthiness perception. Male and female participants viewed target male and female faces that varied on attractiveness (more attractive or less attractive and sexual dimorphism (masculine or feminine. Participants rated the attractiveness of the faces and reported how much money they would give to the target person as a measure of trust. For the facial attractiveness ratings, (a both men and women participants preferred masculine male faces to feminine male ones under the more attractive condition, whereas preferred feminine male faces to masculine male ones under the less attractive condition; (b all participants preferred feminine female faces to masculine female ones under the less attractive condition, while there were no differences between feminine female faces and masculine female faces under the more attractive condition. For the target trustworthiness perception, (a participants showed no preference between masculine male faces and feminine male faces, neither under the more attractive condition nor the less attractiveness condition; (b however, all the participants preferred masculine female faces over feminine female faces under the more attractive condition, exhibiting no preference between feminine female faces and masculine female faces under the less attractive condition. These findings suggest that the attractiveness of facial stimulus may be a reason to interpret the inconsistent results from the

  6. Effects of testosterone on contractile properties of sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802

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    Aaron R. Kampe

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effects of testosterone (T on the contractile properties of two sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles and one non-dimorphic muscle in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802. The dimorphic muscles in castrated males with testosterone replacement (T+ achieved higher forces and lower fatigability than did castrated males without replaced testosterone (T0 males, but the magnitude of the differences was low and many of the pair-wise comparisons of each muscle property were not statistically significant. However, when taken as a whole, the means of seven contractile properties varied in the directions expected of masculine values in T+ animals in the sexually dimorphic muscles. Moreover, these data, compared with previous data on male and female bullfrogs, show that values for T+ males are similar to normal males and are significantly different from females. The T0 males tended to be intermediate in character between T+ males and females, generally retaining masculine values. This suggests that the exposure of young males to T in their first breeding season produces a masculinizing effect on the sexually dimorphic muscles that is not reversed between breeding seasons when T levels are low. The relatively minor differences in contractile properties between T+ and T0 males may indicate that as circulating T levels rise during breeding season in normal males, contractile properties can be enhanced rapidly to maximal functional levels for breeding success.

  7. Extreme telomere length dimorphism in the Tasmanian devil and related marsupials suggests parental control of telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah S Bender

    Full Text Available Telomeres, specialised structures that protect chromosome ends, play a critical role in preserving chromosome integrity. Telomere dynamics in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii are of particular interest in light of the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD, a transmissible malignancy that causes rapid mortality and threatens the species with extinction. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation to investigate telomere length in DFTD cells, in healthy Tasmanian devils and in four closely related marsupial species. Here we report that animals in the Order Dasyuromorphia have chromosomes characterised by striking telomere length dimorphism between homologues. Findings in sex chromosomes suggest that telomere length dimorphism may be regulated by events in the parental germlines. Long telomeres on the Y chromosome imply that telomere lengthening occurs during spermatogenesis, whereas telomere diminution occurs during oogenesis. Although found in several somatic cell tissue types, telomere length dimorphism was not found in DFTD cancer cells, which are characterised by uniformly short telomeres. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of naturally occurring telomere length dimorphism in any species and suggests a novel strategy of telomere length control. Comparative studies in five distantly related marsupials and a monotreme indicate that telomere dimorphism evolved at least 50 million years ago.

  8. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-05-22

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called 'termite balls', are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs.

  9. A sexually dimorphic corolla appendage affects pollen removal and floral longevity in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Niu

    Full Text Available The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection.

  10. Sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in the rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahbaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is expected to drive phenotypic differences between conspecific male and females, a widespread phenomenon known as sexual dimorphism. At the same time, individuals may exhibit some degree of intra-sexual variation. We examined the sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in different body parts of Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae, a cosmopolitan rove beetle commonly found on carrion. Male C. maxillosus had significantly wider head and pronotum, longer mandibles, and more distant eyes than females. The head width was positively correlated to mandible length, which may reflect stronger adductor muscles and higher bite force in larger individuals. The allometry of traits can be examined by plotting the logarithms of that specific trait against the logarithm of body size and determining the slope (b of the regression line. Isometry occurs when b=1, i.e. the ratio of given traits to body size remains constant across individuals. Negative allometry occurs when b1, so that larger individuals have disproportionately larger traits. A positive allometry was found in head width (b=1.32, mandible length (b=2.28, and ocular distance (b=1.49 of males. Our results show that, particularly head size, mandible length and ocular distance are probably under sexual selection in males, while traits such as eye size are isometric to body size. The potential role of these traits in male-male combat as well as female attractiveness has been frequently documented in different insect taxa. The striking similarities in patterns of sexual dimorphism among independently evolved insects indicate that common evolutionary force(s are probably at work.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbos, I.; Veuskens, J.; Vyskot, B.; Oliveira, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Aghmir, A.; Mouras, A.; Negrutiu, I.

    1999-01-01

    White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for ''male dimorphism'' (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state

  12. Asymmetry and sexual dimorphism of the medial frontal gyrus visible surface in humans

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    Spasojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Studies of visible (extrasulcal surface of the brain hemispheres are not feasible for measurements of the brain size, but are valuable for analysis and quantification of sexual dimorphism and/or asymmetries of the human brain. Morphological and morphometric investigations of the brain may contribute in genetic studies of the human nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine and to quantify sexual dimorphism and the right/left morphological asymmetry of the visible surface of medial frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis medialis - GFM. Methods. Measurements and analysis of the visible surface of GFM were done on 84 hemispheres (42 brains from the persons of both sexes: 26 males and 16 females, 20-65 years of age. After fixation in 10% formalin and dissection, digital morphometric measurements were performed. We studied these in relation to the side of the hemisphere and the person's sex. Standardized digital AutoCAD planimetry of the visible surface of GFM was enabled by the use of coordinate system of intercommissural line. Results. In the whole sample, the visible surface of the right GFM (21.39 cm2 was statistically significantly greater (p < 0.05 than the left GFM (18.35 cm2 indicating the right/left asymmetry of the visible surface of GFM. Also, the visible surface of the right GFM in the males (22.66 cm2 was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the females (19.35 cm2, while the difference in size of the left GFM between the males and the females was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Morphological analysis of visible surface of GFM performed by digital planimetry showed sexual dimorphism of the visible surface and the presence of right/left asymmetry of GFM.

  13. Local climate determines intra- and interspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in mountain grasshopper communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, P; Illera, J C; Obeso, J R

    2013-10-01

    The climate is often evoked to explain broad-scale clines of body size, yet its involvement in the processes that generate size inequality in the two sexes (sexual size dimorphism) remains elusive. Here, we analyse climatic clines of sexual size dimorphism along a wide elevation gradient (i) among grasshopper species in a phylogenetically controlled scenario and (ii) within species differing in distribution and cold tolerance, to highlight patterns generated at different time scales, mainly evolutionary (among species or higher taxa) and ontogenetic or microevolutionary (within species). At the interspecific level, grasshoppers were slightly smaller and less dimorphic at high elevations. These clines were associated with gradients of precipitation and sun exposure, which are likely indicators of other factors that directly exert selective pressures, such as resource availability and conditions for effective thermoregulation. Within species, we found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of elevation on body size, especially on condition-dependent measures of body size (total body length rather than hind femur length) and in species inhabiting the highest elevations. In spite of a certain degree of species-specific variation, females tended to adjust their body size more often than males, suggesting that body size in females can evolve faster among species and can be more plastic or dependent on nutritional conditions within species living in adverse climates. Natural selection on female body size may therefore prevail over sexual selection on male body size in alpine environments, and abiotic factors may trigger consistent phenotypic patterns across taxonomic scales. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Gene expression in peripheral immune cells following cardioembolic stroke is sexually dimorphic.

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    Boryana Stamova

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that sex has a role in the pathogenesis of cardioembolic stroke. Since stroke is a vascular disease, identifying sexually dimorphic gene expression changes in blood leukocytes can inform on sex-specific risk factors, response and outcome biology. We aimed to examine the sexually dimorphic immune response following cardioembolic stroke by studying the differential gene expression in peripheral white blood cells.Blood samples from patients with cardioembolic stroke were obtained at ≤3 hours (prior to treatment, 5 hours and 24 hours (after treatment after stroke onset (n = 23; 69 samples and compared with vascular risk factor controls without symptomatic vascular diseases (n = 23, 23 samples (ANCOVA, false discovery rate p≤0.05, |fold change| ≥1.2. mRNA levels were measured on whole-genome Affymetrix microarrays. There were more up-regulated than down-regulated genes in both sexes, and females had more differentially expressed genes than males following cardioembolic stroke. Female gene expression was associated with cell death and survival, cell-cell signaling and inflammation. Male gene expression was associated with cellular assembly, organization and compromise. Immune response pathways were over represented at ≤3, 5 and 24 h after stroke in female subjects but only at 24 h in males. Neutrophil-specific genes were differentially expressed at 3, 5 and 24 h in females but only at 5 h and 24 h in males.There are sexually dimorphic immune cell expression profiles following cardioembolic stroke. Future studies are needed to confirm the findings using qRT-PCR in an independent cohort, to determine how they relate to risk and outcome, and to compare to other causes of ischemic stroke.

  15. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  16. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  17. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  18. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Methods: Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Results: Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD. Keywords: Obesity, N43, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Central nervous system, Western diet, ω6-fatty acids

  19. Similar Gender Dimorphism in the Costs of Reproduction across the Geographic Range of Fraxinus ornus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, Miguel; Spanos, Kostas; čaňová, Ingrid; Slobodník, Branko; Paule, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The reproductive costs for individuals with the female function have been hypothesized to be greater than for those with the male function because the allocation unit per female flower is very high due to the necessity to nurture the embryos until seed dispersal occurs, while the male reproductive allocation per flower is lower because it finishes once pollen is shed. Consequently, males may invest more resources in growth than females. This prediction was tested across a wide geographical range in a tree with a dimorphic breeding system (Fraxinus ornus) consisting of males and hermaphrodites functioning as females. The contrasting ecological conditions found across the geographical range allowed the evaluation of the hypothesis that the reproductive costs of sexual dimorphism varies with environmental stressors. Methods By using random-effects meta-analysis, the differences in the reproductive and vegetative investment of male and hermaphrodite trees of F. ornus were analysed in 10 populations from the northern (Slovakia), south-eastern (Greece) and south-western (Spain) limits of its European distribution. The variation in gender-dimorphism with environmental stress was analysed by running a meta-regression between these effect sizes and the two environmental stress indicators: one related to temperature (the frost-free period) and another related to water availability (moisture deficit). Key Results Most of the effect sizes showed that males produced more flowers and grew more quickly than hermaphrodites. Gender differences in reproduction and growth were not minimized or maximized under adverse climatic conditions such as short frost-free periods or severe aridity. Conclusions The lower costs of reproduction for F. ornus males allow them to grow more quickly than hermaphrodites, although such differences in sex-specific reproductive costs are not magnified under stressful conditions. PMID:17098751

  20. The Physiology of Microbial Symbionts in Fungus-Farming Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Rafael

    . The termites provide the fungus with optimal growth conditions (e.g., stable temperature and humidity), as well as with constant inoculation of growth substrate and protection against alien fungi. In reward, the fungus provides the termites with a protein-rich fungal biomass based diet. In addition...... with their symbionts are main decomposer of organic matter in Africa, and this is reflect of a metabolic complementarity to decompose plant biomass in the genome of the three organisms involved in this symbiosis. Many of the physiological aspects of this symbiosis remain obscure, and here I focus on physiology...... of microbial symbionts associated with fungus-growing termites. Firstly, by using a set of enzyme assays, plant biomass compositional analyses, and RNA sequencing we gained deeper understanding on what enzymes are produced and active at different times of the decomposition process. Our results show that enzyme...

  1. Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; Thomas, Stephy; Geethu, C

    2018-03-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 previously found infectious to cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi promoted plant growth in cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum. The isolate exhibited direct plant growth promoting traits by production of indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia and by solubilizing inorganic phosphate and zinc. It also showed indirect plant growth promoting traits by producing siderophores and cell wall-degrading enzymes like, α-amylases, cellulases and proteases. In pot culture experiments, application of the fungus at the root zone of cardamom seedlings significantly increased shoot and root length, shoot and root biomass, number of secondary roots and leaves and leaf chlorophyll content compared to untreated plants. This is the first report on the plant growth promoting traits of this fungus. The entomopathogenic and multifarious growth promoting traits of L. psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 suggest that it has great potential for exploitation in sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Neoelmis guarani Shepard & Barr, a sexually dimorphic new species from Paraguay (Insecta: Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, William D; Barr, Cheryl B

    2016-02-22

    Neoelmis guarani new species is described and illustrated from specimens collected in streams of the Cordillera de los Altos, southeast of Asunción and near the towns of Piribebuy and Chololó, Paraguay. Males and females of this species exhibit strong secondary sexual dimorphism not found in other known species of Neoelmis. Males have striking modifications of the pro- and mesothoracic legs and bear a pair of ventrally projecting processes on both the mesoventrite and the second abdominal ventrite. Females have the elytra modified with a pair of dorsal projections.

  3. Dimorphic transition in Yarrowia lipolytica isolated from oil-polluted sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinjarde, Smita S.; Pant, Aditi; Deshpande, Mukund V.

    1998-01-01

    Fungal cultures from oil-polluted sea water near Mumbai, India have been studies for their capability to degrade crude oil. A yeast isolate identified as Yarrowia lipolytica was further investigated with respect to its dimorphic behaviour and alkane degradation. Y. lipolytica NCIM 3589 in the yeast form degraded the aliphatic fraction of crude oil and also pure alkanes (20-60% within 48h) under aerobic conditions. Unlike most Y. lipolytica strains, our isolate required partial anaerobiosis for mycelium formation. Studies with two isolates suggested that mycelium to yeast transition may be the prerequisite for effective alkane degradation. (author)

  4. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Vamvakopoulos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h CRH gene: (1 a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2 a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in song-induced ZENK expression in the medial striatum of juvenile zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David J.; Wade, Juli

    2006-01-01

    In the brains of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the nuclei that direct song learning and production are larger than the corresponding regions in females, who do not sing. The dimorphism in Area X of the medial striatum (MSt), an area important for song learning, is even more dramatic in that it is identifiable in males but not females by Nissl stain. In the present study, conspecific song, but not other auditory stimuli, induced expression of the immediate early gene ZENK in the MS...

  6. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  7. Noninvasive medical management of fungus ball uropathy in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalay, A L; Srugo, I; Blifeld, C; Komaiko, M S; Pomerance, J J

    1991-09-01

    Unilateral renal obstruction secondary to fungus balls is described in a premature infant. Noninvasive medical management, which included amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine therapy and forced diuresis, resulted in disappearance of fungus balls and resolution of the obstruction.

  8. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  9. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusak, V. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Experimentalni Mediciny)

    1982-06-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself.

  10. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  11. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  12. Biotransformation of (+)-cycloisolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki

    2007-05-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (+)-cycloisolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 gave one major metabolic product and a number of minor metabolic products. Major product was dehydration at the C-8 position to (+)-dehydrocycloisolongifolene (2). The structure of the product was determined by their spectroscopic data. Glomerella cingulata gave dehydration in the specifically and over 70% conversion.

  13. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  14. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusak, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  15. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in sister species of Leucoraja skate and its relationship to reproductive strategy and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Christopher M; Rohlf, F James; Frisk, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Instances of sexual dimorphism occur in a great variety of forms and manifestations. Most skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) display some level of body shape dimorphism in which the pectoral fins of mature males develop to create a distinct bell-shaped body not found in females. This particular form of dimorphism is present in each of the sister species Leucoraja erinacea and Leucoraja ocellata, but differences between sexes are much greater in the former. In order to understand the nature and potential causes of pectoral dimorphism, we used geometric morphometrics to investigate allometry of fin shape in L. erinacea and L. ocellata and its relationship to the development of reproductive organs, based on previous work on the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo. We found that allometric trajectories of overall pectoral shape were different in both species of skate, but only L. erinacea varied significantly with respect to endoskeleton development. Male maturation was characterized by a number of sex-specific morphological changes, which appeared concurrently in developmental timing with elongation of cartilage-supported claspers. We suggest that external sexual dimorphism of pectoral fins in skates is a byproduct of skeletal growth needed for clasper development. Further, the magnitude of male shape change appears to be linked to the differential life histories of species. This work reports for the first time that pectoral dimorphism is a persistent feature in rajoid fishes, occurring in varying degrees across several genera. Lastly, our results suggest that pectoral morphology may be useful as a relative indicator of reproductive strategy in some species. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities...

  18. Optimized integration of T-DNA in the taxol-producing fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We previously reported a taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis malicola. There, we described the transformation of the fungus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. T-DNA carrying the selection marker was transferred into the fungus and randomly integrated into the genome as shown by Southern blotting.

  19. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because...

  20. New Trends in Paracoccidioidomycosis Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America and more prevalent in South America. The disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides spp. whose major hosts are humans and armadillos. The fungus grows in soil and its infection is associated with exposure to the rural environment and to agricultural activities, with a higher risk in coffee and tobacco plantations. Population studies assessing the reactivity to Paracoccidioides spp. antigens by intradermal reaction or serological tests have detected previous subclinical infections in a significant proportion of healthy individuals living in various endemic countries. Paracoccidioidomycosis-disease is manifested by a small minority of infected individuals. The risk of developing the disease and its type of clinical form are related to the personal and life style characteristics of infected individuals, including genetic background, age, sex, ethnicity, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, and eventual cellular immunosuppression. Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador have endemic areas that had already been defined in the 20th century. The incidence of paracoccidioidomycosis can be altered by climate phenomena and mainly by human migration and occupation of poorly explored territories. In Brazil, the endemy tends to expand towards the North and Center-West around the Amazon Region.

  1. A possible instance of sexual dimorphism in the tails of two oviraptorosaur dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, W Scott; Funston, Gregory F; Currie, Philip J; Norell, Mark A

    2015-03-31

    The hypothesis that oviraptorosaurs used tail-feather displays in courtship behavior previously predicted that oviraptorosaurs would be found to display sexually dimorphic caudal osteology. MPC-D 100/1002 and MPC-D 100/1127 are two specimens of the oviraptorosaur Khaan mckennai. Although similar in absolute size and in virtually all other anatomical details, the anterior haemal spines of MPC-D 100/1002 exceed those of MPC-D 100/1127 in ventral depth and develop a hitherto unreported "spearhead" shape. This dissimilarity cannot be readily explained as pathologic and is too extreme to be reasonably attributed to the amount of individual variation expected among con-specifics. Instead, this discrepancy in haemal spine morphology may be attributable to sexual dimorphism. The haemal spine form of MPC-D 100/1002 offers greater surface area for caudal muscle insertions. On this basis, MPC-D 100/1002 is regarded as most probably male, and MPC-D 100/1127 is regarded as most probably female.

  2. Effects of flower dimorphism and light environment on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in a cleistogamous herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Tabla, V; Munguía-Rosas, M; Campos-Navarrete, M J; Ramos-Zapata, J A

    2015-01-01

    Although it is known that floral dimorphism contributes to the maintenance of mixed breeding systems, the consequences of producing progeny of a contrasting genetic background and seeds with differential resource allocation has been practically ignored regarding establishment of belowground organisms-plant interactions. This article evaluates the combined effect of floral dimorphism with cross type and light environment on interactions between Ruellia nudiflora and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). R. nudiflora produces cleistogamous (CL) flowers that exhibit obligate self-pollination and chasmogamous (CH) flowers with facultative self- (CHs) or cross- (CHc) pollination. We evaluated the establishment of the plant-AMF interaction in progeny derived from each floral type, under two light conditions (shaded versus open). We established different scenarios depending on the existence of inbreeding depression (ID) and whether the differential resource allocation (DRA) to CH and CL flowers affected the R. nudiflora-AMF interaction. We predicted that under shaded light conditions there might be an intensification of ID, having a negative effect on AMF colonisation. The percentages of hyphae and vesicles in the harvested roots was significantly higher in the shaded plants (F ≥ 4.11, P nudiflora-AMF interaction. The results also suggest that even under stressful light conditions, endogamy does not affect this interaction, which may explain the success of R. nudiflora as an invasive species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Sex dimorphic behaviors as markers of neuroendocrine disruption by environmental chemicals: the case of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, A; Ricceri, L; Tait, S; Calamandrei, G

    2012-12-01

    The complexity of the neuroendocrine level of investigation requires the assessment of behavioral patterns that extend beyond the reproductive functions, which are age- and sex-specific in rodents, described by defined clusters of behavioral items regulated by genetic, hormonal, and epigenetic factors. The study of social behavior in laboratory rodents reveals sex-dimorphic effects of environmental chemicals that may be undetected either by a traditional neurotoxicological approach or referring to the classical definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here we review data on the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to the non-persistent organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, whose neurotoxic activity at low doses is currently a matter of concern for children's health. In mice exposed to chlorpyrifos in utero and/or in early development social/emotional responses are differently affected in the two sexes in parallel with sex-dependent interference on hypothalamic neuroendocrine pathways regulating social behaviors (vasopressin, oxytocin, and steroid regulated systems). Through the analysis of complex sex-dimorphic behavioral patterns we show that neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting activities of CPF overlap. This widely diffused organophosphorus pesticide might thus be considered as a neuroendocrine disruptor possibly representing a risk factor for sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenomenology of polymorphism: The topological pressure-temperature phase relationships of the dimorphism of finasteride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gana, Ines [EAD Physico-chimie Industrielle du Medicament (EA 4066), Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France) and Etablissement pharmaceutique de l' Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Agence Generale des Equipements et Produits de Sante, 7 Rue du Fer a moulin, 75005 Paris (France); Ceolin, Rene [EAD Physico-chimie Industrielle du Medicament (EA 4066), Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Rietveld, Ivo B., E-mail: ivo.rietveld@parisdescartes.fr [EAD Physico-chimie Industrielle du Medicament (EA 4066), Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)

    2012-10-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The topological pressure-temperature phase diagram for the dimorphism of finasteride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressure affects phase equilibria: an enantiotropic phase relationship turning monotropic at high pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of pressure on phase behavior inferred from data obtained under ordinary conditions. - Abstract: Knowledge of the phase behavior in the solid state of active pharmaceutical ingredients is important for the development of stable drug formulations. The topological method for the construction of pressure-temperature phase diagrams has been applied to study the phase behavior of finasteride. It is demonstrated that with basic calorimetric measurements and X-ray diffraction sufficient data can be obtained to construct a complete topological pressure-temperature phase diagram. The dimorphism observed for finasteride gives rise to a phase diagram similar to the paradigmatic diagram of sulfur. The solid-solid phase relationship is enantiotropic at ordinary pressure and becomes monotropic at elevated pressure, where solid I is the only stable phase.

  5. Ontogenetic development and sexual dimorphism of franciscana dolphin skull: A 3D geometric morphometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Daniela L; Flores, David A; Cappozzo, Humberto L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the postnatal ontogenetic development of Pontoporia blainvillei skull, identifying major changes on shape, and relating them to relevant factors in the life history of the species. We analyzed a complete ontogenetic series (73♂, 83♀) with three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques. Immature dolphins showed a very well-developed braincase and a poorly developed rostrum, and the principal postnatal changes affected the rostrum and the temporal fossa, both structures implied functionally to the feeding apparatus, thus suggesting a specialized mode for catch fast prey in P. blainvillei. Osseous elements associated with sound production were already well developed on immature dolphins, suggesting the importance of this apparatus since the beginning of postnatal life. Sexual dimorphism was detected on both shape and size variables. Females were bigger than males, in accordance with previous studies. Shape differences between sexes were found on the posterior part of premaxillaries and external bony nares (P < 0.01), suggesting that this sexual dimorphism is related to differences on vocalization capabilities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A geometric morphometric study into the sexual dimorphism of the human scapula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Y; Steyn, M; Pretorius, E

    2010-08-01

    Sex determination is vital when attempting to establish identity from skeletal remains. Two approaches to sex determination exists: morphological and metrical. The aim of this paper was to use geometric morphometrics to study the shape of the scapula and its sexual dimorphism. The sample comprised 45 adult black male and 45 adult black female scapulae of known sex. The scapulae were photographed and 21 homologous landmarks were plotted to use for geometric morphometric analysis with the 'tps' series of programs, as well as the IMP package. Consensus thin-plate splines and vector plots for males and females were compared. The CVA and TwoGroup analyses indicated that significant differences exist between males and females. The lateral and medial borders of females are straighter while the supraspinous fossa is more convexly curved than that of males. More than 91% of the females and 95% of the males were correctly assigned. Hotelling's T(2)-test yielded a significant p-value of 0.00039. In addition, 100 equidistant landmarks representing the curve only were also assigned. These, however, yielded considerably poorer results. It is concluded that it is better to use homologous landmarks rather than curve data only, as it is most probable that the shape of the outline relative to the fixed homologous points on the scapula is sexually dimorphic.

  7. Only half right: species with female-biased sexual size dimorphism consistently break Rensch's rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Webb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most animal species display Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD: males and females consistently attain different sizes, most frequently with females being larger than males. However the selective mechanisms driving patterns of SSD remain controversial. 'Rensch's rule' proposes a general scaling phenomenon for all taxa, whereby SSD increases with average body size when males are larger than females, and decreases with body size when females are larger than males. Rensch's rule appears to be general in the former case, but there is little evidence for the rule when females are larger then males.Using comprehensive data for 1291 species of birds across 30 families, we find strong support for Rensch's rule in families where males are typically larger than females, but no overall support for the rule in families with female-biased SSD. Reviewing previous studies of a broad range of taxa (arthropods, reptiles, fish and birds showing predominantly female-biased SSD, we conclude that Rensch's conjecture is the exception rather than the rule in such species.The absence of consistent scaling of SSD in taxa with female-biased SSD, the most prevalent direction of dimorphism, calls into question previous general evolutionary explanations for Rensch's rule. We propose that, unlike several other ecological scaling relationships, Rensch's rule does not exist as an independent scaling phenomenon.

  8. A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic circuit controls maternal care and oxytocin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Niv; Prigge, Matthias; Yizhar, Ofer; Kimchi, Tali

    2015-09-24

    It is commonly assumed, but has rarely been demonstrated, that sex differences in behaviour arise from sexual dimorphism in the underlying neural circuits. Parental care is a complex stereotypic behaviour towards offspring that is shared by numerous species. Mice display profound sex differences in offspring-directed behaviours. At their first encounter, virgin females behave maternally towards alien pups while males will usually ignore the pups or attack them. Here we show that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the mouse hypothalamus are more numerous in mothers than in virgin females and males, and govern parental behaviours in a sex-specific manner. In females, ablating the AVPV TH(+) neurons impairs maternal behaviour whereas optogenetic stimulation or increased TH expression in these cells enhance maternal care. In males, however, this same neuronal cluster has no effect on parental care but rather suppresses inter-male aggression. Furthermore, optogenetic activation or increased TH expression in the AVPV TH(+) neurons of female mice increases circulating oxytocin, whereas their ablation reduces oxytocin levels. Finally, we show that AVPV TH(+) neurons relay a monosynaptic input to oxytocin-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. Our findings uncover a previously unknown role for this neuronal population in the control of maternal care and oxytocin secretion, and provide evidence for a causal relationship between sexual dimorphism in the adult brain and sex differences in parental behaviour.

  9. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Plotsky, P M; Young, L J; Lim, M M; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, C S

    2007-01-05

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the long-lasting, developmental effects of exposure to neonatal OT or OTA might reflect changes in the expression of receptors for these peptides. On postnatal day 1, prairie voles were injected intraperitoneally with either OT (1 mg/kg), an OTA (0.1 mg/kg), saline vehicle, or were handled only. At approximately 60 days of age, vasopressin V1a receptors, OT receptors (OTR) and dopamine D2 receptor binding were quantified using receptor autoradiography in brain tissue taken from males and females. Significant treatment effects on V1a binding were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingulate cortex (CgCtx), mediodorsal thalamus (MdThal), medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (MPOA), and lateral septum (LS). The CgCtx, MPOA, ventral pallidum, and LS also showed significant sex by treatment interactions on V1a binding. No significant treatment or sex differences were observed for D2 receptor binding. No significant treatment difference was observed for OTR receptor binding, and only a marginal sex difference. Changes in the neuropeptide receptor expression, especially the V1a receptor, may help to explain sexually dimorphic changes in behavior that follow comparable neonatal manipulations.

  10. Dimorphic cypsela germination and plant growth in Synedrella nodiflora (L. Gaertn. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRM Souza Filho

    Full Text Available Synedrella nodiflora is a weed species that has dimorphic cypselas: winged peripheral and lanceolate shaped central. The aim of this work is to describe the reproductive capability by measuring dimorphic cypselas morphology, imbibition rates and germinative patterns under temperature, light quality and water availability gradients, and compare the plant growth between two light treatments. The central cypselas were lighter, longer and its pappi were more elongated than the peripheral ones, favoring its dispersion. Neither type had deep dormancy and both of them germinated with the same pattern under the optimum conditions. Both cypselas showed higher germinability in temperatures between 25 and 30 °C, under white light and high water availability, although there are some differences between the types, mainly at dark treatments. Plants grown in direct sunlight accumulated more biomass, allowing for higher plant development and inflorescence production, although shaded light plants capitulum had a higher central: peripheral ratio than the direct sunlight treatment. S. nodiflora cypselas germinate better in unfiltered light places, although the plants are adapted to shady conditions. The species showed high germination potential over a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as fast plant development. All of these features favor distribution in environmental sites.

  11. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sexually dimorphic effects of ancestral exposure to vinclozolin on stress reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K; Gore, Andrea C; Crews, David

    2014-10-01

    How an individual responds to the environment depends upon both personal life history as well as inherited genetic and epigenetic factors from ancestors. Using a 2-hit, 3 generations apart model, we tested how F3 descendants of rats given in utero exposure to the environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) vinclozolin reacted to stress during adolescence in their own lives, focusing on sexually dimorphic phenotypic outcomes. In adulthood, male and female F3 vinclozolin- or vehicle-lineage rats, stressed or nonstressed, were behaviorally characterized on a battery of tests and then euthanized. Serum was used for hormone assays, and brains were used for quantitative PCR and transcriptome analyses. Results showed that the effects of ancestral exposure to vinclozolin converged with stress experienced during adolescence in a sexually dimorphic manner. Debilitating effects were seen at all levels of the phenotype, including physiology, behavior, brain metabolism, gene expression, and genome-wide transcriptome modifications in specific brain nuclei. Additionally, females were significantly more vulnerable than males to transgenerational effects of vinclozolin on anxiety but not sociality tests. This fundamental transformation occurs in a manner not predicted by the ancestral exposure or the proximate effects of stress during adolescence, an interaction we refer to as synchronicity.

  13. Phenomenology of polymorphism: The topological pressure–temperature phase relationships of the dimorphism of finasteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gana, Inès; Céolin, René; Rietveld, Ivo B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The topological pressure–temperature phase diagram for the dimorphism of finasteride. ► Pressure affects phase equilibria: an enantiotropic phase relationship turning monotropic at high pressure. ► The influence of pressure on phase behavior inferred from data obtained under ordinary conditions. - Abstract: Knowledge of the phase behavior in the solid state of active pharmaceutical ingredients is important for the development of stable drug formulations. The topological method for the construction of pressure–temperature phase diagrams has been applied to study the phase behavior of finasteride. It is demonstrated that with basic calorimetric measurements and X-ray diffraction sufficient data can be obtained to construct a complete topological pressure–temperature phase diagram. The dimorphism observed for finasteride gives rise to a phase diagram similar to the paradigmatic diagram of sulfur. The solid–solid phase relationship is enantiotropic at ordinary pressure and becomes monotropic at elevated pressure, where solid I is the only stable phase.

  14. Cognitive ecology in hummingbirds: the role of sexual dimorphism and its anatomical correlates on memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina L González-Gómez

    Full Text Available In scatter-hoarding species, several behavioral and neuroanatomical adaptations allow them to store and retrieve thousands of food items per year. Nectarivorous animals face a similar scenario having to remember quality, location and replenishment schedules of several nectar sources. In the green-backed firecrown hummingbird (Sephanoides sephanoides, males are territorial and have the ability to accurately keep track of nectar characteristics of their defended food sources. In contrast, females display an opportunistic strategy, performing rapid intrusions into males territories. In response, males behave aggressively during the non-reproductive season. In addition, females have higher energetic demands due to higher thermoregulatory costs and travel times. The natural scenario of this species led us to compared cognitive abilities and hippocampal size between males and females. Males were able to remember nectar location and renewal rates significantly better than females. However, the hippocampal formation was significantly larger in females than males. We discuss these findings in terms of sexually dimorphic use of spatial resources and variable patterns of brain dimorphisms in birds.

  15. Common features of sexual dimorphism in the cranial airways of different human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Godoy, Paula; Rosas, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial system is an important feature of intraspecific variation in recent and fossil humans. Although several studies have reported different morphological patterns of sexual dimorphism in different populations, this study searches for common morphological aspects related to functional anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. 3D geometric morphometrics were used to test the hypothesis that due to higher daily energy expenditure and associated greater respiratory air consumption as well as differences in body composition, males should have absolutely and relatively greater air passages in the bony cranial airways than females. We measured 25 3D landmarks in five populations (N = 212) of adult humans from different geographic regions. Male average cranial airways were larger in centroid sizes than female ones. Males tended to show relatively taller piriform apertures and, more consistently, relatively taller internal nasal cavities and choanae than females. Multivariate regressions and residual analysis further indicated that after standardizing to the same size, males still show relatively larger airway passages than females. Because the dimensions of the choanae are limiting factors for air transmission towards the noncranial part of the respiratory system, the identified sex-specific differences in cranial airways, possibly shared among human populations, may be linked with sex-specific differences in body size, composition, and energetics. These findings may be important to understanding trends in hominin facial evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  17. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  18. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. RESULTS: We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed

  19. Identification of a taxol-producing endophytic fungus EFY-36

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Morphological and molecular methods were used to identify the statues of an isolate, EFY-36, a taxol- ... of the spores. The analysis of endophytic fungus. 18S ribosome RNA sequence used PCR cloning technology. DNA was extracted by the CTAB method. ... of the fungal mycelium (magnification: 400 ×).

  20. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.

    2006-01-01

    the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii. cDNA encoding Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoamylase was expression cloned into Pichia pastoris, producing approximately 7.4 U/ml. It was concluded that alternative mRNA splicing as it might occur in Aspergillus niger glucoamylase is not responsible for the occurrence...

  1. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  2. The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins...

  3. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated.

  4. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  5. Rethinking crop-disease management in fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ant fungus farming has become a prominent model for studying the evolution of mutualistic cooperation, with recent advances in reconstructing the evolutionary origin and elaborations of the symbiosis (1, 2), discovering additional partners and clarifying their interactions (3, 4), and analyzing

  6. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  7. Consistent association of fungus Fusarium mangiferae Britz with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In exotic ones, maximum and minimum infections of 97.33 and 70.67% were noted in the cultivars Sensation and Pop, respectively. Light and transmission electron microscopy proved helpful in investigating the morphological matrix and ultrastructure of the propagules of fungus F. mangiferae. Key words: Mangifera indica, ...

  8. Comparative nutritional evaluation of fungus and alkali treated rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial was conducted with growing white albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) for 56 days to determine whether alkali (NaOH) or fungus (Mushroom) treatment of rice husk would affect rat's performance. The treated rice husk comprised 10% of the rat's diets, the rests of which were 50% maize, 20% soybeans, 19% ...

  9. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consistent association of fungus Fusarium mangiferae Britz with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... F. mangiferae proved to be the dominant fungus hosting majority of the malformed tissues. Among the indigenous ... tion amongst fruit crops due to its specific nature, growth pattern and ... It is affected by various animate and ...

  11. The Wor1-like protein Fgp1 regulates pathogenicity, toxin synthesis and reproduction in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Jonkers

    Full Text Available WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1 in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in Δfgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein.

  12. Dimorphic anemia and mental depression as a result of systemic manifestations of generalized aggressive periodontitis: A pioneer case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP is a rare form of periodontitis resulting in early loss of teeth. Most of the clinical evidence available in literature focuses on the diagnosis and management aspects of GAP. Systemic manifestations of GAP have been reported infrequently. To the best of our knowledge, the present case report is the first-ever evidence providing a possible mechanism and link between GAP, dimorphic anemia, and mental depression suggesting that dimorphic anemia and mental depression are probable systemic manifestations of GAP. A young female reported with her father to the hospital with a complaint of pain in her oral cavity and lack of desire to eat. On thorough examination, GAP with dimorphic anemia and mental depression were diagnosed. Periodontal treatment along with nutritional supplements was prescribed. An improvement was noticed in the patient's condition after a follow-up period of 6 months. Systemic manifestations of GAP should include the diagnoses of dimorphic anemia and mental depression and should be treated accordingly.

  13. A possible case of contemporary selection leading to a decrease in sexual plumage dimorphism in a grassland-breeding shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, Julia; Lourenco, Pedro M.; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Both, Christiaan; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    In sexually dimorphic species, males with more exaggerated plumage ornamentation generally have higher body condition, are preferred by females, and have higher reproductive output. In contrast to the majority of studies, we describe that less ornamented males of the monogamous and sexually

  14. Biometric sex discrimination is unreliable when sexual dimorphism varies within and between years : An example in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Oosterbeek, Kornelis; Rutten, Anne L.; Ens, B; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Verhulst, Simon

    Molecular sexing of birds has been possible for over a decade, but for practical reasons many studies still use biometric data for sex discrimination. In some species, the sexes are easy to distinguish but sexual dimorphism is often more subtle, requiring the use of statistical analyses of biometric

  15. Estimating expenditure on male and female offspring in a sexually size-dimorphic bird : A comparison of different methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, Michael J. L.; Van Lieshout, Emile; Pen, Ido; Visser, G. Henk; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    1. The parents of sexually size-dimorphic offspring are often assumed to invest more resources producing individuals of the larger sex. A range of different methods have been employed to estimate relative expenditure on the sexes, including quantifying sex-specific offspring growth, food intake,

  16. Sexual dimorphism of the human tibia through time: insights into shape variation using a surface-based approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Krajíček, V.; Horák, Z.; Velemínská, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166461. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human tibia * geometric morphometrics * sexual dimorphism * surface-based analysis Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  17. Estimating expenditure on male and female offspring in a sexually size-dimorphic bird : A comparison of different methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, Michael J. L.; Van Lieshout, Emile; Pen, Ido; Visser, G. Henk; Komdeur, Jan

    1. The parents of sexually size-dimorphic offspring are often assumed to invest more resources producing individuals of the larger sex. A range of different methods have been employed to estimate relative expenditure on the sexes, including quantifying sex-specific offspring growth, food intake,

  18. Variation in offspring sex ratio of a long-lived sexually dimorphic raptor, the eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd E. Katzner; Daniel S. Jackson; Jamie Ivy; Evgeny A. Bragin; Andrew Dewoody

    2014-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain observed variation in offspring sex ratio at both the population and the brood levels. In the context of low-fecundity organisms producing high-investment offspring, the drivers of adaptive variation in sex ratio are incompletely understood. For raptors that display reverse sexual dimorphism (RSD), preferential allocation of...

  19. Experimentally manipulated brood sex ratios : Growth and survival in the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), a sexually dimorphic species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Wendt; Kalmbach, E; Eising, C.M; Groothuis, TGG; Dijkstra, C

    2005-01-01

    In sexually size dimorphic species, individuals of the larger sex often suffer from enhanced mortality during the nestling period. This has been attributed to higher nutritional requirements of the larger sex, which may render this sex more vulnerable to adverse food conditions. However, sex-biased

  20. Disruption of STAT5b-Regulated Sexual Dimorphism of the Liver Transcriptome by Diverse Factors Is a Common Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is a growth hormone (GH)-activated transcription factor and a master regulator of sexually dimorphic gene expression in the liver. Disruption ofthe GH hypothalamo-pituitary-liver axis controlling STAT5b activation can ...

  1. Egg size and laying order in relation to offspring sex in the extreme sexually size dimorphic brown songlark, Cinclorhamphus cruralis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, MJL; Komdeur, J; Dickinson, J.

    In some bird species, mothers can advantage the offspring of one sex either by elevating them in the laying order to promote earlier hatching or by allocating greater resources to eggs of the preferred sex. In size dimorphic species, the predictions as to which sex should benefit most from such

  2. Extreme sexual brain size dimorphism in sticklebacks: a consequence of the cognitive challenges of sex and parenting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kotrschal

    Full Text Available Selection pressures that act differently on males and females produce numerous differences between the sexes in morphology and behaviour. However, apart from the controversial report that males have slightly heavier brains than females in humans, evidence for substantial sexual dimorphism in brain size is scarce. This apparent sexual uniformity is surprising given that sexually distinct selection pressures are ubiquitous and that brains are one of the most plastic vertebrate organs. Here we demonstrate the highest level of sexual brain size dimorphism ever reported in any vertebrate: male three-spined stickleback of two morphs in an Icelandic lake have 23% heavier brains than females. We suggest that this dramatic sexual size dimorphism is generated by the many cognitively demanding challenges that males are faced in this species, such as an elaborate courtship display, the construction of an ornate nest and a male-only parental care system. However, we consider also alternative explanations for smaller brains in females, such as life-history trade-offs. Our demonstration of unprecedented levels of sexual dimorphism in brain size in the three-spined stickleback implies that behavioural and life-history differences among the sexes can have strong effects also on neural development and proposes new fields of research for understanding brain evolution.

  3. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Mägi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Grönberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Maschio, A.; Hall, P.; Tyrer, J.; Teumer, A.; Völzke, H.; Kovacs, P.; Tönjes, A.; Mangino, M.; Spector, T.D.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Hall, A.S.; Samani, N.J.; Attwood, A.P.; Sambrook, J.G.; Hung, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Lokki, M.L.; Sinisalo, J.; Boucher, G.; Huikuri, H.V.; Lorentzon, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Eklund, N.; Eriksson, J.G.; Barlassina, C.; Rivolta, C.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; van der Klauw, M.M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Shi, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Wang, Z.; Bakker, S.J.; Mateo Leach, I.; Navis, G.; van der Harst, P.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Yang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Raitakari, O.; Absher, D.; Iribarren, C.; Basart, H.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hyppönen, E.; Power, C.; Anderson, D.; Beilby, J.P.; Hui, J.; Jolley, J.; Sager, H.; Bornstein, S.R.; Schwarz, P.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Perola, M.; Lindström, J.; Swift, A.J.; Uusitupa, M.; Atalay, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Rauramaa, R.; Bolton, J.L.; Fowkes, G.; Fraser, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Fischer, K.; Krjuta Kov, K.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Langenberg, C.; Luan, J.; Ong, K.K.; Chines, P.S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemie, S.; Saaristo, T.E.; Edkins, S.; Franks, P.W.; Hallmans, G.; Shungin, D.; Morris, A.D.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Erbel, R.; Moebus, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Pechlivanis, S.; Hveem, K.; Narisu, N.; Hamsten, A.; Humphries, S.E.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Tremoli, E.; Grallert, H.; Thorand, B.; Illig, T.; Koenig, W.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Peters, A.; Boehm, B.O.; Kleber, M.E.; März, W.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Kuusisto, J.; Laakso, M.; Arveiler, D.; Cesana, G.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Virtamo, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Kuh, D; Wong, A.; Lind, L.; de Faire, U.; Gigante, B.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dedoussis, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Kolovou, G.; Kanoni, S.; Stirrups, K.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Njolstad, I.; Wilsgaard, T.; Ganna, A.; Rehnberg, E.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.M.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunians, T.; Hunter, D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kaplan, R.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Schlessinger, D.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijn, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Qi, L.; Loos, R.J.; Lindgren, C.M.; North, K.E.; Heid, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  4. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  6. Effects of sexually dimorphic growth hormone secretory patterns on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rodent heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Furong; Yu, Xuming; He, Chunyan; Ouyang, Xiufang; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Xuejiao; Wan, Yu; Yue, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are the potential therapeutic targets of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As sex differences have been shown in the risk and outcome of CVDs, we investigated the regulation of heart AA metabolizing enzymes (COXs, LOXs, and CYPs) by sex-dependent growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. The pulsatile (masculine) GH secretion at a physiological concentration decreased CYP1A1 and CYP2J3 mRNA levels more efficiently in the H9c2 cells compared with the constant (feminine) GH secretion; however, CYP1B1 mRNA levels were higher following the pulsatile GH secretion. Sex differences in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2J11 mRNA levels were observed in both the wild-type and GHR deficient mice. No sex differences in the mRNA levels of COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1 were observed in the wild-type mice. The constant GH infusion induced heart CYP1A1 and CYP2J11, and decreased CYP1B1 in the male C57/B6 mice constantly infused with GH (0.4 μg/h, 7 days). The activity of rat Cyp2j3 promoter was inhibited by the STAT5B protein, but was activated by C/EBPα (CEBPA). Compared with the constant GH administration, the levels of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein and its binding to the rat Cyp2j3 promoter were higher following the pulsatile GH administration. The constant GH infusion decreased the binding of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein to the mouse Cyp2j11 promoter. The data suggest the sexually dimorphic transcription of heart AA metabolizing enzymes, which might alter the risk and outcome of CVDs. GHR-STAT5B signal transduction pathway may be involved in the sex difference in heart CYP2J levels. - Highlights: • The transcription of heart Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2j genes is sexually dimorphic. • There are no sex differences in the mRNA levels of heart COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1. • GHR-STAT5B pathway is involved in sexually dimorphic transcription of heart Cpy2j genes. • Heart CYPs-mediated metabolism pathway of arachidonic acid may be sex

  7. Effects of sexually dimorphic growth hormone secretory patterns on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rodent heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Furong; Yu, Xuming [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); He, Chunyan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ouyang, Xiufang; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Xuejiao [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wan, Yu [Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yue, Jiang, E-mail: yuejiang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are the potential therapeutic targets of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As sex differences have been shown in the risk and outcome of CVDs, we investigated the regulation of heart AA metabolizing enzymes (COXs, LOXs, and CYPs) by sex-dependent growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. The pulsatile (masculine) GH secretion at a physiological concentration decreased CYP1A1 and CYP2J3 mRNA levels more efficiently in the H9c2 cells compared with the constant (feminine) GH secretion; however, CYP1B1 mRNA levels were higher following the pulsatile GH secretion. Sex differences in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2J11 mRNA levels were observed in both the wild-type and GHR deficient mice. No sex differences in the mRNA levels of COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1 were observed in the wild-type mice. The constant GH infusion induced heart CYP1A1 and CYP2J11, and decreased CYP1B1 in the male C57/B6 mice constantly infused with GH (0.4 μg/h, 7 days). The activity of rat Cyp2j3 promoter was inhibited by the STAT5B protein, but was activated by C/EBPα (CEBPA). Compared with the constant GH administration, the levels of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein and its binding to the rat Cyp2j3 promoter were higher following the pulsatile GH administration. The constant GH infusion decreased the binding of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein to the mouse Cyp2j11 promoter. The data suggest the sexually dimorphic transcription of heart AA metabolizing enzymes, which might alter the risk and outcome of CVDs. GHR-STAT5B signal transduction pathway may be involved in the sex difference in heart CYP2J levels. - Highlights: • The transcription of heart Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2j genes is sexually dimorphic. • There are no sex differences in the mRNA levels of heart COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1. • GHR-STAT5B pathway is involved in sexually dimorphic transcription of heart Cpy2j genes. • Heart CYPs-mediated metabolism pathway of arachidonic acid may be sex

  8. Sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism is maintained in elderly subjects and is not oestrogen dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, A A; Taylor, N F; Shalet, S M; Monson, J P

    2000-01-01

    The net interconversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) may determine hepatic and adipose tissue exposure to glucocorticoid action. Cortisol metabolism exhibits a sexual dimorphism with an apparently lower activity of 11betaHSD1 in females that, in an animal model, has been attributed to the effects of oestrogen. The aim of this study is to determine whether the sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism persists between post-menopausal, oestrogen-deficient women and elderly men. Fifteen healthy men, aged 60.8-82.0 years, and 7 healthy women, aged 62.4-87.5 years, were studied. None of the subjects was receiving steroid medication at the time of the study. All the women were post-menopausal and none was receiving sex steroid replacement therapy. 24-h urine collections were taken from each patient and assayed for steroid metabolites by gas chromatography. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was drawn, after an overnight fast, for the determination of serum IGF-I and IGFBP1 levels. The ratio of 11-hydroxy cortisol metabolites to 11-oxo cortisol metabolites (Fm/Em) was significantly higher in men than in women, 0.80 (0.55-1.86) vs. 0.67 (0.46-0.98) (P cortisol and cortisone metabolite (Fm/Em) and total fat mass approached significance, r = - 0.39 (P = 0.07). These relationships were not apparent in the women when considered alone. Among the men there were negative relationships between Fm/Em and total fat mass, r = - 0.48, and Fm/Em and trunk fat mass, r = - 0.48 which approached significance (both P = 0.07). Serum IGFBP-1 levels were not significantly different between the two sexes. There was a significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and Fm/Em in the men, r = 0. 84 (P sexual dimorphism in cortisol metabolism is not dependent on oestrogen, although the possibility that oestrogen exerts a permanent modifying effect on 11beta-HSD1 gene expression during the pre

  9. The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J

    2016-11-01

    Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei

    2016-08-01

    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin.

  11. The Toll pathway underlies host sexual dimorphism in resistance to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in mated Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David F; Kondolf, Hannah C; Im, Joo Hyun; Ortiz, Gerardo A; Chow, Christopher; Fox, Michael A; Eugénio, Ana T; Revah, J; Buchon, Nicolas; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2017-12-21

    Host sexual dimorphism is being increasingly recognized to generate strong differences in the outcome of infectious disease, but the mechanisms underlying immunological differences between males and females remain poorly characterized. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster to assess and dissect sexual dimorphism in the innate response to systemic bacterial infection. We demonstrated sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to infection by a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We found that both virgin and mated females are more susceptible than mated males to most, but not all, infections. We investigated in more detail the lower resistance of females to infection with Providencia rettgeri, a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally infects D. melanogaster. We found that females have a higher number of phagocytes than males and that ablation of hemocytes does not eliminate the dimorphism in resistance to P. rettgeri, so the observed dimorphism does not stem from differences in the cellular response. The Imd pathway is critical for the production of antimicrobial peptides in response to Gram-negative bacteria, but mutants for Imd signaling continued to exhibit dimorphism even though both sexes showed strongly reduced resistance. Instead, we found that the Toll pathway is responsible for the dimorphism in resistance. The Toll pathway is dimorphic in genome-wide constitutive gene expression and in induced response to infection. Toll signaling is dimorphic in both constitutive signaling and in induced activation in response to P. rettgeri infection. The dimorphism in pathway activation can be specifically attributed to Persephone-mediated immune stimulation, by which the Toll pathway is triggered in response to pathogen-derived virulence factors. We additionally found that, in absence of Toll signaling, males become more susceptible than females to the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. This reversal in susceptibility between male and female Toll

  12. Sexual dimorphism in striatal dopaminergic responses promotes monogamy in social songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, Kirill; Hyland Bruno, Julia; Ljubičić, Iva; Kothari, Paresh J; Helekar, Santosh A; Tchernichovski, Ofer; Voss, Henning U

    2017-08-11

    In many songbird species, males sing to attract females and repel rivals. How can gregarious, non-territorial songbirds such as zebra finches, where females have access to numerous males, sustain monogamy? We found that the dopaminergic reward circuitry of zebra finches can simultaneously promote social cohesion and breeding boundaries. Surprisingly, in unmated males but not in females, striatal dopamine neurotransmission was elevated after hearing songs. Behaviorally too, unmated males but not females persistently exchanged mild punishments in return for songs. Song reinforcement diminished when dopamine receptors were blocked. In females, we observed song reinforcement exclusively to the mate's song, although their striatal dopamine neurotransmission was only slightly elevated. These findings suggest that song-triggered dopaminergic activation serves a dual function in social songbirds: as low-threshold social reinforcement in males and as ultra-selective sexual reinforcement in females. Co-evolution of sexually dimorphic reinforcement systems can explain the coexistence of gregariousness and monogamy.

  13. Mouthpart dimorphism in male and female wasps of Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica (Vespidae, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Baranek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social wasps perform a variety of tasks with their mouthparts. Female workers use them to feed on carbohydrate-rich fluids, to build nests by collecting wood fibers and forming paper, to hunt and manipulate insect prey for feeding larvae as well as for brood care. Since male wasps neither feed on insects nor participate in nest building, sex-specific differences in mouthpart morphology are expected. Despite these different applications, general mouthpart morphology of male and female wasps from the genus Vespula was similar. However, males possessed significantly shorter mandibles with fewer teeth than females. Furthermore, the adductor muscles of the mandibles were distinctly smaller in males than in females. Male wasps showed a higher number of sensilla on the mandibles and the labial palpi. Mouthpart dimorphism and functional morphology of fluid uptake are discussed.

  14. Effects of combined exposure to anti-androgens on development and sexual dimorphic behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    Summary Background: Androgens are key regulators of male sexual differentiation during the in utero and early postnatal development. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that counteract androgen action at some stage in these periods can permanently demasculinise male foetuses and lead......?  Is sexually dimorphic behaviour in rats affected at lower dose levels of anti-androgens and thereby a more sensitive endpoint than morphological effects on the male external reproductive organs? The thesis is based on the results of in vivo studies where mated female Wistar rats were exposed to anti......-androgens either alone or in mixtures during pregnancy and lactation. The endpoints examined for anti-androgenic effects in the offspring were: Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR), and external (morphological) malformations in pups and sexually mature male rats. Furthermore, the effects of the anti...

  15. Individual heterogeneity determines sex differences in mortality in a monogamous bird with reversed sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colchero, Fernando; Aliaga, Alix Eva; Jones, Owen

    2017-01-01

    in shaping demographic trajectories in wild populations. The link between these two processes has seldom been explored. 2. We used Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to study age-specific mortality trajectories in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), a monogamous raptor with reversed sexual size...... driven by the differences in individual heterogeneity between the two sexes. Females were more heterogeneous than males in their level of frailty. Thus, a larger number of females with low frailty are able to survive to older ages than males, with life expectancy for the least frail adult females....... Although we found that variables that relate to the cost of reproduction and sexual dimorphism are at least partially involved in determing these sex differences, it is through their effect on the level of frailty that they affect age patterns of mortality. Therefore, our results raise the possibility...

  16. Sexual Dimorphism in Eye Morphology in a Butterfly (Asterocampa leilia; Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine S. Ziemba

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Empress Leilia butterfly, Asterocampa leilia, as in many insects, males have larger eyes than females. We explore the morphological causes and consequences of this dimorphism in eye size by comparing the corneal surface area, facet numbers, and patterns of variation in facet dimensions in males and females. We report that, with body size (measured by forewing length controlled, male eyes are consistently larger than female eyes, and that, although males and females do not differ significantly in the number of facets per eye, males have significantly larger facets. Also, males have disproportionately larger facets both frontally and dorsally. As a result of these sexual differences in eye structure, males are expected to have a larger and more acute visual field than females which could be advantageous in the context of this species' mate searching tactic.

  17. Pivotal temperature and sexual dimorphism of Podocnemis expansa hatchlings (Testudines: Podocnemididae from Bananal Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélio Lubiana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A common problem when trying to identify the sex of hatchling turtles is that juveniles are not obviously externally dimorphic and current techniques to identify sex are often invasive. In this paper, 300 eggs of Podocnemis expansa from Bananal Island, state of Tocantins (Brazil, were incubated at constant temperatures. The carapaces of the hatchlings were photographed and subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. The hatchlings were subsequently euthanized and had their gonads removed for sex determination. The pivotal temperature of P. expansa was 33.5ºC, confirming that this species has the highest pivotal temperature among reptiles. Geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the carapace proved efficient in differentiating the sex of the hatchlings and confirmed that this methodology can be efficient for studies that need to ascertain the sex ratio in P. expansa hatchlings.

  18. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  19. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomicresponses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N. Ari; Heo, Hye J.; Tozour, Jessica N.; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M.; Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age (LGA) growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular aging and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life. PMID:25300954

  1. Precision medicine and drug development in Alzheimer's disease: The importance of sexual dimorphism and patient stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Harald; Vergallo, Andrea; Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Kim, Seung Hyun; Depypere, Herman; Graziani, Manuela; Saidi, Amira; Nisticò, Robert; Lista, Simone

    2018-06-12

    Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are among the leading causes of disability and mortality. Considerable sex differences exist in the occurrence of the various manifestations leading to cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits substantial sexual dimorphisms and disproportionately affects women. Women have a higher life expectancy compared to men and, consequently, have more lifespan to develop AD. The emerging precision medicine and pharmacology concepts - taking into account the individual genetic and biological variability relevant for disease risk, prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment - are expected to substantially enhance our knowledge and management of AD. Stratifying the affected individuals by sex and gender is an important basic step towards personalization of scientific research, drug development, and care. We hypothesize that sex and gender differences, extending from genetic to psychosocial domains, are highly relevant for the understanding of AD pathophysiology, and for the conceptualization of basic/translational research and for clinical therapy trial design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex-specific weight loss mediates sexual size dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Nicholas D Testa

    Full Text Available The selective pressures leading to the evolution of Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD have been well studied in many organisms, yet, the underlying developmental mechanisms are poorly understood. By generating a complete growth profile by sex in Drosophila melanogaster, we describe the sex-specific pattern of growth responsible for SSD. Growth rate and critical size for pupariation significantly contributed to adult SSD, whereas duration of growth did not. Surprisingly, SSD at peak larval mass was twice that of the uneclosed adult SSD with weight loss between peak larval mass and pupariation playing an important role in generating the final SSD. Our finding that weight loss is an important regulator of SSD adds additional complexity to our understanding of how body size is regulated in different sexes. Collectively, these data allow for the elucidation of the molecular-genetic mechanisms that generate SSD, an important component of understanding how SSD evolves.

  3. Sexually dimorphic serotonergic dysfunction in a mouse model of Huntington's disease and depression.

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    Thibault Renoir

    Full Text Available Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in Huntington's disease (HD patients. In the general population, women are more prone to develop depression and such susceptibility might be related to serotonergic dysregulation. There is yet to be a study of sexual dimorphism in the development and presentation of depression in HD patients. We investigated whether 8-week-old male and female R6/1 transgenic HD mice display depressive-like endophenotypes associated with serotonergic impairments. We also studied the behavioral effects of acute treatment with sertraline. We found that only female HD mice exhibited a decreased preference for saccharin as well as impaired emotionality-related behaviors when assessed on the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT and the forced-swimming test (FST. The exaggerated immobility time displayed by female HD in the FST was reduced by acute administration of sertraline. We also report an increased response to the 5-HT(1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT in inducing hypothermia and a decreased 5-HT(2A receptor function in HD animals. While tissue levels of serotonin were reduced in both male and female HD mice, we found that serotonin concentration and hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 mRNA levels were higher in the hippocampus of males compared to female animals. Finally, the antidepressant-like effects of sertraline in the FST were blunted in male HD animals. This study reveals sex-specific depressive-related behaviors during an early stage of HD prior to any cognitive and motor deficits. Our data suggest a crucial role for disrupted serotonin signaling in mediating the sexually dimorphic depression-like phenotype in HD mice.

  4. Sexually dimorphic distribution of Prokr2 neurons revealed by the Prokr2-Cre mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Zaid; Sim, Hosung; Garcia-Galiano, David; Han, Xingfa; Bellefontaine, Nicole; Saunders, Thomas L; Elias, Carol F

    2017-12-01

    Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) is predominantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of PROKR2 in humans are associated with Kallmann syndrome due to the disruption of gonadotropin releasing hormone neuronal migration and deficient olfactory bulb morphogenesis. PROKR2 has been also implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH neurons post-migration and other physiological systems. However, the brain circuitry and mechanisms associated with these actions have been difficult to investigate mainly due to the widespread distribution of Prokr2-expressing cells, and the lack of animal models and molecular tools. Here, we describe the generation, validation and characterization of a new mouse model that expresses Cre recombinase driven by the Prokr2 promoter, using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Cre expression was visualized using reporter genes, tdTomato and GFP, in males and females. Expression of Cre-induced reporter genes was found in brain sites previously described to express Prokr2, e.g., the paraventricular and the suprachiasmatic nuclei, and the area postrema. The Prokr2-Cre mouse model was further validated by colocalization of Cre-induced GFP and Prokr2 mRNA. No disruption of Prokr2 expression, GnRH neuronal migration or fertility was observed. Comparative analysis of Prokr2-Cre expression in male and female brains revealed a sexually dimorphic distribution confirmed by in situ hybridization. In females, higher Cre activity was found in the medial preoptic area, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, medial amygdala and lateral parabrachial nucleus. In males, Cre was higher in the amygdalo-hippocampal area. The sexually dimorphic pattern of Prokr2 expression indicates differential roles in reproductive function and, potentially, in other physiological systems.

  5. Establishment of sexual dimorphism in north indian population by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canine teeth

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    Shalini Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canine teeth as well as inter-canine width in north Indian population. Study Design: The study was carried out at department of oral and maxillofacial pathology, King George′s Medical University, Lucknow, India on students and patients reporting at OPD. Out of total 180 subjects examined 90 subjects were female and 90 were male. Impressions of the upper arch were made using alginate and casts poured in dental stone. The mesiodistal diameter (MD of the crown of permanent maxillary canine both on right and left sides and inter-canine width were measured. From these measurements, maxillary canine index was calculated. The percentage of sexual dimorphism (SD was assessed for all the parameters. Results: In the present study, the MD of maxillary canine for both right (P = 0.001 and left side (P = 0.005 was significantly higher among male subjects than females, Similar observation was found for inter-canine width too (P = 0.0001. However, the maxillary canine index for right and left was almost similar (P > 0.05 for both male and female subjects. The SD in right and left MDs of maxillary canine was 4.2% and 3.6% respectively. For, inter-canine width it was maximum (13.7%. However, SD in right and left canine index showed negative values (−2.1% and -0.9% respectively. Conclusion: There was SD in MD and inter-canine width of permanent maxillary canine teeth. SD was more on right permanent maxillary canine teeth than left permanent maxillary canine.

  6. Sexual dimorphism of the internal mandibular chamber in Fayum Pliohyracidae (Mammalia)

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    de Blieux, D.D.; Baumrind, M.R.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.; Meyer, G.E.; Attia, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    An internal mandibular fenestra and chamber are found in many fossil hyracoids. The internal mandibular fenestra is located on the lingual surface of the mandibular corpus and opens into a chamber within the mandible. The mandibular chamber is maximally developed in late Eocene Thyrohyrax meyeri and early Oligocene Thyrohyrax domorictus from the Fayum Province of Egypt. The function of this chamber is unknown as it is not found in extant hyraxes, nor is it known to occur in any other mammal. In Thyrohyrax, this feature appears to be sexually dimorphic because it is confined to roughly one half of the specimens that otherwise cannot be separated by dental characteristics or measurements. It has been suggested that the chamber is found in females based on the presumed distribution of this character in other fossil hyracoids. Fossils from Fayum Quarry L-41, preserving the sexually dimorphic anterior dentition, show that, in Thyrohyrax meyeri and Thyrohyrax domorictus, the internal mandibular chamber is found in males. In Thyrohyrax litholagus, an internal mandibular fenestra and inflated mandibular chamber occurs in males whereas females show the variable presence of an internal mandibular fossa or fenestra but lack an expanded chamber. Other genera show differing patterns of sexual variation in which some Fayum hyracoids have an internal mandibular fenestra in both sexes but with the greatest development of the mandibular chamber occurring in males. We review functions proposed for the internal mandibular chamber and suggest that it housed a laryngeal air sac that may have had a vocal function by acting as a resonating chamber. ?? 2006 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  7. Allometry of sexual size dimorphism in turtles: a comparison of mass and length data.

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    Regis, Koy W; Meik, Jesse M

    2017-01-01

    The macroevolutionary pattern of Rensch's Rule (positive allometry of sexual size dimorphism) has had mixed support in turtles. Using the largest carapace length dataset and only large-scale body mass dataset assembled for this group, we determine (a) whether turtles conform to Rensch's Rule at the order, suborder, and family levels, and (b) whether inferences regarding allometry of sexual size dimorphism differ based on choice of body size metric used for analyses. We compiled databases of mean body mass and carapace length for males and females for as many populations and species of turtles as possible. We then determined scaling relationships between males and females for average body mass and straight carapace length using traditional and phylogenetic comparative methods. We also used regression analyses to evalutate sex-specific differences in the variance explained by carapace length on body mass. Using traditional (non-phylogenetic) analyses, body mass supports Rensch's Rule, whereas straight carapace length supports isometry. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, both body mass and straight carapace length support Rensch's Rule with strong congruence between metrics. At the family level, support for Rensch's Rule is more frequent when mass is used and in phylogenetic comparative analyses. Turtles do not differ in slopes of sex-specific mass-to-length regressions and more variance in body size within each sex is explained by mass than by carapace length. Turtles display Rensch's Rule overall and within families of Cryptodires, but not within Pleurodire families. Mass and length are strongly congruent with respect to Rensch's Rule across turtles, and discrepancies are observed mostly at the family level (the level where Rensch's Rule is most often evaluated). At macroevolutionary scales, the purported advantages of length measurements over weight are not supported in turtles.

  8. Sexual dimorphism of the planum temporale in schizophrenia: A MRI study.

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    Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Pigoni, Alessandro; Perlini, Cinzia; Barillari, Marco; Ruggeri, Mirella; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Anatomical alterations in the superior temporal gyrus have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia, and they have mostly been linked to positive symptoms, including hallucinations and thought disorders. The superior temporal gyrus is considered one of the most asymmetric and lateralized structure of the human brain, and the process of lateralization seems to vary according to gender in the normal population. However, although it has been consistently suggested that patients with schizophrenia did not show normal brain lateralization in several regions, only few studies investigated it in the superior temporal gyrus and its sub-regions considering the effects of gender. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dimorphism in superior temporal gyrus volumes in a sample of patients with schizophrenia compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A total of 72 right/left-handed males (40 schizophrenia patients and 32 healthy controls) and 45 right/left-handed females (18 schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls) underwent clinical evaluation and a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scan. Gray and white matter volumes of regions of interest within the superior temporal gyrus were manually detected, including the Heschl's gyrus and the planum temporale. Female patients with schizophrenia presented a reduction in left planum temporale gray matter volumes ( F = 4.58, p = 0.03) and a lack of the normal planum temporale asymmetry index ( t = 0.27; p = 0.79) compared to female controls ( t = 5.47; p = 0.001). No differences were found between males for any volumes or laterality indices. Finally, in female patients with schizophrenia, Heschl's gyrus gray and white matter volumes negatively correlated with positive symptoms ( r = -0.56, p = 0.01). Our results showed that sexual dimorphism plays a key role on planum temporale in schizophrenia, underlining the importance of gender as a modulator of brain morphology and

  9. Sexual dimorphism in shells of Cochlostoma septemspirale (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea, Diplommatinidae, Cochlostomatinae

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    Fabian Reichenbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphisms in shell-bearing snails expressed by characteristic traits of their respective shells would offer the possibility for a lot of studies about gender distribution in populations, species, etc. In this study, the seven main shell characters of the snail Cochlostoma septemspirale were measured in both sexes: (1 height and (2 width of the shell, (3 height and (4 width of the aperture, (5 width of the last whorl, (6 rib density on the last whorl, and (7 intensity of the reddish or brown pigments forming three bands over the shell. The variation of size and shape was explored with statistical methods adapted to principal components analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. In particular, we applied some multivariate morphometric tools for the analysis of ratios that have been developed only recently, that is, the PCA ratio spectrum, allometry ratio spectrum, and LDA ratio extractor. The overall separation of the two sexes was tested with LDA cross validation.The results show that there is a sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of shells. Females are more slender than males and are characterised by larger size, a slightly reduced aperture height but larger shell height and whorl width. Therefore they have a considerable larger shell volume (about one fifth in the part above the aperture. Furthermore, the last whorl of females is slightly less strongly pigmented and mean rib density slightly higher. All characters overlap quite considerably between sexes. However, by using cross validation based on the 5 continuous shell characters more than 90% of the shells can be correctly assigned to each sex.

  10. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours.

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    Iwata, Yoko; Shaw, Paul; Fujiwara, Eiji; Shiba, Kogiku; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2011-08-10

    Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  11. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

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    Shiba Kogiku

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm. Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external, whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  12. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure affects sexual dimorphism in different germlines of mice with a depressive phenotype.

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    Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Cohn, Daniel W H; Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Bernardi, Maria Martha

    2016-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration modifies the expression of depressive and non-depressive-like behavior in male and female mice across two generations. The sexual dimorphism of these mice was also examined in the open-field test. Male and female mice of the parental (F0) generation were selected for depressive- or non-depressive-like behavioral profiles using the tail suspension test (TST). Animals with similar profiles were matched for further mating. On gestation day (GD) 15, pregnant F0 mice received LPS (100μg/kg, i.p.) and were allowed to nurture their offspring freely. Adult male and female of the F1 generation were then selected according to behavioral profiles and observed in the open field. Male and female mice of the two behavioral profiles were then mated to obtain the F2 generation. Adults from the F2 generation were also behaviorally phenotyped, and open field behavior was assessed. Male mice that were selected for depressive- and non-depressive-like behaviors and treated or not with LPS in the parental generation exhibited similar proportions of behavioral profiles in both filial lines, but LPS exposure increased the number of depressive-like behavior. An effect of gender was observed in the F1 and F2 generations, in which male mice were more sensitive to the intergenerational effects of LPS in the TST. These data indicate that prenatal LPS exposure on GD15 in the F0 generation influenced the transmission of depressive- and non-depressive-like behavior across filial lines, with sexual dimorphism between phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  14. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  15. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

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    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  16. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.

    2013-01-01

    guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit......The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated...... parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few...

  17. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...

  18. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

  19. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

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    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  20. Yarsagumba Fungus: Health Problems in the Himalayan Gold Rush.

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    Koirala, Pranawa; Pandit, Bidur; Phuyal, Pratibha; Zafren, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus. They had paid high prices for permits, hoping to recoup the cost and make a profit by selling specimens of Yarsagumba, but the fungus seemed scarce in 2016, resulting in a bleak economic forecast. Most collectors were living in austere conditions, walking long hours to the collection areas early in the morning and returning in the late afternoon. Most were subsisting on 1 daily meal. Health problems, including acute mountain sickness as well as respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, were common. Yarsagumba has become harder to find in recent years, increasing hardships and risk of injury. Medical care was almost nonexistent. As abundance decreases and demand increases, there is increasing pressure on collectors to find Yarsagumba. The collectors are an economically disadvantaged population who live in austere conditions at high altitude with poor shelter and sanitation, strenuous work, and limited availability of food. Health care resources are very limited. There are significant risks of illness, injury, and death. Targeted efforts by government entities and nongovernmental organizations might be beneficial in meeting the health needs. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

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    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  2. Antibacterial polyketides from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Famei; Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Hong, Jongki; Bae, Kyung Sook; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Jung, Jee H

    2011-08-26

    Four new polyketides (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Paecilomyces variotii, which was derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The planar structures and relative configurations of these polyketides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 3089 and multi-drug-resistant Vibrio parahemolyticus 7001 with MIC values in the range 5-40 μg/mL.

  3. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  4. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  5. Datasheet: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David; Lankau, Emily W.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of North American bats that has caused unprecedented population declines. The fungus is believed to have been introduced to North America from Europe or Asia (where it is present but does not cause significant mortality), but the full extent of its native range is unknown. The route of introduction is also unknown. In North America, hibernating bats become infected with P. destructans when body temperature decreases during winter torpor into the range permissive for growth of this fungus. Infected bats may develop visible fungal growth on the nose or wings, awaken more frequently from torpor, and experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. P. destructans persists in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites (hibernacula) and is believed to spread primarily by natural movements of infected bats. The first evidence of WNS in North America is from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during winter of 2005-2006 in a hibernaculum near Albany, New York. P. destructans subsequently spread rapidly from the northeastern United States throughout much of the eastern portions of the United States and Canada, and most recently (as of May 2017) was detected in Washington State. It has killed millions of bats, threatening some species with regional extirpation and putting at risk the valuable environmental services that bats provide by eating harmful insects.

  6. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  7. Efficacy of in-house fluorescent stain for fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. L. Surya Kirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mycotic infections are gaining importance in the present day medicine, and definite demonstration of fungus is essential for diagnosis. Small numbers of organisms in the smear can be identified by fluorescence microscopy. Calcofluor white (CFW fluorescent stain is a textile brightener mixed with Evans blue. It is expensive and not easily available. Aims: (1 To assess the efficacy of in-house CFW fluorescent stain for fungus in relation to conventional CFW stain, histopathology, and culture. (2 To determine sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV, and positive predictive value (PPV with culture as gold standard. Settings and Design: One hundred cases of suspected dermatophytosis and 15 cases of systemic mycosis were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The local whitener Ranipal is added with Robin blue, another brightener, and was used to stain teased fungal cultures. Skin, hair, and nails require pretreatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH. Biopsy slides require deparaffinization and pretreatment with KOH before staining. Conventional calcofluor stain, histopathology, and culture were done. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV. Results: The results are consistently comparable with conventional stain. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 93.3%, NPV was 100%, and PPV was 85.7%. It is also cost effective when compared to commercial stains. Conclusions: In-house stain can be used for screening of fungus in direct samples, biopsies as alternative in resource-constrained laboratories.

  8. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  9. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  10. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn)) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  11. Treatment of bark beetle attacked trees with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin

    OpenAIRE

    Jakuš, Rastislav; Blaženec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    We carried out an experiment with using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. for sanitation of active infested trees. We used 15 active infested trees from which 5 stems were treated with an insecticide, 5 were treated with solution of the tested entomopathogenic fungus and 5 were left as control. The used insecticide was pyretroid Fury 10 EW. We used a biopreparation based on the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana in form of wettable powder. The material was diluted...

  12. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  13. Variability in body mass and sexual dimorphism in Danish red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to population density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Sussie; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Birger

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, temporal variability in body size and sexual dimorphism is revealed in foxes Vulpes vulpes from the same geographical area at over time. The weights and lengths of 552 Danish foxes were documented during three different periods: 1965–1977, 2012–2014 and the winter of 2015...... of 2012–2014, no difference in body fat measured by rump fat thickness (RFT) was found between age groups and genders in contrast to 2015/2016, when RFT was significantly (p ...–1977 and compared to 2015/2016, compared to 2012–2014, when population density was high (the mean weight: 6.8 kg). However, no significant differences were found in the weight of females. Hence, sexual dimorphism ranged from 7.6 to 3.6 in adult foxes in low and high-density periods, respectively. During the winters...

  14. Sexual dimorphism in size, age, maturation, and growth characteristics of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Coad, Julie Olivia; Farrell, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in size, age, maturation, and growth characteristics of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1729–1735.Boarfish (Capros aper) have, in recent years, become of increasing commercial importance due to their apparent increase...... stock with sexual dimorphism, where females are, on average, larger than males. No seasonal effects occur in size distribution and sex ratio, indicating that females and males stay together in shoals throughout the year. Females become increasingly dominant in abundance at larger sizes and older ages...... in abundance in the Northeast Atlantic. This study presents detailed biological information relevant to understanding stock structure and dynamics. Boarfish are a long-lived species that reach a maximum age of >30 years. The size distribution is skewed towards larger sizes, as expected from an unexploited...

  15. Sexual dimorphism in mammalian autosomal gene regulation is determined not only by Sry but by sex chromosome complement as well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijchers, Patrick J; Yandim, Cihangir; Panousopoulou, Eleni; Ahmad, Mushfika; Harker, Nicky; Saveliev, Alexander; Burgoyne, Paul S; Festenstein, Richard

    2010-09-14

    Differences between males and females are normally attributed to developmental and hormonal differences between the sexes. Here, we demonstrate differences between males and females in gene silencing using a heterochromatin-sensitive reporter gene. Using "sex-reversal" mouse models with varying sex chromosome complements, we found that this differential gene silencing was determined by X chromosome complement, rather than sex. Genome-wide transcription profiling showed that the expression of hundreds of autosomal genes was also sensitive to sex chromosome complement. These genome-wide analyses also uncovered a role for Sry in modulating autosomal gene expression in a sex chromosome complement-specific manner. The identification of this additional layer in the establishment of sexual dimorphisms has implications for understanding sexual dimorphisms in physiology and disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. No Evidence for Differential Biomass and Mineral Content in Adult Plants Grown from Dimorphic Suaeda Aralocaspica Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, H. L.; Tian, C. Y.; Huang, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The production of two or more seed types by a single plant is known as seed heteromorphism. There have been many comparisons of seed traits or growth between plants grown from heteromorphic seeds. However, information is scarce regarding the mineral contents of adult plants from heteromorphic seeds. We herein present biomass and mineral profiles of adult plants grown from dimorphic seeds (non-dormant brown seeds and black seeds with non-deep physiological dormancy) of the annual desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica at different nutrient and salinity levels. Although nutrient and salinity treatments affected dry weight and mineral content, there were no significant differences among S. aralocaspica seed-dimorphic plants under the same experimental conditions. This study is one of the few to compare the physiological responses between seed-heteromorphic plants, and reveals that mineral status corresponds with growth performance in these plants. (author)

  17. The research of morphological variations and sexual dimorphism of primary grooves on the medial side of brain hemispheres in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological studies of the various parts of the brain show certain morphological and morphometric differences in correlation with sex, so-called sexual dimorphism of the brain. Our research has been done on the cerebral hemispheres, taken from cadavers of both sexes and different age without pathological processes in the brain. The sample comprised 26 male brains and 16 female brains. We studied three primary grooves (sulcus cinguli, sulcus parietooccipitalis and sulcus calcarinus of the medial surface of the human cerebral hemispheres. We conducted morphological typology of grooves and morphometric measurements of primary brain grooves length in relation to sex and side of hemisphere. The results showed a statistically significant sex difference in the cingulate sulcus length (p0,05. Determined morphometric sexual dimorphism in cingulate sulcus length is significant because it implies the correlation between morphology and function of the explored areas of the cerebral cortex.

  18. Sexual dimorphism and light/dark adaptation in the compound eyes of male and female Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Ting Fan Stanley; Gross, Elisabeth; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2007-01-01

    In the highly sexual-dimorphic nocturnal moth, Acentria ephemerella Denis & Schiffermüller 1775, the aquatic and wingless female possesses a refracting superposition eye, whose gross structural organization agrees with that of the fully-winged male. The possession of an extensive corneal nipple array, a wide clear-zone in combination with a voluminous rhabdom and a reflecting tracheal sheath are proof that the eyes of both sexes are adapted to function in a dimly lit environment. However, the...

  19. Sexual dimorphism of the upper face, mandible and palate in elite of early medieval population from the Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bejdová, Š.; Dupej, J.; Velemínská, J.; Poláček, Lumír; Velemínský, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, S64 (2017), s. 115-116 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /86./. 19.04.2017-22.04.2017, New Orleans] Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * anthropology * sexual dimorphism * facial skeleton * Great Moravian population * current population * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23210/pdf

  20. Avaliação do cetoconazol em camundongos inoculados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pela histopatologia de fígado e baço e pela intradermorreação de paracoccidioidina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos machos albinos, foram inoculados por via intravenosa com 0,5xl07 células leveduriform.es viáveis de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis da amostra rotulada como Pb 2052 e tratados diariamente com cetoconazol nas dosagens de 50 e 100mg/kg durante 50 dias e em seguida sacrificados. Observou-se o número de parasitas .formação de granulomas no fígado e baço e reação de hipersensibilidade retardada usando-se antígeno de P. brasiliensís preparada segundo Fava Neto, inoculado na pata direita do animal. Verificou-se que: 1. cetoconazol diminuiu acentuadamente o número de parasitas encontrados no fígado e baço; 2. não havia diferença entre o número de granulomas formados no baço e fígado de animais tratados e não tratados; 3. a intensidade dos testes cutâneos tardios foram similares em todos os animais.Male albino mice were inoculated intravenously with0,5 x IO7viabley eastforms of P. brasiliensis (strain 2052, These animals were treated with two doses of ketoconazole (50and 100mg/kg during fifty days and the sacrificed. VSe studied the presence of P. brasiliensis, the inflammatory granulomatous response of liver and spleen and the anti P. brasiliensis delayed hypersensitivity response measured by the footpad test after 48 hours. It was observed that: 1. animals infected and treated with ketoconazole showed reduction in the number of fungi in the organs studied; 2. there was no difference in the number of granulomas among animals treated and non-treated; 3. the cutaneous delayed tests intensity was similar in all animals.

  1. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus

  2. Biometrie sexual and ontogenetic dimorphism on the marine catfish Genidens genidens (Siluriformes, Ariidae in a tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G Paiva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the ontogenetic sexual dimorphism of Genidens genidens in Guanabara Bay, southeastern coast of Brazil. Altogether 378 specimens were anayzed (233 females and 145 males with total length ranging from 13.3 to 43.5 cm. Specimens were measured for 12 body measurements, sex was identified and maturity stages were recorded and classified. Pearson's linear correlation reveled a significant positive correlation between total length and all other body measures, except for base adipose fin, mouth depth and eye depth for immature females. Analyses nested PERMANOVA desing showed significant differences between maturity stages for each sex, between sexes considering or not maturity stages, indicating a variation in morphometric characteristics driven by sexual dimorphism. Differences among all maturity stages were also found, indicating an ontogenetic morphological difference. But immature individuals didn't differ between sexes indicating that differentiation patterns starts with sexual development. The most important measures differing males and females were related to head characteristics, which appears to be key parameters to evaluate sexual differences. Due to male incubation of fertilized eggs and juvenile individuals <59 mm in their oral cavity, head measures are proposed to be sex dimorphism not related to reproduction, but with post reproductive fase due to ecological and biological needs.

  3. Describing shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 using geometric morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Cabuga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea caniculata or Golden Apple Snail (GAS existed to be a rice pest in the Philippines and in Asia. Likewise, geographic location also contributes its increasing populations thus making it invasive among freshwater habitats and rice field areas. This study was conducted in order to describe shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism among the populations of P. caniculata. A total of 180 were randomly collected in the three lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur (Lake Dakong Napo, Lake Oro, and Lake Cebulan, of which each lake comprised of 60 samples (30 males and 30 females. To determine the variations and sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of golden apple snail, coordinates was administered to relative warp analysis and the resulting data were subjected to Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA. The results show statistically significant (P<0.05 from the appended male and female dorsal and ventral/apertural portion. While male and female spire height, body size, and shell shape opening also shows significant variations. These phenotypic distinctions could be associated with geographic isolation, predation and nutrient component of the gastropods. Thus, the importance of using geometric morphometric advances in describing sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of P. caniculata.

  4. Identification of Mx gene nucleotide dimorphism (G/A as genetic marker for antiviral activity in Egyptian chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Hassanane

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian chickens, representing 2 breeds and 7 strains, were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP and sequencing techniques for detection of a non-synonymous dimorphism (G/A in exon 14 of chicken Myxovirus resistance (Mx gene. This dimorphic position is responsible for altering Mx protein’s antiviral activity. Polymerase Chain reactions were performed using Egyptian chickens DNA and specific primer set to amplify Mx DNA fragments of 299 or 301 bp, containing the dimorphic position. Amplicons were cut with restriction enzyme Hpy81. Genotype and allele frequencies for the resistant allele A and sensitive allele G were calculated in all the tested chickens. Results of PCR-RFLP were confirmed by sequencing. The three genotypes AA, AG, GG at the target nucleotide position in Mx gene were represented in all the studied Egyptian chicken breeds and strains except Baladi strain which showed only one genotype AA. The average allele frequency of the resistant A allele in the tested birds (0.67 was higher than the sensitive G allele average frequency in the same birds (0.33. Appling PCR-RFLP technique in the breeding program can be used to select chickens carrying the A allele with high frequencies. This will help in improving poultry breeding in Egypt by producing infectious disease-resistant chickens. Keywords: Egyptian chickens, Antiviral activity, Mx gene, Genotyping, PCR-RFLP

  5. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  6. Spectral Tuning in the Eyes of Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae): A Novel Sexually Dimorphic Intra-Ocular Filter

    KAUST Repository

    De Busserolles, Fanny; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Davies, Wayne I.; Marshall, N. Justin; Clarke, Michael W.; Hahne, Dorothee; Collin, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fishes possess several adaptations to facilitate vision where light detection is pushed to its limit. Lanternfishes (Myctophidae), one of the world's most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes, possess a novel and unique visual specialisation, a sexually dimorphic photostable yellow pigmentation, constituting the first record of a visual sexual dimorphism in any non-primate vertebrate. The topographic distribution of the yellow pigmentation across the retina is species specific, varying in location, shape and size. Spectrophotometric analyses reveal that this new retinal specialisation differs between species in terms of composition and acts as a filter, absorbing maximally between 356 and 443 nm. Microspectrophotometry and molecular analyses indicate that the species containing this pigmentation also possess at least 2 spectrally distinct rod visual pigments as a result of a duplication of the Rh1 opsin gene. After modelling the effect of the yellow pigmentation on photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, we suggest that this unique specialisation acts as a filter to enhance contrast, thereby improving the detection of bioluminescent emissions and possibly fluorescence in the extreme environment of the deep sea. The fact that this yellow pigmentation is species specific, sexually dimorphic and isolated within specific parts of the retina indicates an evolutionary pressure to visualise prey/predators/mates in a particular part of each species' visual field. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Spectral Tuning in the Eyes of Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae): A Novel Sexually Dimorphic Intra-Ocular Filter

    KAUST Repository

    De Busserolles, Fanny

    2015-03-06

    Deep-sea fishes possess several adaptations to facilitate vision where light detection is pushed to its limit. Lanternfishes (Myctophidae), one of the world\\'s most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes, possess a novel and unique visual specialisation, a sexually dimorphic photostable yellow pigmentation, constituting the first record of a visual sexual dimorphism in any non-primate vertebrate. The topographic distribution of the yellow pigmentation across the retina is species specific, varying in location, shape and size. Spectrophotometric analyses reveal that this new retinal specialisation differs between species in terms of composition and acts as a filter, absorbing maximally between 356 and 443 nm. Microspectrophotometry and molecular analyses indicate that the species containing this pigmentation also possess at least 2 spectrally distinct rod visual pigments as a result of a duplication of the Rh1 opsin gene. After modelling the effect of the yellow pigmentation on photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, we suggest that this unique specialisation acts as a filter to enhance contrast, thereby improving the detection of bioluminescent emissions and possibly fluorescence in the extreme environment of the deep sea. The fact that this yellow pigmentation is species specific, sexually dimorphic and isolated within specific parts of the retina indicates an evolutionary pressure to visualise prey/predators/mates in a particular part of each species\\' visual field. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Sexually dimorphic effects of a prenatal immune challenge on social play and vasopressin expression in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Patrick V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested whether a prenatal immune challenge interferes with the development of social play and with neural circuits implicated in social behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS – 100 μg /kg or saline on the 15th day of pregnancy. Offspring were tested for social play behaviors between postnatal days 26–40. Brains were harvested on postnatal day 45 and processed for arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in situ hybridization. Results In males, LPS treatment reduced the frequency of juvenile play behavior and reduced AVP mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were not found in females. LPS treatment did not change AVP mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, or supraoptic nucleus of either sex, nor did it affect the sex difference in the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Conclusions Given AVP’s central role in regulating social behavior, the sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal LPS treatment on male AVP mRNA expression may contribute to the sexually dimorphic effect of LPS on male social play and may, therefore, increase understanding of factors that contribute to sex differences in social psychopathology.

  9. The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in the house finch. V. Maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Beck, Michelle L; Hill, Geoffrey E; Whittingham, Linda A

    2003-02-01

    The phenotype of a mother and the environment that she provides might differentially affect the phenotypes of her sons and daughters, leading to change in sexual size dimorphism. Whereas these maternal effects should evolve to accommodate the adaptations of both the maternal and offspring generations, the mechanisms by which this is accomplished are rarely known. In birds, females adjust the onset of incubation (coincident with the first egg or after all eggs are laid) in response to the environment during breeding, and thus, indirectly, determine the duration of offspring growth. In the two house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) populations that breed at the extremes of the species' distribution (Montana and Alabama), females experience highly distinct climatic conditions during nesting. We show that in close association with these conditions, females adjusted jointly the onset of incubation and the sequence in which they produced male and female eggs and consequently modified the growth of sons and daughters. The onset of incubation in newly breeding females closely tracked ambient temperature in a pattern consistent with the maintenance of egg viability. Because of the very different climates in Montana and Alabama, females in these populations showed the opposite patterns of seasonal change in incubation onset and the opposite sex bias in egg-laying order. In females with breeding experience, incubation onset and sex bias in laying order were closely linked regardless of the climatic variation. In nests in which incubation began with the onset of egg laying, the first-laid eggs were mostly females in Montana, but mostly males in Alabama. Because in both populations, male, but not female, embryos grew faster when exposed to longer incubation, the sex-bias produced highly divergent sizes of male and female juveniles between the populations. Overall, the compensatory interaction between the onset of incubation and the sex-biased laying order achieved a compromise

  10. Transcriptomic analyses reveal novel genes with sexually dimorphic expression in the zebrafish gonad and brain.

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    Rajini Sreenivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our knowledge on zebrafish reproduction is very limited. We generated a gonad-derived cDNA microarray from zebrafish and used it to analyze large-scale gene expression profiles in adult gonads and other organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified 116638 gonad-derived zebrafish expressed sequence tags (ESTs, 21% of which were isolated in our lab. Following in silico normalization, we constructed a gonad-derived microarray comprising 6370 unique, full-length cDNAs from differentiating and adult gonads. Labeled targets from adult gonad, brain, kidney and 'rest-of-body' from both sexes were hybridized onto the microarray. Our analyses revealed 1366, 881 and 656 differentially expressed transcripts (34.7% novel that showed highest expression in ovary, testis and both gonads respectively. Hierarchical clustering showed correlation of the two gonadal transcriptomes and their similarities to those of the brains. In addition, we have identified 276 genes showing sexually dimorphic expression both between the brains and between the gonads. By in situ hybridization, we showed that the gonadal transcripts with the strongest array signal intensities were germline-expressed. We found that five members of the GTP-binding septin gene family, from which only one member (septin 4 has previously been implicated in reproduction in mice, were all strongly expressed in the gonads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated a gonad-derived zebrafish cDNA microarray and demonstrated its usefulness in identifying genes with sexually dimorphic co-expression in both the gonads and the brains. We have also provided the first evidence of large-scale differential gene expression between female and male brains of a teleost. Our microarray would be useful for studying gonad development, differentiation and function not only in zebrafish but also in related teleosts via cross-species hybridizations. Since several genes have been shown to play similar

  11. Neural stem cell sex dimorphism in aromatase (CYP19 expression: a basis for differential neural fate

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    Jay Waldron

    2010-11-01

    , whereas aromatase expression in male NSCs was 14-fold greater than the female level.Conclusion: Our results confirm our previous data that the neural phenotype acquired by differentiating NSCs largely depends on cell sex, and that differential expression of aromatase in undifferentiated NSCs might contribute to this sex-based dimorphism. Although still preliminary, our discovery may have clinical application in the development of future brain repair strategies.Keywords: neuroregenerative medicine, brain repair strategy, sex dimorphism, aromatase, adult stem cells

  12. Sexual dimorphism in circulating leptin concentrations is not accounted for by differences in adipose tissue distribution.

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    Rosenbaum, M; Pietrobelli, A; Vasselli, J R; Heymsfield, S B; Leibel, R L

    2001-09-01

    Circulating concentrations of leptin normalized to total adipose tissue mass are significantly greater in females than in males. Rates of leptin expression (per gram of adipose tissue) are significantly greater in subcutaneous (SAT) than visceral (VAT) adipose tissue and the relative amount of fat stored as SAT vs VAT is significantly greater in pre-menopausal females than in males. Gender-related differences in the relative amounts of SAT and VAT may account for the greater circulating leptin concentration relative to fat-mass in females than males. We examined body composition and anatomic fat distribution by dual energy X-ray-absorptiometry (DEXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and post-absorptive circulating concentrations of leptin and insulin in 58 subjects (26 females, 32 males). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, treating gender as a dichotomous variable, were performed to determine inter-relationships among leptin concentrations and insulin concentrations, VAT and SAT. Body composition by DEXA and MRI were highly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P<0.0001). There were significant gender effects on leptin/total fat mass (males, 0.17+/-0.01 ng/ml/kg; females, 0.49+/-0.05 ng/ml/kg; P<0.0001) and relative amounts of fat in SAT and VAT depots (ratio of SAT/VAT; males, 12.3+/-1.5; females, 32.9+/-3.2; P<0.0001). Circulating leptin concentration was significantly correlated with insulin concentration (P=0.001), SAT (P<0.0001) and gender (P=0.033). Circulating concentrations of insulin were significantly correlated with VAT, but not SAT, in males and with SAT, but not VAT, in females. The sexual dimorphism in the relationship between leptin and adipose tissue mass cannot be explained by differences in the relative amounts of VAT and SAT. Thus, the sexual dimorphism in plasma leptin concentration appears to reflect, at least in part, effects of circulating concentrations of gonadal steroids (especially androgens) and/or primary genetic differences that are

  13. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

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    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

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    Minjung You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrelumamides A (1 and B (2, two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  15. Sporulosol, a New Ketal from the Fungus Paraconiothyrium sporulosum

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    Chen Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporulosol (1, a new ketal, together with four known compounds, has been isolated from the liquid fermentation cultures of a wetland-soil-derived fungus, Paraconiothyrium sporulosum. Its structure was elucidated primarily by NMR experiments, and was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Sporulosol was obtained as a racemic mixture and the resolved two enantiomers racemized immediately after chiral separation. Sporulosol appears to be the first ketal derived from a 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one and a benzofuranone unit. The compound showed modest cytotoxicity toward the human tumor cell line T24, with an IC50 value of 18.2 µM.

  16. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Sealock, R.M.; Legge, G.J.F.; Grant, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn. (orig.)

  17. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

  18. Three new compounds from the marine fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Hua; Tian, Li; Feng, Bao-Min; Li, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Continuous research on the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of the marine fungus Y26-02 (Penicillium sp.) led to the purification of one known and three new compounds. Their structures were elucidated, respectively, as butyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (1), 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (2), 3-hydroxybenzyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (3), and desoxypatulinic acid (4) on the basis of their spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties.

  19. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

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    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  20. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

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    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  1. How to be an attractive male: floral dimorphism and attractiveness to pollinators in a dioecious plant

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    Waelti Marc O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual selection theory predicts that males are limited in their reproductive success by access to mates, whereas females are more limited by resources. In animal-pollinated plants, attraction of pollinators and successful pollination is crucial for reproductive success. In dioecious plant species, males should thus be selected to increase their attractiveness to pollinators by investing more than females in floral traits that enhance pollinator visitation. We tested the prediction of higher attractiveness of male flowers in the dioecious, moth-pollinated herb Silene latifolia, by investigating floral signals (floral display and fragrance and conducting behavioral experiments with the pollinator-moth, Hadena bicruris. Results As found in previous studies, male plants produced more but smaller flowers. Male flowers, however, emitted significantly larger amounts of scent than female flowers, especially of the pollinator-attracting compounds. In behavioral tests we showed that naïve pollinator-moths preferred male over female flowers, but this preference was only significant for male moths. Conclusion Our data suggest the evolution of dimorphic floral signals is shaped by sexual selection and pollinator preferences, causing sexual conflict in both plants and pollinators.

  2. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

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    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects.

  4. Morphological variations and sexual dimorphism in Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 and Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudinidae

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    MS Barros

    Full Text Available Chelonoidis Dcarbonaria and C. denticulata are two tortoises which are widely distributed Brazil. Although they occur sympatrically in different areas, C. carbonaria prefers open areas, while C. denticulata chooses forest areas. Significant morphological variations can be observed in these species due to the fact that they occupy a vast and environmentally diverse area. Data on shell shape of captive individuals reveal important differences between the two species, mainly in the plastron scutes, carapace width, and head length. Variation in shape is greater in C. carbonaria than in C. denticulata, which may be associated to a more elaborate and complex mating ritual. The shell shape in C. denticulata is more elongated than in C. carbonaria due to ecological habits. These aspects lead to a greater restriction in shape, limiting variation and dimorphism. In C. carbonaria, the shell opening is larger than in C. denticulata, which affords greater variation in shape. A more elongated shell facilitates movements of C. denticulata in densely forested areas. Yet, this characteristic reduces shell opening, lessening the possibilities of variation in form.

  5. Are Men's Perceptions of Sexually Dimorphic Vocal Characteristics Related to Their Testosterone Levels?

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    Michal Kandrik

    Full Text Available Feminine physical characteristics in women are positively correlated with markers of their mate quality. Previous research on men's judgments of women's facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women's faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high. Such results could reflect stronger preferences for high quality mates when mating motivation is strong and/or following success in male-male competition. Given these findings, the current study investigated whether a similar effect of testosterone occurs for men's preferences for feminine characteristics in women's voices. Men's preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of women's and men's voices were assessed in five weekly test sessions and saliva samples were collected in each test session. Analyses showed no relationship between men's voice preferences and their testosterone levels. Men's tendency to perceive masculinized men's and women's voices as more dominant was also unrelated to their testosterone levels. Together, the results of the current study suggest that testosterone-linked changes in responses to sexually dimorphic characteristics previously reported for men's perceptions of faces do not occur for men's perceptions of voices.

  6. Patterns of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe bats: Testing Rensch's rule and potential causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Huang, Xiaobin; Feng, Jiang

    2018-02-08

    Rensch's rule, stating that sexual size dimorphism (SSD) becomes more evident and male-biased with increasing body size, has been well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD. Bats, primarily having female-biased SSD, have so far been tested for whether SSD allometry conforms to Rensch's rule in only three studies. However, these studies did not consider phylogeny, and thus the mechanisms underlying SSD variations in bats remain unclear. Thus, the present study reviewed published and original data, including body size, baculum size, and habitat types in 45 bats of the family Rhinolophidae to determine whether horseshoe bats follow Rensch's rule using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We also investigated the potential effect of postcopulatory sexual selection and habitat type on SSD. Our findings indicated that Rensch's rule did not apply to Rhinolophidae, suggesting that SSD did not significantly vary with increasing size. This pattern may be attributable interactions between weak sexual selection to male body size and strong fecundity selection for on female body size. The degree of SSD among horseshoe bats may be attributed to a phylogenetic effect rather than to the intersexual competition for food or to baculum length. Interestingly, we observed that species in open habitats exhibited greater SSD than those in dense forests, suggesting that habitat types may be associated with variations in SSD in horseshoe bats.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in parental imprint ontogeny and contribution to embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourc'his, Déborah; Proudhon, Charlotte

    2008-01-30

    Genomic imprinting refers to the functional non-equivalence of parental genomes in mammals that results from the parent-of-origin allelic expression of a subset of genes. Parent-specific expression is dependent on the germ line acquisition of DNA methylation marks at imprinting control regions (ICRs), coordinated by the DNA-methyltransferase homolog DNMT3L. We discuss here how the gender-specific stages of DNMT3L expression may have influenced the various sexually dimorphic aspects of genomic imprinting: (1) the differential developmental timing of methylation establishment at paternally and maternally imprinted genes in each parental germ line, (2) the differential dependence on DNMT3L of parental methylation imprint establishment, (3) the unequal duration of paternal versus maternal methylation imprints during germ cell development, (4) the biased distribution of methylation-dependent ICRs towards the maternal genome, (5) the different genomic organization of paternal versus maternal ICRs, and finally (6) the overwhelming contribution of maternal germ line imprints to development compared to their paternal counterparts.

  8. Sexual dimorphism and allometry in the sphecophilous rove beetle Triacrus dilatus

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    Maxwell H. Marlowe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rove beetle Triacrus dilatus is found in the Atlantic forest of South America and lives in the refuse piles of the paper wasp Agelaia vicina. Adults of T. dilatus are among the largest rove beetles, frequently measuring over 3 cm, and exhibit remarkable variation in body size. To examine sexual dimorphism and allometric relationships we measured the length of the left mandible, ocular distance and elytra. We were interested in determining if there are quantifiable differences between sexes, if there are major and minor forms within each sex and if males exhibit mandibular allometry. For all variables, a t-test was run to determine if there were significant differences between the sexes. Linear regressions were run to examine if there were significant relationships between the different measurements. A heterogeneity of slopes test was used to determine if there were significant differences between males and females. Our results indicated that males had significantly larger mandibles and ocular distances than females, but the overall body length was not significantly different between the sexes. Unlike most insects, both sexes showed positive linear allometric relationships for mandible length and head size (as measured by the ocular distance. We found no evidence of major and minor forms in either sex.

  9. Sexual dimorphism and allometry in the sphecophilous rove beetle Triacrus dilatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Maxwell H; Murphy, Cheryl A; Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2015-01-01

    The rove beetle Triacrus dilatus is found in the Atlantic forest of South America and lives in the refuse piles of the paper wasp Agelaia vicina. Adults of T. dilatus are among the largest rove beetles, frequently measuring over 3 cm, and exhibit remarkable variation in body size. To examine sexual dimorphism and allometric relationships we measured the length of the left mandible, ocular distance and elytra. We were interested in determining if there are quantifiable differences between sexes, if there are major and minor forms within each sex and if males exhibit mandibular allometry. For all variables, a t-test was run to determine if there were significant differences between the sexes. Linear regressions were run to examine if there were significant relationships between the different measurements. A heterogeneity of slopes test was used to determine if there were significant differences between males and females. Our results indicated that males had significantly larger mandibles and ocular distances than females, but the overall body length was not significantly different between the sexes. Unlike most insects, both sexes showed positive linear allometric relationships for mandible length and head size (as measured by the ocular distance). We found no evidence of major and minor forms in either sex.

  10. Genetic basis of sexual dimorphism in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, T; Cano, J M; Merilä, J

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism (SD) in morphological, behavioural and physiological features is common, but the genetics of SD in the wild has seldom been studied in detail. We investigated the genetic basis of SD in morphological traits of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by conducting a large breeding experiment with fish from an ancestral marine population that acts as a source of morphological variation. We also examined the patterns of SD in a set of 38 wild populations from different habitats to investigate the relationship between the genetic architecture of SD of the marine ancestral population in relation to variation within and among natural populations. The results show that genetic architecture in terms of heritabilities, additive genetic variances and covariances (as well as correlations) is very similar in the two sexes in spite of the fact that many of the traits express significant SD. Furthermore, population differences in threespine stickleback body shape and armour SD appear to have evolved despite constraints imposed by genetic architecture. This implies that constraints for the evolution of SD imposed by strong genetic correlations are not as severe and absolute as commonly thought. PMID:20700139

  11. Female dominance over males in primates: self-organisation and sexual dimorphism.

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    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available The processes that underlie the formation of the dominance hierarchy in a group are since long under debate. Models of self-organisation suggest that dominance hierarchies develop by the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing fights (the so-called winner-loser effect, but according to 'the prior attribute hypothesis', dominance hierarchies develop from pre-existing individual differences, such as in body mass. In the present paper, we investigate the relevance of each of these two theories for the degree of female dominance over males. We investigate this in a correlative study in which we compare female dominance between groups of 22 species throughout the primate order. In our study female dominance may range from 0 (no female dominance to 1 (complete female dominance. As regards 'the prior attribute hypothesis', we expected a negative correlation between female dominance over males and species-specific sexual dimorphism in body mass. However, to our surprise we found none (we use the method of independent contrasts. Instead, we confirm the self-organisation hypothesis: our model based on the winner-loser effect predicts that female dominance over males increases with the percentage of males in the group. We confirm this pattern at several levels in empirical data (among groups of a single species and between species of the same genus and of different ones. Since the winner-loser effect has been shown to work in many taxa including humans, these results may have broad implications.

  12. Functional analysis of the ASTE11 gene from the dimorphic yeast Arxula adeninivorans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fiki, A.; El Metabteb, G.; Boer, E.; Kunze, G.

    2010-01-01

    Arxula adeninivorans is dimorphic yeast with unusual biochemical and physiological characteristic. It is thermo- and osmo- resistance and it can use a wide range of carbon sources for growth. One kinase of the HOG pathway, the MAPKKK is encoded by ASTE11 gene which was isolated from A. adeninivorans. The aste11 mutant was achieved by gene disruption procedure. The Sck1p gene encoding MAPKKK in S. cerevisiae can complement with aste11 mutation. Growth rate of G1211/pAL-ALEU2m, G1211/pAL-ALEU2m-ASTE11 (over-expression transformants) and IS1 [aleu2 aste11 ALEU2] (aste11 mutant), the ASTE11 expression level dose not correlates with salt resistance. However, the growth rate of G1211/pAL-ALEU2m, G1211/pAL-ALEU2m-ASTE11 (over-expression transformants) and IS1 [aleu2 aste11::ALEU2] (aste11 mutant) and the response to thermo stress were affected in the deleted mutant, the Aste11p influenced the thermo resistance of A. adeninivorans. The MAPKKK encoding by STE11 gene from various yeast species is involved in the mating process. The mutant strains and their transformants were lost the capacity to mate. Assessment of the ASTE11 promoter activity with lacZ reporter gene confirmed its inducibility by osmolaytes.

  13. Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Yang, Guangyu Robert; Pradhan, Kith; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bota, Mihail; García Del Molino, Luis Carlos; Fitzgerald, Greg; Ram, Keerthi; He, Miao; Levine, Jesse Maurica; Mitra, Partha; Huang, Z Josh; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Osten, Pavel

    2017-10-05

    The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males. The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calyx and dimorphic neurons of mouse Scarpa's ganglion express histamine H3 receptors

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    Zucca Gianpiero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histamine-related drugs are commonly used in the treatment of vertigo and related vestibular disorders. The site of action of these drugs however has not been elucidated yet. Recent works on amphibians showed that histamine H3 receptor antagonists, e.g. betahistine, inhibit the afferent discharge recorded from the vestibular nerve. To assess the expression of H3 histamine receptors in vestibular neurons, we performed mRNA RT-PCR and immunofluorescence experiments in mouse Scarpa's ganglia. Results RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of H3 receptor mRNA in mouse ganglia tissue. H3 protein expression was found in vestibular neurons characterized by large and roundish soma, which labeled for calretinin and calbindin. Conclusion The present results are consistent with calyx and dimorphic, but not bouton, afferent vestibular neurons expressing H3 receptors. This study provides a molecular substrate for the effects of histamine-related antivertigo drugs acting on (or binding to H3 receptors, and suggest a potential target for the treatment of vestibular disorders of peripheral origin.

  15. Calyx and dimorphic neurons of mouse Scarpa's ganglion express histamine H3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritto, Simona; Botta, Laura; Zampini, Valeria; Zucca, Gianpiero; Valli, Paolo; Masetto, Sergio

    2009-06-29

    Histamine-related drugs are commonly used in the treatment of vertigo and related vestibular disorders. The site of action of these drugs however has not been elucidated yet. Recent works on amphibians showed that histamine H3 receptor antagonists, e.g. betahistine, inhibit the afferent discharge recorded from the vestibular nerve. To assess the expression of H3 histamine receptors in vestibular neurons, we performed mRNA RT-PCR and immunofluorescence experiments in mouse Scarpa's ganglia. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of H3 receptor mRNA in mouse ganglia tissue. H3 protein expression was found in vestibular neurons characterized by large and roundish soma, which labeled for calretinin and calbindin. The present results are consistent with calyx and dimorphic, but not bouton, afferent vestibular neurons expressing H3 receptors. This study provides a molecular substrate for the effects of histamine-related antivertigo drugs acting on (or binding to) H3 receptors, and suggest a potential target for the treatment of vestibular disorders of peripheral origin.

  16. Dimorphic sperm and the unlikely route to fertilisation in the yellow seahorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Look, Katrien J W; Dzyuba, Borys; Cliffe, Alex; Koldewey, Heather J; Holt, William V

    2007-02-01

    Uniquely among vertebrates, seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae) incubate their eggs within a male brood pouch. This has contributed to a widespread, but poorly founded belief, that the eggs are fertilised using spermatozoa that are deposited directly into the brood pouch via an internal sperm duct. Anatomical dissections showed, however, not only that direct sperm deposition into the pouch is physically impossible, but that spermatozoa must somehow travel a significant distance (>4 mm) outside the body of the male, to reach and fertilise eggs in the pouch. Observations of courtship and mating behaviour also revealed that the pouch closes immediately after mating, and that sperm transfer must occur within a time window of no more than 6 s. In addition to this, the yellow seahorse produces extraordinarily low quantities of dimorphic spermatozoa, but is nevertheless highly fertile and can produce broods that exceed 100 embryos. The entire fertilisation process in seahorses is therefore uniquely efficient among vertebrates, yet paradoxically involves several steps that would seem to complicate, and even appear to prevent, the interaction of the gametes. Although we are still unable to describe the exact fertilisation mechanism, we speculate that spermatozoa are ejaculated into a mixture of ovarian fluid and eggs, while the male and female are in close contact. Thereafter, this mixture must enter the pouch, whereupon the spermatozoa encounter seawater. These observations also support the view, indirectly inferred in previous publications, that sperm competition in seahorses is not only non-existent but impossible.

  17. Sexual dimorphism, population dynamics and some aspects of life history of Echiniscus mauccii (Tardigrada; Heterotardigrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. ROMANO III

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fifteen month study (December 2002 though February 2004 of a meiofaunal community living in moss and lichen from a Pecan tree on the campus of Jacksonville State University reports 9,791 microinvertebrates. Echiniscus mauccii was the most prevalent tardigrade species (1,329 specimens and was chosen to determine population dynamics and some aspects of their life histories. The average length of all the specimens (adults, juveniles, males, and females for each month was determined. A plot of all E. mauccii specimens was used to determine the following life stages of this species; juvenile, pre-reproductive, and reproductive. The studied population exhibited relatively constant population size and juvenile recruitment occurred year round with no increased reproduction during a season of the year. Thus, E. mauccii is an opportunistic breeder. Males of this species were found for the first time on a Laurasian land mass and females were found to be significantly larger than males. A protected Fisher's LSD test revealed a significant negative relationship between average adult length and the number of adults collected per month, but not between adult and juvenile lengths. As the population became more dense the average adult size decreased suggesting competition between at least the adults. Echiniscus mauccii is a sexually dimorphic animal that is iteroparous, breeds whenever conditions are appropriate, has a relatively constant population size, produces a small number of large eggs, and exhibits competition between adults. Thus, E. mauccii exhibits classic K-selected traits.

  18. Migratory life histories explain the extreme egg-size dimorphism of Eudyptes penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tony D.

    2016-01-01

    When successive stages in the life history of an animal directly overlap, physiological conflicts can arise resulting in carryover effects from one stage to another. The extreme egg-size dimorphism (ESD) of Eudyptes penguins, where the first-laid A-egg is approximately 18–57% smaller than the second-laid B-egg, has interested researchers for decades. Recent studies have linked variation in this trait to a carryover effect of migration that limits the physiology of yolk production and egg sizes. We assembled data on ESD and estimates of migration–reproduction overlap in penguin species and use phylogenetic methods to test the idea that migration–reproduction overlap explains variation in ESD. We show that migration overlap is generally restricted to Eudyptes relative to non-Eudyptes penguins, and that this overlap (defined as the amount of time that egg production occurs on land versus at sea during homeward migration) is significantly and positively correlated with the degree of ESD in Eudyptes. In the non-Eudyptes species, however, ESD was unrelated to migration overlap as these species mostly produce their clutches on land. Our results support the recent hypothesis that extreme ESD of Eudyptes penguins evolved, in part, as a response to selection for a pelagic overwinter migration behaviour. This resulted in a temporal overlap with, and thus a constraint on, the physiology of follicle development, leading to smaller A-egg size and greater ESD. PMID:27708146

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: STUDIES OF THE C. ELEGANS MALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the development of the C. elegans male have been carried out with the aim of understanding the basis of sexual dimorphism. Postembryonic development of the two C. elegans sexes differs extensively. Development along either the hermaphrodite or male pathway is specified initially by the X to autosome ratio. The regulatory events initiated by this ratio include a male-determining paracrine intercellular signal. Expression of this signal leads to different consequences in three regions of the body: the non-gonadal soma, the somatic parts of the gonad, and the germ line. In the non-gonadal soma, activity of the key Zn-finger transcription factor TRA 1 determines hermaphrodite development; in its absence, the male pathway is followed. Only a few genes directly regulated by TRA 1 are currently known, including members of the evolutionarily conserved, male-determining DM domain Zn-finger transcription factors. In the somatic parts of the gonad and germ line, absence of TRA 1 activity is not sufficient for full expression of the male pathway. Several additional transcription factors involved have been identified. In the germ line, regulatory genes for sperm development that act at the level of RNA in the cytoplasm play a prominent role. PMID:25262817

  20. Mandibular Canine Dimorphism in Establishing Sex Identity in the Lebanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Ayoub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. In forensic investigations, mandibular canines provide excellent materials to identify gender since they are more likely to survive disasters. The objective of this study was to investigate gender dimorphism by comparing the mesiodistal width of mandibular permanent canines and intercanine distance in a group of Lebanese population. Methods. Participants consisted of undergraduate students from the School of Dentistry, Lebanese University, for two academic years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Canine widths and intercanine distance were measured by one operator directly on dental casts using a digital caliper. Results. One hundred thirty-three Lebanese dental students (54 males and 69 females aged 18–25 were included in the study. The intercanine distance was significantly greater in males (P value 0.05 and females (P value > 0.05. The mean width of canine was greater than 7.188 mm for males. Conclusion. The parameters measured in the present study are of great help in sex identification in forensic investigations in the Lebanese adult population.

  1. Energetic consequences of sexual size dimorphism in nestling red-winged blackbirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, K.L.; Congdon, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The energy budget of nestling Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) was determined using doubly labeled water ( 3 HH 18 O) to measure field metabolic rate (FMR) and body component data to measure growth energy. Sex-specific measurements permitted the evaluation of the effects of this species' substantial sexual size dimorphism on FMR and total energetics. FMR averaged CO 2 release of 5.12 mL.g -1 .h -1 , or 0.129 kJ.g -1 .h -1 , with no significant differences between the sexes. Daytime FMRs of CO 2 production (5.34 mL.g -1 .h -1 ) were higher, but not significantly so, than nighttime FMRs (4.45 mL.g -1 .h -1 ). Water influx averaged 0.95 mL.g -1 .d -1 , with daytime rates (1.22 mL.g -1 .d -1 ) significantly higher than nighttime (0.40 mL.g -1 d -1 ) rates. Total assimilated energy from hatching to fledging was 1014 and 797 kJ for male and female nestlings, respectively. The sexual differences in total energetics reflected differences in body size of the nestlings and suggest that there is a greater cost to the parents in raising males than in raising females

  2. Behavioral effects of chronic adolescent stress are sustained and sexually dimorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to stress-related disorders than men. Animal studies demonstrate a similar female sensitivity to stress and have been used to examine the underlying neurobiology of sex-specific effects of stress. Although our understanding of the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress has grown in recent years, few studies have reported the effects of adolescent stress on depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic mixed modality stressor (consisting of isolation, restraint, and social defeat) during adolescence (PND37-49) resulted in differential and sustained changes in depressive-like behavior in male and female Wistar rats. Female rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress displayed decreased sucrose consumption, hyperactivity in the elevated plus maze, decreased activity in the forced swim test, and a blunted corticosterone response to an acute forced swim stress compared to controls during both adolescence (PND48-57) and adulthood (PND96-104). Male rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress did not manifest significant behavioral changes at either the end of adolescence or in adulthood. These data support the proposition that adolescence may be a stress sensitive period for females and exposure to stress during adolescence results in behavioral effects that persist in females. Studies investigating the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress may lead to a better understanding of the sexually dimorphic incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in humans and ultimately improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21466807

  3. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Michael G.; Kurata, Naoko P.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  4. Partial resistance of tomatoes against Phytophthora infestans, the late blight fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, L.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the source of inoculum of the late blight fungus on tomatoes is the late blight fungus on potato crops. In regions of Europe mentioned, where tomatoes are grown in the open, P. infestans on tomatoes is the main source of inoculum. Especially in

  5. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Michael G; Kurata, Naoko P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Helgen, Lauren E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2017-09-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  6. Structure, dynamics and domain organization of the repeat protein Cin1 from the apple scab fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesarich, C.H.; Schmitz, M.; Tremouilhac, P.; McGillivray, D.J.; Templeton, M.D.; Dingley, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is a hemi-biotrophic fungus that causes scab disease of apple. A recently-identified gene from this fungus, cin1 (cellophane-induced 1), is up-regulated over 1000-fold in planta and considerably on cellophane membranes, and encodes a cysteine-rich secreted protein of 523 residues

  7. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  8. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence and Gene Annotation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Verticillium hemipterigenum

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Fabian; Habel, Andreas; Scharf, Daniel H.; Dworschak, Jan; Brakhage, Axel A.; Guthke, Reinhard; Hertweck, Christian; Linde, J?rg

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium hemipterigenum (anamorph Torrubiella hemipterigena) is an entomopathogenic fungus and produces a broad range of secondary metabolites. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the fungus, including gene structure and functional annotation. Genes were predicted incorporating RNA-Seq data and functionally annotated to provide the basis for further genome studies.

  10. Microsatellite variability in the entomopathogenic fungus Paeciolomyces fumosoroseus: genetic diversity and population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) is a geographically widespread fungus capable of infecting various insect hosts. The fungus has been used for the biological control of several important insect pests of agriculture. However knowledge of the fungus’ genetic diversity and population str...

  11. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  12. Does origin of mycorrhizal fungus on mycorrhizal plant influence effectiveness of the mycorrhizal symbiosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Mycorrhizal effectiveness depends on the compatibility between fungus and plant. Therefore, genetic variation in plant and fungal species affect the effectiveness of the symbiosis. The importance of mycorrhizal plant and mycorrhizal fungus origin was investigated in two experiments. In the first

  13. Lead immobilization by geological fluorapatite and fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Fuwei; Bai, Tongshuo; Tao, Jinjin; Guo, Jieyun; Yang, Mengying; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-12-15

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi have high ability to secrete organic acids. In this study, fungus Aspergillus niger and geological fluorapatite were applied in lead remediation in aqueous solution. Formation and morphology of the lead minerals, e.g., pyromorphite and lead oxalate, were investigated by SEM, XRD, and ATR-IR. The total quantity of organic acids reached the maximum at the sixth day, which improved the concentration of soluble P up to ∼370mg/L from ∼0.4mg/L. The organic acids, especially the oxalic acid, enhance the solubility of fluorapatite significantly. The stable fluoropyromorphite [Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F] is precipitated with the elevated solubility of fluorapatite in the acidic environment. Furthermore, A. niger grows normally with the presence of lead cations. It is shown that >99% lead cations can be removed from the solution. However, immobilization caused by the precipitation of lead oxalate cannot be ignored if the fungus A. niger was cultured in the Pb solution. This study elucidates the mechanisms of lead immobilization by FAp and A. niger, and sheds its perspective in lead remediation, especially for high Pb concentration solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii.

  15. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Molecular characteristics of fungus trichoderma viride irradiated gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL; Rika Heriyani; Almaida

    2016-01-01

    Information about the genetic changes due to irradiation on the fungus Trichoderma viride is indispensable in order to improve the ability of these isolates for the delignification of lignocellulose. This study aims to determine the molecular characteristics of isolates fungus Trichoderma viride after irradiation with gamma rays through an approach expression of protein profiles and molecular markers random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Irradiation doses used in this study are 6 levels i.e 0; 75; 125; 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy with a dose rate of 0.21 kGy / hour. Protein and DNA extraction isolate is done using the method of extracting phosphate buffer pH 7 and CTAB- phenol-chloroform extraction. Protein in the supernatant was analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-gel polyacrylamide) to produce a protein fingerprint profile. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate the genetic variations between 7 isolates of irradiated Trichoderma viride which were RAPD reactions using 3 random primers. The results showed that protein profiles generated by irradiation isolates and the control (no irradiation) gave a different pattern, especially at doses of irradiation 250-750 Gy based dendrogram analysis. DNA-RAPD profile showed a high genetic variation between the isolates were irradiated at a dose of 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy and isolates the control (0 Gy); 75; 125 Gy with 5 cluster formation. Dendrogram analysis showed the coefficient of similarity between 0.62 to 0.68. (author)

  17. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytotoxic acyl amides from the soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Lena; Aly, Amal H; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammed; Müller, Werner E G; Lin, Wenhan; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

    2015-02-15

    The soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis was collected in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids, Egypt. When grown on solid rice medium the fungus yielded four new compounds including 11'-carboxygymnastatin N (1), gymnastatin S (2), dankamide (3), and aranorosin-2-methylether (4), the latter having been reported previously only as a semisynthetic compound. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were isolated. Addition of NaCl or KBr to the rice medium resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated or brominated compounds as indicated by LC-MS analysis due to the characteristic isotope patterns observed. From the rice medium spiked with 3.5% NaCl the known chlorinated compounds gymnastatin A (11) and gymnastatin B (12) were obtained. All isolated compounds were unambiguously structurally elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry), as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 4, 7 and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y (IC50 values 0.44, 0.58 and 0.64μM, respectively), whereas 12 exhibited moderate activity with an IC50 value of 5.80μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the human pathogenic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Brown

    Full Text Available Analysis of the population genetic structure of microbial species is of fundamental importance to many scientific disciplines because it can identify cryptic species, reveal reproductive mode, and elucidate processes that contribute to pathogen evolution. Here, we examined the population genetic structure and geographic differentiation of the sexual, dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis.Criteria for Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR applied to seven nuclear loci (arf6, chs2, drk1, fads, pyrF, tub1, and its-2 from 78 clinical and environmental isolates identified two previously unrecognized phylogenetic species. Four of seven single gene phylogenies examined (chs2, drk1, pyrF, and its-2 supported the separation of Phylogenetic Species 1 (PS1 and Phylogenetic Species 2 (PS2 which were also well differentiated in the concatenated chs2-drk1-fads-pyrF-tub1-arf6-its2 genealogy with all isolates falling into one of two evolutionarily independent lineages. Phylogenetic species were genetically distinct with interspecific divergence 4-fold greater than intraspecific divergence and a high Fst value (0.772, P<0.001 indicative of restricted gene flow between PS1 and PS2. Whereas panmixia expected of a single freely recombining population was not observed, recombination was detected when PS1 and PS2 were assessed separately, suggesting reproductive isolation. Random mating among PS1 isolates, which were distributed across North America, was only detected after partitioning isolates into six geographic regions. The PS2 population, found predominantly in the hyper-endemic regions of northwestern Ontario, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, contained a substantial clonal component with random mating detected only among unique genotypes in the population.These analyses provide evidence for a genetically divergent clade within Blastomyces dermatitidis, which we use to describe a novel species

  20. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets...... for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus...

  1. New Material of the Hominoid Ouranopithecus macedoniensis from the Late Miocene of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece) with Some Remarks on Its Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufos, George D; de Bonis, Louis; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    New hominoid teeth from the late Miocene locality Ravin de la Pluie (RPl) of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece) are studied in this article. Their morphology, dimensions and proportions are similar to the hominoid Ouranopithecus macedoniensis, allowing their attribution to this taxon. The studied material provides some new morphological characters for the female P3 (small asymmetry, small mesiobuccal crown projection, paracone higher than protocone) and the lower canine (mesial groove: large in the male and small in the female, distobuccal fovea: large in the female and small in the male). The new material enriches the collection of O. macedoniensis. The estimated degree of sexual dimorphism of the RPl O. macedoniensis, calculated by the multivariate size dimorphism method, is compared with those of extant hominoids (Gorilla, Pan, Pongo) and of the late Miocene Lufengpithecus lufengensis from China, which is considered as more dimorphic than any living hominoid. The results suggest that Ouranopithecus multivariate size dimorphism for the premolar, molar and post-canine row is similar to those of Pongo and Lufengpithecus, slightly higher than that of Gorilla and clearly higher than that of Pan. Therefore, O. macedoniensis is apparently one of the most sexually dimorphic hominoids and the RPl assemblage is monospecific. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Defending against parasites: fungus-growing ants combine specialized behaviours and microbial symbionts to protect their fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ainslie E F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2006-03-22

    Parasites influence host biology and population structure, and thus shape the evolution of their hosts. Parasites often accelerate the evolution of host defences, including direct defences such as evasion and sanitation and indirect defences such as the management of beneficial microbes that aid in the suppression or removal of pathogens. Fungus-growing ants are doubly burdened by parasites, needing to protect their crops as well as themselves from infection. We show that parasite removal from fungus gardens is more complex than previously realized. In response to infection of their fungal gardens by a specialized virulent parasite, ants gather and compress parasitic spores and hyphae in their infrabuccal pockets, then deposit the resulting pellet in piles near their gardens. We reveal that the ants' infrabuccal pocket functions as a specialized sterilization device, killing spores of the garden parasite Escovopsis. This is apparently achieved through a symbiotic association with actinomycetous bacteria in the infrabuccal pocket that produce antibiotics which inhibit Escovopsis. The use of the infrabuccal pocket as a receptacle to sequester Escovopsis, and as a location for antibiotic administration by the ants' bacterial mutualist, illustrates how the combination of behaviour and microbial symbionts can be a successful defence strategy for hosts.

  3. Sexual dimorphism of pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica based on skull morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-González, R.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in skull characteristics of Pyrenean chamois is studied in a sample of 85 adults (36 males and 49 females by means of 26 quantitative variables. Skull variables were analised by multiple regression and principal component techniques. The Pyrenean chamois shows one of the smallest sexual skull dimorphisms of the Rupicapra subspecies. Only length, thickness, and related variables of horns present significant differences between sexes. Nevertheless, horn height was statistically identical in both sexes. Ecological implications of skull variability and skull variables relationships are discussed. Several discriminant functions were developed by means of discriminant analysis. Those that better identified sexes include horn core diameters. We also developed other functions based on upper skull variables that could be used to identify incomplete specimens or archaeological remains.

    [fr]
    Nous avons étudié les dimorphismes sexuels de l'isard en travaillant sur 26 mesures cranéométriques issues d'un échantillon de 85 crânes adultes (soit 36 mâles et 49 femelles. Les analyses ont porté sur la comparaison des moyennes, la régression multiple et l'analyse en composante principale. Il s'avère que l'isard pyrénéen présente un des plus bas dimorphisme craneal du genre Rupicapra. Seuls la longueur et l'épaisseur des cornes et leurs variables associées ont montré des différences significatives entre les sexes. Les implications écologiques de la variabilité entre les crânes et des relations entre les variables cranéométriques sont discutées. En utilisant l'analyse discriminante, nous arrivons à développer quelques fonctions nous permettant d'identifier le sexe des exemplaires complets ou incomplets. Les fonctions se basant sur l'épaisseur des cornes ont permis une meilleure classification.
    [es]
    Se ha estudiado el dimorfismo sexual del sarrio a partir de 26 medidas craneométricas tomadas en una

  4. Leaf dimorphism of Microgramma squamulosa (Polypodiaceae: a qualitative and quantitative analysis focusing on adaptations to epiphytism

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    Ledyane Dalgallo Rocha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic fern Microgramma squamulosa occurs in the Neotropics and shows dimorphic sterile and fertile leaves. The present study aimed to describe and compare qualitatively and quantitatively macroscopic and microscopic structural characteristics of the dimorphic leaves of M. squamulosa, to point more precisely those characteristics which may contribute to epiphytic adaptations. In June 2009, six isolated host trees covered by M. squamulosa were selected close to the edge of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest fragment in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Macroscopic and microscopic analyzes were performed from 192 samples for each leaf type, and permanent and semi-permanent slides were prepared. Sections were observed under light microscopy using image capture software to produce illustrations and scales, as well as to perform quantitative analyses. Fertile and sterile leaves had no qualitative structural differences, being hypostomatous and presenting uniseriate epidermis, homogeneous chlorenchyma, amphicribal vascular bundle, and hypodermis. The presence of hypodermal tissue and the occurrence of stomata at the abaxial face are typical characteristics of xeromorphic leaves. Sterile leaves showed significantly larger areas (14.80cm², higher sclerophylly index (0.13g/cm² and higher stomatal density (27.75stomata/mm² than fertile leaves. The higher sclerophylly index and the higher stomatal density observed in sterile leaves are features that make these leaves more xeromorphic, enhancing their efficiency to deal with limited water availability in the epiphytic environment, compared to fertile leaves.El helecho epífito Microgramma squamulosa se encuentra en el Neotrópico y tiene hojas estériles y fértiles dimorfas. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir y comparar cuantitativa y cualitativamente la organización estructural de las hojas de la M. squamulosa, investigando las características morfol

  5. Histone deacetylases: revealing the molecular base of dimorphism in pathogenic fungi

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    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, as every living organism, interact with the external world and have to adapt to its fluctuations. For pathogenic fungi, such interaction involves adapting to the hostile environment of their host. Survival depends on the capacity of fungi to detect and respond to external stimuli, which is achieved through a tight and efficient genetic control. Chromatin modifications represent a well-known layer of regulation that controls gene expression in response to environmental signals. However, less is known about the chromatin modifications that are involved in fungal virulence and the specific cues and signalling pathways that target chromatin modifications to specific genes. In a recently published study, our research group identified one such regulatory pathway. We demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC Hos2 is involved in yeast-to-hyphal transition (dimorphism and it is associated with the virulence of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of smut disease in corn. Hos2 activates mating-type genes by directly binding to their gene bodies. Furthermore, Hos2 acts downstream of the nutrient-sensing cyclic AMP-Protein Kinase A pathway. We also found that another HDAC, Clr3, contributes to this regulation, possibly in cooperation with Hos2. As a whole, our data suggest that there is a direct link between changes in the environment and acetylation of nucleosomes within certain genes. We propose that histone acetylation is critical to the proper timing and induction of transcription of the genes encoding factors that coordinate changes in morphology with pathogenesis.

  6. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by Y chromosome deletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardon, A.; Georgiev, S.; Aghmir, A.; Le Merrer, G.; Negrutiu, I.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome

  7. Diet selection and seasonal dietary switch of a large sexually dimorphic herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Graeme; Mackey, Robin L.; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Although diet selection and the physiological adaptations of grazers and browsers have been widely studied, much less is known about mixed-feeders that target both grass and woody species. The ability to switch diet allows the individual to respond to spatial and temporal changes in forage abundance and quality, providing a key mechanism for large herbivores to exploit heterogeneous environments. We compare diet selection and timing of the seasonal dietary switch for a large-bodied, sexually dimorphic mixed-feeder, the African elephant. The study was carried out on a small population of elephants (n = 48) in the Pongola Game Reserve (PGR), South Africa. Sex-specific dietary composition evaluated from feeding behaviour correlated with composition in dung samples from individuals of known sex. Grass was strongly preferred during the wet season and browse in the winter dry season. However, adult male elephants switched from browse to grass earlier, and consumed a greater overall proportion of grass in their diet, compared with adult females and their associated family groups. Male elephants also spent more time in grassland habitats, and expanded their ranges to a greater extent than females following the end of the dry season. Our results suggest that smaller adult body size, high nutritional demands of offspring, and the constraints of sociality have contributed to female elephants in PGR resolving their diet selection strategies to target higher quality foraging opportunities, whilst males appear to be adopting a rate maximizing approach. The behavioural differences between the sexes are pronounced, which has implications for elephant management approaches that are typically focussed at the population level.

  8. Alterations in urine, serum and brain metabolomic profiles exhibit sexual dimorphism during malaria disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shobhona

    2010-04-01

    prognosis and better disease management. Additionally, the distinct sexual dimorphism exhibited in these responses has a bearing on the understanding of the pathophysiology of malaria.

  9. Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex was analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Thin-plate splines (TPS) analysis has been applied to investigate the lateral profile of complete adult skulls of known sex. Twenty-nine three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial and mandibular landmark coordinates were recorded from a sample of 52 adult females and 52 adult males of known age and sex. No difference in the influence of size on shape was detected between sexes. Both size and sex had significant influences on shape. As expected, the influence of centroid size on shape (allometry) revealed a shift in the proportions of the neurocranium and the viscerocranium, with a marked allometric variation of the lower face. Adjusted for centroid size, males presented a relatively larger size of the nasopharyngeal space than females. A mean-male TPS transformation revealed a larger piriform aperture, achieved by an increase of the angulation of the nasal bones and a downward rotation of the anterior nasal floor. Male pharynx expansion was also reflected by larger choanae and a more posteriorly inclined basilar part of the occipital clivus. Male muscle attachment sites appeared more pronounced. In contrast, the mean-female TPS transformation was characterized by a relatively small nasal aperture. The occipital clivus inclined anteriorly, and muscle insertion areas became smoothed. Besides these variations, both maxillary and mandibular alveolar regions became prognathic. The sex-specific TPS deformation patterns are hypothesized to be associated with sexual differences in body composition and energetic requirements. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Macroecological patterns of sexual size dimorphism in turtles of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R.; Nowakowski, A. Justin; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Todd, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a well-documented phenomenon in both plants and animals; however, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive and maintain SSD patterns across geographic space at regional and global scales are understudied, especially for reptiles. Our goal was to examine geographic variation of turtle SSD and to explore ecological and environmental correlates using phylogenetic comparative methods. We use published body size data on 135 species from nine turtle families to examine how geographic patterns and the evolution of SSD are influenced by habitat specialization, climate (annual mean temperature and annual precipitation) and climate variability, latitude, or a combination of these predictor variables. We found that geographic variation, magnitude and direction of turtle SSD are best explained by habitat association, annual temperature variance and annual precipitation. Use of semi-aquatic and terrestrial habitats was associated with male-biased SSD, whereas use of aquatic habitat was associated with female-biased SSD. Our results also suggest that greater temperature variability is associated with female-biased SSD. In contrast, wetter climates are associated with male-biased SSD compared with arid climates that are associated with female-biased SSD. We also show support for a global latitudinal trend in SSD, with females being larger than males towards the poles, especially in the families Emydidae and Geoemydidae. Estimates of phylogenetic signal for both SSD and habitat type indicate that closely related species occupy similar habitats and exhibit similar direction and magnitude of SSD. These global patterns of SSD may arise from sex-specific reproductive behaviour, fecundity and sex-specific responses to environmental factors that differ among habitats and vary systematically across latitude. Thus, this study adds to our current understanding that while SSD can vary dramatically across and within turtle species under

  11. On the relation between 2D:4D and sex-dimorphic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Ellis, Connie L; Tenk, Christine M

    2008-02-01

    Several personality traits, including aggressiveness and sensation seeking, have been hypothesized to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure, though evidence for this proposition is limited. We investigated whether individual differences in aggressiveness, sensation seeking, and several prosocial personality traits can be predicted from differences in the 2D:4D digit ratio, a putative marker of prenatal androgen activity. A total of 164 undergraduates (87 men, 77 women) completed self-report measures of physical and verbal aggression, as well as a standardized measure of sensation seeking, and five scales to assess empathy, nurturance, expressivity/femininity, instrumentality/masculinity, and assertiveness. Two sex-dimorphic tests of spatial ability also were included. Men had a lower 2D:4D ratio than women, confirming the typical sex difference in digit proportions. Significant sex differences were observed on 10 of the 11 personality scales purported to show sex differences and on both tests of spatial ability. The 2D:4D ratio was a significant predictor of scores on three of the four aggression subscales, total aggression, thrill and adventure seeking, and total sensation-seeking, in the sample as a whole and in women. In men, correlations with 2D:4D were significant only for total sensation-seeking and verbal aggression. In both sexes, lower 2D:4D ratios were associated with increased aggressiveness and sensation seeking. For the spatial tests, there was no evidence of any association with 2D:4D in either men or women. The 2D:4D digit ratio may be a valid, though weak, predictor of selective sex-dependent traits that are sensitive to testosterone.

  12. Dimorphic ejaculates and sperm release strategies associated with alternative mating behaviors in the squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostólico, Lígia H; Marian, José E A R

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates. In loliginid squids, males with alternative reproductive tactics (sneakers and consorts) differ not only in mating behavior, but also transfer spermatophores into two distinct sites within the female. Here, we compared structure and functioning of spermatophores between sneakers and consorts in the squid Doryteuthis plei applying microscopy techniques and in vitro experiments. Sneakers and consorts exhibit differences in spermatophore structure that lead to distinct spermatophoric reactions and spermatangium morphologies. Moreover, in sneakers, sperm release lasts longer and their sperm show an aggregative behavior not detected in consorts. Slow sperm release may be a strategy to guarantee longer sperm provision, given the wide interval between sneaker mating and egg release. For consorts, in turn, intense and quick sperm discharge may be advantageous, as timing between mating and egg-laying is relatively short. Within the complex squid mating system, factors such as (i) different fertilization sites and (ii) interval between mating and egg release may also influence sperm competition, and ultimately shape the evolution of divergent ejaculates between dimorphic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Integrative omics analysis reveals differentially distributed proteins in dimorphic euspermatozoa of the squid, Loligo bleekeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Yamada, Lixy; Ochi, Hiroe; Iwata, Yoko; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Sawada, Hitoshi; Sauer, Warwick H H; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2014-08-01

    In the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri, each male produces one of two types of fertilization-competent spermatozoa (eusperm) that exhibit morphological and behavioral differences. Large "consort" males produce short-tailed spermatozoa that display free-swimming behavior when ejaculated into seawater. Small "sneaker" males, on the other hand, produce long-tailed spermatozoa that exhibit a self-swarming trait after ejaculation. To understand the molecular basis for adaptive traits employed by alternative male mating tactics, we performed the transcriptome deep sequencing (RNA-seq) and proteome analyses to search for differences in testicular mRNAs and sperm proteins, respectively. From mature male testes we identified a total of 236,455 contigs (FPKM ≧1) where 3789 and 2789 were preferentially (≧10-fold) expressed in consort and sneaker testes, respectively. A proteomic analysis detected 4302 proteins in the mature sperm as post-translational products. A strongly biased (≧10-fold) distribution occurred in 55 consort proteins and 61 sneaker proteins. There was no clear mRNA-protein correlation, making a ballpark estimate impossible for not only overall protein abundance but also the degree of biased sperm type expressed in the spermatozoa. A family encoding dynein heavy chain gene, however, was found to be biased towards sneakers, whereas many enzymes involving energy metabolism were heavily biased towards consort spermatozoa. The difference in flagellar length matched exactly the different amount of tubulins. From these results we hypothesize that discrete differential traits in dimorphic eusperm arose from a series of innovative alterations in the intracellular components of spermatozoa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in the fetal cardiac response to maternal nutrient restriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Li, Cun; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Casey, Cameron P.; Metz, Thomas O.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Maloyan, Alina

    2017-07-01

    Poor maternal nutrition causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, its effects on fetal cardiac development are unclear. We have developed a baboon model of moderate maternal undernutrition, leading to IUGR. We hypothesized that IUGR affects fetal cardiac structure and metabolism. Six control pregnant baboons ate ad-libitum (CTRL)) or 70% CTRL from 0.16 of gestation (G). Fetuses were euthanized at C-section at 0.9G under general anesthesia. Male but not female IUGR fetuses showed left ventricular fibrosis inversely correlated with birth weight. Expression of extracellular matrix protein TSP-1 was increased ( SMAD3 and ALK-1 were downregulated in male IUGRs with no difference in females. Autophagy was present in male IUGR evidenced by upregulation of ATG7 expression and lipidation LC3B. Global miRNA expression profiling revealed 56 annotated and novel cardiac miRNAs exclusively dysregulated in female IUGR, and 38 cardiac miRNAs were exclusively dysregulated in males (p<0.05). Fifteen (CTRL) and 23 (IUGR) miRNAs, were differentially expressed between males and. females (p<0.05) suggesting sexual dimorphism, which can be at least partially explained by differential expression of upstream transcription factors (e.g. HNF4α, and NFκB p50). Lipidomics analysis exhibited a net increase in diacylglycerol and plasmalogens, and a decrease in triglycerides and phosphatidylcholines. In summary, IUGR resulting from decreased maternal nutrition is associated with sex-dependent dysregulations in cardiac structure, miRNA expression, and lipid metabolism. If these changes persist postnatally, they may program offspring for higher later life cardiac risk.

  15. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus, aromatase, and sexual partner preferences in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2010-02-28

    We are using the domestic ram as an experimental model to examine the role of aromatase in the development of sexual partner preferences. This interest has arisen because of the observation that as many as 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to estrous ewes (female-oriented). Our findings demonstrate that aromatase expression is enriched in a cluster of neurons in the medial preoptic nucleus called the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN). The size of the oSDN is associated with a ram's sexual partner preference, such that the nucleus is 2-3 times larger in rams that are attracted to females (female-oriented) than in rams that are attracted to other rams (male-oriented). Moreover, the volume of the oSDN in male-oriented rams is similar to the volume in ewes. These volume differences are not influenced by adult concentrations of serum testosterone. Instead, we found that the oSDN is already present in late gestation lamb fetuses (approximately day 135 of gestation) when it is approximately 2-fold greater in males than in females. Exposure of genetic female fetuses to exogenous testosterone during the critical period for sexual differentiation masculinizes oSDN volume and aromatase expression when examined subsequently on day 135. The demonstration that the oSDN is organized prenatally by testosterone exposure suggests that the brain of the male-oriented ram may be under-androgenized during development. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene expression changes in the course of normal brain aging are sexually dimorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Cribbs, David H.; Coleman, Paul D.; Rogers, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth; Kim, Ronald; Beach, Tom; Miller, Carol; Troncoso, Juan; Trojanowski, John Q.; Zielke, H. Ronald; Cotman, Carl W.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression profiles were assessed in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, superior-frontal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus across the lifespan of 55 cognitively intact individuals aged 20–99 years. Perspectives on global gene changes that are associated with brain aging emerged, revealing two overarching concepts. First, different regions of the forebrain exhibited substantially different gene profile changes with age. For example, comparing equally powered groups, 5,029 probe sets were significantly altered with age in the superior-frontal gyrus, compared with 1,110 in the entorhinal cortex. Prominent change occurred in the sixth to seventh decades across cortical regions, suggesting that this period is a critical transition point in brain aging, particularly in males. Second, clear gender differences in brain aging were evident, suggesting that the brain undergoes sexually dimorphic changes in gene expression not only in development but also in later life. Globally across all brain regions, males showed more gene change than females. Further, Gene Ontology analysis revealed that different categories of genes were predominantly affected in males vs. females. Notably, the male brain was characterized by global decreased catabolic and anabolic capacity with aging, with down-regulated genes heavily enriched in energy production and protein synthesis/transport categories. Increased immune activation was a prominent feature of aging in both sexes, with proportionally greater activation in the female brain. These data open opportunities to explore age-dependent changes in gene expression that set the balance between neurodegeneration and compensatory mechanisms in the brain and suggest that this balance is set differently in males and females, an intriguing idea. PMID:18832152

  17. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Sexual Dimorphism and Retinal Mosaic Diversification following the Evolution of a Violet Receptor in Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Kyle J; Yuan, Furong; Zhen, Ying; Aardema, Matthew L; Smith, Gilbert; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Andolfatto, Peter; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2017-09-01

    Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) and the nanostructure architecture of the scale cells. In order to better understand the selective pressures giving rise to the violet receptor, we characterized opsin expression patterns using immunostaining (14 species) and RNA-Seq (18 species), and reconstructed evolutionary histories of visual traits in five major lineages within Heliconius and one species from the genus Eueides. Opsin expression patterns are hyperdiverse within Heliconius. We identified six unique retinal mosaics and three distinct forms of sexual dimorphism based on ommatidial types within the genus Heliconius. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis revealed independent losses of opsin expression, pseudogenization events, and relaxation of selection on UVRh2 in one lineage. Despite this diversity, the newly evolved violet receptor is retained across most species and sexes surveyed. Discriminability modeling of behaviorally preferred 3-OHK yellow wing coloration suggests that the violet receptor may facilitate Heliconius color vision in the context of conspecific recognition. Our observations give insights into the selective pressures underlying the origins of new visual receptors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The human hippocampus is not sexually-dimorphic: Meta-analysis of structural MRI volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Anh; Ma, Wenli; Vira, Amit; Marwha, Dhruv; Eliot, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is found in many psychiatric disorders that are more prevalent in women. Sex differences in memory and spatial skills further suggest that males and females differ in hippocampal structure and function. We conducted the first meta-analysis of male-female difference in hippocampal volume (HCV) based on published MRI studies of healthy participants of all ages, to test whether the structure is reliably sexually dimorphic. Using four search strategies, we collected 68 matched samples of males' and females' uncorrected HCVs (in 4418 total participants), and 36 samples of male and female HCVs (2183 participants) that were corrected for individual differences in total brain volume (TBV) or intracranial volume (ICV). Pooled effect sizes were calculated using a random-effects model for left, right, and bilateral uncorrected HCVs and for left and right HCVs corrected for TBV or ICV. We found that uncorrected HCV was reliably larger in males, with Hedges' g values of 0.545 for left hippocampus, 0.526 for right hippocampus, and 0.557 for bilateral hippocampus. Meta-regression revealed no effect of age on the sex difference in left, right, or bilateral HCV. In the subset of studies that reported it, both TBV (g=1.085) and ICV (g=1.272) were considerably larger in males. Accordingly, studies reporting HCVs corrected for individual differences in TBV or ICV revealed no significant sex differences in left and right HCVs (Hedges' g ranging from +0.011 to -0.206). In summary, we found that human males of all ages exhibit a larger HCV than females, but adjusting for individual differences in TBV or ICV results in no reliable sex difference. The frequent claim that women have a disproportionately larger hippocampus than men was not supported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Meta-analysis reveals a lack of sexual dimorphism in human amygdala volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwha, Dhruv; Halari, Meha; Eliot, Lise

    2017-02-15

    The amygdala plays a key role in many affective behaviors and psychiatric disorders that differ between men and women. To test whether human amygdala volume (AV) differs reliably between the sexes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of AVs reported in MRI studies of age-matched healthy male and female groups. Using four search strategies, we identified 46 total studies (58 matched samples) from which we extracted effect sizes for the sex difference in AV. All data were converted to Hedges g values and pooled effect sizes were calculated using a random-effects model. Each dataset was further meta-regressed against study year and average participant age. We found that uncorrected amygdala volume is about 10% larger in males, with pooled sex difference effect sizes of g=0.581 for right amygdala (κ=28, n=2022), 0.666 for left amygdala (κ=28, n=2006), and 0.876 for bilateral amygdala (κ=16, n=1585) volumes (all p values brain volume (TBV; g=1.278, pbrain size in males. Among studies reporting AVs normalized for ICV or TBV, sex difference effect sizes were small and not statistically significant: g=0.171 for the right amygdala (p=0.206, κ=13, n=1560); 0.233 for the left amygdala (p=0.092, κ=12, n=1512); and 0.257 for bilateral volume (p=0.131, κ=5, n=1629). These values correspond to less than 0.1% larger corrected right AV and 2.5% larger corrected left AV in males compared to females. In summary, AV is not selectively enhanced in human males, as often claimed. Although we cannot rule out subtle male-female group differences, it is not accurate to refer to the human amygdala as "sexually dimorphic." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.