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Sample records for dimorphandra mollis implications

  1. Toxicity of Dimorphandra mollis to Workers of Apis mellifera

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    Cintra Priscila

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we have evaluated the toxic properties of methanol extracts from flowers, peduncles, leaves, petioles and stem bark of Dimorphandra mollis to Apis mellifera workers. Astilbin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy--2,3-dihydroflavonol-3-beta-O-rhamnoside has been isolated from peduncles and flowers of this plant in large amounts. Astilbin presented insecticidal activity against confined bees. The results suggest that astilbin reduces the average survival of treated bees.

  2. Toxicity of Dimorphandra mollis to Workers of Apis mellifera

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    Cintra Priscila; Malaspina Osmar; Petacci Fernando; Fernandes João B.; Bueno Odair C.; Vieira Paulo C.; Silva M. Fátima das G. F. da

    2002-01-01

    Nesta comunicação estamos reportando as propriedades tóxicas dos extratos metanólicos das flores, pedúnculos, folhas, pecíolo e casca do tronco de Dimorphandra mollis sobre as operárias de Apis mellifera. Astilbina (3-beta-O-rhamnosideo de 5,7,3',4'-- tetraidroxi-2,3-diidroflavonol) isolada dos pedúnculos e flores como o seu principal componente, apresentou atividade inseticida sobre abelhas confinadas. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a astilbina reduz a sobrevivência média das abelhas trat...

  3. Biological activity of astilbin from Dimorphandra mollis against Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Pereira, Luciane G; Petacci, Fernando; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; Vieira, Paulo C; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Malaspina, Osmar

    2002-05-01

    Astilbin was isolated in high yield from Dimorphandra mollis, and its insecticidal and growth inhibiting activity by stomach ingestion were evaluated against Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of astilbin, the weight reduction of the larval phase and the prolongation of the larval and pupal phases were verified for both species. Astilbin was identified on the base of its NMR, MS and physical data.

  4. DORMÊNCIA DE SEMENTES E PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco; Vilmar Luciano Mattei; Valderez Pontes Matos; Lúcia Helena de Moura Sena; Anna Gorett de Figueiredo Almeida Sales

    2011-01-01

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth. is an important native forest species coming from Cerrado and Caatinga due to its economical and ecological use, what justifies the existence of programs of seedling production. This paper aimed to study the efficient methodology to overcome dormancy in seeds and to evaluate, in natural nursery, the effects of distinct substrates and the fertilization on the initial growth of plants. The following treatments applied: T1 - control (seeds whithout scarification); T2 ¿...

  5. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological...

  6. DORMÊNCIA DE SEMENTES E PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth. is an important native forest species coming from Cerrado and Caatinga due to its economical and ecological use, what justifies the existence of programs of seedling production. This paper aimed to study the efficient methodology to overcome dormancy in seeds and to evaluate, in natural nursery, the effects of distinct substrates and the fertilization on the initial growth of plants. The following treatments applied: T1 - control (seeds whithout scarification; T2 ¿ manual scarification with sandpaper number 50; T3 - immersion in water at 80 and (T4 at 100ºC; T5 - boil in water at 100ºC for 10, (T6 30 and (T7 60 seconds; T8 - chemical scarification with sulfuric acid for 20, (T9 30 and (T10 40 minutes. For the seedling production, the experiment was arranged in 4 x 2 factorial, complete randomized design (4 substrates: Tropstrato® pure, and the others: Tropstrato®, coconut fiber and vermiculite with organic compost; without and with fertilization. The best results for overcoming dormancy are obtained with the manual scarification with sandpaper nº50 or boil in water at 100ºC for 10 seconds. The coconut fiber and the vermiculite with organic compost are good substrates for the seedling production of Dimorphandra mollis.

  7. NPK and flavonoids affecting insect populations in Dimorphandra mollis seedlings=NPK e flavonoides afetando populações de insetos em mudas de Dimorphandra mollis

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    Lourdes Silva Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the influence of different levels of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, and flavonoids on the population of insects in Dimorphandra mollis Benth (Leguminosae seedlings. The treatments associated with the highest level of attacks by Frankliniella schulzei (Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae were 600 mg dm-3 of P and 50 mg dm-3 of K. The highest level of attacks by Coccidae occurred for 300 of P and 150 and 250 mg dm-3 of K. The last two treatments also exhibited the highest level of attacks by Pseudococcidae. On the other hand, the control exhibited higher levels of flavonoids and a lower level of insect attacks. We observed a small positive effect of N levels on attack by F. schulzei. The levels of N, P and K negatively affected the levels of flavonoids in the leaves of D. mollis. We detected no significant effects of flavonoid levels on the populations of Coccidae, Pseudoccocidae and F. schulzei. Higher numbers of Coccidae and Pseudococcidae were observed in the abaxial face of apical leaves. However, higher numbers of F. schulzei were observed on the adaxial face at lower heights in the canopy. The preferred treatment for the production of D. mollis seedlings is the control (without fertilization because it showed higher flavonoid levels than other treatments and did not result in higher insect numbers.O estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes níveis de nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P e potássio (K e flavonoides sobre a população de insetos em mudas de Dimorphandra mollis Benth (Leguminosae. Os tratamentos associados com maiores níveis de ataque de Frankliniella schulzei (Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae foram 600 mg dm-3 de P e 50 mg dm-3 de K. Os maiores níveis de ataque de Coccidae ocorreu para 300 de P e 150 e 250 mg dm-3 de K. Os dois últimos tratamentos também exibiram altos níveis de ataque de Pseudococcidae. Por outro lado, o controle exibiu maior nível de flavonoides e menor nível de ataque de

  8. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats Avaliação dos efetos imunotoxicológicos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological...

  9. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats Avaliação dos efetos imunotoxicológicos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, em ratos

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    Cássia A. O. Feres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.A Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida como faveira ou fava-d'anta, é uma planta comum do cerrado central do Brasil, muito utilizada por suas propriedades antioxidante, antiplaquetária e, principalmente, como vasoprotetora. Seu principal marcador é a rutina. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a segurança da utilização do extrato seco de D. mollis em roedores. O extrato foi extraído, padronizado e quantificado apresentando teor de 76,0±3% de rutina. Nos parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos avaliados, não se observou alterações nos grupos de machos e fêmeas que receberam a dose de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis, mas observou-se um aumento de eosinófilos. Nos estudos histopatológicos detectou-se hiperreatividade da polpa branca esplênica, no grupo que recebeu a dose de 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis. Na avaliação da resposta

  10. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

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    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  11. Potencial tecnológico do galactomanano de sementes de faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis para uso na indústria de alimentos Seeds of faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis as a potential source of galactomannan for the food industry

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    Valéria Regina PANEGASSI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de gomas de sementes tem trazido muitos benefícios à indústria de alimentos, melhorando as propriedades dos produtos, principalmente pelo seu poder espessante, estabilizante e geleificante. Gomas obtidas a partir do endosperma de sementes de leguminosas são compostas por manose e galactose (galactomanano. A partir da trituração e posterior peneiramento das sementes de faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis, espécie brasileira que ocorre com alta freqüência nos cerrados e caatinga, foi obtido um extrato rico em galactomanano (83,2% com proporção manose:galactose 2,7. Esses parâmetros são comparáveis aos obtidos para os galactomananos de uso consagrado em formulações de alimentos, tais como a goma guar com 78-82% de rendimento e razão manose galactose igual a 2 e a goma locusta com 88% de rendimento e razão manose:galactose igual a 4. Ensaios biológicos demonstraram que a goma do faveiro é considerada praticamente atóxica. Esses resultados sugerem que a goma de Dimorphandra mollis apresenta potencial para ser utilizada em formulações de alimentos. Além disso, como é espécie já utilizada para a extração de rutina e também espécie de larga ocorrência em ecossistemas de grande importância tais como o Cerrado e a Caatinga, sua exploração poderia ser feita de forma ecologicamente sustentável.The use of seed gums has brought a lot of benefits to the food industry, improving their properties primarily for their ability of thickening, stabilising and gelling. The gums obtained from the endosperm of legume seeds are composed of mannose and galactose in different proportions. Using a procedure of grinding and milling, an extract rich in galactomannan (83.2%, with a mannose:galactose ratio of 2.7, was obtained from faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis, which is a Brazilian species native to the savannah and caatinga environments. The yield and composition obtained were comparable to the commercially exploited gums of guar

  12. Análise morfológica e fitoquímica da fava d anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    O Brasil possui a flora arbórea mais diversificada do mundo, no entanto, a falta de diretrizes técnicas e de conscientização ecológica na sua exploração tem acarretado prejuízos ambientais irreparáveis. Com a expansão da fronteira agrícola nas regiões de Cerrado muitas espécies arbóreas encontram-se ameaçadas de extinção, entre elas, Dimorphandra mollis Benth., planta medicinal conhecida popularmente como fava d anta. Sua importância fármaco-agronômica é devido à presença nos frutos de flavon...

  13. Inhibition of peroxidase activity and scavenging of reactive oxygen species by astilbin isolated from Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petacci, Fernando; Freitas, Silvia S; Brunetti, Iguatemy L; Khalil, Najeh M

    2010-01-01

    Astilbin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol-3-ß-o-rhamnoside), a flavonoid with a large range of biological activities, was isolated from Dimorphandra mollis, a shrub common to the Brazilian Cerrado. The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of astilbin on myeloperoxidase (MPO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and its antioxidant activity against hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and total antioxidant activity (TAC) by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+). Astilbin inhibited MPO and HRP activities in a concentration-dependent relationship and effectively scavenged HOCl. The TAC by ABTS•+ of astilbin (IC50 ~ 20 mM) was higher than that of uric acid, which was used as a positive control. These data demonstrate that astilbin is a potent antioxidant and that it inhibits MPO and HRP activities efficiently.

  14. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  15. Plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população de Caldas Novas, GO e o conhecimento popular sobre a faveira (Dimorphandra mollis Benth Mimosoideae).

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    Oliveira, Oriane F. do Vale; Gondim, Maria José da Costa

    2013-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo levantar o conhecimento de plantas medicinais pela população urbana de Caldas Novas-GO, realizado entre abril e maio de 2008. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulários semiestruturados (n:251), abrangendo diferentes faixas etárias, sendo levantadas informações quanto ao conhecimento e consumo de plantas medicinais, indicações e modo de uso. Além dessas informações, avaliou-se o conhecimento da população sobre a espécie nativa do cerrado Dimorphandra mollis ...

  16. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  17. Isolation of high quality and polysaccharide-free DNA from leaves of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae), a tree from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, H A V; Muller, L A C; Brandão, R L; Lovato, M B

    2012-03-22

    Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae), known as faveiro and fava d'anta, is a tree that is widely distributed throughout the Brazilian Cerrado (a savanna-like biome). This species is economically valuable and has been extensively exploited because its fruits contain the flavonoid rutin, which is used to produce medications for human circulatory diseases. Knowledge about its genetic diversity is needed to guide decisions about the conservation and rational use of this species in order to maintain its diversity. DNA extraction is an essential step for obtaining good results in a molecular analysis. However, DNA isolation from plants is usually compromised by excessive contamination by secondary metabolites. DNA extraction of D. mollis, mainly from mature leaves, results in a highly viscous mass that is difficult to handle and use in techniques that require pure DNA. We tested four protocols for plant DNA extraction that can be used to minimize problems such as contamination by polysaccharides, which is more pronounced in material from mature leaves. The protocol that produced the best DNA quality initially utilizes a sorbitol buffer to remove mucilaginous polysaccharides. The macerated leaf material is washed with this buffer until there is no visible mucilage in the sample. This protocol is adequate for DNA extraction both from young and mature leaves, and could be useful not only for D. mollis but also for other species that have high levels of polysaccharide contamination during the extraction process.

  18. Leaf age affects the quality of DNA extracted from Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae), a tropical tree species from the Cerrado region of Brazil.

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    Moreira, P A; Oliveira, D A

    2011-03-01

    Isolation of high-quality DNA from plants, especially plants from the Cerrado, is notoriously difficult because of polysaccharides and secondary compounds produced by plants from this biome. DNA isolation and its quality may be compromised by chemical defenses such as tannins and phenols. Quantitative plant defenses tend to have a cumulative effect, increasing in concentration during leaf development, reducing DNA quality extracted in mature compared to young leaves. We report the effect of leaf age on DNA extraction of Dimorphandra mollis. Our working hypothesis was that the young leaves have more DNA than old leaves of the same individual because chemical defenses accumulate in older leaves. Young and old leaves were sampled from eight mature trees as well as leaves from eight seedlings in the north region of Minas Gerais State. Genomic DNA extraction followed the standard CTAB procedure. DNA isolation was very successful from young leaves of 16 individuals of D. mollis. The extracted DNA exhibited high quality and the DNA quantity was also high, with an A(260)/A(280) ratio above 1.8, which is within the optimal sample range. In contrast, DNA isolation from old leaves was not successful. When the DNA was extracted from old leaves, the DNA was brownish, indicating contamination by phenolic compounds. These metabolites oxidize the DNA irreversibly, which hinders amplification of DNA by PCR by inhibiting the action of enzymes such as Taq polymerase. PCR performed with DNA from young leaves of D. mollis was successful and produced strong bands for RAPD markers.

  19. Inhibition of peroxidase activity and scavenging of reactive oxygen species by astilbin isolated from Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Petacci, Fernando; Freitas, Silvia S.; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; NAJEH M. KHALIL

    2010-01-01

    Astilbin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol-3-beta-o-rhamnoside), a flavonoid with a large range of biological activities, was isolated from Dimorphandra molls, a shrub common to the Brazilian Cerrado. The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of astilbin on myeloperoxidase (MPO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and its antioxidant activity against hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and total antioxidant activity (TAC) by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) rad...

  20. Controles físico, físico-químico, químico e microbiológico dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae Physic, physic-chemical, chemical and microbiological control of fruits of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae

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    Silviane Z. Hubinger

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a qualidade dos fitoterápicos, é importante salientar que a preocupação com esta questão inclui rigoroso acompanhamento das diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e produção, desde a coleta do vegetal até o produto final. O controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e seus extratos é essencial quando utilizados como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos. Neste trabalho foram utilizadas diversas técnicas (farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas visando estabelecer parâmetros de qualidade dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae, popularmente conhecida como faveiro. Os resultados obtidos determinaram as características físico-químicas da droga vegetal e mostraram que o pó dos frutos e o extrato etanólico 70% de D. mollis apresentam um teor de flavonóides de 10,25% e 17,21%, respectivamente. A análise fitoquímica preliminar dos frutos caracterizou a presença de taninos, saponinas e flavonóides. Na análise microbiológica do extrato não houve crescimento de patógenos entre os testes realizados.Considering the quality of phytotherapic agents, it is important to point out that the concern with this subject includes rigorous attendance the different steps of development and production of these products, from the collection of the vegetable to the availability of the final product. The quality control for the plants and their extracts is essential when they are used in the development of phytotherapics. In this work, methodologies (pharmacopoeic and no pharmacopoeic were employed to establish norms for the quality control of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae fruit, popularly known as faveira. Pharmacopoeic and no pharmacopoeic methodologies were employed to physic, physic-chemical, chemical and microbiological quality control. The results obtained established the physic-chemical characters of the drug and showed that the fruits and the ethanol 70% extract present a content of flavonoids

  1. Potencial germinativo de sementes de fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae sob diferentes procedências, datas de coleta e tratamentos de escarificação Germinative potential of fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae seeds from different locations and collection dates under distinct scarification treatments

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    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais que possuem sementes duras e impermeáveis à água freqüentemente apresentam problemas para germinar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar tratamentos pré-germinativos em laboratório que permitam abreviar, aumentar e uniformizar a germinação das sementes de Dimorphandra mollis, além de avaliar essa germinação em diferentes épocas e locais de coleta. Foram coletadas sementes de D. mollis em quatro municípios do norte de Minas Gerais: Montes Claros, Lontra, Mirabela e Jequitaí, em duas datas distintas: agosto e setembro de 2004. As sementes foram submetidas a cinco tratamentos de escarificação: lixamento, imersão em ácido sulfúrico por 10 e por 20 min, imersão em água quente a 70 ºC e controle (sementes intactas. Nos testes de germinação, um delineamento experimental casualizado foi utilizado, com 10 repetições de 10 sementes de cada tratamento, localidade e data de coleta. Os efeitos dos diferentes tratamentos na germinação das sementes foram avaliados através da análise de variância e teste t. Após a análise, constatou-se que as sementes coletadas em agosto (X= 47,8 ± 6,8%, na localidade de Montes Claros (X= 41,7 ± 9,7%, e escarificadas mecanicamente (X= 83,0 ± 8,2% denotaram maior potencial germinativo. Nesse sentido, sementes de fava-d'anta apresentam dormência imposta pelo tegumento, com potencial germinativo maior no tratamento com lixa. Além disso, o grau de maturação das sementes e fatores ecológicos locais parecem interferir na germinação das sementes da espécie estudada.Forest species with hard and impermeable seeds often have problems to germinate. The present work aimed to select pre-germinative treatments in laboratory to homogenize the germination of Dimorphandra mollis seeds and to compare the germination rates of seeds collected from different periods and locations. D. mollis seeds were collected at four different regions in northern Minas Gerais: Montes Claros

  2. Variabilidade genética de populações de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis da região norte do Estado de Minas Gerais Genetic variability of fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis populations ine northern Minas Gerais

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    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth é uma planta nativa do Cerrado brasileiro utilizada na extração da rutina, quercetina e ramnose, produtos usados nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de cosméticos. O norte do Estado de Minas Gerais produz cerca de 23% da rutina nacional. A obtenção dessa espécie tem sido de forma predatória pelos extrativistas, e estudos da variabilidade genética dessas populações podem fornecer subsídios para estratégias de conservação e manutenção da espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a diversidade genética dessa planta por meio da técnica de RAPD. Para isso, foram coletadas folhas jovens de fava d'anta em sete localidades diferentes (Januária, Patis, Mirabela, Lontra, CAA, Jequitaí e Morro Alto da região Norte de Minas Gerais. Nessa análise, testaram-se 43 primers. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA indicou que 10,3% e 89,7% da variação genética foi distribuída entre e dentro das populações, respectivamente. A diversidade genética de Nei (Ĥe variou de 0,1736 (população de Morro Alto a 0,2867 (população de Mirabela. Já a análise genética permitiu a construção de um dendrograma com formação de grupos distintos, cujas informações poderão ser utilizadas na criação de um banco de germoplasma e contribuir para a preservação da espécie.Fava D'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth is a native plant of the Brazilian open pasture used in the extraction of the active principles rutin, quercetin and ramnose, products used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The exploitation of the fava d'anta for the extraction of these principles has been carried out through predatory exploration, and the study of the genetic variability could be important to provide strategies of conservation and maintenance of the species. The objective of this work was to analyze the genetic diversity of this species by means of the RAPD technique. Young fava d'anta leaves were harvested in

  3. MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MDMA as an illegal drug with no recognized medicinal use. Some researchers remain interested in its value ... Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Marijuana as Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Prescription ...

  4. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Mai Hung Thanh; Đuc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Nguyen Thanh DUONG; Do Thi PHUONG; Thao, Do Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Young Ho; Bach, Tran The; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2012-01-01

    Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (...

  5. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  6. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Hung Thanh TUNG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1, isobruceine B (2, 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3, bruceolline F (4, niloticine (5, octatriacontan-1-ol (6, bombiprenone (7, α-tocopherol (8, inosine (9, and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10, were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth, LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma, LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma, and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3 and niloticine (5 have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus.

  7. Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Laura S; Prochaska, James O

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012). Mollie attended the University of Toronto, from which she graduated with honors in psychology at age 20 in 1936. She studied and worked at the Merrill-Palmer Institute in Detroit, earning a master's degree in child development from the University of Michigan in 1941. She earned her doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Delhi in 1969. An author, teacher, and mentor, Mollie won Fulbright research grants to India and New Zealand and lectured in the United States, India, New Zealand, Canada, and China. She wrote 26 books, most co-authored with her husband, Russell (Rus) C. Smart. Beginning in the 1940s, when Freudian theory had a strong grip on the popular view of child development, the books placed the developing child in the context of family and community systems. The Smarts' best-selling college textbook Children: Development and Relationships (1967, 1973, 1977, 1982) was based on the theories of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Mollie was a member of the American Psychological Association throughout her professional career and held memberships also in the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the Groves Conference on Marriage and Family, and the Fulbright Association. After moving to Ridgefield, Washington, in 2003 with her daughter Ellen following Rus's death in 1996, she applied her great knowledge to advise a community-based organization that serves the needs of new babies born into destitute families. Mollie died at home in Ridgefield on October 22, 2012, at age 96. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Nodulation in Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. (Caesalpinioideae), a Threatened Species Native to the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; Peix, Alvaro; de Faria, Sergio Miana; Mateos, Pedro F.; Rivera, Lina P.; Simões-Araujo, Jean L.; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Cruz, Cristina; Velázquez, Encarna; Scotti, Maria Rita; Sprent, Janet I.; James, Euan K.

    2012-01-01

    The threatened caesalpinioid legume Dimorphandra wilsonii, which is native to the Cerrado biome in Brazil, was examined for its nodulation and N2-fixing ability, and was compared with another, less-threatened species, D. jorgei. Nodulation and potential N2 fixation was shown on seedlings that had been inoculated singly with five bradyrhizobial isolates from mature D. wilsonii nodules. The infection of D. wilsonii by two of these strains (Dw10.1, Dw12.5) was followed in detail using light and transmission electron microscopy, and was compared with that of D. jorgei by Bradyrhizobium strain SEMIA6099. The roots of D. wilsonii were infected via small transient root hairs at 42 d after inoculation (dai), and nodules were sufficiently mature at 63 dai to express nitrogenase protein. Similar infection and nodule developmental processes were observed in D. jorgei. The bacteroids in mature Dimorphandra nodules were enclosed in plant cell wall material containing a homogalacturonan (pectic) epitope that was recognized by the monoclonal antibody JIM5. Analysis of sequences of their rrs (16S rRNA) genes and their ITS regions showed that the five D. wilsonii strains, although related to SEMIA6099, may constitute five undescribed species of genus Bradyrhizobium, whilst their nodD and nifH gene sequences showed that they formed clearly separated branches from other rhizobial strains. This is the first study to describe in full the N2-fixing symbiotic interaction between defined rhizobial strains and legumes in the sub-family Caesalpinioideae. This information will hopefully assist in the conservation of the threatened species D. wilsonii. PMID:23185349

  9. Going Nowhere? The Politics of Remembering (and Forgetting Molly Ringwald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the actor Molly Ringwald, forever famous for her roles in a series of 1980s teen films directed by John Hughes, to explore notions of generational remembering and forgetting.

  10. Free-breathing MOLLI: application to myocardial T(1) mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jyun-Ming; Huang, Teng-Yi; Tseng, Yu-Shen; Lin, Yi-Ru

    2012-12-01

    Of the myocardial T(1) mapping techniques, the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence is accurate and highly reproducible. The MOLLI sequence requires patients to hold their breath for 17 heartbeats during the scanning process to minimize respiratory motion-related artifacts. However, some patients are unable to hold their breath because of illness or limited breath-hold capacity. This study, therefore, aimed to develop a robust myocardial T(1) mapping method based on the MOLLI sequence for patients unable to perform voluntary breath-holds. This study presents a free-breathing MOLLI (FB-MOLLI) sequence and an optimized reconstruction method to allow myocardial T(1) mapping in vivo without breath-hold. Nine healthy volunteers participated in this study after providing institutionally approved consent. The FB-MOLLI sequence acquires 20 images within 29 heartbeats. The reconstruction program employs a two-step automatic image registration technique and an image selection method inspired by the self-gating cardiac imaging method. Results indicate that the proposed reconstruction method increases the accuracy and reproducibility of free-breathing T(1) measurements significantly (p mapping, and could greatly facilitate acquisition procedures during routine examinations.

  11. Feeding rates in the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna and its coexisting sexual parasite, the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Schlupp, I

    2010-07-01

    Feeding rates of the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and one of its sexual hosts, the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna, were measured under winter and summer temperature conditions. Food consumption of the unisexual P. formosa in winter conditions was significantly higher than that of P. latipinna, and it is hypothesized that the resulting food stress might have an important influence on the population composition of these closely related fishes via higher winter mortality in P. formosa.

  12. Seed viability of Dimorphandra gardneriana subject to water stress in different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Matias Ursulino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The forest species Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. is widely used for various pharmacological products, yet few basic studies have been undertaken to understand their ecological and physiological attributes under stress conditions. The goal of this research was to evaluate the seed germination and vigor when subjected to different osmotic potentials and temperatures. Water restriction was simulated with polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG 6000 with osmotic potentials of 0; -0,2; -0,4; -0,6; -0,8, and -1,0MPa at temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. The effect of the treatment was determined by the germination and vigor (germination speed index, length and phytomass of dry shoot and roots of the seeds, in an entirely random design with four repetitions. From-0, 4MPa it occurs a drastic reduction in germination and vigor of seeds although these factors were less affected at temperature of 25°C up to -0, 2MPa.

  13. Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Vargas Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations. The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  14. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of four T1 mapping sequences: a head-to-head comparison of MOLLI, ShMOLLI, SASHA, and SAPPHIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujol, Sébastien; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Foppa, Murilo; Chow, Kelvin; Kawaji, Keigo; Ngo, Long H; Kellman, Peter; Manning, Warren J; Thompson, Richard B; Nezafat, Reza

    2014-09-01

    To compare accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of four commonly used myocardial T1 mapping sequences: modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI), shortened MOLLI (ShMOLLI), saturation recovery single-shot acquisition (SASHA), and saturation pulse prepared heart rate independent inversion recovery (SAPPHIRE). This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. All subjects provided written informed consent. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of the four T1 mapping sequences were first compared in phantom experiments. In vivo analysis was performed in seven healthy subjects (mean age ± standard deviation, 38 years ± 19; four men, three women) who were imaged twice on two separate days. In vivo reproducibility of native T1 mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) were measured. Differences between the sequences were assessed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests (phantom data) and mixed-effect models (in vivo data). T1 mapping accuracy in phantoms was lower with ShMOLLI (62 msec) and MOLLI (44 msec) than with SASHA (13 msec; P .05) and ECV quantification (∼0.01-0.02; P > .05). SASHA and SAPPHIRE yield higher accuracy, lower precision, and similar reproducibility compared with MOLLI and ShMOLLI for T1 measurement. Different sequences yield different ECV values; however, all sequences have similar reproducibility for ECV quantification.

  15. Pigments and ultrastructures of pigment cells in xanthic sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P D; Angus, R A; Morrison, R L; Frost-Mason, S K; Sheetz, J H

    1991-12-01

    Electron micrographs of skin from xanthic (gold) sailfin mollies revealed numerous xanthophores, as well as scattered melanophores. The melanophores were seen to contain premelanosomes in various stages of development. This is consistent with the fact that xanthic mollies have been shown to be tyrosinase positive. Melanosomes in xanthic mollies appear to develop by one of two pathways: 1) from an endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicle which develops an internal lamellar framework, and 2) by fusion of multiple Golgi-derived vesicles which lack an internal lamellar framework. Analysis of the pigments in the skin of the xanthic mollies identified four colorless pteridine pigments (xanthopterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin, and pterin) and a carotenoid with an absorbance spectrum similar to beta-carotene. It appears that, unlike some other poeciliid fishes, sailfin mollies do not use pteridine pigments for orange coloration. Rather, they appear to rely primarily on carotenoids.

  16. Megastimanes and ergostane type steroid from leaves Cratylia mollis (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luciano S.; Lima, Marcos V.B.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Inst. de Quimica; Giulietti, Ana M.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2009-07-01

    From the methanolic extract of the leaves of Cratylia mollis were obtained by chromatographic techniques (3S,5S,6S,9R)-3,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydro-beta-ionol (1), and a new bis-norisoprenoid named (4S{sup *}, 6S{sup *})-4-but-1E-enyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohex-2-enone (2) as well as 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy ergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated based on MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic data analyses. (author)

  17. Development and validation of a HPLC method for the quantification of three flavonoids in a crude extract of Dimorphandra gardneriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo P. Landim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for separation and quantification of three flavonoids by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed and validated. Flavonoids present in a crude methanolic extract of the inner bark of Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul., Fabaceae, were analyzed. Rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin were used as calibration standards. The analysis was performed using a Thermo Scientific Hypersil C18 column (250 x 4.0 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size, as stationary phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and detection at a wavelength of 356 nm. The proposed method was validated by resolution RE No. 899/2003 of the National Health Surveillance Agency. In this study, an excellent linearity was obtained with r higher than 0.99. Besides, the chromatographic peaks showed good resolution. With other validation data, including precision, specificity, accuracy and robustness, this method demonstrated good reliability and sensitivity, and can be conveniently used for the quantification of rutin, isoquercitrin and quercetin in crude methanolic extract of D. gardneriana pods. Furthermore, there are the advantages of easy sample preparation and short time between each injection.

  18. Flavonoid constituents and free radical scavenging activity of Alchemilla mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Nikolova, Milena; Gavrilova, Anna; Vitkova, Antonina

    2011-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Alchemilla mollis was measured by its ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. The EtOAc fraction obtained after partition of the total extract was found to be the most active radical scavenger (IC50 9.8 +/- 1.8 microg/mL) and was subjected to fractionation by Sephadex LH-20 CC. Further purification by RP-18 CC led to the isolation of eight flavonoid glycosides: cis- and trans-tiliroside (1 and 2), rhodiolgin (3), hyperoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), miquelianin (6), sinocrassoside D2 (7), and gossypetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (8). It was found that 8 is a new compound and its antioxidant activity is also reported. Identification of the isolated compounds was carried out by spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis (1D and 2D NMR, UV and MS).

  19. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in

  20. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  1. SUBACUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  2. SUBACTUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  3. Quantifying the threat of extinction from Muller's ratchet in the diploid Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is a small unisexual fish that has been suspected of being threatened by extinction from the stochastic accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations that is caused by Muller's ratchet in non-recombining populations. However, no detailed quantification of the extent of this threat is available. Results Here we quantify genomic decay in this fish by using a simple model of Muller's ratchet with the most realistic parameter combinations available employing the evolution@home global computing system. We also describe simple extensions of the standard model of Muller's ratchet that allow us to deal with selfing diploids, triploids and mitotic recombination. We show that Muller's ratchet creates a threat of extinction for the Amazon molly for many biologically realistic parameter combinations. In most cases, extinction is expected to occur within a time frame that is less than previous estimates of the age of the species, leading to a genomic decay paradox. Conclusion How then does the Amazon molly survive? Several biological processes could individually or in combination solve this genomic decay paradox, including paternal leakage of undamaged DNA from sexual sister species, compensatory mutations and many others. More research is needed to quantify the contribution of these potential solutions towards the survival of the Amazon molly and other (ancient asexual species.

  4. Factors responsible for Honckenya peploides (Caryophyllaceae) and Leymus mollis (Poaceae) spatial segregation on subarctic coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jean-Michel; Houle, Gilles

    2002-03-01

    Low water and nutrient availability and significant sand movement, salt spray, and soil salinity are typical of coastal dunes. These conditions are generally unfavorable for the various life stages of plants and especially for seedlings. However, the intensity of these stresses decreases landward, even over short distances, with significant effects on community composition. On coastal dunes in subarctic Québec, Canada, Honckenya peploides (Caryophyllaceae) colonizes the upper beach where it forms small mounds called embryo dunes. Leymus mollis (Poaceae) is mostly restricted to the foredune; however, a few individuals successfully establish on the upper beach, particularly on embryo dunes. We hypothesized that this differential distribution is associated with differences in the tolerance of the two species' seedlings to physical stresses. Honckenya peploides and L. mollis seedling tolerance to sand burial, salt spray, soil salinity, and nutrient and water availability was assessed in greenhouse experiments. Unexpectedly, our results showed that tolerance to sand burial, salt spray, and soil salinity was lower for H. peploides than for L. mollis. If seeds are available and seedlings tolerate the conditions prevailing on the upper beach well, why are mature L. mollis individuals rare in this habitat? We suggest that massive abrasion events (e.g., violent storm waves and ice thrust) restrict the presence of the species on the upper beach.

  5. Antibacterian in vitro determinatíon of Menthostachys mollis (Muña) opposite to oral bacterial stomatological importance

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz L., Karin; Bachiller en Odontología. Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Moromi N., Hilda; Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas,Microbiología. Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to determine the antimícrobial action of the essential oil of Methosthachys mollis (Muña); in design at random one strains standard ATCC of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinobacillus actinomicetencomitans and Actinomyces sp, to: Amoxicilina (positive witness), essential oil of Methosthachys mollis and, distilled water (negative witness); to measure the halos of antitmicrobial action. For the mentioned bacteria one found, respectively, in Amoxi...

  6. Pharmaceutical Properties and Applications of a Natural Polymer from Grewia mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Nep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of naturally occurring biocompatible materials has been the focus of recent research activity in the design of dosage forms for immediate and controlled release formulations. Grewia gum is an intracellular gum obtained by extraction from the inner stem bark of the shrub Grewia mollis (Malvaceae. It grows abundantly (wild or cultivated in the middle belt region of Nigeria, and the mucilage has been used by indigenes of this belt as thickener in soups. Grewia gum has been investigated for potential applications in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The industrial extrapolation of the applications of the gum has, however, been slowed by the limited structural, toxicological, and stability data available on the gum. This paper highlights ethnobotanical uses of G. mollis shrub and discusses the structural features, functional properties, and applications of grewia gum with emphases on its pharmaceutical potentials.

  7. Two new ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Albizia mollis (Wall.) Boiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhong-Quan; Yang, Dan; Liu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Jiang, He-Zhong; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhoua, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: yxzhao@mail.kib.ac.c [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China). Kunming Institute of Botany. State Key Lab. of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China; Li, Ning [Anhui University, Hefei (China). School of Life Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Two new kaurane diterpenoid, 3{alpha}, 16{beta}, 17-trihydroxy-ent-kaurane 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and 2{beta},3{alpha}-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-17-oic acid 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the bark of Albizia mollis (Wall.) Boiv. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods in combination with MS experiments. (author)

  8. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3 ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías de propagación que permitan la recuperación y conservación de las poblaciones naturales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca, luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró un efecto negativo de la oscuridad en el proceso de germinación y no se observó efecto del AG3 sobre la germinación de M. mollis en presencia de la luz. Los porcentajes de germinación obtenidos en los tratamientos de iluminación fueron superiores al 80% sobresaliendo el tratamiento de luz roja que arrojó los mejores resultados tanto en el porcentaje como en la velocidad de germinación. Los resultados indican que la germinación en M. mollis es dependiente de la luz debido a que sus semillas son fotoblásticas positivas.

  9. New Neolignans and a Phenylpropanoid Glycoside from Twigs of Miliusa mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the twigs of Miliusa mollis Pierre, three new compounds including (2S,3S-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-methyl-5-[1(E-propenyl]benzofuran, (7S,8S- threo-Δ8'-4-methoxyneolignan and tyrosol-1-O-β-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-O-β-gluco-pyranoside were isolated, along with seven known compounds. Their structures were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data.

  10. Antimycobacterial activity of Juglans regia, Juglans mollis, Carya illinoensis and Bocconia frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva; Verde-Star, María Julia; Salinas-González, Noé; Rosales-Hernández, Bibiana; Estrada-García, Iris; Mendez-Aragón, Patricia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; González-Garza, María Teresa; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2008-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious worldwide health threat, killing almost 2 million people per year. Alternative antimycobacterial drugs are urgently needed; studies have shown that medicinal plants traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases are a potential source of compounds to treat tuberculosis. This paper studied the antimycobacterial activity of 28 extracts from four different plant species that have been used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat tuberculosis. Bark and leaf crude extracts of Juglans regia L., Juglans mollis Engelm., Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) K. Koch and Bocconia frutescens showed in vitro anti-M. tuberculosis activity. Hexane bark extracts from C. illinoensis, J. mollis and J. regia were the most active with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 31, 50 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Ethanol bark extracts from C. illinoensis and J. mollis showed activity at 100 and 125 microg/mL, respectively. Leaf extracts had the lowest activity. Methanol and hexane leaves extracts from B. frutescens had a MIC of 125 microg/mL. None of the aqueous extracts showed antimycobacterial activity.

  11. Effects of glyphosate acid and the glyphosate-commercial formulation (Roundup) on Dimorphandra wilsonii seed germination: Interference of seed respiratory metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; da Silva Cruz, Fernanda Vieira; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Borges, Felipe Viègas; Fonseca, Marcia Bacelar; Juneau, Philippe; Garcia, Queila Souza

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate-formulations are widely used in the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna) with little or no control, threatening population of the endangered species Dimorphandra wilsonii. We investigated the toxicity of different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l(-1)) of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup(®)) on seed germination in D. wilsonii. Glyphosate acid and Roundup drastically decreased seed germination by decreasing seed respiration rates. The activation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase assure no hydrogen peroxide accumulation in exposed seeds. Glyphosate acid and the Roundup-formulation negatively affected the activities of enzymes associated with the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), with Complex III as its precise target. The toxicity of Roundup-formulation was greater than that of glyphosate acid due to its greater effects on respiration. The herbicide glyphosate must impair D. wilsonii seed germination by disrupting the mitochondrial ETC, resulting in decreased energy (ATP) production. Our results therefore indicate the importance of avoiding (or closely regulating) the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in natural Cerrado habitats of D. wilsonni as they are toxic to seed germination and therefore threaten conservation efforts. It will likewise be important to investigate the effects of glyphosate on the seeds of other species and to investigate the impacts of these pesticides elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Response to and recovery from acute sublethal gamma radiation in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Acute irradiation of the Amazon molly with a sublethal dose of 1,000 rad caused some damage to the intestinal tract and to the haematopoietic system. Histologically, the intestine appeared to have regenerated by the end of a week; damage to the haematopoietic tissue appeared more slowly, but repair was almost complete some two months later. Nevertheless, recovery to the intestine cannot have been entirely completed in seven days, since the fish did not feed well for the following two weeks. After this, there were no obvious deleterious effects upon the survival and viability of the fish, although irradiated fish weighed less at the termination of the experiment.

  13. Evaluation of extracts from Coccoloba mollis using the Salmonella/microsome system and in vivo tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Stefanini Tsuboy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The common everyday use of medicinal plants is an ancient, and still very widespread practice, whereby the need for studies on their possible toxicity and mutagenic properties. The species Coccoloba mollis has been much used in phytotherapy, mainly in cases involving loss of memory and stress. In order to investigate its genotoxic and mutagenic potential, ethanolic extracts from the leaves and roots underwent Salmonella/microsome assaying (TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without exogenous metabolism - S9, besides comet and micronucleus tests in vivo.There was no significant increase in the number of revertants/plate of Salmonella strains in any of the analyzed root-extract concentrations, although the extract itself was extremely toxic to the Salmonella TA98 strain in the tests carried out with S9 (doses varying from 0.005 to 0.5 µg/plate. On the other hand, the leaf-extract induced mutations in the TA98 strain in the absence of S9 in the highest concentration evaluated, although at very low mutagenic potency (0.004 rev/µg. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant increase in the number of comets and micronuclei, in treatments involving Swiss mice. It was obvious that extracts of Coccoloba mollis, under the described experimental conditions, are not mutagenic.

  14. Optimization of Variables for Aqueous Extraction of Gum from Grewia mollis Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Panyoo Akdowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum is a polysaccharide derived from the inner stem bark of the edible plant Grewia mollis. Juss (family Tiliaceae. It is a savanna shrub that grows wildly but is usually cultivated in Nigeria and Northern part of Cameroon. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extraction conditions on the extraction yield and physicochemical properties of the Grewia mollis. The studied aqueous extraction variables were water/powder (W/P ratio (10 : 1–80 : 1 w/p, temperature (25.0–85.0∘C, time (1–3 h, and pH (4.0–10.0. The results indicated that the aqueous extraction variables exhibited the least significant (P<0.05 effect on the yield and the viscosity of the gum. The result shows that the ratio of extraction is the main factor affecting the extraction of gum. The optimized extraction condition for higher viscosity was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 55.4, pH of 7, time of 1 h, and temperature of 50∘C. However, the optimized extraction condition for higher yield was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 80, pH of 4, time of 3 h, and temperature of 73∘C.

  15. Migration of intraperitoneally injected thyroid cells in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Scully, P.M.

    1979-07-01

    We have previously reported the development of an extensive invasive growth of the thyroid gland of the gynogenetic teleost, Poecilia formosa (the Amazon molly), following i.p. injection of uv- or ..gamma..-irradiated thyroid cells. This result was suprising by comparison with mammalian work, in which the thyroid is rarely the site for tumor metastases, but the anatomy of the circulation of fish is different from mammals, and in fish the gills and thyroid gland would be among the first tissues in which injected cells might be arrested. Techniques using a fluorescent dye, /sup 125/I membrane label, or (/sup 3/H)thymidine label were used to follow the distribution of i.p. injected cells in the Amazon molly. Fish sampled as soon s 30 min after injection had some labeled cells dispersed in the connective tissue around the ventral aorta and in the bases of the gills, and by 1 to 4 h large numbers of cells had moved into the thyroid region. A few cells still persisted there 200 h later. Experiments on the distribution of heat-killed cells indicated that the initial distribution of the cells was largely governed by mechanical factors. Injected cells would appear to be disseminated in fish by mechanisms similar to those in mammals.

  16. The effect of growth regulators on post-harvest Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. leaf longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. were the subject of the study. The leaves were harvested early in the morning from the department’s ornamental plant collection. Selected leaves were fully-developed and showed no signs of damage or discolouring. Gibberellic acid (GA3, benzyladenine (BA, meta-methoxytopolin (MemT and its riboside (MemTR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3 were applied in the form of solutions to four-hour leaf-conditioning in the room at a temperature of 18-20°C. After conditioning, the leaves were placed in distilled water. Leaves put into distilled water immediately after cutting served as the control. The post-harvest longevity of leaves of Alchemilla mollis was 7.2-11.8 days. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid solutions at concentrations of 25-50 mg dm−3, benzyladenine at concentrations of 25 mg dm−3 and meta-methoxytopolin and its riboside at concentrations of 75 mg dm−3 extended the post-harvest longevity of leaves by 10.1-81.9%. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited the degradation of chlorophyll, as indicated by the highest SPAD index values.

  17. Aging changes in the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus and the Amazon molly P. formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, A D; Pond, V; Dailey, K

    1983-01-01

    Histological surveys of the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and the guppy P. reticulatus, throughout their lifespans showed no regular aging trends. Few kidney lesions were found in the Amazon molly until very late in life, 60 months or more, when obsolescent glomeruli and dilated renal tubules occurred. Guppies showed involutional changes of the renal system earlier, and the lesions became more severe with age, particularly in male fish. Hemopoietic tissue was reduced in amount in older fish of both species. Guppies of a year and older had marked accumulation of melanin in the melanomacrophage centers of the kidney, and the amount present increased with age. By contrast, there was little melanin deposition in mollies until almost the end of the lifespan. Hyaline droplets were consistently seen in the renal tubules of the mollies, but were rare in guppies. The degenerative changes in the kidneys of these two teleosts are similar to those seen in the kidneys of aging mammals. Despite the loss of normal structure in older fish, it seemed unlikely that degeneration of the kidney was directly involved in aging and death.

  18. Aging changes in the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus and the Amazon molly P. formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Pond, V.; Dailey, K.

    1983-01-01

    Histological surveys of the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and the guppy P. reticulatus, throughout their lifespans showed no regular aging trends. Few kidney lesions were found in the Amazon molly until very late in life, 60 months or more, when obsolescent glomeruli and dilated renal tubules occurred. Guppies showed involutional changes of the renal system earlier, and the lesions became more severe with age, particularly in male fish. Hemopoietic tissue was reduced in amount in older fish of both species. Guppies of a year and older had marked accumulation of melanin in the melanomacrophage centers of the kidney, and the amount present increased with age. By contrast, there was little melanin deposition in mollies until almost the end of the lifespan. Hyaline droplets were consistently seen in the renal tubules of the mollies, but were rare in guppies. The degenerative changes in the kidneys of these two teleosts are similar to those seen in the kidneys of aging mammals. Despite the loss of normal structure in older fish, it seemed unlikely that degeneration of the kidney was directly involved in aging and death.

  19. Effects of chronic exposure to asbestos fibers in the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Pond, V.

    1983-01-01

    Amazon mollies were exposed for 6 months to several concentrations of coarse and fine asbestos particles suspended in their aquarium water. At the end of this period, the fish were serially sectioned and the tissues examined for lesions. Pathological changes were found in the kidneys, the major site of accumulation of the mineral fibers after their entry into the body through the intestinal mucosa. There was no evidence of entry of particles through the gill epithelium. Epithelial hypertrophy and secondary lamellar telangiectasia of the gills appeared to be the result of physical abrasion by the asbestos particles. There was no cellular injury in the liver of the muscles. 16 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Penetration and distribution of carbon particles in a teleost fish, Poecilia formosa (Girard), the Amazon molly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Data is given on the tissue distribution of carbon particles in Amazon mollies exposed for periods of 24-120 h to a 0-0.05% suspension. Very little carbon penetrated the body, either by way of the intestine or the gills. The little amount that entered appeared to pass almost exclusively through the posterior intestine. There was no anatomical specialization of the cells in this area equivalent to Peyer's patches in the intestine of mammals. We suggest that the uptake in the posterior intestine is related to its greater surface area and possibly to some enhanced mobility. After intraperitoneal (ip) injection, carbon that entered the body accumulated at three sites: the heart, the mesentery and, especially, in the head kidney. By 120 h large accumulations were seen in the intertubular areas of the kidney; there was no evidence of excretion of carbon particles from these areas. (JMT)

  1. Large-scale natural disturbance alters genetic population structure of the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Joseph J; Trexler, Joel C; Jue, Nathaniel K; Schrader, Matthew; Travis, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Many inferences about contemporary rates of gene flow are based on the assumption that the observed genetic structure among populations is stable. Recent studies have uncovered several cases in which this assumption is tenuous. Most of those studies have focused on the effects that regular environmental fluctuations can have on genetic structure and gene flow patterns. Occasional catastrophic disturbances could also alter either the distribution of habitat or the spatial distribution of organisms in a way that affects population structure. However, evidence of such effects is sparse in the literature because it is difficult to obtain. Hurricanes, in particular, have the potential to exert dramatic effects on population structure of organisms found on islands or coral reefs or in near shore and coastal habitats. Here we draw on a historic genetic data set and new data to suggest that the genetic structure of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) populations in north Florida was altered dramatically by an unusually large and uncommon type of storm surge associated with Hurricane Dennis in 2005. We compare the spatial pattern of genetic variation in these populations after Hurricane Dennis to the patterns described in an earlier study in this same area. We use comparable genetic data from another region of Florida, collected in the same two periods, to estimate the amount of change expected from typical temporal variation in population structure. The comparative natural history of sailfin mollies in these two regions indicates that the change in population structure produced by the storm surge is not the result of many local extinctions with recolonization from a few refugia but emerged from a pattern of mixing and redistribution.

  2. SÃntese e caracterizaÃÃo de gÃis de galactomanana de fava danta (Dimorphandra gardneriana) para aplicaÃÃo biolÃgica

    OpenAIRE

    Aliny Abreu de Sousa Monteiro

    2009-01-01

    As sementes da espÃcie Dimorphandra gardneriana foram utilizadas como matÃria-prima para a obtenÃÃo de galactomananas e a eficiÃncia do processo foi determinada pelo rendimento em polissacarÃdeo obtido. A goma de fava danta foi purificada pelo mÃtodo de Fehling com a finalidade de reduzir, principalmente, proteÃnas. Esse tratamento propiciou uma reduÃÃo de 36% de proteÃna e uma considerÃvel reduÃÃo na viscosidade, o que està condizente com a reduÃÃo da massa molar dessa amostra. A goma de fav...

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae) from Western Ghats Region, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-06-01

    Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%), followed by alpha-humulene (17.3%), piperitenone oxide (8.5%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.0%) and E-beta-farnesene (5.9%). The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065 +/- 0.008-0.937 +/- 0.139 mg/mL, 0.468 +/- 0.069-3.333 +/- 0.527 mg/mL and 0.117 +/- 0.017-0.338 +/- 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity

  4. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the proliferation of ectopic thyroid tissue in Poecilia formosa the Amazon molly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Pond, V.

    1982-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of any one of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons given to young Amazon mollies induces massive enlargement of the spleen. This enlargement is the result of splenic tissue being partially or wholly replaced by proliferating thyroid tissue. The pharyngeal thyroid gland is stimulated but to a lesser degree. No exuberant thyroid tissue is found at any other extrapharyngeal site. We discuss the possible causes of this finding.

  5. Encapsulation into Stealth Liposomes Enhances the Antitumor Action of Recombinant Cratylia mollis Lectin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Regina Albuquerque da Cunha; Luis Cláudio Nascimento Da Silva; Fábio José Fidélis Almeida; Milena Sales Ferraz; Nathalia Varejão; Marina Falcão de Souza Cartaxo; Rita de Cássia Mendonça de Miranda; Francisco Carlos Amanajás Aguiar Júnior; Noemia Pereira da Silva Santos; Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho; Nereide Stela Santos-Magalhães; Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH su...

  6. Dominance of Lysobacter sp. in the rhizosphere of two coastal sand dune plant species, Calystegia soldanella and Elymus mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung Sook; Do, Jin Ok; Park, Myung Soo; Jung, Sera; Lee, Kang Hyun; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Seong Joo; Kim, Seung Bum

    2006-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of beach morning glory (Calystegia soldanella) and wild rye (Elymus mollis), two of the major plant species inhabiting the coastal sane dune in Tae-An, Korea, was studied by the analysis of community 16S rRNA gene clones. The amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the clones using HaeIII exhibited significant differences in the community composition between the two plant species as well as regional differences, but also identified a specific ARDRA pattern that was most common among the clones regardless of plant species. Subsequent sequence analysis indicated that the pattern was that of Lysobacter spp., which is a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae, class Gamma proteobacteria. The Lysobacter clones comprised 50.6% of the clones derived from C. soldanella and 62.5% of those from E. mollis. Other minor patterns included those of Pseudomonas spp., species of Rhizobium, Chryseobacterium spp. and Pantoea spp. among C. soldanella clones, and Pseudomonas sp. and Aeromonas hydrophila among E. mollis clones. It is not yet clear what kind of roles Lysobacter plays in association with sand dune plants, but its universal presence in the rhizosphere, together with the potential of this taxon for antagonistic activity against plant pathogens, suggests that Lysobacter might form a symbiotic relationship with its host plants.

  7. Erich Fromm's productivity: creativity as exemplified by Joyce's blooming of Leopold and Molly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    According to Erich Fromm, the productive character expresses what he called the life force in ways that are, by nature, artistic in quality. His valuing of the vital and the artistic, fueled by this life force in our potential to be human, serves as the cornerstone of his model of psychoanalysis. Gilbert Rose, author of Necessary Illusion: Art as "Witness", also has identified the parallel between analytic and artistic processes, building on the assumption that the therapeutic alliance and the aesthetic alliance are one and the same. In elaborating this assumption and extending the parallel between Rose and Fromm, I draw the conclusion that the qualities of relationships have an impact on one's ability to express oneself creatively, to live an artistic life--that is, to live productively. Psychoanalysis is, in practice, a process that is artistic, creative, and re-creative in nature. To the degree that authentic expression of emotionally charged implicit knowledge of the ineffable (the emotional life that resides deep in the bodymind) results in transformation and healing, the process is artistic in nature. This process is exemplified by examining the life and literary creations of James Joyce, especially Joyce's characters of Molly and Leopold Bloom in Ulysses.

  8. The role of model female quality in the mate choice copying behaviour of sailfin mollies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Ryan, Michael J

    2006-06-22

    Female mate choice copying is a socially mediated mate choice behaviour, in which a male's attractiveness to females increases if he was previously chosen by another female as a mate. Although copying has been demonstrated in numerous species, little is known about the specific benefits it confers to copying females. Here we demonstrate that the mate choice behaviour of female sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) is influenced by the phenotypic quality of model females with whom males are observed consorting. Test females choosing between two males of similar body length were found to significantly increase time spent with previously non-preferred males after having observed them with a relatively high-quality female. Conversely, females were found to significantly decrease time spent with previously preferred males after having observed them with a relatively low-quality female. Female mate choice copying might be maintained by selection based on the heuristic value it provides females choosing between males whose quality differences are not easily distinguishable.

  9. Morphological and reproductive variation among populations of the Pacific molly Poecilia butleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Vega, J J; Suárez-Rodríguez, M; Espinosa-Pérez, H; Johnson, J B

    2011-10-01

    In viviparous organisms, pregnant females typically experience an increase in body mass and body volume. In this study, the prediction that variation in reproductive traits among populations of viviparous organisms should be related to variation among populations in body shape was tested in the Pacific molly Poecilia butleri, a viviparous fish that inhabits western Mexico and northern Central America. Variation among 10 populations in four reproductive traits was examined: brood size, individual embryo mass, total reproductive allotment and degree of maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos. Variation among these populations in body shape was also examined. Significant variation among populations was observed in both brood size and reproductive allotment but not in embryo mass or degree of maternal provisioning. Significant variation among populations was also observed in body shape. After correcting for female size, however, reproductive traits and body shape were not associated among populations. This suggests that selective pressures acting on reproduction do not necessarily affect morphology and vice versa. Several factors might contribute to this unexpected lack of association between reproductive traits and morphology.

  10. Public information influences sperm transfer to females in sailfin molly males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöbel, Sabine; Witte, Klaudia

    2013-01-01

    In animals, including humans, the social environment can serve as a public information network in which individuals can gather public information about the quality of potential mates by observing conspecifics during sexual interactions. The observing individual itself is also a part of this information network. When recognized by the observed conspecifics as an audience, his/her presence could influence the sexual interaction between those individuals, because the observer might be considered as a potential mate or competitor. One of the most challenging questions in sexual selection to date is how the use of public information in the context of mate choice is linked to the fitness of individuals. Here, we could show that public information influences mate-choice behaviour in sailfin molly males, Poecilia latipinna, and influences the amount of sperm males transfer to a female partner. In the presence of an audience male, males spent less time with the previously preferred, larger of two females and significantly more time with the previously non-preferred, smaller female. When males could physically interact with a female and were faced with an audience male, three audience females or no audience, males transferred significantly more sperm to a female partner in the presence of an audience male than with female audience or no audience and spent less time courting his female partner. This is the first study showing that public information use turns into fitness investment, which is the crucial factor to understand the role of public information in the dynamic processes in sexual selection.

  11. Malaria Disease Mapping in Malaysia based on Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azah Samat, Nor; Mey, Liew Wan

    2017-09-01

    Disease mapping is the visual representation of the geographical distribution which give an overview info about the incidence of disease within a population through spatial epidemiology data. Based on the result of map, it helps in monitoring and planning resource needs at all levels of health care and designing appropriate interventions, tailored towards areas that deserve closer scrutiny or communities that lead to further investigations to identify important risk factors. Therefore, the choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important because production of disease risk map relies on the model used. This paper proposes Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model to estimate the relative risk for Malaria in Malaysia. The analysis involved using the number of Malaria cases that obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The outcomes of analysis are displayed through graph and map, including Malaria disease risk map that constructed according to the estimation of relative risk. The distribution of high and low risk areas of Malaria disease occurrences for all states in Malaysia can be identified in the risk map.

  12. Daniel Mollière (1848-1890): the French anatomist-surgeon who introduced Robin's pioneering osteoclast for the genu valgum observed in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Androutsos, George

    2015-08-01

    Inside the pages of the French medical treatises of the 19th century a forgotten osteoclast apparatus for the genu valgum observed in adolescents remained hidden waiting to be unearthed. It was Victor Robin's osteoclast, which has been used by the supreme French anatomist and surgeon Daniel Mollière. With the purpose to share a significant heritage on orthopaedics, a thorough research of the literature of the era was conducted. Our study resulted in the illumination of both Mollière's prolific figure and osteoclast's impact on orthopaedic surgery at that time. Having in mind Mollière's perseverance towards surgical apparatuses, his antiseptic measures inside his operating theatre, his published treatises, his surgical skills, we may effortlessly conclude that he stands among Lyon's best surgeons with an important contribution to orthopaedics.

  13. Lead Acetate-induced Histopathological Changes in the Gills and Digestive System of Silver Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mahmoud Sharaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of a single sublethal concentration of lead acetate on the gills and digestive system of the silver mollies. After LC50 determination, twenty five mollies were randomly chosen and divided into two groups. The first one served as control; while the second group exposed to 0.8 mg lead acetate/liter of H2O for 96 h. Afterwards fish were anesthetized, dissected out and the gills, liver, pancreas, stomach and intestine were processed for paraffin embedding, stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Lead acetate-exposed fish exhibited a decrease of swimming activity and brilliant silvery body color, accumulation of lead acetate on ovarian surface and an increased secretion of mucus from gills and skin. The gills showed hyperplasia, hypertrophy and destruction of the lamellar architecture, fusion of lamellae and lamellar clubbing. The livers showed disarrangement of hepatic cords, shrinkage of hepatocytes and dilatation of liver sinusoids and extravasation of blood. Hepatopancreas damage included loss of contact between hepatocytes and pancreocytes, lysis of pancreocyte membranes and appearance of pyknotic/apoptotic nuclei. The exocrine pancreas revealed necrosis, increased adipocytes and atrophy of pancreatic acini. The stomach exhibited irregularity, shrinkage and fusion of its microvilli, pyknotic/apoptotic nuclei of microvilli epithelium and atrophy of submucosal zone. The intestinal damage included fusion of intestinal microvilli, necrosis and irregularities of the microvilli cells, microvilli loss, flattening and hypertrophy. The study concluded that lead acetate exposure resulted in severe histopathological changes in the gills and in the selected digestive organs of silver mollies.

  14. Public information influences sperm transfer to females in sailfin molly males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nöbel

    Full Text Available In animals, including humans, the social environment can serve as a public information network in which individuals can gather public information about the quality of potential mates by observing conspecifics during sexual interactions. The observing individual itself is also a part of this information network. When recognized by the observed conspecifics as an audience, his/her presence could influence the sexual interaction between those individuals, because the observer might be considered as a potential mate or competitor. One of the most challenging questions in sexual selection to date is how the use of public information in the context of mate choice is linked to the fitness of individuals. Here, we could show that public information influences mate-choice behaviour in sailfin molly males, Poecilia latipinna, and influences the amount of sperm males transfer to a female partner. In the presence of an audience male, males spent less time with the previously preferred, larger of two females and significantly more time with the previously non-preferred, smaller female. When males could physically interact with a female and were faced with an audience male, three audience females or no audience, males transferred significantly more sperm to a female partner in the presence of an audience male than with female audience or no audience and spent less time courting his female partner. This is the first study showing that public information use turns into fitness investment, which is the crucial factor to understand the role of public information in the dynamic processes in sexual selection.

  15. Molly Keane y Kate O'Brien: nación, clase y género

    OpenAIRE

    González Molano, Yolanda

    2004-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada En esta tesis se estudia el tratamiento de la identidad en las novelas de Molly Keane (1904-1996) y Kate O'Brien (1897-1974), cuyas obras se publicaron con posterioridad a la proclamación del Irish Free State en 1922. Mediante un triple enfoque que analiza la interrelación de los aspectos de nacionalidad, clase y construcción genérica, se defiende que ambas autoras coinciden en la presentación de una identidad conflictiv...

  16. Characterization of Benign Myocarditis Using Quantitative Delayed-Enhancement Imaging Based on Molli T1 Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Marcel; Gilles, Raymond J; Azzabou, Noura; Marty, Benjamin; Vignaud, Alexandre; Greiser, Andreas; Carlier, Pierre G

    2015-10-01

    Delayed contrast enhancement after injection of a gadolinium-chelate (Gd-chelate) is a reference imaging method to detect myocardial tissue changes. Its localization within the thickness of the myocardial wall allows differentiating various pathological processes such as myocardial infarction (MI), inflammatory myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies. The aim of the study was first to characterize benign myocarditis using quantitative delayed-enhancement imaging and then to investigate whether the measure of the extracellular volume fraction (ECV) can be used to discriminate between MI and myocarditis.In 6 patients with acute benign myocarditis (32.2 ± 13.8 year-old, subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) and 18 patients with MI (52.3 ± 10.9 year-old, subendocardial/transmural LGE), myocardial T1 was determined using the Modified Look-Locker Imaging (MOLLI) sequence at 3 Tesla before and after Gd-chelate injection. T1 values were compared in LGE and normal regions of the myocardium. The myocardial T1 values were normalized to the T1 of blood, and the ECV was calculated from T1 values of myocardium and blood pre- and post-Gd injection.In both myocarditis and MI, the T1 was lower in LGE regions than in normal regions of the left ventricle. T1 of LGE areas was significantly higher in myocarditis than in MI (446.8 ± 45.8 vs 360.5 ± 66.9 ms, P = 0.003) and ECV was lower in myocarditis than in MI (34.5 ± 3.3 vs 53.8 ± 13.0 %, P = 0.004).Both inflammatory process and chronic fibrosis induce LGE (subepicardial in myocarditis and subendocardial in MI). The present study demonstrates that the determination of T1 and ECV is able to differentiate the 2 histological patterns.Further investigation will indicate whether the severity of ECV changes might help refine the predictive risk of LGE in myocarditis.

  17. Infarct myocardium tissue heterogeneity assessment using pre-contrast and post-contrast T1 maps acquired with Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Voigt, T.; Wiethoff, A.; Shetty, A.K.; Crichton, S.; Murday, D.; Rinaldi, A.; Nagel, E.; Puntmann, V.O.; Schaeffter, T.; Razavi, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    We aim to explore tissue heterogeneity assessment using T1 maps generated with the modified Look Locker (MOLLI) sequence in patients with previous myocardial infarct. Conclusion: Differences between healthy myocardium and scarred tissues can be reliably distinguished from the R1 values derived from

  18. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICÓTICA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LAS HOJAS DE Minthostachys mollis (MUÑA COMPARADO CON EL FLUCONAZOL EN CULTIVO DE Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia 0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  19. Actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña comparado con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Alcalá-Marcos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.- Demostrar el efecto antimicótico del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña en comparación con el Fluconazol en cultivo de Candida albicans. Materiales y Método.- Estudio experimental. El efecto antimicótico se estudió midiendo 80 halos de inhibición distribuidos en 5 grupos mediante el método Kirby-Bauer. Se utilizó una cepa clínica de Candida albicans. Los grupos de estudio fueron grupo muña 25% (GM25%, grupo muña 50% (GM50%, grupo muña 100% (GM100%, un grupo control positivo (Fluconazol, y un grupo control negativo (aceite mineral. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la Prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y el Test de Dunn usando el paquete SPSS v.17.0. Se consideró un nivel de significancia  0,05.Conclusión.- El aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis (al 100% tuvo mayor efecto contra la Candida albicans que el Fluconazol; además, el efecto antimicótico del Fluconazol fue mayor que la Minthostachys mollis al 25%, y fue el mismo que la Minthostachys mollis al 50%.

  20. Development and Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Novel Wheat-Leymus mollis Lm#7Ns (7D Disomic Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Yang

    Full Text Available Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm possesses novel and important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-L. mollis introgression lines is of great significance for wheat disease resistance breeding. M11003-3-1-15-8, a novel disomic substitution line of common wheat cv. 7182 -L. mollis, developed and selected from the BC1F5 progeny between wheat cv. 7182 and octoploid Tritileymus M47 (2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs, was characterized by morphological and cytogenetic identification, analysis of functional molecular markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and disease resistance evaluation. Cytological observations suggested that M11003-3-1-15-8 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. The GISH investigations showed that line contained 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of L. mollis chromosomes. EST-STS multiple loci markers and PLUG (PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene markers confirmed that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes belonged to homoeologous group 7, it was designated as Lm#7Ns. While nulli-tetrasomic and sequential FISH-GISH analysis using the oligonucleotide Oligo-pSc119.2 and Oligo-pTa535 as probes revealed that the wheat 7D chromosomes were absent in M11003-3-1-15-8. Therefore, it was deduced that M11003-3-1-15-8 was a wheat-L. mollis Lm#7Ns (7D disomic substitution line. Field disease resistance demonstrated that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes Lm#7Ns were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult stage. Moreover, M11003-3-1-15-8 had a superior numbers of florets. The novel disomic substitution line M11003-3-1-15-8, could be exploited as an important genetic material in wheat resistance breeding programs and genetic resources.

  1. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangjun; Schlupp, Ingo; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs’ embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars) and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers) and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as), in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess–as most other teleost fish—two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a)/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b), respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary) and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the analyzed

  2. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  3. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  4. Identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to dorsal fin length from preliminary linkage map of molly fish, Poecilia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, Bun Poh; Siraj, Siti Shapor; Daud, Siti Khalijah; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Rahman, Arina Nadia Abdul

    2014-02-15

    A preliminary linkage map was constructed by applying backcross and testcross strategy using microsatellite (SSR) markers developed for Xiphophorus and Poecilia reticulata in ornamental fish, molly Poecilia sp. The linkage map having 18 SSR loci consisted of four linkage groups that spanned a map size of 516.1cM. Association between genotypes and phenotypes was tested in a random fashion and QTL for dorsal fin length was found to be linked to locus Msb069 on linkage group 2. Coincidentally, locus Msb069 was also reported as putative homologue primer pairs containing SSRs repeat motif which encoded hSMP-1, a sex determining locus. Dorsal fin length particularly in males of Poecilia latipinna is an important feature during courtship display. Therefore, we speculate that both dorsal fin length and putative hSMP-1 gene formed a close proximity to male sexual characteristics.

  5. Pattern of distribution of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa (Girard), after intraperitoneal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Bornbusch, A.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper describes the distribution and accumulation labelled dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the Amazon molly after intraperitoneal injection. The study was made to see whether there was preferential accumulation of the compound in the spleen; the findings showed that this was not the case. Two hours after injection, DMBA was present throughout the body, except in the brain and the ovary. There was enhanced deposition at four sites, in the macrophages of the atrium of the heart and the peritoneum, the liver and the exocrine pancreas. DMBA was taken up by reticuloendothelial macrophages for 78 h after injection, then it was lost. The accumulation and disappearance of radioactive label seen in the liver and pancreatic cells probably represented the pattern of metabolism of the compound. By 400 h after injection there was little DMBA remaining. Label accumulated in the ameloblasts, which secrete the enamel capping of the teeth. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  7. Detection of "bath salts" and other novel psychoactive substances in hair samples of ecstasy/MDMA/"Molly" users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco; Cleland, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) in the US is commonly adulterated with other drugs, but research has not focused on purity of ecstasy since the phenomenon of "Molly" (ecstasy marketed as pure MDMA) arose in the US. We piloted a rapid electronic survey in 2015 to assess use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and other drugs among 679 nightclub/festival-attending young adults (age 18-25) in New York City. A quarter (26.1%) of the sample provided a hair sample to be analyzed for the presence of select synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and some other NPS. Samples were analyzed using fully validated UHPLC-MS/MS methods. To examine consistency of self-report, analyses focused on the 48 participants with an analyzable hair sample who reported lifetime ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use. Half (50.0%) of the hair samples contained MDMA, 47.9% contained butylone, and 10.4% contained methylone. Of those who reported no lifetime use of "bath salts", stimulant NPS, or unknown pills or powders, about four out of ten (41.2%) tested positive for butylone, methylone, alpha-PVP, 5/6-APB, or 4-FA. Racial minorities were more likely to test positive for butylone or test positive for NPS after reporting no lifetime use. Frequent nightclub/festival attendance was the strongest predictor of testing positive for MDMA, butylone, or methylone. Results suggest that many ecstasy-using nightclub/festival attendees may be unintentionally using "bath salts" or other NPS. Prevention and harm reduction education is needed for this population and "drug checking" (e.g., pill testing) may be beneficial for those rejecting abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3 EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB. (LABIATAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO SUÁREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis . Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre la germinación. Los porcentajes de germinación fueron superiores a 80% para los tratamientos con luz (semilla fotoblástica positiva, donde el tratamiento con luz roja tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el proceso de germinación.

  9. Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Satheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea spiders (Pycnogonids are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.

  10. 玛丽鱼染色体核型及Ag-NORs研究%Karyotype and Ag-NORs of sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳超; 鲍海港; 李俊英; 吴常信

    2016-01-01

    The metaphase chromosome spreading was conducted in gills and fins cells of sailfin molly Poecilia latip-inna by colchicine-low concentration-hot film drops, and Ag-NORs were analyzed to obtain cytogenetic data of sailfin molly. The results showed that the karyotype of sailfin molly composed of 2n=46t, NF=46. Ag-NORs were found on the end of chromosome No. 2 and chromosome No. 9, and the Ag-NORs polymorphisms were individually specific, while no sex chromosome was observed in this fish. The findings will provide reference to genetic pattern of sailfin molly.%为获得玛丽鱼Poecilia latipinna细胞遗传学数据,以玛丽鱼的鳃丝和鳍条为试验材料,采用秋水仙素浸泡、低渗处理和热滴片法制备染色体标本,分析其染色体的核型和银染( Ag-NORs)。结果表明:玛丽鱼具有23对染色体,核型2n=46t, NF=46; Ag-NORs出现在t2和t9的染色体末端,其数目具有多态性,未发现性染色体。本研究结果可为研究玛丽鱼的遗传方式提供基础资料。

  11. Identification of myocardial diffuse fibrosis by 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping: averaging to improve precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Wassilew, Katharina; Cameron, Donnie; Heng, Ee Ling; Nyktari, Evangelia; Asimakopoulos, George; de Souza, Anthony; Giri, Shivraman; Pierce, Iain; Jabbour, Andrew; Firmin, David; Frenneaux, Michael; Gatehouse, Peter; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2017-06-12

    Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level. For assessment of T 1 mapping precision, a cohort of 15 healthy volunteers underwent two CMR scans on separate days using an 11 heartbeat MOLLI with a 5(3)3 beat scheme to measure native T 1 and a 4(1)3(1)2 beat post-contrast scheme to measure post-contrast T 1, allowing calculation of partition coefficient and ECV. To assess correlation of T 1 mapping with collagen volume fraction, a separate cohort of ten aortic stenosis patients scheduled to undergo surgery underwent one CMR scan with this 11 heartbeat MOLLI scheme, followed by intraoperative tru-cut myocardial biopsy. Six models of myocardial diffuse fibrosis assessment were established with incremental inclusion of imaging by averaging of the basal and mid-myocardial left ventricular levels, and each model was assessed for precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction. A model using 11 heart beat MOLLI imaging of two basal and two mid ventricular level averaged T 1 maps provided improved precision (Intraclass correlation 0.93 vs 0.84) and correlation with histology (R (2) = 0.83 vs 0.36) for diffuse fibrosis compared to a single mid-ventricular level alone. ECV was more precise and correlated better than native T 1 mapping. T 1 mapping sequences with repeated averaging could be considered for applications of 11 heartbeat MOLLI, especially when small changes in native T 1/ECV might affect clinical management.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the genotoxic activity and apoptosis induction of the extracts of roots and leaves from the medicinal plant Coccoloba mollis (Polygonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboy, Marcela S; Marcarini, Juliana C; Luiz, Rodrigo C; Barros, Iuri B; Ferreira, Dalva T; Ribeiro, Lúcia R; Mantovani, Mário S

    2010-06-01

    Coccoloba mollis (Family Polygonaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in cases of memory loss, stress, insomnia, anemia, impaired vision, and sexual impotence, but the scientific literature, to date, lacks studies on the biological effects of this species, particularly with regard to cytotoxicity and induction of DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to assess in vitro (in hepatic HTC cells) ethanolic extracts of the roots and leaves of C. mollis for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and induction of apoptosis. For these evaluations the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay, comet assay, micronucleus test with cytokinesis block, and an in situ test for detection of apoptotic cells with acridine orange staining were used. The results showed that the extract obtained from the roots of C. mollis is more cytotoxic than that obtained from the leaves and that the reduction in cell viability observed in the MTT assay was a result, at least in part, from the induction of apoptosis. Both extracts induced DNA damage at a concentration of 20 microg/mL in the comet assay, but no genotoxicity was detected with any of the treatments carried out in the micronucleus test.

  14. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymn T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  15. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior.

  16. Cratylia mollis lectin nanoelectrode for differential diagnostic of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia based on label-free detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscila M S; Lima, Amanda L R; Silva, Bárbara V M; Coelho, Luana C B B; Dutra, Rosa F; Correia, Maria T S

    2016-11-15

    The research for new biomarkers of cancer has studied the role of fetuin glycoprotein on the metastatic disease diagnosis. Cratylia mollis is a lectin with high finity to fetuin, and used here to differentiate prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. A label-free electrochemical nanosensor based on assembled carboxylated carbon nanotubes (COOH-CNTs) and poly-L-lysine (PLL) film was developed and applied to serum samples of prostate cancer positive for Gleason score. The electrode analytical response to fetuin in PBS samples, obtained by square wave voltammetry, exhibited a linear range from 0.5 to 25µgmL(-1), with a high correlation coefficient (r=0.994, pprostate cancer patients with known the Gleason score were tested showing a significant statistically correlation. Thus, the lectin nanoelectrode was able to distinguish the degree of staging prostate cancer, providing the diagnostic differentiation of benign and malign hyperplasia. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first biosensor for this application using a lectin.

  17. Encapsulation into Stealth Liposomes Enhances the Antitumor Action of Recombinant Cratylia mollis Lectin Expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Cássia R A; da Silva, Luís C N; Almeida, Fábio J F; Ferraz, Milena S; Varejão, Nathalia; Cartaxo, Marina F de Souza; de Miranda, Rita de Cássia M; de Aguiar, Francisco C A; Santos, Noemia P da Silva; Coelho, Luana C B B; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S; Correia, Maria T Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition rates were 59% for rCramoll and 75% for rCramoll-lipo. Histopathological analysis of the experimental groups showed that both free and encapsulated lectin caused no changes in the kidneys of animals. Hematological analysis revealed that treatment with rCramoll-lipo significantly increased leukocyte concentration when compared with the untreated and rCramoll group. In conclusion, the encapsulation of rCramoll in stealth liposomes improves its antitumor activity without substantial toxicity; this approach was more successful than the previous results reported for pCramoll loaded into conventional liposomes. At this point, a crucial difference between the antitumor action of free and encapsulated rCramoll was found along with their effects on immune cells. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the antitumor effect induced by rCramoll.

  18. ENCAPSULATION INTO STEALTH LIPOSOMES ENHANCED THE ANTITUMOR ACTION OF RECOMBINANT Cratylia mollis LECTIN EXPRESSED IN Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina Albuquerque da Cunha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of new recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition rates were 68% for rCramoll and 80% for rCramoll-lipo. Histopathological analysis of the experimental groups showed that both free and encapsulated lectin caused no changes in the kidneys of animals. Hematological analysis revealed that treatment with rCramoll-lipo significantly increased leukocyte concentration when compared with the untreated and pCramoll group. In conclusion, the encapsulation of rCramoll in stealth liposomes improves its antitumor activity without substantial toxicity; this approach was more successful than the previous results reported for pCramoll loaded into conventional liposomes. At this point, a crucial difference between the antitumor action of free and encapsulated rCramoll was found along with their effects on immune cells. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism(s of the antitumor effect induced by rCramoll.

  19. Encapsulation into Stealth Liposomes Enhances the Antitumor Action of Recombinant Cratylia mollis Lectin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Cássia R. A.; da Silva, Luís C. N.; Almeida, Fábio J. F.; Ferraz, Milena S.; Varejão, Nathalia; Cartaxo, Marina F. de Souza; de Miranda, Rita de Cássia M.; de Aguiar, Francisco C. A.; Santos, Noemia P. da Silva; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition rates were 59% for rCramoll and 75% for rCramoll-lipo. Histopathological analysis of the experimental groups showed that both free and encapsulated lectin caused no changes in the kidneys of animals. Hematological analysis revealed that treatment with rCramoll-lipo significantly increased leukocyte concentration when compared with the untreated and rCramoll group. In conclusion, the encapsulation of rCramoll in stealth liposomes improves its antitumor activity without substantial toxicity; this approach was more successful than the previous results reported for pCramoll loaded into conventional liposomes. At this point, a crucial difference between the antitumor action of free and encapsulated rCramoll was found along with their effects on immune cells. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the antitumor effect induced by rCramoll. PMID:27695439

  20. Confessions of a serial entrepreneur: a conversation with Alfred E. Mann. Interview by Molly Joel Coye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    In this wide-ranging interview, Alfred Mann describes the activities of several medical technology enterprises with which he is engaged. Several of them are companies that he formed; one is a nonprofit foundation, the Alfred E. Mann Foundation for Biomedical Engineering, founded to establish research-oriented institutes on a dozen university campuses and support their work in developing marketable innovations. Mann discusses the need to consider the cost implications of technology, in the context of U.S. health system reform, and describes several important innovations that have emerged from his companies over the years.

  1. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3 EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB.(LABIATAE Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3 on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO SUÁREZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre la germinación. Los porcentajes de germinación fueron superiores a 80% para los tratamientos con luz (semilla fotoblástica positiva, donde el tratamiento con luz roja tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el proceso de germinación.Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., is a perennial shrub that grows in the Andean region of Colombia; this species is widely used by rural communities where it is valued for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light (red light, white light, and natural light and gibberellic acid (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm on the process of germination of M. mollis. We found a strong inhibition of germination under conditions of darkness. We do not observe effect of AG3 on germination. The germination percentages obtained were above 80% (positive photoblastic seeds for the three proposed lighting treatments where red-light treatment had a most significant effect on the germination process.

  2. Frozen F1's amidst a masterpiece of nature: new insights into the rare hybrid origin of gynogenesis in the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S M; Vamosi, S M

    2010-12-01

    All-female 'species' of fish have been shown to be great models in ecological and evolutionary studies because of the insights they can provide into the origin and evolution of asexuality, the ecology of hybrids, associations between genotype and environment, and the maintenance of sex. Gynogenetic organisms that evolved from sexual ancestors, and combine the disadvantageous traits from sexuality and asexuality, have long baffled evolutionary biologists trying to understand their origin and persistence with their sympatric sexual counterparts. In this issue, a new study using an integrated molecular phylogenetic and classical genetic approach has uncovered compelling evidence regarding the obscure asexual origin of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa. By performing an extensive phylogeographic analysis, Stöck et al. (2010) provide evidence that the Amazon molly arose only once within its history, with monophyly being strongly supported by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses. This result, combined with an elaborate failed attempt to resynthesize the lineage, suggests that vertebrate gynogens such as the Amazon molly are not rare because they are at a disadvantage to their sexual counterparts, but because the genomic conditions under which they arise are rare. Organisms that apparently combine the disadvantages of both sexuality and asexuality remain difficult to understand from both an ecological and an evolutionary perspective, and Stöck et al. (2010) highlight several outstanding important questions. Nonetheless, given that we now have a better knowledge of the origin and history of this unique 'species', this should allow researchers to better understand how these frozen F1's can persist amidst the masterpiece of nature.

  3. Hybridization leads to sensory repertoire expansion in a gynogenetic fish, the Amazon molly (poecilia formosa): a test of the hybrid-sensory expansion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin A; Joy, Jeffrey B; Watson, Corey T; Gonzalez-Bendiksen, Pablo; Gabor, Caitlin R; Breden, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Expansions in sensory systems usually require processes such as gene duplication and divergence, and thus evolve slowly. We evaluate a novel mechanism leading to rapid sensory repertoire expansion: hybrid-sensory expansion (HSE). HSE occurs when two species with differently tuned sensory systems form a hybrid, bringing together alleles from each of the parental species. In one generation, a sensory repertoire is created that is the sum of the variance between parental species. The Amazon molly presents a unique opportunity to test the HSE hypothesis in a "frozen" hybrid. We compared opsin sequences of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to those of the parental species. Both parental species are homozygous at the RH2-1 locus and each of the four long wavelength sensitive loci, while P. formosa possess two different alleles at these loci; one matching each parental allele. Gene expression analysis showed P. formosa use the expanded opsin repertoire that was the result of HSE. Additionally, behavioral tests revealed P. formosa respond to colored stimuli in a manner similar or intermediate to the parental species P. mexicana and P. latipinna. Together these results strongly support the HSE hypothesis. Hybrid-sensory repertoire expansion is likely important in other hybrid species and in other sensory systems.

  4. Improved post-processing strategy for MOLLI based tissue characterization allows application in patients with dyspnoe and impaired left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Thomas; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf; Reiter, Theresa

    2017-08-08

    Contrast and non-contrast MRI based characterization of myocardium by T1-mapping will be of paramount importance to obtain biomarkers, e.g. fibrosis, which determines the risk of heart failure patients. T1-mapping by the standard post-processing of the modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) lacks of accuracy when trying to reduce its duration, which on the other hand, is highly desirable in patients with heart failure. The recently suggested inversion group fitting (IGF) technique, which considers more parameters for fitting, has a superior accuracy for long T1 times despite a shorter duration. However, for short T1 values, the standard method has a superior precision. A conditional fitting routine is proposed which ideally takes advantage of both algorithms. All measurements were performed on a 1.5T clinical scanner (ACHIEVA, Philips Healthcare, The Netherlands) using a MOLLI 5(n)3(n)3 prototype with n(heart beats) being a variable waiting time between inversion experiments. Phantom experiments covered a broad range of T1 times, waiting times and heart rates. A saturation recovery experiment served as a gold standard for T1 measurement. All data were analyzed with the standard MOLLI, the IGF fit and the conditional fitting routine and the obtained T1 values were compared with the gold standard. In vivo measurements were performed in a healthy volunteer and a total of 34 patients with normal findings, dilative cardiomyopathy and amyloidosis. Theoretical analysis and phantom experiments provided a threshold value for an apparent IGF T1(*) determining processing with IGF post processing for values above, or switching to the standard technique for values below. This was validated in phantoms and patients measurements. A reduction of the waiting time to 1 instead of 3 heart beats between the inversion experiments showed reliable results. The acquisition time was reduced from 17 to 13 heart beats. The in vivo measurements showed ECV values between 25% (18

  5. MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scene, at “raves” (all-night dance parties), and music festivals or concerts. MDMA’s effects generally last from 3 to 6 hours. MDMA ... causes long-term brain changes or if such effects are reversible when someone ... problems with memory and attention. Learn more about how the brain ...

  6. Daniel Mollière (1848-1890), the French anatomist and surgeon, and his encounters with nosocomial infections in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Androutsos, George

    2016-09-01

    Daniel Mollière, was a French anatomist and surgeon, born in Lyon, who succeeded in his short life in making his mark in surgery. He was a prolific writer who left a series of medical treatises and a committed surgeon who was responsible for various significant innovative apparatuses in the medical sper. As he lived in an era when the role of microbe had already been recognized, he was among the first to use antisepsis and install extreme measures against microbes, both in the air and on the skin'. Fountains with fresh clean water, carbonic acid, cross ventilation, medical blouses, combined with Valette's apparatus for the dressing of amputations, were some of his precautions to reduce surgical infections and post-operative mortality.

  7. 栀子对闹羊花急性中毒解毒效应的动物实验研究%Animal Experimental Study of Detoxication Effect in Fructus Gardeniae to Acute Toxicity of Flos Rhododendri Mollis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚敏; 代文月; 金柳燕; 何丽美; 囤荣梁; 高维琴

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究闹羊花的急性中毒现象以及栀子对闹羊花的急性解毒效应.方法 闹羊花的急性中毒实验,小鼠分别灌胃生理盐水和不同质量浓度的闹羊花水煎剂并对其行为学变化进行观察;栀子对闹羊花的急性解毒效应实验,小鼠分别灌胃生理盐水、闹羊花、栀子、闹羊花与不同质量浓度栀子的水煎剂,观察其形态学变化,检测心脏匀浆中的SOD活性、MDA含量与血清中CK含量.结果 闹羊花的急性毒性试验中,闹羊花的毒性表现为小鼠星醉酒状,翻正反射消失;小剂量时翻正反射能恢复,大剂量时小鼠死亡,且其中毒率、翻正反射消失率和死亡率随着剂量的增大而增高,而其翻正反射恢复率与剂量呈反比.栀子对闹羊花的解毒效应实验中,闹羊花组与生理盐水组和闹羊花+高剂量栀子组相比,CK含最明显偏高,且SOD活性较该两组偏低,MDA含量较生理盐水组和闹羊花+各剂量组偏高,但较栀子组明显偏低,并且闹羊花与栀子配伍小鼠情况更稳定.结论 闹羊花对小鼠具有神经系统和心血管系统毒性;栀子对闹羊花具有解毒效应,作用与两者配伍能减轻心脏的氧化损伤有关.%Objective: To study the acute toxicity of Flos Rhododendri Mollis and the detoxification of Fructus Gardeniae to it. Methods: Mice were administered intragastrically daily with the saline and several dosages of Flos Rhododendri Mollis. The change of behavior in these mice were observed. Meanwhile, mice were administered intragastrically with the Flos Rhododendri Mollis decoction, the Fructus Gardeniae decoction, and the Flos Rhododendri Mollis with different concentrations of Fructus Gardeniae. The SOD activity, the MDA content in heart and the serum CK were measured. Results: In the acute toxicity experiment of Flos Rhododendri Mollis, the toxicity was drunkness. The righting reflex was disappeared. When administration of low dosage, the righting

  8. Study on Testing Seed Viability of Abrus cantoniensis and Abrus mollis with TTC Method%广州相思子和毛相思子种子活力TTC测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春艳; 孙卫邦; 董青松; 欧彪

    2011-01-01

    The seed visibility of Abrus cantoniensis Hance and Abrus mollis Hance in four TTC solutions at three temperature levels with three wetting methods were tested. And the optimum conditions for testing seed viability of A. Cantoniensis and A. Mollis with TTC solution were determined. The seeds should be dipped into water at 30℃ for 5 -6 h or placed in moist papers for 12 h. The imbibed seeds should be decorticated,and then placed in 1.0% TTC solution at 30 ℃. In darkness for 5 - 6 h, and the viable seeds could be dyed into normal bright red (or light red of A. Mollis seeds).%通过对广州相思子(Abrus cantoniensis Hance)和毛相思子(Abrus mollis Hance)种子在4种TTC溶液浓度、3种预湿方法、3个染色温度下进行活力测定的研究,确定了广州相思子和毛相思子种子TTC法活力测定的最佳条件.研究结果表明,种子在30℃恒温下水浸种5~6 h,或纸间浸湿12h,种子充分吸胀后剥去种皮,置于1.0% TTC溶液中,在30℃恒温暗光条件下染色5 ~6h,观察表面,以全染为正常鲜红色(或毛相思子允许染色略淡的红色)为有生活力的种子.

  9. 我国特有珍稀植物翅果油树濒危原因分析%The endangered causes of Elaeagnus mollis,an endemic to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官铁梁; 张峰

    2001-01-01

    翅果油树是我国特有种,为国家2级珍稀濒危保护植物,主要分布于山西南部的低山和丘陵区以及陕西秦岭北麓的户县。翅果油树分布区的生态环境特征是: 热量充足,降水量较少,立地条件较差。翅果油树濒危的主要原因有(1) 果实形态结构特殊,不利于传播和萌发,(2)果实结实率较低,(3)种子寿命短,发芽率低,(4)翅果油树幼苗缺乏竞争力和(5)人为破坏严重。此外,针对翅果油树的濒危现状和原因,还提出了科学保护对策。%Elaeagnus mollis is an endemic to China,being one of the state-protected two-grade rare and endangered plants, and distributed mainly in hills and lower-mountains in southern Shanxi and at the northern foot of Qinling Ranges in Shaanxi. The eco-environmental characteristics of E. mollis areas are as follows: heat energy is efficiency, annual rainfall is small and stands are poor. The endangered reasons for E. mollis are follows:(1) the shape and structure of fruit were unusual so that is harmful to its germination and spreading, (2)there are fewer mature seeds in the fruits,(3) seed life span is shorter and germination ratio is lower, (4) the seedling and juvenile of E. mollis is in competition with the other plants for various resources is disadvantageous and (5) the intervention of human activities is severe. Furthermore, the strategies for protection of E. mollis are discussed in this paper.

  10. The development of hyaline-cell cartilage in the head of the black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Evidence for secondary cartilage in a teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M

    1989-01-01

    The development of hyaline-cell cartilage attached to membrane (dentary, maxilla, nasal, lacrimal and cleithrum) and cartilage (basioccipital) bones has been studied in the viviparous black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Intramembranous ossification commences before the first appearance of hyaline cells. As hyaline-cell cartilage is densely cellular and as that attached to the dentary, maxilla and cleithrum develops from the periosteum of these membrane bones, it must be regarded as secondary cartilage according to current concepts. It is also argued that the hyaline-cell cartilage attached to the perichondral bone of the basioccipital (a cartilage bone), could also be viewed as secondary. The status of the cartilage on the nasal and lacrimal bones is less clear, for it develops, at least in part, from mucochondroid (mucous connective) tissue. This is the first definitive report of secondary cartilage in any lower vertebrate. The tissue is therefore not restricted to birds and mammals as hitherto believed, and a multipotential periosteum must have arisen early in vertebrate evolution. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:2481666

  11. Actividad antimicótica in vitro y metabolitos del aceite esencial de las hojas de Minthostachys Mollis (muña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Demostrar la actividad antimicótica in vitro y la elucidación de algunos de los metabolitos del aceite esencial de hojas de Minthostachys mollis (muña proveniente del distrito de Huacrapuquio (2700 msnm, Junín. Materiales y métodos. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de destilación por arrastre de vapor de agua. Este fue sometido a análisis físico-químico y determinación de la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases. Mediante el método de agar en difusión se evaluó la inhibición del crecimiento fúngico de Candida albicans y también por el método de dilución en tubo para Trichophytun tonsurans, Trichophytun mentagrophytes, Microsporun canis. Resultados. Se encontraron los siguientes monoterpenos: pulegona, mentona, limoneno y mirceno. El aceite esencial de muña inhibió completamente el desarrollo de T. tonsurasn, T. mentagrophytes y M. canis con ambos métodos de evaluación y dosis, para C. albicans se logró un halo de inhibición de 30 mm para el aceite esencial al 100% y de 35 mm al 50%. Conclusiones. Se demostró la actividad antimicótica del aceite esencial de muña, probablemente por la acción de los monoterpenos encontrados.

  12. Necrotizing fasciitis of soft tissues. Diagnostic imaging findings and literature review; Le fascite necrotizzante dei tessuti molli. Ruolo della diagnostica per immagini e revisione della letteratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenti, G.C.; Marri, C. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Servizio di Radiodiagnostica; Calandra, G. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Unita' operativa di Pronto Soccorso; Morisi, C. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Servizio di Anatomia Patologica; Zabberoni, W. [Ospedale Civile S. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna (Italy). Div. di Malattie Infettive, Gruppo di rilevamento dati sulle INPS-ASL

    2000-05-01

    maggio 1991 a febbraio 1998 sono giunti alla nostra osservazione 130 casi di infezioni necrotizzanti progressive dei tessuti molli; in 32 casi l'eta' era compresa fra 22 e 84 anni; la diagnosi istologica retrospettiva e' risultata quella della fascite necrotizzante. Le sedi interessate dal processo sono state: arti (26/32), regioni cervicale (5/32) e perineale (1/32). Diciannove pazienti (19/32) sono stati sottoposti d'urgenza a esame radiografico eseguito anche per lo studio dei tessuti molli. L'esame ecografico e' stato eseguito d'urgenza in tutti i 32 pazienti. La valutazione dei pazienti con sospetto di infezioni necrosanti progressive e' affidata di solito a un gruppo di operatori esperti in diagnostica ecografica dei tessuti molli perischeletrici. L'esame TC e' stato eseguito in 9 casi (9/32); a ognuno di questi pazienti e' stato somministrato mdc iodato per via endovenosa. Con gli esami ecografico ed eco color Doppler, nel sospetto di fascite necrotizzante, e' possibile offrire indicazioni utili e affidabili per il corretto e rapido orientamento diagnostico; in particolare tale metodica e' in grado di rilevare precocemente alterazioni al tessuto adiposo sottocutaneo (28/32), alla fascia (18/32) e al tessuto molecolare (15/32). E' stata riscontrata buona correlazione tra alterazione tissutale rilevata con l'esame ecografico e reperto istologico; l'ecografia non ha evidenziato alterazioni al tessuto adiposo sottocutaneo (3/32) e al tessuto molecolare (8/32) in 11 casi pur evidenti all'esame istologico. La TC con mdc puo' essere utile per la migliore definizione dell'estensione della malattia e per la dimostrazione di eventuali complicanze, soprattutto in sedi difficili da raggiungere con l'ecografia. Le probabilita' di guarigione per i pazienti affetti da fascite necrotizzante sono direttamente proporzionali alla precocita' della diagnosi e all

  13. 濒危植物翅果油树组织培养研究进展%Advance of New Researches on Tissue Culture of the Rare and Endangered Plant Elaeagnus mollis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庚伟; 陈惠

    2011-01-01

    This review summarized the recent research achievements on the process of tissue culture of the rare and endangered plant Elaeagnus mollis, including sterilizing protocols of different explants derived from adult plants and seeds for tube germination, two types of plants regeneration(organ type and organ genesis type),methods of rooting and transplanting, factors affecting culture, as well as browning and vitrification phenomena and avoiding measures. And the further biotechnology research fields of E. mollis were prospected.%综述了濒危植物翅果油树组织培养过程中成年植株与试管萌发种子苗取材的外植体的种类与消毒程序、植株再生的2条途径(器官型与器官发生型)、生根与移栽、影响培养的因素及培养过程中出现的褐化和玻璃化现象的防除等,并提出了翅果油树生物技术研究今后的发展方向.

  14. Simultaneous determination of three flavonoid C-glycosides in mice biosamples by HPLC-ESI-MS method after oral administration of Abrus mollis extract and its application to biodistribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Du, Huibing; Liang, Chunyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Zhang, Mohan; Zhang, Luyong; Ye, Wencai; Li, Ping

    2012-08-15

    A simple HPLC-ESI-MS method was developed for the determination of vicenin-2 (1), isoschaftoside (2), and schaftoside (3) of Abrus mollis extract in mice plasma and tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys). The separation was achieved by HPLC on a Shim-Pack CLC-ODS column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid (mobile phase A, 72%) and methanol-isopropanol (9:1) (mobile phase B, 28%). The electrospray source of the MS was operated in the selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode at m/z 593 ([M-H]⁻) for 1, and 563 ([M-H]⁻) for 2 and 3, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) of 1-3 was in the range of 8.5-12.6 ng/mL for plasma, and 32.5-49.4 ng/g for tissue tested. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 25 ng/mL for plasma, and 100 ng/g for tissue. The calibration curves were linear in all matrices (r² > 0.994) in the concentration range of 25-500 ng/mL in plasma or 100-1250 ng/g in tissue, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision studies demonstrate that the method is precise with coefficients of variation intra-day and inter-day below 5.9 and 7.4% for all the samples, respectively. The recoveries of three flavonoid C-glycosides ranged from 95.3 to 106.4% for plasma, and 92.6 to 107.3% for tissues. Following oral administration of A. mollis extract to mice at a dose of 72 mg/kg, the concentrations of 1-3 in plasma and tissues were quantifiable in bio-samples collected up to 180 min. The method described is suitable for studies on the distribution of three flavonoid C-glycosides of A. mollis extract in plasma and different tissues of mice.

  15. 红玛丽雄性生殖器官组织结构和精子发生的研究%The Histology of Male Reproductive Organs and Spermatogenesis in Sailfin Molly Poecilia latipinna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭恩棉

    2013-01-01

    为促进卵胎生鱼类的养殖和选育,应用石蜡切片技术对卵胎生硬骨鱼红玛丽雄性生殖器官组织结构和精子发生过程进行了研究。红玛丽雄性生殖器官包括精巢、贮精囊、输精管和交接器。成鱼精巢属小管型结构,每个精小管中的生精细胞发育同步。精巢后端通过输出管与贮精囊相连,左右两个贮精囊汇集成一条共同的输精管。红玛丽精子发生经历了初级精原细胞、次级精原细胞、初级精母细胞、次级精母细胞、精细胞和精子6个时期。红玛丽精子的发生是连续的,精子成熟后以精荚形式输入雌鱼输卵管,保证了受精作用成功率。%The histological structure of male reproductive organs and spermatogenesis in ovoviviparous teleost sailfin molly ,Poecilia latipinna ,was studied by paraffin biopsy technology to promote the farming and cultivation of the ovoviviparous fish .The male reproductive organs of the sailfin molly were made up of lobular testis , seminal vesicle , vas deferens and mating organ . Within a seminiferous tubule , all spermatogenic cells were developed synchronously ,and the seminal vesicle was connected to posterior end of the testis with vas deferens .Left and right seminal vesicles converged together to a vas deferens .The spermatogenesis developed continuously through six phases as following :primary spermatogonium , secondary spermatogonium ,primary spermatocyte ,secondary spermatocyte ,spermatid and sperm .The fertilization rate was increased by the procedure that mature sperm was transported into the oviduct by a male ,forming spermatophores .

  16. An analytical model which determines the apparent T1 for Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery - Analysis of the longitudinal relaxation under the influence of discontinuous balanced (classical MOLLI) and spoiled gradient echo readouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Thomas; Reiter, Theresa; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf

    2017-08-09

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shifts more and more into the focus of clinical research. Especially determination of relaxation times without/and with contrast agents becomes the foundation of tissue characterization, e.g. in cardiac MRI for myocardial fibrosis. Techniques which assess longitudinal relaxation times rely on repetitive application of readout modules, which are interrupted by free relaxation periods, e.g. the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery = MOLLI sequence. These discontinuous sequences reveal an apparent relaxation time, and, by techniques extrapolated from continuous readout sequences, a putative real T1 is determined. What is missing is a rigorous analysis of the dependence of the apparent relaxation time on its real partner, readout sequence parameters and biological parameters as heart rate. This is provided in this paper for the discontinuous balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) and spoiled gradient echo readouts. It turns out that the apparent longitudinal relaxation rate is the time average of the relaxation rates during the readout module, and free relaxation period. Knowing the heart rate our results vice versa allow to determine the real T1 from its measured apparent partner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes do Sudoeste de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant'Ana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar quais são as plantas incriminadas como tóxicas para ruminantes do Sudoeste de Goiás, foram realizadas 108 entrevistas com produtores rurais, médicos veterinários, zootecnistas e agrônomos de 18 municípios da região. Foram apontadas como tóxicas para ruminantes: Brachiaria spp., Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Dimorphandra mollis, Palicourea marcgravii, Pteridium aquilinum e Sorghum vulgare. Adicionalmente, foram informadas intoxicações menos frequentes por Senna occidentalis, Stryphnodendrum obovatum e Manihot esculenta. Casos isolados de intoxicação em bovinos por Asclepias curassavica e Pterodon emarginatus foram descritos por alguns entrevistados. Este trabalho demonstra que intoxicações por plantas tóxicas são frequentes na região avaliada e representam importante causa de prejuízos econômicos aos pecuaristas locais.

  18. Modulatory effects of rutin on biochemical and hematological parameters in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Kanashiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit several pharmacological properties, mainly in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we observed that rutin, a known glycosylated flavonoid isolated from Dimorphandra mollis, had a lowering effect on plasma triglyceride levels of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters, but did not change total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, high-fat or rutin supplemented diets showed no immunotoxic effects, since no significant changes were observed on total white blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear cells, as well as on the neutrophil apoptosis degree, when compared to untreated animals. Therefore, rutin seems to be a selective and non-toxic modulator of hypercholesterolemia, which can be promising for the development of new drugs.Os flavonóides possuem diversas propriedades farmacológicas, principalmente nas doenças cardiovasculares e inflamatórias. No presente estudo, observamos que a rutina, um conhecido flavonóide glicosilado isolado da Dimorphandra mollis, diminuiu o nível de triglicerídeos plasmáticos em hamsters Golden Syrian hipercolesterolêmicos sem alterar os níveis de colesterol total e colesterol HDL. Além disso, observamos que dietas hipercolesterolêmicas ou suplementadas com rutina não apresentaram efeito imunotóxico, uma vez que nenhuma alteração significativa foi observada nos leucócitos totais, granulócitos e células mononucleares, bem como no grau de neutrófilos em apoptose, quando comparado com animais não tratados. Portanto, a rutina parece ser um modulador seletivo e não tóxico da hipercolesterolemia, o que pode ser promissor para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos.

  19. Molly's Story - Be Smart. Be Well. STD Videos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This video, produced by Be Smart. Be Well., raises awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): 1) What are they? 2) Why they matter? and, 3) What can I do about them? Footage courtesy of Be Smart. Be Well.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  20. Intuitionistic implication without disjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.; Hendriks, Alex; Jongh, Dick H.J. de

    2012-01-01

    We investigate fragments of intuitionistic propositional logic containing implication but not disjunction. These fragments are finite, but their size grows superexponentially with the number of generators. Exact models are used to characterize the fragments.

  1. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  2. Superação de dormência de sementes como estratégia para restauração florestal de pastagem tropical Seed dormancy overcoming as a strategy for forest restoration in tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rahe Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de tratamentos de superação da dormência de sementes sobre a taxa e o tempo de emergência de espécies arbóreas de Fabaceae, e sobre seu estabelecimento, quando reintroduzidas em pastagem, no Cerrado. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação e em campo (pastagem de Urochloa brizantha, com as espécies Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii e Hymenaea stigonocarpa, submetidas ou não aos seguintes tratamentos de superação de dormência: D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, escarificação mecânica; C. langsdorffii e M. caesalpiniifolia, escarificação química com H2SO4; P. nitens, punção do tegumento; e P. dubium, imersão em água a 80ºC. O estabelecimento em campo foi monitorado por 21 meses. A superação de dormência promoveu, em casa de vegetação, maior emergência de quatro das seis espécies avaliadas, e, no campo, de cinco espécies. Além disso, reduziu o tempo de emergência das espécies e aumentou o recrutamento de M. caesalpiniifolia, P. nitens, D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, aos 127 dias, e de H. stigonocarpa aos 659 dias. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência podem aumentar a eficiência da semeadura direta, em projetos de restauração de áreas degradadas no Cerrado, ao promover maior emergência das sementes e o estabelecimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seed dormancy overcoming treatments on the rate and time of emergence of Fabaceae tree species, and on their recruitment when reintroduced in a tropical pasture, in the Brazilian Cerrado. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse and field (Urochloa brizantha pasture, with the species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea stigonocarpa, subjected or not to the following treatments of dormancy break: D. mollis and

  3. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  4. Primal implication as encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Krupski, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We propose a "cryptographic" interpretation for the propositional connectives of primal infon logic introduced by Y. Gurevich and I. Neeman and prove the corresponding soundness and completeness results. Primal implication $\\imp{\\varphi}{\\psi}$ corresponds to the encryption of $\\psi$ with a secret key $\\varphi$, primal disjunction $\\vp{\\varphi}{\\psi}$ is a group key and $\\bot$ reflects some backdoor constructions such as full superuser permissions or a universal decryption key. For the logic ...

  5. Implications of recent MINER$\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

  6. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...... social environment of the individual. In the last two studies, we investigate the role of social structure for cooperation in a classic natural system for behavioural research, the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), by means of computer simulations. Cooperation contradicts evolutionary theory...

  7. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  8. Neutrino Experiments and Their Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in solar, reactor, and accelerator neutrino physics are reviewed. Implications for neutrino physics, solar physics, nuclear two-body physics, and r-process nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed.

  9. Tuberculosis: the implications for anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Tuberculosis: the implications for anaesthesia. S Afr Fam Pract 2014 .... quicker results (within two hours), as well as information on rifampicin .... management of patients with active tuberculosis.21. Elective surgery ...

  10. MARITIME VIOLENCE : IMPLICATIONS TO MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in M...

  11. What are the socioeconomic implications of the value chain of biodiversity products? A case study in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos; Gomes, Laura Jane; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-02-01

    The trade in biodiversity products has gained increasing importance in conservation and livelihood strategies. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the socioeconomic aspects and dynamics of the production and commercialization of two important products of Brazilian biodiversity from the fruits of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm. and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. Interviews were conducted with who were involved in the various stages of value chains. Data were analyzed under an analytical/descriptive approach. It was found that the two value chains under study, although they share the same production environment and workforce, are different models of the commercial appropriation of the forest environment: one is related to local traditions, whereas the other seeks to meet an industry-related demand originating from a multinational pharmaceutical company. Harvesters become highly dependent on the trends imposed by these markets. Thus, it is clear that promoting these products as a conservation strategy requires an understanding of how their value chains arise, are established, and operate.

  12. THE ACTUAL IMPLICATIONS OF INFLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murăriţa Ilie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have started from the idea that inflationary phenomenon is a companion, the cause and the effect of the globalization of poverty in the broader context of world economy globalization. Therefore, starting from a common definition of inflation, the first objective was to identify causal relationships that singularize contemporary inflationary process. After that, attention was focused on the implications of inflation in the current stage, bearing in mind that monetary financial theory and practice are operating with perfectly anticipated inflation or imperfectly anticipated inflation. Inflation has great implications on the long-term contracts and wage contracts.

  13. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

  14. Educational Implications of the Bender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Examples of diagnostic formulations of the "Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt" are outlined and their instructional implications are delineated. The difficulties in paper and pencil copying of geometric designs focus primarily on: separation and overlapping of figures, repetition of design elements, pencil grip, visual perceptions, pattern reversals,…

  15. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  16. Critical Thinking: Implications for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Kathleen W.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesizes critical thinking research in four areas--reading, writing, group interactions, and speaking--and discusses the implications of those studies for library information science research. The potential for employing critical thinking strategies in bibliographic instruction and the need for library science educators to initiate their own…

  17. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...

  18. The Educational Implications of NAFTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994

    The transcript provided in this document is from a symposium set up to explore the educational implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA, which will remove trade barriers between the United States, Mexico, and Canada contains no educational provisions. The panelists discuss the new educational challenges that NAFTA may…

  19. A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

  20. MARITIME VIOLENCE : IMPLICATIONS TO MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in Malaysia and discusseswhether the definition of piracy under the International Law could be applied to these attacks. Thispaper concludes that cooperation between the region’s states and the enhancement of a good securitysystem of one state are needed to combat maritime violence. Thus it is imperative that the internationallaw need to be changed in order to enhance the meaning of piracy and also to include sea terrorism. Key words: piracy, maritime, terrorist

  1. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  2. Error Analysis and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蕾

    2007-01-01

    Error analysis is the important theory and approach for exploring the mental process of language learner in SLA. Its major contribution is pointing out that intralingual errors are the main reason of the errors during language learning. Researchers' exploration and description of the errors will not only promote the bidirectional study of Error Analysis as both theory and approach, but also give the implication to second language learning.

  3. [Hyperhomocysteinaemia: physiopathology and medical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre Delgadillo, A; Téllez Zenteno, J F; Morales Buenrrostro, L E

    2000-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate aminoacid result of the conversion of methionine to cysteine. Homocystinuria or the hyperhomocysteinaemia are the most frequently related disorders of this aminoacid, being the former an autosomic recessive alteration, whereas the latter is conditioned by multiple factors, being the most important the genetic and nutritional factors. In the last years this alteration has regained special interest because of its increasing role in the thrombotic pathologies and the identification that hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an independent risk factor for the accelerated atherogenesis of multiple diseases. In this review physiopathological aspects and clinical implications of hyperhomocysteinaemia are mentioned as well as its diagnoses and treatment.

  4. Philosophical Implications of Inflationary Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Knobe, J; Vilenkin, A; Knobe, Joshua; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in cosmology indicate that every history having a nonzero probability is realized in infinitely many distinct regions of spacetime. Thus, it appears that the universe contains infinitely many civilizations exactly like our own, as well as infinitely many civilizations that differ from our own in any way permitted by physical laws. We explore the implications of this conclusion for ethical theory and for the doomsday argument. In the infinite universe, we find that the doomsday argument applies only to effects which change the average lifetime of all civilizations, and not those which affect our civilization alone.

  5. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  6. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Vatikiotis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identification, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

  7. Lateral Thoracic Maningocele : Anaesthetic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer Ahmed K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningomyelocele is a broad term representing herniation of extracranial contents through a congenital defect in the vertebral column. If only cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and meninges herniate, it is termed as a meningocele. A meningoencephalocele is herniation of neural elements along with meninges. Anaesthetic challenges in management of thoracic meningomyelocele include securing the airway with intubation in lateral or supine position, intraoperative prone position with its associated complications and accurate assessment of blood loss and prevention of hypothermia. We report a case of a thoracic meningocele posted for resection and discuss its anaesthetic implications

  8. Collaborative competency in physiotherapy students: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collaborative competency in physiotherapy students: Implications for interprofessional education. ... To describe the development of the ability to collaborate in a South African university physiotherapy department. Methods. ... Article Metrics.

  9. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Mollie Beattie: A Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the completed effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wilderness Fellows program to develop a monitoring strategy and evaluate the status of...

  10. Disease Mapping for Stomach Cancer in Libya Based on Besag– York– Mollié (BYM) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed Salem; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-06-25

    Globally, Cancer is the ever-increasing health problem and most common cause of medical deaths. In Libya, it is an important health concern, especially in the setting of an aging population and limited healthcare facilities. Therefore, the goal of this research is to map of the county’ cancer incidence rate using the Bayesian method and identify the high-risk regions (for the first time in a decade). In the field of disease mapping, very little has been done to address the issue of analyzing sparse cancer diseases in Libya. Standardized Morbidity Ratio or SMR is known as a traditional approach to measure the relative risk of the disease, which is the ratio of observed and expected number of accounts in a region that has the greatest uncertainty if the disease is rare or small geographical region. Therefore, to solve some of SMR’s problems, we used statistical smoothing or Bayesian models to estimate the relative risk for stomach cancer incidence in Libya in 2007 based on the BYM model. This research begins with a short offer of the SMR and Bayesian model with BYM model, which we applied to stomach cancer incidence in Libya. We compared all of the results using maps and tables. We found that BYM model is potentially beneficial, because it gives better relative risk estimates compared to SMR method. As well as, it has can overcome the classical method problem when there is no observed stomach cancer in a region. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with ACE's Molly Corbett Broad on Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013, the "New England Journal of Higher Education" ("NEJHE") launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends, and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment of the series, DiSalvio speaks with American…

  12. Quantum Histories and their Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1996-01-01

    It was recently pointed out that, using two different sets in the consistent histories formalism, one can conclude that the system state is definitely in a given subspace $A$ of the state space at a given time and that the system state is definitely not in a larger subspace $B \\supset A$. This raises the question as to whether, if standard quantum theory applies to the macroscopic realm, we should necessarily expect the quasiclassical physics we actually observe to respect subspace implications. I give here a new criterion, ordered consistency, with the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. The criterion allows a precise version of the question to be formulated: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? It also defines a version of quantum theory which has greater predictive power than the standard consistent histories formalism.

  13. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  14. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  15. The phenomenological movement: implications for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, A J

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the phenomenologies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger with the aim of highlighting some of the critical distinctions between these two 'schools' of phenomenology concerning the methodological implications of each approach for nursing research. Specifically, the paper examines: the implications of epistemology versus ontology; issues relating to validity; the involvement of the researcher, and aspects relating to interpretation.

  16. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M. (Ferris State Univ., Big Rapids, MI (USA))

    1989-07-01

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references.

  17. On the Product and Factorization of Lattice Implication Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦克云; 宋振明; 等

    1993-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts of product and factorization of lattice implication algebra are proposed,the relation between lattice implication product algebra and its factors and some properties of lattice implication product algebras are discussed.

  18. Innovative trends in mathematics education: Implications for global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Innovative trends in mathematics education: Implications for global ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Keywords: Innovation trends, Mathematics Education, Implication; Global Development, Social Transformation ...

  19. Mining TCGA Data Using Boolean Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Subarna; Tsang, Emily K.; Zeng, Haoyang; Meister, Michela; Dill, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Boolean implications (if-then rules) provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression) from the glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV) data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/. PMID:25054200

  20. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Subarna; Tsang, Emily K; Zeng, Haoyang; Meister, Michela; Dill, David L

    2014-01-01

    Boolean implications (if-then rules) provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression) from the glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV) data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/.

  1. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Sinha

    Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/.

  2. Climatic implications of ice microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

  3. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold even for ages over 100. Beyond 106 there is so far no statistical evidence available because the number of survivors is too small even in the largest nations. However assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1,000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis usi...

  4. Trace elements: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, J

    1980-01-01

    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  5. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  6. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  7. Geometric Implications of Maxwell's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2015-03-01

    Maxwell's synthesis of the varied results of the accumulated knowledge of electricity and magnetism, based largely on the searching insights of Faraday, still provide new issues to explore. A case in point is a well recognized anomaly in the Maxwell equations: The laws of electricity and magnetism require two 3-vector and two scalar equations, but only six dependent variables are available to be their solutions, the 3-vectors E and B. This leaves an apparent redundancy of two degrees of freedom (J. Rosen, AJP 48, 1071 (1980); Jiang, Wu, Povinelli, J. Comp. Phys. 125, 104 (1996)). The observed self-consistency of the eight equations suggests that they contain additional information. This can be sought as a previously unnoticed constraint connecting the space and time variables, r and t. This constraint can be identified. It distorts the otherwise Euclidean 3-space of r with the extremely slight, time dependent curvature k (t) =Rcurv-2 (t) of the 3-space of a hypersphere whose radius has the time dependence dRcurv / dt = +/- c nonrelativistically, or dRcurvLor / dt = +/- ic relativistically. The time dependence is exactly that of the Hubble expansion. Implications of this identification will be explored.

  8. The Holland Theory: Implications for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Rhoda; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors review John Holland's theory that career choice reflects individual personality and behavioral styles, as well as related research findings with nonhandicapped populations. They discuss implications of the theory's appropriateness for the handicapped. (SK)

  9. Workplace Counselling: Implications For Enhanced Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workplace Counselling: Implications For Enhanced Productivity. ... the provision of brief psychological therapy for employees of organizations. ... and concludes that increase in work related trauma and stress, accidents at the workplace, ...

  10. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  11. Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial Performance of Sugar ... is that risk management is an integral part of the decision-making process and ... can proactively help in overcoming the possibilities of the business failures.

  12. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  13. Microelectronics: Their Implications for Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiovisual Instruction, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This two-part article indicates some probable characteristics of the microelectronics in the future and assesses implications of the microelectronics revolution for the methods and systems currently used in teaching and training. (CMV)

  14. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth and movement, international markets, insecure property rights and legislation .... Twyman (2005:115) identify the implications of climate change for equity and ..... Environmental conflicts and/or threats of conflicts are emerging as critical.

  15. Implications of Fiscal Responsibility on Economic Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anca Florentina Gavriluţă (Vatamanu)

    2017-01-01

    ... preserving fiscal discipline. This study tests the implications of fiscal responsibility on economic growth with the scope to analyze and find out the major issue of responsible public finances...

  16. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications. ... journal articles in the areas communication, climate change and agriculture. ... climate change communication to farmers have been purely elitist and quantitative, which ...

  17. Leadership behaviour and practical implications for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leadership behaviour and practical implications for sustainable agricultural and rural ... Rural development projects in Nigeria in the sixties were compartmentalized. ... the interest of the group in contributing to the success of group projects.

  18. Sticky Brain 'Plaques' Implicated in Alzheimer's Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166550.html Sticky Brain 'Plaques' Implicated in Alzheimer's Again Researchers believe these substances form in early ... in the brain signals an early stage of Alzheimer's disease. It's been known for years that in ...

  19. Emancipatory Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    implications for environmental education in South Africa. M.W. Maila ... This failure can be attributed purely to the lower status accorded to this type of knowledge in society. .... further argue that “indigenous information systems are dynamic and.

  20. NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    THE PRESIDENT’S NATIONAL SECURITY TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADVISORY COMMITTEE NS/EP IMPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE JUNE 1999 Form SF298 Citation Data... Electronic Commerce Procedures Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization...99 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) President’s

  1. Globalization of Information: Intellectual Property Law Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nayyer, Kim

    2002-01-01

    The globalization of information, facilitated by the Internet, has significant implications for intellectual property regimes domestically and internationally. Assessment of these implications and their probable outcomes is unavoidably value-driven. Many commentators foresee harmonization of intellectual property laws but some predict disparity in political economy outcomes. Some also see profound effects on sovereignty. A critical review of recent literature on these topics discloses a preva...

  2. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  4. Results of Associated Implication Algebra on a Partial Ordered Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Some sufficient and necessary conditions that implication algebra on a partial ordered set is associated implication algebra are obtained, and the relation between lattice H implication algebra and associated implication algebra is discussed. Also, the concept of filter is proposed with some basic properties being studied.

  5. Variscan Oroclines: Implications for Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    The supercontinent Pangea is commonly interpreted to have formed in the Upper Carboniferous as a result of collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. The western European Variscan Orogen is interpreted as the product of the Gondwana - Laurussia continental collision. In Iberia, the Variscan Orogen describes two coupled Early Permian oroclines; a northern, convex to the west Cantabrian orocline, and a southern, convex to the east Central Iberian orocline. Palinspastic restoration of the oroclines using paleomagnetic, structural and stratigraphic constraints yield a 2300 km long, linear orogen that: (1) consists of a west-facing lower Paleozoic passive margin sequence of Gondwanan affinity; (2) is characterized by an east-verging thrust belt that passes east into Carboniferous foreland basin sequences and west into a metamorphic hinterland; (3) is bound to the west by ophiolite and juvenile oceanic arc sequences obducted over the the distal west edge of the passive margin along east-verging thrust faults; (4) has syn- to post-kinematic granitic intrusions that young from 330 in the west to 290 in the east; and (5) is, in the east, characterized by sedimentary and volcanic sequences of Avalonian (Meguma) affinity which are separated from the passive margin sequence by a marginal basin ophiolite. This tectonic template can be used to interpret the Variscan orogen across all of western Europe, and shows that the orogen consists of a >7000 km long ribbon that extends from Cornwall, SW England, east along a north-verging northern limb, around the Bohemian orocline in the east into a south-verging southern limb that runs along the Mediterranean into the Iberian oroclines. The implication of this geometry is that: (1) Variscan orogenesis consisted of the Carboniferous collision of a juvenile oceanic arc with a Gondwanan-affinity ribbon continent and the related collapse of a marginal basin that separated the passive margin from Avalonian lithosphere; followed by (2) buckling of

  6. Rough Implication%粗糙蕴涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛占熬; 何华灿

    2003-01-01

    Rough implication operator is the emphasis and difficulty in the study of rough logic. Due to the shortage of rough implication in [3]~[5], we redefine rough set and rough implication operator by Stone algebra, and introduce new rough operators such as rough intersection, rough union, and rough complement. Moreover the characteristics of the proposed rough implication are investigated ,and we also point out that the proposed implication operation is superior to that of three-valued Lukasiewicz logic.

  7. Germinação de sementes de três espécies arbóreas brasileiras. Seeds germination of three arboreal Brazilian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Balistiero FIGLIOLIA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a necessidade decontribuir para o estabelecimento de protocolo deanálise específico para cada espécie, o presenteestudo teve como objetivo complementar osestudos sobre germinação de sementes já existentesem literatura, avaliando o efeito de diferentescondições de temperatura e umidade paraGuazuma ulmifolia (mutamba, umidade e luz paraDimorphandra mollis (faveira e temperatura e luzpara Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina(angico branco. As sementes de G. ulmifolia foramescarificadas com ácido sulfúrico concentrado durante45 minutos e colocadas para germinar emsubstratos umedecidos com 30 e 60 mL de águadestilada, nas temperaturas constante de 30ºC ealternada de 20-30ºC, sob luz branca. As sementesde D. mollis foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúricoconcentrado durante 60 minutos e colocadas paragerminar a 30ºC, em substrato umedecido com 30,60 e 90 mL de água destilada. As sementes deA. colubrina var. colubrina foram colocadas paragerminar sem tratamento pré-germinativo emsubstrato umedecido com 60 mL de água destilada,nos regimes de temperatura constante (15, 20, 25 e30ºC e alternada (20-30ºC. As sementes das duasúltimas espécies foram também submetidas àausência de luz e ao fotoperíodo de 8 horas sob luzdos espectros branco, vermelho e vermelhoextremo.Para todas as espécies foi utilizada avermiculita como substrato e foram avaliados aporcentagem final e o índice de velocidade degerminação das sementes. A análise estatísticadetectou efeito significativo dos fatores testadospara as três espécies estudadas e os resultadosobtidos sugerem que, em condições naturais,as sementes de G. ulmifolia estão adaptadas paragerminar melhor em clareiras, as de D. mollissob o dossel e as de A. colubrina var. colubrinatanto em clareiras como sob o dossel. O testede germinação, utilizando a vermiculita comosubstrato, pode ser conduzido nas seguintescondições: (a a 30ºC com 30 mL de água,para G. ulmifolia

  8. Implication of SLA to ELT in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芸霞

    2016-01-01

    Second language acquisition, or SLA, is the processes by which people learn languages in addition to their native tongue(s). Although the theories can not be directly used to solve the practical problems, they do have great significance to language teaching. This paper mainly discusses the implication of Krashen' SLA theory and offers some reference opinions to English teaching in China.

  9. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina

    2012-01-01

    it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based...

  10. Educational Implications of Microelectronics and Microprocessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N. D. C., Ed.

    This conference report explores microelectronic technology, its effect on educational methods and objectives, and its implications for educator responsibilities. Two main areas were considered: the significance of the likely impact of the large scale introduction of microprocessors and microelectronics on commercial and industrial processes, the…

  11. Implications of Shifting Technology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Janet; Holland, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the implications of shifting technology trends by looking at what we've lost or are losing, where we are, and where we need to go for making the needed transitions in knowledge and skills. Areas of growth within new media and the tech industry are good indicators of our growing interests in mobility, improved quality,…

  12. Linguistic Truth Values Lattice Implication Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiao-dong; XU Yang

    2006-01-01

    In order to study uncertainty reasoning and automatic reasoning with linguistic terms, in this paper, the set of basic linguistic truth values and the set of modifiers are defined, according to common sense; partially orderings are defined on them. Based on it, a lattice implication algebra model L18 of linguistic terms is built; furthermore, its some basic properties are discussed.

  13. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Jamal M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the educational implications of diabetes in children through discussion of the nature of diabetes, factors associated with educational performance, and the teacher's role in meeting the child's needs. It argues that teachers should treat these students as normal learners, without ignoring their unique needs or…

  14. Ritalin Update: Implications for Reading Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Robert B., Jr.; Werner, Patrice Holden

    1987-01-01

    Investigates how Ritalin, a powerful stimulant drug frequently prescribed for children exhibiting hyperactive behavior, poor attention span, and/or distractibility, is prescribed for children in educational settings, what doses seem appropriate, and what effect Ritalin has on reading achievement. Discusses the implications of Ritalin research for…

  15. Constructivism and Education: Misunderstandings and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Strobel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Constructivism is a popular concept in contemporary teacher education programs. However, a genuine concern arises with the concept's application because many teachers and teacher educators claim that knowledge is constructed, without appreciating the epistemological and pedagogical implications such a claim entails. This article employs Phillips'…

  16. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  17. Exploring emotional intelligence. Implications for nursing leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello-Cicciu, Joan M

    2002-04-01

    Emotional intelligence is being touted in the popular literature as an important characteristic for successful leaders. However, caution needs to be exercised regarding the connection between emotional intelligence and workplace success. The author contrasts 2 current models of emotional intelligence, the measurements being used, and the ability of emotional intelligence to predict success. Implications for the workplace are discussed.

  18. Supervision and Motivational Theory: Some Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Donald J.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests useful implications for supervisors offered by motivational theories, including the importance of serving as a source of reinforcement for teachers and the necessity of helping the teacher make appropriate instructional choices and gather evidence on the effectiveness of those choices. (Author/JM)

  19. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  20. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  1. Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

  2. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pataracchia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  3. Unconventional eating practices and their health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, R M; Zlotkin, S H

    1985-04-01

    The authors discuss a number of unconventional or faddist foods and eating practices and their health implications. Among the topics included are vegetarianism, Zen macrobiotic diets, fast foods, junk foods, megavitamins and their toxicity, health foods, fad diets in infancy, and elimination diets.

  4. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  5. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans pr...

  6. The Implications of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton; Cosand, Joseph

    The significant role of the federal government in the support of higher education is noted in a survey of the development and changing patterns of federal support, and a critical review of the directions of current federal policy is offered. Implications are drawn about the effects of this policy on such national concerns as providing equal…

  7. Brexit: what are the implications for nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The referendum result is in and appears to have caught the nation by surprise. Whatever the fallout from voters' decision to leave the EU, the implications for nursing are likely to be widespread and profound - and could take years to resolve.

  8. Biological Implications of Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction (G x E) has been treated as both a statistical phenomenon and a biological reality. It is argued that, although there are important statistical issues that need to be considered, the focus has to be on the biological implications of G x E. Four reports of G x E deriving from the Dunedin longitudinal study are used as…

  9. Implications of Telecommuting in a Library Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Delores

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of telecommuting possibilities focuses on a program at Information Access Company that allows indexers and abstractors to work at home. Employer and employee expectations are discussed, equipment provisions are described, employee benefits are examined, and implications for the library environment are suggested. (LRW)

  10. Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Greenberg, Byron

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-perceived depression and isolation reported by unaccompanied Southeast Asian refugee adolescents (n=301), population traditionally inadequately served by mental health professionals. Findings revealed significant differences regarding sex, English language skills, work involvement, and self-disclosure. Results have implications for…

  11. Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculcea Silviu Petrisor

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the issues of maximum interes to our century is the analysis of implications of globalization on the world economy and this proves to be even more important now in the middle of financial crisis. Forecasts from the World Bank are very optimistic o

  13. Language Assessment of Asian Students: Problems & Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ovid K.

    The problems and implications of language assessment of Asian students are examined. The theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner concerning the relationship between language and cognition are explored. Cognitive operations are assumed by many educators to be related to academic achievement. Culturally, Asians favor the Piagetian interpretation…

  14. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pataracchia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  15. Theoretical, regulatory and practical implications of logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Chaberek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The logistics has its practical input in creating economical strategies as well as in creating modern economic environment. Processes of planning, designing and functioning of logistic systems must be based both on the theoretical knowledge covering various areas as well as practical experiences to provide the required support.  To provide logistic services in the rational way, it is necessary to learn the complicated set of implications resulting from three areas covering the theoretical knowledge, practical ones as well as the regulation by the law. Methods: The triad of three concepts: theory, practice and regulation is the main area of consideration in relation to tasks of the logistic support provided by any organization for any production process. The aim of this paper focuses on the necessity of taking into account implications among theory, practice and regulation during the process of analyzing, designing and implementation of systems of the logistic support. The lack of awareness of differences between various implications or ignoring them must lead to irrational behaviors. Results: The implications among theory, practice and legislative regulation of logistics presented differently than usually, broaden the logistic knowledge and at the same time provide the tool of the rationalization of logistic services in all kinds of activities. Conclusions: The correct identification of tasks and functions of the logistics leads to the recognition of its subject and tasks and correct identification of implications occurring among theory, practice and regulation. This knowledge is indispensable in the process of creation of projects of logistic services of each activity, both business and non-business one.

  16. Narrative Abilities: Advances in Research and Implications for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses the key findings in recent research dealing narrative abilities in children with and without language implications. The implications of research findings for narrative assessment and intervention are discussed.

  17. The Antarctic holothurian genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990 (Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae): brood pouches, spermatozoa, spermatozeugmata and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Jens Michael; Heß, Martin

    2014-07-29

    An examination of seven Antarctic brooding cucumariid and psolid holothurian species revealed a variety of characters all of them have in common: (1) All are gonochoric. (2) A genital papilla is present on the oral disc (permanent and digitiform in males). (3) Females brood their offspring in five anterior interradial brood pouches that are situated at the transition of body to introvert. (4) Multiple spermatozoa are always bundled to bunch-like spermato-zeugmata. (5) The spermatozoa have a fusiform head and a hollow cylinder-like mid-piece encircling the anterior end of the flagellum. This combination of characters so far is unique, and indicates a close relationship based on common origin. As a consequence, we unite all species sharing this set of synapomorphies in the genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990. The herewith included species are: E. acanthocola Gutt, 1990, E. acutus (Massin, 1992) comb. nov., E. charcoti (Vaney, 1906) comb. nov., E. koehleri (Vaney, 1914) comb. nov., E. mollis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) comb. nov., E. parvipes Massin, 1992 and E. splendidus (Gutt, 1990) comb. nov.. Because the current assignment of Echinopsolus to the family Psolidae can not be retained, the genus is tranferred to the family Cucumariidae, as relationships to taxa within this family are obvious. The peculiar spermatozoa and spermato-zeugmata of all Echinopsolus species are described using light- and electron-microscopical techniques and the results are evaluated and discussed concerning their taxonomy and phylogeny. 

  18. Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Victor L

    2010-10-01

    Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed.

  19. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  20. Growth Laws in Cancer: Implications for Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, P; Gabriele, P; Guiot, C

    2006-01-01

    Comparing both, the more conventional Gompertz tumor growth law (GL) and the ``Universal'' law (UL), recently proposed and applied to cancer,we have investigated the growth law's implications on various radiotherapy regimen. According to GL, the surviving tumor cell fraction could be reduced 'ad libidum', independently of the initial tumor mass,simply by increasing the number of treatments. On the contrary, if tumor growth dynamics would indeed follow the Universal scaling law, there is a lower limit of the survival fraction that cannot be reduced any further regardless of the total number of treatments. This finding can explain the so called ``tumor size effect'' and re-emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as it implies that radiotherapy may be successful provided the tumor mass at treatment onset is rather small. Taken together with our previous works, implications of these findings include revisiting standard radiotherapy regimen and overall treatment protocols.

  1. "Implicate order" and the good life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    and explicate order which draws on compatible work in cosmology, embryogenesis, visual perception, brain memory, decision making and phenomenology. Two important characteristics of the implicate order are then identified: in an implicate order, the whole is enfolded (or represented) in each of its parts......; and all parts renders different perspectives of the whole. Using arguments from decision making, the study of "flow" in human consciousness, and a model of skill acquisition, it is suggested that these characteristics manifest themselves in the human world as the "unity experience" and the "diversity....... The experience of unity without diversity turns into absolutism, the insistence that one's chosen activities or beliefs are the only right one. The experience of diversity without unity becomes relativism, the excessive tolerance of and indifference to other people's pursuits. The good life lies...

  2. "Implicate order" and the good life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    and explicate order which draws on compatible work in cosmology, embryogenesis, visual perception, brain memory, decision making and phenomenology. Two important characteristics of the implicate order are then identified: in an implicate order, the whole is enfolded (or represented) in each of its parts......; and all parts renders different perspectives of the whole. Using arguments from decision making, the study of "flow" in human consciousness, and a model of skill acquisition, it is suggested that these characteristics manifest themselves in the human world as the "unity experience" and the "diversity...... in the simultaneous realization of both, unity-in-diversity. Lastly, it is suggested that this so-called unity-diversity matrix may be used as a personal compass the meaning of which is negotiated and calibrated in a community of users....

  3. Implications of Cosmic Repulsion for Gravitational Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, P D

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a general, model independent analysis of a recently detected apparent cosmic repulsion, and discuss its potential implications for gravitational theory. In particular, we show that a negatively spatially curved universe acts like a diverging refractive medium, to thus naturally cause galaxies to accelerate away from each other. Additionally, we show that it is possible for a cosmic acceleration to only be temporary, with some accelerating universes actually being able to subsequently recontract.

  4. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  5. The remnant CP transformation and its implications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Canales, Felix

    2016-01-01

    In the context of remnant CP transformations, I briefly discuss a generalized $\\mu-\\tau$ reflection symmetry, where the "Majorana" phases have CP conserving values, which are directly related with the CP parities of neutrino states. Also, one finds that the "Dirac-like" CP violation phase is correlated with the atmospheric mixing angle, giving important phenomenological implications for current and future long baseline oscillation neutrino experiments.

  6. Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-10

    by ANSI Std Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel James P. Drago TITLE: Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials FORMAT : Strategy...large impressions on this generation from researchers Howe and Strauss66: • The war in Kosovo • Princess Di’s death • O.J. Simplson trial • Rodney King...Washington, D.C., 24 February 2000, 1. 96 Beth Asch , Rebecca Kilburn, and Jacob Klerman, Attracting College Bound Youth into the Military, (RAND

  7. The Nuremberg Code: its history and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kious, B M

    2001-01-01

    The Nuremberg Code is a foundational document in the ethics of medical research and human experimentation; the principle its authors espoused in 1946 have provided the framework for modern codes that address the same issues, and have received little challenge and only slight modification in decades since. By analyzing the Code's tragic genesis and its normative implications, it is possible to understand some of the essence of modern experimental ethics, as well as certain outstanding controversies that still plague medical science.

  8. On the policy implications of changing longevity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Our societies are witnessing a steady increase in longevity. This demographic evolution is accompanied by some convergence across countries, whereas substantial longevity inequalities persist within nations. The goal of this paper is to survey some crucial implications of changing longevity on the design of optimal public policy. For that purpose, we firstly focus on some difficulties raised by risky and varying lifetime for the represen-tation of individual and social preferences. Then, we e...

  9. Environment Implications of China's WTO Accession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shantong; He Jianwu

    2006-01-01

    China's WTO accession will have important environmental implications. This article aims at providing environmental analysis of the impact of China's accession to the WTO, based on its final offer for WTO accession and a 53-sector, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of China. We try to provide some empirical evidences for policy makers to evaluate the effects of China's WTO accession from environmental prospective.

  10. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  11. Molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma: potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Renee Parker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas, (grade 4 astrocytomas, are aggressive primary brain tumors characterized by histopathological heterogeneity. High resolution sequencing technologies have shown that these tumors also feature significant inter-tumoral molecular heterogeneity. Molecular subtyping of these tumors has revealed several predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, intra-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the use of single biopsy analysis for determining tumor genotype and has implications for potential targeted therapies. The clinical relevance and theories of tumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma are discussed.

  12. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  13. Cosmological implications of Primordial Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Jos\\' e Luis; Bellomo, Nicola; Raccanelli, Alvise; Verde, Licia

    2017-01-01

    The possibility that a relevant fraction of the dark matter might be comprised of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) has been seriously reconsidered after LIGO's detection of a $\\sim 30 M_{\\odot}$ binary black holes merger. Despite the strong interest in the model, there is a lack of studies on possible cosmological implications and effects on cosmological parameters inference. We investigate correlations with the other standard cosmological parameters using cosmic microwave background observation...

  14. Investigating Variations in Gameplay: Cognitive Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sedig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in creating computer games for learning, problem solving, and other high-level cognitive activities. When investigating whether gameplay is conducive to such activities, gameplay is often studied as a whole. As a result, cognitive implications can be linked to the game but not to its structural elements. Given that gameplay arises from interaction between the player and the game, it is the structural components of interaction that should be investigated to better understand the design of gameplay. Furthermore, minor variations in the components of interaction can have significant cognitive implications. However, such variation has not been studied yet. Thus, to gain a better understanding of how we can study the effect of interaction on the cognitive aspect of gameplay, we conducted an exploratory investigation of two computer games. These games were isomorphic at a deep level and only had one minor difference in the structure of their interaction. Volunteers played these games and discussed the cognitive processes that emerged. In one game, they primarily engaged in planning, but in the other game they primarily engaged in visualizing. This paper discusses the results of our investigation as well as its implications for the design of computer games.

  15. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  16. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...

  18. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  19. Massive neutron stars and their implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Jha; Keshab C Panda

    2014-05-01

    Recent observations of high mass pulsar PSRJ1614-2230 has raised serious debate over the possible role of exotics in the dense core of neutron stars. The precise measurement of mass of the pulsar may play a very important role in limiting equation of state (EoS) of dense matter and its composition. Indirectly, it may also shape our understanding of the nucleon–hyperon or hyperon–hyperon interactions which is not well known. Within the framework of an effective chiral model, we compute models of neutron stars and analyse the hyperon composition in them. Further related implications are also discussed.

  20. TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SHORT SELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  1. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design...... is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...

  2. Cardiomyocyte death: mechanisms and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, M; Wang, Z V; Pedrozo, Z; Cao, D J; Troncoso, R; Ibacache, M; Criollo, A; Nemchenko, A; Hill, J A; Lavandero, S

    2011-12-22

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although treatments have improved, development of novel therapies for patients with CVD remains a major research goal. Apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy occur in cardiac myocytes, and both gradual and acute cell death are hallmarks of cardiac pathology, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and ischemia/reperfusion. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy, apoptosis, or necrosis diminishes infarct size and improves cardiac function in these disorders. Here, we review recent progress in the fields of autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis. In addition, we highlight the involvement of these mechanisms in cardiac pathology and discuss potential translational implications.

  3. Honesty, candour, and transparency: clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Papanikitas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In advance of a medical conference on the duty of candour for medical ethics educators, this paper discusses the duty of candour as a significant development in the culture of medicine. Those who teach medical ethics need to assess its implications for their own practice. It is also a duty that needs to be critically examined in light of both patients? interests and clinical work environments if it is to be practical and not meaningless rhetoric. Two examples of ways in which that cr...

  4. Literature and the Sarau: Political Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Pivetta de Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of the cultural gatherings that currently take place in the urban peripheries of Brazil’s larger cities, such as, for example, Sarau da Cooperifa, organized by Sérgio Vaz, and Sarau Suburbano, managed by Alessandro Buzo, both in São Paulo. We attempt to understand how they are organized and the cultural functions they perform in the context of a debate on literature as a cultural practice (Williams 1977; 2015 with aesthetic and political implications (Rancière 1996; 2009.

  5. The social implications of artificial intelligence.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitby, Blay

    2003-01-01

    For 18 years. I have been publishing books and papers on the subject of the social implications of Artificial Intelligence (AI). This is an area which is has been, and remains, in need of more academic attention of a serious nature than it currently receives. It will be useful to attempt a working definition of the field of AI at this stage. There is a considerable amount of disagreement as to what does and does not constitute AI and this often has important consequences for discussions of...

  6. Excessive Internet use: implications for sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    The Internet appears to have become an ever-increasing part in many areas of people’s day-to- day lives. One area that deserves further examination surrounds sexual behavior and excessive Internet usage. It has been alleged by some academics that social pathologies are beginning to surface in cyberspace and have been referred to as “technological addictions.” Such research may have implications and insights into sexuality and sexual behavior. Therefore, this article examines the concept of “I...

  7. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  8. Psychosocial benefits and implications of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaz, Daniel V; Smith, Aynsley M

    2012-11-01

    This review is based on a case report that concerns a young female athlete who experienced some of the negative aspects of exercise. Overtraining, a negative byproduct of excessive exercise, can turn the positive psychosocial and physiologic benefits of regular physical activity into an activity detrimental to one's health. With the proper psychological skills and appropriate exercise regimen, these negatives can be turned into positives. Once learned, the psychosocial benefits of exercise, as well as the positive implications, will become more prevalent, similar to the way in which proper physical training helps one become more fit over time.

  9. Psoriasis and comorbid diseases: Implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junko; Grewal, Sungat; Langan, Sinéad M; Mehta, Nehal N; Ogdie, Alexis; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Gelfand, Joel M

    2017-03-01

    As summarized in the first article in this continuing medical education series, the currently available epidemiologic data suggest that psoriasis may be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Emerging data also suggest associations between psoriasis and other comorbidities beyond psoriatic arthritis, including chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatic disease, certain malignancies, infections, and mood disorders. Recognizing the comorbid disease burden of psoriasis is essential for ensuring comprehensive care of patients with psoriasis. The clinical implications of the comorbid diseases that are associated with psoriasis and recommendations for clinical management are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conflicting belief systems: some implications for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. van Niekerk

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the conceptions of knowledge and time within Christianity, secular humanism and traditional African religion are juxtaposed. In order to emphasise the vital role o f belief systems in the field of education, some educational implications are inferred from these different conceptions of knowledge and time. The need to create enough space within the South African education system so that parents will be able to send their children to schools where education is conducted according to their particular belief systems is also foregrounded.

  11. Modeling Thermal Dust Emission and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuohan

    2014-01-01

    An accurate model of thermal dust emission at the far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths is important for studying the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and for understanding the cycling of matter and energy between stars and the interstellar medium. I will present results of fitting all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100 - 240 μm maps from the COBE-DIRBE, and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. I will also discuss the implications of the analysis on understanding astrophysical processes and the physical properties of dust grains.

  12. Codependency: management and administrative policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, E A

    1991-01-01

    Health care practitioners may exhibit behaviors that are considered dysfunctional for personal well-being. These behaviors, feelings, and thoughts could affect the manager-employee relations, as well as the implementation of patient care. This discussion focuses on the relevance of codependency in human resource management. Implications of codependency for organizational structure, standards of care, and managerial roles are pointed out. Specific strategies are outlined in recognizing manifestations of codependency. Finally, administrative interventions such as the Employee Assessment and Counseling Programs are suggested to prevent the negative outcomes of codependency which can affect job performance.

  13. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Global implications of China's healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China.

  15. Colon cancer stem cells: implications in carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew A.; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2014-01-01

    The cancer stem cell model was described for hematologic malignancies in 1997 and since then evidence has emerged to support it for many solid tumors as well, including colon cancer. This model proposes that certain cells within the tumor mass are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal and have an enhanced ability to initiate distant metastasis. The cancer stem cell model has important implications for cancer treatment, since most current therapies target actively proliferating cells and may not be effective against the cancer stem cells that are responsible for recurrence. In recent years great progress has been made in identifying markers of both normal and malignant colon stem cells. Proteins proposed as colon cancer stem cell markers include CD133, CD44, CD166, ALDH1A1, Lgr5, and several others. In this review we consider the evidence for these proteins as colon cancer stem cell markers and as prognostic indicators of colon cancer survival. Additionally, we discuss potential functions of these proteins and the implications this may have for development of therapies that target colon cancer stem cells. PMID:21196254

  16. Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

  17. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions.

  18. Implication of Ceramide Kinase in Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ordoñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide kinase (CerK plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and survival and has been implicated in proinflammatory responses. In this work, we demonstrate that CerK regulates adipocyte differentiation, a process associated with obesity, which causes chronic low-grade inflammation. CerK was upregulated during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. Noteworthy, knockdown of CerK using specific siRNA to silence the gene encoding this kinase resulted in substantial decrease of lipid droplet formation and potent depletion in the content of triacylglycerols in the adipocytes. Additionally, CerK knockdown caused blockade of leptin secretion, an adipokine that is crucial for regulation of energy balance in the organism and that is increased in the obese state. Moreover, CerK gene silencing decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, which is considered the master regulator of adipogenesis. It can be concluded that CerK is a novel regulator of adipogenesis, an action that may have potential implications in the development of obesity, and that targeting this kinase may be beneficial for treatment of obesity-associated diseases.

  19. L-型模糊格蕴涵代数%L-fuzzy Lattice Implication Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋庆龙; 李春瑞; 赵光峰

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduced the concept of L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra and discussed its properties. Proved that the intersection set of a family of L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebras is a L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra, that a L-fuzzy sub set of a lattice implication algebra is a L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra if and only if its every cut set is a sub lattice implication algebra, and that the image and original image of a L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebra under a lattice implication homomorphism are both L-fuzzy sub lattice implication algebras.

  20. Using video playback to study the effect of an audience on male mating behavior in the Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowicz, A M; Plath, M; Schlupp, I

    2010-09-01

    Sexual conflict in poeciliid fishes is well-documented, particularly male sexual harassment and its effects on females. For instance, male attempts to force copulations influence female feeding, energy allocation, and preference for shoaling partners. However, there has been little research conducted to determine how the social environment shapes the occurrence and intensity of sexual harassment. In this study we ask whether an audience male influences the sexual behaviors of a focal male, the correlated feeding time reduction of female Poecilia latipinna, and if the size of the audience male (larger or smaller than the focal male) influences these behaviors. We presented a video of a male, either smaller or larger than the focal male, or an empty tank (control) to a female interacting with a male or female partner and measured feeding times and sexual behaviors. We found that male sexual behaviors increased in the presence of an audience male, especially if the audience male was larger than the focal male. Females fed more in the presence of a partner female than in the presence of a male, which was independent of the audience (i.e., video treatment). Focal female aggression towards the partner female increased with the size of the audience male. The present study shows that an audience male has multiple interacting influences on both male and female behavior.

  1. Regulated necrosis and its implications in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-07-03

    Recent research developments have revealed that caspase-dependent apoptosis is not the sole form of regulated cell death. Caspase-independent, but genetically regulated, forms of cell death include pyroptosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, and the recently discovered ferroptosis and autosis. Importantly, regulated necrosis can be modulated by small molecule inhibitors/activators, confirming the cell autonomous mechanism of these forms of cell death. The success of small molecule-mediated manipulation of regulated necrosis has produced great changes in the field of cell death research, and has also brought about significant changes in the fields of pharmacology as well as toxicology. In this review, we intend to summarize the modes of regulated cell death other than apoptosis, and discuss their implications in toxicology.

  2. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Gershon, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV pp collisions. Due to the large production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of direct searches at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  4. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Anelli, M; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Band, H; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Beigbeder-Beau, C; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernard, F; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; van Beveren, V; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bochin, B; Boer Rookhuizen, H; Bogdanova, G; Bonaccorsi, E; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Brarda, L; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cacérès, T; Cachemiche, J -P; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casajus Ramo, A; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Ceelie, L; Chadaj, B; Chanal, H; Charles, M; Charlet, D; Charpentier, Ph; Chebbi, M; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciambrone, P; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corajod, B; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; D'Antone, I; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Groen, P; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Decreuse, G; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Domke, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Drancourt, C; Duarte, O; Dumps, R; Dupertuis, F; Duval, P -Y; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Evangelisti, F; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Faulkner, P J W; Fave, V; Felici, G; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Föhr, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Fournier, C; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frei, R; Frosini, M; Fuchs, H; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mauricio, J; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meissner, M; Mejia, H; Mendez-Munoz, V; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Mul, F; Müller, K; Munneke, B; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nawrot, A; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nikolaiko, Y; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Ostankov, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; van Overbeek, M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; 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van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tocut, V; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ullaland, O; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vink, W; Volkov, S; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Vouters, G; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Warda, K; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Wenerke, P; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xue, T; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zappon, F; Zavertyaev, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A; Zwart, A; Bharucha, A; Bigi, I.I.; Bobeth, C; Bobrowski, M; Brod, Joachim; Buras, A J; Davies, C T H; Datta, A.; Delaunay, C; Descotes-Genon, S; Ellis, J; Feldmann, T; Fleischer, R; Gedalia, O; Girrbach, J; Guadagnoli, D; Hiller, G; Hochberg, Y; Hurth, T; Isidori, G; Jager, S; Jung, M; Kagan, A; Kamenik, J F; Lenz, A; Ligeti, Z; London, D; Mahmoudi, F; Matias, J; Nandi, S; Nir, Y; Paradisi, P; Perez, G; Petrov, A A; Rattazzi, R; Sharpe, S R; Silvestrini, L; Soni, A; Straub, D M; van Dyk, D; Virto, J; Wang, Y M; Weiler, A; Zupan, J

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  5. Racism and cardiovascular disease: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern.

  6. Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitcher, P.

    1998-11-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

  7. Persuasive Recommender Systems Conceptual Background and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Zanker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding influential factors in advice seeking relationships, which is abundant in the context of human-human relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors in recommender system context. This book reviews the existing literature on the factors in advice seeking relationships in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are dis...

  8. Legal implications of managed care arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, W A; Epstein, D M

    1994-09-01

    Prior to the 1980s, managed care was virtually nonexistent as a force in health care. Presently, 64 percent of employees in America are covered by managed care plans, including health maintenance organizations (20 percent) and preferred provider organizations (44 percent). In contrast, only 29 percent of employees were enrolled in managed care plans in 1988 and only 47 percent in 1991. To date, the primary reason for this incredible growth in managed care has been economic-market pressure to reduce health care costs. For the foreseeable future, political pressures are likely to fuel this growth, as managed care is at the center of President Clinton's national health care plan. Although there are numerous legal issues surrounding managed care, this article focuses primarily on antitrust implications when forming managed care entities. In addition, the corporate practice of medicine doctrine, certain tax issues, and the fraud and abuse laws are discussed.

  9. [Adenosine deaminase in experimental trypanosomiasis: future implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Aguilar, Mary Carmen; Rondón-Mercado, Rocío

    2015-09-01

    The adenosine deaminase represents a control point in the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels, thus playing a critical role in the modulation of purinergic responses to certain pathophysiological events. Several studies have shown that serum and plasma enzyme levels are elevated in some diseases caused by microorganisms, which may represent a compensatory mechanism due to the elevated levels of adenosine and the release of inflammatory mediators. Recent research indicates that adenosine deaminase activity decreases and affects hematological parameters of infected animals with Trypanosoma evansi, so that such alterations could have implications in the pathogenesis of the disease. In addition, the enzyme has been detected in this parasite; allowing the inference that it could be associated with the vital functions of the same, similar to what occurs in mammals. This knowledge may be useful in the association of chemotherapy with specific inhibitors of the enzyme in future studies.

  10. [Biologism controversy: ethical implications for psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, M; Muders, S; Rüther, M; Schöne-Seifert, B

    2013-10-01

    Current biological psychiatry, it is frequently claimed by its opponents, is "biologistic" and unduly narrows psychological disorders to neurobiology and molecular biology. They deem a complete neuroscientific reduction of the mental phenomena to be impossible because of the impossibility of reducing certain phenomena, such as the individual subjective experience. If such a reduction is nevertheless undertaken it is ultimately to the disadvantage of the patients. We argue in this article that the very term "biologism" has to be put under scrutiny in the first place. As a result it becomes obvious that "biologism", as a subclass of "philosophical naturalism", is ultimately quite unproblematic. Biologism is dangerous only if it implies an eliminative rejection or an inappropriate underestimation of the relevance of the psyche. On closer examination it gets evident that such implications do not follow necessarily from biologism but cannot be precluded either. To better identify and possibly prevent such dangers, a more differentiated terminology seems helpful.

  11. Clinical implications of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailan Liu; Dongsheng Gu; Jingwu Xie

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog was first described in Drosophila melanogaster by the Nobel laureates Eric Wieschaus and Christiane Nusslein-Volhard. The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a major regulator of cell differentiation,proliferation, tissue polarity, stem cell maintenance, and carcinogenesis. The first link of Hh signaling to cancer was established through studies of a rare familial disease, Gorlin syndrome, in 1996. Follow-up studies revealed activation of this pathway in basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and, leukemia as well as in gastrointestinal, lung, ovarian, breast, and prostate cancer. Targeted inhibition of Hh signaling is now believed to be effective in the treatment and prevention of human cancer. The discovery and synthesis of specific inhibitors for this pathway are even more exciting. In this review, we summarize major advances in the understanding of Hh signaling pathway activation in human cancer, mouse models for studying Hhmediated carcinogenesis, the roles of Hh signaling in tumor development and metastasis, antagonists for Hh signaling and their clinical implications.

  12. Implications of interaction between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    as structural damping and therefore also structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores implications of having passive humans present on the structure. In experimental tests with a laboratory floor it is examined to which degree the posture of humans passively sitting on the floor......Many civil engineering structures are occupied by humans, and often humans are considered as a static load in calculations. However, active humans on structures can cause structural vibrations. Passive humans might also be present on that structure and they do change the structural system (such...... influences the damping added to the floor. A numerical case study explores how passive humans may influence vibration levels of a floor....

  13. Implications of LHCb measurements and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

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Gershon, T; Gets, S; Ghez, Ph; Giachero, A; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golovtsov, V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gong, G; Gong, H; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gromov, V; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Guzik, Z; Gys, T; Hachon, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; van der Heijden, B; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hofmann, W; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jamet, O; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jansen, L; Jansweijer, P; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karavichev, O; Karbach, T M; Kashchuk, A; Kechadi, T; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kihm, T; Kluit, R; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kos, J; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Kristic, R; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudenko, Y; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Landi, L; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Laptev, S; Latham, T; Lax, I; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Likhoded, A; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mauricio, J; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meissner, M; Mejia, H; Mendez-Munoz, V; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Mul, F; Müller, K; Munneke, B; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nawrot, A; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nikolaiko, Y; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Ostankov, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; van Overbeek, M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; van Petten, O; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Piedigrossi, D; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, M; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Rethore, F; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roeland, E; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; de Roo, K; Rouvinet, J; Roy, L; Rudloff, K; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Saornil Gamarra, S; Sapunov, M; Saputi, A; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savidge, T; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schimmel, A; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schneider, T; Schopper, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Sigurdsson, S; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Slater, M W; Sluijk, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Squerzanti, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; Tikhonov, A; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tocut, V; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ullaland, O; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vink, W; Volkov, S; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Vouters, G; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Warda, K; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Wenerke, P; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xue, T; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zappon, F; Zavertyaev, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A; Zwart, A; Bharucha, A; Bigi, I I; Bobeth, C; Bobrowski, M; Brod, J; Buras, A J; Davies, C T H; Datta, A; Delaunay, C; Descotes-Genon, S; Ellis, J; Feldmann, T; Fleischer, R; Gedalia, O; Girrbach, J; Guadagnoli, D; Hiller, G; Hochberg, Y; Hurth, T; Isidori, G; Jager, S; Jung, M; Kagan, A; Kamenik, J F; Lenz, A; Ligeti, Z; London, D; Mahmoudi, F; Matias, J; Nandi, S; Nir, Y; Paradisi, P; Perez, G; Petrov, A A; Rattazzi, R; Sharpe, S R; Silvestrini, L; Soni, A; Straub, D M; van Dyk, D; Virto, J; Wang, Y M; Weiler, A; Zupan, J

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 the LHCb experiment at CERN collected $1.0 {\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $\\sqrt{s} = 7 {\\mathrm{\\,Te\\kern -0.1em V}}$ $pp$ collisions. Due to the large heavy quark production cross-sections, these data provide unprecedented samples of heavy flavoured hadrons. The first results from LHCb have made a significant impact on the flavour physics landscape and have definitively proved the concept of a dedicated experiment in the forward region at a hadron collider. This document discusses the implications of these first measurements on classes of extensions to the Standard Model, bearing in mind the interplay with the results of searches for on-shell production of new particles at ATLAS and CMS. The physics potential of an upgrade to the LHCb detector, which would allow an order of magnitude more data to be collected, is emphasised.

  14. Phonological development in young bilinguals: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews recent research on bilingual phonological development and describes the nature of bilingual phonology, focusing on characteristics of cross-linguistic influence on bilingual phonological abilities. There is evidence of positive and negative transfer (acceleration and deceleration) on children's phonological abilities. Several methodological issues limit the ability to generalize findings from previous research to larger groups of bilingual children (e.g., small sample size, lack of consideration of age of acquisition of each language, and language abilities of the participants). Sources of heterogeneity in language development are presented and discussed. Phonological abilities are related to language abilities in bilingual first language learners of English and Spanish. Empirical evidence from research in our laboratory supports this claim. We discuss implications of research findings and limitations for future research and clinical practice. We provide specific recommendations for bilingual research and for clinical assessment of young bilingual children.

  15. Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. M. Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major cause of severe respiratory infections leading to excessive hospitalizations and deaths globally; annual epidemics, pandemics, and sporadic/endemic avian virus infections occur as a result of rapid, continuous evolution of influenza viruses. Emergence of antiviral resistance is of great clinical and public health concern. Currently available antiviral treatments include four neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, laninamivir, M2-inibitors (amantadine, rimantadine, and a polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir. In this review, we focus on resistance issues related to the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. Data on primary resistance, as well as secondary resistance related to NAI exposure will be presented. Their clinical implications, detection, and novel therapeutic options undergoing clinical trials are discussed.

  16. Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Timothy C M; Chan, Martin C W; Lee, Nelson

    2015-09-14

    Influenza is a major cause of severe respiratory infections leading to excessive hospitalizations and deaths globally; annual epidemics, pandemics, and sporadic/endemic avian virus infections occur as a result of rapid, continuous evolution of influenza viruses. Emergence of antiviral resistance is of great clinical and public health concern. Currently available antiviral treatments include four neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, laninamivir), M2-inibitors (amantadine, rimantadine), and a polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir). In this review, we focus on resistance issues related to the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). Data on primary resistance, as well as secondary resistance related to NAI exposure will be presented. Their clinical implications, detection, and novel therapeutic options undergoing clinical trials are discussed.

  17. Clinical Implications of Sarcopenic Obesity in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella P; Mazurak, Vera C; Prado, Carla M

    2016-10-01

    Sarcopenia has been associated with several negative clinical outcomes in cancer. However, the consequences of sarcopenic obesity, a condition of combined sarcopenia and obesity burden, have been less extensively investigated. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence on the prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity in cancer. A total of 14 studies linking sarcopenic obesity to a clinical outcome in cancer were included. There is considerable inconsistency in methods used to evaluate body composition as well as in the criteria used to define sarcopenic obesity, which limits comparison among studies. Therefore, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied substantially: between 1 and 29 % in studies including individuals from all body mass index categories and between 15 and 36 % for those including obese individuals only. Negative clinical outcomes reported to be associated with sarcopenic obesity included higher risk of dose-limiting toxicity, surgical complications, physical disability, and shorter survival.

  18. Implications of laboratory diagnosis on brucellosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Nöckler, Karsten

    2011-07-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a huge economic impact on animal husbandry and public health. The diagnosis of human brucellosis can be protracted because the disease primarily presents as fever of unknown origin with unspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The isolation rate of the fastidious etiologic agent from blood cultures is low, and therefore laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serologic and molecular testing. However, seronegative brucellosis patients have been described, and antibody titers of diagnostic significance are difficult to define. Whether the molecular detection of Brucella DNA in clinical samples should be followed by long-term antibiotic treatment or not is also a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the implications of laboratory test results in the diagnosis of human brucellosis on disease therapy.

  19. XIPHOID FORAMEN AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh kumar N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this case report, we want to present a case of pear shaped foramina at the xiphoid process of sternum. The context and purpose: Variations and foramen in the xiphoid process of sternum are frequent. They are clinically important due to their proximity to heart, lungs, diaphragm, liver and stomach. Results: The pear shaped foramina was present in the xiphoid process. It resembled the glenoid fossa of scapula in shape. The maximum length of the foramina was 1.6cm and breadth 1.4cm. Conclusions, brief summary and potential implications: A sound knowledge of xiphoid process variations and anomalies is very important during sternal bone marrow aspiration, radiological reporting, acupuncture and assessing injuries during autopsy and post mortem examination.

  20. The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2003-06-01

    Drawing on previous theorizing from both the prejudice and social anxiety literatures, a model of the antecedents and implications of intergroup anxiety is offered. It is argued that a lack of positive previous experiences with outgroup members creates negative expectancies about interracial interactions, which result in intergroup anxiety. This anxiety is posited to result in heightened hostility toward outgroup members and a desire to avoid interacting with outgroup members. Study 1 examined White participants' responses to interacting with Black people using a range of self-report measures; the associations between these responses supported the relationships outlined in the model. Study 2 explored White participants' responses to an anticipated interaction with a Black person or a White person. The findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about an interaction with a Black person, but not a White person, were associated with a lower likelihood of returning for the interaction.

  1. IPAD products and implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The betterment of productivity through the improvement of product quality and the reduction of cost is addressed. Productivity improvement is sought through (1) reduction of required resources, (2) improved ask results through the management of such saved resources, (3) reduced downstream costs through manufacturing-oriented engineering, and (4) lowered risks in the making of product design decisions. The IPAD products are both hardware architecture and software distributed over a number of heterogeneous computers in this architecture. These IPAD products are described in terms of capability and engineering usefulness. The future implications of state-of-the-art IPAD hardware and software architectures are discussed in terms of their impact on the functions and on structures of organizations concerned with creating products.

  2. Interstellar Turbulence II: Implications and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Scalo, J

    2004-01-01

    Interstellar turbulence has implications for the dispersal and mixing of the elements, cloud chemistry, cosmic ray scattering, and radio wave propagation through the ionized medium. This review discusses the observations and theory of these effects. Metallicity fluctuations are summarized, and the theory of turbulent transport of passive tracers is reviewed. Modeling methods, turbulent concentration of dust grains, and the turbulent washout of radial abundance gradients are discussed. Interstellar chemistry is affected by turbulent transport of various species between environments with different physical properties and by turbulent heating in shocks, vortical dissipation regions, and local regions of enhanced ambipolar diffusion. Cosmic rays are scattered and accelerated in turbulent magnetic waves and shocks, and they generate turbulence on the scale of their gyroradii. Radio wave scintillation is an important diagnostic for small scale turbulence in the ionized medium, giving information about the power spe...

  3. Implications of new generations on neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Aparici, A; Rius, N; Santamaria, A

    2011-01-01

    We explore the possible implications that new families, that are being searched for at the LHC, would have on neutrino masses. In particular, we have explored the possibility that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses is naturally understood in a modified version of the Standard Model (SM) with complete extra generations of fermions, i.e., that have right-handed neutrinos, in which neutrino masses are generated at two loops. With one extra family it is not possible to fit the observed spectrum of masses and mixings. However, the radiative mass generated provides an important constraint in these kind of models, so the neutrino masses do not exceed their cosmological bound. Within the context of two extra families, we analyse the allowed parameter space and the possible phenomenological signals. Contribution to NUFACT 11, XIIIth International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, Super beams and Beta beams, 1-6 August 2011, CERN and University of Geneva (Submitted to IOP conference series).

  4. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  5. The Francis Report--dento-legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Martin

    2015-05-01

    This article explores the potential implications of the Francis Report for members of the dental team from a dento-legal perspective. It looks at the broad recommendations in light of the existing ethical environment in which dental registrants work and asks what is new and what the recommendations will actually mean for dental professionals in practical terms. Clinical Relevance: The fundamental recommendations of the Francis Report, namely, that those who provide care should put patients' interests first and be open about outcomes and performance, are not new concepts. A breach of these ethically based expectations may, however, create grounds for legal proceedings, which is clearly a significant point for all members of the dental team. It is therefore important to be aware of what is expected of those providing clinical care.

  6. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  7. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  8. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  9. IMPLICATIONS OF MYCOTOXINS IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer DENLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of foods and feeds is a significant problem in worldwide. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, particularly by many species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria in many agricultural crops, especially in cereals and most oilseeds. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone and fumonisins are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Mycotoxins have various acute and chronic effects on animals (especially monogastrics depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a species. The most applied method to prevent mycotoxicosis in animals involves the addition to the diet of additives with the ability to bind or metabolize mycotoxin in the gastrointestinal digesta, aluminosilicates, activated charcoal, yeast and several polymers have been tested regarding the adsorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of different species. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds.

  10. Patterns of drug distribution: implications and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce D

    2003-01-01

    This article delineates various patterns of illicit sales of drugs, especially at the retail (and near-retail) level, addressing a variety of central issues about drug sales and distribution documented during the past 30 years. including: a) the links between drug consumption and drug distribution activities; b) the various distribution roles; c) various levels of the distribution hierarchy; d) types of retail and wholesale markets; e) the association of drug distribution with nondrug associated criminality and violence. The article also will address the implications of drug distribution: whether various public policies such as supply reduction and source interdiction affect illicit drug markets, and how policing strategies and various law enforcement strategies can influence the involvement of individual participation in drug distribution activities. The overlooked contribution of treatment for "drug abuse" to reducing drug sales and distribution activities also will be considered as will other critical unresolved issues.

  11. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: implications and continuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Dijkers, Marcel; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; M Zanca, Jeanne; Packel, Andrew; Tsaousides, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    In relation to the conceptual framework for a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT), which has been proposed in other articles in this supplement, this article discusses a number of issues relevant to its further development, including creating distinctions within the major target classes; the nature and quantity of allowable targets of treatment; and bracketing as a way of specifying (1) the skill or knowledge taught; (2) the nature of compensation afforded by changes in the environment, assistive technology, and orthotics/prosthetics; and (3) the ingredients in homework a clinician assigns. Clarification is provided regarding the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, focusing a taxonomy on ingredients versus other observable aspects of treatment, and regarding our lack of knowledge and its impact on taxonomy development. Finally, this article discusses the immediate implications of the work to date and presents the need for rehabilitation stakeholders of all disciplines to be involved in further RTT development.

  12. False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, hundreds of convicted prisoners have been exonerated by DNA and non-DNA evidence, revealing that police-induced false confessions are a leading cause of wrongful conviction of the innocent. In this article, empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed. After a description of the three sequential processes that are responsible for the elicitation of false confessions--misclassification, coercion, and contamination--the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded) are discussed along with the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of false confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial.

  13. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  14. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: physiology and anesthetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Slinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) represents a fundamental difference between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. HPV is active in utero, reducing pulmonary blood flow, and in adults helps to match regional ventilation and perfusion although it has little effect in healthy lungs. Many factors affect HPV including pH or PCO2, cardiac output, and several drugs, including antihypertensives. In patients with lung pathology and any patient having one-lung ventilation, HPV contributes to maintaining oxygenation, so anesthesiologists should be aware of the effects of anesthesia on this protective reflex. Intravenous anesthetic drugs have little effect on HPV, but it is attenuated by inhaled anesthetics, although less so with newer agents. The reflex is biphasic, and once the second phase becomes active after about an hour of hypoxia, this pulmonary vasoconstriction takes hours to reverse when normoxia returns. This has significant clinical implications for repeated periods of one-lung ventilation.

  15. Epigenetics, an emerging discipline with broad implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Robert

    2008-11-01

    The field of epigenetics is young and quickly expanding. During the last year alone, thousands of research articles considered epigenetic mechanisms and their phenotypic consequences in different animal and plant species. Various definitions have been given, though, as to what precisely is epigenetics. Recent ones take into consideration that chromatin at genes and chromosomal regions can be structurally organised by covalent modifications and nuclear proteins, and via RNA molecules, in order to achieve defined expression states that can be perpetuated. Such somatically and meiotically heritable effects on gene function have diverse biological and medical implications. In particular, they are known to be important in development. A recent discussion meeting in Paris at the French Academy of Sciences reviewed our current understanding of 'Epigenetics and Cellular Memory' and where this novel discipline in life sciences is heading.

  16. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  17. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  18. Brain death: neuropathological findings and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M

    1994-12-16

    'Brain death' is defined pathophysiologically as intracranial circulatory arrest. The morphological features of brain death include cerebral edema, absence of reactive changes, and--after an interval of 15-36 h--the morphological hallmarks of respirator brain: edema, global softening of the brain, dusky discoloration of the gray matter, and often necrotic and sloughing tonsillar herniations. The following implications of brain death for forensic medicine are discussed: discriminating between respirator and autolytic brain, declaration of death, determining the time of brain death versus the time of the traumatic event leading to brain death, and neuropathological control of the clinical diagnosis of brain death. These issues are elucidated and their bearing on forensic practice is illustrated by several real-life situations. Thus, neuropathological examination in the case of clinically diagnosed brain death is--without doubt--necessary in order to answer several questions often or regularly expected.

  19. Gestalt theory: implications for radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Nicholas A; Gunderman, Richard B

    2008-05-01

    The Gestalt theory of modern psychology is grounded in the ideas that holistic rather than atomistic approaches are necessary to understand the mind, and that the mental whole is greater than the sum of its component parts. Although the Gestalt school fell out of favor due to its descriptive rather than explanatory nature, it permanently changed our understanding of perception. For the radiologist, such fundamental Gestalt concepts as figure-ground relationships and a variety of "grouping principles" (the laws of closure, proximity, similarity, common region, continuity, and symmetry) are ubiquitous in daily work, not to mention in art and personal life. By considering the applications of these principles and the stereotypical ways in which humans perceive visual stimuli, a radiology learner may incur fewer errors of diagnosis. This article serves to introduce several important principles of Gestalt theory, identify examples of these principles in widely recognizable fine art, and highlight their implications for radiology education.

  20. Chronobiology of bipolar disorder: therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression.

  1. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  2. German Energy Security and Its Implications on Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    SECURITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON REGIONAL SECURITY by Philemon Sakamoto December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Robert E. Looney Second Reader...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GERMAN ENERGY SECURITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON REGIONAL SECURITY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...and overall regional security and stability. Using a liberal framework, it illustrates how policies established to improve energy security may act

  3. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis1 Katherine C. Brittingham,* Gordon Ruthel,* Rekha G...germination and dissemination of spores. Found in high frequency throughout the respiratory track, dendritic cells (DCs) routinely take up foreign...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cells endocytose Bacillus anthracis spores: implications for anthrax pathogenesis, The Journal of

  4. Kierkegaardian Implications of Punishment, Guilt, and Forgiveness for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyshyn, Yaroslav

    1998-01-01

    Explores Soren Kierkegaard's notion of punishment, which should interest educators because it provides a way to avoid the pitfalls of unjust punishment by viewing it in conjunction with the implications of guilt and forgiveness. The paper notes the need to question the notion of punishment closely and seek to understand its implications. (SM)

  5. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  6. Learning to Listen - Implications for Interdisciplinary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward

    2015-04-01

    For more than twenty years, researchers in the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group (UMd-PERG) have been developing a theoretical framework for trying to understand how students think about and learn physics - Resources. The Resources Framework provides tools for interpreting how our students respond to our instruction. What may appear on the surface to be serious misconceptions can turn out to have a subtler explanation once one takes into account the roles played in student thinking by (1) experiential knowledge, (2) the dynamic character of their cognitive responses, (3) epistemological assumptions and expectations, (4) framing of the activity along multiple dimensions. The Resources Framework also provides tools to help us understand what knowledge our students bring into our classes and how they use that knowledge to interpret what they are learning. What we have learned in this research has powerful implications for instruction, especially in service courses where an expert is charged with teaching a discipline to students from a different discipline, such as when physicists teach physics to biologists or engineers. For more than a decade, the UMd-PERG and our collaborators have been studying how life science students respond to physics instruction. We have found many surprising results by listening carefully to what students say: Often, ``student errors'' turn out to be failures of communication between teacher and student. Many common practices turn out to be counterproductive and misleading. I will give examples from NEXUS/Physics, an introductory physics class for life science students, and I will suggest implications for instruction and curriculum development. Support gratefully acknowledged for multiple NSF grants.

  7. Cosmological implications of the Machian principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Hans J; Zoennchen, Jochen H

    2006-12-01

    The famous idea of Ernst Mach concerning the non-absolute but relational character of particle inertia is taken up in this paper and is reinvestigated with respect to its cosmological implications. From Thirring's general relativistic study of the old Newtonian problem of the relativity of rotations in different reference systems, it appears that the equivalence principle with respect to rotating reference systems, if at all, can only be extended to the system of the whole universe, if the mass of the universe scales with the effective radius or extent of the universe. A reanalysis of Thirring's derivations still reveals this astonishing result, and thus the general question must be posed: how serious this result has to be taken with respect to cosmological implications. As we will show, the equivalence principle is, in fact, fulfilled by a universe with vanishing curvature, i.e. with a curvature parameter k = 0, which just has the critical density rho (crit) = (3H)(2)/8piG, where H is the Hubble constant. It turns out, however, that this principle can only permanently be fulfilled in an evolving cosmos, if the cosmic mass density, different from its conventional behaviour, varies with the reciprocal of the squared cosmic scale. This, in fact, would automatically be realized, if the mass of each cosmic particle scales with the scale of the universe. The latter fact, on one hand, is a field-theoretical request from a general relativistic field theory which fulfills H. Weyl's requirement of a conformal scale invariance. On the other hand, it can perhaps also be concluded on purely physical grounds, when taking into account that as source of the cosmic metrics only an effective mass density can be taken. This mass density represents the bare mass density reduced by its mass equivalent of gravitational self-binding energy. Some interesting cosmological conclusions connected with this fact are pointed out in this paper.

  8. Immunoglobulin genes implicated in glioma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Janardan P; Kaur, Navtej; Costa, Sandra; Amorim, Julia; Nabico, Rui; Linhares, Paulo; Vaz, Rui; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Reis, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to be causal in gliomagenesis. Several genes have been implicated in glioma development, but the putative role of a major immunity-related gene complex member, immunoglobulin heavy chain γ (IGHG) has not been evaluated. Prior observations that IGHG-encoded γ marker (GM) allotypes exhibit differential sensitivity to an immunoevasion strategy of cytomegalovirus, a pathogen implicated as a promoter of gliomagenesis, has lead us to hypothesize that these determinants are risk factors for glioma. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped the IGHG locus comprising the GM alleles, specifically GM alleles 3 and 17, of 120 glioma patients and 133 controls via TaqMan® genotyping assay. To assess the associations between GM genotypes and the risk of glioma, we applied an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding variables. In comparison to subjects who were homozygous for the GM 17 allele, the GM 3 homozygotes were over twice as likely, and the GM 3/17 heterozygotes were over three times as likely, to develop glioma. Similar results were achieved when analyzed by combining the data corresponding to alleles GM 3 and GM 3/17 in a dominant model. The GM 3/17 genotype and the combination of GM 3 and GM 3/17 were found to be further associated with over 3 times increased risk for high-grade astrocytoma (grades III-IV). Allele frequency analyses also showed an increased risk for gliomas and high-grade astrocytoma in association with GM 3. Our findings support the premise that the GM 3 allele may present risk for the development of glioma, possibly by modulating immunity to cytomegalovirus.

  9. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  10. Environmental implications and applications of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    Recent advances in material science and nanotechnology have given rise to a myriad of developments, while in the meantime call for research into the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade concerning the behavior of nanomaterials in biological systems, such understanding is critically lacking with respect to the fate of nanomaterials in ecosystems. Accordingly, this dissertation addresses the interactions between nanomaterials and algae---the major constituent of the aquatic food chain (Part I, Chapter two), and exploits the physicochemistry of nanoscaled synthetic dendritic polymers for environmental applications, especially for water purification that is a focused theme of the entire dossier (Part II, Chapters two--five). This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter one presents a general review of the physical/physicochemical properties, characterizations, implications---especially ecological implication, and applications of a host of most produced and studied nanomaterials. In addition, advances in environmental applications of nanomaterials are discussed. Chapter two examines algal responses to two major types of engineered nanomaterials---quantum dots and polystyrene. Inhibited photosynthetic activities of green algae are observed as a result of the physical adsorption of the nanomaterials. Chapter three elucidates the physicochemical properties of poly(amidoamine)-tris(hydroxymethyl)amidomethane- and amine-terminated dendrimers towards their applications in water remediation. Here, the capacities and mechanisms of the dendrimers in hosting cationic copper, anionic nitrate, polyaromatic phenanthrene, and the more heterogeneous humic acids are discussed. Based on the results of Chapter three, Chapter four presents a dendrimer-based novel optical scheme for improving the detection sensitivity and selectivity of environmental pollutants. Specifically, the surface plasmon

  11. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise

  12. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific

  13. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  14. Epigenetics: origins and implications for cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nise, Melissa S; Falaturi, Puran; Erren, Thomas C

    2010-02-01

    This paper provides information on the evolution of the 'epigenetics' concept since Aristotle and draws attention to the importance of epigenetic implications for cancer epidemiology in the years to come. Clearly, to understand origins of the concept of epigenetics, it is worthwhile to consider historical arguments associated with evolution. Equally clearly, in the last half of the 20th century, great advances in the understanding of epigenetics and, more specifically, great advances in the understanding of epigenetics in cancer have been made. However, reaping the full benefits of epigenetics lies beyond the predominant experimental studies of today. In general, epigenetics opens many doors in the field of cancer, but it also adds another level of complex, inter-related, and multi-dimensional information to research, and to its interpretation. Overall, future cancer studies should consider, or at least be sensitive to, epigenetic effects and mechanisms. Moving the focus beyond 'pristine' inheritance via DNA alone, cancer epidemiology investigating epigenetic exposures such as environmental factors (exposure to heavy metals, air pollution, arsenic and other toxins), dietary patterns (starvation, famine, contamination), and lifestyle habits (smoking, level of physical activity, and BMI) in populations has the prospect to significantly benefit future cancer prevention and treatment schemes.

  15. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem.

  16. Bowlby's attachment theory: implications for health visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partis, M

    2000-10-01

    This article reviews the current state of research in attachment theory. It also examines the relations between attachment, child care and development, and the significance of attachment to adult functioning and well-being. It seems likely that humans need close emotional relationships or bonds with others. This need applies particularly to infants, who look to parents or other care givers for love and security. The best-known psychological explanation of this need is attachment theory, which has been influential in increasing our understanding of the early mother-infant relationship, and in the formulation of guidelines for child care (Melhuish, 1998). Good-quality parental care may be difficult to define, and questions remain regarding the nature of child care and the consequences that it can have for later development. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible implications for health-visitor intervention within families, which are intended to improve the quality of the relationship between parents or care givers and the infant.

  17. [Hepatitis E virus: Blood transfusion implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallian, P; Piquet, Y; Assal, A; Djoudi, R; Chiaroni, J; Izopet, J; Tiberghien, P

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  19. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women.

  20. The Greek crisis: Causes and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamis Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

  1. Neisseria prophage repressor implicated in gonococcal pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Nadine; Yu, Chunxiao; McClure, Ryan; Gudino, Cynthia; Reed, George W; Genco, Caroline A

    2013-10-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea, can infect and colonize multiple mucosal sites in both men and women. The ability to cope with different environmental conditions requires tight regulation of gene expression. In this study, we identified and characterized a gonococcal transcriptional regulatory protein (Neisseria phage repressor [Npr]) that was previously annotated as a putative gonococcal phage repressor protein. Npr was found to repress transcription of NGNG_00460 to NGNG_00463 (NGNG_00460-00463), an operon present within the phage locus NgoΦ4. Npr binding sites within the NGNG_00460-00463 promoter region were found to overlap the -10 and -35 promoter motifs. A gonococcal npr mutant demonstrated increased adherence to and invasion of human endocervical epithelial cells compared to a wild-type gonococcal strain. Likewise, the gonococcal npr mutant exhibited enhanced colonization in a gonococcal mouse model of mucosal infection. Analysis of the gonococcal npr mutant using RNA sequence (RNA-seq) analysis demonstrated that the Npr regulon is limited to the operon present within the phage locus. Collectively, our studies have defined a new gonococcal phage repressor protein that controls the transcription of genes implicated in gonococcal pathogenesis.

  2. Contamination: concept analysis and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Polk, Laura V

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the concept of contamination and discuss the implications for nursing practice, research, and education. Published research articles, official governmental publications, policy reports, and textbooks. Various attributes of contamination are described using the Walker and Avant method of concept analysis and include: (a) exposure to a contaminant, and (b) contaminant exists in a dose sufficient to cause adverse health effects. The major antecedents of contamination include the presence of a contaminant, dose, duration of exposure, route of exposure, and individual human differences. Major consequences of contamination include organ and systemic responses, and psychological, social, and economic effects. Contamination is an important concept and is essential to the discipline of nursing. The concept of contamination is separate from exposure. Precision in the use of diagnostic language describing contamination incidents will lead to greater accuracy in outcomes and interventions for individuals and groups experiencing overt or covert contamination resulting from accidental or intentional acts. Broad agreement on the definition, antecedents, and consequences of contamination will improve the likelihood of successful management of contamination events. The nursing profession makes an important contribution to the improvement of individual, community, and societal environmental health. Clarifying the concept of contamination is an important first step in building the nursing science that will lead to identifying sound nursing interventions.

  3. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  4. Detecting somatic mosaicism: considerations and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A S A; Wilson, S L; Trinh, J; Ye, X C

    2015-06-01

    Human disease is rarely a matter of all or nothing; variable expressivity is generally observed. Part of this variability is explained by somatic mosaicism, which can arise by a myriad of genetic alterations. These can take place at any stage of development, possibly leading to unusual features visible at birth, but can also occur later in life, conceivably leading to cancer. Previously, detection of somatic mosaicism was extremely challenging, as many gold standard tests lacked the necessary resolution. However, with the advances in high-throughput sequencing, mosaicism is being detected more frequently and at lower levels. This raises the issue of normal variation within each individual vs mosaicism leading to disease, and how to distinguish between the two. In this article, we will define somatic mosaicism with a brief overview of its main mechanisms in concrete clinical examples, discuss the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies in its detection, and expand on the clinical implications associated with a discovery of somatic mosaicism in the clinic.

  5. Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

  6. Microbiota—implications for immunity and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Jonathan S; Fricke, W Florian; Brinkman, C Colin; Simon, Thomas; Mongodin, Emmanuel F

    2015-06-01

    Each individual harbours a unique set of commensal microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiota. Notably, these microorganisms exceed the number of cells in the human body by 10-fold. This finding has accelerated a shift in our understanding of human physiology, with the realization that traits necessary for health are both encoded and influenced by the human genome and the microbiota. Our understanding of the aetiology of complex diseases has, therefore, evolved with increasing awareness that the human microbiota has an active and critical role in maintaining health and inducing disease. Indeed, findings from bioinformatic studies indicate that the microbiota and microbiome have multiple effects on the innate and adaptive immune systems, with effects on infection, autoimmune disease and cancer. In this Review, we first address the important statistical and informatics aspects that should be considered when characterizing the composition of microbiota. We next highlight the effects of the microbiota on the immune system and the implications of these effects on organ failure and transplantation. Finally, we reflect on the future perspectives for studies of the microbiota, including novel diagnostic tests and therapeutics.

  7. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  8. Effects of Odor on Emotion, with Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko eKadohisa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger, and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.

  9. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Gonçalves Zenóbio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases.

  10. Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, J M

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to present an up-to-date summary of the signs, diagnosis, treatment, and implications of equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. The review encompasses all original articles published between 1986 and early 1993. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is the result of a genetic mutation in the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; most affected horses are heterozygotes. The classical signs are muscle fasciculation, spasm, and weakness associated with hyperkalemia. However, these signs are only rarely observed in affected horses. Potential sequelae to attacks are abrasions and involuntary recumbency; these problems are not specific for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, but they occur more frequently in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis-affected horses. It is also likely that hyperkalemic periodic paralysis results in greater muscle mass. There are suggestions that homozygotes may be more severely affected and show signs of upper respiratory obstruction as foals. The practitioner needs to be aware of the tests for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and their limitations, so that he can properly diagnose this condition. The industry has the difficult problem of deciding whether or not testing should be mandatory and the fate of positive horses.

  11. Osteocyte biology: its implications for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonewald, L F

    2004-03-01

    Osteocyte viability may play a significant role in the maintenance and integrity of bone. Bone loss due to osteoporosis may be due in part to osteocyte cell death. We have identified a factor that will protect both osteoblasts and osteocytes from cell death due to agents known to be responsible for various forms of osteoporosis. Not only does estrogen preserve osteoblast and osteocyte viability, but so does a molecule called CD40Ligand. This molecule is expressed on activated T lymphocytes, human dendritic cells, and human vascular endothelial cells, whereas its receptor CD40 is expressed on normal epithelium, B cells, and dendritic cells. CD40Ligand protects osteoblasts and the MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells against apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids, tumor necrosis factor alpha or etoposide. As tumor necrosis factor a has been shown to be responsible for post-menopausal bone loss and glucocorticoids induce dramatic bone loss, this finding has important implications with regards to potential therapy for both post-menopausal and steroid-induced osteoporosis.

  12. Comprehensive Map of Molecules Implicated in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisri Jagannadham

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic affecting over 1.5 billion people and is one of the risk factors for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We have constructed a comprehensive map of the molecules reported to be implicated in obesity. A deep curation strategy was complemented by a novel semi-automated text mining system in order to screen 1,000 full-length research articles and over 90,000 abstracts that are relevant to obesity. We obtain a scale free network of 804 nodes and 971 edges, composed of 510 proteins, 115 genes, 62 complexes, 23 RNA molecules, 83 simple molecules, 3 phenotype and 3 drugs in "bow-tie" architecture. We classify this network into 5 modules and identify new links between the recently discovered fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene with well studied examples such as insulin and leptin. We further built an automated docking pipeline to dock orlistat as well as other drugs against the 24,000 proteins in the human structural proteome to explain the therapeutics and side effects at a network level. Based upon our experiments, we propose that therapeutic effect comes through the binding of one drug with several molecules in target network, and the binding propensity is both statistically significant and different in comparison with any other part of human structural proteome.

  13. SUBSIDIES - CONCEPT, RECOGNITION AND TAX IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN DANCIU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if, theoretically speaking the specialty literature accepted andvalidated the concept of perfect competition, this remains, only a hypothetical issue that cannotbe met in its pure form - in the real economy. The impossibility of the market to regulate itselfas well as the anti-competition practices or unfair competition make absolute necessary theintervention of the state at the economic level in order to re-establish the market equilibriumand to relaunch the economic growth. But this intervention - both at world level as well as atEU level - or more specific at the Romanian level - takes place in a controlled way based uponsome specific regulations. Such regulations aim at the domains of state intervention, type andquantum of aid, concession conditions, as well as at the reflection in the beneficiaries’ financialsituations of the aid received and their influence upon the economic - financial results. We tryhereafter a brief presentation of the concept, recognition and fiscal implications of the mostused form of state aid in the economy: subsidies.

  14. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Philip H; Zou, Quan; Dascalu, Sergiu-Mihai

    2008-07-01

    Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly "intelligent" systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain "algorithm" itself-trying to replicate uniquely "neuromorphic" dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain's interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or "avatars", to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR) in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection) are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  15. Pheochromocytoma: physiopathologic implications and diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanti, Evangelia; Ilias, Ioannis

    2006-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) is a chromaffin cell tumor embryologically arising from the neural crest tissue. The dominant secretory products of PHEO are catecholamines: noradrenaline (norepinephrine), adrenaline (epinephrine), and to a lesser extent dopamine. In addition to catecholamines, PHEO cells also elaborate and release several neuropeptides and inflammatory cytokines which can exert intra-adrenal and extra-adrenal systemic effects and cause characteristic clinical syndromes. In a concise review we present the intra-adrenal and extra-adrenal pathophysiologic implications of PHEO and the nuclear medicine modalities that permit functional imaging of physiological processes and help localize these tumors. The specific pathways of synthesis, metabolism, and inactivation of catecholamines (of PHEOs and paragangliomas) can be used as means to develop suitable tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) ligands. In this review we focus on imaging with PET using [(18)F]-fluorodopamine, [(18)F]-fluorohydroxyphenylalanine, [(11)C]-epinephrine, or [(11)C]-hydroxyephedrine and examine how functional imaging can often complement traditional anatomical imaging modalities and other scintigraphic techniques.

  16. Epigenetics and its implications for ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2011-05-01

    Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Interestingly, epigenetic changes can be triggered by environmental factors. Environmental exposure to e.g. metals, persistent organic pollutants or endocrine disrupting chemicals has been shown to modulate epigenetic marks, not only in mammalian cells or rodents, but also in environmentally relevant species such as fish or water fleas. The associated changes in gene expression often lead to modifications in the affected organism's phenotype. Epigenetic changes can in some cases be transferred to subsequent generations, even when these generations are no longer exposed to the external factor which induced the epigenetic change, as observed in a study with fungicide exposed rats. The possibility of this phenomenon in other species was demonstrated in water fleas exposed to the epigenetic drug 5-azacytidine. This way, populations can experience the effects of their ancestors' exposure to chemicals, which has implications for environmental risk assessment. More basic research is needed to assess the potential phenotypic and population-level effects of epigenetic modifications in different species and to evaluate the persistence of chemical exposure-induced epigenetic effects in multiple subsequent generations.

  17. Predisposition to ascariasis: patterns, mechanisms and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C V

    2009-10-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the human roundworm, is a remarkably infectious and persistent parasite. It is a member of the soil-transmitted helminths or geohelminths and infects in the order of 1472 million people worldwide. Despite, its high prevalence and wide distribution it remains along with its geohelminth counterparts, a neglected disease. Ascariasis is associated with both chronic and acute morbidity, particularly in growing children, and the level of morbidity assessed as disability-adjusted life years is about 10.5 million. Like other macroparasite infections, the frequency distribution of A. lumbricoides is aggregated or overdispersed with most hosts harbouring few or no worms and a small proportion harbouring very heavy infections. Furthermore, after chemotherapeutic treatment, individuals demonstrate consistency in the pattern of re-infection with ascariasis, described as predisposition. These epidemiological phenomena have been identified, in a consistent manner, from a range of geographical locations in both children and adults. However, what has proved to be much more refractory to investigation has been the mechanisms that contribute to the observed epidemiological patterns. Parallel observations utilizing human subjects and appropriate animal model systems are essential to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying susceptibility/resistance to ascariasis. Furthermore, these patterns of Ascaris intensity and re-infection have broader implications with respect to helminth control and interactions with other important bystander infections.

  18. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

  19. Assessment literacy: definition, implementation, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Paterson, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the current notion of assessment literacy and describes delivery and evaluation of an intervention to support its development in two different cohorts in a veterinary curriculum. Before the intervention, two cohorts (Cohort A, first-year students; Cohort B, third-year students) were surveyed on their expectations and understanding of assessment. The new students expressed uncertainty about their understanding of the assessment process: 51% disagreed that they had a good understanding. As expected, more experienced students had a better understanding, although 30% still disagreed that they had a good understanding of the process. A workshop supporting the development of assessment literacy was implemented, giving students an opportunity to evaluate authentic student work of differing standards. Most of the students in both cohorts found the session helpful in terms of their understanding of different standards in assessments (92% and 97%), and most found it helped them understand how to prepare for the degree examination better (75% and 87%). Student grades were recorded in the workshop involving Cohort B, revealing a large variation in students' ability to grade other students' work accurately, with bias ranging from 22% to -25%. Finally, faculty views on student preparedness for assessment were also explored and compared to student views. Disagreement existed between faculty regarding perceived student preparedness for assessment, and significantly more faculty than students thought that students had a good understanding of how their assessments would be graded. The implications of these results for future work and faculty development are discussed.

  20. Biological behaviour and clinical implications of micrometastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic determinant in cancer is the identification of disseminated tumour burden (metastases). Micrometastases are microscopic (smaller than 2 mm) deposits of malignant cells that are segregated spatially from the primary tumour and depend on neovascular formation (angiogenesis) to propagate. METHODS: The electronic literature (1966 to present) on micrometastases and their implications in malignant melanoma and epithelial cancers was reviewed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical techniques combined with serial sectioning offer the best accuracy for detection of nodal micrometastases. Molecular techniques should be reserved for blood samples or bone marrow aspirates. Detection of micrometastases in regional lymph nodes and\\/or bone marrow confers a poor prognosis in epithelial cancers. The concept of sentinel node biopsy combined with serial sectioning and dedicated screening for micrometastases may improve staging procedures. Strategies against angiogenesis may provide novel therapies to induce and maintain micrometastatic dormancy. CONCLUSION: The concept of micrometastases has resulted in a paradigm shift in the staging of epithelial tumours and our overall understanding of malignant processes.

  1. Rehabilitation of executive functions: Implications and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Functions (EF concern a range of abilities including problem-solving, planning, initiation, selfmonitoring,conscious attention, cope with new situations and the ability to modify plans if necessary. It’s a high cognitive function that is crucial for a person to get engaged and maintain daily activities whilst keeping a good quality of life. Problems in the EF were formerly known as Dysexecutive Syndrome (DS. There are many models concerning DS, although the literature on the subject still remains unclear. Several works appoint the effects brought by elderly life, as well as abuse of drugs and some psychopathologies. These factors are known to increase the distress of the frontal circuits and that could be associated to executive deficits. The effects of DS would compromise individuals in day-to-day routine, academic, social and labor fields. There is a growing body of studies trying to determine the causes, implications, associations and the best way to take care of these effects. This work intends to review DS, focusing on the most important fields related to this area, such as psychopathology associations, cognitive reserve, assessment and cognitive rehabilitation programs.

  2. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  3. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  4. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases. PMID:26491574

  5. Karyomorphology of Taiwanese Begonia (Begoniaceae): taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginuma, Kazuo; Peng, Ching-I

    2002-06-01

    The karyomorphology of all 14 species of Taiwanese Begonia was investigated to elucidate their chromosome features and chromosomal evolution. Among all species investigated, differences in chromosome features are found in: (1) chromosome number 2 n = 22, 26, 36, 38, 52, 60, 64, 82, and (2) frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids, ranging from 23% to 63%, which is higher than the expected value of about 9%. It is suggested that after polyploidization from the diploid species (i.e., 2 n = 22 and frequencies of chromosomes with secondary, tertiary, and/or small constrictions of polyploids of about 9%), chromosome translocations occurred, followed by a decrease in chromosome number, and subsequently stabilized genomes were formed in various species in Taiwan. The karyomorphological evidence also suggested that the chromosome morphology has evolved in parallel in the begonias belonging to different sections in Taiwan. The variation in chromosomal features is more complex than the variation in floral and fruit morphologies. Karyomorphological data also supports the recognition of five new species in Taiwan: Begonia bouffordii, B. chuyunshanensis, B. pinglinensis, B. tengchiana, and B. wutaiana. Based on detailed karyomorphological analyses, the taxonomic implications, speciation, and chromosomal evolution in Taiwanese Begoniaare discussed.

  6. The coevolutionary implications of host tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alex; White, Andy; Boots, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Host tolerance to infectious disease, whereby hosts do not directly "fight" parasites but instead ameliorate the damage caused, is an important defense mechanism in both plants and animals. Because tolerance to parasite virulence may lead to higher prevalence of disease in a population, evolutionary theory tells us that while the spread of resistance genes will result in negative frequency dependence and the potential for diversification, the evolution of tolerance is instead likely to result in fixation. However, our understanding of the broader implications of tolerance is limited by a lack of fully coevolutionary theory. Here we examine the coevolution of tolerance across a comprehensive range of classic coevolutionary host-parasite frameworks, including equivalents of gene-for-gene and matching allele and evolutionary invasion models. Our models show that the coevolution of host tolerance and parasite virulence does not lead to the generation and maintenance of diversity through either static polymorphisms or through "Red-queen" cycles. Coevolution of tolerance may however lead to multiple stable states leading to sudden shifts in parasite impacts on host health. More broadly, we emphasize that tolerance may change host-parasite interactions from antagonistic to a form of "apparent commensalism," but may also lead to the evolution of parasites that are highly virulent in nontolerant hosts.

  7. Diagnosis and clinical implications of pancreatobiliary reflux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terumi Kamisawa; Hajime Anjiki; Naoto Egawa; Masanao Kurata; Goro Honda; Kouji Tsuruta

    2008-01-01

    The sphincter of Oddi is located at the distal end of the pancreatic and bile ducts and regulates the outflow of bile and pancreatic juice.A common channel can be so long that the junction of the pancreatic and bile ducts is located outside of the duodenal wall,as occurs in pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM);in such cases,sphincter action does not functionally affect the junction.As the hydropressure within the pancreatic duct is usually greater than in the bile duct,pancreatic juice frequently refluxes into the biliary duct (pancreatobiliary reflux) in PBM,resulting in carcinogenetic conditions in the biliary tract.Pancreatobiliary reflux can be diagnosed from elevated amylase level in the bile,secretinstimulated dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiop ancreatography,and pancreatography via the minor duodenal papilla.Recently,it has become obvious that pancreatobiliary reflux can occur in individuals without PBM.Pancreatobiliary reflux might be related to biliary carcinogenesis even in some individuals without PBM.Since few systemic studies exist with respect to clinical relevance and implications of the pancreatobiliary reflux in individuals with normal pancreaticobiliary junction,further prospective clinical studies including appropriate management should be performed.

  8. [Medical and social implications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, A; Capra, G

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the evolution of human society the problem or idea of interrupting a pregnancy has been faced many times. Romania has adopted a mixed solution to the termination of pregnancy allowing abortions for medical, eugenic, and social reasons. The 1936 penal code allowed only medical abortion, but recent regulations have offered differing solutions. The old regulation not allowing termination of pregnancy or restricting it was in force with minor modifications until 1957. In 1966 a decree was issued that allowed women with 4 children an abortion for special reasons as determined by an abortion committee, but still therapeutic and strictly medical causes predominated. In 1985 a new regulation of medical law prohibited termination of normal pregnancy up to 28 weeks of gestation and infractions were punishable by law. Illegal induced abortion represents an antisocial manifestation that jeopardizes human relationships in society. Induced abortion occurs often in disintegrated family situations. The social implications of the phenomenon of birth are manyfold. Medical intervention is difficult because of the mutilating effect of abortion. The motives are a matter of reflection for physicians and jurists alike.

  9. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  10. Microsporogenesis of Cycas and its systematic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Fen ZHANG; Hai-Bo OUYANG; Jin-Yan DU; Shou-Zhou ZHANG; Yong LI; Hong WU

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomists are divided over the infrageneric classification and species delimitation within the genus Cycas.The division is largely determined by whether a broad or narrow species concept is adopted,the latter approach being based on apparently minor morphological differences.It is well known that cytokinesis in the cells of pollen provides important evidence for plant taxonomy,particularly at the higher taxonomic level.Here we present the first broad comparison of the cytokinesis of male meiosis in five species of Cycas.A comparative analysis of microsporogenesis in Cycas was carried out using conventional microscopy,semi-thin sectioning,histochemistry,and fluorescence microscopy with a focus on the cytokinesis of meiosis in the pollen of dividing cells.Our observations confirmed that,contrary to previous reports,the cytokinesis in male meiosis of five species in Cycas is simultaneous at the end of second meiosis.The basic model of microsporogenesis and its systematic implications in Cycas is discussed based both on previous reports and our new results.

  11. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.

  12. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  13. Negative Appendectomy: Clinical and Economic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Friedlander, Scott; Lee, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Historically, performing a negative appendectomy (NA) was justified to reduce the incidence of perforation. Furthermore, it is also believed that NA is associated with minimal morbidity and cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics, and economic implications of NA. We reviewed the inpatient admissions on 274,405 patients who underwent nonincidental appendectomy as their primary procedure from the California State Inpatient Databases (2005-2011). Overall, 96.9 per cent had appendicitis (nonperforated = 73.1%, perforated = 23.8% and 3.1%) had NA. NA rates decreased steadily from 4.2 per cent in 2005 to 2.5 per cent in 2011 (P American race, and public insurance were all associated with increased NA rates. Compared with patients with appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis, NA was associated with longer length of stay (NA = 3.2 days vs nonperforated = 1.7 days), higher median cost per admission (NA = $8626 vs nonperforated = $7605), and higher morbidity (4.7 vs 1.9%), all P financial burden, while having no apparent impact on lowering the rate of appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.

  14. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  15. China's Import of Wastes and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Dongmei

    2008-01-01

    The trade of wastes in the world has been increasing and China has become the largest importer of wastes. This paper examines the import trend of different wastes and finds out that the total import volume to China approved by the Chinese government keeps increasing and the illegal trade can not be banned despite repeated prohibitions; therefore, China is not only "a world factory", but actually "a global garbage dump". In order to well understand the implications of wastes import, this paper further analyzes the resource and environmental effects and risks of different wastes imports as well as the strong driving force of wastes imports. Based on these detailed analysis and solid data, policy recommendations are put forward to reduce the demand for raw materials, to further strengthen the inspection of and supervision over the international trade of the wastes that can be used as raw materials by using the life cycle analysis and risk analysis, to improve the environmental standards and strengthen the disposal capacity, to re-export the raw materials produced from the imported wastes, to develop the long-term planning for the import of wastes and to promote international cooperation.

  16. Implications of calpains in health and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Sajal; Alam, Md Nur; Paik, Dibyendu; Shaikh, Soni; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2012-10-01

    The number of mammalian calpain protease family members has grown as many as 15 till recent count. Although initially described as a cytosolic protease, calpains have now been found in almost all subcellular locations i.e., from mitochondria to endoplasmic reticulum and from caveolae to Golgi bodies. Importantly, some calpains do not possess the 28 kDa regulatory subunit and have only the 80 kDa catalytic subunit. In some instances, the 80 kDa subunit by itself confers the calpain proteolytic activity. Calpains have been shown to be involved in a number of physiological processes such as cell cycle progression, remodeling of cytoskeletal-cell membrane attachments, signal transduction, gene expression and apoptosis. Recent studies have linked calpain deficiencies or it's over production with a variety of diseases, such as muscular dystrophies, gastropathy, diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, atherosclerosis and pulmonary hypertension. Herein, we present a brief overview on some implications of calpains on human health and some diseases.

  17. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  18. On the normative implications of social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleen Salles

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s role in explaining the origin of morality and of moral values and how neurobiology is the bases of moral behavior. A second version is about the role that neuroscientific knowledge can play in showing the psychological plausibility of the moral psychology underlying some ethical approaches. Finally, a third version advances that neuroscience could play a role in determining the moral plausibility of some normative approaches. My aim is to delineate each version and highlight the issues raised to suggest that while neuroscience might provide information regarding the nature of moral reasoning, its role in the normative discussion itself is still quite limited.

  19. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  20. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  1. Implications of preoperative hypoalbuminemia in colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Truong; Mark H Hanna; Zhobin Moghadamyeghaneh; Michael J Stamos

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin has traditionally been used as a quantitative measure of a patient’s nutritional status because of its availability and low cost. While malnutrition has a clear definition within both the American and European Societies for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition clinical guidelines, individual surgeons often determine nutritional status anecdotally. Preoperative albumin level has been shown to be the best predictor of mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. Specifically in colorectal surgical patients, hypoalbuminemia significantly increases the length of hospital stay, rates of surgical site infections, enterocutaneous fistula risk, and deep vein thrombosis formation. The delay of surgical procedures to allow for preoperative correction of albumin levels in hypoalbuminemic patients has been shown to improve the morbidity and mortality in patients with severe nutritional risk. The importance of preoperative albumin levels and the patient’s chronic inflammatory state on the postoperative morbidity and mortality has led to the development of a variety of surgical scoring systems to predict outcomes efficiently. This review attempts to provide a systematic overview of albumin and its role and implications in colorectal surgery.

  2. Cloud Computing : Research Issues and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marupaka Rajenda Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly developing and excellent promising technology. It has aroused the concern of the computer society of whole world. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared information, resources, and software, are provided to terminals and portable devices on-demand, like the energy grid. Cloud computing is the product of the combination of grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing, and ubiquitous computing. It aims to build and forecast sophisticated service environment with powerful computing capabilities through an array of relatively low-cost computing entity, and using the advanced deployment models like SaaS (Software as a Service, PaaS (Platform as a Service, IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service,HaaS (Hardware as a Service to distribute the powerful computing capacity to end-users. This paper will explore the background and service models and also presents the existing research issues and implications in cloud computing such as security, reliability, privacy, and so on.

  3. Diglossia and Code Switching in Nigeria: Implications for English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    implications of the diglossic situations in Nigeria for English language teaching and .... Second, it has been observed that code-switching occurs frequently and unconsciously in ... with learning activities that reflect real-life experiences.

  4. Implications to Input of English Teaching Brought By Interaction Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 童心

    2011-01-01

    @@ While discussing Krashen's input theory, it is very easy to find that the problems appear in English teaching are related with the theory, and they have provided beneficial implications for the solu- tions to the problems.

  5. China English and its Implications for English Teaching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉凤

    2007-01-01

    China English is an English variety used by native-Chinese people for communication under specific language environment. This study attempts to outline the objective existence of China English and the implications of its linguistic features for English teaching.

  6. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping ... This increased promotion is creating increasing demand for bee colonies in the ... which can cause genetic mix-up, disease transmissions and failure to

  7. Globalisation And African Cultural Heritage Erosion: Implications For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation And African Cultural Heritage Erosion: Implications For Policy. ... Moreover, economic growth and development have frequently been ... and technology for sustainable development and local community livelihoods. Keywords: ...

  8. Nutritional implications of food allergies | Steinman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional implications of food allergies. ... problem worldwide, with an estimated 6–8% of children affected at some point in their childhood. ... or decreased food intake, which in turn may cause either negative effects on growth, or obesity.

  9. The International Implications of the Development of Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieghart, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Synthesizes issues covered at a conference on microelectronics: production, productivity, and employment; social implications; market mechanisms v government intervention; the role of national governments; data protection laws; and cultural pollution. (SW)

  10. Developments of global capital markets and implications to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mr.KevanWatts

    2004-01-01

    Great changes are happening to global capital markets. Those changes will have extensive influences to China. Therefore, China needs to understand their implications and to reflect those trends in setting a framework of policy to deal with this environment.

  11. System Identification of Learning Disabled Children: Implications for Research Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gale M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Sources of variability in identification of children for learning disabilities include teacher bias, peer tolerance, socioeconomic status, and assessment variability. Implications of these variables for research design and sampling are noted. (CL)

  12. climate variability and implications for maize production in benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    two periods (1951-70 compared to 1971-1990) at 36 meteorological stations, based on Markov chains. The implications on .... regressive models such as ARMA and ARIMA. (Afouda, 1985). .... In practice, calculations are made considering a.

  13. Comprehension, Metacomprehension, and Instructional Implications for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, K. Sue

    1984-01-01

    Notes that by examining the interactive processes involved in comprehending, researchers are concluding that readers use their prior knowledge to actively construct meaning from printed material. Reviews research in metacomprehension and discusses its implications for college reading instruction. (FL)

  14. the automatic lightening location system and its implications for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    systems. The implications of the lightening location system for the Nigerian electric power system are also highlighted ... to be protected from the ground flash. ... measuring the lightening flash density ..... lightning location equipment in Norway,.

  15. Climate change impacts on fisheries in West Africa: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impacts on fisheries in West Africa: implications for ... as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in previous global analyses. ... of the region through economics and food security of West Africa to climate change.

  16. The Use Condom campaign and its implications for graphic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Use Condom campaign and its implications for graphic communication in ... to assess the roles/activities of the media team in the media production process ... to producing effective graphic messages that facilitate the rapid adoption and ...

  17. The Implication of Designing a Workshop in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华

    2016-01-01

    As a learning strategy, a workshops helps students acquire knowledge and skills, eliciting their intrinsic motivation. How to design a workshop depends on four principles. This paper aims to illustrate the implication of a workshop in English teaching.

  18. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned...

  19. Cash balance pension plans--accounting and business implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcady, A; Mellors, F

    2001-01-01

    This article illustrates the accounting and disclosure implications of converting from traditional pensions to cash balance plans. That information is followed by a description of issues that have encouraged employers to initiate those conversions.

  20. Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications for health professionals. ... South African Family Practice ... Results: While caregivers from coloured and white communities generally had become acquainted with disability ...

  1. Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality. ... The reuse of treated effluent (for agriculture and as supplement for drinking water needs) is currently receiving attention as a reliable water source. ... Article Metrics.

  2. Relevance Theory and Its Implications to Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪

    2014-01-01

    Relevance Theory Regards human communication as an intentional activity, and as an ostensive-inferential cognitive process. Based on the three key concepts of RT, the present paper shows the implications of this theory in second language teaching.

  3. Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, 30 August - 3 September). Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment. Paper presented at the bi-annual EARLI conferences, Exeter, UK.

  4. Poor weather conditions and flight operations: Implications for air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor weather conditions and flight operations: Implications for air transport hazard ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... fog, dust haze and line squall that affect flight operation such as flight delays, diversion and ...

  5. Effect of Climate Change on the Food Supply System: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Climate Change on the Food Supply System: Implications for Food ... results in global warming with its attendant consequences such as floods, drought, forest fires, poverty, malnutrition, health and various socioeconomic problems.

  6. Perceptions of Imprisoned Drug Abusers: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Richard C.; Myrick, Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 85 imprisoned drug abusers. The responses of the subjects on the activity, evaluative, and potency scales of a semantic differential were analyzed. Implications for counseling are discussed. (Author)

  7. Implications of Geographic Information System in Mapping Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of Geographic Information System in Mapping Solid Waste Collection Points in New Owerri, Imo State. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ...

  8. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly...

  9. International trends in health tourism: Implications for thermal spring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International trends in health tourism: Implications for thermal spring tourism in the ... with the earliest forms of tourism being based on apparent curative powers of ... natural resource, mineral-rich thermal water with a long tradition of healing, ...

  10. Cholera Epidemiology in Zambia from 2000 to 2010: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera Epidemiology in Zambia from 2000 to 2010: Implications for ... we make recommendations for improving cholera prevention and control in country. ... compared to 2003) and 115 deaths (CFR 1.6%) of the disease were reported with ...

  11. Influence of social media on Ghanaian youths: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of social media on Ghanaian youths: Implications for counselling. ... Social media platforms have become essential tools for the promotion of social interactions among youths. Platforms such as facebook, Whatsapp, ... Article Metrics.

  12. Structuralism: Its Implications for the Performance of Prose Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mary Francis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the implications of structuralism by examining "Introduction to The Structural Analysis of Narrative", a contemporary writing by Roland Barthes. Explains Barthes' terms and concepts by using Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway character for an example. (MH)

  13. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism

  14. Language Learning as Linguistic Entrepreneurship: Implications for Language Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Costa, Peter; Park, Joseph; Wee, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    .... To bring out the implications of neoliberalism on language education, we explore how language learning is increasingly constructed as a form of linguistic entrepreneurship, or an act of aligning...

  15. Household responses to malaria: cost implications in Anantigha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household responses to malaria: cost implications in Anantigha area of Calabar South lga ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... people will form baseline data for more research in the control of malaria in the community.

  16. The economic implications of bush encroachment and bush control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic implications of bush encroachment and bush control in a weaner calf production ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Keywords: afrikaans; bush control; bush control cost; bush density; bush encroachment; ...

  17. Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    AD-A276 615 1993 Executive Research Project S9 Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) Commander Daniel E. Busch...implications. This paper highlights the importance of NAFTA with respect to national security in the areas of raw materials, labor, industrial...capacity, the economy, and military cooperation. It also explores the political impact of trade regionalization driven by NAFTA and similar trade agreements

  18. Exploring Managerial Implications of Current DoD Contracting Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Managerial Implications of Current DoD Contracting Trends Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...SUBTITLE Exploring Managerial Implications of Current DoD Contracting Trends 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...COMMUNICATION − Transparent − Information Sharing − Publish Best Practices & Strategic Sourcing Methods • INDUSTRY − Outreach − Economic Impacts

  19. Air Force Deployment Reintegration Research: Implications for Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Air Force Deployment Reintegration Research: Implications for Leadership Wendy Sullivan-Kwantes Angela R. Febbraro Ann-Renee Blais...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Deployment Reintegration Research: Implications for Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 DRDC Toronto TR 2004-149 i Abstract Expanding on previous research on the reintegration

  20. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  1. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  2. Implication ofCorynebacterium species in food’s contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sana Alibi; Asma Ferjani; Jalel Boukadida

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacteriumspp. are part of the human microbiota. Recently, species of this genus are increasingly implicated in different types of infections especially in immunocompromized and hospitalized patients. The significance of the presence of the genusCorynebacterium in foods is not clearly established. These bacteria may be involved in spoilage or ripening of cheese and meats. This review focused on different researches concerning the implication of Corynebacterium species in food’s contamination.

  3. Implication of Corynebacterium species in food’s contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Alibi; Asma Ferjani; Jalel Boukadida

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium spp. are part of the human microbiota. Recently, species of this genus are increasingly implicated in different types of infections especially in immunocompromized and hospitalized patients. The significance of the presence of the genus Corynebacterium in foods is not clearly established. These bacteria may be involved in spoilage or ripening of cheese and meats. This review focused on different researches concerning the implication of Corynebacterium species in...

  4. Implication of Corynebacterium species in food’s contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Alibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium spp. are part of the human microbiota. Recently, species of this genus are increasingly implicated in different types of infections especially in immunocompromized and hospitalized patients. The significance of the presence of the genus Corynebacterium in foods is not clearly established. These bacteria may be involved in spoilage or ripening of cheese and meats. This review focused on different researches concerning the implication of Corynebacterium species in food’s contamination.

  5. Stem cell terminology: practical, theological and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanner, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Stem cell policy discussions frequently confuse embryonic and fetal sources of stem cells, and label untested, non-reproductive cloning as "therapeutic." Such misnomers distract attention from significant practical and ethical implications: accelerated research agendas tend to be supported at the expense of physical risks to women, theological implications in a multi-faith community, informed consent for participation in research, and treatment decisions altered by unrealistic expectations.

  6. World Englishes and Its Implications for English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德龙

    2012-01-01

    <正>The article mainly explores the current concept of World Englishes and its implication for language teaching.After the history and present definition of World Englishes have been discussed in a broad perspective,the author continues to talk about the influence of World Englishes on World Language Education.Chinese English education is then specifically addressed with implications given for both policy-makers and classroom teachers of English.

  7. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  8. Implications of Einstein-Weyl Causality on Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    BenDaniel, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental physical principle that has consequences for the topology of space-time is the principle of Einstein-Weyl causality. We show here that this may have implications on quantum mechanics, as well. Borchers and Sen have rigorously investigated the mathematical implications of Einstein-Weyl causality and shown the denumerable space-time Q^2 would be implied. They then imbedded this space in a non-denumerable space but were left with important philosophical paradoxes regarding the natu...

  9. Brain microbleeds: Epidemiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyano, I; Bravo, N; Miranda, J; Gil-Gregorio, P; Olazarán, J

    2016-06-22

    Brain microbleeds (BMB) are haemosiderin deposits contained within macrophages, which are displayed as hypointense images in some T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences. There are still many questions to be answered about the pathophysiology and clinical relevance of BMB. We conducted a literature review of the main epidemiological, clinical, and anatomical pathology studies of BMB performed in the general population, in patients at risk of or already suffering from a vascular disease, and in patients with cognitive impairment. We analysed the prevalence of BMB, risk factors, and potential pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications. The prevalence of BMB is highly variable (3%-27% in the general population, 6%-80% in patients with vascular risk factors or vascular disease, and 16%-45% in patients with cognitive impairment). BMB are associated with ageing, Alzheimer disease (AD), and in particular haemorrhagic or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. The pathological substrate of BMB is either lipohyalinosis (subcortical BMB) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (lobar BMB). BMB exacerbate cognitive impairment, possibly through cortical-subcortical and intracortical disconnection, and increase the risk of death, mostly due to vascular causes. BMB also increase the risk of cerebral haemorrhage, particularly in patients with multiple lobar BMB (probable erebral amyloid angiopathy). Therefore, anticoagulant treatment may be contraindicated in these patients. In patients with lower risk of bleeding, the new oral anticoagulants and the combination of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow-up could be helpful in the decision-making process. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Theoretical Implications of IceCube Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has recently found evidence for an astrophysical flux of neutrinos. The flux is consistent with an isotropic and equal-flavor E-2 power-law spectrum from 60 TeV to 2 PeV. There are also indications that the neutrino spectrum beyond 2 PeV requires a spectral break or cutoff. The origin of the IceCube excess is not known, but its multi-messenger context can already provide some theoretical orientation. For instance, the production of PeV neutrinos require hadronic interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies of a few 10 PeV, extending into the poorly understood transition region between Galactic and extra-Galactic CRs. A local contribution to the neutrino flux from Galactic accelerators is hence feasible and could show up as arrival direction clustering towards Galactic structures. In this context, a possible association of the PeV neutrino sources with unidentified TeV gamma-ray sources, peculiar supernovae or the Fermi Bubbles has been speculated. In addition, a local hadronic neutrino production would predict an observable PeV gamma-ray flux. Spectral features of the neutrino flux, in particular a break or cutoff, serve as additional hints for candidate CR sources and astrophysical environments for neutrino production. Possible scenearios include starburst galaxies, low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts and the cores of active galactic nuclei. I will outline general theoretical implications of the IceCube excess and summarize various source candidates.

  12. Implications of a stochastic microscopic Finsler cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatos, Nick E. [University of London, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mitsou, Vasiliki A. [CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Sarkar, Sarben; Vergou, Ariadne [University of London, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Within the context of supersymmetric space-time (D-particle) foam in string/brane-theory, we discuss a Finsler-induced cosmology and its implications for (thermal) dark matter abundances. This constitutes a truly microscopic model of dynamical space-time, where Finsler geometries arise naturally. The D-particle foam model involves point-like brane defects (D-particles), which provide the topologically non-trivial foamy structures of space-time. The D-particles can capture and emit stringy matter and this leads to a recoil of D-particles. It is indicated how one effect of such a recoil of D-particles is a back-reaction on the space-time metric of Finsler type which is stochastic. We show that such a type of stochastic space-time foam can lead to acceptable cosmologies at late epochs of the Universe, due to the non-trivial properties of the supersymmetric (BPS like) D-particle defects, which are such so as not to affect significantly the Hubble expansion. The restrictions placed on the free parameters of the Finsler type metric are obtained from solving the Boltzmann equation in this background for relic abundances of a Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) dark matter candidate. It is demonstrated that the D-foam acts as a source for particle production in the Boltzmann equation, thereby leading to enhanced thermal LSP relic abundances relative to those in the Standard {lambda}CDM cosmology. For D-particle masses of order TeV, such effects may be relevant for dark matter searches at colliders. The latter constraints complement those coming from high-energy gamma-ray astronomy on the induced vacuum refractive index that D-foam models entail. We also comment briefly on the production mechanisms of such TeV-mass stringy defects at colliders, which, in view of the current LHC experimental searches, will impose further constraints on their couplings. (orig.)

  13. The medical implications of space tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzwell, R

    2000-06-01

    Commercial space travel may soon be a reality. If so, microgravity, high acceleration, and radiation exposure, all known hazards, will be accessible to the general public. Therefore, space tourism has medical implications. Even though the first flights will feature space exposure times of only a few minutes, the potential may someday exist for exposure times long enough to warrant careful consideration of the potential hazards to the space-faring public. The effects of acceleration and microgravity exposure are well known on the corps of astronauts and cosmonauts. The effects of space radiation are partially known on astronauts, but much remains to be discovered. However, there are problems using astronaut data to make inferences about the general public. Astronauts are not necessarily representative of the general public, since they are highly fit, highly screened individuals. Astronaut data can tell us very little about the potential hazards of microgravity in pediatric, obstetric and geriatric populations, all of whom are potential space tourists. Key issues in standard setting will be determining acceptable limits of pre-existing disease and inferring medical standards from mission profiles. It will not be a trivial task drafting minimal medical standards for commercial space travel. It will require the collaboration of space medicine physicians, making the best guesses possible, based on limited amounts of data, with limited applicability. A helpful departure point may be the USAF Class 3 medical standard, applicable to NASA payload specialists. It is time to begin preliminary discussions toward defining those standards. acceleration, aerospace medicine, medical standards, microgravity, radiation, space, space tourism, environmental hazards, environmental medicine.

  14. Tidal river dynamics: Implications for deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Jay, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity intrusion, a realm that can extend inland hundreds of kilometers. One key phenomenon resulting from this interaction is the emergence of large fortnightly tides, which are forced long waves with amplitudes that may increase beyond the point where astronomical tides have become extinct. These can be larger than the linear tide itself at more landward locations, and they greatly influence tidal river water levels and wetland inundation. Exploration of the spectral redistribution and attenuation of tidal energy in rivers has led to new appreciation of a wide range of consequences for fluvial and coastal sedimentology, delta evolution, wetland conservation, and salinity intrusion under the influence of sea level rise and delta subsidence. Modern research aims at unifying traditional harmonic tidal analysis, nonparametric regression techniques, and the existing understanding of tidal hydrodynamics to better predict and model tidal river dynamics both in single-thread channels and in branching channel networks. In this context, this review summarizes results from field observations and modeling studies set in tidal river environments as diverse as the Amazon in Brazil, the Columbia, Fraser and Saint Lawrence in North America, the Yangtze and Pearl in China, and the Berau and Mahakam in Indonesia. A description of state-of-the-art methods for a comprehensive analysis of water levels, wave propagation, discharges, and inundation extent in tidal rivers is provided. Implications for lowland river deltas are also discussed in terms of sedimentary deposits, channel bifurcation, avulsion, and salinity intrusion, addressing contemporary research challenges.

  15. ACCESSORY RENAL ARTERYAND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Magotra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Origin of the Testicular Artery variations were found during routine dissection of abdomen of the middle aged cadaver in the Dept of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College Jammu. On the left side there were two renal arteries, One of them was the main Renal artery which was originating from the anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta and running to the hilum of the kidney in front of the renal vein The other was the Accessory Renal artery which was originating from anterolateral aspect of aorta 5mm above origin of main renal artery and going to the upper pole of the kidney. The origin of accessory renal artery and main renal artery was 4.2 and 9.2mm below the level of origin of superior mesentric artery. The left testicular artery was originating from the accessory renal artery and crossing the renal artery and the renal vein anteriorly before following its usual course in the posterior abdominal wall. Only one renal artery was seen on the right side arising from the anterolateral aspect of aorta. The right testicular artery originated 52mm below the origin of right renal artery and followed its normal course This anomaly is explained by embryological development of both kidneys and gonads from intermediate mesoderm of mesonephric crest. Further the vasculature of kidneys and gonads is derived from lateral mesonephric branches of dorsal aorta .Even though the condition presents as a silent renal anomaly (Undiagnosed throughout life and revealed only on autopsy the surgical implications are noteworthy, which too have been highlighted in this report.

  16. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei M RGULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  17. Endocrine disrupting pesticides: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, R; Plant, J A; Bell, J N B; Voulvoulis, N

    2008-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system, potentially causing disease or deformity in organisms and their offspring. Pesticides are used widely to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens and medicinally to kill parasites. Many are proven or suspected to be EDs. Ancient physiological similarities between different vertebrate groups suggest that disorders observed in wildlife may indicate risks to humans. This makes accurate risk assessment and effective legislation difficult. In this paper, the hazardous properties of pesticides which are known to have ED properties are reviewed in order to assess the implications for risk assessment. As well as data on sources of exposure in the United Kingdom (UK) an assessment of the evidence on the health effects of ED pesticides is also included. In total, 127 have been identified from the literature and their effects and modes of action are listed in this paper. Using the UK as a case study, the types and quantities of pesticides used, and their methods of application are assessed, along with their potential pathways to humans. In the UK reliable data are available only for agricultural use, so non-agricultural routes of pesticide exposure have been poorly quantified. The exposure of people resident in or visiting rural areas could also have been grossly under-estimated. Material links between ED pesticide use and specific illnesses or deformities are complicated by the multifactorial nature of disease, which can be affected by factors such as diet. Despite these difficulties, a large body of evidence has accumulated linking specific conditions to ED pesticides in wildlife and humans. A more precautionary approach to the use of ED pesticides, especially for non-essential purposes is proposed.

  18. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  19. Reference drug programs: effectiveness and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2007-04-01

    them. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs, presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety, and concludes with some practical implications of implementing RDP policies.

  20. Neuroimmunological Implications of AQP4 in Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshima-Kataoka, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    The brain has high-order functions and is composed of several kinds of cells, such as neurons and glial cells. It is becoming clear that many kinds of neurodegenerative diseases are more-or-less influenced by astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a membrane-bound protein that regulates water permeability is a member of the aquaporin family of water channel proteins that is expressed in the endfeet of astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, AQP4 has been shown to function, not only as a water channel protein, but also as an adhesion molecule that is involved in cell migration and neuroexcitation, synaptic plasticity, and learning/memory through mechanisms involved in long-term potentiation or long-term depression. The most extensively examined role of AQP4 is its ability to act as a neuroimmunological inducer. Previously, we showed that AQP4 plays an important role in neuroimmunological functions in injured mouse brain in concert with the proinflammatory inducer osteopontin (OPN). The aim of this review is to summarize the functional implication of AQP4, focusing especially on its neuroimmunological roles. This review is a good opportunity to compile recent knowledge and could contribute to the therapeutic treatment of autoimmune diseases through strategies targeting AQP4. Finally, the author would like to hypothesize on AQP4’s role in interaction between reactive astrocytes and reactive microglial cells, which might occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, a therapeutic strategy for AQP4-related neurodegenerative diseases is proposed. PMID:27517922

  1. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

  2. [Implications of fiber in different pathologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M A

    2002-01-01

    Three decades ago, the observations of Trowell and Burkitt gave rise to the "fibre theory", in which it was contended that there was a link between the consumption of a diet rich in fibre and non-processed carbohydrates and the level of protection against many of the "first world diseases" such as constipation, diverticulosis, cancer of the colon, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Since that time, numerous studies have been presented to analyze the relationship between fibre and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and other processes with severe health implications. The present revision looks at the experience accumulated over this period regarding the importance of the consumption of fibre for certain phatologies. It not only deals with the epidemiological relationship existing between fibre intake and the development of diseases such as cancer of the colon or cardiovascular disorders but also reviews the interest of fibre a therapeutic agent, in view of the current information available on its different mechanism of action. Thus the possibility of using soluble fibre has taken on renewed interest for the treatment of inflammatory intestinal disease, for control of diarrhoea, in irritable bowel syndrome or no modulate the concentrations of glycaemia or cholesterol. Three is a discussion of the discrepancies found between the consumption of fibre and diverticular disease, the treatment of constipation and the association with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Despite the accumulated evidence on the consumption of fibre, there is currently no consensus as to recommendations on what type of fibre and the optimal amount that should be consumed. A high fibre intake (> 25-30 g/day) based on a variety of food sources (fruit, vegetable, legumes, cereals) is the only way to avoid many of the disorders mentioned. The consumption of a particular type of fibre (soluble or insoluble) is limited to the treatment of certain processes, because its individual

  3. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  4. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzowski, Adam [Institute for Theoretical Physics,K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); McFadden, Paul [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N. Waterloo, N2L 2Y5 Ontario (Canada); Skenderis, Kostas [Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton,Highfield, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (‘triple-K integrals’). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple-K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.

  5. Immunopathology of primary hypophysitis: implications for pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenberg, A; Buslei, R; Fahlbusch, R; Buchfelder, M; Brück, W

    2005-03-01

    The etiology of primary hypophysitis is still not fully elucidated. Histologically, primary hypophysitis includes three different main subtypes: lymphocytic (LYH), granulomatous (GRH), and xanthomatous (XH) hypophysitis. Clinical and laboratory findings suggest an autoimmune basis in primary hypophysitis. Controversy still exists about the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate and the relevant immunopathogenic effector mechanisms. Therefore, 21 cases of primary hypophysitis of different subtypes were analyzed with respect to the expression of lymphocyte and macrophage antigens as well as MHC class I and II molecules of the inflammatory infiltrate and the resident pituitary acinar cells. Lymphocyte infiltration in LYH (n = 15), but also in GRH (n = 4) and XH (n = 2), mainly consisted of T cells, while B cells were rare. Independent from the histopathologic subtype, T cell subsets showed equal ratios of CD4+ to CD8+ T cells. Highest numbers of activated CD8+ T cells were observed in LYH presenting during pregnancy, surrounding or even infiltrating preserved pituitary acinar cells. Moreover, an increased rate of activated CD8+ T cells correlated with a shorter duration of clinical symptoms. In LYH, aberrant expression of MHC class II antigens as well as overexpression of MHC class I molecules on pituitary cells were observed. Independent of the histologic subtype, macrophages mostly expressed markers of chronic activation and showed MHC class II positivity. LYH, GRH, and XH, although heterogeneous in their histologic appearance and in age distribution, exhibit a similar if not identical immunohistologic profile. It is highly likely that direct T cell-mediated cytotoxicity through CD8+ T cells, with the initial help of CD4+ T cells, is pivotal in the pathogenesis of primary hypophysitis, implicating a target autoantigen expressed by pituitary cells.

  6. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  7. Implications of climate change for potamodromous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Stephen J; Morgan, David L; Lymbery, Alan J

    2014-06-01

    There is little understanding of how climate change will impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Since the mid 1970s, a decline in annual rainfall in south-western Australia (a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot) has resulted in the rivers of the region undergoing severe reductions in surface flows (ca. 50%). There is universal agreement amongst Global Climate Models that rainfall will continue to decline in this region. Limited data are available on the movement patterns of the endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia or on the relationship between their life histories and hydrology. We used this region as a model to determine how dramatic hydrological change may impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Migration patterns of fishes in the largest river in south-western Australia were quantified over a 4 year period and were related to a number of key environmental variables including discharge, temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Most of the endemic freshwater fishes were potamodromous, displaying lateral seasonal spawning migrations from the main channel into tributaries, and there were significant temporal differences in movement patterns between species. Using a model averaging approach, amount of discharge was clearly the best predictor of upstream and downstream movement for most species. Given past and projected reductions in surface flow and groundwater, the findings have major implications for future recruitment rates and population viabilities of potamodromous fishes. Freshwater ecosystems in drying climatic regions can only be managed effectively if such hydro-ecological relationships are considered. Proactive management and addressing existing anthropogenic stressors on aquatic ecosystems associated with the development of surface and groundwater resources and land use is required to increase the resistance and resilience of potamodromous fishes to ongoing flow reductions.

  8. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    -bound manner, there could be serious adverse implications for the Indian economy, society and politics.

  9. Thermoluminescence of ice and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, L., E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.c [Chemin de Verdonnet, 2 CH-1010 Lausanne (Switzerland); Aerial-CRT-Parc d' Innovation, B.P. 40443, F 67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Gartia, R.K., E-mail: rkgartia02@yahoo.i [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Bishal Singh, K. [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Basanta Singh, Th. [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2009-12-15

    A set of six glow curves of hexagonal ice irradiated at 77 K with various doses of gamma-rays have been subjected to rigorous analysis. It shows the presence of as many as 11 thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 108.2 +- 1.7 K, 115.5 +- 1.4 K, 123.4 +- 3.6 K, 131.8 +- 2.5 K, 138.9 +- 2.2 K, 149.8 +- 1.2 K, 161.3 +- 0.9 K, 168.4 +- 0.8 K, 178.0 +- 0.8 K, 194.1 +- 0.8 K and 203.8 +- 3.9 K (for a heating rate of 0.05 K/s) with thermal activation energies of 0.29 +- 0.01 eV, 0.31 +- 0.01 eV, 0.34 +- 0.01 eV, 0.40 +- 0.00 eV, 0.40 +- 0.01 eV, 0.41 +- 0.01 eV, 0.69 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.00 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, 0.70 +- 0.01 eV and 0.70 +- 0.01 eV, respectively. The lifetime of electrons in the trap giving rise to the most intense TL peak of ice (161.3 +- 0.9 K) estimated from TL data at 273 K is approx55 ns, while that at 77 K is approx2.0 x 10{sup +18} years i.e. ice can be used for TL dating of icy bodies in the solar system. The physical basis of these findings have been provided keeping in mind the formation of H{sup 0}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, HO{sub 2}{sup -} and trapped electrons that are known to be produced by irradiation of ice. The implications of these findings have been discussed.

  10. A trigeminoreticular pathway: implications in pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Michael Panneton

    Full Text Available Neurons in the caudalmost ventrolateral medulla (cmVLM respond to noxious stimulation. We previously have shown most efferent projections from this locus project to areas implicated either in the processing or modulation of pain. Here we show the cmVLM of the rat receives projections from superficial laminae of the medullary dorsal horn (MDH and has neurons activated with capsaicin injections into the temporalis muscle. Injections of either biotinylated dextran amine (BDA into the MDH or fluorogold (FG/fluorescent microbeads into the cmVLM showed projections from lamina I and II of the MDH to the cmVLM. Morphometric analysis showed the retrogradely-labeled neurons were small (area 88.7 µm(2±3.4 and mostly fusiform in shape. Injections (20-50 µl of 0.5% capsaicin into the temporalis muscle and subsequent immunohistochemistry for c-Fos showed nuclei labeled in the dorsomedial trigeminocervical complex (TCC, the cmVLM, the lateral medulla, and the internal lateral subnucleus of the parabrachial complex (PBil. Additional labeling with c-Fos was seen in the subnucleus interpolaris of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla, the superior salivatory nucleus, the rostral ventromedial medulla, and the A1, A5, A7 and subcoeruleus catecholamine areas. Injections of FG into the PBil produced robust label in the lateral medulla and cmVLM while injections of BDA into the lateral medulla showed projections to the PBil. Immunohistochemical experiments to antibodies against substance P, the substance P receptor (NK1, calcitonin gene regulating peptide, leucine enkephalin, VRL1 (TPRV2 receptors and neuropeptide Y showed that these peptides/receptors densely stained the cmVLM. We suggest the MDH- cmVLM projection is important for pain from head and neck areas. We offer a potential new pathway for regulating deep pain via the neurons of the TCC, the cmVLM, the lateral medulla, and the PBil and propose these areas compose a

  11. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism.

  12. Cosmological and astrophysical implications of sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    The discovery of neutrino masses suggests that the Standard Model should be supplemented with new gauge-singlet fermions, often called sterile neutrinos. The interplay among the new couplings introduced in the Standard Model can accommodate the neutrino oscillation data for a variety of choices: the new particles can be extremely heavy and practically unobservable, or they can be light, in which case they can solve several long-standing puzzles. It has been shown, for example, that sterile neutrinos in some range of masses can account for dark matter, their emission from a supernova can explain pulsar kicks, arid their decays can play an important role in the formation of the first stars. Though indirect, these clues indicate that sterile neutrinos can be the minimal solution to a variety of unsolved problems. This emphasizes the importance of investigating further the consequences of these new degrees of freedom for cosmology and astrophysics. In this dissertation, I explore the possible role of sterile neutrinos of different mass scales in some cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge- singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce a relic population of keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. The latter can account for the dark matter of the universe. The mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. Relic sterile neutrinos produced via decays at the electroweak scale constitute colder dark matter than those produced via other previously suggested mechanisms. The primordial thermal content of dark matter has important implications for the formation of cosmic structures, such as clusters and galaxies. The assessment of the relevant properties suggests that sterile neutrinos produced at the electroweak scale are a

  13. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic

  15. Profiling of genetic switches using boolean implications in expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Mehmet Volkan; Binder, Hans; Wirth, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Correlation analysis assuming coexpression of the genes is a widely used method for gene expression analysis in molecular biology. Yet growing extent, quality and dimensionality of the molecular biological data permits emerging, more sophisticated approaches like Boolean implications. We present an approach which is a combination of the SOM (self organizing maps) machine learning method and Boolean implication analysis to identify relations between genes, metagenes and similarly behaving metagene groups (spots). Our method provides a way to assign Boolean states to genes/metagenes/spots and offers a functional view over significantly variant elements of gene expression data on these three different levels. While being able to cover relations between weakly correlated entities Boolean implication method also decomposes these relations into six implication classes. Our method allows one to validate or identify potential relationships between genes and functional modules of interest and to assess their switching behaviour. Furthermore the output of the method renders it possible to construct and study the network of genes. By providing logical implications as updating rules for the network it can also serve to aid modelling approaches.

  16. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    active (>500 ˚C). As shown by Gudmundsson [2011] a large contrast in mechanical properties between two formations could cause dyke arrest or deflection. Contacts between the Comiso Limestone (overall ductile at depth) and extruded basalt flows (overall brittle) could very well facilitate such a locality, and such 'layering' will form part of future laboratory investigations. References: Chiodini, G., S. Caliro, A. Aiuppa, R. Avino, D. Granieri, R. Moretti, and F. Parello (2011), First 13C/12C isotopic characterisation of volcanic plume CO2, Bulletin of Volcanology, 73(5), 531-542. Gudmundsson, A. (2011), Deflection of dykes into sills at discontinuities and magma-chamber formation, Tectonophysics, 500(1-4), 50-64. Heap, M. J., S. Mollo, S. Vinciguerra, Y. Lavallée, K. U. Hess, D. B. Dingwell, P. Baud, and G. Iezzi (2013), Thermal weakening of the carbonate basement under Mt. Etna volcano (Italy): Implications for volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 250(0), 42-60. Mollo, S., S. Vinciguerra, G. Iezzi, A. Iarocci, P. Scarlato, M. J. Heap, and D. B. Dingwell (2011), Volcanic edifice weakening via devolatilization reactions, Geophysical Journal International, 186(3), 1073-1077. Tibaldi, A., and G. Groppelli (2002), Volcano-tectonic activity along structures of the unstable NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy) and their possible origin, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115(3-4), 277-302.

  17. Evaporites in Martian Paleolakes: Observations and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. J.; Milliken, R.; Swayze, G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Dundas, C. M.; Baldridge, A. M.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Murchie, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    wall adjacent to this fan contains Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate, and near the bottom of the depression, over 300 meters below the shoreline elevation, polyhydrated sulfate is detected in finely bedded deposits. These sulfate deposits contrast with carbonate-bearing sediments seen in Jezero crater, another inferred paleolake site [6,7]. This difference in dominant anion could reflect local differences in water chemistry, groundwater vs. meteoric inputs, or possibly a change in atmospheric composition over time. Finding more examples of lake evaporites on Mars should improve our understanding of their paleo-environmental and astrobiological implications. [1] Cabrol N A and Grin E A (1999) Icarus 142, 160. [2] Wray J J et al. (2009) LPSC 40, #1896. [3] Swayze G A et al. (2008) AGU Fall Meeting, #P44A-04. [4] Andrews-Hanna J C et al. (2007) Nature 446, 163. [5] Di Achille G et al. (2009) GRL 36, L14201. [6] Ehlmann B L et al. (2008) Nature Geosci. 1, 355. [7] Ehlmann B L et al. (2008) Science 322, 1828.

  18. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders and Their Clinical Implications in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theocharidou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation. The latter has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Enhanced colonic motility is usually associated with the use of lactulose. Pharmacological interventions aiming to alter gastrointestinal motility in cirrhosis could potentially have a beneficial effect reducing the risk of hepatic decompensation and improving prognosis.

  19. A Brief Discussion on Pragmatic Analysis and Classroom Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷月洪

    2012-01-01

    Pragmatics is the study of language in use; pragmatic analysis is one of the research perspectives in pragmatic studies. So far, a number of researchers have developed different theories to investigate how language is used in different contexts. Among these theories are Speech Act, Cooperative Principle, and Politeness Principle, etc. These theories have helped the development of pragmatic analysis and its implications are evident in language teaching and learning. This paper is an effort to briefly outline some theories in pragmatic analysis and the classroom implications.

  20. Neoliberalism and its implications for mental health in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Shulamit

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out to outline the tenets of neoliberalism and globalization, prior to the identification of the implications of neoliberalism for the British health system since 1979. The article then focuses on the applications and implications of neoliberalism for the British mental health system in terms of service organization and management, and the impact these changes in direction had on the three existing service sectors: users, carers and professionals. The discussion and the conclusion highlight the significance of these developments in the mental health system in the rather hybrid context of health, mental health, and social care policy and practice in the United Kingdom.

  1. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.......A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave...

  2. The rationalisation movement in perspective and some ergonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, T

    1996-04-01

    The paper gives an overview of the Rationalisation Movement from Taylor to the most recent organisation models such as 'Business Process Reengineering'. Special emphasis is put on the estimated implications of the different rationalisation strategies in terms of ergonomics/work physiology. In addition, basic terms and concepts are defined. According to the author, Taylorism, Fordism and Lean Production seem to offer an insufficient potential for good ergonomics. However, more recent organisational models such as 'Time Based Management' and 'Business Process Reengineering', may appear more promising but unfortunately almost no research has been conducted to describe the ergonomics implications of these models.

  3. ERP in large Danish enterprises: Implications for SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption...... technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP...

  4. Cognitive Moral Development and Clinical Performance: Implications for Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, David A.; Berger, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    A study explored the notion that moral reasoning skills are important to the provision of pharmaceutical care. It compared the moral reasoning skills of two classes of pharmacy students with those of practitioners who scored high on measures of pharmaceutical care and clinical decision making. Implications for pharmacy school admissions and…

  5. Multiple Intelligence Theory for Gifted Education: Criticisms and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Basak; Birgili, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes giftedness and gifted learners under the implications of multiple intelligence theory with regard to coaching young scientists. It is one of the pluralistic theories toward intelligence while supporting to view individuals as active participants during teaching and learning processes which correspond with the applications of…

  6. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions | van Zyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions. ... be drawn between the charging provisions for income tax and VAT, it is clear that in the ... of the VAT Act. Moreover, taxing illegal transactions lends a quasi-validity to the contract ...

  7. Some tax implications of traditional knowledge under conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some tax implications of traditional knowledge under conventional intellectual property. ... Act,1 the Trade Marks Act2 and the Designs Act3 may affect the income tax liability ... The aim of this contribution is to consider the potential income tax ...

  8. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter direct searches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozorgnia, N.; Calore, F.; Schaller, M.; Lovell, M.; Bertone, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Crain, R.A.; Navarro, J.F.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study the implications of galaxy formation on dark matter direct detection using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies simulated within the EAGLE and APOSTLE projects. We identify Milky Way analogues that satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way rotation

  9. A Statewide Writing Assessment Model: Student Proficiency and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dappen, Leon; Isernhagen, Jody; Anderson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an examination of statewide district writing achievement gain data from the Nebraska Statewide Writing Assessment system and implications for statewide assessment writing models. The writing assessment program is used to gain compliance with the United States No Child Left Behind Law (NCLB), a federal effort to influence school…

  10. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  11. The Implication of Peer Feedback to College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝家荣; 张宏

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing number of college students enrollment, non - English major students have paid much attention to error correction and peer feedback on writing. This article sheds some light on the benefits and implication of peer feedback on college English teaching.

  12. Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Newton

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing, and…

  13. Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

  14. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  15. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the…

  16. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  17. Florence Nightingale, Statistician: Implications for Teachers of Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marti H.; Stallings, William M.

    This paper presents an overview of Florence Nightingale's statistical background and accomplishments; discusses Victorian statistics, Nightingale's education and statistical contributions; and concludes with implications for professors and students of educational research. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the first woman elected as a fellow of…

  18. The nucleon spin decomposition: news and experimental implications

    CERN Document Server

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many nucleon spin decompositions have been proposed in the literature, creating a lot of confusion. This revived in particular old controversies regarding the measurability of theoretically defined quantities. We propose a brief overview of the different decompositions, discuss the sufficient requirements for measurability and stress the experimental implications.

  19. Population Explosion in Africa and its Implications for Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, Ade

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes patterns of population growth in Africa, accounts for the population explosion in certain parts of the continent, and discusses implications of the population growth for economic development. Seven tables and two maps are included in the article. (Author/DB)

  20. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  1. On Dynamic Characteristics of Culture and its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the dynamic characteristic of western culture and Chinese culture from the intercultural perspective.Then it puts forward some implications for English teaching,it indicates that English teachers should pay due attention to improve the students cultural awareness and their own cultural teaching ability,adjust teaching content to adapt them to cultural changes.

  2. The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

    The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

  3. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology

  4. Some Implications of Career Theory for Adult Development and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    Structural-interactive vocational theory shows that both aspirational and work histories have continuity over the life span and provide useful explanations of stability and change. This paper suggests some implications of structural-interactive theory for the study of adult development. Common principles of structural-interactive theories are…

  5. Faculty and Technology: Implications for Faculty Training and Technology Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Kidd, Terry; Kyei-Blankson, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting ICT adoption process and the implications for faculty training and technology leadership. Respondents represented a wide range of academic and professional positions. They identified themselves as Assistant, Associate, and Professor as well as Instructional Designer, Director of…

  6. The clinical spectrum and cost implications of hospitalised HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1983, Rubinstein et al from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, New York, first ... mpather@sun.ac.za. Keywords: clinical spectrum; cost implication; HIV-infected children; district hospital ... The reality of this practice was ...

  7. Are the insular cortex and cortisol implicated in Parkinsonian features?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies implicate insular cortex and the hormone cortisol in Parkinsonian features. Dopaminergic alterations at the level of the insula may be involved in changes in personality (i.e. novelty seeking) and symptoms of hemispatial neglect. I discuss this evidence and suggest that attention in f

  8. Physical Attractiveness, Dating Behavior, and Implications for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadbury, Constance Lizotte; Reever, Joy Bennett

    1979-01-01

    Examined which of two sociological theories of dating preference was more powerful in predicting women's actual dating frequency. The theories tested were Waller's theory, which emphasizes physical attractiveness, and Blood's theory, which emphasizes personality. Evidence supported Waller's theory. Discussion and implications for women and…

  9. The Privatization of NTIS: What Are the Implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of various alternatives for privatization of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) being studied by the Department of Commerce highlights issues identified in the April 1986 notice in the Federal Register, representative users' comments, the range of NTIS services and products, and the implications of privatization for…

  10. Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed Leucaena ... the 13.47g weight gain on rabbits fed the control diet but statistically (P<0.05) lower ... economic efficiency of 0.35 and 194.44%, respectively indicated the optimal ...

  11. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  12. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  13. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be…

  14. Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Address: Implications for the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, George

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the "Iron Curtain" speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946, discussing its relevance and implications for the present. Examines Churchill's predictions for the future and his assessment of the USSR. Reviews world developments since the speech and proposes foreign policy goals for the next 40 years. (GEA)

  15. A gene expression signature for RSV: clinical implications and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J M Openshaw

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Openshaw discusses the challenges in advancing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV treatments and the implications of a study by Mejias and colleagues using a newly identified gene signature for diagnosis and prediction of RSV severity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  16. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

  17. Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

  18. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  19. Implicazioni del Nuovo Bilinguismo (Implications of New Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Adolph

    This article discusses the implications of the present trend towards bilingual education in the United States. Special attention is paid to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, which has established bilingual programs in all of its public schools. Included among the possible effects of the new law are the following points of interest: (1) Students…

  20. Developmental Needs of Middle School Students: Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wanda; Kottman, Terry

    1992-01-01

    Presents information provided by Gesell Institute of Child Development on behavioral and attitudinal components expected at each age level for middle school students to help school counselors meet the developmental needs of these students. Developmental considerations are discussed; and implications for counselors are explored for 10, 11, 12, 13,…

  1. A Brief History of Leadership Preparation. Implications from UCEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the "Handbook of Research on the Education of School Leaders" was published by the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). The chapter discussed in this issue of "Implications," introduces a conceptual model for describing the different kinds of knowledge and the interactions among technical knowledge, artistry, and…

  2. Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

  3. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  4. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  5. Prototype Theory and Its Implication into English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑禄娟; 张锐

    2015-01-01

    Prototype is the cognitive reference point that human beings use to categorize the world.It is the best and most typical member in the category while the other members of the category are centered on it.Guided by prototype theory,this paper will discuss some implications to English vocabulary teaching.

  6. Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchenscheit, Andreas; Könings, Bastian; Neubert, Andreas; Schaub, Florian; Schneider, Matthias; Kargl, Frank

    Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp

  7. Ecological implications and roles of cyanobacteria (cyanophyta) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological implications and roles of cyanobacteria (cyanophyta) in food security ... Plant Products Research Journal ... Hence, they are of great importance in aquaculture. ... in symbiotic relationships where they enhance the nutritive quality of the host ... Control of blooms is expensive hence the need for research into their ...

  8. Evaluating the social and cultural implications of the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other

  9. English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, Use, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Sowden's article raises a number of questions concerning English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and criticizes it as a simplified and culturally neutral means of communication. In this response, I address the issues concerning the conceptualization and use of ELF as well as the implications for ELT. I provide up-to-date evidence of ELF research and show…

  10. Educational Psychologists' Constructions of Sexuality and the Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    Despite an underlying inclusion agenda, sexuality equality remains a low priority in education. Review of literature suggests the marginalization of sexual minority young people (SMYP) in schools. This study explores educational psychologists' (EPs') constructions of sexuality and the implications for practice. Discursive psychology was used to…

  11. Legal Implications of Clinical Supervision of Medical Students and Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    1983-01-01

    The legal liability of faculty members, school, and institution may arise from their supervisory function with regard to a student caring for a patient who claims injury because of that care. The legal implications raised by these functions are examined and potential liabilities are explained. (Author/MSE)

  12. Clinical Implications of a Phenomenological Study: Being Regarded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN (print) : 2079-7222. Clinical Implications of a Phenomenological Study: ..... This continued until the workplace seemed weighted under an ... elements or constituents could be identified and then ...... and diverse socio-economic backgrounds. .... Empirical and hermeneutic approaches to phenomenological research in.

  13. The Relationship between Mathematical Induction, Proposition Functions, and Implication Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Lane

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I explored the relationship between mathematical induction ability and proposition and implication functions through a mixed methods approach. Students from three universities (N = 78) and 6 classrooms completed a written assessment testing their conceptual and procedural capabilities with induction and functions. In addition, I…

  14. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism p

  15. Cognitive Moral Development and Clinical Performance: Implications for Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, David A.; Berger, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    A study explored the notion that moral reasoning skills are important to the provision of pharmaceutical care. It compared the moral reasoning skills of two classes of pharmacy students with those of practitioners who scored high on measures of pharmaceutical care and clinical decision making. Implications for pharmacy school admissions and…

  16. Are the insular cortex and cortisol implicated in Parkinsonian features?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies implicate insular cortex and the hormone cortisol in Parkinsonian features. Dopaminergic alterations at the level of the insula may be involved in changes in personality (i.e. novelty seeking) and symptoms of hemispatial neglect. I discuss this evidence and suggest that attention in

  17. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  18. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  19. Microglia priming in the aging brain : Implications for neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin Arulseeli, Divya; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the thesis “Microglia priming in the aging brain: Implications for neurodegeneration” was to understand microglia phenotypes associated with brain aging and the potential mechanisms for this age-associated change. Microglia in the aging brain assume a hypersensitive proinflammator

  20. Implications of Implementing Web 2.0 on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Gabriel; Valenzuela, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge Society has altered the way humanity works, learns and amuses itself; from here the rise of the so called e-learning, an educational modality whose "innovation" has been questioned because of the tendency to simulate traditional ways to educate. This paper explores the concept of e-learning 2.0, the implications of…