Sample records for dimethyl sulfoxide dmso

  1. Toxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to fish

    Willford, W.A


    Toxicities of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to rainbow trout, brook trout, lake trout, carp, black bullhead, channel catfish, green sunfish, bluegill, and yellow perch were determined in 24-, 48-, and 96-hour static bioassays at 12 C...

  2. Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    Bui, Albert K.; McClure, R. Anthony; Chang, Jennell; Stoianovici, Charles; Hirshburg, Jason; Yeh, Alvin T.; Choi, Bernard


    Functional optical characterization of disease progression and response to therapy suffers from loss of spatial resolution and imaging depth due to scattering. Here we report on the ability of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone to reduce the optical scattering of skin. We observed a three-fold reduction in the scattering of skin with topical DMSO application. With an in vivo window chamber model, we observed a three-fold increase in light transmittance through the preparation and enhanced visualization of subsurface microvasculature. Collectively, our data demonstrate the potential of DMSO alone to mitigate effects of scattering, which we expect will improve molecular imaging studies. PMID:19226579

  3. Thermal Sensitivity and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO).

    Takeda, Kotaro; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Okada, Yasumasa


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent for hydrophobic substances, but the compound's innate bioactivity is an area of limited understanding. In this investigation we seek to determine the analgesic potential of DMSO. We addressed the issue by assessing the perception of thermal pain stimulus, using a 55 °C hotplate design, in conscious mice. The latency of withdrawal behaviors over a range of incremental accumulative intraperitoneal DMSO doses (0.5-15.5 g/kg) in the same mouse was taken as a measure of thermal endurance. The findings were that the latency, on average, amounted to 15-30 s and it differed inappreciably between the sequential DMSO conditions. Nor was it different from the pre-DMSO control conditions. Thus, DMSO did not influence the cutaneous thermal pain perception. The findings do not lend support to those literature reports that point to the plausible antinociceptive potential of DMSO as one of a plethora of its innate bioactivities. However, the findings concern the mouse's footpad nociceptors which have specific morphology and stimulus transduction pathways, which cannot exclude DMSO's antinociceptive influence on other types of pain or in other types of skin. Complex and as yet unresolved neural mechanisms of perception of cutaneous noxious heat stimulus should be further explored with alternative experimental designs.

  4. 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and pentastarch improves cryopreservation of cord blood cells over 10% DMSO.

    Hayakawa, Jun; Joyal, Elizabeth G; Gildner, Jean F; Washington, Kareem N; Phang, Oswald A; Uchida, Naoya; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F


    Cell number and viability are important in cord blood (CB) transplantation. While 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the standard medium, adding a starch to freezing medium is increasingly utilized as a cytoprotectant for the thawing process. Similar to hetastarch, pentastarch has the advantages of faster renal clearance and less effect on the coagulation system. We compared a lower DMSO concentration (5%) containing pentastarch with 10% DMSO and performed cell viability assay, colony-forming units (CFUs), and transplantation of CB cells in NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice. CB cells in 5% DMSO/pentastarch had similar CD34+, CD3+, and CD19+ cell percentages after thawing as fresh CB cells. CB cells in 5% DMSO/pentastarch had higher viability (83.3±9.23%) than those frozen in 10% DMSO (75.3±11.0%, pDMSO/pentastarch group. At the end of 3 hours, the viability decreased by a mean of 7.75% for the 5% DMSO/pentastarch and 17.5% for the 10% DMSO groups. CFUs were similar between the two cryopreserved groups. Frozen CB cells engrafted equally well in IL2Rγ(null) mice compared to fresh CB cells up to 24 weeks, and CB cells frozen in 5% DMSO/pentastarch engrafted better than those in 10% DMSO. Our data indicate that the lower DMSO concentration with pentastarch represents an improvement in the CB cryopreservation process and could have wider clinical application as an alternate freezing medium over 10% DMSO. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on cryopreservation of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs).

    Ock, Sun-A; Rho, Gyu-Jin


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a commonly used cryoprotectant in cryopreservation procedures, is detrimental to viability of cells. In this view point, a comparative study was carried out to evaluate the effect of DMSO on porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs). We compared the viability, colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, expression of Bak and Bcl2 genes, Bcl2 protein antigen, and CD90 in pMSCs cryopreserved with 5%, 10%, and 20% DMSO. pMSCs isolated from bone marrow were characterized by alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of transcription factors, such as Oct 3/4, Nanog, and Sox2. The cells were then cryopreserved by cooling at a rate of -1°C/min in a programmable freezer and stored in liquid nitrogen. The results of survival of pMSCs cryopreserved at 5% DMSO were comparable to control group (fresh pMSCs). The survival and the number of colonies formed in cryopreserved pMSCs were inversely proportional to the concentration of DMSO. The number of colonies formed in pMSCs cryopreserved with all concentrations of DMSO was significantly (p DMSO, this study strongly suggests the use of 5% DMSO in cryopreservation of pMSCs as an alternative to conventional 10% DMSO.

  6. Factors affecting degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Meng-Hsuan; Methatham, Thanakorn; Lu, Ming-Chun


    In this study, the target compound is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used as a photoresist stripping solvent in the semiconductor and thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing processes. The effects of the operating parameters (pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations) on the degradation of DMSO in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were examined. This study used the Box-Behnken design (BBD) to investigate the optimum conditions of DMSO degradation. The highest DMSO removal was 98 % for pH 3, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 12. At pH 2 and 4, the highest DMSO removal was 82 %, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 6.5. The correlation of DMSO removal showed that the effect of the parameters on DMSO removal followed the order Fe(2+) > H2O2 > pH. From the BBD prediction, the optimum conditions were pH 3, 5 mM of Fe(2+), and 60 mM of H2O2. The difference between the experimental value (98 %) and the predicted value (96 %) was not significant. The removal efficiencies of DMSO, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and iron in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were higher than those in the traditional Fenton process.

  7. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) produces widespread apoptosis in the developing central nervous system.

    Hanslick, Jennifer L; Lau, Karen; Noguchi, Kevin K; Olney, John W; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven; Farber, Nuri B


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent that is routinely used as a cryopreservative in allogous bone marrow and organ transplantation. We exposed C57Bl/6 mice of varying postnatal ages (P0-P30) to DMSO in order to study whether DMSO could produce apoptotic degeneration in the developing CNS. DMSO produced widespread apoptosis in the developing mouse brain at all ages tested. Damage was greatest at P7. Significant elevations above the background rate of apoptosis occurred at the lowest dose tested, 0.3 ml/kg. In an in vitro rat hippocampal culture preparation, DMSO produced neuronal loss at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The ability of DMSO to damage neurons in dissociated cultures indicates that the toxicity likely results from a direct cellular effect. Because children, who undergo bone marrow transplantation, are routinely exposed to DMSO at doses higher than 0.3 ml/kg, there is concern that DMSO might be producing similar damage in human children.

  8. Microinjection of the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the periaqueductal gray modulates morphine antinociception.

    Fossum, Erin N; Lisowski, Mark J; Macey, Tara A; Ingram, Susan L; Morgan, Michael M


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent for water-insoluble drugs. Given that DMSO has varying cellular and behavioral effects ranging from increased membrane permeability to toxicity, microinjection of DMSO as a vehicle could confound the effects of other drugs. For example, DMSO is often used as a vehicle for studies examining the neurochemical mechanisms underlying morphine antinociception. Given that the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) plays a major role in morphine antinociception and tolerance, the effects of DMSO on morphine antinociception mediated by the vlPAG needs to be evaluated. The present experiment tested whether co-administration of DMSO (0, 0.2, 2, or 20%) would alter the antinociceptive effect of microinjecting morphine into the vlPAG. DMSO had no effect on nociception when microinjected into the vlPAG alone, but 2% DMSO enhanced morphine potency when co-administered with morphine. In contrast, twice daily microinjections of DMSO (5 or 20%) for two days reduced the potency of subsequent microinjections of morphine into the vlPAG--an effect that persisted for at least one week. A similar rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve was caused by morphine tolerance. Co-administration of morphine and DMSO during the pretreatment did not cause a greater shift in the morphine dose-response curve compared to morphine pretreated alone. In conclusion, DMSO can alter morphine antinociception following both acute (enhancement) and chronic (inhibition) administration depending on the concentration. These data reinforce the need to be cautious when using DMSO as a vehicle for drug administration.

  9. Inhibition of differentiation and function of osteoclasts by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    Yang, Chunxi; Madhu, Vedavathi; Thomas, Candace; Yang, Xinlin; Du, Xeujun; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an FDA-approved organosulfur solvent that is reported to have therapeutic value in osteoarthritis and osteopenia. DMSO is used as a cryoprotectant for the cryopreservation of bone grafts and mesenchymal stem cells which are later used for bone repair. It is also used as a solvent in the preparation of various scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering purposes. DMSO has been reported to inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro but the mechanism involved has remained elusive. We investigated the effect of DMSO on osteoclast differentiation and function using a conventional model system of RAW 264.7 cells. The differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells was induced by adding 50 ng/ml RANKL and the effect of DMSO (0.01 and 1% v/v) on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was investigated. Addition of 1% DMSO significantly inhibited RANKL-induced formation of TRAP+, multinucleated, mature osteoclasts and osteoclast late-stage precursors (c-Kit(-) c-Fms(+) Mac-1(+) RANK(+)). While DMSO did not inhibit proliferation per se, it did inhibit the effect of RANKL on proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Key genes related to osteoclast function (TRAP, Integrin αVβ3, Cathepsin K and MMP9) were significantly down-regulated by DMSO. RANKL-induced expression of RANK gene was significantly reduced in the presence of DMSO. Our data, and reports from other investigators, that DMSO enhances osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and also prevents bone loss in ovarietcomized rats, suggest that DMSO has tremendous potential in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone diseases arising from uncontrolled activities of the osteoclasts.

  10. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as intravesical therapy for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: A review.

    Rawls, William F; Cox, Lindsey; Rovner, Eric S


    The purpose of this review is to update the current understanding of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and its role in the treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). A systematic review was conducted using the PRIMSA checklist to identify published articles involving intravesical DMSO for the treatment of IC. Thirteen cohort studies and three randomized-controlled trials were identified. Response rates relying on subjective measurement scores range from 61 to 95%. No increased efficacy was found with "cocktail" DMSO therapy. Great variation existed in diagnostic criteria, DMSO instillation protocols and response measurements. The current evidence backing DMSO is a constellation of cohort studies and a single randomized-controlled trial versus placebo. The optimal dose, dwell time, type of IC most likely to respond to DMSO, definitions of success/failure and the number of treatments are not universally agreed upon. Improvements in study design, phenotyping patients based on symptoms, as well as the emergence of reliable biomarkers of the disease may better guide the use of DMSO in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Determination of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Ethanol (ETOH), Formamide (F) and Glycerol/Formal (GF) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)


    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC...Classification) (U) Determination of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Ethanol, (ETOH), Formamide (F), and Glycerol/ Formal (GF) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC...and 5). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was the analytical method of choice for analyzing DMSO, ethanol, formamide and

  12. Cytotoxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in direct contact with odontoblast-like cells.

    Hebling, J; Bianchi, L; Basso, F G; Scheffel, D L; Soares, D G; Carrilho, M R O; Pashley, D H; Tjäderhane, L; de Souza Costa, C A


    To evaluate the cytotoxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the repair-related activity of cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Solutions with different concentrations of DMSO (0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mM), diluted in culture medium (DMEM), were placed in contact with MDPC-23 cells (5 × 104 cells/cm(2)) for 24 h. Eight replicates (n = 8) were prepared for each solutions for the following methods of analysis: violet crystal dye for cell adhesion (CA), quantification of total protein (TP), alizarin red for mineralization nodules formation (MN) and cell death by necrosis (flow cytometry); while twelve replicates (n = 12) were prepared for viable cell number (Trypan Blue) and cell viability (MTT assay). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney's tests (p DMSO at any concentration, with no statistical significant difference among the groups. A significant reduction in total protein production was observed for 0.5 and 1.0 mM of DMSO compared to the control while increased mineralized nodules formation was seen only for 1.0 mM DMSO. DMSO caused no or minor cytotoxic effects on the pulp tissue repair-related activity of odontoblast-like cells. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimizing human hepatocyte models for metabolic phenotype and function: effects of treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Green, Charlotte J; Gunn, Pippa J; Hodson, Leanne; Tomlinson, Jeremy W


    Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the "gold standard" cellular model for studying hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolism; however, they come with limitations. Although the HepG2 cell line retains many of the primary hepatocyte metabolic functions they have a malignant origin and low rates of triglyceride secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide supplementation in the media of HepG2 cells would enhance metabolic functionality leading to the development of an improved in vitro cell model that closely recapitulates primary human hepatocyte metabolism. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing 1% dimethyl sulfoxide for 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days. Gene expression, protein levels, intracellular triglyceride, and media concentrations of triglyceride, urea, and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured. Dimethyl sulfoxide treatment altered the expression of genes involved in lipid (FAS, ACC1, ACC2, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD) and glucose (PEPCK, G6Pase) metabolism as well as liver functionality (albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, AFP). mRNA changes were paralleled by alterations at the protein level. DMSO treatment decreased intracellular triglyceride content and lactate production and increased triglyceride and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the media in a time-dependent manner. We have demonstrated that the addition of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide to culture media changes the metabolic phenotype of HepG2 cells toward a more primary human hepatocyte phenotype. This will enhance the currently available in vitro model systems for the study of hepatocyte biology related to pathological processes that contribute to disease and their response to specific therapeutic interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a potential contrast agent for brain tumors.

    Delgado-Goñi, T; Martín-Sitjar, J; Simões, R V; Acosta, M; Lope-Piedrafita, S; Arús, C


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used in preclinical studies of animal models of high-grade glioma as a solvent for chemotherapeutic agents. A strong DMSO signal was detected by single-voxel MRS in the brain of three C57BL/6 control mice during a pilot study of DMSO tolerance after intragastric administration. This led us to investigate the accumulation and wash-out kinetics of DMSO in both normal brain parenchyma (n=3 control mice) by single-voxel MRS, and in 12 GL261 glioblastomas (GBMs) by single-voxel MRS (n=3) and MRSI (n=9). DMSO accumulated differently in each tissue type, reaching its highest concentration in tumors: 6.18 ± 0.85 µmol/g water, 1.5-fold higher than in control mouse brain (pDMSO changes revealed clear hotspots of differential spatial accumulation in GL261 tumors. Additional MRSI studies with four mice bearing oligodendrogliomas (ODs) revealed similar results as in GBM tumors. The lack of T(1) contrast enhancement post-gadolinium (gadopentetate dimeglumine, Gd-DTPA) in control mouse brain and mice with ODs suggested that DMSO was fully able to cross the intact blood-brain barrier in both normal brain parenchyma and in low-grade tumors. Our results indicate a potential role for DMSO as a contrast agent for brain tumor detection, even in those tumors 'invisible' to standard gadolinium-enhanced MRI, and possibly for monitoring heterogeneities associated with progression or with therapeutic response. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) exacerbates cisplatin-induced sensory hair cell death in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Uribe, Phillip M; Mueller, Melissa A; Gleichman, Julia S; Kramer, Matthew D; Wang, Qi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M; Steyger, Peter S; Cotanche, Douglas A; Matsui, Jonathan I


    Inner ear sensory hair cells die following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics or chemotherapeutics like cisplatin, leading to permanent auditory and/or balance deficits in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used to study drug-induced sensory hair cell death since their hair cells are similar in structure and function to those found in humans. We developed a cisplatin dose-response curve using a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein under the control of the Brn3c promoter/enhancer. Recently, several small molecule screens have been conducted using zebrafish to identify potential pharmacological agents that could be used to protect sensory hair cells in the presence of ototoxic drugs. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is typically used as a solvent for many pharmacological agents in sensory hair cell cytotoxicity assays. Serendipitously, we found that DMSO potentiated the effects of cisplatin and killed more sensory hair cells than treatment with cisplatin alone. Yet, DMSO alone did not kill hair cells. We did not observe the synergistic effects of DMSO with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Cisplatin treatment with other commonly used organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, methanol, and polyethylene glycol 400) also did not result in increased cell death compared to cisplatin treatment alone. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting data generated from small molecule screens since many compounds are dissolved in DMSO.

  16. [Effective dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) occlusive dressing technique for amyloidosis of the urinary bladder].

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kanda, Hideki; Miki, Manabu; Masui, Satoru; Yoshio, Yuko; Yamada, Yasushi; Soga, Norihito; Arima, Kiminobu; Sugimura, Yoshiki


    A 48-year-old married woman complaining of macroscopic hematuria and cystitis symptom was admitted to our institute. Flexible cystoscopy revealed many yellowish, nodular masses at the paries posterior of the urinary bladder, and cold-punch biopsy proved it to be amyloidosis. Serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was high, and suggested systemic amyloidosis. Renal biopsy and colon fiberscopy did not reveal any abnormalities. We therefore diagnosed a primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. Transurethral resection and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) infusion therapy are used to treat amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. However there is no definite cure for amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. Therefore we selected DMSO occlusive dressing technique therapy. After 5 years of therapy, there was no evidence of a recurrence of amyloidosis.

  17. Crystallisation of α-lactose monohydrate from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions: influence of β-lactose

    Dincer, T. D.; Parkinson, G. M.; Rohl, A. L.; Ogden, M. I.


    In this study, the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-lactose system has been used to study the effect of β-lactose on the morphology of α-lactose monohydrate crystals. DMSO was used as the solvent as it greatly reduces the rate of mutarotation of α-lactose to β-lactose. It is shown that as the β-content of the solution increases, the crystal shape starts increasing in the a and b directions, whereas the major growth occurs in the c direction at low levels of β-lactose. The morphology of the α-lactose monohydrate crystal calculated by molecular modelling is in good agreement with that of the crystals grown in the presence of low β-lactose concentrations. Atomic force microscopy has revealed growth spirals and unit cell high steps on the (0 2 0) face of crystals grown in the presence of low β-anomer concentration.

  18. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) attenuates the inflammatory response in the in vitro intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    Hollebeeck, Sylvie; Raas, Thomas; Piront, Neil; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Toussaint, Olivier; Larondelle, Yvan; During, Alexandrine


    This study aimed to investigate dose effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (0.05-1%) on the intestinal inflammatory response in confluent- and differentiated-Caco-2 cells stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β or a pro-inflammatory cocktail for 24 h. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity was assayed by incubating inflamed cells with arachidonic acid and then measuring prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) produced. Soluble mediators (IL-8, IL-6, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and COX-2-derived PGE(2)) were quantified by enzyme immunoassays and mRNA expression of 33 proteins by high throughput TaqMan Low Density Array. Data showed that DMSO decreased induced IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions in a dose-dependent manner (PDMSO dose-dependently reduced COX-2-derived PGE(2) (PDMSO at 0.5% decreased significantly mRNA levels of 14 proteins involved in the inflammatory response (including IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, and COX-2). Thus, DMSO at low concentrations (0.1-0.5%) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in the in vitro intestinal Caco-2 cell model. This point is important to be taken into account when assessing anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive compounds requiring DMSO as vehicle, such as phenolic compounds, in order to avoid miss-interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of increased drug metabolism activity in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated Huh7 hepatoma cells.

    Choi, S; Sainz, B; Corcoran, P; Uprichard, S; Jeong, H


    The objective of this study was to characterize Huh7 cells' baseline capacity to metabolize drugs and to investigate whether the drug metabolism was enhanced upon treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of major Phase I and Phase II enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes were examined using probe drugs by analysing relevant metabolite production rates. The expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes in control Huh7 cells were generally very low, but DMSO treatment dramatically increased the mRNA levels of most drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as other liver-specific proteins. Importantly, functionality assays confirmed concomitant increases in drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Additionally, treatment of the Huh7 cells with 3-methylcholanthrene induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 expression. The results indicate that DMSO treatment of Huh7 cells profoundly enhances their differentiation state, thus improving the usefulness of this common cell line as an in vitro hepatocyte model.

  20. Diverse effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the differentiation potential of human embryonic stem cells.

    Pal, Rajarshi; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Das, Anjan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh


    In vitro disease modeling using pluripotent stem cells can be a fast track screening tool for toxicological testing of candidate drug molecules. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most commonly used solvents in drug screening. In the present investigation, we exposed 14- to 21-day-old embryoid bodies (EBs) to three different concentrations of DMSO [0.01% (low dose), 0.1% (medium dose) and 1.0% (high dose)] to identify the safest dose that could effectively be used as solvent. We found that DMSO treatment substantially altered the morphology and attachment of cells in concurrence with a significant reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression studies revealed a selective downregulation of key markers associated with stemness (Oct-4, Sox-2, Nanog and Rex-1); ectoderm (Nestin, TuJ1, NEFH and Keratin-15); mesoderm (HAND-1, MEF-2C, GATA-4 and cardiac-actin); and endoderm (SOX-17, HNF-3β, GATA-6 and albumin), indicating an aberrant and untimely differentiation trajectory. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and histological analyses demonstrated substantial decrease in the levels of albumin and CK-18 proteins coupled with a massive reduction in the number of cells positive for PAS staining, implicating reduced deposits of glycogen. Our study advocates for the first time that DMSO exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in gene expression, protein content and functionality of the differentiated hepatic cells. Overall, our experiments warrant that hESC-based assays can provide timely alerts about the outcome of widespread applications of DMSO as drug solvent, cryoprotectant and differentiating agent.

  1. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a mobile phase additive during top 3 label-free quantitative proteomics.

    Strzelecka, Dominika; Holman, Stephen W; Eyers, Claire E


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been advocated as a beneficial additive to electrospray solvents for peptide analysis due to the improved ionisation efficiency conferred. Previous reports have shown that the resultant improvements in peptide ion signal intensities are non-uniform. As a result, it was hypothesised that inclusion of DMSO in electrospray solvents could be detrimental to the outcome of intensity-based label-free absolute quantification approaches, specifically the top 3 method. The effect of DMSO as a mobile phase additive in top 3 label-free quantification was therefore evaluated. We show that inclusion of DMSO enhances data quality, improving the precision and number of proteins quantified, with no significant change to the quantification values observed in its absence.

  2. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on dentin bonding and nanoleakage of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Tjäderhane, Leo; Mehtälä, Pekka; Scaffa, Polliana; Vidal, Cristina; Pääkkönen, Virve; Breschi, Lorenzo; Hebling, Josimeri; Tay, Franklin R; Nascimento, Fabio D; Pashley, David H; Carrilho, Marcela R


    The objective was to examine the effect of a solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on resin-dentin bond durability, as well as potential functional mechanisms behind the effect. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was evaluated in extracted human teeth in two separate experiments. Dentin specimens were acid-etched and assigned to pre-treatment with 0.5mM (0.004%) DMSO as additional primer for 30s and to controls with water pre-treatment. Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Scotchbond 1XT, 3M ESPE) was applied and resin composite build-ups were created. Specimens were immediately tested for μTBS or stored in artificial saliva for 6 and 12 months prior to testing. Additional immediate and 6-month specimens were examined for interfacial nanoleakage analysis under SEM. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition by DMSO was examined with gelatin zymography. Demineralized dentin disks were incubated in 100% DMSO to observe the optical clearing effect. The use of 0.5mM DMSO had no effect on immediate bond strength or nanoleakage. In controls, μTBS decreased significantly after storage, but increased significantly in DMSO-treated group. The control group had significantly lower μTBS than DMSO-group after 6 and 12 months. DMSO also eliminated the increase in nanoleakage seen in controls. 5% and higher DMSO concentrations significantly inhibited the gelatinases. DMSO induced optical clearing effect demonstrating collagen dissociation. DMSO as a solvent may be useful in improving the preservation of long-term dentin-adhesive bond strength. The effect may relate to dentinal enzyme inhibition or improved wetting of collagen by adhesives. The collagen dissociation required much higher DMSO concentrations than the 0.5mM DMSO used for bonding. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ion transport through dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) induced transient water pores in cell membranes.

    He, Fei; Liu, Weirong; Zheng, Shengchao; Zhou, Li; Ye, Benlan; Qi, Zhi


    It is well known that dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) increases membrane permeability, which makes it widely used as a vehicle to facilitate drug delivery across biological membranes. However, the mechanism of how DMSO increases membrane permeability has not been well understood. Recently, molecular dynamics simulations have demonstrated that DMSO can induce water pores in biological membranes, but no direct experimental evidence is so far available to prove the simulation result. Using FluxOR Tl⁺ influx assay and intracellular Ca²⁺ imaging technique, we studied the effect of DMSO on Tl⁺ and Ca²⁺ permeation across cell membranes. Upon application of DMSO on CHO-K1 cell line, Tl⁺ influx was transiently increased in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in Tl⁺ permeability induced by DMSO was not changed in the presence of blockers for K⁺ channel and Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase, suggesting that Tl⁺ permeates through transient water pores induced by DMSO to enter into the cell. In addition, Ca²⁺ permeability was significantly increased upon application of DMSO, indicating that the transient water pores induced by DMSO were non-selective pores. Furthermore, similar results could be obtained from RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Therefore, this study provided experimental evidence to support the prediction that DMSO can induce transient water pores in cell membranes, which in turn facilitates the transport of active substances across membranes.

  4. Synthesis of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 crystals using DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) as solvent and kinetic transformation studies

    Feng, Xuhui; Wu, Ting; Carreon, Moises A.


    Herein we report the synthesis of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 with Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. The structural evolution of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 as a function of time at room temperature was followed. We have identified the different stages of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 formation (nucleation, crystallization, growth, and stationary periods) and elucidated its kinetics of transformation. The nucleation and growth of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 crystals followed Avrami's kinetics. The role that DMSO plays in the crystallization and growth of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 is discussed. The crystal sizes of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 in the presence of DMSO as solvent were significantly smaller than those obtained in typical solvents such as methanol, making this solvent appealing for the synthesis of small crystals with relatively narrow size distribution, a property which is highly desirable for diverse functional applications.

  5. Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Brien, S; Prescott, P; Bashir, N; Lewith, H; Lewith, G


    Conventional treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with serious gastrointestinal side effects and in view of the recent withdrawal of some cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, identifying safer alternative treatment options is needed. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the existing evidence from randomised controlled trials of two chemically related nutritional supplements, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of OA to determine their efficacy and safety profile. The electronic databases [Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl and NeLH (1950 to November 2007)] were searched. The search strategy combined terms: osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disorder, dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, methylsulfonylmethane, MSM, clinical trial; double-blind, single blind, RCT, placebo, randomized, comparative study, evaluation study, control. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Data were extracted and quality was assessed using the JADAD scale. Six studies were included [evaluating a total of 681 patients with OA of the knee for DMSO (N=297 on active treatment); 168 patients for MSM (N=52 on active treatment)]. Two of the four DMSO trials, and both MSM trials reported significant improvement in pain outcomes in the treatment group compared to comparator treatments, however, methodological issues and concerns over optimal dosage and treatment period, were highlighted. No definitive conclusion can currently be drawn for either supplement. The findings from all the DMSO studies need to be viewed with caution because of poor methodology including; possible unblinding, and questionable treatment duration and dose. The data from the more rigorous MSM trials provide positive but not definitive evidence that MSM is superior to placebo in the treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee. Further studies are now required to identify both the optimum dosage and longer

  6. Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C, an Osteoblast Transcription Factor Identified by Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)-enhanced Mineralization*

    Stephens, Alexandre S.; Stephens, Sebastien R.; Hobbs, Carl; Hutmacher, Deitmar W.; Bacic-Welsh, Desa; Woodruff, Maria Ann; Morrison, Nigel A.


    Rapid mineralization of cultured osteoblasts could be a useful characteristic in stem cell-mediated therapies for fracture and other orthopedic problems. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a small amphipathic solvent molecule capable of stimulating cell differentiation. We report that, in primary human osteoblasts, DMSO dose-dependently enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization. Furthermore, similar DMSO-mediated mineralization enhancement was observed in primary osteoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse mesenchymal cells derived from fat, a promising source of starter cells for cell-based therapy. Using a convenient mouse pre-osteoblast model cell line MC3T3-E1, we further investigated this phenomenon showing that numerous osteoblast-expressed genes were elevated in response to DMSO treatment and correlated with enhanced mineralization. Myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) was identified as the transcription factor most induced by DMSO, among the numerous DMSO-induced genes, suggesting a role for Mef2c in osteoblast gene regulation. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Mef2c in osteoblast-like cells in mouse mandible, cortical, and trabecular bone. shRNAi-mediated Mef2c gene silencing resulted in defective osteoblast differentiation, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix mineralization and knockdown of osteoblast specific gene expression, including osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. A flow on knockdown of bone-specific transcription factors, Runx2 and osterix by shRNAi knockdown of Mef2c, suggests that Mef2c lies upstream of these two important factors in the cascade of gene expression in osteoblasts. PMID:21652706

  7. Myocyte enhancer factor 2c, an osteoblast transcription factor identified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-enhanced mineralization.

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Stephens, Sebastien R; Hobbs, Carl; Hutmacher, Deitmar W; Bacic-Welsh, Desa; Woodruff, Maria Ann; Morrison, Nigel A


    Rapid mineralization of cultured osteoblasts could be a useful characteristic in stem cell-mediated therapies for fracture and other orthopedic problems. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a small amphipathic solvent molecule capable of stimulating cell differentiation. We report that, in primary human osteoblasts, DMSO dose-dependently enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization. Furthermore, similar DMSO-mediated mineralization enhancement was observed in primary osteoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse mesenchymal cells derived from fat, a promising source of starter cells for cell-based therapy. Using a convenient mouse pre-osteoblast model cell line MC3T3-E1, we further investigated this phenomenon showing that numerous osteoblast-expressed genes were elevated in response to DMSO treatment and correlated with enhanced mineralization. Myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) was identified as the transcription factor most induced by DMSO, among the numerous DMSO-induced genes, suggesting a role for Mef2c in osteoblast gene regulation. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Mef2c in osteoblast-like cells in mouse mandible, cortical, and trabecular bone. shRNAi-mediated Mef2c gene silencing resulted in defective osteoblast differentiation, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix mineralization and knockdown of osteoblast specific gene expression, including osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. A flow on knockdown of bone-specific transcription factors, Runx2 and osterix by shRNAi knockdown of Mef2c, suggests that Mef2c lies upstream of these two important factors in the cascade of gene expression in osteoblasts.

  8. Regulatory effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on astrocytic reactivity in a murine model of cerebral infarction by arterial embolization.

    Lapuente Chala, Catalina; Rengifo Valbuena, Carlos Augusto; Avila Rodríguez, Marco Fidel; Céspedes Rubio, Angel


    The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is essential for early diagnosis, neurologic recovery, the early onset of drug treatment and the prognosis of ischemic events. Experimental models of cerebral ischemia can be used to evaluate the cellular response phenomena and possible neurological protection by drugs. To characterize the cellular changes in the neuronal population and astrocytic response by the effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on a model of ischemia caused by cerebral embolism. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 5). The infarct was induced with α-bovine thrombin (40 NIH/Unit.). The treated group received 90 mg (100 μL) of DMSO in saline (1:1 v/v) intraperitoneally for 5 days; ischemic controls received only NaCl (placebo) and two non-ischemic groups (simulated) received NaCl and DMSO respectively. We evaluated the neuronal (anti-NeuN) and astrocytic immune-reactivity (anti-GFAP). The results were analyzed by densitometry (NIH Image J-Fiji 1.45 software) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Graph pad software (Prism 5). Cerebral embolism induced reproducible and reliable lesions in the cortex and hippocampus (CA1)., similar to those of focal models. DMSO did not reverse the loss of post-ischemia neuronal immune-reactivity, but prevented the morphological damage of neurons, and significantly reduced astrocytic hyperactivity in the somato-sensory cortex and CA1 (p DMSO on astrocyte hyperreactivity and neuronal-astroglial cytoarchitecture , gives it potential neuroprotective properties for the treatment of thromboembolic cerebral ischemia in the acute phase.

  9. Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis.

    Simon, Lee S; Grierson, Lisa M; Naseer, Zahid; Bookman, Arthur A M; Zev Shainhouse, J


    While topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered safe, their long-term efficacy for osteoarthritis has been suspect. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of topical diclofenac (TDiclo) in a vehicle solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in 775 subjects with radiologically confirmed, symptomatic primary osteoarthritis of the knee. This 5-arm study compared TDiclo with a placebo solution, the DMSO vehicle, oral diclofenac (ODiclo) and the combination of TDiclo+ODiclo for relieving the signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Subjects applied study solution, 40 drops four times daily, and took one study tablet daily for 12 weeks. Co-primary efficacy variables were WOMAC pain and physical function and a patient overall health assessment. Secondary variables were WOMAC stiffness and patient global assessment (PGA) of the knee osteoarthritis. TDiclo was superior to placebo for pain (-6.0 vs. -4.7, P=0.015), physical function (-15.8 vs. -12.3, P=0.034), overall health (-0.95 vs. -0.37, PDMSO vehicle for all efficacy variables. No significant difference was observed between DMSO vehicle and placebo or between TDiclo and ODiclo. The commonest adverse event associated with TDiclo was dry skin (18.2%). Fewer digestive system and laboratory abnormalities were observed with TDiclo than with ODiclo. Addition of TDiclo to ODiclo did not increase the incidence of systemic adverse events. TDiclo in DMSO vehicle is an effective treatment option for knee osteoarthritis with efficacy similar to, but tolerability better than ODiclo. DMSO vehicle was no more efficacious than placebo.

  10. Structural studies of the effect that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has on cisplatin and carboplatin binding to histidine in a protein.

    Tanley, Simon W M; Schreurs, Antoine M M; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Meredith, Joanne; Prendergast, Richard; Walsh, Danielle; Bryant, Patrick; Levy, Colin; Helliwell, John R


    The anticancer complexes cisplatin and carboplatin target the DNA major groove, forming intrastrand and interstrand cross-links between guanine bases through their N7 atoms, causing distortion of the DNA helix and apoptotic cell death. A major side effect of these drugs is toxicity, which is caused via binding to many proteins in the body. A range of crystallographic studies have been carried out involving the cocrystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a test protein with cisplatin and carboplatin in aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) conditions. Different cryoprotectants, glycerol and Paratone, were used for each of the cisplatin and carboplatin cocrystallization cases, while silicone oil was used for studies involving N-acetylglucosamine (NAG). Both cisplatin and carboplatin do not bind to HEWL in aqueous media on the timescales of the conditions used here, but upon addition of DMSO two molecules of cisplatin or carboplatin bind either side of His15, which is the only His residue in lysozyme and is assumed to be an imidazolyl anion or a chemical resonance moiety, i.e. both imidazole N atoms are chemically reactive. To identify the platinum-peak positions in the 'with DMSO conditions', anomalous scattering maps were calculated as a cross-check with the F(o) - F(c) OMIT maps. Platinum-occupancy σ values were established using three different software programs in each case. The use of EVAL15 to process all of the diffraction data sets provided a consistent platform for a large ensemble of data sets for the various protein and platinum-compound model refinements with REFMAC5 and then SHELXTL. Overall, this extensive set of crystallization and cryoprotectant conditions allowed a systematic evaluation of cisplatin and carboplatin binding to lysozyme as a test protein via detailed X-ray crystal structure characterizations. DMSO is used as a super-solvent for drug delivery as it is deemed to cause no effect upon drug binding. However, these results show

  11. Low concentrations of ethanol but not of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) impair reciprocal retinal signal transduction.

    Siapich, Siarhei A; Akhtar, Isha; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni; Lüke, Matthias


    The model of the isolated and superfused retina provides the opportunity to test drugs and toxins. Some chemicals have to be applied using low concentrations of organic solvents as carriers. Recently, E-/R-type (Cav2.3) and T-type (Cav3.2) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels were identified as participating in reciprocal inhibitory retinal signaling. Their participation is apparent, when low concentrations of NiCl2 (15 μM) are applied during superfusion leading to an increase of the ERG b-wave amplitude, which is explained by a reduction of amacrine GABA-release onto bipolar neurons. During these investigations, differences were observed for the solvent carrier used. Recording of the transretinal receptor potentials from the isolated bovine retina. The pretreatment of bovine retina with 0.01 % (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide did not impair the NiCl2-mediated increase of the b-wave amplitude, which was 1.31-fold ± 0.03 of initial value (n = 4). However, pretreatment of the retina with the same concentration of ethanol impaired reciprocal signaling (0.96-fold ± 0.05, n = 4). Further, the implicit time of the b-wave was increased, suggesting that ethanol itself but not DMSO may antagonize GABA-receptors. Ethanol itself but not DMSO may block GABA receptors and cause an amplitude increase by itself, so that reciprocal signaling is impaired.

  12. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Increases Percentage of CXCR4(+) Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells, Their Responsiveness to an SDF-1 Gradient, Homing Capacities, and Survival.

    Jarocha, Danuta; Zuba-Surma, Ewa; Majka, Marcin


    Cryopreservation of bone marrow (BM), mobilized peripheral blood (mPB), and cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is a routine procedure before transplantation. The most commonly used cryoprotectant for HSPCs is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of DMSO on surface receptor expression and chemotactic activities of HSPCs. We found that 10 min of incubation of human mononuclear cells (MNCs) with 10% DMSO significantly increases the percentage of CXCR4(+), CD38(+), and CD34(+) cells, resulting in an increase of CD34(+), CD34(+)CXCR4(+), and CD34(+)CXCR4(+)CD38(-) subpopulations. Furthermore, DMSO significantly increased chemotactic responsiveness of MNCs and CXCR4(+) human hematopoietic Jurkat cell line to a stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) gradient. Furthermore, we demonstrated enhanced chemotaxis of human clonogenic progenitor cells to an SDF-1 gradient, which suggests that DMSO directly enhances the chemotactic responsiveness of early human progenitors. DMSO preincubation also caused lower internalization of the CXCR4 receptor. In parallel experiments, we found that approximately 30% more of DMSO-preincubated human CD45(+) and CD45(+)CD34(+) cells homed to the mouse BM 24 h after transplantation in comparison to control cells. Finally, we demonstrated considerably higher (25 days) survival of mice transplanted with DMSO-exposed MNCs than those transplanted with the control cells. We show in this study an unexpected beneficial influence of DMSO on HSPC homing and suggest that a short priming with DMSO before transplantation could be considered a new strategy to enhance cell homing and engraftment.

  13. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan


    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.

  14. Altered Hepa1-6 cells by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treatment induce anti-tumor immunity in vivo.

    Jiang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Ye; Yu, Bin; Wang, Chen; Liu, Changcheng; Lu, Juan; Chen, Fei; Wang, Minjun; Yu, Xinlu; Lin, Jiahao; Pan, Xinghua; Wang, Pin; Zhu, Haiying


    Cancer immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. Our current research proposed an optional strategy of activating immune system involving in cancer immunotherapy. When being treated with 2% DMSO in culture medium, Hepa1-6 cells showed depressed proliferation with no significant apoptosis or decreased viability. D-hep cells, Hepa1-6 cells treated with DMSO for 7 days, could restore to the higher proliferation rate in DMSO-free medium, but alteration of gene expression profile was irreversible. Interestingly, tumors from D-hep cells, not Hepa1-6 cells, regressed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice whereas D-hep cells exhibited similar tumorigenesis as Hep1-6 cells in immunodeficient mice. As expected, additional Hepa1-6 cells failed to form tumors in the D-hep-C57 mice in which D-hep cells were eliminated. Further research confirmed that D-hep-C57 mice established anti-tumor immunity against Hepa1-6 cells. Our research proposed viable tumor cells with altered biological features by DMSO-treatment could induce anti-tumor immunity in vivo.

  15. Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF and dimethyl sulfide (DMS, did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2 dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs.

  16. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide gel. 524.660b Section 524.660b... Dimethyl sulfoxide gel. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide gel, veterinary contains 90 percent dimethyl sulfoxide in an aqueous gel. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions...

  17. Solvation of LiBF4 ions in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions according to Raman spectroscopy data

    Gafurov, M. M.; Ataev, M. B.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Gorobets, M. I.; Tret'yakov, D. O.; Kirillov, S. A.; Kubataev, Z. Yu.


    Ionic equilibria in the LiBF4-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) system were studied by Raman spectroscopy at 50°C at salt concentrations of 0.05-0.25 mole fractions. The spectral signals of hydrogen bonds between the DMSO molecules and the fluoroborate ions were found. The concentrations of the monomer and dimer DMSO molecules and DMSO molecules in the solvation sphere of the lithium cation; free solvent molecules and those in the solvation sphere of the fluoroborate ion; free anions, ion pairs separated by the solvent, and contact ion pairs were determined.

  18. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced? Results of a European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation prospective noninterventional study on usage and side effects of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Morris, Curly; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Scholten, Marijke; Brand, Ronald; van Biezen, Anja; Sureda, Anna; Dickmeiss, Ebbe; Trneny, Marek; Apperley, Jane; Chiusolo, Patrizia; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Lenhoff, Stig; Martinelli, Giovanni; Hentrich, Marcus; Pabst, Thomas; Onida, Francesco; Quinn, Michael; Kroger, Nicolaus; de Witte, Theo; Ruutu, Tapani


    BackgroundDimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is essential for the preservation of liquid nitrogen-frozen stem cells, but is associated with toxicity in the transplant recipient. Study Design and MethodsIn this prospective noninterventional study, we describe the use of DMSO in 64 European Blood and Marrow Tr

  19. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced? Results of a European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation prospective noninterventional study on usage and side effects of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Morris, C.; Wreede, L. de; Scholten, M.; Brand, R.; Biezen, A. van; Sureda, A.; Dickmeiss, E.; Trneny, M.; Apperley, J.; Chiusolo, P.; Imhoff, G.W. van; Lenhoff, S.; Martinelli, G.; Hentrich, M.; Pabst, T.; Onida, F.; Quinn, M.; Kroger, N.; Witte, T.J. de; Ruutu, T.; Chronic, M.; the, E. Lymphoma Workin


    BACKGROUND: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is essential for the preservation of liquid nitrogen-frozen stem cells, but is associated with toxicity in the transplant recipient. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective noninterventional study, we describe the use of DMSO in 64 European Blood and Marro

  20. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Surface Water near Phospholipid Bilayers.

    Lee, Yuno; Pincus, Philip A; Hyeon, Changbong


    Despite much effort to probe the properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the effects of DMSO on water, especially near plasma membrane surfaces, still remain elusive. By performing molecular dynamics simulations at varying DMSO concentrations (XDMSO), we study how DMSO affects structural and dynamical properties of water in the vicinity of phospholipid bilayers. As proposed by a number of experiments, our simulations confirm that DMSO induces dehydration from bilayer surfaces and disrupts the H-bond structure of water. However, DMSO-enhanced water diffusivity at solvent-bilayer interfaces, an intriguing discovery reported by a spin-label measurement, is not confirmed in our simulations. To resolve this discrepancy, we examine the location of the spin label (Tempo) relative to the solvent-bilayer interface. In accord with the evidence in the literature, our simulations, which explicitly model Tempo-phosphatidylcholine, find that the Tempo moiety is equilibrated at ∼8-10 Å below the bilayer surface. Furthermore, the DMSO-enhanced surface-water diffusion is confirmed only when water diffusion is analyzed around the Tempo moiety that is immersed below the bilayer surface, which implies that the experimentally detected signal of water using Tempo stems from the interior of bilayers, not from the interface. Our analysis finds that the increase of water diffusion below the bilayer surface is coupled to the increase of area per lipid with an increasing XDMSO(≲10mol%). Underscoring the hydrophobic nature of the Tempo moiety, our study calls for careful re-evaluation of the use of Tempo in measurements on lipid bilayer surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic fingerprint of dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) in microbial-mammalian co-metabolism.

    He, Xuan; Slupsky, Carolyn M


    There is growing awareness that intestinal microbiota alters the energy harvesting capacity of the host and regulates metabolism. It has been postulated that intestinal microbiota are able to degrade unabsorbed dietary components and transform xenobiotic compounds. The resulting microbial metabolites derived from the gastrointestinal tract can potentially enter the circulation system, which, in turn, affects host metabolism. Yet, the metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota and its interaction with mammalian metabolism remains largely unexplored. Here, we review a metabolic pathway that integrates the microbial catabolism of methionine with mammalian metabolism of methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which together provide evidence that supports the microbial origin of dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) in the human metabolome. Understanding the pathway of DMSO2 co-metabolism expends our knowledge of microbial-derived metabolites and motivates future metabolomics-based studies on ascertaining the metabolic consequences of intestinal microbiota on human health, including detoxification processes and sulfur xenobiotic metabolism.

  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide reduction by a hyperhermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 via a cysteine-cystine redox shuttle.

    Choi, Ae Ran; Kim, Min-Sik; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Hyun Sook


    A variety of microbes grow by respiration with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an electron acceptor, and several distinct DMSO respiratory systems, consisting of electron carriers and a terminal DMSO reductase, have been characterized. The heterotrophic growth of a hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 was enhanced by the addition of DMSO, but the archaeon was not capable of reducing DMSO to DMS directly using a DMSO reductase. Instead, the archaeon reduced DMSO via a cysteine-cystine redox shuttle through a mechanism whereby cystine is microbially reduced to cysteine, which is then reoxidized by DMSO reduction. A thioredoxin reductase-protein disulfide oxidoreductase redox couple was identified to have intracellular cystine-reducing activity, permitting recycle of cysteine. This study presents the first example of DMSO reduction via an electron shuttle. Several Thermococcales species also exhibited enhanced growth coupled with DMSO reduction, probably by disposing of excess reducing power rather than conserving energy.

  3. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the hydrogen bonding structure and dynamics of aqueous N-methylacetamide solution



    Effects of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) on the hydrogen bonding structure and dynamics in aqueousN-methylacetamide (NMA) solution are investigated by classical molecular dynamics simulations. Themodifications of structure and interaction between water and NMA in presence of DMSO molecules are calculatedby various site-site radial distribution functions and average interaction energies between these speciesin the solution. It is observed that the aqueous peptide hydrogen bond interaction is relatively stronger withincreasing concentration of DMSO, whereas methyl-methyl interaction between NMA and DMSO decreasessignificantly. The DMSO molecule prefers to interact with amide-hydrogen of NMA even at lower DMSO concentration.The lifetimes and structural-relaxation times of NMA-water, water-water and DMSO-water hydrogenbonds are found to increase with increasing DMSO concentration in the solution. The slower translationaland rotational dynamics of NMA is observed in concentrated DMSO solution due to formation of strongerinter-species hydrogen bonds in the solution.

  4. Changing electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS by incorporating with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Lee, Jhe-You; Chen, Shang-Min


    The effect of incorporation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on the electrical conductivity is investigated. It is shown that the values of the carrier mobility and the carrier density increase significantly for PEDOT:PSS films with DMSO addition. The high carrier mobility of PEDOT:PSS samples with the addition of DMSO is attributed to a combined effect of the modification of the electron-phonon coupling and a change in the value of the PSS-to-PEDOT ratio. The high carrier density of PEDOT:PSS samples with DMSO addition is attributed to a high affinity of DMSO for water.

  5. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Perturbs Cell Cycle Progression and Spindle Organization in Porcine Meiotic Oocytes.

    Xuan Li

    Full Text Available Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes is a precisely orchestrated and complex process. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, a widely used solvent, drug, and cryoprotectant, is capable of disturbing asymmetric cytokinesis of oocyte meiosis in mice. However, in pigs, DMSO's effect on oocyte meiosis still remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate if DMSO treatment will affect porcine oocyte meiosis and the underlying molecular changes as well. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of the large first polar body and symmetric division for porcine oocytes treated with DMSO, contrary to findings reported in mice. 3% DMSO treatment could inhibit cumulus expansion, increase nuclear abnormality, disturb spindle organization, decrease reactive oxygen species level, and elevate mitochondrial membrane potential of porcine oocytes. There was no effect on germinal vesicle breakdown rate regardless of DMSO concentration. 3% DMSO treatment did not affect expression of genes involved in spindle organization (Bub1 and Mad2 and apoptosis (NF-κB, Pten, Bcl2, Caspase3 and Caspase9, however, it significantly decreased expression levels of pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Lin28 in mature oocytes. Therefore, we demonstrated that disturbed cumulus expansion, chromosome alignment, spindle organization and pluripotency gene expression could be responsible for DMSO-induced porcine oocyte meiotic arrest and the lower capacity of subsequent embryo development. Our results provide new insights on DMSO's effect on porcine oocyte meiosis and raise safety concerns over DMSO's usage on female reproduction in both farm animals and humans.

  6. Erythromycin A dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate 1.43-hydrate

    Jan W. Bats


    Full Text Available The title compound, C37H67NO13·2C2H6OS·1.43H2O, is a macrolide antibiotic with better solubility and better dermal penetration abilities than erythromycin A itself. The asymmetric unit of this form contains one erythromycin A molecule, two dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO solvent molecules, a fully occupied water molecule and a partially occupied water molecule with an occupancy factor of 0.432 (11. The 14-membered ring of the erythronolide fragment has a conformation which differs considerably from that in erythromycin A dihydrate [Stephenson, Stowell, Toma, Pfeiffer & Byrn (1997. J. Pharm. Sci. 86, 1239–1244]. One of the two DMSO molecules is disordered over two orientations; the orientation depends on the presence or absence of the second, partially occupied, water molecule. In the crystal, erythromycin molecules are connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxy groups and the fully occupied water molecule to form layers parallel to (010. These layers are connected along the b-axis direction only by a possible hydrogen-bonding contact involving the partially occupied water molecule.

  7. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOmanganese(II diiodide

    Mathias Glatz


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS6]I2, consists of one MnII ion, six O-bound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO ligands and two I− counter-anions. The isolated complex cations have an octahedral configuration and are grouped in hexagonally arranged rows extending parallel to [100]. The two I− anions are located between the rows and are linked to the cations through two weak C—H...I interactions.

  8. Composition and particle size of electrolytic copper powders prepared in water-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul'; Abzhalov, B. S.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan


    The possibility of the electroprecipitation of copper powder via the cathodic reduction of an electrolyte solution containing copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is shown. The effect electrolysis conditions (current density, concentration and temperature of electrolyte) have on the dimensional characteristics of copper powder is studied. The size and shape of the particles of the powders were determined by means of electron microscopy; the qualitative composition of the powders, with X-ray diffraction.

  9. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim


    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  10. A New Look at the Stability of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Acetonitrile in Li-O2 Batteries

    Younesi, Reza; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and acetonitrile (MeCN) have recently been highlighted as promising electrolyte solvents for Li-O2 batteries. Possible reactions between these two solvents and Li2O2 are here discussed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze surface of the Li2O2 powder after...

  11. Phototriggered sulfoxide isomerization in [Ru(pic)2(dmso)2].

    Rachford, Aaron A; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Rack, Jeffrey J


    We report the characterization and photochemistry of a simple ruthenium coordination complex containing only picolinate (pic) and dmso, which exhibits a large isomerization quantum yield (Phi(SS-->OO) = 0.50) in various solvents. The picolinate ligands of [Ru(pic)(2)(dmso)(2)] are in a cis arrangement so that the carboxylate oxygen of one pic ligand (O1) is trans to the pyridine of the second picolinate (N2). One dmso ligand (S1) is trans to a pyridine nitrogen (N1), while the second dmso (S2) is trans to a carboxylate oxygen (O3). The cyclic voltammetry, (1)H NMR, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy data suggest that while both dmso ligands isomerize photochemically, only one dmso ligand isomerizes electrochemically. Isomerization quantum yields for each dmso ligand differ by an order of magnitude (Phi(SS-->SO) = 0.46 and Phi(SO-->OO) = 0.036). In agreement with previous results, the isomerization quantum yield for each dmso is dependent on the ligand that is trans to the dmso.

  12. DMSO induces dehydration near lipid membrane surfaces

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Song, Jinsuk; Pas, Jolien; Meijer, Lenny H H; Han, Songi


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been broadly used in biology as a cosolvent, a cryoprotectant, and an enhancer of membrane permeability, leading to the general assumption that DMSO-induced structural changes in cell membranes...

  13. Dielectric Relaxation in Dimethyl Sulfoxide/Water Mixtures Studied by Microwave Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    Lu, Zijie; Manias, Evangelos; MacDonald, Digby D.; Lanagan, Michael


    Dielectric spectra of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, have been measured using the transmission line method at frequencies from 45 MHz to 26 GHz and at temperatures of 298-318 K. The relaxation times of the mixtures show a maximum at an intermediate molar fraction of DMSO. The specific structure of mixtures in different concentration regions was determined by the dielectric relaxation dynamics, obtained from the effect of temperature on the relaxation time. A water structure "breaking effect" is observed in dilute aqueous solutions. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in these mixtures is found to be reduced compared to pure water. The increase in the dielectric relaxation time in DMSO/water mixtures is attributed to the spatial (steric) constraints of DMSO molecules on the hydrogen-bond network, rather than being due to hydrophobic hydration of the methyl groups. The interaction between water and DMSO by hydrogen bonding reaches a maximum at a DMSO molar fraction of 0.33, reflected by the maximum activation enthalpy for dielectric relaxation in this concentration, suggesting the formation of a stoichiometric compound, H2O-DMSO-H2O. In highly concentrated solutions, negative activation entropies are observed, indicating the presence of aggregates of DMSO molecules. A distinct antiparallel arrangement of dipoles is obtained for neat DMSO in the liquid state according to the Kirkwood correlation factor (gK = 0.5), calculated from the static permittivity. The similarity of the dielectric behavior of pure DMSO and DMSO-rich mixtures suggests that dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the rotational relaxation process in these solutions.

  14. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Zhifang Qiu


    Full Text Available The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05–2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  15. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetraiodide

    Haque, Md Azimul


    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2- tetraiodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octahedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO molecule with an Mn - O distance of 2.1808(12)Å. The I4 2- anion contains a neutral I2 molecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetraiodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues.

  16. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Is Feasible for Plant Tubulin Assembly In vitro: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Chun-Hua XU; Shan-Jin HUANG; Ming YUAN


    It is much more difficult for tubulin from plant sources to polymerize in vitro than tubulin from animal sources. Taxol, a most widely used reagent in microtubule studies, enhances plant microtubule assembly, but hinders microtubule dynamics. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used reagent in animal microtubule studies, is a good candidate for the investigation of plant microtubule assembly in vitro.However, proper investigation is lacking about the effects of DMSO on plant microtubule assembly in vitro.In the present study, DMSO was used to establish optimal conditions for the polymerization of plant tubulin. Tubulin, purified from lily pollen, polymerizes into microtubules at a critical concentration of 1.2mg/mL in the presence of 10% DMSO. The polymers appear to have a normal microtubule structure, as revealed by electron microscopy. In the presence of 10% DMSO, microtubule polymerization decreases when the pH of the medium is increased from 6.5 to 7.4. Both the polymerization rate and the mass of the polymers increase as temperature increases from 25 to 40 ℃. Tubulin polymerizes and depolymerizes along with cycling of temperature, from 37 to 4 ℃, or following the addition to or the removal of Ca2+ from the medium. When incubated with nuclei isolated from tobacco BY-2 suspension cells, tubulin assembles onto the nuclear surface in the presence of 10% DMSO. Labeling lily pollen tubulin with 5- (and 6-)carboxytetramethyl-rhodamine succinimidyl ester (NHS-rhodamine) was performed successfully in the presence of 10% DMSO. Labeled tubulin assembles into a radial structure on the surface of BY-2 nuclei. The polymerization of lily pollen tubulin is also enhanced by microtubule-associated proteins from animal sources in the presence of 10% DMSO. All the experimental results indicate that plant tubulin functions normally in the presence of DMSO. Therefore, DMSO is an appropriate reagent for plant tubulin polymerization and investigation of plant microtubules in

  17. Dimethyl sulfoxide enhances lipid synthesis and secretion by long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    De La Vega, F M; Mendoza-Figueroa, T


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was tested for its effects on lipid metabolism of long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. The addition of 1% DMSO to 3T3-hepatocyte cultures was not toxic to cells and in fact treated cultures maintained better their characteristic morphology for up to 14 days of exposure. DMSO treatment increased 2-3 fold the de novo synthesis of total lipids from[14C]acetate. The analysis by thin layer chromatography of cellular and secreted lipids revealed that DMSO increased the levels of cellular triglycerides, phospholipides and free and sterified cholesterol at 7 days of exposure while at 14 days there was also a 2-3-fold increase in medium secreted lipids. Additionally, DMSO increased the activity of glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase, a marker enzyme of glycerolipid synthesis, by greater than 50% at either 7 or 14 days of exposure. These results show that 1% DMSO not only is not detrimental to cultured hepatocytes but also enhances lipid synthesis and secretion, both hepatic-differentiated functions.

  18. [Permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte plasma membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide].

    Kuleshova, L G; Gordienko, E A; Kovalenko, I F


    We have studied permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different hypertonicity of a cryoprotective medium. The permeability coefficient of hepatocyte membranes κ1 for DMSO molecules was shown to be the differential function of osmotic pressure between a cell and an extracellular medium. Ten-fold augmentation of DMSO concentration in the cryoprotective medium causes the decrease of permeability coefficients κ1 probably associated with the increased viscosity in membrane-adjacent liquid layers as well as partial limitations appeared as a result of change in cell membrane shape after hepatocyte dehydration. We have found out that in aqueous solutions of NaCl (2246 mOsm/l) and DMSO (2250 mOsm/l) the filtration coefficient L(p) in the presence of a penetrating cryoprotectant (L(pDMSO) = (4.45 ± 0.04) x 10(-14) m3/Ns) is 3 orders lower compared to the case with electrolyte (L(pNaCl) = (2.25 ± 0.25) x 10(-11) m3/Ns). This phenomenon is stipulated by the cross impact of flows of a cryoprotectant and water at the stage of cell dehydration. Pronounced lipophilicity of DMSO, geometric parameters of its molecule as well as the presence of large aqueous pores in rat hepatocyte membranes allow of suggesting the availability of two ways of penetrating this cryoprotectant into the cells by non-specific diffusion through membrane lipid areas and hydrophilic channels.

  19. Intravesical Dimethyl Sulfoxide Inhibits Acute and Chronic Bladder Inflammation in Transgenic Experimental Autoimmune Cystitis Models

    Ronald Kim


    Full Text Available New animal models are greatly needed in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS research. We recently developed a novel transgenic cystitis model (URO-OVA mice that mimics certain key aspects of IC/PBS pathophysiology. This paper aimed to determine whether URO-OVA cystitis model was responsive to intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and if so identify the mechanisms of DMSO action. URO-OVA mice developed acute cystitis upon adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-I splenocytes. Compared to PBS-treated bladders, the bladders treated with 50% DMSO exhibited markedly reduced bladder histopathology and expression of various inflammatory factor mRNAs. Intravesical DMSO treatment also effectively inhibited bladder inflammation in a spontaneous chronic cystitis model (URO-OVA/OT-I mice. Studies further revealed that DMSO could impair effector T cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that intravesical DMSO improves the bladder histopathology of IC/PBS patients because of its ability to interfere with multiple inflammatory and bladder cell types.

  20. The Role of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in the Reductive Dissolution of Iron in Marine Aerosols

    Key, J. M.; Johansen, A. M.


    Very little is known about the effects of atmospheric iron (Fe) deposition from aeolian dusts into the remote oceans and the role it plays as a key nutrient for photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton in high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Several in situ iron fertilization studies in HNLC regions have reported increases in chlorophyll a concentrations, nutrient and carbon uptake, and the release of various biogenic gases which have the potential to directly and indirectly impact global climate. Of particular interest in the present study is the indirect effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as part of a positive feedback cycle that may exist between such biogenically derived reduced sulfur compounds and crustal derived iron in the atmosphere over remote oceanic regions. To determine whether DMSO can lead to larger atmospheric concentrations of bioavailable iron in the form of Fe(II), photochemical simulation experiments were carried out using synthetic ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8ṡ4H2O) in the presence of DMSO. During these experiments DMSO oxidation products, such as methane sulfonic acid (MSA), methane sulfinic acid (MSIA), and sulfate (SO42-), were quantified by means of ion chromatography (IC), while Fe(II) was determined spectrophotometrically by complexation with ferrozine. Preliminary results suggest that current ambient DMSO levels are too low to play a significant role in the reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide in aerosol particles. However, increased DMSO levels may enhance bioavailability of iron, thus potentially closing the gap in the positive feedback cycle.

  1. Crystal structure of hexa-kis-(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) diiodide.

    Glatz, Mathias; Schroffenegger, Martina; Weil, Matthias; Kirchner, Karl


    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I2, consists of one Mn(II) ion, six O-bound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligands and two I(-) counter-anions. The isolated complex cations have an octa-hedral configuration and are grouped in hexa-gonally arranged rows extending parallel to [100]. The two I(-) anions are located between the rows and are linked to the cations through two weak C-H⋯I inter-actions.

  2. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Membranes: A Comparative Study of Experiments In Silico and with Cells

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M.; Fernández, M. Laura; Reigada, Ramon


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca2+) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations. PMID:22848583

  3. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation in Rats.

    Tsung, Yu-Chi; Chung, Chih-Yang; Wan, Hung-Chieh; Chang, Ya-Ying; Shih, Ping-Cheng; Hsu, Han-Shui; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Chun-Jen


    Inflammation following hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (HS/RES) induces acute lung injury (ALI). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities. We sought to clarify whether DMSO could attenuate ALI induced by HS/RES. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to receive either a sham operation, sham plus DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES plus DMSO, and these were denoted as the Sham, Sham + DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES + DMSO group, respectively (n = 12 in each group). HS/RES was achieved by drawing blood to lower mean arterial pressure (40-45 mmHg for 60 min) followed by reinfusion with shed blood/saline mixtures. All rats received an intravenous injection of normal saline or DMSO immediately before resuscitation or at matching points relative to the sham groups. Arterial blood gas and histological assays (including histopathology, neutrophil infiltration, and lung water content) confirmed that HS/RES induced ALI. Significant increases in pulmonary expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) confirmed that HS/RES induced pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress. DMSO significantly attenuated the pulmonary inflammation and ALI induced by HS/RES. The mechanisms for this may involve reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through inhibition of pulmonary NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression.

  4. Electrochemical machining of gold microstructures in LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Ma, Xinzhou; Bán, Andreas; Schuster, Rolf


    LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolytes were applied for the electrochemical micromachining of Au. Upon the application of short potential pulses in the nanosecond range to a small carbon-fiber electrode, three-dimensional microstructures with high aspect ratios were fabricated. We achieved machining resolutions down to about 100 nm. In order to find appropriate machining parameters, that is, tool and workpiece rest potentials, the electrochemical behavior of Au in LiCl/DMSO solutions with and without addition of water was studied by cyclic voltammetry. In waterless electrolyte Au dissolves predominantly as Au(I), whereas upon the addition of water the formation of Au(III) becomes increasingly important. Because of the low conductivity of LiCl/DMSO compared with aqueous electrolytes, high machining precision is obtained with moderately short pulses. Furthermore, the redeposition of dissolved Au can be effectively avoided, since Au dissolution in LiCl/DMSO is highly irreversible. Both observations render LiCl/DMSO an appropriate electrolyte for the routine electrochemical micromachining of Au.

  5. Individual cryopreservation with dimethyl sulfoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone of ejaculates and pooled semen of three avian species.

    Herrera, J A; Quintana, J A; López, M A; Betancourt, M; Fierro, R


    Artificial insemination (AI) has been used for avian reproduction due to the discovery of cryoprotectants extending its usefulness both in production of domestic fowl and conservation of wild species. The goal of this study was to assess the effect on domestic and wild fowl pooled semen and individual ejaculate cryopreservation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Twenty ejaculates and twenty samples of pooled semen of roosters, pheasants and hawks were frozen in media containing DMSO or PVP. DMSO and PVP cryopreservation are equally effective both for ejaculates and pooled semen. Even PVP is a good alternative since no significant difference was found when compared to DMSO. The fertilizing capacity of fresh and cryopreserved pooled semen was analyzed through AI of hens and female pheasants. Similar fertility rates using DMSO, PVP or frozen-thawed samples demonstrated that reproduction is possible through the use of cryopreserved semen. In the case of female pheasants, the same values were obtained with both cryopreserved and fresh semen.

  6. Solvent stimulated actuation of polyurethane-based shape memory polymer foams using dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol

    Boyle, A. J.; Weems, A. C.; Hasan, S. M.; Nash, L. D.; Monroe, M. B. B.; Maitland, D. J.


    Solvent exposure has been investigated to trigger actuation of shape memory polymers (SMPs) as an alternative to direct heating. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH) to stimulate polyurethane-based SMP foam actuation and the required solvent concentrations in water for rapid actuation of hydrophobic SMP foams. SMP foams exhibited decreased T g when submerged in DMSO and EtOH when compared to water submersion. Kinetic DMA experiments showed minimal or no relaxation for all SMP foams in water within 30 min, while SMP foams submerged in EtOH exhibited rapid relaxation within 1 min of submersion. SMP foams expanded rapidly in high concentrations of DMSO and EtOH solutions, where complete recovery over 30 min was observed in DMSO concentrations greater than 90% and in EtOH concentrations greater than 20%. This study demonstrates that both DMSO and EtOH are effective at triggering volume recovery of polyurethane-based SMP foams, including in aqueous environments, and provides promise for use of this actuation technique in various applications.

  7. Excited state proton transfer effect of 7-hydroxyquinoline in dimethyl sulfoxide solvent

    GUO Yang-xue; LI Xiang-ping; ZHENG Jia-jin; ZHANG Gui-lan; LIU Jing-jiang; CHEN Wen-ju


    7-hydroxyquinoline (7-HQ) is a kind of organic molecule with excited state proton transfer (ESPT) effect,and can be used as the material for all optical switching.This optical switching takes place via the ESPT effect depending on its intermolecular hydrogen bond formed with the solvent,and can have the effect of all optical switching.7-HQ can not form intermolecular hydrogen bond with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),so 7-HQ in DMSO solution cannot display the ESPT effect.However,after the solution was radiated by an UV laser, we found that 7-HQ could have ESPT effect.This phenomenon is reported and the mechanism is investigated for the first time in this paper.

  8. The differentiation inducer, dimethyl sulfoxide, transiently increases the intracellular calcium ion concentration in various cell types.

    Morley, P; Whitfield, J F


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) initiates a coordinated differentiation program in various cell types but the mechanism(s) by which DMSO does this is not understood. In this study, the effect of DMSO on intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined in primary cultures of chicken ovarian granulosa cells from the two largest preovulatory follicles of laying hens, and in three cell lines: undifferentiated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, and Friend murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. [Ca2+]i was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-specific fluoroprobe Fura-2. There was an immediate (i.e., within 5 sec), transient, two to sixfold increase in [Ca2+]i after exposing all cell types to 1% DMSO. DMSO was effective between 0.2 and 1%. The prompt DMSO-induced [Ca2+]i spike in all of the cell types was not prevented by incubating the cells in Ca(2+)-free medium containing 2 mM EGTA or by pretreating them with the Ca(2+)-channel blockers methoxyverapamil (D600; 100 microM), nifedipine (20 microM), or cobalt (5 mM). However, when granulosa cells, 3T3-L1 cells, or MEL cells were pretreated with lanthanum (La3+; 1 mM), which blocks both Ca2+ channels and membrane Ca2+ pumps, there was a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i in response to 1% DMSO. By contrast, pretreating P19 cells with La3+ (1 mM) did not prolong the DMSO-triggered [Ca2+]i transient. In all cases, the DMSO-induced [Ca2+]i surge was unaffected by pretreating the cells with the inhibitors of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, neomycin (1.5 mM) or U-73, 122 (2.5 microM). These results suggest that DMSO almost instantaneously triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores through a common mechanism in cells in primary cultures and in cells of a variety of established lines, but this release is not mediated through phosphoinositide breakdown. This large, DMSO-induced Ca2+ spike may play a role in the induction of cell differentiation by DMSO.

  9. FTIR spectroscopic study of Li+ solvation in the solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and their mixtures

    Zhang, Binbin; Li, Yantao; Hou, Baorong


    Ionic solvation in solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) in propylene carbonate (PC) + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures has been studied using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dimerization of DMSO molecules in the solutions was taken into account. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the electrolyte concentration and properties of the cations of the electrolyte. Band changes due to solvation interaction were detected in the region of the C=O stretching vibrations and ring deformation for PC, and the S=O stretching vibrations and C-S-C skeleton stretching modes for DMSO, indicating that there is a strong interaction between lithium cations and solvent molecules. In addition, Li+ was preferentially solvated by DMSO in these binary solvents as a result of the large difference in their donor number (DN) values. The structures of PC, DMSO, Li+-PC, Li+-DMSO, and Li+-PC+DMSO were given.

  10. Hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOcobalt(III trinitrate

    Qiuhong Li


    Full Text Available The metal atom of the title salt, [Co(C2H6OS6](NO33, is coordinated by six dimethyl sulfoxide molecules in an octahedral geometry. The metal atom lies on a special position of overline{3} site symmetry. One of the nitrate ions lies on a special position of 3 site symmetry and the other independent ion is disordered about a special position of overline{3} site symmetry.

  11. Structural, energetic, and electronic properties of La(III)-dimethyl sulfoxide clusters.

    Bodo, Enrico; Chiricotto, Mara; Spezia, Riccardo


    By using accurate density functional theory calculations, we have studied the cluster complexes of a La(3+) ion interacting with a small number of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) molecules of growing size (from 1 to 12). Extended structural, energetic, and electronic structure analyses have been performed to provide a complete picture of the physical properties that are the basis of the interaction of La(III) with DMSO. Recent experimental data in the solid and liquid phase have suggested a coordination number of 8 DMSO molecules with a square antiprism geometry arranged similarly in the liquid and crystalline phases. By using a cluster approach on the La(3+)(DMSO)n gas phase isolated structures, we have found that the 8-fold geometry, albeit less regular than in the crystal, is probably the most stable cluster. Furthermore, we provide new evidence of a 9-fold complexation geometric arrangement that is competitive (at least energetically) with the 8-fold one and that might suggest the existence of transient structures with higher coordination numbers in the liquid phase.

  12. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between [BMIM][BF4] and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; He, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Yu; Yu, Zhi-Wu


    Mixtures of Ionic liquids and small polar organic solvent are potential green solvents for cellulose dissolution under mild conditions. In this work, the interactions between a representative imidazolium-based ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated in detail by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and density functional theory calculations (DFT). The main conclusions are: (1) C2-H is the main interaction site in forming cation-anion, cation-DMSO, and [BMIM][BF4]-DMSO complexes. (2) The two turning points of the wavenumber shift changes of C2-H may indicate that the dilution process can be divided into several stages: from larger ion clusters to smaller ion clusters, then to ion pairs, and finally to individual ions. The solvent molecules cannot break apart the strong Coulombic interaction between [BMIM]+ and [BF4]- but can break apart the ion clusters into ion pairs when the mole fraction of DMSO is less than 0.9. When the mole fraction of DMSO is greater than 0.9, ion pairs can be broke into ions. (3) The hydrogen-bonds of the aromatic C-Hs in [BMIM]+ are strengthened in the dilution process while those of the alkyl C-Hs of [BMIM]+ are weakened. (4) The aromatic C-Hs of the [BMIM]+ cation strength before the weakening of the alkyl C-Hs. These in-depth studies on the properties of the ionic liquid-DMSO mixed solvents may shed light on exploring their applications as mixed solvents in cellulose dissolution and other practices.

  13. Crystal structure, optical, magnetic, and photochemical properties of the complex pentakis(dimethyl sulfoxide) nitrosylchromium(2+) hexafluorophosphate

    Døssing, Anders Rørbæk; Kadziola, Anders; Dethlefsen, Johannes Wied


          The nitrosyl complex [Cr(dmso)5(NO)](PF6)2 (1) (dmso = dimethyl sulfoxide) has been prepared by the solvolysis of [Cr(NCCH3)5(NO)](PF6)2 in neat dmso. The compound 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pna21 with a = 11.3370(15), b = 24.0790(5), and c = 11.007(3) Å at 122 K...... with an almost linear Cr-N-O angle (176.45(13)°). The optical absorption spectrum of 1 in dmso shows maxima at 734, 567, 450, 413, and 337 nm. Continuous photolysis of 1 with l = 365 - 580 nm light in dmso solution results in a release of NO with quantum yield, F, in the range 0.034 - 0.108 mol×Einstein-1......, g¦ and g-: 1.96725, 1.91881(4) and 1.992763(2); Aiso(53Cr), A¦(53Cr) and A-(53Cr): 22.8´10-4, 39´10-4 and 15.8´10-4cm-1; Aiso(14N), A¦(14N) and A-(14N): 5.9´10-4, 2´10-4 and 7.540(4)´10-4 cm-1. The pseudo-first-order rate constant, k, for the substitution of the dmso ligands in 1 with dmso has been...

  14. Fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticles decrease relaxing effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on rat uterus spontaneous contraction

    Slavic, Marija; Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Radojicic, Ratko; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Spasic, Mihajlo B.; Blagojevic, Dusko


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and cryoprotectant that can cause impaired blood flow, reduction in intracranial pressure, tissue edema, inflammatory reactions, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, processes which can lead to atherosclerosis of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral circulation. Although the adverse effects are rare when DMSO is administered in clinically established concentrations, there is no safe antagonist for an overdose. In this work, we treated isolated spontaneous and calcium-induced contractile active rat uteri (Wistar, virgo intacta), with DMSO and fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticle (FNP) in DMSO. FNP is a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C60. Its size is a 1.1 nm in diameter and is a very promising candidate for a drug carrier in nanomedicine. FNP also displays free radical scavenging activity. DMSO decreased both spontaneous and calcium-induced contractions. In contrast, FNP only decreased spontaneous contraction. FNP decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the DMSO-induced increase in glutathione reductase activity. Atomic force microscopy detected that FNP aggregated with calcium ions. Our results indicate that FNP has properties that make it a good candidate to be a modulator of DMSO activity which could minimize side effects of the latter.

  15. Modification of electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS/p-Si heterojunction diodes by doping with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Pathak, C. S.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, R.


    We report about the fabrication and electrical characterization of heterojunction diodes between poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doped with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and p-Si. Electrical characterization of the heterojunction diodes was performed using current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The heterojunction diodes showed good rectifying behavior. Interestingly, for 5 vol.% doping concentration of DMSO, the heterojunction diode showed the best diode characteristics with an ideality factor of 1.9. The doping of DMSO into PEDOT:PSS solution resulted in an increase in the conductivity of films by two orders of magnitude and the films showed high optical transmission (>85%) in the visible region.

  16. The effect of structural properties on rheological behaviour of starches in binary dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions

    Ptaszek, Paweł; Dziubiński, Marek; Grzesik, N. Mirosław; Liszka-Skoczylas, Marta


    This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant. The results of the quality tests of the hysteresis loop showed, that the amylose solutions in the solvents (1) and (2) are rheologically stable and shear-thickened. The amylose solutions in solvents (3) reveal oscillatory alterations of viscosity in the time. Amylopectin solutions are characterized by 80% share of slow relaxation phenomena, very low diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii in the range of 2000 nm. The amylopectin solutions are rheologically unstable. PMID:28152071

  17. Cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse spermatozoa: dimethylacetamide preserved an optimal sperm function compared to dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and glycerol.

    Santiani, A; Evangelista-Vargas, S; Vargas, S; Gallo, S; Ruiz, L; Orozco, V; Rosemberg, M


    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different cryoprotectant agents in the cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse semen. Twenty semen samples were collected from five Peruvian Paso horse stallions. Each sample was divided into 12 parts to form the groups: dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (GLY), at 3%, 4% and 5%. Samples were frozen using a rate-controlled freezer. Sperm parameters evaluated were motility and viability/acrosomal status. After thawing, progressive motility in DMA group was higher (p < .05) than in DMSO, EG and GLY groups. Similarly, viable acrosome-intact spermatozoa were higher (p < .05) using DMA in comparison with DMSO. No differences were found when comparing concentrations for any of the cryoprotectant agents. In conclusion, DMA seems to be a good cryoprotectant agent for the cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse stallion semen. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The effect of structural properties on rheological behaviour of starches in binary dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions.

    Ptaszek, Anna; Ptaszek, Paweł; Dziubiński, Marek; Grzesik, N Mirosław; Liszka-Skoczylas, Marta


    This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant. The results of the quality tests of the hysteresis loop showed, that the amylose solutions in the solvents (1) and (2) are rheologically stable and shear-thickened. The amylose solutions in solvents (3) reveal oscillatory alterations of viscosity in the time. Amylopectin solutions are characterized by 80% share of slow relaxation phenomena, very low diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii in the range of 2000 nm. The amylopectin solutions are rheologically unstable.

  19. Dissolution of brominated epoxy resins by dimethyl sulfoxide to separate waste printed circuit boards.

    Zhu, Ping; Chen, Yan; Wang, Liangyou; Qian, Guangren; Zhang, Wei Jie; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin


    Improved methods are required for the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this study, WPCBs (1-1.5 cm(2)) were separated into their components using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 60 °C for 45 min and a metallographic microscope was used to verify their delamination. An increased incubation time of 210 min yielded a complete separation of WPCBs into their components, and copper foils and glass fibers were obtained. The separation time decreased with increasing temperature. When the WPCB size was increased to 2-3 cm(2), the temperature required for complete separation increased to 90 °C. When the temperature was increased to 135 °C, liquid photo solder resists could be removed from the copper foil surfaces. The DMSO was regenerated by rotary decompression evaporation, and residues were obtained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to verify that these residues were brominated epoxy resins. From FT-IR analysis after the dissolution of brominated epoxy resins in DMSO it was deduced that hydrogen bonding may play an important role in the dissolution mechanism. This novel technology offers a method for separating valuable materials and preventing environmental pollution from WPCBs.

  20. Novel Reaction of Some Azoles with Dimethyl Sulfoxid

    WANG,Bin; ZHU,An-Xiong; DONG,Heng-Shan


    @@ The compounds 4a~4j were prepared by 3a~3j which were prepared from 1a~1j through 2a~2j. The compounds 6a~6j were prepared by the reaction of the products of 4a~4j with dimethyl sulfoxid via Dimroth rearrangement.[1] The compounds ethyl 5-arylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-carbonates (5a~5d) and ethyl 2-methylthiamethylene-5-arylamino-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-carbonates (6a~6j) are established by MS, IR, elemental analysis and 1H NMR spectral data. The route of syntheses is shown in Scheme 1.

  1. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.


    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  2. 21 CFR 524.981d - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.981d Section 524.981d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981d Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a)...

  3. Lithium solvation in dimethyl sulfoxide-acetonitrile mixtures

    Semino, Rocío; Zaldívar, Gervasio; Calvo, Ernesto J. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica Analítica y Química-Física e INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laria, Daniel, E-mail: [Departamento de Química Inorgánica Analítica y Química-Física e INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We present molecular dynamics simulation results pertaining to the solvation of Li{sup +} in dimethyl sulfoxide-acetonitrile binary mixtures. The results are potentially relevant in the design of Li-air batteries that rely on aprotic mixtures as solvent media. To analyze effects derived from differences in ionic size and charge sign, the solvation of Li{sup +} is compared to the ones observed for infinitely diluted K{sup +} and Cl{sup −} species, in similar solutions. At all compositions, the cations are preferentially solvated by dimethyl sulfoxide. Contrasting, the first solvation shell of Cl{sup −} shows a gradual modification in its composition, which varies linearly with the global concentrations of the two solvents in the mixtures. Moreover, the energetics of the solvation, described in terms of the corresponding solute-solvent coupling, presents a clear non-ideal concentration dependence. Similar nonlinear trends were found for the stabilization of different ionic species in solution, compared to the ones exhibited by their electrically neutral counterparts. These tendencies account for the characteristics of the free energy associated to the stabilization of Li{sup +}Cl{sup −}, contact-ion-pairs in these solutions. Ionic transport is also analyzed. Dynamical results show concentration trends similar to those recently obtained from direct experimental measurements.

  4. Synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides from aryl methyl ketones in a DMSO-HBr system.

    Cao, Zhiling; Shi, Dahua; Qu, Yingying; Tao, Chuanzhou; Liu, Weiwei; Yao, Guowei


    A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What's more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  5. Synthesis of Dimethyl Aryl Acylsulfonium Bromides from Aryl Methyl Ketones in a DMSO-HBr System

    Zhiling Cao


    Full Text Available A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What’s more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  6. Dentin bond optimization using the dimethyl sulfoxide-wet bonding strategy: A 2-year in vitro study.

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Yanikian, Cristiane Rumi Fujiwara; Szesz, Anna Luiza; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes


    This study evaluated a new approach, named dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-wet bonding, to produce more desirable long-term prospects for the ultrafine interactions between synthetic polymeric biomaterials and the inherently hydrated dentin substrate. Sound third molars were randomly restored with/without DMSO pretreatment using a total-etch (Scocthbond Multipurpose: SBMP) and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond: CF) adhesive systems. Restored teeth (n=10)/group were sectioned into sticks and submitted to different analyses: micro-Raman determined the degree of conversion inside the hybrid layer (DC); resin-dentin microtensile bond strength and fracture pattern analysis at 24h, 1year and 2 years of aging; and nanoleakage evaluation at 24h and 2 years. DMSO-wet bonding produced significantly higher 24h bond strengths for SBMP that were sustained over the two-year period, with significantly less adhesive failures. Similarly, DMSO-treated CF samples presented significantly higher bond strength than untreated samples at two years. Both adhesives had significant less adhesive failures at 2 years with DMSO. DMSO had no effect on DC of SBMP, but significantly increased the DC of CF. DMSO-treated SBMP samples presented reduced silver uptake compared to untreated samples after aging. Biomodification of the dentin substrate by the proposed strategy using DMSO is a suitable approach to produce more durable hybrid layers with superior ability to withstand hydrolytic degradation over time. Although the active role of DMSO on dentin bond improvement may vary according to monomer composition, its use seems to be effective on both self-etch and etch-and-rinse bonding mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Studies of Lanthanides(III) Complexation with Polyamines in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    Di Bernardo, Plinio [Univ. of Padova (Italy); Zanonato, Pier Luigi [Univ. of Padova (Italy); Melchior, Andrea [Univ. of Udine (Italy); Portanova, Roberto [Univ. of Udine (Italy); Tolazzi, Marilena [Univ. of Udine (Italy); Choppin, Gregory R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The thermodynamic parameters of complexation of Ln(III) cations with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) and tetraethylenepentamine (tetren) were determined in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by potentiometry and calorimetry. The excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decay constants of Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexed by tren and tetren, as well as those of the same lanthanides(III) complexed with diethylenetriamine (dien) and triethylenetetramine (trien), were also obtained in the same solvent. The combination of thermodynamic and spectroscopic data showed that, in the 1:1 complexes, all nitrogens of the ligands bound to the lanthanides except in the case of tren, in which only pendant N bound. For the larger ligands (trien, tren, tetren) in the higher complexes (ML2), there was less complete binding by available donors, presumably due to steric crowding. FT-IR studies were carried out in an acetonitrile/DMSO mixture, suitably chosen in order to follow the changes in the primary solvation sphere of lanthanide(III) due to complexation of amine ligands. Results show that the mean number of molecules of DMSO removed from the inner coordination sphere of lanthanides(III) is lower than ligand denticity and that the coordination number of the metal ions increases with amine complexation from ~8 to ~10. Independently of the number and structure of the amines, linear trends, similar for all lanthanides, were obtained by plotting the values of ΔGj°, ΔHj° and TΔSj° for the complexation of ethylenediamine (en), dien, trien, tren and tetren as a function of the number of amine metal-coordinated nitrogen atoms. The main factors on which the thermodynamic functions of lanthanide(III) complexation reactions in DMSO depend are discussed.

  8. Hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOzinc mer-aquatris(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO(ethanol-κO[octadecatungstodiphosphato(V-κO]zincate(II–dimethyl sulfoxide–ethanol–water (2/4/2/3

    Imen Hammami


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Zn(C2H6OS6]2[Zn(α-P2W18O62(C2H5OH(C2H6OS3(H2O]·2C2H6OS·C2H5OH·1.5H2O, there are two types of ZnII complex ions. In the [Zn(α-P2W18O62(C2H5OH(C2H6OS3(H2O]4− anion, the ZnII cation is coordinated by a Wells–Dawson polyanion [α-P2W18O62]6− (POM via a terminal O atom, three dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO ligands, one ethanol ligand and one water ligand in a distorted octahedral geometry. The two independent [Zn(C2H6OS6]2+ cations exhibit similar distorted octahedral coordination spheres, and both ZnII cations are coordinated by six DMSO ligands. The crystal packing is governed by extensive O—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. The S atoms of some DMSO molecules are disordered over two positions with different site-occupancy ratios.

  9. Detection of Oxidation of L-Cysteine by Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Aqueous Solutions by IR Spectroscopy

    Papanyan, Z.; Markarian, S.


    We have used IR spectroscopy to study the reaction between L-cysteine and dimethyl sulfoxide in aqueous medium. We have found that reaction occurs with formation of an insoluble product, which we have identified. We show that oxidation of L-cysteine by dimethyl sulfoxide can occur at an appreciable rate under mild conditions, with formation of L-cystine, dimethyl sulfide, and water.

  10. Sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts for dehydration of C6-monosaccharides to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Gabriel Morales; Juan A.Melero; Marta Paniagua; Jose Iglesias; Blanca Hernández; María Sanz


    Sulfonic acid-functionalized heterogeneous catalysts have been evaluated in the catalytic dehydra-tion of C6 monosaccharides into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. Sulfonic commercial resin Amberlyst-70 was the most active catalyst, which was as-cribed to its higher concentration of sulfonic acid sites as compared with the other catalysts, and it gave 93 mol%yield of HMF from fructose in 1 h. With glucose as the starting material, which is a much more difficult reaction, the reaction conditions (time, temperature, and catalyst loading) were optimized for Amberlyst-70 by a response surface methodology, which gave a maximum HMF yield of 33 mol%at 147°C with 23 wt%catalyst loading based on glucose and 24 h reaction time. DMSO promotes the dehydration of glucose into anhydroglucose, which acts as a reservoir of the substrate to facilitate the production of HMF by reducing side reactions. Catalyst reuse without a regeneration treatment showed a gradual but not very significant decay in catalytic activity.

  11. Electrodeposition of uranium in dimethyl sulfoxide and its inhibition by acetylacetone as studied by EQCM

    Shirasaki, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Yamamura, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Herai, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)


    In the study of the all-uranium redox-flow battery with a high efficiency, electrochemical investigations of the negative electrode reaction, i.e. U(IV)/U(III) of uranium {beta}-diketone complexes, is necessary in aprotic solvents. In our recent studies, the uranium(IV) acelylacetonate, known to show the simplest voltammograms due to a quasi-reversible U(IV)/U(III) reaction at -2.6 V versus Fc/Fc{sup +} in the solvent with the small donor number, shows more complicated voltammograms in the solvents with the larger donor numbers such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For U{sup 4+} ion without acetylacetone in such solvents, several researchers reported an electrodeposition at around -1.6 to -2 V versus Fc/Fc{sup +}, whereas its details have not known at all. Therefore in this study, the electrode reactions of the U(IV)/U(III) and the U(III)/U(0) reaction of U(dmso){sub 8}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 4} were investigated by direct monitoring of weight changes of a Au electrode during potential sweeps by using the EQCM, as well as the HMDE. Also, an inhibition of the uranium electrodeposition by an addition of the acetylacetone was investigated.

  12. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on bond durability of fiber posts cemented with etch-and-rinse adhesives

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Sarafraz, Zahra


    PURPOSE This study was undertaken to investigate whether use of an adhesive penetration enhancer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), improves bond stability of fiber posts to root dentin using two two-step etch-and-rinse resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty human maxillary central incisor roots were randomly divided into 4 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation, based on the fiber post/cement used with and without DMSO pretreatment. Acid-etched root dentin was treated with 5% DMSO aqueous solution for 60 seconds or with distilled water (control) prior to the application of Excite DSC/Variolink II or One-Step Plus/Duo-link for post cementation. After micro-slicing the bonded root dentin, push-out bond strength (P-OBS) test was performed immediately or after 1-year of water storage in each group. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-test (α=.05). RESULTS A significant effect of time, DMSO treatment, and treatment × time interaction were observed (P.05). CONCLUSION DMSO-wet bonding might be a beneficial method in preserving the stability of resin-dentin bond strength over time when fiber post is cemented with the tested etch-and-rinse adhesive cements. PMID:27555893

  13. Excess molar enthalpies and heat capacities of dimethyl sulfoxide + seven normal alkanols at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    Rubini, Katia [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita Studi, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Francesconi, Romolo [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita Studi, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Bigi, Adriana [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita Studi, via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Comelli, Fabio [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita (ISOF)-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail:


    Excess molar enthalpies and heat capacities of binary mixtures containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + seven normal alkanols, namely methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, and decan-1-ol, have been determined at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. With the exception of the DMSO-methanol system, which shows negative values, all mixtures show positive values of excess molar enthalpies over the whole range of mole fraction, increasing as the number of carbon atoms increases. Heat capacities of pure components have been determined in the range 288.15 < T (K) < 325.15. Molar heat capacities of the mixtures are always positive and decrease as the number of carbon atoms decreases. The results were fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Molecular interactions in the mixtures are interpreted on the basis of the results obtained.

  14. (4-Hydr-oxy-2-oxidobenzaldehyde thio-semicarbazonato-κO,N,S)(1,10-phenanthroline-κN,N')zinc(II) dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate monohydrate.

    Tan, Kong Wai; Ng, Chew Hee; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Ng, Seik Weng


    The Zn(II) atom in the title compound, [Zn(C(8)H(7)N(3)O(2)S)(C(12)H(8)N(2))]·2C(2)H(6)OS·H(2)O, is N,N'-chelated by the N-heterocycle and N,O,S-chelated by the deprotonated Schiff base in a distorted square-pyramidal enviroment. Hydrogen bonds link the mononuclear mol-ecule, the water and the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mol-ecules into a linear chain motif. One DMSO mol-ecule is disordered over two positions in respect of the S atom in an approximate 1:1 ratio.

  15. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrate Pentaisomaltose may replace dimethyl sulfoxide as a safer cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells

    Svalgaard, Jesper Dyrendom; Haastrup, Eva Kannik; Reckzeh, Kristian


    BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cell products are widely used for certain hematologic malignancies. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the most widely used cryoprotective agent (CPA) today, but due to indications of cellular toxicity, changes of the cellular epigenetic state, and patient......-related side effects, there is an increasing demand for DMSO-free alternatives. We therefore investigated whether Pentaisomaltose (PIM), a low-molecular-weight carbohydrate (1 kDa), can be used for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells, more specifically hematopoietic progenitor cell apheresis (HPC......(A)) product. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We cryopreserved patient or donor HPC(A) products using 10% DMSO or 16% PIM and quantified the recovery of CD34+ cells and CD34+ subpopulations by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, we compared the frequency of HPCs after DMSO and PIM cryopreservation using...

  16. Poly[μ3-chlorido-μ2-chloridodichlorido(μ-dimethyl sulfoxide-κ2O:S(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO(μ-pyrimidine-κ2N:N′ruthenium(IIIsodium

    Skylar Ferrara


    Full Text Available The title complex, [NaRuCl4(C4H4N2(C2H6OS2]n, is the sodium salt of monoanionic octahedral [RuIIICl4(pyrimidine(DMSO]− in which the sulfur-bound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and pyrimidine ligand are oriented trans to one another on the RuIII atom. The average of the four Ru—Cl bond lengths is 2.355 (15 Å, and the Ru—S and Ru—N bond lengths are 2.2853 (3 and 2.1165 (11 Å, respectively. The complex forms a chain, with a six-coordinate sodium ion bridging the ruthenium(III units. The sodium cation is coordinated by cis-chloride ligands on ruthenium [Na—Cl = 2.9576 (7 and 2.6988 (7 Å], chloride and DMSO ligands from the ruthenium complexes related by inversion [Na—Cl and Na—O = 2.8888 (7 and 2.2623 (12 Å, respectively], a nitrogen ligand from the pyrimidine of the tetrachloridoruthenium(III complex related by the twofold rotation axis [Na—N = 2.5224 (14 Å] and an oxygen-bound DMSO [Na—O = 2.3165 (12 Å].

  17. Poly[di-μ2-chlorido-dichlorido(μ3-dimethyl sulfoxide-κ3O:O:S(μ2-dimethyl sulfoxide-κ2O:Sruthenium(IIIsodium

    Zdeněk Trávníček


    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [NaRuCl4(C2H6OS2]n, comprises centrosymmetric [RuCl2(DMSONa(DMSOCl2Ru] units (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide, C2H6OS, with two Ru atoms, each lying on a crystallographic centre of inversion, connected via Na atoms, DMSO and chloride ligands into a two-dimensional (110 array. Both RuIII atoms are octahedrally coordinated by four chloride ligands in the equatorial plane and by two DMSO molecules in apical positions within a RuCl4S2 donor set. The Na atom is surrounded by three chloride anions and three O atoms derived from three DMSO molecules, with the resulting Cl3O3 donor set defining an octahedron. The crystal structure is further stabilized by interatomic interactions of the types C...Cl [C—Cl = 3.284 (2 Å], C—H...Cl [C...Cl = 3.903 (3 Å] and C—H...O [C...O = 3.376 (3 Å].

  18. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Induced Destabilization and Disassembly of Various Structural Variants of Insulin Fibrils Monitored by Vibrational Circular Dichroism.

    Zhang, Ge; Babenko, Viktoria; Dzwolak, Wojciech; Keiderling, Timothy A


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) induced destabilization of insulin fibrils has been previously studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and interpreted in terms of secondary structural changes. The variation of this process for fibrils with different types of higher-order morphological structures remained unclear. Here, we utilize vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), which has been reported to provide a useful biophysical probe of the supramolecular chirality of amyloid fibrils, to characterize changes in the macroscopic chirality following DMSO-induced disassembly for two types of insulin fibrils formed under different conditions, at different reduced pH values with and without added salt and agitation. We confirm that very high concentrations of DMSO can disaggregate both types of insulin fibrils, which initially maintained a β-sheet conformation and eventually changed their secondary structure to a disordered form. The two types responded to varying concentrations of DMSO, and disaggregation followed different mechanisms. Interconversion of specific insulin fibril morphological types also occurred during the destabilization process as monitored by VCD. With transmission electron microscopy, we were able to correlate the changes in VCD sign patterns to alteration of morphology of the insulin fibrils.

  19. Molecular characteristics of amylose and starch in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Radosta, S; Haberer, M; Vorwerg, W


    The aim of this work was the molecular characterization of starch polysaccharides to determine solution structure. Studies of amylose and potato starches of different origins were carried out by the static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, and HPSEC-MALLS methods. Molecular parameters such as Mw, Rg, A2, molar mass distribution, Dz, Rh, the structure-dependent rho-parameter, and osmotic modulus for amylose were determined. The Mw of amylose was found to be in the range from 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(6) g mol-1. The Mw of potato starches was much higher, that is, in the range of 23-37 x 10(6) g mol-1. The Rg of the amylose samples was in the range of 24-71 nm, and that of the potato starches was between 130 and 150 nm. The intensity-time correlation function showed one diffusive relaxation motion for amylose as well as for starch. The diffusion coefficients of the amylose prepared from starch by several methods were in the range of 2.7-9.1 x 10(-8) cm2 s-1, and those of the starches were 1 magnitude lower between 4.8 and 6.7 x 10(-9) cm2 s-1. The rho-parameter of amylose was calculated as having values between 1.5 and 2.2, and that of starches was calculated to be an average value of 0.62. The assumed solution behavior of amylose in dimethyl sulfoxide corresponds to that of a flexible chain, while the behavior of starch more closely resembles that of a spherelike structure.

  20. Fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticles decrease relaxing effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on rat uterus spontaneous contraction

    Slavic, Marija, E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Djordjevic, Aleksandar [University of Novi Sad, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and the Environment, Faculty of Sciences (Serbia); Radojicic, Ratko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology (Serbia); Milovanovic, Slobodan [University of East Sarajevo, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine at Foca (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Rakocevic, Zlatko [University of Belgrade, Institute for Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' (Serbia); Spasic, Mihajlo B.; Blagojevic, Dusko [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia)


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and cryoprotectant that can cause impaired blood flow, reduction in intracranial pressure, tissue edema, inflammatory reactions, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, processes which can lead to atherosclerosis of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral circulation. Although the adverse effects are rare when DMSO is administered in clinically established concentrations, there is no safe antagonist for an overdose. In this work, we treated isolated spontaneous and calcium-induced contractile active rat uteri (Wistar, virgo intacta), with DMSO and fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticle (FNP) in DMSO. FNP is a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C{sub 60}. Its size is a 1.1 nm in diameter and is a very promising candidate for a drug carrier in nanomedicine. FNP also displays free radical scavenging activity. DMSO decreased both spontaneous and calcium-induced contractions. In contrast, FNP only decreased spontaneous contraction. FNP decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the DMSO-induced increase in glutathione reductase activity. Atomic force microscopy detected that FNP aggregated with calcium ions. Our results indicate that FNP has properties that make it a good candidate to be a modulator of DMSO activity which could minimize side effects of the latter.

  1. Crystal structure of μ-oxalato-κ2O1:O2-bis[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOtriphenyltin(IV

    Serigne Fallou Pouye


    Full Text Available In the previously reported [C2O4(SnPh32] complex [Diop et al. (2003. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 17, 881–882.], the SnIV atoms are able to formally complete their coordination by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO molecules provided by the reaction medium, affording the title complex, [Sn2(C6H56(C2O4(C2H6OS2]. The SnIV atoms are then pentacoordinated, with a common trans trigonal–bipyramidal arrangement. The asymmetric unit contains one half-molecule, which is completed by inversion symmetry in space group type C2/c. The inversion centre is placed at the mid-point of the central bis-monodentate oxalate dianion, C2O42−, which bridges the [(SnPh3(DMSO] moieties. The molecule crystallizes as a disordered system, with two phenyl rings disordered by rotation about their Sn—C bonds, while the DMSO molecule is split over two positions due to a tetrahedral inversion at the S atom. All disordered parts were refined with occupancies fixed of 0.5.

  2. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    Henriquez, R., E-mail: [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Badan, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay); Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay); Gomez, H. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)


    Highlights: > Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. > Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. > Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  3. Dermal Sensitization Potential of the Holston Compounds: Virgin DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), DMSO Recycle Solvent, and DMSO Evaporator Sludge.


    name: Hexahydro-l, {,,-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, Cyclotrimethyleetririitranine, Cyclonite Hexogen, RDX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 121-8 2...HMX, Cyclotetramethylenetrinitramine Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 2691-411-0 Structural formula: NO2 02 N-N N-NO2 LNI2 NO2 APPENDIX A...Ammunition Plant Kingsport, TN 3. Chemical name: Hexahydro-l-(’)-Acetyl-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, TAX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number

  4. Primary Eye Irritation Potential of the Holston Compounds: Virgin DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), DMSO Recycle Solvent, and DMSO Evaporator Sludge.


    Of the three animals tested in this group, none showed signs of corneal opacity or iritis (Tables 1 and 2). Slight conjunctival redness (score of 1...animals tested in this group showed signs of corneal opacity or iritis (Tables 5 and 6). Slight conjunctival redness was seen in all rabbits at the 1-hour...observation periods. TP015 As with TP013 and TP014, none of the animals tested in this group showed signs of corneal opacity or iritis (Tables 9 and 10

  5. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    Lin, Gu-Jiun [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sytwu, Huey-Kang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Jyh-Cherng [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Yuan-Wu [School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Yu-Liang [Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Chiao-Chi [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shing-Hwa, E-mail: [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs.

  6. Historical perspectives and the future of adverse reactions associated with haemopoietic stem cells cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Cox, Michael A; Kastrup, Jens; Hrubiško, Mikulas


    A retrospective review of the published literature identified several hundred adverse reactions (e.g. nausea, chills, cardiac arrhythmias, neurological symptoms and respiratory arrest) associated with the transplantation of stem cells cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide. The occurrences of thes...... on the development of related European Directives, some technical aspects of dimethyl sulfoxide and the sequential stages of preservation and administration....

  7. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced?

    Morris, Curly; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Scholten, Marijke


    and Marrow Transplant Group centers undertaking autologous transplantation on patients with myeloma and lymphoma and analyze side effects after return of DMSO-preserved stem cells. RESULTS: While the majority of centers continue to use 10% DMSO, a significant proportion either use lower concentrations...... were able to confirm this result in all but young myeloma patients in whom an inversion of the odds ratio was seen, possibly related to the higher dose of melphalan received by young myeloma patients. CONCLUSION: We suggest better standardization of preservation method with reduced DMSO concentration...

  8. Unscrambling micro-solvation of -COOH and -NH groups in neat dimethyl sulfoxide: insights from (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and computational studies.

    Takis, Panteleimon G; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D; Peristeras, Loukas D; Boulougouris, Georgios C; Melissas, Vasilios S; Troganis, Anastassios N


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has a significant, multi-faceted role in medicine, pharmacy, and biology as well as in biophysical chemistry and catalysis. Its physical properties and impact on biomolecular structures still attract major scientific interest, especially the interactions of DMSO with biomolecular functional groups. In the present study, we shed light on the "isolated" carboxylic (-COOH) and amide (-NH) interactions in neat DMSO via(1)H NMR studies along with extensive theoretical approaches, i.e. molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, density functional theory (DFT), and ab initio calculations, applied on model compounds (i.e. acetic and benzoic acid, ethyl acetamidocyanoacetate). Both experimental and theoretical results show excellent agreement, thereby permitting the calculation of the association constants between the studied compounds and DMSO molecules. Our coupled MD simulations, DFT and ab initio calculations, and NMR spectroscopy results indicated that complex formation is entropically driven and DMSO molecules undergo multiple strong interactions with the studied molecules, particularly with the -COOH groups. The combined experimental and theoretical techniques unraveled the interactions of DMSO with the most abundant functional groups of peptides (i.e. peptide bonds, side chain and terminal carboxyl groups) in high detail, providing significant insights on the underlying thermodynamics driving these interactions. Moreover, the developed methodology for the analysis of the simulation results could serve as a template for future thermodynamic and kinetic studies of similar systems.

  9. Dimethyl sulfoxide blocks herpes simplex virus-1 productive infection in vitro acting at different stages with positive cooperativity. Application of micro-array analysis

    Ghazal P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is frequently used at a concentration of up to 95% in the formulation of antiherpetic agents because of its properties as a skin penetration enhancer. Here, we have analyzed the effect of DMSO on several parameters of Herpes Simplex Virus replication. Methods Productive infection levels of HSV-1 were determined by plaque assay or by reporter gene activity, and its DNA replication was estimated by PCR. Transcript levels were evaluated with HSV-specific DNA micro-arrays. Results DMSO blocks productive infection in vitro in different cell types with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 from 0.7 to 2% depending upon the multiplicity of infection. The concentration dependence exhibits a Hill coefficient greater than 1, indicating that DMSO blocks productive infection by acting at multiple different points (mechanisms of action with positive cooperativity. Consistently, we identified at least three distinct temporal target mechanisms for inhibition of virus growth by DMSO. At late stages of infection, DMSO reduces virion infectivity, and markedly inhibits viral DNA replication. A third mode of action was revealed using an oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray system for HSV. These experiments showed that DMSO reduced the transcript levels of many HSV-1 genes; including several genes coding for proteins involved in forming and assembling the virion. Also, DMSO markedly inhibited some but not all early transcripts indicating a previously unknown mode for inhibiting the early phase of HSV transcription-replication cycle. Conclusion These observations suggest that DMSO itself may have a role in the anti-herpetic activity of formulations utilizing it as a dispersant.

  10. 21 CFR 524.981e - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution.


    ... sensitivity testing, and the use of the appropriate antimicrobial agent. As with any corticosteroid, animals... antimicrobial therapy. Preparations with dimethyl sulfoxide should not be used in pregnant animals. For use by... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE...

  11. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Soner Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5% was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%. These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of postthaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute. The flowcytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Tri-(2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide)bis(dimethyl sulfoxide) Dysprosium(Ⅲ)


    A range of rare earth metal complexes of 2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide (Hmpo) have been synthesized, and studied by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopic technique. Crystal structure of Dy(mpo)3(DMSO)2 (DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) has been determined. The complex crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group Pī with lattice parameters: a = 9.602(3), b = 9.803(3), c = 15.498(5)A, α= 89.51(1), β= 85.73(1), γ= 62.99(1)°, Dc = 1.787 g/cm3, C19H24N3O5S5Dy, Mr = 697.21, Z = 2, F(000) = 690, μ = 3.321mm-1, the final R = 0.0237 and wR = 0.0587 for 4116 reflections with I>σ2(I). The coordination number of dysprosium Ⅲ is eight, and its coordination geometry is a somewhat distorted square antiprism with O(3), O(4), O(5), S(3) and O(1), O(2), S(1), S(2) at the tetragonal bases (dihedral angle between their mean planes is 2.9(1)0). Around the Dy atom, three five-membered ring planes (Dy, O, N, C, S) make the dihedral angles of 74.42, 11.31 and 83.72, respectively.

  13. Effect of Cytochalasin B, Lantrunculin B, Colchicine, Cycloheximid, Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Ion Channel Inhibitors on Biospeckle Activity in Apple Tissue.

    Kurenda, Andrzej; Pieczywek, Piotr M; Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur


    The biospeckle phenomenon is used for non-destructive monitoring the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, but in the case of plant tissues there is a lack of experimentally confirmed information about the biological origin of the biospeckle activity (BA). As a main sources of BA, processes associated with the movement inside the cell, such as cytoplasmic streaming, organelle movement and intra- and extracellular transport mechanisms, are considered. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of metabolism inhibitors, connected with intracellular movement such as cytochalasin B, lantrunculin B, colchicine, cycloheximid, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and mixture of ion channel inhibitors, injected into apples, on BA. Two methods of BA analysis based on cross-correlation coefficient and Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) were used. DMSO, lantrunculin B and mixture of ion channel inhibitors have a significant effect on BA, and approximately 74 % of BA of apple tissue is potentially caused by biological processes. Results indicate that the functioning of actin microfilaments and ion channels significantly affect BA.

  14. Improved in situ saccharification of cellulose pretreated by dimethyl sulfoxide/ionic liquid using cellulase from a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1.

    Hu, Dongxue; Ju, Xin; Li, Liangzhi; Hu, Cuiying; Yan, Lishi; Wu, Tianyun; Fu, Jiaolong; Qin, Ming


    A cellulase producing strain was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1. A novel aqueous-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emin]DEP)-cellulase system was designed and optimized. In the pretreatment, DMSO was found to be a low-cost substitute of up to 70% ionic liquid to enhance the cellulose dissolution. In the enzymatic saccharification, the optimum pH and temperature of the Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1 cellulase were identified as 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Under the optimized reaction condition, the conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and bagasse cellulose increased by 39.3% and 37.6%, compared with unpretreated cellulose. Compared to current methods of saccharification, this new approach has several advantages including lower operating temperature, milder pH, and less usage of ionic liquid, indicating a marked progress in environmental friendly hydrolysis of biomass-based materials.

  15. Efficacy of Diminazene Aceturate with and without Levamisole or Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Reducing Organ Weight and Parasitemia in T. congolense Infected Rats

    Eghianruwa, K.I.


    Full Text Available The efficacies of diminazene aceturate alone and in separate combinations with levamisole and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO in the treatment of T. congolense infection in rats were assessed on day 7 post infection and days 7 and 14 post treatment using changes in the weights and histology of the liver, spleen, heart and brain as well as parasitemia as parameters. Infected rats were treated with 7.0 mg/kg diminazene aceturate on day 7 post infection following which DMSO (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, respectively and levamisole (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively were administered as daily supplements to different groups of rats. Trypanosoma congolense only caused significant increase in spleen weight. There were no histopathological lesions in any organ. Infection had no effect on heart weight. Liver and spleen weights were lower in the diminazene group by day 7 Post Treatment (PT, but this situation was reversed by day 14 PT. Increase in the dose of DMSO caused increased liver weight. Diminazene/DMSO combination was more effective at 14 days PT in reducing spleen weight than treatment with diminazene alone. On the contrary, diminazene/levamisole combination was less effective than diminazene alone in reducing spleen weight. Parasites disappeared after diminazene treatment but reappeared only in the diminazene and levamisole groups by day 14 PT. Early relapse and high virulence of the Basa strainof T. congolense used may be responsible for the ineffectiveness of the three treatment protocols.

  16. Efficient proliferation and maturation of fetal liver cells in three-dimensional culture by stimulation of oncostatin M, epidermal growth factor, and dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Koyama, Toshie; Ehashi, Tomo; Ohshima, Norio; Miyoshi, Hirotoshi


    For the purpose of applying fetal liver cells (FLCs) as a cell source to tissue-engineered bioartificial livers, three-dimensional (3-D) cultures of FLCs using a porous polymer scaffold, as well as monolayer cultures as a control, were simultaneously performed. To achieve efficient growth and differentiation, the FLCs were cultured in the growth medium for the first 3 weeks and then cultured in the differentiation medium for 3 more weeks. In these cultures, stimulating factors (oncostatin M (OSM), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) were added to the media, and their effects were examined. When the growth medium containing OSM and EGF was used, EGF stimulated the growth of FLCs synergistically with OSM. For the differentiation of FLCs into mature hepatocytes, DMSO added to the differentiation medium remarkably enhanced albumin secretion in the 3-D and monolayer cultures, although HGF was effective only in the monolayer culture. Microscopic observation proved that FLCs exhibited hepatocyte-like morphology only in the media containing DMSO. In conclusion, successive supply of the growth medium containing EGF and OSM and the differentiation medium containing DMSO efficiently induced the growth of the 3-D cultured FLCs and their differentiation into mature hepatocytes.

  17. Crystal structure of bis­(bis­{μ3-3-methyl-3-[(4-nitro-2-oxido­benzyl­idene)amino]­propane-1,3-diolato}tris­[chlorido­(dimethyl sulfoxide)­iron(III)]) dimethyl sulfoxide hepta­solvate dihydrate

    Chygorin, Eduard; Smal, Yuri; Omelchenko, Irina V.


    The title compound, [Fe3(C11H11N2O5)2Cl3(C2H6OS)3]2·7C2H6OS·2H2O, was isolated accidentally from an Fe0–NiCl2·6H2O–H3 L–TEA–DMSO system [where H3 L is the product of the condensation between p-nitro­salicyl­aldehyde and 2-amino-2-methyl­propane-1,3-diol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and TEA is triethylamine]. The structure is based on a trinuclear {Fe3(μ-O)4} core, with an angular arrangement of the FeIII ions that can be explained by the geometrical restrictions of two bulky ligands, each coordinating to all of the metal cations. PMID:27980847

  18. Comparative studies on exchange reactions of hexafluoroacetylacetonate in bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)(dimethyl sulfoxide)dioxouranium(VI) in nonaqueous solvent and supercritical CO(2).

    Kachi, Yoshihiro; Kayaki, Yoshihito; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Ikariya, Takao; Ikeda, Yasuhisa


    Exchange reactions of hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfacac) in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO (DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) in o-C6D4Cl2 and supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) have been studied using the NMR line-broadening method to compare reactivity in a nonaqueous solvent with that in sc-CO2. It was found that the exchange rates of hfacac in both systems are dependent on the concentration of the enol isomer ([Henol]) of hexafluoroacetylacetone and become slow with an increase in the concentration of free DMSO ([DMSO]). The exchange reaction between free and coordinated DMSO in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO has been also examined in o-C6D4Cl2 and sc-CO2. As a result, the exchange rate of DMSO was found to depend on [DMSO]. From these results, the hfacac exchange reactions in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO in o-C6D4Cl2 and sc-CO2 were proposed to proceed through the mechanism that the ring-opening for one of two coordinated hfacac in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO is the rate-determining step, and the resulting vacant site is coordinated by the incoming Henol, followed by the proton transfer from Henol to hfacac and the ring closure of unidentate hfacac. The rate constants at 60 degrees C and the activation parameters (DeltaH and DeltaS) for the ring-opening path are 35.8 +/- 3.2 s(-1), 57.8 +/- 2.7 kJ.mol(-1), and -42.9 +/- 7.7 J.mol(-1).K(-1) for the o-C6D4Cl2 system, and 518 +/- 50 s(-1), 18.9 +/- 1.8 kJ.mol(-1), and -138 +/- 5 J.mol(-1).K(-1) for the sc-CO2 system, respectively. Differences in kinetic parameters between sc-CO2 and o-C6D4Cl2 systems were proposed to be attributed to the solute-solvent interactions such as Lewis acid-Lewis base interactions and hydrogen bondings between sc-CO2 and beta-diketones.

  19. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.

  20. Bis{μ-2,2′-[(3-azapentane-1,5-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolato}dicopper(II dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate

    Yasmi Reyes-Ortega


    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cu2(C18H19N3O22]·2C2H6OS or [Cu2(SalenN3H2]·2DMSO, where SalenN3H is the multidentate Schiff base 2,2′-[(3-azapentane-1,5-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolate dianion and DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide, is a solvated dinuclear CuII complex. The neutral complex is built from two Cu(SalenN3H units related by an inversion center. All heteroatoms in the Schiff bases coordinate the CuII ions, which display highly distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The solvent molecules are located in the structural voids of the complex and are disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.642 (15 and 0.358 (15. The previously characterized acetone disolvate of the same complex presents identical molecular and crystal structures, and crystallizes with cell parameters very close to those of the DMSO disolvate reported here.

  1. Hydrothermal conversion of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using ionic liquid as a recycled catalyst in a water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixture.

    Zang, Hongjun; Yu, Songbai; Yu, Pengfei; Ding, Hongying; Du, Yannan; Yang, Yuchan; Zhang, Yiwen


    Here, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomer composing the second most abundant biopolymer, chitin, was efficiently converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using ionic liquid (IL) catalysts in a water/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture solvent. Various reaction parameters, including reaction temperature and time, DMSO/water mass ratios and catalyst dosage were optimized. A series of ILs with different structures were analyzed to explore their impact on GlcNAc conversion. The substrate scope was expanded from GlcNAc to d-glucosamine, chitin, chitosan and monosaccharides, although 5-HMF yields obtained from polymers and other monosaccharides were generally lower than those from GlcNAc. Moreover, the IL N-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([Hmim][HSO4]) exhibited the best catalyst performance (64.6% yield) when GlcNAc was dehydrated in a DMSO/water mixture at 180 °C for 6 h without the addition of extra catalysts. To summarize, these results could provide knowledge essential to the production of valuable chemicals that are derived from renewable marine resources and benefit biofuel-related applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carrier effects of dosing the h4iie cells with 3,3′,4,4tt´etrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) in dimethyl sulfoxide or isooctane

    Yu, Kyung O.; Fisher, Jeff W.; Burton, G. Allen; Tillitt, Donald E.


    A rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE serves as a bioassay tool to assess the potential toxicity of dioxin-like chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in environmental samples. PCB exposure to these cells induces cytochrome (CYP) P4501A1 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus allowing assessment of mixtures. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different carriers, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and isooctane on the concentrations of PCBs in the H411E cells and induction of CYPIA1 activity as measured by ethoxyresorufm O-deethylase (EROD) activity. H4IIE cells were dosed with three micrograms of UL-14C-PCB77/ plate dissolved in DMSO or isooctane, and were harvested at sequential time periods for 4 days. PCB77 concentration and EROD activity were measured in the cells. EROD activity was greater when using DMSO as compared to isooctane, while there was no difference in the distribution of PCB77-derived radioactivities within the cell culture system based upon the carrier solvent used to deliver PCB77.

  3. Carrier effects of dosing the H4IIE cells with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) in dimethyl sulfoxide or isooctane.

    Yu, K O; Fisher, J W; Burton, G A; Tillitt, D E


    A rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, serves as a bioassay tool to assess the potential toxicity of dioxin-like chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in environmental samples. PCB exposure to these cells induces cytochrome (CYP) P4501A1 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus allowing assessment of mixtures. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different carriers, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and isooctane on the concentrations of PCBs in the H4IIE cells and induction of CYP1A1 activity as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. H4IIE cells were dosed with three micrograms of UL-14C-PCB77/plate dissolved in DMSO or isooctane, and were harvested at sequential time periods for 4 days. PCB77 concentration and EROD activity were measured in the cells. EROD activity was greater when using DMSO as compared to isooctane, while there was no difference in the distribution of PCB77-derived radioactivities within the cell culture system based upon the carrier solvent used to deliver PCB77.

  4. A contribution to the controversy over dimethyl sulfoxide toxicity: anesthesia monitoring results in patients treated with Onyx embolization for intracranial aneurysms

    Pamuk, A.G.; Aypar, U. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Saatci, I.; Cekirge, H.S. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)


    Onyx injection is a new technique for embolization of cerebral aneurysms that is involved in a controversy about the 'toxicity' of its solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We retrospectively studied 38 patients treated for aneurysms with the liquid polymer, Onyx. Induction was with propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O. The patients were given 500 ml of fluid after induction, and bradycardia was prevented in order to keep patients hyperdynamic. Electrocardiography (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), pulse oximetry, core temperatures, invasive blood pressure (BP), etCO{sub 2}, and urine output were monitored throughout the intervention. Heart rate and BP changes in response to balloon inflation, DMSO injection, Onyx injection and balloon deflation were recorded. The patients were followed with serial neurological examinations, computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging postoperatively for evidence of any neurological injury. Cumulative DMSO doses were always well under previously implicated doses for systemic toxicity. No changes implicating toxic reactions were observed during DMSO and Onyx injections. Balloon-induced changes returned to baseline within 1 min of balloon deflation. Technique-related permanent morbidity occurred in two patients (worsening of cranial nerve palsies in one and monocular blindness in another) and intracranial hemorrhage with resulting death in one patient. All patients showed a tendency to oxygen desaturation, but this finding did not cause any clinical consequence. Anesthesiologists need to be vigilant in monitoring patients treated with techniques that are new or are being developed. We have seen no evidence of toxicity or any anesthetic complications in our group of patients, our only clinical concern being a tendency to oxygen desaturation, which may be explained by the inhalational elimination of DMSO. (orig.)

  5. DMSO, Hobby Shops and the FDA: The Diffusion of a Health Policy Dilemma.

    Weinstock, Edward; Davis, Phillip


    Despite being banned by the FDA, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) usage has spread rapidly among arthritic victims and weekend athletes. This study looked at current and past users to learn how they discovered DMSO, their reactions to buying an illegal drug, and possible implications for public health policy. (MT)

  6. Stimulation of differentiated functions in human melanoma cells by tumor-promoting agents and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Huberman, E.; Heckman, C.; Langenbach, R.


    Treatment of cultured human HO melanoma cells with the mouse skin tumor promoter phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) at 5 x 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -7/ M resulted in a dose-related inhibition of growth and a stimulation of differentiated functions. These included melanin synthesis and formation of dendrite-like structues. Higher doses of phorbol dibutyrate, a less potent tumor promoter, were required to produce an effect comparable to that of PMA for dendrite induction. Phorbol and two other phorbal esters, which lack tumor-promoting activity, were either inactive or elicited a poor response. In addition to morphological changes, treatment with PMA altered glucosamine incorporation into membrane gangliosides. After PMA treatment, glucosamine incorporation increased 8- to 10 fold in the G/sub m3/ ganglioside and decreased 2-fold in the G/sub m1/ ganglioside, as compared to phorbol or untreated control. Inhibition of cell growth and stimulation of melanin synthesis were also observed after treatment of the HO cells with dimethyl sulfoxide. Unlike the tumor-promoting agents, dimethyl sulfoxide did not induce the formation of dendrite-like structures in the cells. These findings indicate that HO melanoma cells can be stimulated into terminally differentiated cells after treatment with tumor-promoting agents such as phorbol diesters.

  7. An electron spin resonance study for real-time detection of ascorbyl free radicals after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide in murine hippocampus or plasma during kainic acid-induced seizures.

    Matsumoto, Shigekiyo; Shingu, Chihiro; Koga, Hironori; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki; Yokoi, Isao


    Electron spin resonance (ESR)-silent ascorbate solutions generate a detectable, likely concentration-dependent signal of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR) immediately upon addition of a molar excess of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We aimed to perform quantitative ESR analysis of AFR in real time after addition of DMSO (AFR/DMSO) to evaluate ascorbate concentrations in fresh hippocampus or plasma following systemic administration of kainate in mice. Use of a special tissue-type quartz cell allowed immediate detection of AFR/DMSO ESR spectra in fresh tissues from mice. AFR/DMSO content was increased significantly in fresh hippocampus or plasma obtained during kainate-induced seizures of mice, reaching maximum levels at 90 min after intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg kainic acid. This suggests that oxidative injury of the hippocampus resulted from the accumulation of large amounts of ascorbic acid in the brain after kainic acid administration. AFR/DMSO content measured on an ESR spectrometer can be used for real-time evaluation of ascorbate content in fresh tissue. Due to the simplicity, good performance, low cost and real-time monitoring of ascorbate, this method may be applied to clinical research and treatment in the future.

  8. Ammonia-containing dimethyl sulfoxide: an improved solvent for the dissolution of formazan crystals in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

    Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Fengqing; Tao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hairong


    To reduce interference with the dissolution of formazan crystals in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, we conducted a systematic investigation to study the effects of various buffers, HCl, NaOH, and ammonia. As a result, we identified an improved solvent, alkaline dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 8 to 800 mM ammonia, which could dissolve formazan crystals in approximately 10 min so as to give a stable spectrum by eliminating buffering effects of the residual medium.

  9. Probe dependent anomalies in the solvation dynamics of coumarin dyes in dimethyl sulfoxide-glycerol binary solvent: confirming the local environments are different for coumarin dyes.

    Koley, Somnath; Kaur, Harveen; Ghosh, Subhadip


    The solvation dynamics of coumarin dyes in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-glycerol (GLY) binary mixtures were studied across the GLY concentrations. Three coumarin dyes with widely different hydrophobicities were used for probing the entire polarity regions of this solvent mixture. Multiple anomalous concentration regions with significantly slow solvation times were detected from all three coumarin dyes. However, their precise positions were found to be probe molecule dependent. The solvation dynamics of the moderately hydrophobic dye coumarin 480 (C480) maintain a plateau region with a similar solvation time (∼550 ps) with the increase in GLY concentration until X(GLY) (the mole fraction of glycerol) reaches 0.5. This plateau region is followed by a sudden slowdown (to ∼975 ps) on the addition of more GLY to the DMSO-GLY mixture, and then this slow region persists from X(GLY)∼ 0.55 to 0.65 (peak at 0.6). On further addition of GLY (X(GLY) > 0.7), the solvation dynamics again become slower to ∼828 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.8) from ∼612 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.7). For very high GLY-content samples (X(GLY) > 0.85), the solvation times remain similar on further changes of the GLY concentrations. In contrast to C480, the most hydrophobic dye coumarin 153 (C153) shows a linear increase of solvation time in the DMSO-GLY mixture, from 102 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.1) to 946 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.9) with increase in GLY concentration, except for the concentration region, X(GLY)∼ 0.45-0.55 (peak at 0.5), where a substantial slowdown of the solvation time is observed. The highly hydrophilic probe coumarin 343 (C343) demonstrates multiple concentration regions (X(GLY)∼ 0.05-0.10, 0.25-0.35 and 0.55-0.65) where the solvation dynamics are significantly retarded. The presence of probe dependent anomalies in the DMSO-GLY mixture is a clear indication of there being different locations of probe molecules within this solvent mixture. We assume that the slowing-down of the solvation time could

  10. Combination of retinoic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide and 5-azacytidine promotes cardiac differentiation of human fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Deng, Fuxue; Lei, Han; Hu, Yunfeng; He, Linjing; Fu, Hang; Feng, Rui; Feng, Panpan; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xi; Chang, Jing


    There are controversial reports about cardiac differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and there is still no well-defined protocol for the induction of cardiac differentiation. The effects of retinoic acid (RA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the proliferation and differentiation of human fetal liver-derived MSCs (HFMSCs) as well as the pluripotent state induced by 5-azacytidine (5-aza) in vitro were investigated. MSCs were isolated from fetal livers and cultured in accordance with previous reports. Cells were plated and were treated for 24 h by the combination of 5-aza, RA and DMSO in different doses. Different culture conditions were tested in our study, including temperature, oxygen content and medium. Three weeks later, cells were harvested for the certification of cardiac differentiation as well as the pluripotency, which indicated by cardiac markers and Oct4. It was found that the cardiac differentiation was only induced when HFMSCs were treated in the following conditions: in high-dose combination (5-aza 50 μM + RA 10(-1) μM + DMSO 1 %) in cardiac differentiation medium at 37 °C and 20 % O2. The results of immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that about 40 % of the cells positively expressed Nkx2.5, desmin and cardiac troponin I, as well as Oct4. No beating cells were observed during the period. The combined treatment with RA, DMSO and 5-aza in high-dose could promote HFMSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells and possibly through the change of their pluripotent state.

  11. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R


    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models.

  12. Expression of GPI-80, a beta2-integrin-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, requires neutrophil differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide in HL-60 cells.

    Takeda, Yuji; Fu, Junfen; Suzuki, Kichiya; Sendo, Dai; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko


    GPI-80 is a member of the amidohydrolase family that has been proposed as a potential regulator of beta2-integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. GPI-80 is expressed mainly in human neutrophils. Our previous studies suggested that GPI-80 expression might be associated with myeloid differentiation. To verify this, we examined whether GPI-80 is expressed on the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 following treatment with differentiation inducers. GPI-80 expression was induced in cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to stimulate differentiation down the neutrophil pathway. On the other hand, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), another neutrophil-inducing reagent, induced no clear GPI-80 expression. Potent monocyte-inducing reagents such as 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also had no significant effect on the protein expression. GPI-80-positive cells were found in the well-differentiated CD11b-positive and transferrin-receptor-negative cell population. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which augments neutrophil differentiation of HL-60 cells, up-regulated GPI-80 expression in the presence of DMSO. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which is known to suppress the neutrophil maturation of cells, inhibited expression. Adhesion of DMSO-induced cells was regulated by anti-GPI-80 monoclonal antibody, similar to the regulation observed in neutrophils. These results suggest that use of DMSO to induce neutrophil differentiation provides suitable conditions for GPI-80 expression, and that this culture system may be a helpful model for further study of the regulation of GPI-80 expression during myeloid differentiation.

  13. Conference on Biological Actions and Medical Applications of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), 15-17 September 1982.


    10O ml). Of the 18 control rats that survived the procedure none lived longer than five days. Death was attributed to a typical uremic syndrome. At 24...STEROSKI, 1. Mossy, G. R. RAO & J MICKELL. 1977. Thiopental amelioration of post-ischemic encephalopathy in moon- keys. Adta Neurol. Scand. Suppl

  14. Acute Oral Toxicity of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) Process Stream Samples in Male and Female Rats.


    Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, Cyclonite Hexogen, RDX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 121-82-4 Structural formula: 02N\\ IN02 N N NO2 Empirical...Ammunition Plant Kingsport, TN 2. Chemical name: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,1-Tetrazine HMX, Cyclotetramethylenetrinitramine Chemical Abstract Service...TN 3. Chemical name: Hexahydro-1-(NI)-Acetyl-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, TAX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 14168-42-4 Structural formula

  15. Acute Oral Toxicity of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) Process Stream Samples in Male and Female Mice.


    AInjection Volume: 10 microliters 10. Column: LiChrosorb- RP18 , 1/4" x 12" ss eDX Detector: UV. 215-290 nm in s Io 10 nm increments TAX Solvent System: 80...water SEX 20% methanol Flow Rate: 2.5 ml/min Injection Volume: 10 microliters 11. Column: LiChrosorb- RP18 1/4" x 12" ss No component Detector: UV at

  16. A Method for the Quantitation of Trace Levels of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Urine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography


    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY by...for the sample cleanup and concentration, followed by separation by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography . EXPERIMENTAL Materials...DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE IN URINE BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY 4. AUTHORS (Last name, first name, middle initial. If military, show rank, e.g.

  17. Modification of pineapple peel fiber as metal ion adsorbent through reaction with succinic anhydride in pyridine and dimethyl sulfoxide solvents.

    Hu, Xiuyi; Zhao, Mouming; Huang, Huihua


    Reactions between saponified pineapple peel fiber (SPPF) and succinic anhydride were performed in refluxed pyridine and dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain modified pineapple peel fiber in pyridine (MPPF-PY) and modified pineapple peel fiber in dimethyl sulfoxide at room temperature (MPPF-DMRT) and at 70 degrees C (MPPF-DM70) as novel metal ionic adsorbents. The modified pineapple peel fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MPPF-PY, MPPF-DMRT, and MPPF-DM70 showed higher Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ adsorption capacity than raw pineapple peel fiber (RPPF) and SPPF. Dimethyl sulfoxide favored introduction of a carboxylic function group into pineapple peel fiber compared with pyridine. The elevated reaction temperature of dimethyl sulfoxide could increase the adsorption capacity of the modified pineapple fiber. Optimum pH values for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ removal by MPPF-DM70 were pH 5.5, 7.5, and 5.5, respectively. The Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ adsorptions by MPPF-DM70 followed the pseudo second-order kinetics model and Langmuir model.

  18. Density, viscosity and refractive index of the dimethyl sulfoxide + o-xylene system



    Full Text Available This work reports the experimental results of the densities, viscosities and refractive indices between 298.15 and 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + o-xylene system over the entire composition range of the mixtures. The excess molar volumes (VE, viscosity deviations (Δn, excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (G*E and deviations in the refraction (ΔR were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The system exhibits moderate negative values for the investigated excess properties. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in structural and interactional terms. From the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the activation of viscous flow were estimated. The viscosity data were correlated with several semi-empirical equations. The two-parameter McAllister equation can give very good results.

  19. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system



    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  20. Second-harmonic generation microscopy used to evaluate the effect of the dimethyl sulfoxide in the cryopreservation process in collagen fibers of differentiated chondrocytes

    Andreoli-Risso, M. F.; Duarte, A. S. S.; Ribeiro, T. B.; Bordeaux-Rego, P.; Luzo, A.; Baratti, M. O.; Adur, J.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V. B.; Carvalho, H. F.; Cesar, C. L.; Kharmadayan, P.; Costa, F. F.; Olalla-Saad, S. T.


    Cartilaginous lesions are a significant public health problem and the use of adult stem cells represents a promising therapy for this condition. Cryopreservation confers many advantages for practitioners engaged in cell-based therapies. However, conventional slow freezing has always been associated with damage and mortality due to intracellular ice formation, cryoprotectant toxicity, and dehydration. The aim of this work is to observe the effect of the usual Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) cryopreservation process on the architecture of the collagen fiber network of chondrogenic cells from mesenchymal stem cells by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. To perform this study we used Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) derived from adipose tissue which presents the capacity to differentiate into other lineages such as osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained after liposuction were isolated digested by collagenase type I and characterization was carried out by differentiation of mesodermic lineages, and flow cytometry using specific markers. The isolated MSCs were cryopreserved by the DMSO technique and the chondrogenic differentiation was carried out using the micromass technique. We then compared the cryopreserved vs non-cryopreserved collagen fibers which are naturally formed during the differentiation process. We observed that noncryopreserved MSCs presented a directional trend in the collagen fibers formed which was absent in the cryopreserved MSCs. We confirmed this trend quantitatively by the aspect ratio obtained by Fast Fourier Transform which was 0.76 for cryopreserved and 0.52 for non-cryopreserved MSCs, a statistical significant difference.

  1. Use of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring of the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the growth and viability of immobilized plant cells

    Vankova Radomira


    Full Text Available The growth and viability of tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L immobilized in alginate or pectate were monitored during their cultivation by using two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2-D FS. The cell growth was followed via the fluorescence of amino acids in proteins. The correlation between the tryptophan fluorescence and the cell biomass inside the alginate beads was verified by comparison with the dry weight of the cells. The determination of biomass content or cell viability by measurement of the intensity of NAD(PH fluorescence was found unsuitable. Cell viability was estimated by determination of cell esterase activity using fluorescein diacetate as a fluorogenic substrate. The fluorescence intensities of both fluorophores, tryptophan and fluorescein, were determined by scanning a 2-D FS spectrum of intact beads in front face cuvette. Using this technique the effect of organic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, on the growth and metabolic activities of cells within the beads was evaluated. While 4% DMSO was tolerated by cells, 6% DMSO led to the cell destruction.

  2. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z


    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol.

  3. A randomized, open-label, multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of intravesical hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate versus dimethyl sulfoxide in women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Cervigni, Mauro; Sommariva, Monica; Tenaglia, Raffaele; Porru, Daniele; Ostardo, Edoardo; Giammò, Alessandro; Trevisan, Silvia; Frangione, Valeria; Ciani, Oriana; Tarricone, Rosanna; Pappagallo, Giovanni L


    Intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS) in women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has shown promising results. This study compared the efficacy, safety, and costs of intravesical HA/CS (Ialuril(®) , IBSA) to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Randomized, open-label, multicenter study involving 110 women with BPS/IC. The allocation ratio (HA/CS:DMSO) was 2:1. Thirteen weekly instillations of HA (1.6%)/CS (2.0%) or 50% DMSO were given. Patients were evaluated at 3 (end-of-treatment) and 6 months. Primary endpoint was reduction in pain intensity at 6 months by visual analogue scale (VAS) versus baseline. Secondary efficacy measurements were quality of life and economic analyses. A significant reduction in pain intensity was observed at 6 months in both treatment groups versus baseline (P DMSO for the per-protocol population (mean VAS reduction 44.77 ± 25.07 vs. 28.89 ± 31.14, respectively; P = 0.0186). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in secondary outcomes. At least one adverse event was reported in 14.86% and 30.56% of patients in the HA/CS and DMSO groups, respectively. There were significantly fewer treatment-related adverse events for HA/CS versus DMSO (1.35% vs. 22.22%; P = 0.001). Considering direct healthcare costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of HA/CS versus DMSO fell between 3735€/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and 8003€/QALY. Treatment with HA/CS appears to be as effective as DMSO with a potentially more favorable safety profile. Both treatments increased health-related quality of life, while HA/CS showed a more acceptable cost-effectiveness profile. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The assessment of electrophysiological activity in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol by manual patch clamp and multi-electrode array system.

    Hyun, Soo-Wang; Kim, Bo-Ram; Hyun, Sung-Ae; Seo, Joung-Wook


    Recently, electrophysiological activity has been effectively measured in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to predict drug-induced arrhythmia. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol have been used as diluting agents in many experiments. However, the maximum DMSO and ethanol concentrations that can be effectively used in the measurement of electrophysiological parameters in hiPSC-CMs-based patch clamp and multi-electrode array (MEA) have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of varying concentrations of DMSO and ethanol used as diluting agents on several electrophysiological parameters in hiPSC-CMs using patch clamp and MEA. Both DMSO and ethanol at concentrations>1% in external solution resulted in osmolality >400mOsmol/kg, but pH was not affected by either agent. Neither DMSO nor ethanol led to cell death at the concentrations examined. However, resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude, action potential duration at 90% and 40%, and corrected field potential duration were decreased significantly at 1% ethanol concentration. DMSO at 1% also significantly decreased the sodium spike amplitude. In addition, the waveform of action potential and field potential was recorded as irregular at 3% concentrations of both DMSO and ethanol. Concentrations of up to 0.3% of either agent did not affect osmolality, pH, cell death, or electrophysiological parameters in hiPSC-CMs. Our findings suggest that 0.3% is the maximum concentration at which DMSO or ethanol should be used for dilution purposes in hiPSC-CMs-based patch clamp and MEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. trans-Bis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κObis(thiosemicarbazide-κ2N1,Scadmium dipicrate dihydrate

    Helen Stoeckli-Evans


    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, [Cd(CH5N3S2(C2H6OS2](C6H2N3O72·2H2O, the CdII atom is located on an inversion center. It is hexacoordinated in an octahedral fashion by two thiosemicarbazide molecules, which coordinate in a bidentate manner via the S and N atoms, and to the O atom of two dimethyl sufoxide (DMSO molecules. The charges are equilibrated by two picrate anions and the complex crystallizes as a dihydrate. In the crystal, these units are linked by a number of O—H...O and N—H...S hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  6. cis-Dichlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine-κN′′platinum(II

    Ivan I. Eliseev


    Full Text Available In the title compound, cis-[PtCl2(C5H13N3(C2H6OS], the four-coordinate PtII atom is bonded to one N atom of the N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine ligand, one dimethyl sulfoxide S atom and two chloride ligands, forming a cis-square-planar geometry. The bond lengths and angles of the N—Pt—Cl functionality are typical for imine dichloridoplatinum(II complexes. The H atom of the imino group is oriented towards the O atom of the sulfoxide group of a neighboring molecule and forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond.

  7. trans-Chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS(pyridine-2-carboxylato-κ2N,Oplatinum(II

    Kwang Ha


    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Pt(C6H4NO2Cl(C2H6OS], the PtII ion is in a distorted square-planar environment defined by the N and O atoms from the chelating pyridine-2-carboxylate (pic anionic ligand, one S atom of the dimethyl sulfoxide molecule and one Cl ion. The complex is disposed about a crystallographic mirror plane parallel to the ac plane passing through all the atoms of the complex except the methyl atoms of the dimethyl sulfoxide. The molecules are stacked in columns along the b axis with a Pt...Pt distance of 4.9508 (5 Å. Within the column, intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak π–π interactions between adjacent pyridine rings are present, the shortest centroid–centroid distance being 5.153 (4 Å.

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. DMSO Induces Dehydration near Lipid Membrane Surfaces

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Song, Jinsuk; Pas, Jolien; Meijer, Lenny H.H.; Han, Songi


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been broadly used in biology as a cosolvent, a cryoprotectant, and an enhancer of membrane permeability, leading to the general assumption that DMSO-induced structural changes in cell membranes and their hydration water play important functional roles. Although the effects of DMSO on the membrane structure and the headgroup dehydration have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which DMSO invokes its effect on lipid membranes and the direct role of water in this process are unresolved. By directly probing the translational water diffusivity near unconfined lipid vesicle surfaces, the lipid headgroup mobility, and the repeat distances in multilamellar vesicles, we found that DMSO exclusively weakens the surface water network near the lipid membrane at a bulk DMSO mole fraction (XDMSO) of DMSO was found to effectively destabilize the hydration water structure at the lipid membrane surface at XDMSO 0.1, DMSO enters the lipid interface and restricts the lipid headgroup motion. We postulate that DMSO acts as an efficient cryoprotectant even at low concentrations by exclusively disrupting the water network near the lipid membrane surface, weakening the cohesion between water and adhesion of water to the lipid headgroups, and so mitigating the stress induced by the volume change of water during freeze-thaw. PMID:26200868

  10. 二甲基亚砜对猪精液冷冻保存效果研究%Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Boar Semen Cryopreservation

    马丽; 李青旺; 吴民耀


    This experiment was the study on the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)on boar semen cryo-preservation instead of glycerin.With the control group of 30 mL/L glycerin,by comparing the effects of different groups of DMSO (40,50,60,70,80 mL/L)on boar semen cryopreservation,the DMSO optimum concentration was selected.At the same time,the compatibility of glycerin and DMSO (4∶1,3∶1,3∶2, 1∶1 and 2∶3)were conducted into mixed cryoprotectants with the final concentration of 30 mL/L,respec-tively marked for group A,B ,C,D and E,and then the boar semen cryopreservation were compared and the optimum proportion were selected.The results showed that by adding 60 mL/L DMSO,after being frozen-thawed,the sperm abnormal rates,the plasma membrane integrity and sperm acrosomes integrity were remarkably better than that in the control group and other groups (P 0.05),it had no significant difference.The sperm acro-somes integrity and the plasma membrane integrity were 53% and 52%,which were remarkably higher than groups added with 40,50,70,80 mL/L DMSO and other compatible groups (P 0.05).The sperm viability that was 37% was remarkably lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05),but remarkably higher than that in other DMSO added groups and the compatible groups (P < 0.05).So when adding DMSO sepa-rately,the optimum concentration was 60 mL/L,and the best proportion for the mixed cryoprotectants a-gent,of which the final concentration was 30 mL/L,was 3∶1 (glycerin to DMSO).%用二甲基亚砜(DMSO)替代甘油做猪精液冷冻保护剂并对其效果进行研究。以3%甘油作为对照组,比较不同浓度的 DMSO(40、50、60、70、80 mL/L)对猪精液冷冻保护效果的影响,从而得到 DMSO的最佳添加量。同时,将甘油和 DMSO 配伍(4∶1、3∶1、3∶2、1∶1和2∶3)成最终浓度为3%的混合冷冻保护剂,并分别记作 A、B、C、D 和 E 组,对比其对猪精液冷冻保存的效果,筛选出最佳

  11. Crystallization of Ice in Aqueous Solutions of Glycerol and Dimethyl Sulfoxide. 1. A Comparison of Mechanisms

    Hey; Macfarlane


    The crystallization of ice from aqueous solutions of glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry. In particular, the ice crystallization behavior of glycerol and Me2SO solutions containing approximately the same mole percent solute concentration (i.e., approximately 16 mol%) has been compared. These solutions (45 w/w% Me2SO (15.9 mol%) and 50 w/w% glycerol (16.4 mol%)) were shown to exhibit markedly different ice crystallization properties. For example, the peak homogeneous nucleation temperature of the Me2SO solution was observed to be 3°C above Tg, whereas the peak homogeneous nucleation temperature of the glycerol solution was shown to be 20°C above Tg. Further, the 50 w/w% glycerol solution was shown to devitrify at temperatures close to those of the peak nucleation rate, whereas the Me2SO solution was found to devitrify at temperatures much higher than the peak nucleation temperature. This, along with evidence from emulsion-based calorimetry experiments, indicates that the nucleation leading to devitrification in 45 w/w% Me2SO solutions is largely heterogeneous in nature.

  12. Bis[N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine-κ3N,N′,N′′]copper(II tris[diamminetetrakis(thiocyanato-κNchromate(III] thiocyanate dimethyl sulfoxide tetradecasolvate monohydrate

    Vitalina M. Nikitina


    Full Text Available The ionic title complex, [Cu(C4H13N32]2[Cr(NCS4(NH32]3(NCS·14C2H6OS·H2O, consists of complex [Cu(dien2]2+ cations [dien is N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine], complex [Cr(NCS4(NH32]− anions, an NCS− counter-anion and uncoordinated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and water solvent molecules. One of the Cr atoms lies on an inversion center, while the second Cr atom and the Cu atom lie in general positions. The thiocyanate counter-anion and water molecule are disordered over two positions close to an inversion center. There are several types of hydrogen-bond interactions present in the title compound, which connect the complex cations and anions into bulky [Cu2Cr3] polynuclear species. The four NH3 groups of the complex anions and six bridging DMSO O atoms link the three complex anions via hydrogen bonding into the anionic polynuclear species [Cr(NCS4(NH32]3·6DMSO. The last one is connected by four bridging DMSO O atoms with the two complex copper cations through N—H... O hydrogen bonds between the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species and the NH and NH2 groups of the dien ligand. One additional DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to one of the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species. Another DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to each Cu(dien2]2+ cation.

  13. In vitro cell tests of pancreatic malignant tumor cells by photothermotherapy based on DMSO porous silicon colloids.

    Hong, Chanseok; Lee, Chongmu


    Dimethyl sulfoxide porous silicon (DMSO-PSi) colloid in which DMSO was used as a surfactant suitable for inhibiting the agglomeration of PSi nanoparticles was prepared for use in cancer photothermotherapy. The photothermal effect of the DMSO-PSi colloid was found to be high enough to destroy cancer cells (T = ∼52 °C). The mean particle size of the PSi nanoparticles in the DMSO-PSi colloid was 67 nm, which is low enough to flow through blood vessels without causing a blockage. The DMSO-PSi colloid in combination with an NIR laser resulted in a cell viability of 5.70%, which is a sufficiently high cytotoxic effect.

  14. Dissolution Behavior of Cellulose in IL + DMSO Solvent: Effect of Alkyl Length in Imidazolium Cation on Cellulose Dissolution

    Airong Xu; Lili Cao; Bingjun Wang; Junying Ma


    Four cellulose solvents including [C2mim][CH3COO] + DMSO, [C4mim][CH3COO] + DMSO, [C6mim][CH3COO] + DMSO, and [C8mim][CH3COO] + DMSO were prepared by adding dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][CH3COO], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C4mim][CH3COO], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C6mim][CH3COO], and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C8mim][CH3COO], respectively. The solubilities of cellulose in these solvents were determined at 25°C. The effect...

  15. DMSO regulates osteoclast development in vitro

    Lemieux, Justin M.; Wu, Gary; Morgan, Joseph A.


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is routinely used in the laboratory as a solvent and vehicle for organic molecules. Although it has been used in previous studies involving myeloid cells and macrophages, we are unaware of data demonstrating the effects of DMSO alone on osteoclast development. Recently, we were using DMSO as a vehicle and included a non-vehicle control. Surprisingly, we observed a marked change in osteoclast development, and therefore designed this study to examine the effects of DMSO on osteoclast development. Osteoclasts were generated from two sources: bone marrow macrophages and an osteoclast progenitor cell line. Cells were cultured with DMSO for various durations and at differing concentrations and mature, multinucleated (>3 nuclei) TRAP+ cells were assessed in terms of cell number, cell surface area, and number of nuclei/cell. Osteoclast surface area increased in 5 μM DMSO to a mean of 156,422 pixels from a mean of 38,510 pixels in control culture, and subsequently decreased in 10 μM DMSO to a mean of 18,994 pixels. With serial addition of DMSO over 5 d, a significant increase in mean surface area, and number of nuclei/cell was also observed, while the opposite was true when DMSO was serially removed from culture. These findings show that DMSO exerts a marked effect on osteoclast differentiation. Since many investigators use DMSO to solubilize compounds for treatment of osteoclasts, caution is warranted as altering DMSO concentrations may have a profound effect on the final data, especially if osteoclast differentiation is being assessed. PMID:21359822

  16. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxidation mediated reaction in L-cysteine and its methyl and ethyl esters in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 by NMR spectroscopy

    Dougherty, Ryan J.; Singh, Jaideep; Krishnan, V. V.


    L-Cysteine (L-Cys), L-Cysteine methyl ester (L-CysME) or L-Cysteine ethyl ester (L-CysEE), when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, undergoes an oxidation process. This process is slow enough and leads to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral changes that could be monitored in real time. The oxidation mediated transition is modeled as a pseudo-first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters are estimated using the Eyring's formulation. L-Cysteine and their esters are often used as biological models due to the remarkable thiol group that can be found in different oxidation states. This oxidation mediated transition is due to the combination of thiol oxidation to a disulfide followed by solvent-induced effects may be relevant in designing cysteine-based molecular models.

  17. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces

    Schrader, Alex M.; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Han, Songi


    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhause...

  18. Molecular dynamics study of the solvation of an alpha-helical transmembrane peptide by DMSO

    Duarte, A.M.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.; Hemminga, M.A.


    10-ns molecular dynamics study of the solvation of a hydrophobic transmembrane helical peptide in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is presented. The objective is to analyze how this aprotic polar solvent is able to solvate three groups of amino acid residues (i.e., polar, apolar, and charged) that are loca

  19. Molecular dynamics study of the solvation of an alpha-helical transmembrane peptide by DMSO

    Duarte, A.M.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.; Hemminga, M.A.


    10-ns molecular dynamics study of the solvation of a hydrophobic transmembrane helical peptide in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is presented. The objective is to analyze how this aprotic polar solvent is able to solvate three groups of amino acid residues (i.e., polar, apolar, and charged) that are loca

  20. Chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide(pyridine-2-thiolato N-oxide-κ2S,Oplatinum(II

    Dieter Schollmeyer


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Pt(C5H4NOSCl(C2H6OS], contains two independent complex molecules having similar geometries. Each PtII atom is four-coordinated in a distorted square-planar geometry by S and O atoms of one pyridine N-oxide ligand, the S atom of one dimethyl sulfoxide molecule and one terminal Cl− ion. The molecules are linked into a three-dimensional framework by C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  1. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of dimethyl sulfoxide attenuates streptozotocin-iduced memory loss in rats

    Esmaeil Akbari


    Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that DMSO may be appropriate as adjuvant therapies for the prevention of memory impairment in the experimental models of AD. Therefore, use of DMSO as a solvent in AD animal studies should be considered having beneficial effects on cognitive function.

  2. QTAIM studies of [Li(DMSO){sub n}]{sup +} and [Al(DMSO){sub n}]{sup 3+}

    Breza, Martin, E-mail: [Department Physical Chemistry, Slovak Technical University, Radlinskeho 9, SK-81237 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    Geometry optimization of [Li(DMSO){sub n}]{sup +} and [Al(DMSO){sub n}]{sup 3+} complexes with n = 1 - 6 in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO) solutions is performed using DFT treatment with B3LYP hybrid functional and cc-pVDZ basis sets. Solvent effects are approximated within Integral Equation Formalism Polarisable Continuum Model. Electron structure of individual model systems is investigated in terms of Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecule topological analysis of electron density. Metal-DMSO bonding through oxygen atom is preferred. The most probable coordination numbers n = 4 for Li{sup +} and n = 6 for Al{sup 3+} complexes with DMSO are concluded.

  3. The effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on hepatogenic differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Effat Alizadeh


    The results demonstrate that DMSO speeds up hepatic differentiation of AT-MSCs characterized by rapid changes in morphology, higher expression of hepatic marker gene (AFP in both mRNA and protein level (P

  4. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in the artificial skin reconstructed with cultured human cells

    Ryu, Young Ha; Choi, Karp Shik [College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Song, In Hwan [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate cultured human artificial skin as an experimental model for studying radiation effects in vitro. The skin was constructed by culturing keratinocytes over collagen lattice which made by culturing fibroblasts. Two groups were irradiated to gamma rays at single dose of 25 Gy with or without 3.5% of DMSO. Ultrastructures were investigated by electron microscopy after irradiation. The number of epidermal layers and expression of cytokeratin (CK) 14 and 10 were also seem by light microscopy. At 2 days after irradiation in experimental group without DMSO, necrotic cells were rarely found in the spinosal layer and undercornified cells were visible in the horney layer. Similar findings were also found in experimental group with DMSO but in mild form. The number of epidermal layers in experimental group without DMSO were significantly fewer than other group. CK 14 expressed in all the layer excluding horney layer but CK 10 expressed over 3-4 basal layers. Such patterns of CK expression were similar to all groups. It is suggested that structures of the keratinocytes and epidermal formation could be disturbed by irradiation in artificial skin and that DMSO can protect these damages. Therefore this work could be used as an organotypic experimental model in vitro using human cells for studying radiation effect in skin. Furthermore structural findings provided in this study could be used as useful basic data in further study using this model.

  5. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes

    Shen Xinghui; Zhou Dongjie; Gu Yanli; Zhang Na; Li Tong; Wu Xi; Lei Lei


    Objective: To observe the effect of DMSO on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Results: In DMSO-treated oocytes, we observed abnormal MII oocytes that contained large polar bodies, including 2-cell-like MII oocytes, during in vitro maturation. Oocyte polarization did not occur, due to the absence of actin cap forma-tion and spindle migration. These features are among the primary causes of abnormal symmetric division;however, analysis of the mRNA expression levels of genes related to asymmetric division revealed no significant difference in the expression of these factors between the 3% DMSO-treated group and the control group. After each "blasto-mere" of the 2-cell-like MII stage oocytes was injected by one sperm head respectively, the oocytes still possessed the ability to extrude the second polar body from each "blastomere" and to begin cleavage. However, MII oocytes with large polar bodies developed to the blastocyst stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection ( ICSI ) . Further-more, other permeable cryoprotectants, such as ethylene glycol and glycerol, also caused asymmetric division fail-ure. Conclusions:Permeable cryoprotectants, such as DMSO, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, affect asymmetric di-vision. DMSO disrupts cytokinesis completion by inhibiting cortical reorganization and polarization. Oocytes that undergo symmetric division maintain the ability to begin cleavage after ICSI.

  6. Association in ethylammonium nitrate-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures: First structural and dynamical evidences

    Russina, Olga; Macchiagodena, Marina; Kirchner, Barbara; Mariani, Alessandro; Aoun, Bachir; Russina, Margarita; Caminiti, Ruggero; Triolo, Alessandro


    Here we report the first structural and dynamic investigation on ethylammonium nitrate, a representative protic Ionic liquid, and dimethylsulfoxide. By using joined x/ray and neutron diffraction, we exploit the EPSR approach to extract structural information at atomistic level. EAN/DMSO turns out to be homogeneous at microscopic scales and indications for the existence of a structural leit motiv with stoichiometric composition 2DMSO:1EAN are found. Dielectric spectroscopy is used to access the relaxation map of the DMSO:EAN = 60:40 mixture. No crystallisation is detected and three relaxation processes could be characterised. Overall this study provides new indications of strict analogies between water and ethylammonium nitrate. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Octakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOcerium(III μ6-oxido-dodeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidohexamolybdate(VI dimethyl sulfoxide tetrasolvate

    Arbia Ben Khélifa


    Full Text Available The title complex, [Ce(C2H6OS8]2[Mo6O19]3·4C2H6OS, was obtained as a byproduct of the reaction of [(C4H94N]2[Mo6O19] with Ce(NO33·6H2O and phthalic acid in dimethylsulfoxide solution. The asymmetric unit consists of a complex [Ce(C2H6OS8]3+ cation, one and a half of the Lindqvist-type [Mo6O19]2− polyanions and two dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules; the half polyanion lies on an inversion center. The Ce3+ ion is coordinated by eight dimethylsulfoxide ligands through the O atoms in the form of a distorted square antiprism. The Ce—O bond lengths range from 2.429 (6 to 2.550 (5 Å. The cohesion of the structure is ensured by S...O [3.115 (6, 3.242 (10 and 3.12 (3 Å], O...O [3.037 (10 Å] and C—H...O interactions between cations and anions. The S and C atoms of a dmso ligand are disordered over three sites in a 0.45:0.30:0.25 ratio. The dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules are highly disordered and could not be modelled successfully; their contribution was therefore removed from the refinement using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. Potential solvent-accessible voids of 500.0 Å3 occur in the crystal structure.

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Sarah Brien


    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs, identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis, based on difference in mean pain related outcomes between treatment and comparator groups, was carried out based on a random effect model. Seven potential trials were identified of which three RCTs, two DMSO and one MSM (total N=326 patients were eligible for inclusion. All three trials were considered high methodological quality. A significant degree of heterogeneity (χ2=6.28, P=.043 was revealed. Two studies demonstrated statistically significant (but not clinically relevant reduction in pain compared with controls; with one showing no group difference. The meta-analysis confirmed a non significant reduction of pain on visual analogue scale of 6.34 mm (SE = 3.49, 95% CI, −0.49, 13.17. The overall effect size of 1.82 was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Current evidence suggests DMSO and MSM are not clinically effective in the reduction of pain in the treatment of OA. No definitive conclusions can currently be drawn from the data due to the mixed findings and the use of inadequate dosing periods.

  9. Gamma-radiolysis of dimethyl sulfoxide. II. Radiolysis yields and possible mechanisms; Gamma-Radiolisis del dimetilsulfoxido II. Rendimientos radioloticos y posibles mecanismos

    Gutierrez, M. C.; Barrera, R.


    As result of quantitative studies on gamma-radiolysis of DMSO at a dose range of 90-850 Mrads, constant G values have been obtained for the following radiolysis compounds: G(-DMSO) - 6.7 {+-}0.2; G(dimethyl sulphide) - 3.4 {+-}0.3; G(methane) - 0,75 {+-} 0.04; G(dimethyl disulphide) -0.33 {+-}0,03; G(tri methylsulphonium methanesulphonate) - 0.26 {+-} 0,01; G(methyl methanethiosulphonate) - 0,25 {+-}0.02; G(dimethyl sulphona)-0.21{+-}0.02; G(H{sub 2})-0.18{+-}0.02; and G(propane)--0.0092{+-}0.0007. Initial G values have been obtained for other identified compounds: Gi(ethane)-0,46; Gi(CO)-0.052; and Gi(CO{sub 2})-0.030. Possible mechanisms on the radiolysis process are proposed. (Author) 17 refs.

  10. 5,5′-[1,4-Phenylenebis(methylenesulfanediyl]bis[1,3,4-thiadiazol-2(3H-one] dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate

    Siyoung Jang


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H10N4O2S4·2C2H6OS, contains one half of the p-xylene molecule and one dimethyl sulfoxide molecule. The p-xylene molecule is located about a crystallographic inversion centre. In the molecule, the thiadiazole and benzene rings are almost perpendicular to one another, with a dihedral angle of 88.95 (6°. In the crystal, an N—H...O hydrogen bond is observed between the two components. The dimethyl sulfoxide molecule is disordered over two orientations with an occupancy ratio of 0.879 (1:0.121 (1.

  11. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence

    Fuller P; Roth SH


    Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for ...

  12. Diaquabis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κObis(saccharinato-κNcobalt(II

    Fezile S. W. Potwana


    Full Text Available The title complex, [Co(C7H4NO3S2(C2H6OS2(H2O2], contains a Co2+ cation in an octahedral coordination environment. The metal atom is surrounded by two different neutral ligands, namely dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and water, each coordinating through the O atom. The anionic saccharinate (sac; 1,1,3-trioxo-2,3-dihydro-1λ6,2-benzothiazol-2-ide ligand coordinates through the N atom. Each of the three similar ligand pairs is in a trans configuration with respect to each other. The Co atom lies on a crystallographic center of symmetry and the octahedral geometry is not significantly distorted. A short O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between a water H atom and the ketone O atom; two longer hydrogen bonds (intra- and intermolecular are also present between a water H and a sulfonic O atom, forming a supramolecular assembly through head-to-tail aggregation between adjacent complexes.

  13. Theoretical study on the acidities of chiral phosphoric acids in dimethyl sulfoxide: hints for organocatalysis.

    Yang, Chen; Xue, Xiao-Song; Jin, Jia-Lu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jin-Pei


    The pKa values of 41 chiral phosphoric acid-family catalysts in DMSO were predicted using the SMD/M06-2x/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method for the first time. The study showed that the calculated pKa's range from -4.23 to 6.16 for absolute pKa values and from -4.21 to 6.38 for relative pKa values. Excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental pKa's was achieved for the few available cases (to a precision of around 0.4 pKa unit), indicating that this strategy may be suitable for calculating highly accurate pKa's. A good linear correlation between the pKa's for 3 and 3' disubstituted phenyl BINOL phosphoric acids and the Hammett constants was obtained. The relationship between the acidities of phosphoric acid catalysts and their reaction activity and selectivity was also discussed. Knowledge of the pKa values of phosphoric acids should be of great value for the understanding of chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions and may aid in future catalyst design.

  14. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)(pyridine-2,6-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) O,N,O')nickel(II)]-μ-pyrazine-κ(2) N:N'].

    Liu, Chen; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Felts, Ashley C; Ballouk, Hamza F; Abboud, Khalil A


    The title coordination polymer, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C4H4N2)(C2H6OS)] n , consists of [010] chains composed of Ni(II) ions linked by bis-monodentate-bridging pyrazine mol-ecules. Each of the two crystallographically distinct Ni(II) ions is located on a mirror plane and is additionally coordinated by a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligand through the oxygen atom and by a tridentate 2,6-pyridine-di-carb-oxy-lic acid dianion through one of each of the carboxyl-ate oxygen atoms and the pyridine nitro-gen atom, leading to a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment. The title structure exhibits an inter-esting complementarity between coordinative bonding and π-π stacking where the Ni-Ni distance of 7.0296 (4) Å across bridging pyrazine ligands allows the pyridine moieties on two adjacent chains to inter-digitate at halfway of the Ni-Ni distance, resulting in π-π stacking between pyridine moieties with a centroid-to-plane distance of 3.5148 (2) Å. The double-chain thus formed also exhibits C-H⋯π inter-actions between pyridine C-H groups on one chain and pyrazine mol-ecules on the other chain. As a result, the inter-ior of the double-chain structure is dominated by π-π stacking and C-H⋯ π inter-actions, while the space between the double-chains is occupied by a C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network involving DMSO ligands and carboxyl-ate groups located on the exterior of the double-chains. This separation of dissimilar inter-actions in the inter-ior and exterior of the double-chains further stabilizes the crystal structure.

  15. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  16. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu


    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 2-(5-Bromo-1H-indol-3-yl-4-(4-bromophenyl-5-(4-chlorobenzoyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    Y. AaminaNaaz


    Full Text Available In the title solvated compound, C26H14Br2ClN3O·C2H6OS, the indole ring is inclined to the central pyrrole ring by 25.7 (2°. The chlorobenzene ring and the bromobenzene rings subtend dihedral angles of 56.5 (2 and 53.4 (2°, respectively, with the central pyrrole ring. In the crystal, molecules are bridged by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, involving the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecule, forming chains along [010]. There are no other significant intermolecular interactions present.

  18. Crystal structure of di-μ-isobutyrato-κ4O:O′-bis[cis-dichlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κSrhenium(III

    Alexander A. Golichenko


    Full Text Available The title compound, [Re2(C3H7COO2Cl4{(CH32SO}2], comprises binuclear complex molecules [Re—Re = 2.24502 (13 Å] involving cis-oriented double carboxylate bridges, four equatorial chloride ions and two weakly bonded O atoms from dimethyl sulfoxide ligands in the axial positions at the ReIII atoms. In the crystal, molecules are linked into corrugated layers parallel to (101 by very weak C—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. C—H...Cl hydrogen bonding provides the links between layers to consolidate a three-dimensional framework.

  19. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).



    Objective: To analyze the regulation effect of MDR-1 gene inhuman breast cancer cell by the differentiating agents, sodium butyrate and dimethyl sulfoxide. Methods: 1. A sensitive assay, RT-PCR, was used to measure the mRNA level before and after the treatment of sodium butyrate, DMSO, using b -actin as control; 2. Evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate, DMSO on MDR-1 gene expression of human breast cancer at the protein level by immunoflow cytometry; 3. P-glycoprotein function was examined after accumulation of the fluorescent drug, Phodamine-123, by flow cytometry; 4. Chemosensitivity to doxorubicin was analyzed using the MTT assay. Results: Sodium butyrate and DMSO were found to increase the MDR characteristics on MDR-1 gene, MDR-1 expression levels, P-glycoprotein function and chemosensitivity to doxorubicin. Conclusion: sodium butyrate, DMSO can modulate the MDR-1 gene at gene level, protein level, protein function level and cell level.

  3. FTIR spectroscopic study of the complex formation between H+ and DMSO in Nafion

    Karelin, A. I.; Kayumov, R. R.; Sanginov, E. A.; Dobrovolsky, Yu. A.


    Nafion membranes plasticized with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been examined at room temperature using the vacuum ATR - FTIR spectroscopic technique in the range 50-4000 cm- 1. The amount of the plasticizer corresponds to the molecular ratio n = DMSO/H+ = 1.2, 2.3, 4.8, 7.0, 9.7 and 13.3. The medium intensity band with two maxima at 780 and 853 cm- 1 have been assigned to the ν(SO) stretching vibrations of the H+(DMSO)2 complex. The possible reason of ν(SO) splitting is symmetry decrease of hydrogen bond under the influence of the anion group sbnd SO3- electric field. Whereas the mutual association of free DMSO molecules in Nafion leads to appearance of weak band at 86 cm- 1 assigned to the dipole-dipole interactions.

  4. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron oxide nanoparticles

    Debanjan Guin; Sunkara V Manorama; S Radha; A K Nigam


    We report here the capping of iron oxide nanoparticles with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to make chloroform soluble iron oxide nanoparticles. Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles are well controlled by simply varying the reaction parameters. The synthesized nanocrystallites were characterized by thermal analysis (TG–DTA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for evaluating phase, structure and morphology. 1H NMR spectra of the synthesized samples confirm DMSO, and the capping of DMSO on the ferrite samples. Shift of the S=O stretching frequency in Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra indicates that the bonding between DMSO and ferrite is through an oxygen moiety. The magnetic measurements of all the synthesized samples were investigated with a SQUID magnetometer which shows that the magnetic properties are strongly dependent on the size as well as shape of the iron oxide.

  5. DMSO-Induced Dehydration of DPPC Membranes Studied by X-ray Diffraction, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, and Calorimetry

    Kiselev, M A; Kisselev, A M; Grabielle-Madelmond, C; Ollivon, M


    The influence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on membrane thickness, multilamellar repeat distance, and phase transitions of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was investigated by X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study of water freezing and ice melting was performed in the ternary DPPC /DMSO /water and binary DMSO /water systems. The methods applied demonstrated the differences in membrane structure in three sub-regions of the DMSO mole fraction (X_dmso): from 0.0 to 0.3 for the first, from 0.3 to 0.8 for the second, and from 0.9 to 1.0 for the third sub-region. The thickness of the intermembrane solvent at T =20C decreases from 14.4 +/- 1.8 A at X_dmso =0.0 to 7.8 +/- 1.8 A at X_dmso =0.1. The data were used to determine the number of free water molecules in the intermembrane space in the presence of DMSO. The results for 0.0 < X_dmso < 0.3 were explained in the framework of DMSO-induced dehydration of the interme...

  6. DMSO Represses Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Blood Cells and Reduces Autoimmune Arthritis

    Elisia, Ingrid; Nakamura, Hisae; Lam, Vivian; Hofs, Elyse; Cederberg, Rachel; Cait, Jessica; Hughes, Michael R.; Lee, Leora; Jia, William; Adomat, Hans H.; Guns, Emma S.; McNagny, Kelly M.; Samudio, Ismael; Krystal, Gerald


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is currently used as an alternative treatment for various inflammatory conditions as well as for cancer. Despite its widespread use, there is a paucity of data regarding its safety and efficacy as well as its mechanism of action in human cells. Herein, we demonstrate that DMSO has ex-vivo anti-inflammatory activity using Escherichia coli- (E. coli) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-stimulated whole human blood. Specifically, we found that between 0.5%– 2%, DMSO significantly suppressed the expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, a significant reduction in monocyte viability was also observed at 2% DMSO, suggesting a narrow window of efficacy. Anti-inflammatory concentrations of DMSO suppressed E. coli-induced ERK1/2, p38, JNK and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting DMSO acts on these signaling pathways to suppress inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. Although DMSO induces the differentiation of B16/F10 melanoma cells in vitro, topical administration of DMSO to mice subcutaneously implanted with B16 melanoma cells was ineffective at reducing tumor growth, DMSO was also found to block mouse macrophages from polarizing to either an M1- or an M2-phenotype, which may contribute to its inability to slow tumor growth. Topical administration of DMSO, however, significantly mitigated K/BxN serum-induced arthritis in mice, and this was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the joints and white blood cell levels in the blood. Thus, while we cannot confirm the efficacy of DMSO as an anti-cancer agent, the use of DMSO in arthritis warrants further investigation to ascertain its therapeutic potential. PMID:27031833

  7. 4-Amino-3-[2-(9H-carbazol-9-ylethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    Joel T. Mague


    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C16H15N5S·C2H6OS, both the 1,2,4-triazole derivative molecules and the disordered [refined occupancy ratio = 0.604 (1:0.396 (1] dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules form centrosymmetric dimers, by way of pairwise N—H...S and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. In the crystal, the two types of dimer are connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming infinite chains parallel to [101]. The packing is assisted by π–π stacking and C—H...π(ring and N—H...π(ring interactions.

  8. 3-[2-(9H-Carbazol-9-ylethyl]-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    Shaaban K. Mohamed


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H18N4S·C2H6OS, the central triazolethione ring is inclined to the carbazole ring system by 13.97 (18° and to the phenyl ring by 66.4 (1°. The lattice solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, is strongly hydrogen bonded to the triazolethione ring. In the crystal, the main molecules form columns parallel to the a axis, with the solvent molecules located between the columns. C—H...S hydrogen bonds and C—H...π(ring interactions link adjacent columns. The crystal studied was refined as a two-component twin, with a fractional contribution to the minor domain of 0.0742 (14.

  9. Kinetics of proton transfer from tetra( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)dibenzotetraazaporphin to nitrogen-containing bases in a benzene-dimethyl sulfoxide system

    Petrov, O. A.


    The acid-base interaction between tetra( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)dibenzotetraazaporphin with pyridine, 2-methylpyridine, morpholine, piperidine, n-butylamine, diethylamine, and triethylamine is studied in the benzene-dimethyl sulfoxide system. It is found that intermolecular transfer of protons of NH-groups from of tetra( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)dibenzotetraazaporphin to n-butylamine and piperidine is characterized by unusually low values of the rate constants. The effect the structure of tetra( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)dibenzotetraazaporphin, hexa( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)benzotetraazaporphin, and octa( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)tetraazaporphin has on the kinetic parameters of acid-base interaction is demonstrated, along with that of the nature of the base and solvent. A structure is proposed for the charge-transfer complexes of the substituted tetraazaporphyrins. It is found that they undergo destruction over time.

  10. Effects of intratesticular administration of zinc gluconate and dimethyl sulfoxide on clinical, endocrinological, and reproductive parameters in dogs.

    Vannucchi, C I; Angrimani, D S R; Eyherabide, A R; Mazzei, C P; Lucio, C F; Maiorka, P C; Silva, L C G; Nichi, M


    Nonsurgical sterilization methods are considered alternative tools for the worldwide challenge represented by canine overpopulation control. Intratesticular injection of zinc gluconate associated with DMSO arises as an option because of the effortless diffusion throughout the testicular parenchyma. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of a double testicular injection of zinc gluconate associated with DMSO as a chemical contraceptive for male dogs. The study was conducted with 22 dogs treated with two intratesticular injections of the chemical solution (treated group; n = 15) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control group; n = 7) on a monthly interval. All animals were submitted to clinical examination, breeding soundness evaluation including morphologic and sonographic examination of the testes, assessment of libido, volume of the sperm-rich fraction, sperm motility, total sperm count, plasma membrane integrity, sperm morphologic abnormalities, and the total number of morphologically normal and motile sperm in the ejaculate. Blood samples were collected for serum testosterone analysis, and testicular tissue was morphologically and histologically evaluated. No clinical alterations and signs of pain or local sensitivity along the experimental period were noticed. However, the injection of zinc gluconate and DMSO significantly reduced libido and testosterone concentrations (even beyond the reference range for intact male dogs). Impairment of sperm quality-related variables was observed 15 days after the first intratesticular administration of zinc gluconate and DMSO (i.e., decrease in sperm count and sperm motility and an increase in major sperm defects and by this a decrease in the total number of morphologically normal and motile sperm). Testicular ultrasonographic analysis revealed reduction of testicular volume and changes of testicular echotexture in treated animals, compatible with tissue degeneration, fibrosis, and calcification of testicular parenchyma on

  11. Local structure of dilute aqueous DMSO solutions, as seen from molecular dynamics simulations

    Idrissi, Abdenacer; Marekha, Bogdan A.; Barj, Mohammed; Miannay, François Alexandre; Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Raptis, Vasilios; Samios, Jannis; Jedlovszky, Pál


    The information about the structure of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-water mixtures at relatively low DMSO mole fractions is an important step in order to understand their cryoprotective properties as well as the solvation process of proteins and amino acids. Classical MD simulations, using the potential model combination that best reproduces the free energy of mixing of these compounds, are used to analyze the local structure of DMSO-water mixtures at DMSO mole fractions below 0.2. Significant changes in the local structure of DMSO are observed around the DMSO mole fraction of 0.1. The array of evidence, based on the cluster and the metric and topological parameters of the Voronoi polyhedra distributions, indicates that these changes are associated with the simultaneous increase of the number of DMSO-water and decrease of water-water hydrogen bonds with increasing DMSO concentration. The inversion between the dominance of these two types of H-bonds occurs around XDMSO = 0.1, above which the DMSO-DMSO interactions also start playing an important role. In other words, below the DMSO mole fraction of 0.1, DMSO molecules are mainly solvated by water molecules, while above it, their solvation shell consists of a mixture of water and DMSO. The trigonal, tetrahedral, and trigonal bipyramidal distributions of water shift to lower corresponding order parameter values indicating the loosening of these orientations. Adding DMSO does not affect the hydrogen bonding between a reference water molecule and its first neighbor hydrogen bonded water molecules, while it increases the bent hydrogen bond geometry involving the second ones. The close-packed local structure of the third, fourth, and fifth water neighbors also is reinforced. In accordance with previous theoretical and experimental data, the hydrogen bonding between water and the first, the second, and the third DMSO neighbors is stronger than that with its corresponding water neighbors. At a given DMSO mole fraction, the

  12. The use of dimethyl sulfoxide in contact lens disinfectants is a potential preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Aqeel, Yousuf; Khan, Naveed Ahmed


    Acanthamoeba castellanii is the causative agent of blinding keratitis. Though reported in non-contact lens wearers, it is most frequently associated with improper use of contact lens. For contact lens wearers, amoebae attachment to the lens is a critical first step, followed by amoebae binding to the corneal epithelial cells during extended lens wear. Acanthamoeba attachment to surfaces (biological or inert) and migration is an active process and occurs during the trophozoite stage. Thus retaining amoebae in the cyst stage (dormant form) offers an added preventative measure in impeding parasite traversal from the contact lens onto the cornea. Here, we showed that as low as 3% DMSO, abolished A. castellanii excystation. Based on the findings, it is proposed that DMSO should be included in the contact lens disinfectants as an added preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elucidating Interactions between DMSO and Chelate-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Chen, Hang; Wang, Xinyu; Yao, Jia; Chen, Kexian; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haoran


    The C-D bond stretching vibrations of deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide ([D6 ]DMSO) and the C2 -H bond stretching vibrations of 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione (hfac) ligand in anion are chosen as probes to elucidate the solvent-solute interaction between chelate-based ionic liquids (ILs) and DMSO by vibrational spectroscopic studies. The indirect effect from the interaction of the adjacent S=O functional group of DMSO with the cation [C10 mim](+) and anion [Mn(hfac)3 ](-) of the ILs leads to the blue-shift of the C-D stretching vibrations of DMSO. The C2 -H bond stretching vibrations in hfac ligand is closely related to the ionic hydrogen bond strength between the cation and anion of chelate-based ILs. EPR studies reveal that the crystal field of the central metal is kept when the chelate-based ILs are in different microstructure environment in the solution.

  14. Functional genomics indicates yeast requires Golgi/ER transport, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair for low dose DMSO tolerance

    Brandon David Gaytán


    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is frequently utilized as a solvent in toxicological and pharmaceutical investigations. It is therefore important to establish the cellular and molecular targets of DMSO in order to differentiate its intrinsic effects from those elicited by a compound of interest. We performed a genome-wide functional screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify deletion mutants exhibiting sensitivity to 1% DMSO, a concentration standard to yeast chemical profiling studies. We report that mutants defective in Golgi/ER transport are sensitive to DMSO, including those lacking components of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG complex. Moreover, strains deleted for members of the SWR1 histone exchange complex are hypersensitive to DMSO, with additional chromatin remodeling mutants displaying a range of growth defects. We also identify DNA repair genes important for DMSO tolerance. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of histone H2A.Z, which replaces chromatin-associated histone H2A in a SWR1-catalyzed reaction, confers resistance to DMSO. Many yeast genes described in this study have homologs in more complex organisms, and the data provided is applicable to future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of DMSO toxicity.

  15. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces

    Schrader, Alex M.; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Han, Songi


    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity.

  16. DMSO as a solvent/ligand to monodisperse CdS spherical nanoparticles

    Xu, Kaijun [China Pharmaceutical University, Physical Chemistry Lab, School of Science (China); Han, Qiaofeng, E-mail: [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education (China)


    Monodisperse CdS nanospheres assembled by small nanoparticles were prepared using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent through several routes including thermolysis of xanthate, the reaction of cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}) with thiourea, and interfacial reaction of CS{sub 2} and Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}/DMSO. The corresponding products possessed the particle sizes ranging from around 35 to 45 nm, 63 to 73 nm, and 240 to 280 nm, respectively. These products presented uniform spherical morphology, which provide insights into the effect of DMSO on CdS morphology. DMSO, as an aprotic and polar solvent, possesses unique properties. The oxygen and sulfur atoms in DMSO can coordinate to metal ions on nanoparticles surface, and the high polarity of DMSO is favorable to fast reaction, nucleation, growth, and Ostwald ripening, forming monodisperse nanospheres with narrow size distribution. The influence of CdS size on its photocatalytic activity was evaluated using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model compound under visible light irradiation.

  17. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence

    Fuller P


    Full Text Available Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.Keywords: osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, topical analgesic

  18. Ethyl 6-amino-5-cyano-4-phenyl-2,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-3-carboxylate dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    Naresh Sharma


    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H14N4O3·C2H6OS, there are two independent main molecules (A and B and two dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules. In molecule A, the pyran ring is in a flattened sofa conformation, with the sp3-hydridized C atom forming the flap. In molecule B, the pyran ring is in a flattened boat conformation, with the sp3-hydridized C atom and the O atom deviating by 0.073 (3 and 0.055 (3 Å, respectively, from the plane of the other four atoms. The mean planes the pyrazole and phenyl rings form dihedral angles of 84.4 (2 and 84.9 (2°, respectively, for molecules A and B. In the crystal, N—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure into chains along [010]. In both solvent molecules, the S atoms are disordered over two sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.679 (4:0.321 (4 and 0.546 (6:0.454 (6.

  19. Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with the acetonitrile-1,3-dioxolane-dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mixture

    Herr, T.; Fischer, P.; Tübke, J.; Pinkwart, K.; Elsner, P.


    Different solvent mixtures were investigated for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate (V(acac)3) redox flow batteries with tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate as the supporting electrolyte. The aim of this study was to increase the energy density of the non-aqueous redox flow battery. A mixture of acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and 1-3-dioxolane nearly doubles the solubility of the active species. The proposed electrolyte system was characterized by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and charge-discharge set-up. Spectroscopic methods were applied to understand the interactions between the solvents used and their impact on the solubility. The potential difference between oxidation and reduction of V(acac)3 measured by cyclic voltammetry was about 2.2 V. Impedance spectroscopy showed an electrolyte resistance of about 2400 Ω cm2. Experiments in a charge-discharge test cell achieved coulombic and energy efficiencies of ∼95% and ∼27% respectively. The highest discharge power density was 0.25 mW cm-2.

  20. Metal Organic Framework Micro/Nanopillars of Cu(BTC·3H2O and Zn(ADC·DMSO

    Arben Kojtari


    Full Text Available In this work, we report the optical and thermal properties of Cu(BTC·3H2O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and Zn(ADC·DMSO (ADC = 9,10- anthracenedicarboxylic acid, DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide metal-organic frameworks (MOFs micro/nanopillars. The morphologies of MOFs on surfaces are most in the form of micro/nanopillars that were vertically oriented on the surface. The size and morphology of the pillars depend on the evaporation time, concentration, solvent, substrate, and starting volume of solutions. The crystal structures of the nanopillars and micropillars are the same, confirmed by powder XRD. Zn(ADC·DMSO pillars have a strong blue fluorescence. Most of ADC in the pillars are in the form of monomers, which is different from ADC in the solid powder.

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Monochloridehepta (dimethyl sulfoxide)gadolinium (Ⅲ) di(tetraphenyl boron) Salt [Gd(dmso) 7Cl][BPh4]2

    张道; 郭松山; 王汉章; 郁开北


    The crystal of the title compound (C62H82B2ClGdO7S7 Mr= 1378.02)is triclinic with space group P-1. a=12. 532(2), b=12. 774(2), c=24. 580(5)A; α=93.389(9), β=104. 640(8), γ=112. 923(9)°, V=3451.4(8)A3, Z=2, Dc=1.326g/cm3. μ(MoKα)=1. 258mm-1, F(000)=1426. R=0.036 , Rw= 0. 091for 12101 reflections with I>2σ(I). The crystal is composed of a discrete cation [Gd(dm-so )7Cl]+ and two anions [BPh4]-. The Gd( Ⅲ ) ion is coordinated by a chlorine and seven oxygen atoms from seven monodenate dimethylsulfoxides formimg a distorted square antiprism coordination polyhedron.

  2. Na+ Cl- ion pair association in water-DMSO mixtures: Effect of ion pair model potentials



    Potentials of Mean Force (PMF) for the Na+ Cl- ion pair in water–dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)mixtures for three DMSO mole fractions have been computed using constrained Molecular Dynamics (MD)simulations and confirmed by dynamical trajectories and residence times of the ion pair at various inter-ionicseparations. The three ion-ion direct potentials used are 12-6-1, exp-6-1 and exp-8-6-1. The physical picturethat emerges is that there is a strong contact ion pair (CIP) and strong to moderate solvent separated ion pair(SSIP) in these solutions. Analysis of local ion clusters shows that ions are dominantly solvated by watermolecules. The 12-6-1 potential model predicts running coordination numbers closest to experimental data.

  3. A long-term, open-label study to confirm the safety of topical diclofenac solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide in the treatment of the osteoarthritic knee.

    Shainhouse, J Zev; Grierson, Lisa M; Naseer, Zahid


    To assess the long-term safety of a topical solution of diclofenac sodium in a vehicle containing dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo), subjects with radiologically confirmed, symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee(s) applied the clinical dose of TDiclo (40 drops, four times daily) to each painful knee for up to 52 weeks. Safety assessment included adverse events, skin irritation scores of the treated knee(s), ocular examinations, and routine laboratory tests. There were 793 subjects (mean age, 62.5 years) who applied TDiclo to one or both (72%) knees for an average of 204 days, including 463 subjects for 6 months and 144 for 1 year. The most frequent adverse events were at the application site with no increase in incidence with prolonged exposure: dry skin (25.3%), contact dermatitis without vesicles (13.0%) or with vesicles (9.5%). Skin irritation score was 0 (normal) in 61.0% of subjects, 0.5 (dryness or flaking) in 23.9%, 1 or 2 (erythema without or with induration) in 6.9%, and 3 or 4 (erythema with induration and vesicles/bullae) in 8.2%. Subject dropouts included 114 (14.4%) with an application site skin adverse event. Individual subject laboratory test shift to abnormal occurred for hemoglobin (3.2%), aspartate aminotransferase (6.4%), alanine aminotransferase (7.3%), and creatinine (4.2%), but few shifts (less than 0.3% per variable) were clinically significant. No increased risk of cardiovascular or cataract events was noted. This long-term study of TDiclo revealed a safety profile comparable to that shown in multiple, shorter, well-controlled, double-blind trials with the predominant adverse effect noted being an application site reaction.

  4. Structure and phase transitions of the multilamellar DMPC membranes in presence of the DMSO and DESO

    Gorshkova, Yu E.; Ivankov, O. I.


    The structure and phase transitions of the prepared and formed spontaneously multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diethyl sulfoxide (DESO) were investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The both polar aprotic solvents increase the temperature of the main phase transition (Tm ). The pre-transition does not observed at sulfoxides mole fraction X = 0.2. The transition of the MLVs DMPC in the presence DMSO from gel to liquid-crystalline phase occurs at lower temperature. The method of the MLVs preparation has directly effects on the temperature of the main phase transition and its structure. The value of Tm is higher with ∼ 4.6 ºC in case of the spontaneous forming MLVs from extruded ULVs. The thickness of the solvent layer for prepared MLVs is less by 4.0 Å in gel phase and by 5.6 Å in liquid-crystalline phase than the thickness of the solvent layer for spontaneously formed MLVs.

  5. Bis(3-acetyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-olatobis(dimethyl sulfoxidenickel(II

    Amel Djedouani


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C8H7O42{(CH32SO}2], the NiII atom is located on a crystallographic centre of symmetry and has a distorted octahedral coordination geometry of type MO6. The bidentate dehydroacetic acid (DHA ligands occupy the equatorial plane of the complex in a trans configuration, and the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO ligands are weakly coordinated through their O atoms in the axial positions.

  6. Study of Antibacterial Effect of Oleanolic Acid Combinating with Dimethyl Sulfoxide Against Enterococcus Faecalis in Biofilm%齐墩果酸联合二甲亚砜对生物膜中粪肠球菌抑菌作用研究

    吴悠; 胡焱; 王瑶


    目的:研究齐墩果酸联合二甲亚砜对单一生物膜中粪肠球菌的抑菌效果。方法:(1)采用微量棋盘液体稀释法测定齐墩果酸与二甲亚砜联合抑菌浓度分数指数(FICI)。(2)建立24 h粪肠球菌生物膜模型,随机分为三组:1 mg/mL齐墩果酸+50%二甲亚砜(A组)、2%氯己定(B组)、去离子水(C组)。各组药物分别作用30 min后荧光染色,激光共聚焦显微镜(CLSM)观察染色情况及死、活菌数量变化。结果:(1)二甲亚砜和齐墩果酸对粪肠球菌的MIC分别20%和100μg/mL。联合时FICI=0.5125。(2)A组、B组生物膜中以死菌为主,仅见散在零星分布活菌,C组生物膜中以活菌为主,仅存在极少量死菌。结论:齐墩果酸与二甲亚砜联合,对体外粪肠球菌的抗菌作用表现为相加作用,1 mg/mL齐墩果酸联合50%二甲亚砜可有效抑制生物膜中粪肠球菌生长。%Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect of oleanolic acid(OA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against enterococcus faecalis (E.faecalis) in biofilm in vitro.Method:(1)The microscale checkerboard technique was applied to calculate the FICI value of OA combinating with DMSO.(2)E.faecalis biofilm models were formed after 24h. Samples were randomly divided into three groups:1 mg/mL OA+50% DMSO(group A), 2% chlorhexidine(group B), deionized water(group C).Medicating in each groups for 30 min respectively. After fluorescent staining, samples were observed by CLSM.Result:(1)The MICs of DMSO and OA against E.faecalis were 20% and 100 μg/mL.FICI=0.5125 when they were combined.(2)The biofilms of group A and B were mainly composed of dead bacteria, only scattered living bacteria could be found.The biofilm of group C was mainly composed of living bacteria,only tiny dead bacteria could be detected.Conclusion:Additive joint action was existed between OA and DMSO against E.faecalis.1 mg/mL OA combinating with 50% DMSO can

  7. Luminescent properties of [UO{sub 2}(TFA){sub 2}(DMSO){sub 3}], a promising material for sensing and monitoring the uranyl ion

    Martin-Ramos, Pablo; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira da [Centro de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra (CFisUC), Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Ana L.; Melo, J. Sergio Seixas de [Centro de Quimica de Coimbra, Department of Chemistry, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, Laura C.J. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Martin-Gil, Jesus, E-mail: [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenierias Agrarias, University of Valladolid, Palencia (Spain)


    An uranyl complex [UO{sub 2}(TFA){sub 2}(DMSO){sub 3}] (TFA=deprotonated trifluoroacetic acid; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide) has been successfully synthesized by reacting UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} ·H{sub 2} O with one equivalent of (CF{sub 3} CO){sub 2} O and DMSO. The complex has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and absorption and emission spectroscopies. The spectroscopic properties of the material make it suitable for its application in the sensing and monitoring of uranyl in the PUREX process. (author)

  8. 未洗脱二甲亚砜冰冻复融血小板的功能及其临床应用研究%Functions and clinical applications of frozen-thawed platelet without dimethyl sulfoxide elution

    郭宗英; 丁国良; 朱琳


    Objective To investigate the functions and feasibility of clinical applications of frozenthawed platelet without dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) elution.Methods From January to December 2015,a total of 60 bags (200 mL/bag) of cryopreserved platelets which were prepared and saved by Dongying Central Blood Station of Shangdong Province were included into this study,by simple random sampling method.These 60 bags of cryopreserved platelets were thawed and included in thawed original platelet group (n=60).After mixing 10 mL platelet of thawed original platelet group with 30 mL fresh frozen-thawed plasma according to the volume ratio of 1 ∶ 3,the new gained ones were included into the mixed platelet group (n=60).And a total of fresh platelet which were collected by our blood station in the same period were included into control group (n =60).The quality of above-mentioned frozen-thawed platelets,fresh liquid platelets,and fresh frozen-thawed plasma met the relevant regulations in Quality Requirements for Whole Blood and Blood Components (GB18469-2012).A total of 150 patients who received frozen-thawed platelets without DMSO elution transfusion in the Second People's Hospital of Dongying at the same period were randomly selected as blood transfusions reaction observation objects,by using simple random sampling method.Three groups of platelets were detected with thrombelastogram and coagulation time after recalcification,so as to compare the platelet coagulation function in each group.A retrospective analysis was carried out on the transfusion reactions of 150 patients after transfusion with frozen-thawed platelets without DMSO elution,and the platelet counts in peripheral blood were compared before and 1,24,48 and 72 h after transfusion,so as to analyze the clinical application of frozen-thawed platelets without DMSO elution.The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of the Second People' s Hospital of Dongying.Informed consent

  9. Hydrogenation of CO2 to Formic Acid with a Highly Active Ruthenium Acriphos Complex in DMSO and DMSO/Water.

    Rohmann, Kai; Kothe, Jens; Haenel, Matthias W; Englert, Ulli; Hölscher, Markus; Leitner, Walter


    The novel [Ru(Acriphos)(PPh3 )(Cl)(PhCO2 )] [1; Acriphos=4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)acridine] is an excellent precatalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to give formic acid in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and DMSO/H2 O without the need for amine bases as co-reagents. Turnover numbers (TONs) of up to 4200 and turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 260 h(-1) were achieved, thus rendering 1 one of the most active catalysts for CO2 hydrogenations under additive-free conditions reported to date. The thermodynamic stabilization of the reaction product by the reaction medium, through hydrogen bonds between formic acid and clusters of solvent or water, were rationalized by DFT calculations. The relatively low final concentration of formic acid obtained experimentally under catalytic conditions (0.33 mol L(-1) ) was shown to be limited by product-dependent catalyst inhibition rather than thermodynamic limits, and could be overcome by addition of small amounts of acetate buffer, thus leading to a maximum concentration of free formic acid of 1.27 mol L(-1) , which corresponds to optimized values of TON=16×10(3) and TOFavg ≈10(3)  h(-1) .

  10. DMSO is a strong inducer of DNA hydroxymethylation in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Thaler, Roman; Spitzer, Silvia; Karlic, Heidrun; Klaushofer, Klaus; Varga, Franz


    Artificial induction of active DNA demethylation appears to be a possible and useful strategy in molecular biology research and therapy development. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was shown to cause phenotypic changes in embryonic stem cells altering the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Here we report that DMSO increases global and gene-specific DNA hydroxymethylation levels in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. After 1 day, DMSO increased the expression of genes involved in DNA hydroxymethylation (TET) and nucleotide excision repair (GADD45) and decreased the expression of genes related to DNA methylation (Dnmt1, Dnmt3b, Hells). Already 12 hours after seeding, before first replication, DMSO increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Fas and of the early osteoblastic factor Dlx5, which proved to be Tet1 dependent. At this time an increase of 5-methyl-cytosine hydroxylation (5-hmC) with a concomitant loss of methyl-cytosines on Fas and Dlx5 promoters as well as an increase in global 5-hmC and loss in global DNA methylation was observed. Time course-staining of nuclei suggested euchromatic localization of DMSO induced 5-hmC. As consequence of induced Fas expression, caspase 3/7 and 8 activities were increased indicating apoptosis. After 5 days, the effect of DMSO on promoter- and global methylation as well as on gene expression of Fas and Dlx5 and on caspases activities was reduced or reversed indicating down-regulation of apoptosis. At this time, up regulation of genes important for matrix synthesis suggests that DMSO via hydroxymethylation of the Fas promoter initially stimulates apoptosis in a subpopulation of the heterogeneous MC3T3-E1 cell line, leaving a cell population of extra-cellular matrix producing osteoblasts.  PMID:22507896

  11. Crystal structure of poly[tetra-μ2-cyanido-1:2κ8 N:C-bis­(dimethyl sulfoxide-1κO)diargentate(I)iron(II)

    Kucheriv, Olesia I.; Naumova, Dina D.; Tokmenko, Inna I.; Polunin, Ruslan A.; Terebilenko, Kateryna V.


    In the title polymeric complex, [Fe{OS(CH3)2}2{Ag(CN)2}2], the FeII cation is located at an inversion centre and is coordinated by four cyanide (CN−) anions and two dimethyl sulfoxide mol­ecules in a slightly compressed N4O2 octa­hedral geometry, the AgI cation is C-coordinated by two CN− anions in a nearly linear geometry. The CN− anions bridge the FeII and AgI cations to form a two-dimensional polymeric structure extending parallel to (102). In the crystal, the nearest Ag⋯Ag distance between polymeric sheets is 3.8122 (12) Å. The crystal studied was a twin with a contribution of 0.2108 (12) for the minor component.

  12. Crystal structure of diaquabis(7-diethylamino-3-formyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-olato-κ2O3,O4zinc(II dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate

    Aaron B. Davis


    Full Text Available The structure of the title coordination complex, [Zn(C14H14NO42(H2O2]·2C2H6OS, shows that the ZnII cation adopts an octahedral geometry and lies on an inversion center. Two organic ligands occupy the equatorial positions of the coordination sphere, forming a chelate ring motif via the O atom on the formyl group and another O atom of the carbonyl group (a pseudo-β-diketone motif. Two water molecules occupy the remaining coordination sites of the ZnII cation in the axial positions. The water molecules are each hydrogen bonded to a single dimethyl sulfoxide molecule that has been entrapped in the crystal lattice.

  13. Crystal structure of 6-amino-4-(3-bromo-4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-3-methyl-2,4-di-hydro-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carbo-nitrile dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate.

    Yousuf, Sammer; Bano, Huma; Muhammad, Munira Taj; Khan, Khalid Mohammed


    In the pyrazole mol-ecule of the title solvate, C15H13BrN4O2·C2H6OS, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane of the di-hydro-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole ring system [r.m.s deviation = 0.031 (2) Å] is 86.71 (14)°. In the crystal, the pyrazole mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a layer parallel to (10-1). The pyrazole and dimethyl sulfoxide mol-ecules are connected by an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond.

  14. Large Thermal Conductivity Differences between the Crystalline and Vitrified States of DMSO with Applications to Cryopreservation

    Ehrlich, Lili E.; Feig, Justin S. G.; Schiffres, Scott N.; Malen, Jonathan A.; Rabin, Yoed


    Thermal conductivity of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) solution is measured in this study using a transient hot wire technique, where DMSO is a key ingredient in many cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktails. Characterization of thermal properties of cryoprotective agents is essential to the analysis of cryopreservation processes, either when evaluating experimental data or for the design of new protocols. Also presented are reference measurements of thermal conductivity for pure water ice and glycerol. The thermal conductivity measurement setup is integrated into the experimentation stage of a scanning cryomacroscope apparatus, which facilitates the correlation of measured data with visualization of physical events. Thermal conductivity measurements were conducted for a DMSO concentration range of 2M and 10M, in a temperature range of -180°C and 25°C. Vitrified samples showed decreased thermal conductivity with decreasing temperature, while crystalline samples showed increased thermal conductivity with decreasing temperature. These different behaviors result in up to a tenfold difference in thermal conductivity at -180°C. Such dramatic differences can drastically impact heat transfer during cryopreservation and their quantification is therefore critical to cryobiology. PMID:25985058

  15. Large Thermal Conductivity Differences between the Crystalline and Vitrified States of DMSO with Applications to Cryopreservation.

    Ehrlich, Lili E; Feig, Justin S G; Schiffres, Scott N; Malen, Jonathan A; Rabin, Yoed


    Thermal conductivity of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) solution is measured in this study using a transient hot wire technique, where DMSO is a key ingredient in many cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktails. Characterization of thermal properties of cryoprotective agents is essential to the analysis of cryopreservation processes, either when evaluating experimental data or for the design of new protocols. Also presented are reference measurements of thermal conductivity for pure water ice and glycerol. The thermal conductivity measurement setup is integrated into the experimentation stage of a scanning cryomacroscope apparatus, which facilitates the correlation of measured data with visualization of physical events. Thermal conductivity measurements were conducted for a DMSO concentration range of 2M and 10M, in a temperature range of -180°C and 25°C. Vitrified samples showed decreased thermal conductivity with decreasing temperature, while crystalline samples showed increased thermal conductivity with decreasing temperature. These different behaviors result in up to a tenfold difference in thermal conductivity at -180°C. Such dramatic differences can drastically impact heat transfer during cryopreservation and their quantification is therefore critical to cryobiology.

  16. Precipitation of Hemicelluloses from DMSO/Water Mixtures Using Carbon Dioxide as an Antisolvent

    Emmerich Haimer


    Full Text Available Supercritical antisolvent precipitation is a relatively recent technology which can be used for controlled preparation of polymer particles from solutions. This is done by the addition of an antisolvent to a polymer solution causing supersaturation of the polymer, especially under supercritical conditions. The particle size of the precipitates can be adjusted mainly by the rate of supersaturation. Spherical xylan or mannan particles having a narrow particle size distribution were precipitated from hemicellulose solutions in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO or DMSO/water mixtures by carbon dioxide as an antisolvent. By depending on the type of hemicellulose, the DMSO/H2O ratio, and the precipitation conditions such as pressure and temperature, the resulting particle size can be adjusted within a wide range from less than 0.1 to more than 5 m. Nano- and microstructured native xylans and mannans as obtained can be used in many applications such as encapsulation of active compounds, slow release agents, or chromatographic separation materials.

  17. Large Thermal Conductivity Differences between the Crystalline and Vitrified States of DMSO with Applications to Cryopreservation.

    Lili E Ehrlich

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO solution is measured in this study using a transient hot wire technique, where DMSO is a key ingredient in many cryoprotective agent (CPA cocktails. Characterization of thermal properties of cryoprotective agents is essential to the analysis of cryopreservation processes, either when evaluating experimental data or for the design of new protocols. Also presented are reference measurements of thermal conductivity for pure water ice and glycerol. The thermal conductivity measurement setup is integrated into the experimentation stage of a scanning cryomacroscope apparatus, which facilitates the correlation of measured data with visualization of physical events. Thermal conductivity measurements were conducted for a DMSO concentration range of 2M and 10M, in a temperature range of -180°C and 25°C. Vitrified samples showed decreased thermal conductivity with decreasing temperature, while crystalline samples showed increased thermal conductivity with decreasing temperature. These different behaviors result in up to a tenfold difference in thermal conductivity at -180°C. Such dramatic differences can drastically impact heat transfer during cryopreservation and their quantification is therefore critical to cryobiology.

  18. Highly stable noble metal nanoparticles dispersible in biocompatible solvents: synthesis of cationic phosphonium gold nanoparticles in water and DMSO.

    Ju-Nam, Yon; Abdussalam-Mohammed, Wanisa; Ojeda, Jesus J


    In this work, we report the synthesis of novel cationic phosphonium gold nanoparticles dispersible in water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for their potential use in biomedical applications. All the cationic-functionalising ligands currently reported in the literature are ammonium-based species. Here, the synthesis and characterisation of an alternative system, based on phosphonioalkylthiosulfate zwitterions and phosphonioalkylthioacetate were carried out. We have also demonstrated that our phosphonioalkylthiosulfate zwitterions readily disproportionate into phosphonioalkylthiolates in situ during the synthesis of gold nanoparticles produced by the borohydride reduction of gold(III) salts. The synthesis of the cationic gold nanoparticles using these phosphonium ligands was carried out in water and DMSO. UV-visible spectroscopic and TEM studies have shown that the phosphonioalkylthiolates bind to the surface of gold nanoparticles which are typically around 10 nm in diameter. The resulting cationic-functionalised gold nanoparticles are dispersible in aqueous media and in DMSO, which is the only organic solvent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for drug carrier tests. This indicates their potential future use in biological applications. This work shows the synthesis of a new family of phosphonium-based ligands, which behave as cationic masked thiolate ligands in the functionalisation of gold nanoparticles. These highly stable colloidal cationic phosphonium gold nanoparticles dispersed in water and DMSO can offer a great opportunity for the design of novel biorecognition and drug delivery systems.

  19. Ultrasound- and Temperature-Induced Gelation of Gluconosemicarbazide Gelator in DMSO and Water Mixtures

    Mothukunta Himabindu


    Full Text Available We have developed amphiphilic supramolecular gelators carrying glucose moiety that could gel a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and water upon heating as well as ultrasound treatment. When the suspension of gluconosemicarbazide was subjected to ultrasound treatment, gelation took place at much lower concentrations compared to thermal treatment, and the gels transformed into a solution state at higher temperatures compared to temperature-induced gels. The morphology was found to be influenced by the nature of the stimulus and presence of salts such as KCl, NaCl, CaCl2 and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate at a concentration of 0.05 M. The gel exhibited impressive tolerance to these additives, revealing the stability and strength of the gels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed the presence of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rheological studies supported better mechanical strength of ultrasound-induced (UI gels over thermally-induced (TI gels.

  20. Dependence of the enthalpies of alanyl-alanine dissolution on the composition of mixed water + acetone and water + DMSO solvents at 298.15 K

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.


    The enthalpies of dissolution of two dipeptides, DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine and β-alanyl-β-alanine, in mixed solvents H2O + acetone (AC) and H2O + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are measured via calorimetry at an organic component concentration of x 2 = 0-0.25 mole fraction at 298.15 K. The standard enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H po) and the transfer (Δtr H po) of dipeptides from water to the mixed solvent and the enthalpic coefficients of pairwise interactions ( h xy ) with AC and DMSO molecules are calculated from these data. The effect the composition of aqueous organic mixtures has on the enthalpy characteristics of the dissolution of DL-α-alanyl-β-alanine and β-alanyl-β-alanine is considered. A comparative analysis of h xy values is performed for alanine dipeptides in the investigated mixed solvents.

  1. Isomeric [RuCl2(dmso)2(indazole)2] complexes: ruthenium(II)-mediated coupling reaction of acetonitrile with 1H-indazole.

    Reisner, Erwin; Arion, Vladimir B; Rufińska, Anna; Chiorescu, Ion; Schmid, Wolfgang F; Keppler, Bernhard K


    Reaction of the antitumor complex trans-[Ru(III)Cl4(Hind)2]- (Hind = indazole) with an excess of dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) in acetone afforded the complex trans,trans,trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (1). Two other isomeric compounds trans,cis,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (2) and cis,cis,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2(Hind)2] (3) have been obtained on refluxing cis-[Ru(II)Cl(2)(dmso)(4)] with 2 equiv. of indazole in ethanol and methanol, respectively. Isomers 1 and 2 react with acetonitrile yielding the complexes trans-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)(Hind){HN=C(Me)ind}].CH3CN (4.CH3CN) and trans,cis-[Ru(II)Cl2(dmso)2{HN=C(Me)ind}].H2O (5.H2O), respectively, containing a cyclic amidine ligand resulting from insertion of the acetonitrile C triple bond N group in the N1-H bond of the N2-coordinated indazole ligand in the nomenclature used for 1H-indazole. These are the first examples of the metal-assisted iminoacylation of indazole. The products isolated have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrospray mass-spectrometry, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and solid-state 13C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. The isomeric structures of 1-3 and the presence of a chelating amidine ligand in 4 and 5 have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The electrochemical behavior of 1-5 and the formation of 5 have been studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Chamber simulation of photooxidation of dimethyl sulfide and isoprene in the presence of NOx

    M. Jang


    Full Text Available To improve the model prediction for the formation of H2SO4 and methanesulfonic acid (MSA, aerosol-phase reactions of gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS oxidation products [e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO] in aerosol have been included in the DMS kinetic model with the recently reported gas-phase reactions and their rate constants. To determine the rate constants of aerosol-phase reactions of both DMSO and its major gaseous products [e.g., dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2 and methanesulfinic acid (MSIA], DMSO was photooxidized in the presence of NOx using a 2 m3 Teflon film chamber. The rate constants tested in the DMSO kinetic mechanisms were then incorporated into the DMS photooxidation mechanism. The model simulation using the newly constructed DMS oxidation mechanims was compared to chamber data obtained from the phototoxiation of DMS in the presence of NOx. Within 120-min simulation, the predicted concentrations of MSA increase by 200–400% and those of H2SO4, by 50–200% due to aerosol-phase chemistry. This was well substantiated with experimental data. To study the effect of coexisting volatile organic compounds, the photooxidation of DMS in the presence of isoprene and NOx has been simulated using the newly constructed DMS kinetic model integrated with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for isoprene oxidation, and compared to chamber data. With the high concentrations of DMS (250 ppb and isoprene (560–2248 ppb, both the model simulation and experimental data showed an increase in the yields of MSA and H2SO4 as the isoprene concentration increased.

  3. DMSO-Free Programmed Cryopreservation of Fully Dissociated and Adherent Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Igor I. Katkov


    Full Text Available Three modes for cryopreservation (CP of human iPSC cells have been compared: STD: standard CP of small clumps with 10% of CPA in cryovials, ACC: dissociation of the cells with Accutase and freezing in cryovials, and PLT: programmed freezing of adherent cells in plastic multiwell dishes in a programmable freezer using one- and multistep cooling protocols. Four CPAs were tesetd: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, ethylene glycol (EG, propylene glycol (PG, and glycerol (GLY. The cells in ACC and PLT were frozen and recovered after thawing in the presence of a ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 (RI. EG was less toxic w/o CP cryopreservation than DMSO and allowed much better maintenance of pluripotency after CP than PG or GLY. The cells were cryopreserved very efficiently as adherent cultures (+RI in plates (5-6-fold higher than STD using EG and a 6-step freezing protocol. Recovery under these conditions is comparable or even higher than ACC+RI. Conclusions. Maintenance of cell-substratum adherence is a favorable environment that mitigates freezing and thawing stresses (ComfortFreeze® concept developed by CELLTRONIX. CP of cells directly in plates in ready-to-go after thawing format for HT/HC screening can be beneficial in many SC-related scientific and commercial applications such as drug discovery and toxicity tests.

  4. An investigation of carbon dioxide capture by chitin acetate/DMSO binary system.

    Eftaiha, Ala'a F; Alsoubani, Fatima; Assaf, Khaleel I; Troll, Carsten; Rieger, Bernhard; Khaled, Aseel H; Qaroush, Abdussalam K


    Chitin is considered to be the second most abundant naturally-occurring polysaccharide. Also, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the second highest dielectric constant polar solvent after water. Despite the low solubility of chitin in common organic solvents, and due to its high nitrogen content, it may serve as a potential scrubbing agent "wet scrubbing" for carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing as an alternative to monoethanolamine "renewables for renewables approach". Briefly, a detailed investigation for the utilization of low molecular weight, chitin-acetate (CA) in DMSO for the capturing of CO2 is reported. As carbonation process takes place, the formation of ionic alkylcarbonate was confirmed throughout spectroscopic and computational studies. Supramolecular chemisorption was proven throughout (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) together with the absence of sorption of CO2 by the monomeric repeating unit, glucosamine hydrochloride. Further, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations supported the formation of the CA/CO2 adduct through a newly formed supramolecular ionic interaction and hydrogen bonding along the oligosaccharide backbone between the neighboring ammonium ion and hydroxyl functional groups. The sorption capacity was measured volumetrically within an in situ Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared coupled (in situ ATR-FTIR) autoclave at 25.0°C, and 4.0bar CO2, with a maximum sorption capacity of 3.63 [Formula: see text] /gsorbent at 10.0% (w/v).

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of an Organic-inorganic Complex [Hg(DMSO)2(H2O)]2 [GeW12O40]·DMSO·H2O

    Jing Ping WANG; Xiao Di DU; Xian Ying DUAN; Jing Yang NIU


    An organic-inorganic mercury coordination compound [Hg(DMSO)2(H2O)]2 [GeW12O40]·DMSO·H2O(DMSO =dimethyl sulfoxide) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV spectra, elemental analysis, TG-DTA and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Structural analysis revealed that in the title compound, the mercury is three-coordinated to show the distorted trigonal cone geometry, and depending on the electrostatic interaction to connect the polyanion [α-GeW12O40]4-. TG-DTA study manifests the decomposition temperature of the polyanion framework in the title compound is 513.5℃, which is much higher than that of the anion framework. It means that the formation of the organic-inorganic mercury coordination compound made the polyanion [α-GeW12O40]4- to be more stable.

  6. DMSO Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting the Type II TGF-β Receptor From Intracellular Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane.

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Jung San


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used to treat many diseases/symptoms. The molecular basis of the pharmacological actions of DMSO has been unclear. We hypothesized that DMSO exerts some of these actions by enhancing TGF-β activity. Here we show that DMSO enhances TGF-β activity by ∼3-4-fold in Mv1Lu and NMuMG cells expressing Smad-dependent luciferase reporters. In Mv1Lu cells, DMSO enhances TGF-β-stimulated expression of P-Smad2 and PAI-1. It increases cell-surface expression of TGF-β receptors (TβR-I and/or TβR-II) by ∼3-4-fold without altering their cellular levels as determined by (125) I-labeled TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis, suggesting the presence of large intracellular pools in these cells. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation/Western blot analysis reveals that DMSO induces recruitment of TβR-II (but not TβR-I) from its intracellular pool to plasma-membrane microdomains. It induces more recruitment of TβR-II to non-lipid raft microdomains than to lipid rafts/caveolae. Mv1Lu cells transiently transfected with TβR-II-HA plasmid were treated with DMSO and analyzed by indirect immunofluoresence staining using anti-HA antibody. In these cells, TβR-II-HA is present as a vesicle-like network in the cytoplasm as well as in the plasma membrane. DMSO causes depletion of TβR-II-HA-containing vesicles from the cytoplasm and co-localization of TβR-II-HA and cveolin-1 at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that DMSO, a fusogenic substance, enhances TGF-β activity presumably by inducing fusion of cytoplasmic vesicles (containing TβR-II) and the plasma membrane, resulting in increased localization of TβR-II to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. Fusogenic activity of DMSO may play a pivotal role in its pharmacological actions involving membrane proteins with large cytoplasmic pools. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1568-1579, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Brain Damage from Soman-Induced Seizures Is Greatly Exacerbated by Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): Modest Neuroprotection by 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2- APB), a Transient Receptor Potential Channel Inhibitor and Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Antagonist


    subcutaneous (s.c.) xylocaine was administered for local analgesia . Placement of screw electrodes was performed in accordance with the procedure... dental cement. On the morning of the fifth or sixth day following surgeries, electrode-implanted animals were connected to an ECoG recording

  8. [Dose-effect relationship of DMSO and Tween 80 influencing the growth and viability of murine bone marrow-derived cells in vitro].

    Han, Da-Liang; Liu, Ke-Qing; Guo, Shao-San; Zhu, Hai-Lin; Huang, Chang; Wang, Bao-He


    This study was purpose to examine the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Tween 80 on the growth and viability of stromal cells (BMSC), colony-forming units for granulocytes and macrophages (CFU-GM) and bone marrow endothelial cell line (BMEC) from murine bone marrow in vitro, and to analyze the concentration-effect relationship. The colony yields of colony-forming units fibroblastic (CFU-F) and CFU-GM were assessed in the murine bone marrow cell cultures at various concentrations of DMSO or Tween 80 and in the control groups. The MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion were used to determine the cell viability and percentage of survival in BMSC and BMEC cultures with or without either of these organic solvents. The results showed that the colony yields of both CFU-F and CFU-GM were decreased significantly (pTween 80 respectively, as compared with control. The cell viability and percentage of survival of BMSC and BMEC cultures were significantly reduced (pTween 80, as compared with control. With the increase of volume fractions of these solvents, the decreased percentages of corresponding measurements were increased by degrees. It is concluded that when the concentration of DMSO or Tween 80 goes to a certain level in cell culture medium, either of the organic solvents has an inhibitory action or/and cytotoxicity on the growth and viability of BMSCs, CFU-GM and BMECs. The growth inhibition and cytotoxic response are more significant at higher concentrations of these solvents.

  9. DMSO efficiently down regulates pluripotency genes in human embryonic stem cells during definitive endoderm derivation and increases the proficiency of hepatic differentiation.

    Katherine Czysz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Definitive endoderm (DE is one of the three germ layers which during in vivo vertebrate development gives rise to a variety of organs including liver, lungs, thyroid and pancreas; consequently efficient in vitro initiation of stem cell differentiation to DE cells is a prerequisite for successful cellular specification to subsequent DE-derived cell types [1, 2]. In this study we present a novel approach to rapidly and efficiently down regulate pluripotency genes during initiation of differentiation to DE cells by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO to Activin A-based culture medium and report its effects on the downstream differentiation to hepatocyte-like cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC were differentiated to DE using standard methods in medium supplemented with 100ng/ml of Activin A and compared to cultures where DE specification was additionally enhanced with different concentrations of DMSO. DE cells were subsequently primed to generate hepatic-like cells to investigate whether the addition of DMSO during formation of DE improved subsequent expression of hepatic markers. A combination of flow cytometry, real-time quantitative reverse PCR and immunofluorescence was applied throughout the differentiation process to monitor expression of pluripotency (POUF5/OCT4 & NANOG, definitive endoderm (SOX17, CXCR4 & GATA4 and hepatic (AFP & ALB genes to generate differentiation stage-specific signatures. RESULTS: Addition of DMSO to the Activin A-based medium during DE specification resulted in rapid down regulation of the pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG, accompanied by an increase expression of the DE genes SOX17, CXCR4 and GATA4. Importantly, the expression level of ALB in DMSO-treated cells was also higher than in cells which were differentiated to the DE stage via standard Activin A treatment.

  10. Effect of sulfoxides on the thermal denaturation of hen lysozyme: A calorimetric and Raman study

    Torreggiani, A.; Di Foggia, M.; Manco, I.; De Maio, A.; Markarian, S. A.; Bonora, S.


    A multidisciplinary study of the thermal denaturation of lysozyme in the presence of three sulfoxides with different length in hydrocarbon chain (DMSO, DESO, and DPSO) was carried out by means of DSC, Raman spectroscopy, and SDS-PAGE techniques. In particular, the Td and Δ H values obtained from the calorimetric measurements showed that lysozyme is partially unfolded by sulfoxides but most of the conformation holds native state. The sulfoxide denaturing ability increases in the order DPSO > DESO > DMSO. Moreover, only DMSO and DESO have a real effect in preventing the heat-induced inactivation of the protein and their maximum heat-protective ability is reached when the DMSO and DESO amount is ⩾25% w/w. The sulfoxide ability to act as effective protective agents against the heat-induced inactivation was confirmed by the protein analysis. The enzymatic activity, as well as the SDS-PAGE analysis, suggested that DESO, having a low hydrophobic character and a great ability to stabilise the three-dimensional water structure, is the most heat-protective sulfoxide. An accurate evaluation of the heat-induced conformational changes of the lysozyme structure before and after sulfoxide addition was obtained by the analysis of the Raman spectra. The addition of DMSO or DESO in low concentration resulted to sensitively decrease the heat-induced structural modifications of the protein.

  11. Physical properties and solubility parameters of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids/DMSO mixtures at 298.15 K

    Saba, H.; Yumei, Z.; Huaping, W.


    Densities, refractive indices, conductivities and viscosities of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with dimethyl sulfoxide at 298.15 K are reported. Excess molar volumes have been calculated from experimental data and were fitted with Redlich-Kister equation. The density and refractive index were found to increase with increasing concentration in all cases except [EMIM]COOH. The free mobility of ions has found to enhance conductivity and decrease viscosity to varying extent in all mixtures being studied. It has been observed that solubility parameters, dielectric constants and nature of anions of ILs being used play a vital role in determining the subsequent characteristics. As DMSO has high dielectric constant therefore, it was able to form interactions with most of ILs except with [EMIM]COOH due to anomalous nature of anion.

  12. Enhancement of Lipase-catalyzed Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in Ionic Liquid with DMSO Co-solvent☆

    Shuangshuang Gu; Jun Wang; Xianbin Wei; Hongsheng Cui; Xiangyang Wu; Fuan Wu


    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural and rare ingredient with several biological activities, but its indus-trial production using lipase-catalyzed esterification of caffeic acid (CA) and 2-phenylethanol (PE) in ionic liquids (ILs) is hindered by low substrate concentrations and long reaction time. To set up a high-efficiency bioprocess for production of CAPE, a novel dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)–IL co-solvent system was established in this study. The 2%(by volume) DMSO–[Bmim][Tf2N] system was found to be the best medium with higher substrate solu-bility and conversion of CA. Under the optimum conditions, the substrate concentration of CA was raised 8-fold, the reaction time was reduced by half, and the conversion reached 96.23%. The kinetics follows a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism with inhibition by PE, with kinetic parameters as follows:Vmax=0.89 mmol · min−1 · g−1, Km,CA=42.9 mmol · L−1, Km,PE=165.7 mmol · L−1, and Ki,PE=146.2 mmol · L−1. The results suggest that the DMSO co-solvent effect has great potential to enhance the enzymatic synthesis efficiency of CAPE in ILs.

  13. Direct determination of cadmium and lead in pharmaceutical ingredients using anodic stripping voltammetry in aqueous and DMSO/water solutions.

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Chambers, James Q; Lee, Carlos W; Xue, Zi-Ling


    A new electrochemical method has been developed to detect and quantify the elemental impurities, cadmium(II) (Cd(2+)) and lead(II) (Pb(2+)), either simultaneously or individually in pharmaceutical matrices. The electro-analytical approach, involving the use of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on an unmodified glassy carbon electrode, was performed in both aqueous and in a 95/5 dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water solutions, without acid digestion or dry ashing to remove organic matrices. Limits of detection (LODs) in the μg L(-1) [or parts per billion (ppb), mass/volume] range were obtained for both heavy metals - in the presence and absence of representative pharmaceutical components. To the best of our knowledge, the work demonstrates the first analysis of heavy metals in DMSO/water solutions through ASV. The strong reproducibility and stability of the sensing platform, as well as obviation of sample pretreatment show the promise of utilizing ASV as a sensitive, robust, and inexpensive alternative to inductively-coupled-plasma (ICP)-based approaches for the analysis of elemental impurities in, e.g., pharmaceutical-related matrices.

  14. Protection by DMSO against Cell Death Caused by Intracellularly Localized Iodine-125, Iodine-131 and Polonium-210

    Bishayee, Anupam; Rao, Dandamudi V.; Bouchet, Lionel G.; Bolch, Wesley E.


    The mechanisms by which DNA-incorporated radionuclides impart lethal damage to mammalian cells were investigated by examining the capacity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to protect against lethal damage to Chinese hamster V79 cells caused by unbound tritium (3H2O), DNA-incorporated 125I-and 131I-iododeoxyuridine (125IdU, 131IdU), and cytoplasmically localized 210Po citrate. The radionuclides 3H and 131I emit low-and medium-energy β particles, respectively, 125I is a prolific Auger electron emitter, and 210Po emits 5.3 MeV α particles. Cells were radiolabeled and maintained at 10.5°C for 72 h in the presence of different concentrations of DMSO (5–12.5% v/v), and the surviving fraction compared to that of unlabeled controls was determined. DMSO afforded no protection against the lethal effects of the high-LET α particles emitted by 210Po. Protection against lethal damage caused by unbound 3H, 131IdU and 125IdU depended on the concentration of DMSO in the culture medium. Ten percent DMSO provided maximum protection in all cases. The dose modification factors obtained at 10% DMSO for 3H2O, 131IdU, 125IdU and 210Po citrate were 2.9 ± 0.01, 2.3 ± 0.5, 2.6 ± 0.2 and 0.95 ± 0.07, respectively. These results indicate that the toxicity of Auger electron and β-particle emitters incorporated into the DNA of mammalian cells is largely radical-mediated and is therefore indirect in nature. This is also the case for the low-energy β particles emitted by 3H2O. In contrast, α particles impart lethal damage largely by direct effects. Finally, calculations of cellular absorbed doses indicate that β-particle emitters are substantially more toxic when incorporated into the DNA of mammalian cells than when they are localized extracellularly. PMID:10761002

  15. 不同浓度 DMSO 对 Min6胰岛细胞活力和ROS 产生的影响%The effects of DMSO on cell viability and reactive oxygen species production in Min6 islet cell

    张红; 张丽; 张燕; 张之


    目的:观察不同浓度二甲基亚砜(DMSO)对 Min6胰岛细胞活力和细胞活性氧族(ROS)产生的影响。方法无菌洁净环境下培养 Min6胰岛细胞株,细胞良好生长状态时,分为正常对照组(DMSO 含量为0%)及DMSO 各浓度组,用不同浓度 DMSO(0.005%、0.0125%、0.05%、0.125%、0.25%)干预 Min6胰岛细胞48 h,采用细胞增殖和毒性检测试剂盒(Cell Counting Kit-8,CCK8法)检测细胞活力,采用2′,7′-二氯荧光黄双乙酸盐(DCFH-DA)探针法检测 ROS 的产生水平。结果与正常对照组比较(不含 DMSO),0.005%、0.0125%、0.05%、0.125%,0.25% DMSO 组细胞活力均降低;0.005%、0.0125%、0.05%、0.125% DMSO 组间细胞活力差别不大,0.25%DMSO组细胞活力进一步下降,同时 ROS 产生明显增加。结论Min6细胞对 DMSO 敏感,DMSO 浓度水平对细胞活力、ROS 水平有一定影响,建议相关实验时注意各组 DMSO 含量本身齐同可比,以免影响结果判断。%Objective To observe the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on Min6 islet cell viability and Reactive Oxygen Species Production (ROS).Methods Min6 islet cell was cultured under sterile clean environment condition,then interfered by DMSO of different concentration,Cell Counting Kit-8 was adopted to detect the cell viability,DCFH-DA probe was used to detect the Production of ROS.Results Compared with 0%DMSO group ,Min6 cell viability decreased in group containing DMSO 0.005%,0.0125%,0.05%, 0.125%,0.25%,there was little difference of cell viability between groups containing 0.005%,0.0125%, 0.05%,0.125% DMSO.Cell viability decreased further in 0.25% DMSO group,at the the same time ROS production increased.Conclusion Min6 cell sensitive to DMSO,different concentration of DMSO may have different influence on cell viability and intracellular ROS is suggested that to keep the same con-centration of

  16. Visualizing Compound Distribution during Zebrafish Embryo Development: The Effects of Lipophilicity and DMSO.

    de Koning, Coco; Beekhuijzen, Manon; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; de Vries-Buitenweg, Selinda; Schoutsen, Dick; Leeijen, Nico; van de Waart, Beppy; Emmen, Harry


    The predictability of the zebrafish embryo model is highly influenced by internal exposure of the embryo/larva. As compound uptake is likely to be influenced by factors such as lipophilicity, solvent use, and chorion presence, this article focuses on investigating their effects on compound distribution within the zebrafish embryo. To visualize compound uptake and distribution, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 96 hr, starting at 4 hr postfertilization, to water-soluble dyes: Schiff's reagent (logP -4.63), Giemsa stain (logP -0.77), Van Gierson stain (logP 1.64), Cresyl fast violet (logP 3.5), Eosine Y (logP 4.8), Sudan III (logP 7.5), and Oil red O (logP 9.81), with and without 1% dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). Three additional compounds were used to analytically determine the uptake and distribution: Acyclovir (logP -1.56), Zidovudine (logP 0.05), and Metoprolol Tartrate Salt (logP 1.8). Examinations were performed every 24 hr. Both methods (visualization and specific analysis) showed that exposure to higher logP values results in higher compound uptake. Specific analysis showed that for lipophilic compounds >90% of compound is taken up by the embryo. For hydrophilic compounds, >90% of compound within the complete egg could not be associated to embryo or chorion and is probably distributed into the perivitelline space. Overall, internal exposure analyses on at least two occasions (i.e., before and after hatching) is crucial for interpretation of zebrafish embryotoxicity data, especially for compounds with extreme logP values. DMSO did not affect exposure when examined with the visualization method, however, this method might be not sensitive enough to draw hard conclusions.

  17. Anion exchange membranes composed of a poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) random copolymer functionalized with a bulky phosphonium cation

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Bingzi; Kinsinger, Corey L.; Yang, Yuan; Seifert, Soenke; Yan, Yushan; Mark Maupin, C.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Herring, Andrew M.


    A random copolymer, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium functionalized poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO-TPQP) was cast from three different solvents: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethyl lactate, or a 41:59 vol% mixture of DMSO and ethyl lactate. Solvents were selected via analysis of the Hansen solubility parameters to vary the phase separation of the polymer in the films. An optimized mixture of DMSO and ethyl lactate chosen for film fabrication and this film was contrasted with films cast from the neat constituent solvents. Atomic force microscopy identified domains from nanometer to tens of nanometer sizes, while the light microscopy showed features on the order of micron. SAXS revealed a cation scattering peak with a d-spacing from 7 to 15 A. Trends in conductivity and water diffusion for the membranes vary depending on the solvent from which they are cast. The mixed solvent cast membrane shows a linear Arrhenius behavior indicating fully dissociated cationic/anionic groups, and has the highest bromide conductivity of 3 mS/cm at 95% RH, 90 degrees C. The ethyl lactate cast membrane shows a linear Arrhenius relation in conductivity, but a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher behavior in its water self-diffusion. While water increases bromide dissociation, water and bromide transport in these films seems to be decoupled. This is particularly true for the film cast from ethyl lactate.

  18. Potential particulate pollution derived from UV-induced degradation of odorous dimethyl sulfide

    Liping Qiao; Jianmin Chen; Xin Yang


    UV-induced degradation of odorous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was carried out in a static White cell chamber with UV irradiation. The combination of in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) technique, filter sampling and ion chromatographic (IC) analysis was used to monitor the gaseous and potential particulate products. During 240 min of UV irradiation, the degradation efficiency of DMS attained 20.9%, and partially oxidized sulfur-containing gaseous products, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were identified by in situ FT-IR and GC-MS analysis, respectively.Accompanying with the oxidation of DMS, suspended particles were directly detected to be formed by WPS techniques. These particles were measured mainly in the size range of accumulation mode, and increased their count median diameter throughout the whole removal process. IC analysis of the filter samples revealed that methanesulfonic acid (MSA), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and other unidentified chemicals accounted for the major non-refractory compositions of these particles. Based on products analysis and possible intermediates formed, the degradation pathways of DMS were proposed as the combination of the O(1 D)- and the OH- initiated oxidation mechanisms. A plausible formation mechanism of the suspended particles was also analyzed. It is concluded that UV-induced degradation of odorous DMS is potentially a source of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere.

  19. Treatment of Dimethyl Sulfoxide Wastewater in Cometabolic Aerobic Membrane Bioreactor%共代谢膜生物反应器法处理二甲基亚砜废水

    耿长君; 蒲文晶; 刘巍; 苗磊; 王宏伟; 张晓东


    采用蔗糖作为共代谢基质与一体式好氧膜生物反应器(MBR)工艺相结合处理二甲基亚砜(DMSO)废水.考察了装置的污泥驯化效果、DMSO去除率、污泥的性能、HRT和冲击负荷对DMSO去除率的影响.试验结果表明:驯化第29天,DMSO去除率达98.5%,表明MBR内的污泥已驯化成功;在MBR运行的正式期,当DMSO处于高负荷状态时,DMSO去除率较低;随蔗糖加入量的增加,DMSO去除率逐渐提高,最终恢复到DMSO高负荷冲击前的DMSO去除效果;正常运行时,装置进水ρ (DMSO) =257~1 448 mg/L(平均值为718 mg/L)、出水ρ(DMSO) =6~22 mg/L(平均值为7 mg/L),DMSO去除率为96.4%~99.6%(平均值为98.9%);在MBR运行的正式期,污泥体积指数小于100 mL/g,表明污泥的沉降性能较好,MLVSS/MLSS较高,表明污泥的活性高,MBR内MLSS的平均值为5.52 g/L,MLVSS的平均值为4.78 g/L; MBR适宜的HRT为12h.

  20. Olefin hydroformylation catalysis with RuCl2(DMSO4.

    Marisela Reyes*


    Full Text Available The RuCl2(DMSO4 complex was used as catalytic precursor in olefin hydroformylation reactions, giving good percent yield and better selectivity for linear aldehydes. The reactions were tested in homogeneous medium and biphasic organic solvent/ water systems. The substrates tried were 1-hexene, cyclohexene, 2-methyl-2-pentene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene; binary mixtures and synthetic naphtha and real naphtha. The activity is better for linear olefins compared with substituted olefins.

  1. 乙醇-乙酸乙酯-二甲基亚砜多元系汽液平衡的热力学性质%Thermodynamic Properties for Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Ethanol-Ethyl Acetate-Dimethyl Sulfoxide Multicomponent System

    吕长和; 朱德春; 孙虹; 张凌云; 陈红; 施建军; 高大明


    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of different liquid phase compositions at 101.325 kPa for the ternary system containing ethanol-ethyl acetate-dimethyl sulfoxide and the two constituent binary systems containing ethanol-dimethyl sulfoxide,and ethyl acetate-dimethyl sulfoxide were determined using the novel pumpebullionmeter.The vapor-phase compositions were calculated from Tpx by the indirect method.The experimental Tx data were used to estimate Wilson, NRTL, Margules and van Laar model parameters, and these parameters in turn were used to calculate vapor-phase compositions.The activity coefficients were correlated with the Wilson, nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) ,Margules and van Lam- models through the least-squares method.The activity coefficients were useful to calculate excess Gibbs function (GE/RT) for the two binary systems.The optimum Wilson model parameters of the ethanol-ethyl acetate binary system were determined by the linear regression based on the two binary systems and the ternary systems.The VLE data of the ternary system were correlated based on Wilson model parameters of these binary systems to build the thermodynamic model and obtained the vapor-phase compositions and the calculated bubble points.The calculated bubble points with the model parameters of activity coefficients were in good agreement with the experimental data.The thermodynamic consistency of the VLE data for the two binary systems were checked by area test method, and the results were satisfactory.%用新型泵式沸点仪测定了101.325 kPa下乙醇-二甲基亚砜、乙酸乙酯-二甲基亚砜2个二元系以及乙醇-乙酸乙酯-二甲基亚砜三元系在不同液相组成时的沸点,并用间接法由Tpx推算了2个二元系的汽相平衡气相组成y.2个二元体系活度系数分别用Wilson、NRTL、Margules和van Laar模型进行关联,用最小二乘法求出了它们的液相活度系数模型参数,所得的液相活度系数来计算2个二元体系的

  2. Red/blue shifting hydrogen bonds in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulphoxide solutions: FTIR and theoretical studies

    Kannan, P. P.; Karthick, N. K.; Mahendraprabu, A.; Shanmugam, R.; Elangovan, A.; Arivazhagan, G.


    FTIR spectra of neat acetonitrile (AN), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and their binary solutions at various mole fractions have been recorded at room temperature. Theoretical calculations have also been carried out on acetonitrile (monomer, dimer), dimethyl sulphoxide (monomer, dimer) and AN - DMSO complex molecules. 1:2 (AN:DMSO) and 2:1 complexation through the red shifting (AN) C - H ⋯ O = S(DMSO) and blue shifting (DMSO) C - H ⋯ N ≡ C(AN) hydrogen bonds has been identified. The experimental and theoretical studies favour the presence of both the monomer and dimer in liquid AN, but only closed dimers in DMSO. The dipole-dipole interactions existed in AN and DMSO dimers disappear in the complex molecules. Partial π bond between S and O atoms, and three lone pair of electrons on oxygen atom of DMSO have been noticed theoretically.

  3. Role of the p70 S6 kinase cascade in neutrophilic differentiation and proliferation of HL-60 cells-a study of transferrin receptor-positive and -negative cells obtained from dimethyl sulfoxide- or retinoic acid-treated HL-60 cells.

    Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Oshizawa, Tadashi; Kogi, Mieko; Uchida, Eriko; Hayakawa, Takao


    Previously, we suggested that p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K) plays an important role in the regulation of neutrophilic differentiation of HL-60 cells; this conclusion was based on our analysis of transferrin receptor (Trf-R) positive (Trf-R(+)) and negative (Trf-R(-)) cells that appeared after treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO). In this study, we analyzed the upstream of p70 S6K in relation to the differentiation and proliferation of both cell types. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced enhancement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity in Trf-R(+) cells was markedly higher than that in Trf-R(-) cells. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, partially inhibited G-CSF-induced p70 S6K activity and G-CSF-dependent proliferation, whereas rapamycin, an inhibitor of p70 S6K, completely inhibited these activities. The wortmannin-dependent enhancement of neutrophilic differentiation was similar to that induced by rapamycin. From these results, we conclude that the PI3K/p70 S6K cascade may play an important role in negative regulation of neutrophilic differentiation in HL-60 cells. For the G-CSF-dependent proliferation, however, p70 S6K appears to be a highly important pathway through not only a PI3K-dependent but also possibly an independent cascade.

  4. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Activity of NAGase from Yellow Mealworm( Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus)%二甲亚砜对黄粉虫NAGase活力的影响

    谢进金; 陈丽娟


    研究二甲亚砜(DMSO)对黄粉虫(Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus)N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶活力(NAGase)的影响.结果表明:该酶的剩余活力随着二甲亚砜浓度增大而呈指数下降,导致酶活力丧失50%的二甲亚砜的浓度(抑制半衰期,IC50)为5%,说明二甲亚砜对黄粉虫NA-Gase有明显的失活作用.该酶的失活过程属于可逆过程,抑制机理表现为混合型抑制类型,进一步测定游离酶(E)和底物络合物(ES)与二甲亚砜的结合常数(KI和KIS),分别为6.12%和26.2%,KI<KIS,说明底物存在对酶被二甲亚砜的失活作用有一定的保护作用.

  5. Protective effect of dimethyl sulfoxide against renal injury induced by zymosan in rats%二甲基亚砜对酵母多糖诱导大鼠肾损伤的保护作用

    郑金光; 李雨梦; 白晓东; 高明娟; 王晓娜; 赵增凯; 李静远; 刘锐; 胡森


    目的 研究二甲基亚砜(DMSO)对酵母多糖诱导的大鼠肾脏损伤的保护作用.方法 将清洁级SD大鼠分为4组:SS组、SD组、ZS组及ZD组,每组各30只.ZS组和ZD组大鼠于腹腔注射750 mg/kg酵母多糖以制备肾损伤模型,SS组和SD组大鼠仅予以假手术操作.而后SD组与ZD组大鼠于1h后皮下注射3ml/kg DMSO,SS组与ZS组予以等剂量生理盐水.于造模后4、8、24h分批处死大鼠,每批10只.采用激光多普勒血流仪测定各时间点肾血流量,并抽取腹主动脉血检测肌酐水平,取肾组织测定其含水率、丙二醛(MDA)及髓过氧化物酶(MPO)活性.结果 造模后4、8、24 h,与SS组和SD组比较,ZS和ZD组肾血流量显著降低,肾组织含水率、MDA含量、MPO活性及血肌酐含量均显著升高(P均<0.05).且与ZS组比较,ZD组造模后4、8、24 h肾血流量明显升高[(119±13) BPU vs.(156±22) BPU;(103土11)BPU vs.(121±12)BPU;(87土11) BPU vs.(108±11) BPU],肾MDA含量显著降低[(6.2±0.6) nmol/mgPro vs.(5.3±0.4) nmol/mgPro;(9.1±0.9) nmol/mgPro vs.(5.6±0.5) nmol/mgPro;(10.7土1.0) nmol/mgPro vs.(6.7±0.6) nmol/mgPro].而ZD组肾含水率仅在8、24 h时[(75.7土2.2)%vs.(72.4±2.7)%;(79.2±2.3)%vs.(74.9±2.2)%],血肌酐含量仅在24 h时[(61.4±8.6)U/L vs.(36.5±6.7)U/L]较ZS组显著降低(P均<0.05).但两组大鼠肾MPO活性在各时间点比较,差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 DMSO对酵母多糖引起的肾缺血和氧自由基损伤有显著的保护作用.

  6. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics and Static Normal Mode Analysis: The C-H Region of DMSO as a Case Study

    Fischer, Sean A.; Ueltschi, Tyler W.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Mifflin, Amanda L.; Hess, Wayne P.; Wang, Hongfei; Cramer, Christopher J.; Govind, Niranjan


    Carbon-hydrogen (C-H) vibration modes serve as key probes in the chemical iden- tication of hydrocarbons and in vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spec- *troscopy of hydrocarbons at the liquid/gas interface. Their assignments pose a chal- lenge from a theoretical viewpoint. In this work, we present a detailed study of the C-H stretching region of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using a new Gaussian basis set- based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) module that we have implemented in the NWChem computational chemistry program. By combining AIMD simulations and static normal mode analysis, we interpret experimental infrared and Raman spectra and explore the role of anharmonic effects in this system. Our anharmonic normal mode analysis of the in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric C-H stretching modes chal- lenges the previous experimental assignment of the shoulder in the symmetric C-H stretching peak as an overtone or Fermi resonance. In addition, our AIMD simulations also show signicant broadening of the in-phase symmetric C-H stretching resonance, which suggests that the experimentally observed shoulder is due to thermal broadening of the symmetric stretching resonance.

  7. Partitioning of resveratrol between pentane and DMSO

    Shen, Chen; Stein, Paul C.; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria


    solutions in DMSO were equilibrated against pentane solutions. From the UV-vis absorbance of resveratrol in the DMSO phase, P* = 1.74 × 10−3 was determined. The mutual miscibility of pentane and DMSO, measured by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, was taken into account. The value of P* indicates a preference...

  8. Promotion of iron oxide reduction and extracellular electron transfer in Shewanella oneidensis by DMSO.

    Yuan-Yuan Cheng

    Full Text Available The dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, known for its capacity of reducing iron and manganese oxides, has great environmental impacts. The iron oxides reducing process is affected by the coexistence of alternative electron acceptors in the environment, while investigation into it is limited so far. In this work, the impact of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, a ubiquitous chemical in marine environment, on the reduction of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO by S. oneidensis MR-1 was investigated. Results show that DMSO promoted HFO reduction by both wild type and ΔdmsE, but had no effect on the HFO reduction by ΔdmsB, indicating that such a promotion was dependent on the DMSO respiration. With the DMSO dosing, the levels of extracellular flavins and omcA expression were significantly increased in WT and further increased in ΔdmsE. Bioelectrochemical analysis show that DMSO also promoted the extracellular electron transfer of WT and ΔdmsE. These results demonstrate that DMSO could stimulate the HFO reduction through metabolic and genetic regulation in S. oneidensis MR-1, rather than compete for electrons with HFO. This may provide a potential respiratory pathway to enhance the microbial electron flows for environmental and engineering applications.

  9. Sequential analysis of dimethyl sulfur compounds in seawater

    Meng Li; Dong Xing Yuan; Quan Long Li; Xiao Ying Jin


    A sequential method for the determination of dimethyl sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), in seawater samples has been developed. Detection limit of 2.5 pmol of DMS in 25 mL sample, corresponding to 0.10 nmol/L, was achieved. Recoveries for dimethyl sulfur compounds were in the range of 68.6-78.3%. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) for DMS, DMSP and DMSO determination were 3.0, 5.4 and 7.4%, respectively.

  10. Cryopreservation of the microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen: analysis of the effect of DMSO temperature and light regime during different equilibrium periods Criopreservación de las microalgas Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen: análisis del efecto de la temperatura de DMSO y régimen de luz durante diferentes períodos de equilibrio

    Joan Sebastián Salas-Leiva


    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of three variables (cryoprotectant temperature, light regime, and time of exposure to the cryoprotectant throughout the equilibrium period during cryopreservation on the viability of the microalga Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen. For this, the cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO at 5% (v/v was added at three different temperatures (4, 10, and 25°C before placing the microalgae in cryobiological straws for freezing. Once inside the cryobiological straws, the microalgal-cryoprotectant suspensions were subjected to the following light regimes for 15 or 45 min: complete light, complete darkness, light/darkness, and darkness/light. Suspensions were then frozen under controlled conditions and stored in liquid nitrogen. The viability index proposed by Cañavate & Lubian (1995b was used to measure microalgal viability after cryopreservation. Results indicated that it is necessary to use a cryoprotectant to ensure the viable cryopreservation of C. calcitrans. Statistical analyses showed that the temperature of the DMSO influenced the viability of cryopreserved microalgae and that there was no synergistic effect between the other variables studied. The viabilities obtained with DMSO at 25°C, 10°C, and 4°C were 34.9%, 27.8%, and 20.6%, respectively.Se evaluó el efecto de tres variables - la temperatura del crioprotector, el régimen de luz y el tiempo de exposición al crioprotector durante el período de equilibrio en el proceso de criopreservación -sobre la viabilidad de la microalga Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen. Para ello se utilizó, el crioprotector dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO al 5% (v/v, el cual fue adicionado a tres temperaturas diferentes (4, 10 y 25°C antes de que las microalgas fueran introducidas dentro de pajuelas criobiológicas para su congelación. Una vez dentro de las pajuelas, las suspensiones de microalgas con crioprotector se sometieron durante 15 o 45 min a luz completa, oscuridad completa, luz

  11. Structural, optical and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 films prepared from a non-toxic DMSO-based sol-gel and synthesized in low vacuum

    Orletskyi, I. G.; Solovan, M. M.; Brus, V. V.; Pinna, F.; Cicero, G.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Maistruk, E. V.; Ilashchuk, M. I.; Boichuk, T. I.; Tresso, E.


    This paper reports a complex analysis of structural, optical and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films, prepared by spin-coating of a sol-gel based on the low-cost and environmentally friendly solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and synthesized in low vacuum (0.1 Pa). The effect of a short-term low-temperature treatment in air and final annealing under low vacuum (0.1 Pa) on the synthesis of CZTS films was tested and analyzed. XRD and Raman spectra have shown the polycrystalline nature of obtained CZTS films with almost a pure kesterite phase content. The average size of crystallites D 60 nm in the films was estimated. The value of the band gap Eg≈1.53 eV was determined from the analysis of optical characteristics. The analysis of electrical characteristics was carried out in the scope of the model of current transport in polycrystalline materials with electrically active grain boundaries. The determined values of the specific resistance ρ≈2.38 Ω cm, the hole density p0≈4.2×1018 cm-3 and the effective mobility μp≈0.63 cm2/(V s) demonstrate that the CZTS films under investigation are prospective for the fabrication of highly efficient solar cells.

  12. 3种助溶剂对阿苯达唑和阿苯达唑亚砜体外抗包虫活性的影响%Effects of albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide dissolved with different cosolvents on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and vesicles in vitro

    于春洋; 商少华; 张瑞妮; 高惠静; 吕国栋; 赵军; 肖云峰; 吕顺忠; 温浩


    目的 评估二甲基亚砜(DMSO)、吐温80和二者混合溶液等3种助溶剂溶解阿苯达唑(ABZ)和阿苯达唑亚砜(ABZSX)对其体外抗细粒棘球绦虫幼虫作用的影响.方法 采用高效液相色谱法测定吐温80、DMSO及二者混合溶液对阿苯达唑的助溶作用,并比较抗包虫效果.分别将DMSO、吐温80及其混合溶液溶解的ABZ和ABZSX饱和浓度药物溶液加入RPMI 1640培养基中,使DMSO、吐温80及其混合溶液的浓度达到1.0%、0.1%和1.0%+0.1%.用上述含药培养液体外培养细粒棘球蚴原头节和囊泡,并设空白对照组以及适当浓度的助溶剂对照组,隔天观察原头蚴死亡率,周期为10 d;每5d观察囊泡的形态及塌陷率,周期为20 d.结果 各药物作用至第10d和20 d时,联用DMSO及吐温80溶解的ABZ组和ABZSX组原头蚴死亡率及囊泡塌陷率分别为(57.9±6.1)%、(49.32±8.5)%和(58.56±5.34)%、(80.74±1.58)%,均显著高于单用助溶剂组(P<0.01);空白对照组和助溶剂组原头蚴死亡率及囊泡塌陷率均低于9%.结论 当药物相同时,DMSO和吐温80混合助溶剂组的抗原头蚴及囊泡作用优于DMSO助溶剂组,DMSO助溶剂组优于吐温80助溶剂组;助溶剂一致时,抗原头蚴效果ABZ组优于ABZSX组,抗囊泡效果ABZSX组优于ABZ组.%Objective Albendazole (ABZ) and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX) were dissolved with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),0.1 % Tween80,or a mixture of DMSO and Tween80 to investigate their anti-hydatid action on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and E.granulosus vesicles.Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)was used to examine dissolution of ABZ by Tween 80,DMSO,and a mixture of DMSO and Tween80.RPMI1640 culture medium with saturated concentrations of ABZ and ABZSX was used to culture E.granulosus protoscoleces and vesicles.ABZ and ABZSX were dissolved with DMSO,Tween80,or a mixture of DMSO and Tween80.The concentrations of DMSO,Tween80,and the

  13. Measurement of the Absolute Raman Cross Sections of Diethyl Phthalate, Dimethyl Phthalate, Ethyl Cinnamate, Propylene Carbonate, Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3’-Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin, Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid, p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin


    Propylene Carbonate , Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3’-Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin...Cross Sections of Diethyl Phthalate, Dimethyl Phthalate, Ethyl Cinnamate, Propylene Carbonate , Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3...been determined for the Raman cross section σR of neat Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), ethyl cinnamate (EC), propylene carbonate

  14. 低浓度DMSO对SH-SY5Y细胞存活率和氨基酸代谢的影响%Eff ect of Low Level of DMSO on Cell Survival Rate and Amino Acid Metabolism in SH-SY5Y Cells

    李双; 王小琴; 郭春燕; 邹玉安


    Objective:To estimate the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) on livability and amino acid metabolism of SH-SY5Y cells.Methods:SH-SY5Y cells were divided into normal group and DMSO group. The DMSO group was exposed to 0.0125% DMSO in different time(24,48 h) to investigate amino acid transform which was associated with cell damage. SH-SY5Y cell livability was determined by MTT and amino acids content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results:Compared with the normal group,7 amino acids(glutamic acid,glutamine,glycine,proline,phenylalanine,isoleucine,leucine) decreased significantly after treated with DMSO for 24 h(P<0.05),and 12 amino acids(glutamic acid, glutamine,glycine,proline,phenylalanine,isoleucine,leucine,serine,histidine,lysine, alanine,tryptophan) decreased significantly after treated with DMSO for 48 h(P<0.01). But there was no significant transform in cell vitality and morphological specificity.Conclusions:Although there was no obvious change in cell vitality and morphological specificity,but amino acid concentrations had significant transform. This findings imply that abnormal amino acid metabolism may be a potential early and causal feature of cell damage.%目的:研究二甲基亚砜(dimethyl sulfoxide,DMSO)对SH-SY5Y细胞存活率和氨基酸代谢的影响。方法:将细胞分为正常组和DMSO组。0.0125%浓度的DMSO作用SH-SY5Y细胞不同时间(24、48 h)后,利用MTT法测定细胞存活率;高效液相色谱法测定细胞中氨基酸的含量。结果:与正常组相比,在0.0125% DMSO作用下,细胞活力和形态差异无显著性,但细胞内氨基酸含量变化差异有显著性(P<0.05)。其中作用24 h,细胞中有7种氨基酸:谷氨酸(glutamic acid,Glu)、谷氨酰胺(glutamine,Gln)、甘氨酸(glycine,Gly)、脯氨酸(proline, Pro)、苯丙氨酸(phenylalanine,Phe)、异亮氨酸(isoleucine,Ile)、亮氨酸(leucine,Leu

  15. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between a nitrile-based functional ionic liquid and DMSO

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Zhou, Yu; Deng, Geng; Yu, Zhi-Wu


    Task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) have been introduced by incorporating additional functional groups in the cation or anion to impart specific properties or reactivates. In this work, the hydrogen-bonding interactions between a nitrile-functional TSIL 1-propylnitrile-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([PCNMIM][BF4]) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were investigated in detail by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), combined with hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and density functional theory calculations (DFT). It was found that, first, introducing a nitrile group into the alkyl chain does not change the main interaction site in the cation. It is still the C2 hydrogen. So the v(C2-H) is more sensitive to the environmental change and can be used as an indicator of the environments change of IL. Second, the wavenumber shift changes of v(C2-H) have two turning points (xDMSO ≈ 0.6 and 0.9), dividing the dilution process into three stages. Combined with the calculation results, the dilution process is identified as: From larger ion clusters to smaller ion clusters (xDMSO 0.9). Introducing a nitrile group into the alkyl chain does not influence the dilution process of IL dissolving in DMSO. Third, the Ctbnd N in [PCNMIM][BF4] can work as an electron donor in forming hydrogen-bonds with the methyl group of [PCNMIM]+ and DMSO, but its strength is weaker than that formed by the imidazolium ring C-Hs. The dual roles of the cation to work as both electron acceptor and donor expand the wide applications of this nitrile-functional ionic liquid.

  16. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson


    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  17. On the nature of the molecular ordering of water in aqueous DMSO mixtures

    Perera, Aurélien; Mazighi, Redha [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée (UMR CNRS 7600), Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    Computer simulation studies of aqueous dimethyl sulfoxyde (DMSO) mixtures show micro-heterogeneous structures, just like aqueous alcohol mixtures. However, there is a marked difference in the aggregate structure of water between the two types of systems. While water molecules form multiconnected globular clusters in alcohols, we report herein that the typical water aggregates in aqueous DMSO mixtures are linear, favouring a 2 hydrogen bond structure per water molecule, and for all DMSO mole fractions ranging from 0.1 to 0.9. This linear-aggregate structure produces a particular signature in the water site-site structure factors, in the form of a pre-peak at k ≈ 0.2–0.8 Å{sup −1}, depending on DMSO concentration. This pre-peak is either absent in other aqueous mixtures, such as aqueous methanol mixtures, or very difficult to see through computer simulations, such as in aqueous-t-butanol mixtures. This difference in the topology of the aggregates explains why the Kirkwood-Buff integrals of aqueous-DMSO mixture look nearly ideal, in contrast with those of aqueous alcohol mixtures, suggesting a connection between the shape of the water aggregates, its fluctuations, and the concentration fluctuations. In order to further study this discrepancy between aqueous DMSO and aqueous alcohol mixture, two models of pseudo-DMSO are introduced, where the size of the sulfur atom is increased by a factor 1.6 and 1.7, respectively, hence increasing the hydrophobicity of the molecule. The study shows that these mixtures become closer to the emulsion type seen in aqueous alcohol mixtures, with more globular clustering of the water molecules, long range domain oscillations in the water-water correlations and increased water-water Kirkwood-Buff integrals. It demonstrates that the local ordering of the water molecules is influenced by the nature of the solute molecules, with very different consequences for structural properties and related thermodynamic quantities. This study

  18. Electrodeposition of Zirconium from DMSO Solution

    Simka W.


    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono badania woltamperometryczne procesu elektroosadzania cyrkonu z roztworu DMSO na różnych podłożach. Stwierdzono, że jest to procees wieloelektronowy zachodzący w kilku etapach. Ponadto otrzymano warstwy cyrkonu na tytanie, miedzi, stali kwasoodpornej i niklu. Wytworzony osad katodowy miał formę białego proszku, na skutek natychmiastowego utlenienia cyrkonu w kontakcie z powietrzem.

  19. Enantiopure sulfoxides: recent applications in asymmetric synthesis.

    Carreño, M Carmen; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Ribagorda, María; Urbano, Antonio


    Sulfoxides are nowadays recognised as powerful chiral auxiliaries that may participate in a wide range of asymmetric reactions. Their high configurational stability, the existence of several efficient methods allowing the access to both configurations as well as their synthetic versatility are characteristic features offering a tremendous potential to develop new applications. Significant recent advances leading to high asymmetric inductions in carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bond forming reactions, and applications of homochiral sulfoxides to atroposelective synthesis and asymmetric catalysis are discussed. New uses of sulfoxides in the design of chiroptical switches are also shown.

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of dimethyl sulphoxide by sodium bromate-sodium bisulphite reagent in aqueous medium

    J Viroopakshappa; V Jagannadham


    Rates of oxidation of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) by HOBr produced in situ from sodium bromate-sodium bisulphite reagent have been studied iodometrically in aqueous medium. The order in [DMSO] is one when [DMSO] < 0.01 mol dm-3, fractional when [DMSO] is between 0.01 and 0.5 mol dm-3 and zero when (DMSO) < 0.5 mol dm-3. Different rate laws are operative under these three conditions though HOBr is the effective oxidizing species in all the cases. A mechanism involving an intermediate four-membered cyclic transition state between DMSO and HOBr (formation constant ), which decomposes in a slow step with a rate constant () has been proposed. Thermodynamic parameters for the adduct formation step and activation parameters for the first-order decomposition of the adduct step have been evaluated in the temperature range 308-323 K. Activation parameters have also been determined while the orders in [DMSO] are unity and zero. The reaction product has been identified as dimethyl sulphone (DMSO2).

  1. Regioselective organocatalysis: a theoretical prediction of the selective rate acceleration of the SN2 reaction between an acetate ion and primary alkyl chlorides in DMSO solution.

    Pliego, Josefredo R


    High level ab initio calculations, including the solvent effect through a continuum solvation model, predict that 1,4-benzenedimethanol is able to catalyse the S(N)2 reaction between an acetate ion and primary alkyl chlorides in dimethyl sulfoxide solution. The catalysis takes place through two selective hydrogen bonds to the transition state. However, for secondary alkyl chlorides the catalysis is not effective due to steric repulsion and desolvation. This effect induces regioselective control of S(N)2 esterification reactions.

  2. Influence of short-term synoptic events and snow depth on DMS, DMSP, and DMSO dynamics in Antarctic spring sea ice

    Gauthier Carnat


    Full Text Available Abstract Temporal changes in the concentration profiles of dimethylsulfide (DMS, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO were measured in pack ice from the Bellingshausen Sea (Antarctica during the winter-spring transition of 2007. Two sites with contrasting snow and ice thicknesses were sampled, with high concentrations of DMS, DMSP, and DMSO observed at both sites, especially in surface ice. These high concentrations were shown to correspond to the development of a surface ice microalgal community dominated by strong DMSP producers (flagellates and dinoflagellates following flooding of the ice cover. Several short-term synoptic events were observed and shown to influence strongly the dynamics of sea ice DMS, DMSP, and DMSO. In particular, a cold spell event was associated with drastic changes in the environmental conditions for the sea ice microbial communities and to a remarkable increase in the production of dimethylated sulfur compounds at both sites. A good correlation between all dimethylated sulfur compounds, sea ice temperature, and brine salinity suggested that the observed increase was triggered mainly by increased thermal and osmotic stresses on microalgal cells. Atmospheric forcing, by controlling sea ice temperature and hence the connectivity and instability of the brine network, was also shown to constrain the transfer of dimethylated sulfur compounds in the ice towards the ocean via brine drainage. Analysis of the two contrasting sampling sites shed light on the key role played by the snow cover in the sea ice DMS cycle. Thicker snow cover, by insulating the underlying sea ice, reduced the amplitude of environmental changes associated with the cold spell, leading to a weaker physiological response and DMS, DMSP, and DMSO production. Thicker snow also hampered the development of steep gradients in sea ice temperature and brine salinity, thereby decreasing the potential for the release of dimethylated sulfur

  3. Vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman), electronic (UV-Vis), NMR (1H and 13C) spectra and reactivity analyses of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine.

    Atac, Ahmet; Karaca, Caglar; Gunnaz, Salih; Karabacak, Mehmet


    The structure of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine (C8H12N2, DMPDA) was investigated on the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. The sterochemical structure was determined by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. An experimental study and a theoretical analysis were associated by using the B3LYP method with Gaussian09 package program. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-10 cm(-1), respectively. The vibrational spectra were calculated by DFT method and the fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED), calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method with Parallel Quantum Solutions (PQS) program. The UV absorption spectrum of the compound that dissolved in ethanol solution were recorded in the range of 190-400 nm. Total density of state (TDOS) and partial density of state (PDOS) of the DMPDA in terms of HOMOs and LUMOs were calculated and analyzed. Chemical shifts were reported in ppm relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) for 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The compound was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also, 1H and 13C chemical shifts calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Mullikan atomic charges and other thermo-dynamical parameters were investigated with the help of B3LYP (DFT) method using 6-311++G** basis set. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been carried out, revealing the correlations between heat capacity (C), entropy (S), enthalpy changes (H) and temperatures. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles, chemical shifts and vibrational wavenumbers showed the best agreement with the experimental results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of methyl prednisolone, dimethyl sulphoxide and naloxone in experimental spinal cord injuries in rats.

    Zileli, M; Ovül, I; Dalbasti, T


    The effects of methyl prednisolone (MPD), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and naloxone were examined in 38 albino rats after making an impact spinal cord injury on the midthoracic segments with a modified Allen's weight dropping trauma method. Somatosensorial evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded before and 12 h and 14 d after the injury from epidurally inserted electrodes on the parietal cortex with sciatic nerve stimulations. Lower extremity motor functions of the animals were also examined. It may be concluded that in this study model, DMSO has a moderate effect which can be demonstrated clinically and through SEPs. Naloxone has no effect on the clinical outcome but causes reasonable improvement electrophysiologically.

  5. About the solubility of reduced SWCNT in DMSO

    Guan Jingwen; Martinez-Rubi, Yadienka; Denommee, Stephane; Ruth, Dean; Kingston, Christopher T; Daroszewska, Malgosia; Barnes, Michael; Simard, Benoit [Molecular and Nanomaterial Architectures Group, Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0R6 (Canada)], E-mail:


    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been reduced with sodium naphthalide in THF. The reduced SWCNT are not only soluble in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to form a stable solution/suspension, but also react spontaneously at room temperature with DMSO to evolve hydrocarbon gases and are converted into functionalized SWCNT. The degree of functionalization is about 2C% and the addends are mainly methyl and small oxygen-containing hydrocarbons. The functionalized SWCNT are apparently more soluble and stable in DMSO solution. It may open a new era for further processing and applications.

  6. Modified E-test by the addition of EDTA-Tris and dimethyl sulfoxide on the potentiation of the effects of some antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis E-test modificado pela adição de Tris-EDTA e dimetilsulfóxido na potencialização do efeito de antimicrobianos em linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina

    M.G. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available A concentração inibitória mínima-MIC em 30 estirpes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina foi avaliada utilizando o E-test padrão e o método modificado, pela adição de Tris-EDTA e DMSO. Os métodos modificados apresentaram redução significativa da MIC das estirpes utilizando a gentamicina, a ciprofloxacina e a norfloxacina.

  7. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing


    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  8. K-edge XANES investigation of octakis(DMSO)lanthanoid(III) complexes in DMSO solution and solid iodides.

    D'Angelo, Paola; Migliorati, Valentina; Spezia, Riccardo; De Panfilis, Simone; Persson, Ingmar; Zitolo, Andrea


    The potential of high energy XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) as a tool for the structural analysis of lanthanoid-containing systems has been explored. The K-edge XANES spectra of La(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) ions both in DMSO solution and solid octakis(DMSO)lanthanoid(III) iodides have been analysed. Although the K-edges of lanthanoids cover the energy range of 38 (La) to 65 (Lu) keV, the large widths of the core hole states do not appreciably reduce the potential structural information of the XANES data. We show that, for lanthanoid compounds, accurate structural parameters are obtained from the analysis of K-edge XANES signals if a deconvolution procedure is carried out. We found that in solid octakis(DMSO)lanthanoid(III) iodides the Ln(3+) ions are coordinated by eight DMSO ligands arranged in a quite symmetric fashion. In DMSO solution the Ln(3+) ions retain a regular eight-coordination structure and the coordination number does not change along the series. In contrast to when in water the second coordination shell has been found to provide a negligible contribution to the XANES spectra of Ln(3+) ions in DMSO solution.

  9. Estimation of Eu3+ in bulk uranium by ligand sensitized fluorescence in dimethyl sulphoxide

    Maji, S.; Kumar, Satendra; Sankaran, K.


    Ligand sensitized fluorescence of europium ion using thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) as a sensitizing ligand and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) as a solvent is studied for the first time. TTA ligand enhances the fluorescence of Eu3+ by a factor of 40000 in DMSO. Linearity is obtained for a concentration range of 0.076-7.6 ng/mL of Eu3+ with a detection limit of 7.6 pg/mL. The quenching of Eu3+-TTA fluorescence by uranium matrix was studied in different solvents and found to be less in DMSO. Consequently, estimation of Eu3+ in a large excess of uranium becomes a possibility without the need to separate uranium from the solution, which has been demonstrated in this paper. Satisfactory results are obtained when Eu3+ is present at a concentration of 0.6 μg/g in uranium.

  10. Characterization and antitumor activity of camptothecin from ...

    the residue was applied on silica gel thin layer chromatog- raphy (TLC) plates. ... Three replicates were prepared for ... MTT and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were added to the ..... ether from the endophytic fungus, Coniothyrium sp. Jour-.

  11. Antiglycation Activity of Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss



    Jun 14, 2010 ... Glycation and AGEP formation are also accompanied by the formation of free radicals via ... Abbreviations: DMSO, Dimethyl sulfoxide; BSA, bovine serum .... over silica gel and eluted with petroleum ether/EtOAc (58:42 and.

  12. AHPCRC (Army High Performance Computing Rsearch Center) Bulletin. Volume 1, Issue 4


    as glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to prevent agglomera- tion, then freeze-drying them (lyophilization). The platelets are thawed and...the reform and improvement of mathematics and science education by appropriate incorporation of computational and communication technologies. Our

  13. Phytotoxic characterization of various fractions of Launaea ...



    Jun 15, 2011 ... Abbreviations: DMSO, Dimethyl sulfoxide; LPME, Launaea procumbens ... 1, non treated control; 2, n-hexane fraction; 3, ethyl acetate fraction; ... fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and distilled ...

  14. Chemical components from Aloe and their inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase

    Ya Nan Sun


    Abbreviation used: IDO: inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, TMS: tetramethylsilane, HMQC: heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, HMBC: heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, COSY: 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, ESI-MS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide

  15. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular ...

    Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular .... The solid product was filtered, washed with ether (3 × 20 ... dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to obtain 5120 mg/mL ...... catalysts for direct diastereo-and regioselective Mannich.

  16. Potentials of mean force for the exo and endo solvolysis of 2-norbornyl chloride in water and DMSO: A constrained molecular dynamics study

    Subodh C Tiwari; Timir Hajari; Ashish Sharma; B L Tembe


    Constrained molecular dynamics is used to calculate the potentials of mean force for the exo and endo dissociation of 2-norbornyl chlorides in two solvents, namely water and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The gas phase potential energy curves for the 2-norbornyl chlorides are computed by ab initio methods and these curves are fitted into a 12-6-1 potential for use in classical molecular dynamics simulations. The gas phase potential energy curves indicate a greater barrier for the dissociation of the endo 2-norbornyl chloride (than the exo). The potentials of mean force (PMF) in DMSO and water indicate the locations and the magnitudes of the activation barriers in these solutions and are sensitive functions of the fitted gas phase potentials.

  17. CCDC 1515632: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-manganese(ii) tetraiodide

    Haque, M.A.


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. Health Effects Research on Munition Contaminated Dimethyl Sulfoxide Recrystallization Process Solvent. Phase I Studies.


    significant toxic side effects, it may soon be licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of scleroderma and muscle...Large Caliber Weapon Systems Laboratory, US Army Armament Research and Development Center, Dover, NJ, for participating in the technical coordination...Army Armament Research and Development Center (ARDC) Large Caliber Weapons Systems Laboratory (LCWSL), is currently conducting a process develop

  19. Local lateral environment of the molecules at the surface of DMSO-water mixtures

    Fábián, Balázs; Idrissi, Abdenacer; Marekha, Bogdan; Jedlovszky, Pál


    Molecular dynamics simulations of the liquid-vapour interface of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)-water mixtures of 11 different compositions, including two neat systems are performed on the canonical (N, V, T) ensemble at 298 K. The molecules constituting the surface layer of these systems are selected by means of the identification of the truly interfacial molecules (ITIM) method, and their local lateral environment at the liquid surface is investigated by performing Voronoi analysis. The obtained results reveal that both molecules prefer to be in a mixed local environment, consisting of both kinds of molecules, at the liquid surface, and this preference is even stronger here than in the bulk liquid phase. Neat-like patches, in which a molecule is surrounded by like neighbours, are not found. However, vacancies that are surrounded solely by water molecules are observed at the liquid surface. Our results show that strongly hydrogen bonded DMSO·H2O complexes, known to exist in the bulk phase of these mixtures, are absent from the liquid surface.

  20. Development of chiral sulfoxide ligands for asymmetric catalysis.

    Trost, Barry M; Rao, Meera


    Nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and oxygen-based ligands with chiral backbones have been the historic workhorses of asymmetric transition-metal-catalyzed reactions. On the contrary, sulfoxides containing chirality at the sulfur atom have mainly been used as chiral auxiliaries for diastereoselective reactions. Despite several distinct advantages over traditional ligand scaffolds, such as the proximity of the chiral information to the metal center and the ability to switch between S and O coordination, these compounds have only recently emerged as a versatile class of chiral ligands. In this Review, we detail the history of the development of chiral sulfoxide ligands for asymmetric catalysis. We also provide brief descriptions of metal-sulfoxide bonding and strategies for the synthesis of enantiopure sulfoxides. Finally, insights into the future development of this underutilized ligand class are discussed.

  1. Non-Ideal Behaviour and Solution Interactions in Binary DMSO Solutions.

    Virk, Amninder S; Codling, Dale J; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S


    The structure and dynamics of hydrogen-bonded structures are of significant importance in understanding many binary mixtures. Since self-diffusion is very sensitive to changes in the molecular weight and shape of the diffusing species, hydrogen-bonded associated structures in dimethylsulfoxide-methanol (DMSO-MeOH) and DMSO-ethanol (DMSO-EtOH) mixtures are investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over the entire composition range at 298 K. The self-diffusion coefficients of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures decrease by up to 15% and 10%, respectively, with DMSO concentration, indicating weaker association as compared to DMSO-water mixtures. The calculated heat of mixing and radial distribution functions reveal that the intermolecular structures of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures do not change on mixing. DMSO-alcohol hydrogen-bonded dimers are the dominant species in mixtures. Direct comparison of the simulated and experimental data afford greater insights into the structural properties of binary mixtures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Katrina J. Smith


    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  3. Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis

    Takashi Ogawa; Norio Inoue; Tutomu Shikada; Yotaro Ohno


    Dimethyl ether (DME) is a clean and economical alternative fuel which can be produced from natural gas through synthesis gas. The properties of DME are very similar to those of LP gas. DME can be used for various fields as a fuel such as power generation, transportation, home heating and cooking,etc. It contains no sulfur or nitrogen. It is not corrosive to any metal and not harmful to human body. An innovative process of direct synthesis of DME from synthesis gas has been developed. Newly developed catalyst in a slurry phase reactor gave a high conversion and high selectivity of DME production. One and half year pilot scale plant (5 tons per day) testing, which was supported by METI, had successfully finished with about 400 tons DME production.

  4. Chiral cyclopentadienylruthenium sulfoxide catalysts for asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization

    Ryan, Michael C; Rao, Meera


    Summary A full account of our efforts toward an asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization reaction is presented in this article. Cyclopentadienylruthenium (CpRu) complexes containing tethered chiral sulfoxides were synthesized via an oxidative [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between an alkyne and an allylruthenium complex. Sulfoxide complex 1 containing a p-anisole moiety on its sulfoxide proved to be the most efficient and selective catalyst for the asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization of 1,6- and 1,7-enynes. This complex was used to synthesize a broad array of [3.1.0] and [4.1.0] bicycles. Sulfonamide- and phosphoramidate-containing products could be deprotected under reducing conditions. Catalysis performed with enantiomerically enriched propargyl alcohols revealed a matched/mismatched effect that was strongly dependent on the nature of the solvent. PMID:27559366

  5. Mechanism of extracting palladium(Ⅱ) with cyclic sulfoxide derivatives

    吴松平; 孟淑媛; 古国榜; 庄志强; 刘会冲


    The extraction ability of palladium( Ⅱ ) from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivatives-α-Dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-Oxide (DTMSO), α-octyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-Oxide (OTMSO) and α-butyl-tetrahydro-thiophene-1-Oxide (BTMSO) was investigated. The extracting efficiency of cyclic sulfoxide derivatives decreased with the increasing of acidity in the lower acidity, and the efficiency became stable with the change of acidity in the higher acidity. The extraction reaction of palladium( Ⅱ )with DTMSO is exothermic, and extraction reaction of pal-ladium( Ⅱ ) is endothermic when OTMSO or BTMSO were used as extracting reagents. The coordination number was studied by slope method. The results indicate that coordination number is 2, and the composition of complex is Pd is coordinated with both oxygen and sulfur atom in S=O group in sulfoxide derivatives.

  6. Chiral cyclopentadienylruthenium sulfoxide catalysts for asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization

    Barry M. Trost


    Full Text Available A full account of our efforts toward an asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization reaction is presented in this article. Cyclopentadienylruthenium (CpRu complexes containing tethered chiral sulfoxides were synthesized via an oxidative [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between an alkyne and an allylruthenium complex. Sulfoxide complex 1 containing a p-anisole moiety on its sulfoxide proved to be the most efficient and selective catalyst for the asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization of 1,6- and 1,7-enynes. This complex was used to synthesize a broad array of [3.1.0] and [4.1.0] bicycles. Sulfonamide- and phosphoramidate-containing products could be deprotected under reducing conditions. Catalysis performed with enantiomerically enriched propargyl alcohols revealed a matched/mismatched effect that was strongly dependent on the nature of the solvent.

  7. Antimetastatic activity of novel ruthenium (III) pyridine complexes

    Gu, Liwei; Li, Xiaodong; Ran, Qingsen; Kang, Chen; Lee, Canghai; Shen, Jianying


    Ruthenium‐based complexes have emerged as promising anticancer, especially antimetastatic agents. Among them, NAMI ‐A ( trans ‐[Ru( III )Cl 4 ( DMSO )(Im)][ImH], Im = imidazole, DMSO  = dimethyl sulfoxide) was well studied...

  8. Corrosion Protection of AM50 Magnesium Alloy by Nafion/DMSO Organic Coatings

    SONG Renguo; ZHENG Xiaohua; BAI Shuju; BLAWERT Carsten; DIETZEL Wolfgang


    The effectiveness of the corrosion protection of Nafion/Dimethysulfoxid (DMSO) organic coatings for AM50 magnesium alloy prepared by simple immersion and heat treatment was investigated. Its corrosion resistance and morphologies of the Nafion/DMSO organic coatings were studied by electrochemical corrosion testing and optical microscopy. The results show that Nafion/DMSO organic coatings can improve the corrosion resistance of AM50 magnesium alloy effectively. Also, the corrosion resistance increases with the surface density of the organic coatings.

  9. An efficency of use phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimetil sulfoxide at the treatment of patients with arthritis of knee joints

    Виктор Александрович Вишневский


    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a frequent disease in people especially of the mean and elderly age.Aim of research: the study of an efficiency of phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide at treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints in the outpatient setting.  Material and methods. Research was carried out by the clinical and laboratory examinations of 40 patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints in the outpatient setting.   Patients were distributed between the main and control group depending on an approach to treatment. Indicators before and after treatment in all patients were assessed on 2 scales: the scale of assessment of knee joints (on J.N. Insall et al 1976 - (7 points and 2 Oxford scale for knee joints (on W. Dawson et al, 1998 - (12 point. The level of oxyproline in daily urine was examined in all patients.Results and discussions. The degree of manifestation of pain syndrome, movement amplitude and an everyday motor activity are the parameters of an efficiency of treatment.Author noticed the more apparent efficiency of treatment in patients of the main group who underwent phonophoresis after rubbing an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate in the region of injured knee joint.Disappearance of pains after 10 PhPh with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide was noticed in 6 (30% patients and diminution of pain intensity in 12 (60% patients. So the general efficiency of treatment is 90% in the main group in relation to 70% of general efficiency of treatment without use this ointment in the control group.Conclusions. 1. Phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide is a safe and rather effective method of treatment patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints of I-III radiographic stage, an efficiency of treatment is 90%.2. The use of phonophoresis with an ointment containing combination of chondroitin

  10. Experimental facility for radiation sulfoxidation of n-paraffins

    Drozdov, A.S.; Dzhagatspanyan, R.V.; Lyaskin, Yu.G.; Soin, A.L.; Soboler, I.A.


    Sulfoxidation of n-paraffins represents practical interest as a method for direct production of alkanesulfonic acids from n-paraffins and gaseous SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/; alkanesulfonic acids are intermediates for synthesis of valuable biodegradable surface-active substances - sodium alkane sulfonates, which are widely used as the basis for synthetic detergents and as emulsifiers and polymerization processes. A special feature of the sulfoxidation process is the fact that the intermediate and end products, being sparingly soluble in paraffins, are separated into a separate, acid phase. On the one hand, this leads to an increase of the yield of di- and polysulfonic acids and, on the other hand, to resinification of the reaction mixture as a result of the acceleration of side processes in the acid phase. From this follows the need for rapid separation of the reaction products from the paraffin phase and prevention of side processes leading to resinification. When the sulfoxidation process is initiated photochemically, this condition is realized by the introduction of water into the reaction zone; water extracts the end products and breaks down the intermediate compound - alkanepersulfonic acids - via the reaction: H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + RSO/sub 2/O/sub 2/H ..-->.. RSO/sub 3/H + H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. However, while decomposing the persulfonic acids, water prevents development of a degenerate-branched chain process. As a result, the reaction takes place with short unbranched chains with low quantum yield, which results in high energy costs for photochemical sulfoxidation. The radiation method of initiating the sulfoxidation reaction is attractive because of the possibility of carrying out the process in a regime of degenerate chain branching.

  11. DMSO molecule as ancillary ligand in Ru-based catalysts for ring opening metathesis polymerization

    Santana, Sirlane A.A.; Carvalho Junior, Valdemiro P.; Lima-Neto, Benedito S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    The ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene (NBE) occurs in the presence of the fac-[RuCl{sub 2}(S-DMSO){sub 3}(O-DMSO)] complex and ethyldiazoacetate (5 {mu}L), where DMSO is S- or O-bonded dimethylsulfoxide. The yield is 62% (PDI = 1.64) at room temperature for 5 min and 88% (PDI 1.93) at 50 deg C for 30 min, with [NBE]/[Ru] = 516 in CHCl{sub 3}. The yield is 90% (PDI = 1.64) in the presence of NBu{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} at room temperature for 5 min. The complex is practically inactive when one or two molecules of DMSO are replaced by pyridine, imidazole, 2-methyl-imidazole or benzimidazole. The in situ formation of the catalytic species and the behavior of the DMSO molecules as ancillary ligands in the reactivity of the RuII complexes are discussed. (author)

  12. Preparation and characterization of insulin-surfactant complexes for loading into lipid-based drug delivery systems

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Fano, Mathias


    as complexing surfactant and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. Significant change in secondary structure of insulin freeze dried from DMSO was observed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Changes were quantitatively smaller in the presence of surfactants, demonstrating both a stabilizing effect...... of insulin after freeze-drying from DMSO, constituting a potential generic issue with this technique for protein processing. In the specific case of insulin, the changes were found to be reversible, explaining the success of this strategy in previous studies....

  13. Concentrations and cycling of DMS, DMSP, and DMSO in coastal and offshore waters of the Subarctic Pacific during summer, 2010-2011

    Asher, Elizabeth; Dacey, John W.; Ianson, Debby; Peña, Angelica; Tortell, Philippe D.


    Concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS), measured in the Subarctic Pacific during summer 2010 and 2011, ranged from ˜1 to 40 nM, while dissolved dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) concentrations (range 13-23 nM) exceeded those of dissolved dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (range 1.3-8.8 nM). Particulate DMSP dominated the reduced sulfur pool, reaching maximum concentrations of 100 nM. Coastal and off shore waters exhibited similar overall DMS concentration ranges, but sea-air DMS fluxes were lower in the oceanic waters due to lower wind speeds. Surface DMS concentrations showed statistically significant correlations with various hydrographic variables including the upwelling intensity (r2 = 0.52, p DMSO reduction pathway as a DMS source, leading to at least 85% more DMS production in each experiment. Gross DMS production rates were positively correlated with the upwelling intensity, while net rates of DMS production were significantly correlated to surface water DMS concentrations. This latter result suggests that our measurements captured dominant processes driving surface DMS accumulation across a coastal-oceanic gradient.

  14. Nafion/polypyrrole and Nafion/DMSO Organic Coatings for Magnesium Protection

    Renguo SONG; Xiaohua ZHENG; Carsten Blawert; Wolfgang Dietzel


    Nafion/polypyrrole and Nafion/Dimethysulfoxid (DMSO) organic coatings were prepared on the surface of pure magnesium by simple immersion and heat treatment. The morphologies and corrosion resistance of the organic coatings were investigated by using optical microscopy and electrochemical corrosion testing, respectively. It is shown that Nafion/polypyrrole organic coatings resulted in the corrosion resistance of magnesium decreasing;while Nafion/DMSO organic coatings can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Also,the corrosion resistance increased with the thickness of the Nafion/DMSO organic coating increased.

  15. In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against hydatid cyst.

    Ahmadnia, Sara; Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Oryan, Ahmad


    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, which in this disease the metacestode develop in visceral organs especially liver and lungs. The disease is present worldwide and affects humans as well as herbivores including cattle, sheep, camels, horses and others. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE in inoperable patients and have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and therefore adverse side effects are frequently observed. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the in vivo effects of 0.5 mg/kg, BID, albendazole sulfoxide (ricobendazole) and two different therapeutic regimens of 0.5 mg/kg BID and 2 mg/kg every 48 h of albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was prepared by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Fifty Balb/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of protoscoleces and 8 months post infection, the infected mice were treated for 15 days with the above mentioned regimens. They were then euthanized and the size and weight of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. Although the cysts showed reduced size and weight in the treated animals but these reductions were not statistically significant. The cysts in the animals which received albendazole sulfoxide loaded SLN every 48 h showed more ultrastructural modification. However, these ultrastructural changes should be supported by further biochemical and molecular studies before introducing it as an efficient therapeutic regimen for treatment of human and animal hydatid disease.

  16. Studies on NaI/DMSO induced retro-Michael addition (RMA) reactions on some 1,5-dicarbonyl compounds

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S Jothilingam


    Studies on the reaction of some 1,5-ketodiesters/1,5-diketones with NaX (X = Cl/Br/I)/DMSO have shown that under microwave/thermal conditions, facile retro-Michael addition (RMA) reaction takes place instead of formation of the expected Krapcho products. Mechanistic studies have shown that the NaI/DMSO system is a better system than NaCl/DMSO or NaBr/DMSO to promote the RMA pathway and DMSO is an essential requirement. The electrophilic halide ion could be involved in this fragmentation reaction.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of Cu(Ⅱ) reduced in CH3OH and DMSO

    SONG Jiguo; SONG Huacan; YANG Qiqin


    The cyclic voltammetry and the potential-time curve after galvanostatic electrolysis were used to study the electrode processes of Cu(Ⅱ) in CH3OH solution and DMSO solution. The electroreduction of Cu(Ⅱ) to Cu on a Pt electrode proceeds in two steps: Cu(Ⅱ) + e = Cu(Ⅰ); Cu(Ⅰ) + e = Cu. The reduction potential of Cu(Ⅱ) in DMSO solution is more negative than that in CH3OH solution, and the diffusion coefficient of Cu(Ⅱ) ion in DMSO solution is larger than that in CH3OH solution because the polarity of DMSO is larger than that of CH3OH observably and has a stronger solvating power.

  18. Organozinc reagents in DMSO solvent: remarkable promotion of SN2' reaction for allene synthesis.

    Kobayashi, Koji; Naka, Hiroshi; Wheatley, Andrew E H; Kondo, Yoshinori


    The S N2' reaction of propragyl mesylates with organozinc reagents was dramatically improved in DMSO solvent, and the stereoselective conversion of chiral substrates was successfully achieved using LiCl-free diorganozinc without the loss of optical purity.

  19. DMSO inhibits human platelet activation through cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. A novel agent for drug eluting stents?

    Asmis, Lars [Institute for Clinical Hematology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Tanner, Felix C. [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sudano, Isabella [Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Luescher, Thomas F. [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Camici, Giovanni G., E-mail: [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    Background: DMSO is routinely infused together with hematopoietic cells in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy and was recently found to inhibit smooth muscle cells proliferation and arterial thrombus formation in the mouse by preventing tissue factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade. This study was designed to investigate whether DMSO prevents platelet activation and thus, whether it may represent an interesting agent to be used on drug eluting stents. Methods and results: Human venous blood from healthy volunteers was collected in citrated tubes and platelet activation was studied by cone and platelet analyzer (CPA) and rapid-platelet-function-assay (RPFA). CPA analysis showed that DMSO-treated platelets exhibit a lower adherence in response to shear stress (-15.54 {+-} 0.9427%, n = 5, P < 0.0001 versus control). Additionally, aggregometry studies revealed that DMSO-treated, arachidonate-stimulated platelets had an increased lag phase (18.0% {+-} 4.031, n = 9, P = 0.0004 versus control) as well as a decreased maximal aggregation (-6.388 {+-} 2.212%, n = 6, P = 0.0162 versus control). Inhibitory action of DMSO could be rescued by exogenous thromboxane A2 and was mediated, at least in part, by COX-1 inhibition. Conclusions: Clinically relevant concentrations of DMSO impair platelet activation by a thromboxane A2-dependent, COX-1-mediated effect. This finding may be crucial for the previously reported anti-thrombotic property displayed by DMSO. Our findings support a role for DMSO as a novel drug to prevent not only proliferation, but also thrombotic complications of drug eluting stents.

  20. Toxicity profiles and solvent-toxicant interference in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea after dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) exposure.

    Stevens, An-Sofie; Pirotte, Nicky; Plusquin, Michelle; Willems, Maxime; Neyens, Thomas; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen


    To investigate hydrophobic test compounds in toxicological studies, solvents like dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are inevitable. However, using these solvents, the interpretation of test compound-induced responses can be biased. DMSO concentration guidelines are available, but are mostly based on acute exposures involving one specific toxicity endpoint. Hence, to avoid solvent-toxicant interference, we use multiple chronic test endpoints for additional interpretation of DMSO concentrations and propose a statistical model to assess possible synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of test compounds and their solvents. In this study, the effects of both short- (1 day) and long-term (2 weeks) exposures to low DMSO concentrations (up to 1000 µl l(-1) ) were studied in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We measured different biological levels in both fully developed and developing animals. In a long-term exposure set-up, a concentration of 500 µl l(-1) DMSO interfered with processes on different biological levels, e.g. behaviour, stem cell proliferation and gene expression profiles. After short exposure times, 500 µl l(-1) DMSO only affected motility, whereas the most significant changes on different parameters were observed at a concentration of 1000 µl l(-1) DMSO. As small sensitivity differences exist between biological levels and developmental stages, we advise the use of this solvent in concentrations below 500 µl l(-1) in this organism. In the second part of our study, we propose a statistical approach to account for solvent-toxicant interactions and discuss full-scale solvent toxicity studies. In conclusion, we reassessed DMSO concentration limits for different experimental endpoints in the planarian S. mediterranea.

  1. Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Behaviors of 1-(o-, m-, p- Cl, or Br) Substituted Phenyl-3, 5-diphenylformazans in Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    Tezcan, Habibe; Ekmekci, Güler


    1-(o-, m-, p-Cl, -Br) substituted phenyl-3, 5-diphenylformazans were synthesized. Their structures were elucidated and spectral behaviours were investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis spectral data. The electrochemical properties such as number of electrons transferred (n), diffusion coefficient (D) and heterogeneous rate constant (ks) were determined and possible mechanisms were proposed using platinum and ultramicro platinum electrodes, cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The oxidations were carried out at different electrochemical steps that were dependent upon the structure of formazans. The relation between their absorption properties with electrochemical properties was investigated. A suitable correlation was obtained between the absorption λmax with electrochemical properties, and between the oxidation peak potentials Eox1 with ks values of formazans.

  2. The Effect of Diazoxide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Behavioral Outcomes and Markers of Pathology Following Controlled Cortical Impact


    34 differences between groups. 172 Morris Water Maze Performance As stated by Eric KandeL "Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge...34Neuroanatomical correlation of behavioral deficits in the CCI model ofTBI," J Neurosci Methods, vol. 190. no. 1, pp. 1- 9.2010. 35. E. R. Kandel , J. H

  3. Controlled peeling of the surfaces of starch granules by gelatinization in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide at selected temperatures.

    Mukerjea, Romila; Mukerjea, Rupendra; Robyt, John F


    Microscopic examination of starch granules in 90:10 (v/v) Me(2)SO-H(2)O indicated that the granules were slowly being gelatinized from their surfaces. The rate of gelatinization was dependent on two variables: (1) the amount of water in Me(2)SO and (2) the temperature. An increase of water in Me(2)SO and/or an increase in temperature increased the rate of gelatinization and vice versa. Specific ratios of Me(2)SO and H(2)O (85:15-95:5) and temperatures (0-15 degrees C) were found to give controlled sequential peeling/gelatinization of eight kinds of starch granules in 1-12h, with amounts of 10-25% gelatinization per hour. It was observed that the percent of starch granule remaining versus time gave curves that were linear and others that had linear parts separated by one or more abrupt changes. No two starches had a similar gelatinization curve for the same two conditions of the amount of water and the temperature. It is hypothesized that these curves reflect different structural characteristics for the individual kinds of starch granules.

  4. Effect of Cytochalasin B, Lantrunculin B, Colchicine, Cycloheximid, Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Ion Channel Inhibitors on Biospeckle Activity in Apple Tissue

    Kurenda, Andrzej; Pieczywek, Piotr M.; Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur


    The biospeckle phenomenon is used for non-destructive monitoring the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, but in the case of plant tissues there is a lack of experimentally confirmed information about the biological origin of the biospeckle activity (BA). As a main sources of BA, processes associated with the movement inside the cell, such as cytoplasmic streaming, organelle movement and intra- and extracellular transport mechanisms, are considered. The aim of this study is to investigate ...

  5. Bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate ion pair-catalyzed enantioselective sulfoxidation

    Zong, Lili; Wang, Chao; Moeljadi, Adhitya Mangala Putra; Ye, Xinyi; Ganguly, Rakesh; Li, Yongxin; Hirao, Hajime; Tan, Choon-Hong


    Catalytic use of peroxomolybdate for asymmetric transformations has attracted increasing attention due to its catalytic properties and application in catalysis. Herein, we report chiral bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate [BG]2+[(μ-SO4)Mo2O2(μ-O2)2(O2)2]2− ion pair, as a catalyst for enantioselective sulfoxidation using aqueous H2O2 as the terminal oxidant. The ion pair catalyst is isolatable, stable and useful for the oxidation of a range of dialkyl sulfides. The practical uti...

  6. Large Density-Functional and Basis-Set Effects for the DMSO Reductase Catalyzed Oxo-Transfer Reaction.

    Li, Ji-Lai; Mata, Ricardo A; Ryde, Ulf


    The oxygen-atom transfer reaction catalyzed by the mononuclear molybdenum enzyme dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) has attracted considerable attention through both experimental and theoretical studies. We show here that this reaction is more sensitive to details of quantum mechanical calculations than what has previously been appreciated. Basis sets of at least triple-ζ quality are needed to obtain qualitatively correct results. Dispersion has an appreciable effect on the reaction, in particular the binding of the substrate or the dissociation of the product (up to 34 kJ/mol). Polar and nonpolar solvation effects are also significant, especially if the enzyme can avoid cavitation effects by using a preformed active-site cavity. Relativistic effects are considerable (up to 22 kJ/mol), but they are reasonably well treated by a relativistic effective core potential. Various density-functional methods give widely different results for the activation and reaction energy (differences of over 100 kJ/mol), mainly reflecting the amount of exact exchange in the functional, owing to the oxidation of Mo from +IV to +VI. By calibration toward local CCSD(T0) calculations, we show that none of eight tested functionals (TPSS, BP86, BLYP, B97-D, TPSSH, B3LYP, PBE0, and BHLYP) give accurate energies for all states in the reaction. Instead, B3LYP gives the best activation barrier, whereas pure functionals give more accurate energies for the other states. Our best results indicate that the enzyme follows a two-step associative reaction mechanism with an overall activation enthalpy of 63 kJ/mol, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Effect of Dimethylsulfoxide (Dmso on Selected Quality Indicators of Insemination Dose of Rabbits

    Martin Fik


    Full Text Available An ejaculate was collected from male of synthetic broiler line and was diluted to concentration of 25 to 50 million./0.5 ml/1 ID. Dimethylsulfoxid was added to the ID (insemination dose in two concentrations –  0.5 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml and 1.75 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml. Control insemination dose was without DMSO. ID was evaluated by CASA system Sperm Vision with a microscope Olympus BX 51st. Motility and progressive mobility was monitored. Qualitative indicators of the insemination doses were evaluated on CASA in the time of the 1st hour and 6 hours after dilution. In a sample of DMSO 1.75 was recorded an increase of motility of the 1st hour after dilution in the level 60.21% and after 6 hours only 3.91%. In the sample of DMSO 0.5 was the level of motility after 1st hour 36.84% and after the 6 hours 39.33%. In the control group the level of motility was observed after 1st hour 47.30% and after 6 hours 64.65%. In evaluation of progressive motility we recorded in the sample of DMSO 1.75 after 1st hour 33.32% and 6th hours 0%. In the sample of 0.5 DMSO we observed progressive motility after 1st hour 18.06% and after 6 hours 31.61%. In the control group was observed progressive sperm mobility after 1st hour 30.50% and after 6 hours 31.61%.

  8. Functional characterization of methionine sulfoxide reductase A from Trypanosoma spp.

    Arias, Diego G; Cabeza, Matías S; Erben, Esteban D; Carranza, Pedro G; Lujan, Hugo D; Téllez Iñón, María T; Iglesias, Alberto A; Guerrero, Sergio A


    Methionine is an amino acid susceptible to being oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO). The reduction of MetSO to methionine is catalyzed by methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR), an enzyme present in almost all organisms. In trypanosomatids, the study of antioxidant systems has been mainly focused on the involvement of trypanothione, a specific redox component in these organisms. However, no information is available concerning their mechanisms for repairing oxidized proteins, which would be relevant for the survival of these pathogens in the various stages of their life cycle. We report the molecular cloning of three genes encoding a putative A-type MSR in trypanosomatids. The genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and functionally characterized. The enzymes were specific for L-Met(S)SO reduction, using Trypanosoma cruzi tryparedoxin I as the reducing substrate. Each enzyme migrated in electrophoresis with a particular profile reflecting the differences they exhibit in superficial charge. The in vivo presence of the enzymes was evidenced by immunological detection in replicative stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The results support the occurrence of a metabolic pathway in Trypanosoma spp. involved in the critical function of repairing oxidized macromolecules.

  9. Enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides in domestic animals: pharmacological implications.

    Capece, Bettencourt P S; Virkel, Guillermo L; Lanusse, Carlos E


    Albendazole and fenbendazole are methylcarbamate benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used to control gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals. These parent compounds are metabolised to albendazole sulfoxide and fenbendazole sulfoxide (oxfendazole), respectively. Both sulfoxide derivatives are anthelmintically active and are manufactured for use in animals. They metabolites have an asymmetric centre on their chemical structures and two enantiomeric forms of each sulfoxide have been identified in plasma, tissues of parasite location and within target helminths. Both the flavin-monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems are involved in the enantioselective biotransformation of these anthelmintic compounds in ruminant species. A relevant progress on the understanding of the relationship among enantioselective metabolism and systemic availability of each enantiomeric form has been achieved. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pharmacological implications of the enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole sulfoxide and oxfendazole in domestic animals.

  10. Adsorption of HMF from water/DMSO solutions onto hydrophobic zeolites: experiment and simulation.

    Xiong, Ruichang; León, Marta; Nikolakis, Vladimiros; Sandler, Stanley I; Vlachos, Dionisios G


    The adsorption of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), DMSO, and water from binary and ternary mixtures in hydrophobic silicalite-1 and dealuminated Y (DAY) zeolites at ambient conditions was studied by experiments and molecular modeling. HMF and DMSO adsorption isotherms were measured and compared to those calculated using a combination of grand canonical Monte Carlo and expanded ensemble (GCMC-EE) simulations. A method based on GCMC-EE simulations for dilute solutions combined with the Redlich-Kister (RK) expansion (GCMC-EE-RK) is introduced to calculate the isotherms over a wide range of concentrations. The simulations, using literature force fields, are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. In HMF/water binary mixtures, large-pore hydrophobic zeolites are much more effective for HMF adsorption but less selective because large pores allow water adsorption because of H2 O-HMF attraction. In ternary HMF/DMSO/water mixtures, HMF loading decreases with increasing DMSO fraction, rendering the separation of HMF from water/DMSO mixtures by adsorption difficult. The ratio of the energetic interaction in the zeolite to the solvation free energy is a key factor in controlling separation from liquid mixtures. Overall, our findings could have an impact on the separation and catalytic conversion of HMF and the rational design of nanoporous adsorbents for liquid-phase separations in biomass processing.

  11. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B


    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.

  12. The viscosity of dimethyl ether

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen


    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. Engines fuelled by DME emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. This is only possible in the case of diesel oil operation if expensive and efficient lowering particles...... for pressurisation in these methods. The results of the VFVM are consolidated by measurements of the viscosities of propane and butane: these agree with the outcome of measurements using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) a method that is supposedly less sensible than the Reynolds number....

  13. PAN/DMSO/H2O溶液的流变学性质%Reological behaviors of PAN/DMSO/H2O solution

    徐海峰; 杜卫平; 谭连江; 陈慧芳; 潘鼎



  14. Low concentration of DMSO stabilizes the bilayer gel phase rather than the interdigitated gel phase in dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine membrane.

    Yamashita, Y; Kinoshita, K; Yamazaki, M


    We have investigated effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the phase stability of multilamellar vesicles of the ether-linked 1,2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC-MLV), which is known to be in the interdigitated gel (LbetaI) phase in excess water at 20 degrees C. The results of X-ray diffraction experiments indicate that the DHPC membrane was in the Lbeta, phase at X> or =0.12 (X=mole fraction of DMSO in DMSO/water mixture). The result of differential scanning calorimetry indicate that the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature increased, but the LbetaI to Pbeta, phase transition temperature decreased with an increase in DMSO concentration. These results show that DMSO stabilizes the bilayer gel phase rather than the LbetaI phase at its low concentration. The solubility of phosphorylcholine, which is the same structure as the headgroup of DHPC, decreased with an increase in DMSO concentration, indicating that the interaction free energy of the hydrophilic segments of the membrane with solvents increases with an increase in DMSO concentration. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis, the mechanism of the stabilization of the bilayer gel phase of DHPC-MLV by DMSO is discussed. The decrease in the repulsive interaction between the headgroups of the phospholipid induced by the low concentrations of DMSO in water plays an important role in this stabilization.

  15. Bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate ion pair-catalyzed enantioselective sulfoxidation

    Zong, Lili; Wang, Chao; Moeljadi, Adhitya Mangala Putra; Ye, Xinyi; Ganguly, Rakesh; Li, Yongxin; Hirao, Hajime; Tan, Choon-Hong


    Catalytic use of peroxomolybdate for asymmetric transformations has attracted increasing attention due to its catalytic properties and application in catalysis. Herein, we report chiral bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate [BG]2+[(μ-SO4)Mo2O2(μ-O2)2(O2)2]2- ion pair, as a catalyst for enantioselective sulfoxidation using aqueous H2O2 as the terminal oxidant. The ion pair catalyst is isolatable, stable and useful for the oxidation of a range of dialkyl sulfides. The practical utility was illustrated using a gram-scale synthesis of armodafinil, a commercial drug, with the catalyst generated in situ from 0.25 mol% of bisguanidinium and 2.5 mol% of Na2MoO4.2H2O. Structural characterization of this ion pair catalyst has been successfully achieved using single-crystal X-ray crystallography.

  16. Application of density-functional theory to studying methylation with dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate

    ZHANG Ding-lin; WEI Xi-wen; WANG Xiang-zhi


    The activities of dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate as a methylation reagent were studied by density- functional theory (DFT). B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) methods were used to optimize the structures of dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate and calculate theirs charge densities. Dimethyl sulfate is easier than dimethyl carbonate to react with a nucleophilic reagent. In dimethyl sulfate, the alkoxy carbons are the only reactive atomic nucleus because of steric hindrance. A nucleophilic reagent is more likely to react with carbonyl carbons than alkoxy carbons of dimethyl carbonate; in the presence of a Lewis acid, the phenyl nucleophilic reagent reacts with the Lewis acid first. Lewis acid increases the negative charge density of a nucleophilic reagent in polar solvent, and also incurs an accretion of steric hindrance. Polar solvent avails to ionize dimethyl carbonate and thus enables the reaction of methylation. The frequencies of transition state calculated by Gaussion 03 confirm the inferred reaction mechanism. The harvest rates of 4-methoxyphenol in the experiments of methylation reactions of hydroquinone with respectively dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate support the foregoing theortical conclusions.

  17. The use of spin desalting columns in DMSO-quenched H/D-exchange NMR experiments

    Chandak, Mahesh S; Nakamura, Takashi; Takenaka, Toshio; Chaudhuri, Tapan K.; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Chen, Jin; Kato, Koichi; Kuwajima, Kunihiro


    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-quenched hydrogen/deuterium (H/D)-exchange is a powerful method to characterize the H/D-exchange behaviors of proteins and protein assemblies, and it is potentially useful for investigating non-protected fast-exchanging amide protons in the unfolded state. However, the method has not been used for studies on fully unfolded proteins in a concentrated denaturant or protein solutions at high salt concentrations. In all of the current DMSO-quenched H/D-exchange studies of...

  18. Friend leukemia virus transformed cells exposed to microgravity in the presence of DMSO (7-IML-1)

    Cogoli, Augusto


    The purpose of this experiment is to study the adaptation of living cells to microgravity. The in vitro transformation of Friend cells by Dimethylsufoxide (DMSO) is a good model for the study of cell differentiation and protein biosynthesis. Cultures of cells will be prepared shortly before launch. Once in space, transformation will be induced by injection of DMSO. One set of cultures will be chemically fixed with glutaraldehyde for electron microscope investigations; another set will be preserved for determining the amount of hemogloben produced and the extent of cell proliferation.

  19. DMSO对PCR扩增反应的影响%The Influence of PCR Amplification with DMSO

    徐葵; 邱志明; 汪晓英


    In Order to resolve the failure of PCR to amplif y 8-receptor, the influence of PCR amplification the different concentration of DMSO was observed. The result show that the centain concertation of DMSO can greatly enhance the specificity and efficiency of PCR amplification%为解决扩增δ-受体基因屡次失败的问题,观察了在 PCR体系加入不同浓度DMSO时对DNA扩增反应的影响.结果表明:一定浓度的DMSO可显著提高 PCR扩增的特异性和扩增效率.

  20. Pyrolytic synthesis and luminescence of porous lanthanide Eu-MOF.

    Jin, Guangya; Liu, Zhijian; Sun, Hongfa; Tian, Zhiyong


    A lanthanide metal coordination polymer [Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)] was synthesized by the reaction of europium oxide with benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) in a mixed solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermo-gravimetric analysis of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) indicated that coordinated DMSO and H2O molecules could be removed to create Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py with permanent microporosity, which was also verified by powder XRD (PXRD) and elemental analysis. Both Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) and Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py showed mainly Eu-based luminescence and had characteristic emissions in the range 550-700 nm.

  1. Synthesis and Adsorption Properties of Chelating Resins Containing Sulfoxide and Heterocyclic Functional Groups

    Chun Nuan JI; Xiu Juan ZHANG; Rong Jun QU; Hou CHEN; Chun Hua WANG; Chang Mei SUN


    Several of new chelating resins containing sulfoxide and heterocyclic functional groups (3-aminopyridine and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) based on macroporous chloromethylated polystyrene were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectra. Their adsorption capacities towards Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+ and Ag+ at pH 3.0 and 6.0 were investigated in detail. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the resins containing bis[(3-pyridylaminoethyl)sulfoxide or (2-benzothiazolylthioethyl)sulfoxide for the above ions were higher than that on ones containing single above-mentioned groups.

  2. Electrochemical Preparation of La-Fe Alloy Films in Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)

    袁定胜; 刘冠昆; 童叶翔


    The cyclic voltammetry and potential step methods were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of Fe2+ and La3+ in FeCl2-LiCl-DMSO and LaCl3-LiCl-DMSO systems on Pt, Cu and Ni cathodes. The electroreduction of Fe2+ to Fe is irreversible in one step,while the electroreduction of La3+ to La is quasi-reversible. The diffusion coefficient of La3+ in LaCl3-LiCl-DMSO system at 298 K was 3.1×10-6 cm2s-1. The diffusion coefficient and transfer coefficient of Fe2+ in FeCl2-LiCl-DMSO system at 298 K were 2.54×10-6 cm2*s-1 and 0.24, respectively. La-Fe alloy films containing La from 22.7% to 37.1% (mass fraction) were prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis on Cu substrates at a deposition potential from -1.750 to -2.450 V (vs SCE). The fine La-Fe alloy films were also obtained by pulse electrolysis at a pulse current densities from 2 to 6 mA*cm-2. The surfaces of these alloy films are smooth, adhesive and uniform, and have metallic luster.

  3. Phase Polymorphism of [Mn(DMSO)6](BF4)2 Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Skoczylas, Łukasz


    The tetrafluoroborate of hexadimethylsulfoxidemanganese(II) was synthesized and studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Five solid phases of [Mn(DMSO)6](BF4)2 were revealed. Specifically, four phase transitions of the first order were detected between the following solid phases: stable KIb↔stable KIa at TC4 = 215 K; metastable KIII↔overcooled K0 at TC3 = 354 K; metastable KII↔overcooled K0 at TC2 =377 K; stable KIa→stable K0 at TC1 =385 K. [Mn(DMSO)6](BF4)2 starts to decompose at 400 K with a loss of one DMSO molecule per formula unit and forms [Mn(DMSO)5](BF4)2 which next decomposes in one step to MnF2 at the temperature range of 460 - 583 K. From the entropy changes it can be concluded that the phases K0 and metastable KII are orientationally dynamically disordered (ODDIC) crystals. The stable phases KIb and KIa are ordered solid phases.

  4. Saccharification of the Pretreated Corn Stover by Microwave Assisted DMSO/AmimCl Co-solvents%微波辅助DMSO/AmimCl复合溶剂预处理玉米秸秆的酶解影响

    刘建飞; 曹妍; 杨茂华; 李会泉; 邢建民


    为了实现玉米秸秆纤维素的高效糖化,设计利用微波加热辅助的离子液体1-烯丙基-3-甲基咪唑氯盐(AmimCl)/二甲基亚砜(DMSO)复合溶剂生物质预处理体系,破坏玉米秸秆天然结构,提高纤维素酶解效率.研究发现,15%(w)DMSO,110℃,60 min及4 g秸秆/100 g复合溶剂为最适预处理条件.在此条件下,秸秆溶解率、提取率可分别达46.6%和22.9%;提取物纤维素酶解率14 h可达71.4%,相较于天然玉米秸秆的20 h酶解率12.5%有极大提高.通过XRD,SEM及1H NMR分析发现:秸秆预处理后,提取物纤维素晶型由I型变为II型,残渣纤维素相对结晶度明显降低,有利于纤维素酶解的进行,达到了生物质预处理的目的;预处理过程中使用的AmimCl离子液体经简单回收再生,结构及秸秆溶解性能未发生变化,可循环使用.为玉米秸秆生物质预处理提供了一个新的方案.%In order to enhance the enzymatic saccharification efficiency of corn stover,microwave assisted treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and 1-ally-3-methylimidazolium(AmimCl) co-solvents was designed to break up the complicated chemical structure of corn stover.The pretreatment conditions were studied to increase the dissolution ratio,extraction ratio and cellulose I crystallinity index(CrI) variation.With the increase of AmimCl concentration,time and temperature of the pretreatment,the dissolution ratio,extraction ratio increased and CrI decreased.Considering the costs of high AmimCl concentration,degradation of biomass at high temperature and long time,the optimum conditions were DMSO/AmimCl co-solvents with a DMSO concentration of 15%(w) and 4 g corn stover per 100 g co-solvents.The optimum temperature and time were 110 ℃ and 60 min,respectively.Under the optimal conditions,the ratios of corn stover dissolution and extraction were as high as 46.6% and 22.9%,respectively.The cellulose saccharification ratio had a great increase

  5. Selective oxidation of glycosyl sulfides to sulfoxides using magnesium monoperoxyphthalate and microwave irradiation.

    Chen, Ming-Yi; Patkar, Laxmikant Narhari; Lin, Chun-Cheng


    A protocol that uses moist magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) as an oxidant under microwave irradiation rapidly yields a variety of glycosyl sulfoxides from corresponding sulfides in high yields with high selectivity.

  6. Stereospecific micellar electrokinetic chromatography assay of methionine sulfoxide reductase activity employing a multiple layer coated capillary.

    Zhu, Qingfu; El-Mergawy, Rabab G; Heinemann, Stefan H; Schönherr, Roland; Jáč, Pavel; Scriba, Gerhard K E


    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the analysis of the l-methionine sulfoxide diastereomers employing a successive multiple ionic-polymer layer coated fused-silica capillary was developed and validated in order to investigate the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases. The capillary coating consisted of a first layer of hexadimethrine and a second layer of dextran sulfate providing a stable strong cathodic EOF and consequently highly repeatable analyte migration times. The methionine sulfoxide diastereomers, methionine as product as well as β-alanine as internal standard were derivatized by dabsyl chloride and separated using a 35 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 25 mM SDS as BGE and a separation voltage of 25 kV. The method was validated in the range of 0.15-2.0 mM with respect to linearity and precision. The LODs of the analytes ranged between 0.04 and 0.10 mM. The assay was subsequently applied to determine the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases as well as the enzyme kinetics of human methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Monitoring the decrease of the l-methionine-(S)-sulfoxide Km = 411.8 ± 33.8 μM and Vmax = 307.5 ± 10.8 μM/min were determined.

  7. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m.

    Kanagawa, T; Mikami, E.


    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day.

  8. Carbenoid-mediated nucleophilic “hydrolysis” of 2-(dichloromethylidene-1,1,3,3-tetramethylindane with DMSO participation, affording access to one-sidedly overcrowded ketone and bromoalkene descendants§

    Rudolf Knorr


    Full Text Available 2-(Dichloromethylidene-1,1,3,3-tetramethylindane was “hydrolyzed” by solid KOH in DMSO as the solvent at ≥100 °C through an initial chlorine particle transfer to give a Cl,K-carbenoid. This short-lived intermediate disclosed its occurrence through a reversible proton transfer which competed with an oxygen transfer from DMSO that created dimethyl sulfide. The presumably resultant transitory ketene incorporated KOH to afford the potassium salt of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylindan-2-carboxylic acid (the product of a formal hydrolysis. The lithium salt of this key acid is able to acylate aryllithium compounds, furnishing one-sidedly overcrowded ketones along with the corresponding tertiary alcohols. The latter side-products (ca. 10% were formed against a substantially increasing repulsive resistance, as testified through the diminished rotational mobility of their aryl groups. As a less troublesome further side-product, the dianion of the above key acid was recognized through carboxylation which afforded 1,1,3,3-tetramethylindan-2,2-dicarboxylic acid. Brominative deoxygenation of the ketones furnished two one-sidedly overcrowded bromoalkenes. Some presently relevant properties of the above Cl,K-carbenoid are provided in .

  9. Expression of Four Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Kuldeep Singh


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus possesses three MsrA enzymes (MsrA1, MsrA2, MsrA3 that reduce the S-epimer of methionine sulfoxide (MetO and an MsrB enzyme that reduces R-MetO. The four msr genes are expressed from three different promoters. The msrA1/msrB genes are coexpressed. To determine the expression pattern of msr genes, three independent reporter strains were constructed where msr promoter was cloned in front of a promoterless lacZ and the resulting construct was integrated in the chromosome. Using these strains, it was determined that the msrA1/B expression is significantly higher in S. aureus compared to msrA2 or msrA3. Expression of msrA1/B was highest during stationary phase growth, but the expression of msrA2 and msrA3 was highest during the early to midexponential growth phase. Expression of msrA1/B was induced by oxacillin and the expression of msrA3 was upregulated by salt. Expression of msrA2 remained unchanged under all tested conditions.


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    was checked by thin layer chromatography on silica gel 60 F254 (Merck) and spots were ... petroleum ether (5:1) to give pale yellow needles of expected compounds ... (0.01 mol) was suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 6 mL) and iodine ...

  11. Tert-butoxylering van halogeenpyridinen

    Zoest, van W.J.


    In this thesis an orientating investigation is described as a first contribution to the knowledge of the reactivities of monohalogenopyridines towards potassium tert -butoxide in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tert -butylalcohol. It is connected with extensive studies carried out to date on the behav

  12. Effect of some organic solvents on oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré


    The effect of acetone, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol and methanol on oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria has been studied. All the organic solvents inhibited the oxidative phosphorylation in a concentration dependent manner, but with differences...... on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria should therefore include the use of relevant concentrations of the organic solvent in order to validate the contribution....

  13. Raman probes based on optically-poled double-clad fiber and coupler

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Margulis, Walter; Rottwitt, Karsten


    of a sample of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), when illuminating the waveguide with 1064nm laser light. The Raman signal is collected in the inner cladding, from which it is retrieved with either a bulk dichroic mirror or a double-clad fiber coupler. The coupler allows for a substantial reduction of the fiber...

  14. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  15. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for redside dace, Clinostomus elongatus: implications for genome resource banking

    Butts, Ian A.E.; Mokdad, A.; Trippel, E.A.;


    of extirpation.We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS + glycine; sucrose; and Hanks’ balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA...


    In only one case, that of L. sativum, methanol was used in place of ethanol. In this case, stock ... and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). These were then ... Counts per minute were converted to disintegrations per minute (DPM) by using an external ... 1996) who observed that petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of.

  17. Dynamics of charged gibbsite platelets in the isotropic phase

    Kleshchanok, D.; Heinen, M.; Nägele, G.; Holmqvist, P.


    We report on depolarized and non-depolarized dynamic light scattering , static light scattering , and steady shear viscosity measurements on interacting charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The average collective and (long-time) translational self-diffusion co

  18. Lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles induce expression of inflammatory and extracellular-matrix-related genes in rat cerebral arteries

    Vikman, Petter; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars


    AIMS: Cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that smoke leads to the pathogenesis of stroke are incompletely understood. METHODS: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-soluble (lipid-soluble) cigarette smoking particles (DSP) were extra...

  19. Anthelmintic efficacy of cashew (Anarcadium occidentale L.) on in ...



    Aug 24, 2011 ... I. O. Ademola1,2* and J. N. Eloff1. 1Phytomedicine ... extract was then filtered through Whatman No 1 filter paper using a. Buchner funnel and ... extracted with an equal volume of butanol in a separating funnel to yield the water ... Albendazole was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (0.3% DMSO) and diluted at.

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Co(DMSO)2(H2O)2(SCN)2 with One-dimensional Hydrogen-bonded Structure (DMSO = Dimethylsulfoxide)

    WEI Rong-Min; CHE Yun-Xia; ZHENG Ji-Min


    The title complex Co(DMSO)2(H2O)2(SCN)2 has been prepared and structurally characterized. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 5.1981(9), b = 11.944(2), c = 12.646(2) (A), β = 98.686(2)°, V = 776.2(2) (A)3, C6H16CoN2O4S4, Mr = 367.38, Z = 2, Dc = 1.572 g/cm3, F(000) = 378 and μ(MoKa) = 1.646 mm-1. The structure was refined to R = 0.0232 and wR = 0.0645 for 1241 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). In the title complex, each Co(II) atom is octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms from two DMSO ligands and two water molecules as well as two N atoms from SCN-ions. The title molecules are connected to each other through intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form a 1-D structure extended by eight-membered Co2O4H2 rings.

  1. Comparative hepatic and extrahepatic enantioselective sulfoxidation of albendazole and fenbendazole in sheep and cattle.

    Virkel, G; Lifschitz, A; Sallovitz, J; Pis, A; Lanusse, C


    The enantioselective sulfoxidation of the prochiral anthelmintic compounds albendazole (ABZ) and fenbendazole (FBZ) was investigated in liver, lung and small intestinal microsomes obtained from healthy sheep and cattle. The microsomal fractions were incubated with a 40 microM concentration of either ABZ or FBZ. Inhibition of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) system was carried out by preincubation with 100 microM methimazole (MTZ) either with or without heat pretreatment (2 min at 50 degrees C). ABZ and FBZ were metabolized to the (+) and (-) enantiomers of their sulfoxide metabolites, named albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and oxfendazole (OFZ), respectively. ABZ sulfoxidation rates were higher (p < 0.001) than those observed for FBZ. The FMO-mediated liver sulfoxidation of ABZ was enantioselective (100%) toward the (+) ABZSO production in both species. Liver sulfoxidation of FBZ by FMO was also enantioselective toward (+) OFZ (sheep = 65%; cattle = 79%). Cytochrome P450 was found to be mainly involved in the production of (-) ABZSO in the liver. MTZ did not affect the sulfoxidation of ABZ by lung microsomes, which may indicate that FMO is not involved in the production of ABZSO in this tissue. A significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of (-) ABZSO production by liver microsomes was observed after ABZ incubation in the presence of erythromycin (cattle = 21%) and ketoconazole (sheep = 36%). Both CYP3A substrates induced a reduction in the production of (-) ABZSO (sheep = 67-78%, cattle = 50-78%) by lung microsomes. Overall, the results reported here contribute to the identification of the metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used for parasite control in ruminants.

  2. Apoptosis of human leukemic HL—60 cells induced to differentiate by treatment with RA or DMSO



    In present study,we studied the effect of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA)and dimethylsulfoxide(DMSO)on the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cell line.Based on morphological changes by Hochest 33342 staining and identification of internuclesomal NDA celeavage by gel electrophoresis,we observed aberrant nuclear chromatin condensation and ladder-like pattern of DNA degradation. Using Flow Cytometric method.We found sub-G1 peak in RA-treated HL-60 cells starting 5 to 6d after the initiation of the treatment However,Such an obvious apoptotic peak was not identified in DMSO-differentiated cells.Combining the research accomplished before.our study approves further that apoptosis could be a common mode of death of terminally differentiated HL-60 cells.

  3. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

    Paula Ferreira


    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory

  4. Solution Properties of Soy Protein in DMSO/Urea Solvent System

    XIAO Ru; YIN Duan; JIN Xin; SUN Gang


    Solution properties of 7S globulins (7S), 11S globulins (11S) and soy protein isolates (SPI) in dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO )/urea solvent system were studied by intrinsic viscosity and particle size distributions.The results showed that the existence of urea was the main reason for the denaturation and solubility of soy protein in the system, and the effects were more obvious with increasing of urea concentration in solutions.Suitably dissolution temperature and time contributed to the solubility of soy proteins.

  5. Characterization of procoagulant extracellular vesicles and platelet membrane disintegration in DMSO-cryopreserved platelets

    Tseday Z. Tegegn


    Full Text Available Background: Freezing is promising for extended platelet (PLT storage for transfusion. 6% DMSO cryopreserved PLTs (CPPs are currently in clinical development. CPPs contain significant amount of platelet membrane vesicles (PMVs. PLT-membrane changes and PMV release in CPP are poorly understood, and haemostatic effects of CPP PMVs are not fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate PLT-membrane alterations in CPPs and provide comprehensive characterization of CPP PMVs, and their contribution to procoagulant activity (PCA of CPPs. Methods: CPPs and corresponding liquid-stored PLTs (LSPs were characterized by flow cytometry (FC, fluorescence polarization (FP, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and thrombin-generation (TG test. Results: SEM and TEM revealed disintegration and vesiculation of the PLT-plasma membrane and loss of intracellular organization in 60% PLTs in CPPs. FP demonstrated that 6% DMSO alone and with freezing–thawing caused marked increase in PLT-membrane fluidity. The FC counts of annexin V-binding PMVs and CD41a+ PMVs were 68- and 56-folds higher, respectively, in CPPs than in LSPs. The AFM and NTA size distribution of PMVs in CPPs indicated a peak diameter of 100 nm, corresponding to exosome-size vesicles. TG-based PCA of CPPs was 2- and 9-folds higher per PLT and per volume, respectively, compared to LSPs. Differential centrifugation showed that CPP supernatant contributed 26% to CPP TG-PCA, mostly by the exosome-size PMVs and their TG-PCA was phosphatidylserine dependent. Conclusions: Major portion of CPPs does not show activation phenotype but exhibits grape-like membrane disintegration with significant increase of membrane fluidity induced by 6% DMSO alone and further aggravated by freezing–thawing process. DMSO cryopreservation of PLTs is associated with the release of PMVs and marked increase of TG-PCA, as compared to LSPs. Exosome-size PMVs have

  6. A study on tailor made ruthenium sulfoxide complexes: Synthesis, characterization and application

    Mehrotra Ripul


    Full Text Available In this study, a dinucleating spacer incorporating two 2-aminopyridine units has been used to prepare seven novel dinuclear compounds. These molecules were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility, FT-IR, FAB-Mass, electronic, 1H and 13C{1H}NMR spectral studies. The complex [{trans,mer-RuCl2(DMSO3}2(μ-5,5'-methylenebis(2-aminopyridine].2DMSO, 2 was also characterized through 1H-1H COSY NMR. There are mainly three different formulations; [{cis,fac-RuCl2(SO3}2(μ-MBAP].2SO; [{trans,mer-RuCl2(SO3}2(μ-MBAP].2SO and [{trans-RuCl4(SO}2(μ-MBAP]2- [X]2+; where SO = DMSO / TMSO; MBAP = 5,5'-methylenebis(2-aminopyridine and [X]+ = [(DMSO2H]+, Na+ or [(TMSOH]+. The coordination was found through cyclic nitrogen of pyridine ring in octahedral environment for both metal centers. The chemical behivour of [{cis,fac-RuCl2(DMSO3}2(μ-5,5'-methylenebis(2-aminopyridine].2DMSO, 1 and 2 in aqueous solution with respect to time was observed by conductivity measurements and UV-vis spectrophotometer. All complexes were found to possess prominent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in comparison to Chloramphenicol and Gatifloxacin.

  7. Gas Phase Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Dmso, Part II: Towards the Terahertz Observation of 4-FOLD Clusters

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.


    Benefiting of the exceptional properties of the AILES synchrotron beamline, the gas phase Far-IR spectrum of DMSO has been recorded and resolved. The rovibrational analysis allowed to discover a new rotational behaviour for a polyatomic molecule: the gyroscopic destabilization. In order to explain this phenomenon, we looked for four-fold energy clusters in the high resolution ground state THz spectrum of DMSO recorded with a sub-THz spectrometer based on a frequency multiplication chain. Pure rotational lines in the 5 lowest vibrationnally excited levels have been recorded below 700 GHz. With near 1000 rotational transitions assigned, high quantum numbers have been reached allowing to discover sequence of four-fold clusters in the out of plane bending mode of DMSO and to study the vibrational dependence of an unusual rotational dynamics. J. B. Brubach et al., AIP Conf. Proc., 1214, (81), 2010. A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii,Chem. Phys. Lett., 492,(30),2010 A. Cuisset, O. Pirali, D. Sadovskii,Phys. Rev. Lett., 109,(094101), 2012. G. Mouret, M. Guinet, A. Cuisset, L. Croizet, S. Eliet, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, IEEE Sensors Journal, 13, 1, 2013.

  8. Aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone catalyzed by Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2: evidence for ligand-controlled chemoselectivity.

    Diao, Tianning; Pun, Doris; Stahl, Shannon S


    The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones affords cyclohexenones or phenols via removal of 1 or 2 equiv of H2, respectively. We recently reported several Pd(II) catalyst systems that effect aerobic dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones with different product selectivities. Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 is unique in its high chemoselectivity for the conversion of cyclohexanones to cyclohexenones, without promoting subsequent dehydrogenation of cyclohexenones to phenols. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these reactions reveal the key role of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ligand in controlling this chemoselectivity. DMSO has minimal kinetic influence on the rate of Pd(TFA)2-catalyzed dehydrogenation of cyclohexanone to cyclohexenone, while it strongly inhibits the second dehydrogenation step, conversion of cyclohexenone to phenol. These contrasting kinetic effects of DMSO provide the basis for chemoselective formation of cyclohexenones.

  9. New optically active poly(amide-imide)s based on N,N '-(pyromellitoyl)-bis-L-amino acid and methylene diphenyl-4,4 '-diisocyanate

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Yao, Jinshui; Zhang, Xian


    Five new optically active poly(amide-imide)s were synthesized through the direct polycondensation reaction between chiral N,N-(pyromellitoyl)-bis-L-amino acids and methylene diphenyl-4,4-diisocyanate in a medium consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and xylene. The resulted polymers were ful......,N-dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), NMP, sulfuric acid, and para-methyl phenol. Same specific rotations of these polymers in these different solvents were obtained....

  10. Preparation and characterization of a new polyaniline salt with good conductivity and great solubility in dimethyl sulfoxyde

    Zeghioud Hichem


    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a novel conducting and soluble polyaniline salt prepared by chemical polymerization in the presence of new doping agent (IAs. This last is prepared by sulphonation of itaconic acid (IA with concentrated sulphuric acid in THF. The obtained doped polyaniline (PANI-IAs is extremely soluble in dimethyl sulfoxyde (DMSO at room temperature, in which the solubility reach 44 mg mL-1. The conductivity measurement of doped polyaniline powder precipitated in THF as dispersing medium gave a value of 0.13 S cm-1 when the emeraldine base form of polyaniline is fully protonated. The polyaniline salt sample is characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectra and FTIR spectra.

  11. Incorporation of DMSO and dextran-40 into a gelatin/alginate hydrogel for controlled assembled cell cryopreservation.

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Huirong


    A new cell cryopreservation strategy for cell-assembling constructs was proposed. With this strategy, different concentrations of dimethysulfoxide (DMSO) and dextran-40 were directly incorporated into the cell/gelatin/alginate systems, prototyped according to a predesigned structure, cryopreserved at -80 °C for 10 days and followed a thawing process at 17 °C. The rheological properties, bonding water contents and melting points of the gelatin/alginate hydrogel systems were changed with the addition of different amounts of DMSO. The microscopy analysis, (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide (MTT) and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining indicated that the cell numbers were progressively in a selected DMSO concentration range. With DMSO 5% (v/v) alone, the metabolic rate in the construct attained (81.3±5.7)%. A synergistic effect was achieved with the combination of the DMSO/gelatin/alginate and dextran-40/gelatin/alginate hydrogel systems. These results indicated that the inclusion of DMSO and dextran-40 in the hydrogel could effectively enhance the cell preservation effects. This cryopreservation strategy holds the ability to be widely used in organ manufacturing techniques.

  12. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt


    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples.

  13. 4-Hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB as an oxidative biocatalyst in the synthesis of optically active sulfoxides

    Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E.; Ottolina, Gianluca; Fraaije, Marco W.; Carrea, Giacomo


    Recombinant 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase (HAPMO) from Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB has been tested as a catalyst in sulfoxidation reactions on a set of aromatic sulfides. With a few exceptions, excellent enantioselectivities in the synthesis of chiral phenyl and benzyl sulfoxides were achieved

  14. 40 CFR 721.10127 - Alkenyl dimethyl betaine (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenyl dimethyl betaine (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10127 Alkenyl dimethyl betaine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... dimethyl betaine (PMN P-06-693) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials

    Desmare, Gabriel W.; Cates, Dillard M.


    High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

  16. 21 CFR 172.133 - Dimethyl dicarbonate.


    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a). Copies are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition... Cosmetic Act: (1) The name of the additive “dimethyl dicarbonate.” (2) The intended use of the additive....

  17. Lung injury in dimethyl sulfate poisoning

    Ip, M.; Wong, K.L.; Wong, K.F.; So, S.Y.


    Two manual laborers were exposed to dimethyl sulfate during work and sustained mucosal injury to the eyes and respiratory tract. In one of them, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurred and improved with high-dose methylprednisolone. On follow-up for 10 months, this patient developed persistent productive cough with no evidence of bronchiectasis or bronchial hyperreactivity.




    Full Text Available The aim of our paper was to make a series of experiments in order to determine the concentration at which four cryoprotectants (DMSO, sucrose, Ficoll 70 and galactose singly and in pairs would vitrify on plunging into liquid nitrogen and remain vitreous when thawed in water bath. As penetrating cryoprotector we used DMSO (MW=78.13 Da, Sigma D5879 and as nonpenetrating cryoprotectors we used sucrose (MW=342.3 Da, Sigma S7903, Ficoll 70 (MW= 60,000-80,000 Da, Sigma F4375 and Galactose (MW = 180,16 Da; Sigma G 6152. For DMSO there were tested concentrations from 1M to 6.5M, with concentrations step of 0.5M. For the nonpenetrating cryoprotectors there were tested concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. There were a total number of 168 solutions tested. The solutions vitrification ability on freezing was tested by direct plunging into liquid nitrogen at - 196°C. Three thawing temperatures were tested 20°C, 25°C and 37°C. The concentration at which DMSO solutions passed into vitreous state was 5M, but at thawing none of them remained vitreous at thawing. When pairs of cryoprotectors were tested 67 solutions vitrified at freezing (23 for DMSO-sucrose, 23 for DMSOFicoll 70 and 21 for DMSO-galactose and 26 of them remained vitreous at thawing. The DMSO and galacose pair give the best results on thawing (11 solution remained vitreous on warming at 37°C.

  19. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of dimethyl ether steam reforming and dimethyl ether hydrolysis

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    The production of a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed by dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming was investigated using calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species. Species considered were acetone, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dimethyl ether, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, formaldehyde, formic acid, hydrogen, isopropanol, methane, methanol, methyl-ethyl ether, n-propanol and water. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of DME steam reforming indicate complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at temperatures greater than 200 °C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure ( P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure shifts the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 atm decreases the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5 to 76.2%. The trend of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol-formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. Based on the equilibrium calculations, the optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occur at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 °C. These thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show dimethyl ether processed with steam will produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds—with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. The conversion of dimethyl ether via hydrolysis (considering methanol as the only product) is limited by thermodynamic equilibrium. Equilibrium conversion increases with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio. A maximum dimethyl ether conversion of 62% is achieved at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 5.00 and a processing temperature of 600 °C.

  20. Concomitant pseudopolymorphs of 10-deacetyl baccatin III.

    Tatini, Lakshmi Kumar; Rao, N Someswara; Khan, Muzaffar; Peraka, Krishna Sumanth; Reddy, K V S R Krishna


    Three new solvates [mono-dimethyl sulfoxide (mono-DMSO), mono-dimethyl acetamide (mono-DMA) and mono-dimethyl formamide (mono-DMF)] of 10-Deacetyl baccatin III, were generated by slow evaporation in DMSO, DMF, and DMSO/DMA (1:1) solvent systems respectively. Two concomitant forms mono-DMSO(a new form) and di-DMSO (a known form) were obtained in the DMSO solvent system. Yet two other concomitant forms mono-DMA (a new form) and di-DMSO (a known form) were obtained in DMSO/DMA (1:1) solvent system. A fourth solvate mono-DMF (a new form) was crystallized in unimolar ratio using DMF as a solvent. These solvates were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and spectroscopic [(13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, solution (1)H NMR, and Fourier transform infrared] techniques. The interactions between host and guest molecules were elucitated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. In all the cases, guest molecules are connected to the host molecules by O-H∙∙∙O hydrogen bonds. A remarkable difference in the desolvation onset temperatures of di- and mono-DMSO solvates was observed which was also featured by a corresponding weight loss during TGA analysis.

  1. Polycyclic Ketone Monooxygenase (PockeMO): A Robust Biocatalyst for the Synthesis of Optically Active Sulfoxides

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Fürst, Maximilian; Fraaije, Marco


    A recently discovered, moderately thermostable Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, polycyclic ketone monooxygenase (PockeMO), from Thermothelomyces thermophila has been employed as a biocatalyst in a set of asymmetric sulfoxidations. The enzyme was able to catalyze the oxidation of various alkyl aryl

  2. Sulfide and sulfoxide oxidations by mono- and diperoxo complexes of molybdenum. A density functional study.

    Sensato, Fabrício R; Custodio, Rogério; Longo, E; Safont, Vicent S; Andres, Juan


    The molecular mechanism for the oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides and subsequent oxidation to sulfones by diperoxo, MoO(O(2))(2)(OPH(3)) (I), and monoperoxo, MoO(2)(O(2))(OPH(3)) (II), complexes of molybdenum was studied using density functional calculations at the b3lyp level and the transition state theory. Complexes I and II were both found to be active species. Sulfide oxidation by I or II shows similar activation free energy values of 18.5 and 20.9 kcal/mol, respectively, whereas sulfoxides are oxidized by I (deltaG = 20.6 kcal/mol) rather than by II (deltaG = 30.3 kcal/mol). Calculated kinetic and thermodynamic parameters account for the spontaneous overoxidation of sulfides to sulfones as has been experimentally observed. The charge decomposition analysis (CDA) of the calculated transition structures of sulfide and sulfoxide oxidations revealed that I and II are stronger electrophilic oxidants toward sulfides than they are toward sulfoxides.

  3. Unusual nickel-mediated C-S cleavage of alkyl and aryl sulfoxides.

    Schaub, Thomas; Backes, Marc; Radius, Udo


    The first examples of transition metal mediated C-S cleavage of sulfoxides containing sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon bonds attached to the sulfur atom and the first example of a structurally characterized complex featuring an oxygen-bound sulfinyl ligand are presented.

  4. Sulfoxide-directed intramolecular [4 + 2] cycloadditions between 2-sulfinyl butadienes and unactivated alkynes.

    Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; Tortosa, Mariola; Castellanos, Esther; Viso, Alma; Baile, Raquel


    Sulfinyl dienynes undergo thermal and catalyzed IMDA cycloadditions, often at room temperature, to produce cyclohexa-1,4-dienes with good yields and high selectivities. Additionally, the products preserve a synthetically useful vinyl sulfoxide functionality. The selective manipulation of the double bonds in the cycloadducts has also been examined in this work.

  5. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates-Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts.

    Tomanová, Petra; Šturala, Jiří; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, Radek


    A click chemistry approach based on the reaction between alkynylflavins and mono(6-azido-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin has proven to be a useful tool for the synthesis of flavin-cyclodextrin conjugates studied as monooxygenase mimics in enantioselective sulfoxidations.

  6. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates—Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts

    Petra Tomanová; Jiří Šturala; Miloš Buděšínský; Radek Cibulka


    A click chemistry approach based on the reaction between alkynylflavins and mono(6-azido-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin has proven to be a useful tool for the synthesis of flavin-cyclodextrin conjugates studied as monooxygenase mimics in enantioselective sulfoxidations.

  7. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates—Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts

    Petra Tomanová


    Full Text Available A click chemistry approach based on the reaction between alkynylflavins and mono(6-azido-6-deoxy-β-cyclodextrin has proven to be a useful tool for the synthesis of flavin-cyclodextrin conjugates studied as monooxygenase mimics in enantioselective sulfoxidations.

  8. Extraction of urainum(VI) with di—(2—ethylhexyl) sulfoxide in toluene

    YangYan-Zhao; SunSi-Xiu; 等


    The mechanism of extraction uranium(VI) with di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfoxide(DEHSO) from aqueous nitric acid media has been studied.The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid,extractant,salting-out agent temperature and complex anions(C2O42-) on the distribution ratio was studied.

  9. Triclabendazole sulfoxide causes stage-dependent embryolethality in zebrafish and mouse in vitro.

    Nuria Boix

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis and paragonimiasis are widespread foodborne trematode diseases, affecting millions of people in more than 75 countries. The treatment of choice for these parasitic diseases is based on triclabendazole, a benzimidazole derivative which has been suggested as a promising drug to treat pregnant women and children. However, at the moment, this drug is not approved for human use in most countries. Its potential adverse effects on embryonic development have been scarcely studied, and it has not been assigned a pregnancy category by the FDA. Thus, to help in the process of risk-benefit decision making upon triclabendazole treatment during pregnancy, a better characterization of its risks during gestation is needed.The zebrafish embryo test, a preimplantation and a postimplantation rodent whole embryo culture were used to investigate the potential embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of triclabendazole and its first metabolite triclabendazole sulfoxide. Albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide were included as positive controls.Triclabendazole was between 10 and 250 times less potent than albendazole in inducing dysmorphogenic effects in zebrafish or postimplantation rodent embryos, respectively. However, during the preimplantation period, both compounds, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulfoxide, induced a dose-dependent embryolethal effect after only 24 h of exposure in rodent embryos and zebrafish (lowest observed adverse effect concentrations = 10 μM.In humans, after ingestion of the recommended doses of triclabendazole to treat fascioliasis and paragonimiasis (10 mg/kg, the main compound found in plasma is triclabendazole sulfoxide (maximum concentration 38.6 μM, while triclabendazole concentrations are approximately 30 times lower (1.16 μM. From our results it can be concluded that triclabendazole, at concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the clinically relevant ones, does not entail teratogenic potential in vitro during the

  10. Synergistic extraction and separation of Am(III) and Ln(III) with HBMPPT-sulfoxide-HNO3-toluene system


    Some sulfoxides (petroleum sulfoxide -PSO, di-n-octyl sulfoxide -DOSO, etc.) were chosen as synergists to study the synergistic effect on the extraction re action with HBMPPT (4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione) for Am(III), and the synergistic separation for Am(III) and Ln(III). The synergistic extraction ability of PSO is greater than that of DOSO for Am(III). The synergistic complexes may be presented as Am. NO3.(BMPPT)2.HBMPPT.S2 (S indicates PSO or DOSO).

  11. Influence of DMSO on Carbon K ultrasoft X-rays induced chromosome aberrations in V79 Chinese hamster cells

    Natarajan, Adayapalam T., E-mail: [University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Palitti, Fabrizio [University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Hill, Mark A. [CRUK/MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD (United Kingdom); Stevens, David L. [MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD (United Kingdom); Ahnstroem, Gunnar [Department of Microbiology and Genetic Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Ultrasoft X-rays have been shown to be very efficient in inducing chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the modifying effects of DMSO (a potent scavenger of free radicals) on the frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced by soft X-rays. Confluent held G1 Chinese hamster cells (V79) were irradiated with Carbon K ultrasoft X-rays in the presence and absence of 1 M DMSO and frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the first division cells were determined. DMSO reduced the frequencies of exchange types of aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) by a factor of 2.1-3.5. The results indicate that free radicals induced by ultrasoft X-rays contribute to a great extent to the induction of chromosome aberrations. The possible implications of these results in interpreting the mechanisms involved in the high efficiency of ultrasoft X-rays in the induction of chromosome aberrations are discussed.

  12. Collective excitations in liquid DMSO : FIR spectrum, Low frequency vibrational density of states and ultrafast dipolar solvation dynamics

    Hazra, Milan


    Valuable dynamical and structural information about neat liquid DMSO at ambient conditions can be obtained through study of low frequency vibrations in the far infrared (FIR), that is, terahertz regime. For DMSO, collective excitations as well as single molecule stretches and bends have been measured by different kinds of experiments such as OHD-RIKES and terahertz spectroscopy. In the present work we investigate the intermolecular vibrational spectrum of DMSO through three different computational techniques namely (i) the far-infra red spectrum obtained through Fourier transform of total dipole moment auto time correlation function, (ii) from Fourier transform of the translational and angular velocity time autocorrelation functions and a (iii) quenched normal mode analysis of the parent liquid at 300K. The three spectrum, although exhibit differences among each other, reveal similar features which are in good, semi-quantitative, agreement with experimental results. Study of participation ratio of the density...

  13. Converting biogenic dimethyl ether into fuels

    Zimmermann, Michael; Otto, Thomas N.; Dinjus, Eckhard [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)


    In the seventies, the MtG (''methanol-to-gasoline'') process was an alternative to the Fischer-Tropsch process developed in the thirties of the past century. The MtG process is performed with dimethyl ether (DME) as an intermediate. Hydrocarbons (C{sub 1}-C{sub 10}) directly synthesised via DME with the assistance of zeolites as catalysts offers considerable advantages over the MtG process. Zeolites play an important role in the production of biomass-based fuels from synthesis gas. Known and mature technologies exist for synthesis gas of fossil origin (coal, natural gas, petroleum). These established technologies may also be transferred to synthesis gas of biogenous origin. Dimethyl ether produced from biomass-based synthesis gas is a central intermediate product. In the MtG and DtG (''dimethyl ether-to-gasoline'') process H-ZSM-5 zeolites are of major significance. Modification of H-ZSM-5 catalysts is the basis of customized product synthesis. Hierarchic structures of zeolites change the diffusion properties of the crystals and can help to achieve a more selective range of products. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis, Character and Crystal Structure of the Complex {Er(DMSO)7} PW12O40

    HAN Qiu-Xia; ZHANG Da-Li; MA Jian-Ru; WANG Jing-Ping; NIU Jing-Yang


    The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, thermal properties and electrochemistry of the new complex formulated as {Er(DMSO)7}PW12O40 are reported. The single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the crystal crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a=11.767(2), b=14.909(3), c=34.905(7)(A), β=98.97(3)°, Mr=3591.33, V=6049(2) (A)3, Dc=3.944g/em3, Z=4, GOOF=1.098, F(000)=6340, R=0.0490 and wR=0.1202. Crystal structure analysis indicates that the Er(Ⅲ) is seven-coordinate with a distorted pentagonal bipyramid and combines to the anion [PW12O40]3- via static electric force.

  15. Mechanism and kinetics for the reaction of O(3P) with DMSO: A theoretical study

    Mandal, Debasish; Bagchi, Sabyasachi; Das, Abhijit K.


    Mechanism and kinetics for the reaction of DMSO with O(3P) have been investigated by M06-2X/MG3S, CBS-QB3 and G4MP2 methods. Four possible reaction pathways are identified. Among them, the O(3P) addition to S-atom followed by CH3 elimination is almost exclusive. Four pre-reactive complexes have been located. AIM theory is used to determine the nature of interactions in these complexes. Considering the formation of pre-reactive complex, the rate constant for major pathway is calculated using transition state theory applied to a two-step mechanism. Enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K (ΔfH°298.15) have been calculated using the composite CBS-QB3, G4MP2 and G3B3 methods.

  16. A simple hydrazine based molecule for selective detection of Fluoride ion in DMSO



    A newly synthesized hydrazine-functionalized Schiff base chemoreceptor [N¹N³−bis(4-cyanobenzylidene) isophthalahydrazide], NBCBIH has been prepared and successfully utilized for selective detection of Fluoride ion. Herein, NH and C=N-like functional units have been incorporated which providebetter colorimetric response compared to systems where such kind of units are absent. On exposure to F⁻, NBCBIH turns from almost colorless to yellow. The recognition is well-supported by UV-Vis, fluorescence and ¹H-NMR in DMSO. The fluorescence quenching is well-explained by photoinduced electron transfer mechanism (PET). The limit of detection of F− with NBCBIH is 0.7 × 10⁻⁴M.

  17. catena-Poly[bis[octakis(dimethyl sulfoxidepraseodymium(III] hexa-μ3-sulfido-dodeca-μ2-sulfido-hexasulfidohexasilverhexamolybdenum

    Zhengjing Jiang


    Full Text Available The title compound, {[Pr(C2H6OS8]2[Mo6Ag6S24]}n, contains polymeric Mo6S24Ag62− anions and [Pr(Me2SO8]3+ cations, forming a one-dimensional polymeric Mo/S/Ag cluster. The anion assumes the conformation of a zigzag chain. The trivalent cations are arrayed amongst the anionic chains and are well separated from each other. Each Mo and Ag atom is coordinated by four S atoms in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The Pr3+ atom is coordinated by eight dimethyl sulfoxide ligands, forming a polyhedron-shaped distorted square antiprism.

  18. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cyano-bridged Bimetallic Complex[La(DMSO)3(H2O)3Cr(CN)6]·H2O (DMSO = Dimethylsulfoxide) with One-dimensional Chain Molecular Structure

    梁淑惠; 车云霞; 郑吉民


    The title complex [La(DMSO)3(H2O)3Cr(CN)6](H2O was obtained by the reaction of LaCl3(7H2O, DMSO and K3[Cr(CN)6] in aqueous solution on a hot water bath. The crystal crystallizes in orthorhombic, space group P212121 with a = 9.827(3), b = 15.037(4), c = 17.633(5)A, C12H26CrLaN6O7S3, Mr = 653.48, Z = 4, V = 2605.7(13) A3, Dc = 1.666 g/m3, μ (MoKα) = 2.314 mm-1, F(000) = 1300, R = 0.0205 and wR = 0.0481 for 5038 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). La3+ ion is eight-coordinated by three DMSO molecules, three H2O molecules and two [Cr(CN)6]3- units. The structure of the title complex possesses a cyano-bridged onedimensional zigzag chain structure with alternating La(DMSO)3(H2O)3 and Cr(CN)6 moieties, which are linked by some hydrogen bonds to form a 3D network structure.

  19. Use of albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone, and combined solutions as scolicidal agents on hydatid cysts ( in vitro study)

    Gokhan Adas; Soykan Arikan; Ozgur Kemik; Ali Oner; Nilgun Sahip; Oguzhan Karatepe


    AIM: To establish which scolicidal agents are superior and more suitable for regular use.METHODS: Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were obtained from 25 patients with liver hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of albendazole sulfone,albendazole sulfoxide, and albendazole sulfone and albendazole sulfoxide mixed together in concentrations of 50 μg/mL, and H2O2 in a concentration of 4%, NaCl 20%, and 1.5% cetrimide-0.15% chlorhexidine (10% Savlon-Turkey) were used to determine the scolicidal effects. Albendazole (ABZ) derivatives and other scolicidal agents were applied to a minimum of 100 scoleces for 5 and 10 min. The degree of viability was calculated according to the number of living scolices per field from a total of 100 scolices observed under the microscope.RESULTS: After 5 min, ABZ sulfone was 97.3% effective, ABZ sulfoxide was 98.4% effective, and the combined solution was 98.6% effective. When sulfone, sulfoxide and the combined solutions were compared,the combined solution seemed more effective than sulfone. However, there was no difference when the combined solution was compared with sulfoxide. After 10 min, hypertonic salt water, sulfone, sulfoxide, and the combined solution compared to other solutions looked more effective and this was statistically significant on an advanced level. When sulfone,sulfoxide, and the combined solutions were compared with each other, the combined solution appeared more effective than sulfone. When the combined solution was compared with sulfoxide, there was no difference.CONCLUSION: Despite being active, ABZ metabolites did not provide a marked advantage over 20% hypertonic saline. According to these results, we think creating a newly improved and more active preparation is necessary for hydatid cyst treatment.

  20. Extraction of gold, palladium, and platinum from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative

    Songping Wu; Guobang Gu


    The extraction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) from the acidic media with the cyclic sulfoxide derivative of a-dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (dtmso) was investigated. Gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) could be separated from the acidic media with suitable sulfoxide concentration and acidity. The extraction reaction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is exothermic when dtmso is used as an extracting reagent. The coordination number was studied by the slope method. The results indicate that, in high acidity, the dtmso coordination number for extracting gold (Ⅲ) or palladium (Ⅱ) is 3, and that for platinum (Ⅳ) is 2. UV and FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of the complex. Gold (Ⅲ) is coordinated with the oxygen atom in S=O group in dtmso, and palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is coordinated with the sulfur atom in S=O group in dtmso.


    Thiago Barth


    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ is an anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of infectious diseases in veterinary and human medicine. This drug is a prochiral drug that after administration, is rapidly oxidized in the pharmacologically active sulfoxide metabolite, which is also known as ricobendazole (ABZSOX. ABZSOX has a stereogenic center and possibly two enantiomers, (+-ABZSOX and (--ABZSOX. In the present work, we investigate the pH effect on the asymmetric stereoselective sulfoxidation of ABZ into ABZSOX by employing the fungi Nigrospora sphaerica, Papulaspora immera Hotson, and Mucor rouxii. The results show a possibility of obtaining the pure enantiomers of the ricobendazole drug using fungi as biocatalytic agents. The three fungi showed a high degree of enantioselectivity expressed by enantiomeric excess. In addition, M. rouxii can be used as an alternative to obtain the (+-ABZSOX enantiomer (ee 89.8%.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Fluorescence of Phenylcarboxymethyl Sulfoxide Complexes with Lanthanide Nitrates

    李文先; 张东凤


    Phenylcarboxymethyl Sulfoxide, PhSOCH2COOH(LH), complexes of six lanthanide nitrates: Ln2L2(NO3)4*2LH*nH2O(where Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu) were synthesized. Elemental analyses, molar conductivities, IR, 1HNMR and TG-DTA measurements were used to characterize the complexes. The results show that the ligand(L) is coordinated to metal ions through two oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group and one oxygen atom of the sulfoxide moieties. Neutral ligang (LH)is coordinated to two metal ions through two oxygen atoms of carboxyl group as an asymmetrical bridging bidentate. The fluorescence spectra of Eu3+ complex indicates that there is no inversion symmetry at the site of Eu3+ ion, but the emission intensity of fluorescence is quite good.The solubility of the complexes is very good in water.

  3. Sulfoxide-Directed Metal-Free ortho-Propargylation of Aromatics and Heteroaromatics.

    Eberhart, Andrew J; Shrives, Harry J; Álvarez, Estela; Carrër, Amandine; Zhang, Yuntong; Procter, David J


    A sulfoxide-directed, metal-free ortho-propargylation of aromatics and heteroaromatics exploits intermolecular delivery of a propargyl nucleophile to sulfur followed by an intramolecular relay to carbon. The operationally simple cross-coupling procedure is general, regiospecific with regard to the propargyl nucleophile, and shows complete selectivity for products of ortho-propargylation over allenylation. The use of secondary propargyl silanes allows metal-free ortho-coupling to form carbon-carbon bonds between aromatic and heteroaromatic rings and secondary propargylic centres. The 'safety-catch' nature of the sulfoxide directing group is illustrated in a selective, iterative double cross-coupling process. The products of propargylation are versatile intermediates and they have been readily converted into substituted benzothiophenes.

  4. Transition-Metal-Free Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides under Mild Conditions

    Hua Zhang


    Full Text Available A highly efficient transition-metal-free catalytic system Br2/NaNO2/H2O has been developed for a robust and economic acid-free aerobic oxidation of sulfides. It is noteworthy that the sulfide function reacts under mild conditions without over-oxidation to sulfone. The role of NaNO2as an efficient NO equivalent for the activation of molecular oxygen was identified. Under the optimal conditions, a broad range of sulfide substrates were converted into their corresponding sulfoxides in high yields by molecular oxygen. The present catalytic system utilizes cheap and readily available agents as the catalysts, exhibits high selectivity for sulfoxide products and releases only innocuous water as the by-products.

  5. Axially chiral imidodiphosphoric Acid catalyst for asymmetric sulfoxidation reaction: insights on asymmetric induction.

    Jindal, Garima; Sunoj, Raghavan B


    Insights into chiral induction for an asymmetric sulfoxidation reaction involving a single oxygen atom transfer are gained through analyzing the stereocontrolling transition states. The fitting of the substrate into the chiral cavity of a new class of imidodiphosphoric Brønsted acids, as well as weak CH⋅⋅⋅π and CH⋅⋅⋅O noncovalent interactions, are identified as responsible for the observed chiral induction.

  6. Mutagenicity of the cysteine S-conjugate sulfoxides of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in the Ames test.

    Irving, Roy M; Elfarra, Adnan A


    The nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are believed to be mediated primarily through the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase-dependent bioactivation of the corresponding cysteine S-conjugate metabolites S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (DCVC) and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (TCVC), respectively. DCVC and TCVC have previously been demonstrated to be mutagenic by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, and reduction in mutagenicity was observed upon treatment with the β-lyase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). Because DCVC and TCVC can also be bioactivated through sulfoxidation to yield the potent nephrotoxicants S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS) and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxide (TCVCS), respectively, the mutagenic potential of these two sulfoxides was investigated using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA100 mutagenicity assay. The results show both DCVCS and TCVCS were mutagenic, and TCVCS exhibited 3-fold higher mutagenicity than DCVCS. However, DCVCS and TCVCS mutagenic activity was approximately 700-fold and 30-fold lower than DCVC and TCVC, respectively. DCVC and DCVCS appeared to induce toxicity in TA100, as evidenced by increased microcolony formation and decreased mutant frequency above threshold concentrations. TCVC and TCVCS were not toxic in TA100. The toxic effects of DCVC limited the sensitivity of TA100 to DCVC mutagenic effects and rendered it difficult to investigate the effects of AOAA on DCVC mutagenic activity. Collectively, these results suggest that DCVCS and TCVCS exerted a definite but weak mutagenicity in the TA100 strain. Therefore, despite their potent nephrotoxicity, DCVCS and TCVCS are not likely to play a major role in DCVC or TCVC mutagenicity in this strain.

  7. Metabolism of DMSP, DMS and DMSO by the cultivable bacterial community associated with the DMSP-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea

    Hatton, A.D.; Shenoy, D.M.; Hart, M.C.; Mogg, A.; Green, D.H.

    ) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Results demonstrate that of the cultivable bacteria only alpha-Proteobacteria were capable of producing DMS from DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was shown to affect the amount of DMS produced. Lower DMSP concentrations (1.5 mu mol dm sup(-3...

  8. Small molecule mixture analysis by heteronuclear NMR under spin diffusion conditions in the viscous DMSO-water solvent.

    Lameiras, Pedro; Patis, Solène; Jakhlal, Jouda; Castex, Stéphanie; Clivio, Pascale; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc


    Spin diffusion in NMR occurs for small and medium-sized molecules when their tumbling rate reduces in solution so that magnetization exchange by longitudinal cross relaxation becomes highly efficient. Composite DMSO-water viscous solvents were used for the first time to access the individual NMR spectra of mixture components in spin diffusion conditions. The easy handling and high dissolution power of [D6]DMSO/H2O offers a wide range of potential applications for polar and apolar mixture analysis. In addition to 2D 1H-1H NOESY and 1H-13C HSQC-NOESY, 1H-15N HSQC-NOESY, 1D and 2D 1H-19F HOESY experiments were set up to offer new ways to individualize molecules within a mixture. This article reports the analysis of a polar mixture of four dipeptides dissolved in [D6]DMSO/H2O (7:3, v/v) and of a low polarity fluorinated dinucleotide dissolved in [D6]DMSO/H2O (8:2, v/v) by means of spin diffusion in NOESY, HOESY, and HSQC-NOESY experiments.

  9. A Novel Organic-Inorganic Complex: Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [Ca(DMSO)5(H2O)]2SiMo12O40


    A novel organic-inorganic complex [Ca(DMSO)5(H2O)]2SiMo12O40 was synthesized from CaCl2, DMSO and H4SiMo12O40(nH2O in mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water. Its structure was characterized with elemental analysis, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  10. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activities of Benzimidazole-Based Sulfide and Sulfoxide Derivatives.

    Gaballah, Samir T; El-Nezhawy, Ahmed O H; Amer, Hassan; Ali, Mamdouh Moawad; Mahmoud, Abeer Essam El-Din; Hofinger-Horvath, Andreas


    The design, synthesis, and in vitro antiproliferative activity of a novel series of sulfide (4a-i) and sulfoxide (5a-h) derivatives of benzimidazole, in which different aromatic and heteroaromatic acetamides are linked to benzimidazole via sulfide (4a-i) and sulfoxide (5a-h) linker, are reported and the structure-activity relationship is discussed. The new derivatives were prepared by coupling 2-(mercaptomethyl)benzimidazole with 2-bromo-N-(substituted) acetamides in dry acetone in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. With very few exceptions, all of the synthesized compounds showed varying antiprolific activities against HepG2, MCF-7, and A549 cell lines. Compound 5a was very similar in potency to doxorubicin as an anticancer drug, with IC50 values 4.1 ± 0.5, 4.1 ± 0.5, and 5.0 ± 0.6 µg/mL versus 4.2 ± 0.5, 4.9 ± 0.6, and 6.1 ± 0.6 µg/mL against HepG2, MCF-7, and A549 cell lines, respectively. In contrast, none of the compounds showed activity against human prostate PC3 cancer cells. Additionally, the sulfoxide derivatives were more potent than the corresponding sulfides.

  11. Transition metal-modified polyoxometalates supported on carbon as catalyst in 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole sulfoxidation

    Romina A Frenzel; Gustavo P Romanelli; Mirta N Blanco; Luis R Piz


    Polyoxometalates with lacunary Keggin structure modified with transition metal ions [PW11O39M(H2O)]5−, where M = Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+ or Zn2+, were synthesized and supported on activated carbon to obtain the PW11MC catalysts. Using FT-IR and DTA-TGA it was concluded that the [PW11O39M(H2O)]5− species are interacting with the functional groups of the support, and that thermal treatment leads to the loss of the coordinatively bonded water molecules without any noticeable anion degradation. The activity and selectivity of the catalysts in the sulfoxidation reaction of 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole, an emerging environmental pollutant, were evaluated. The reaction was carried out in acetonitrile as solvent using H2O2 35% p/v as a clean oxidant. The conversion values decreased in the following order: PW11NiC > PW11CuC > PW11CoC > PW11ZnC, with selectivity to sulfoxide higher than 69%. The catalyst could be reused without appreciable loss of the catalytic activity at least three times. The materials were found to be efficient and recyclable catalysts for 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole sulfoxidation in order to obtain a more biodegradable product than the corresponding substrate.

  12. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris


    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen.

  13. Bis[μ-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylpyridin-3-amine-κ2N:N′]disilver(I bis(perchlorate dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate

    Suk-Hee Moon


    Full Text Available In the binuclear title compound, [Ag2(C11H11N32](ClO42·2C2H6SO, the complex cation is centrosymmetric, with the unique AgI cation coordinated by two pyridine N atoms from two symmetry-related N-(pyridine-2-ylmethylpyridine-3-amine ligands in a geometry slightly distorted from linear [N—Ag—N = 170.78 (9°], resulting in the formation of a 16-membered cyclic dimer. The two pyridine rings coordinating to the AgI atom are almost perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 87.73 (10°]. Intermolecular Ag...O interactions [3.149 (3 and 2.686 (3 Å], N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions between the cyclic dimers and the anions or the solvent molecules lead to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  14. CCDC 977701: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(bis(2-Methoxyphenyl)phosphino)-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)benzenesulfonamidato)-(dimethyl sulfoxide)-methyl-palladium

    Jian, Zhongbao


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  15. CCDC 860713: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[dimethylammonium (mu-5,5'-ethyne-1,2-diyldiisophthalato)-indium N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl sulfoxide solvate monohydrate

    Zheng, Bing


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  16. Interactions and Binding Energies of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate and Dimethyl Chlorophosphate with Amorphous Silica


    and Decomposition of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate on TiO2 . J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 12292−12298. (13) Polanyi, M.; Wigner, E. Über die Interferenz von...319, 177−184. (18) Palmero, A.; Loffler, D. G. Kinetics of Water Desorption from Pelletized 4A and 5A Zeolites. Thermochim. Acta 1990, 159, 171−176

  17. A method for analysis of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl diselenide by LC-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Skov, Søren; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan; Gammelgaard, Bente


    The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) method capable of separating and detecting the two volatile selenium species dimethyl selenide (DMeSe) and dimethyl diselenide (DMeDSe) in biological samples. Dimethyl selenide and dimethyl diselenide were separated on a short reversed phase column using an eluent containing 40% methanol and detected by dynamic reaction cell ICP-MS monitoring the (80)Se isotope. The limit of detection was 8 nM for both species (corresponding to 0.6 and 1.3 μg Se/L for DMeDSe and DMeSe, respectively). Both compounds exhibited a linear signal-concentration relationship in the investigated concentration range of 0.1-1 μM with a precision on the determinations better than 3%. The method was applied for analysis of samples from cancer cell lines incubated with methylseleninic acid, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and sodium selenite. DMeDSe were detected in some samples. The method offers a simple and fast analysis of DMeDSe and DMeSe using standard liquid chromatography coupled with ICP-MS equipment and interfacing.

  18. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep


    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  19. Chemical leukoderma induced by dimethyl sulfate*

    Gozali, Maya Valeska; Zhang, Jia-an; Yi, Fei; Zhou, Bing-rong; Luo, Dan


    Chemical leukoderma occurs due to the toxic effect of a variety of chemical agents. Mechanisms include either destruction or inhibition of melanocytes. We report two male patients (36 and 51 years old) who presented with multiple hypopigmented macules and patches on the neck, wrist, and legs after exposure to dimethyl sulfate in a chemical industry. Physical examination revealed irregular depigmentation macules with sharp edges and clear hyperpigmentation around the lesions. History of repeated exposure to a chemical agent can help the clinical diagnosis of chemical leukoderma. This diagnosis is very important for prognosis and therapeutic management of the disease.

  20. Experimental and theoretical proton affinities of methionine, methionine sulfoxide and their N- and C-terminal derivatives

    Lioe, Hadi; O'Hair, Richard A. J.; Gronert, Scott; Austin, Allen; Reid, Gavin E.


    The proton affinities of methionine, methionine sulfoxide and their derivatives (methionine methyl ester, methionine sulfoxide methyl ester, methionine methyl amide, methionine sulfoxide methyl amide, N-acetyl methionine, N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide, N-acetyl methionine methyl ester, N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide methyl ester, N-acetyl methionine methyl amide and N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide methyl amide) were experimentally determined using the kinetic method, in which proton bound dimers formed via electrospray ionization (ESI) were subjected to collision induced dissociation (CID) in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In addition, theoretical calculations carried out at the MP2/6-311 + G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory to determine the global minima of the neutral and protonated species of all derivatives studied, were used to predict theoretical proton affinities. The density function theory calculations not only support the experimental proton affinities, but also provide structural insights into the types of hydrogen bonding that stabilize the neutral and protonated methionine or methionine sulfoxide derivatives. Comparison of the proton affinities of the various methionine and methionine sulfoxide derivatives reveals that: (i) oxidation of methionine derivatives to methionine sulfoxide derivatives results in an increase in proton affinity due to higher intrinsic proton affinity and an increase in the ring size formed through charge complexation of the sulfoxide group, which allows more efficient hydrogen bonding compared to the sulfide group; (ii) C-terminal modification by methyl esterification or methyl amidation increases the proton affinity in the order of methyl amide > methyl ester > carboxylic acid due to improved charge stabilization; (iii) N-terminal modification by N-acetylation decreases proton affinity of the derivatives due to lower intrinsic proton affinity of the N-acetyl group as well as due to stabilization of the attached

  1. 21 CFR 73.37 - Astaxanthin dimethyl-disuccinate.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Astaxanthin dimethyl-disuccinate. 73.37 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.37 Astaxanthin dimethyl-disuccinate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive astaxanthin dimethyldisuccinate is...

  2. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes

    He Huang


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  3. Uranium dioxide in Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids with DMSO: Dissolution, separation, and structural characterization

    Yao, Aining; Chu, Taiwei


    UO2 can be successfully dissolved in imidazolium-based Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids (ILs) with the help of DMSO. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray diffraction show that UO2Cl42- is the principal product. The dissolved uranyl species can be easily separated from the ILs via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction. Moreover, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd, compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. The solvents of acetone and acetonitrile could be used to separate the rare-earth elements from uranium in the IL with the help of imidazolium chloride. Considering the complete process from the dissolution of UO2 and some rare-earth oxides to the separation of uranium and rare-earth elements in the IL, the facile approach is promising for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  4. Preservation of corals in salt-saturated DMSO buffer is superior to ethanol for PCR experiments

    Gaither, M. R.; Szabó, Z.; Crepeau, M. W.; Bird, C. E.; Toonen, R. J.


    Specimen collection is time consuming and expensive, yet few laboratories test preservation methods before setting out on field expeditions. The most common preservation buffer used for coral specimens is >70% EtOH. However, alternatives exist that are less flammable, easier to ship, and are widely used in other taxa. Here, we compare the effects of salt-saturated DMSO (SSD) and EtOH preservation buffers on post-extraction DNA quantity and quality. We found that soft tissue integrity was better maintained and higher quantities of DNA were extracted from EtOH-preserved specimens; however, by all other measures, SSD was a superior preservative to EtOH. Extractions of SSD-preserved specimens resulted in higher molecular weight DNA, higher PCR success, and more efficient amplification than specimens preserved in EtOH. Our results show that SSD is generally a superior preservative to EtOH for specimens destined for PCR studies, but species-specific differences indicate that preservation comparisons should be undertaken before collection and storage of samples.

  5. Stabilization of Li Metal Anode in DMSO-Based Electrolytes via Optimization of Salt-Solvent Coordination for Li-O 2 Batteries

    Liu, Bin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Wu [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kim, Sun Tai [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 South Korea; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Sun, Xiuliang [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Mei, Donghai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Cho, Jaephil [Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 South Korea; Wang, Chong-Min [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA


    The conventional DMSO-based electrolyte (1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in DMSO) is unstable against the Li metal anode and therefore cannot be used directly in practical Li-O2 batteries. Here, we demonstrate that a highly concentrated electrolyte based on LiTFSI in DMSO (with a molar ratio of 1:3) can greatly improve the stability of the Li metal anode against DMSO and significantly improve the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. This highly concentrated electrolyte contains no free DMSO solvent molecules, but only complexes of (TFSI–)a-Li+-(DMSO)b (where a + b = 4), and thus enhances their stability with Li metal anodes. In addition, such salt-solvent complexes have higher Gibbs activation energy barriers than the free DMSO solvent molecules, indicating improved stability of the electrolyte against the attack of superoxide radical anions. Therefore, the stability of this highly concentrated electrolyte at both Li metal anodes and carbon-based air electrodes has been greatly enhanced, resulting in improved cyclic stability of Li-O2 batteries. The fundamental stability of the electrolyte with free-solvent against the chemical and electrochemical reactions can also be used to enhance the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  6. The level of MXR1 gene expression in brewing yeast during beer fermentation is a major determinant for the concentration of dimethyl sulfide in beer.

    Hansen, Jørgen; Bruun, Susanne V; Bech, Lene M; Gjermansen, Claes


    DMS (dimethyl sulfide) is an important beer flavor compound which is derived either from the beer wort production process or via the brewing yeast metabolism. We investigated the contribution of yeast MXR1 gene activity to the final beer DMS content. The MXR1-CA gene from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (synonym of Saccharomyces pastorianus) lager brewing yeast was isolated and sequenced, and found to be 88% identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MXR1. Inactive deletion alleles of both genes were substituted for their functional counterparts in S. carlsbergensis. Such yeasts fermented well and did not form DMS from dimethyl sulfoxide. Overexpression in brewing yeast of MXR1 from non-native promoters with various strengths and transcription profiles resulted in an enhanced and correlated DMS production. The promoters of MXR1 and MXR1-CA contain conserved Met31p/Met32p binding sites, and in accordance with this were found to be co-regulated with the genes of the sulfur assimilation pathway. In addition, conserved YRE-like DNA sequences are present in these promoters, indicating that Yap1p may also take part in the control of these genes.

  7. Reactions of cytotoxic metallodrugs with lysozyme in pure DMSO explored through UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and ESI MS.

    Marzo, Tiziano; Savić, Aleksandar; Massai, Lara; Michelucci, Elena; Sabo, Tibor J; Grguric-Šipka, Sanja; Messori, Luigi


    The reactions of four representative metallodrugs with the model protein HEWL were investigated within a non-aqueous environment-i.e. in pure DMSO- through UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and ESI MS analysis. Notably, formation of a variety of metallodrug-protein adducts was clearly documented. This is the first example for this kind of protein metalation reactions carried out within a pure organic solvent. It is shown that the applied solution conditions greatly affect the nature of the formed adducts, this being well accounted for by the fact that the overall protein conformation is greatly perturbed within pure DMSO; in addition, the activation profiles of the studied metallodrugs are also highly dependent on the nature of the solvent. The implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Energetics and dissociation pathways of dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl diselenide using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy

    Borkar, Sampada [Department of Chemistry, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Sztáray, Bálint, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Bodi, Andras, E-mail: [Molecular Dynamics Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland)


    Internal energy selected dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl diselenide cations were prepared by vacuum ultraviolet threshold photoionization in Imaging Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (iPEPICO) spectroscopy experiments. XH-, CH{sub 3}- and CH{sub n}X-loss reactions (n = 2–4, X = S, Se) were observed in both samples with varying branching ratios. SH loss from dimethyl disulfide, DMDS, and SeH loss from dimethyl diselenide were both found to be slow at threshold, and proceed through a tight transition state. By modeling the breakdown diagram and the ion time-of-flight distributions to extract unimolecular dissociation rates to account for kinetic shifts, we obtained a new, significantly revised 0 K SH-loss CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 2}{sup +} appearance energy. At slightly higher energies, CH{sub n}X{sup +} (n = 2–4) fragments are observed, still in the metastable energy range of the parent ion. Later, CH{sub 3}-loss outcompetes the lower energy channels and becomes dominant. At yet higher energies, the CH{sub 3}-loss fragment ion, probably CH{sub 3}X{sub 2}{sup +}, forms CHX{sup +} by H{sub 2}X abstraction. The newly obtained 0 K appearance energies are used in the ion cycle to discuss the heats of formation of CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 2}{sup +}, CH{sub 3}S{sub 2}{sup +}, CH{sub 2}S{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Se{sup +}, and CH{sub 3}Se{sub 2}{sup +}.

  9. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A: Structure, function and role in ocular pathology

    Parameswaran; G; Sreekumar; David; R; Hinton; Ram; Kannan


    Methionine is a highly susceptible amino acid that can be oxidized to S and R diastereomeric forms of methionine sulfoxide by many of the reactive oxygen species generated in biological systems. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are thioredoxin-linked enzymes involved in the enzymatic conversion of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. Although MsrA and MsrB have the same function of methionine reduction, they differ in substrate specifi city, active site composition, subcellular localization, and evolution. MsrA has been localized in different ocular regions and is abundantly expressed in the retina and in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. MsrA protects cells from oxidative stress. Overexpression of MsrA increases resistance to cell death, while silencing or knocking down MsrA decreases cell survival; events that are mediated by mitochondria. MsrA participates in protein-protein interaction with several other cellular proteins. The interaction of MsrAwith α-crystallins is of utmost importance given the known functions of the latter in protein folding, neuroprotection, and cell survival. Oxidation of methionine residues in α-crystallins results in loss of chaperone function and possibly its antiapoptotic properties. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that MsrA is co-localized with αA and αB crystallins in the retinal samples of patients with age-related macular degen- eration. We have also found that chemically induced hypoxia regulates the expression of MsrA and MsrB2 in human RPE cells. Thus, MsrA is a critical enzyme that participates in cell and tissue protection, and its interaction with other proteins/growth factors may provide a target for therapeutic strategies to prevent degenerative diseases.

  10. Formation of methionine sulfoxide during glycoxidation and lipoxidation of ribonuclease A.

    Brock, Jonathan W C; Ames, Jennifer M; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W


    Chemical modification of proteins by reactive oxygen species affects protein structure, function and turnover during aging and chronic disease. Some of this damage is direct, for example by oxidation of amino acids in protein by peroxide or other reactive oxygen species, but autoxidation of ambient carbohydrates and lipids amplifies both the oxidative and chemical damage to protein and leads to formation of advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products (AGE/ALEs). In previous work, we have observed the oxidation of methionine during glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions, and in the present work we set out to determine if methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) in protein was a more sensitive indicator of glycoxidative and lipoxidative damage than AGE/ALEs. We also investigated the sites of methionine oxidation in a model protein, ribonuclease A (RNase), in order to determine whether analysis of the site specificity of methionine oxidation in proteins could be used to indicate the source of the oxidative damage, i.e. carbohydrate or lipid. We describe here the development of an LC/MS/MS for quantification of methionine oxidation at specific sites in RNase during glycoxidation or lipoxidation by glucose or arachidonate, respectively. Glycoxidized and lipoxidized RNase were analyzed by tryptic digestion, followed by reversed phase HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis to quantify methionine and methionine sulfoxide containing peptides. We observed that: (1) compared to AGE/ALEs, methionine sulfoxide was a more sensitive biomarker of glycoxidative or lipoxidative damage to proteins; (2) regardless of oxidizable substrate, the relative rate of oxidation of methionine residues in RNase was Met29>Met30>Met13, with Met79 being resistant to oxidation; and (3) arachidonate produced a significantly greater yield of MetSO, compared to glucose. The methods developed here should be useful for assessing a protein's overall exposure to oxidative stress from a variety of sources in

  11. Sequential picosecond isomerizations in a photochromic ruthenium sulfoxide complex triggered by pump-repump-probe spectroscopy.

    King, Albert W; Jin, Yuhuan; Engle, James T; Ziegler, Christopher J; Rack, Jeffrey J


    The complex [Ru(bpy)(2)(bpSO)](PF(6))(2), where bpy is 2,2'-bipydine and bpSO is 1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane, exhibits three distinct isomers which are accessible upon metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) irradiation. This complex and its parent, [Ru(bpy)(2)(bpte)](PF(6))(2), where bpte is 1,2-bis(phenylthio)ethane, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, NMR, X-ray crystallography, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A novel method of 2-color Pump-Repump-Probe spectroscopy has been employed to investigate all three isomers of the bis-sulfoxide complex. This method allows for observation of the isomerization dynamics of sequential isomerizations of each sulfoxide from MLCT irradiation of the S,S-bonded complex to ultimately form the O,O-bonded metastable complex. One-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) (COSY, NOESY, and TOCSY) (1)H NMR data show the thioether and ground state S,S-bonded sulfoxide complexes to be rigorously C(2) symmetric and are consistent with the crystal structures. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the S,S to S,O isomerization occurs with an observed time constant of 56.8 (±7.4) ps. The S,O to O,O isomerization time constant was found to be 59 (±4) ps by pump-repump-probe spectroscopy. The composite S,S- to O,O-isomer quantum yield is 0.42.

  12. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO

    Marilena Carbone


    In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments.

  13. Molecular dynamics model of dimethyl ether

    Lin, B.; Halley, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    We report a molecular dynamics model of the monomeric liquid dimethyl ether. The united atom approach is used to treat CH{sub 3} groups as point source centers. Partial charges are derived from the experimental dipole moment. Harmonic force constants are used for intramolecular interactions, and their values are so chosen that the model`s fundamental frequencies agree with experimental results. Because we are interested in solvation properties, the model contains flexible molecules, allowing molecular distortion and internal dynamical quantities. We report radial distribution functions and the static structure factors as well as some dynamical quantities such as the dynamical structure factor, infrared absorption, and Raman scattering spectra. Calculated results agree reasonably well with experimental and other simulation results. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Creep of Chinese Fir Wood Treated by Different Reagents

    Xue Feng-lian; Zhao Guang-jie; Lü Wen-hua


    In order to investigate the effect of different reagents on changes of the crystalline region and amorphous region(Matrix) in wood cell walls, the creep behavior of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood treated with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and diethyl amine, sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfoxide mixture (DEA-SO2-DMSO), and the untreated wood at oven-dried,air-dry and water-saturated states during adsorption and desorption processes were all examined in air or in water. The measurements were carried out at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The load is constant with 62 g or 0.607 6 N. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The instantaneous compliance Jo and the creep compliance J of specimens decrystallized with DEA-SO2-DMSO solution were bigger than those of DMSO swollen wood, and the latter was still much bigger than those of untreated wood. 2) For untreated wood, Jo and J increased with equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood, but there was not apparent correlation between wood EMC and the relative compliance. 3) Specimens treated with DMSO and DEA-SO2-DMSO mixture were recrystallized after immersion in water, and the degree of recrystallization of the former was larger. 4) For oven-dried specimens, the creep compliances in water were bigger than those in air. But for fiber-saturated and water-saturated specimens they were nearly equivalent to each other.

  15. Synthesis and Nrf2 Activating Ability of Thiourea and Vinyl Sulfoxide Derivatives

    Shim, Young Sun; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choi, Kyung Il [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Thiourea and vinyl sulfoxide derivatives were designed based on the structures of sulforaphene and gallic acid, prepared and tested for HO-1 inducing activity as a measure of Nrf2 activation, and inhibitory effect on NO production as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. Both series of compounds showed moderate activity on HO-1 induction, and no inhibitory effect on NO production. Interestingly the thiourea compound 6d showed better HO-1 induction (71% SFN) than the corresponding isothiocyanate compound 6a (55% SFN). Overall, it seemed that more efficient electrophile is needed to get more effective Nrf2 activator.

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Neodymium Ionic Associate [Nd(dmso)7Cl][Bph4]2


    The title compound, [Nd(dmso)7Cl][Bph4]2(dmso=dimethylsulfoxide, Bph4=tetraphenylboron anion) was synthesized in organic solvent acetone/EtOH and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is triclinic with space group P, and the crystal data are as follows: a=1.2554(1) nm, b=1.2799(1) nm, c=2.4598(3) nm; α=93.53(1)°, β=104.50(1)°, γ=112.77(1)°, V=3.4722(6) nm3, Z=2, Mr=1365.01, Dc=1.306 g·cm-3. The crystal is composed of a big cation [Nd(dmso)7Cl]2+ and two big anions [BPh4]-. The Nd3+ is coordinated by a chlorine atom and seven oxygen atoms from seven dimethylsulfoxides forming a distorted square antiprism coordination polyhedron,while the BPh-4 anion is charge-equilibrium ion.

  17. Ethylene glycol, but not DMSO, could replace glycerol inclusion in soybean lecithin-based extenders in ram sperm cryopreservation.

    Najafi, Abouzar; Daghigh-Kia, Hossein; Dodaran, Hossein Vaseghi; Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycerol, ethylene glycol or DMSO in a soybean lecithin extender for freezing ram semen. In this study, 20 ejaculates were collected from four Ghezel rams and diluted with soybean lecithin extender with glycerol (7%), ethylene glycol (3%, 5% and 7%) or DMSO (3%, 5% and 7%). Sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (HOS test), viability, total abnormality, mitochondrial activity (Rhodamine 123) and apoptotic features (Annexin V/Propidium iodide) were assessed after thawing. There was no significant difference between glycerol and ethylene glycol at different concentrations (3% and 5%) regarding sperm total and progressive motility, viability, and membrane integrity. The least percentages of mitochondrial functionality were observed in samples frozen with all different DMSO concentrations tested (Pethylene glycol could be a desirable substitute of glycerol in the freezing extender, in view of similar results obtained in post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin extender. We propose that glycerol in a soybean lecithin based extender could be replaced by ethylene glycol at 3% or 5% concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Complexes of platinum and palladium with β-diketones and DMSO: Synthesis, characterization, molecular modeling, and biological studies

    do Couto Almeida, J.; Marzano, I. M.; de Paula, F. C. Silva; Pivatto, M.; Lopes, N. P.; de Souza, P. C.; Pavan, F. R.; Formiga, A. L. B.; Pereira-Maia, E. C.; Guerra, W.


    This work reports on the synthesis and characterization of new complexes of the type [MCl(L)DMSO], where L = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione (HTPB) or 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (HTTA) and M = Pt2+ or Pd2+. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, FT-IR, UV-Vis, high-resolution mass spectra (HRESIMS) and TG/DTA. In the complexes, the metallic ions bind to β-diketone via the oxygen atoms and to DMSO molecule via sulfur atom. The structures of complexes were optimized and theoretical data showed good agreement with the experimental results. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was evaluated in a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. The platinum complexes were more cytotoxic than the free ligands and carboplatin and are promising candidates for further investigations. As example, the compound [PtCl(TPB)(DMSO)] inhibits the growth of K562 cells with an IC50 value equal to 2.5 μM. Furthermore, microbiological assays against Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that all complexes exhibit low cytotoxicity against this bacterial strain while the free ligands exhibited MIC values of approximately 10 μg mL-1.

  19. Correlating steric hydration forces with water dynamics through surface force and diffusion NMR measurements in a lipid–DMSO–H2O system

    Schrader, Alex M.; Donaldson, Stephen H.; Song, Jinsuk; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Dong Woog; Han, Songi; Israelachvili, Jacob N.


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a common solvent and biological additive possessing well-known utility in cellular cryoprotection and lipid membrane permeabilization, but the governing mechanisms at membrane interfaces remain poorly understood. Many studies have focused on DMSO–lipid interactions and the subsequent effects on membrane-phase behavior, but explanations often rely on qualitative notions of DMSO-induced dehydration of lipid head groups. In this work, surface forces measurements between gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membranes in DMSO–water mixtures quantify the hydration- and solvation-length scales with angstrom resolution as a function of DMSO concentration from 0 mol% to 20 mol%. DMSO causes a drastic decrease in the range of the steric hydration repulsion, leading to an increase in adhesion at a much-reduced intermembrane distance. Pulsed field gradient NMR of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) head group analogs, dimethyl phosphate and tetramethylammonium ions, shows that the ion hydrodynamic radius decreases with increasing DMSO concentration up to 10 mol% DMSO. The complementary measurements indicate that, at concentrations below 10 mol%, the primary effect of DMSO is to decrease the solvated volume of the PC head group and that, from 10 mol% to 20 mol%, DMSO acts to gradually collapse head groups down onto the surface and suppress their thermal motion. This work shows a connection between surface forces, head group conformation and dynamics, and surface water diffusion, with important implications for soft matter and colloidal systems. PMID:26261313

  20. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A expression is regulated by the DAF-16/FOXO pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Minniti, Alicia N; Cataldo, Romina; Trigo, Carla; Vasquez, Luis; Mujica, Patricio; Leighton, Federico; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Aldunate, Rebeca


    The methionine sulfoxide reductase system has been implicated in aging and protection against oxidative stress. This conserved system reverses the oxidation of methionine residues within proteins. We analyzed one of the components of this system, the methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene, in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the msra-1 gene is expressed in most tissues, particularly in the intestine and the nervous system. Worms carrying a deletion of the msra-1 gene are more sensitive to oxidative stress, show chemotaxis and locomotory defects, and a 30% decrease in median survival. We established that msra-1 expression decreases during aging and is regulated by the DAF-16/FOXO3a transcription factor. The absence of this enzyme decreases median survival and affects oxidative stress resistance of long lived daf-2 worms. A similar effect of MSRA-1 absence in wild-type and daf-2 (where most antioxidant enzymes are activated) backgrounds, suggests that the lack of this member of the methionine repair system cannot be compensated by the general antioxidant response. Moreover, FOXO3a directly activates the human MsrA promoter in a cell culture system, implying that this could be a conserved mechanism of MsrA regulation. Our results suggest that repair of oxidative damage in proteins influences the rate at which tissues age. This repair mechanism, rather than the general decreased of radical oxygen species levels, could be one of the main determinants of organisms' lifespan.

  1. Evidence for the dimerization-mediated catalysis of methionine sulfoxide reductase A from Clostridium oremlandii.

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kitaik; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Park, Yeon Seung; Lee, Kong-Joo; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Young


    Clostridium oremlandii MsrA (CoMsrA) is a natively selenocysteine-containing methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase and classified into a 1-Cys type MsrA. CoMsrA exists as a monomer in solution. Herein, we report evidence that CoMsrA can undergo homodimerization during catalysis. The monomeric CoMsrA dimerizes in the presence of its substrate methionine sulfoxide via an intermolecular disulfide bond between catalytic Cys16 residues. The dimeric CoMsrA is resolved by the reductant glutaredoxin, suggesting the relevance of dimerization in catalysis. The dimerization reaction occurs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of homodimer formation in the native selenoprotein CoMsrA is confirmed. We also determine the crystal structure of the dimeric CoMsrA, having the dimer interface around the two catalytic Cys16 residues. A central cone-shaped hole is present in the surface model of dimeric structure, and the two Cys16 residues constitute the base of the hole. Collectively, our biochemical and structural analyses suggest a novel dimerization-mediated mechanism for CoMsrA catalysis that is additionally involved in CoMsrA regeneration by glutaredoxin.

  2. Vibrio cholerae ensures function of host proteins required for virulence through consumption of luminal methionine sulfoxide

    Vanhove, Audrey S.; Hang, Saiyu; Wong, Adam CN; Asara, John M.


    Vibrio cholerae is a diarrheal pathogen that induces accumulation of lipid droplets in enterocytes, leading to lethal infection of the model host Drosophila melanogaster. Through untargeted lipidomics, we provide evidence that this process is the product of a host phospholipid degradation cascade that induces lipid droplet coalescence in enterocytes. This infection-induced cascade is inhibited by mutation of the V. cholerae glycine cleavage system due to intestinal accumulation of methionine sulfoxide (MetO), and both dietary supplementation with MetO and enterocyte knock-down of host methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) yield increased resistance to infection. MsrA converts both free and protein-associated MetO to methionine. These findings support a model in which dietary MetO competitively inhibits repair of host proteins by MsrA. Bacterial virulence strategies depend on functional host proteins. We propose a novel virulence paradigm in which an intestinal pathogen ensures the repair of host proteins essential for pathogenesis through consumption of dietary MetO. PMID:28586382

  3. Ultrafast spectroscopy and structural characterization of a photochromic isomerizing ruthenium bis-sulfoxide complex.

    King, Albert W; Malizia, Jason P; Engle, James T; Ziegler, Christopher J; Rack, Jeffrey J


    Irradiation of [Ru(bpy)2(bpSOp)](PF6)2 (where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and bpSOp is 1,3-bis(phenylsulfinyl)propane) results in the formation of two new isomers, namely the S,O- and O,O-bonded species. The crystal structure of the bis-thioether and bis-sulfoxide complexes are reported. NMR spectroscopy of the bis-thioether complex in solution is consistent with the molecular structure determined by diffraction methods. Further, NMR spectroscopy of the bis-sulfoxide complex reveals two conformers in solution, one that is consistent with the solid state structure and a second conformer showing distortion in the aliphatic portion of the chelate ring. Time-resolved visible absorption spectroscopy reveals isomerization time constants of 91 ps in dichloroethane (DCE) and 229 ps in propylene carbonate (PC). Aggregate isomerization quantum yields of 0.57 and 0.42 have been determined in DCE and in PC, respectively. The kinetics of the thermal reversion from the O,O- to S,O-bonded isomer are strongly solvent dependent, occurring with rates of 2.41 × 10(-3) and 4.39 × 10(-5) s(-1) in DCE, and 4.68 × 10(-4) and 9.79 × 10(-6) s(-1) in PC. The two kinetic components are assigned to the two isomers identified in solution.

  4. Preparation of Polyamide Nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. Delivery with In Vivo Studies

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam


    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The purpose of this study was to prepare polyamide nanocapsules containing A. vera L. by an emulsion diffusion technique with in vivo studies. Diethyletriamine (DETA) was used as the encapsulating polymer with acetone ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the organic solvents and Tween and gelatin in water as the stabilizers. Sebacoyl chloride (SC) monomer, A. vera L. extract, and olive...

  5. Influence Of Zwitterions on Properties and Morphology of Ionomers: Implications for Electro-Active Applications


    acrylate and n-butyl acrylate ( nBA ) based sulfobetaine-containing polymers.13,14 They demonstrated that the incorporation of zwitterionic functionalities...propanesulfonate (SBMA). Through copolymerizing the two charge-containing monomers with nBA , a series of zwitterionomers and their corresponding...graciously provided by Raschig GmbH. n-Butyl acrylate ( nBA ), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 99.9+%) and hydroquinone (99%) were purchased from Alfa Aesar. 2

  6. Facile method to synthesize oleic acid-capped magnetite nanoparticles


    We described a simple one-step process for the synthesis of oleic acid-capped magnetite nanoparticles using the dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) to oxidize the precursor Fe~(2+) at 140℃.By adjusting the alkalinity of the reaction system,magnetite nanoparticles with two sizes of 4 and 7 nm could be easily achieved.And the magnetite nanoparticles coated by oleate were well-monodispersed in organic solvent.

  7. Feasibility of cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) primordial germ cells by whole embryo freezing

    HIGAKI, SHOGO; Mochizuki, Kentaro; Baba, Hiroko; Akashi, Yuichiro; Yamaha, Etsuro; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki


    We investigated the feasibility of cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) blastomeres and primordial germ cells (PGCs) by rapid freezing of dechorionated whole embryos at the blastula, gastrula and segmentation stages. Initially we examined the glass-forming properties and embryo toxicities of 5 cryoprotectants: methanol (MeOH), ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG). Embryos at the blastula and gastrula stages had high se...



    An inter-laboratory validation study was conducted to evaluate the potential of 4 chemicals to cause irritation with utilizing the Skin^2 Dermal Model ZK1100 kit developed by Advanced Tissue Sciences, Inc. (formerly Marrow-Tech, Inc., La Jolla, California, USA). The chemicals tested were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1-n-hexadecyl-pyridinium chloride monohydrate (CC), ethanol (EtOH), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Eleven Japanese insititutions participated in this validation research to evalu...

  9. Zeolite-catalyzed methylation of pyrazole with dimethyl carbonate

    Born, S.; Weichert, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ernst, S. [Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology, Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany)


    The present paper describes our attempts to explore the potential of acidic and nonacidic zeolites for the alkylation of pyrazole with dimethyl carbonate to 1-methyl pyrazole, which is a useful intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. (orig.)

  10. Crystallization of Two Cyanide-bridged Bimetallic Complexes [LN(DMSO)2(H2O)3Co(CN)6]·H2O (LN = Pr or Nd, DMSO = Dimethylsulfoxide)

    梁淑惠; 车云霞; 郑吉民


    Two diadochy cyanide-bridged bimetallic complexes [Pr(DMSO)2(H2O)3Co(CN)6] ·H2O 1 and [Nd(DMSO)2(H2O)3Co(CN)6]·H2O 2 have been synthesized, and their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 7.692(2), b = 30.791(10), c = 9.131(3) (A), β =100.645(5)o, V = 2125.4(11) (A)3, Z = 4, the final R = 0.0422 and Wr = 0.0904 for 3484 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I); and those for 2: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 7.692(3), b = 30.902(11), c = 9.152(3) (A), β = 100.665(5)o, V = 2137.8(13) (A)3, Z = 4, the final R = 0.0515 and wR = 0.0906 for 3268 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The LN atoms are linked to the Co atoms by cyanide bridging, forming a two-dimensional gridding structure. The LN3+ ions are both eight-coordinated by three cyano nitrogen and five oxygen atoms of two DMSO and three water molecules. The X-ray single-crystal structure analysis shows that the unbridged cyanide ligands between the closest layers interact with the coordinated water molecules through hydrogen bonds to connect the two layers. Therefore, the molecular structure is a 3D hydrogen-bonded network derived from LNCo chains.

  11. Conversion of dimethyl ether on zeolite catalysts

    Abramova, A.V.; Kulumbegov, R.V.; Khadzhiev, S.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis


    Catalytic conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrocarbons was investigated using zeolite catalyst ZSM-5 type. 2% MexOy - 60% HZVM(analogue of ZSM-5)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Me = Zn, Ga, Fe, Co, V, Ni) catalyst samples have been obtained. The reaction was carried out in a fixed bed reaction set-up at 350-400 C, pressure 3 MPa, gas mix (% vol.): 24 DME, 76 N{sub 2}, WHSV=1300 l/l-{sub kat.}h. Most effective catalysts of DME conversion are pentasil based catalysts with promoter metals zinc, iron and cobalt by totality DME-conversion, gas and liquid hydrocarbon selectivity, ethylene and propylene content in gas. The best work temperatures are 350 and 375 C, thereupon increasing of temperature to 400 C leads to considerable growth of methane in hydrocarbon gas. Liquid hydrocarbons have high content of aromatics and iso-paraffins. Liquid hydrocarbon product is characterized by high octane number (RON) 90-98. (orig.)

  12. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  13. Diastereoselective Addition of α-Metalated Sulfoxides to Imines Revisited: Mechanism, Computational Studies, and the Effect of External Chiral Ligands

    Pedersen, Brian; Rein, Tobias; Søtofte, Inger;


    Some new results on asymmetric synthesis via the addition of a-metalated methyl tolyl sulfoxides to imines are presented. Good diastereoselectivity (up to > 98% d.e. for product 3g) can be obtained under conditions of kinetic control (short reaction time, low temperature). The transition state (a...

  14. Rhodium-catalyzed imination of sulfoxides and sulfides: efficient preparation of N-unsubstituted sulfoximines and sulfilimines.

    Okamura, Hiroaki; Bolm, Carsten


    The Rh(II)-catalyzed imination of sulfoxides and sulfides using [Rh(2)(OAc)(4)] as a catalyst and trifluoroacetamide or sulfonylamides in combination with iodobenzene diacetate and magnesium oxide affords sulfoximines and sulfilimines, respectively, in a stereospecific manner. [reaction: see text

  15. Dopamine D(2) receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse.

    Oien, Derek B; Ortiz, Andrea N; Rittel, Alexander G; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Johnson, Michael A; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob


    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D(2)-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed, protein expression levels of dopamine D(2)-receptor were higher in knockout mice compared with wild-type. However, the binding of dopamine D(2)-receptor agonist was compromised in the same fractions of knockout mice. Coupling efficiency of dopamine D(2)-receptors to G-proteins was also significantly reduced in knockout mice, supporting the compromised agonist binding. Furthermore, pre-synaptic dopamine release in knockout striatal sections was less responsive than control sections to dopamine D(2)-receptor ligands. Behaviorally, the locomotor activity of knockout mice was less responsive to the inhibitory effect of quinpirole than wild-type mice. Involvement of specific methionine residue oxidation in the dopamine D(2)-receptor third intracellular loop is suggested by in vitro studies. We conclude that ablation of methionine sulfoxide reductase can affect dopamine signaling through altering dopamine D(2)-receptor physiology and may be related to symptoms associated with neurological disorders and diseases.

  16. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob


    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed, protein expression levels of dopamine D2-receptor were higher in knockout mice compared with wild-type. However, the binding of dopamine D2-receptor agonist was compromised in the same fractions of knockout mice. Coupling efficiency of dopamine D2-receptors to G-proteins was also significantly reduced in knockout mice, supporting the compromised agonist binding. Furthermore, pre-synaptic dopamine release in knockout striatal sections was less responsive than control sections to dopamine D2-receptor ligands. Behaviorally, the locomotor activity of knockout mice was less responsive to the inhibitory effect of quinpirole than wild-type mice. Involvement of specific methionine residue oxidation in the dopamine D2-receptor third intracellular loop is suggested by in vitro studies. We conclude that ablation of methionine sulfoxide reductase can affect dopamine signaling through altering dopamine D2-receptor physiology and may be related to symptoms associated with neurological disorders and diseases. PMID:20374422

  17. Methionine Residues in Exoproteins and Their Recycling by Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase AB Serve as an Antioxidant Strategy in Bacillus cereus

    Jean-Paul Madeira


    Full Text Available During aerobic respiratory growth, Bacillus cereus is exposed to continuously reactive oxidant, produced by partially reduced forms of molecular oxygen, known as reactive oxygen species (ROS. The sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine (Met, is particularly susceptible to ROS. The major oxidation products, methionine sulfoxides, can be readily repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductases, which reduce methionine sulfoxides [Met(O] back to methionine. Here, we show that methionine sulfoxide reductase AB (MsrAB regulates the Met(O content of both the cellular proteome and exoproteome of B. cereus in a growth phase-dependent manner. Disruption of msrAB leads to metabolism changes resulting in enhanced export of Met(O proteins at the late exponential growth phase and enhanced degradation of exoproteins. This suggests that B. cereus can modulate its capacity and specificity for protein export/secretion through the growth phase-dependent expression of msrAB. Our results also show that cytoplasmic MsrAB recycles Met residues in enterotoxins, which are major virulence factors in B. cereus.

  18. CCDC 1036601: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : bis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-(1,3,6,8,11,13,16,18-octaazapentacyclo[,6.18,11.113,16]tetracosa-4,9,14,19-tetraene-21,22,23,24-tetraylidene)-iron bis(hexafluorophosphate) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate

    Anneser, Markus R.


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  19. CCDC 974613: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[bis(mu-5,5',5''-(1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene-2,5,8-triyltriimino)triisophthalato)-tris(dimethyl sulfoxide)-triaqua-hexa-copper dimethyl sulfoxide solvate hydrate

    Luebke, Ryan


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  20. Rate parameters for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulfide

    Lee, J. H.; Machen, R. C.; Nava, D. F.; Stief, L. J.


    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with dimethyl ether (DME) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were obtained using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. Under conditions where secondary reactions are avoided, rate constants for the H+DME reaction over the temperature range 273-426 K are well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1=(4.38±0.59)×10-12 exp(-1956±43/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The corresponding Arrhenius expression for the H+DMS reaction over the temperature range 212-500 K is k2=(1.30±0.43)×10-11exp(-1118±81/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The Arrhenius plot for k2 shows signs of curvature, however, and separate Arrhenius expressions are derived for the data above and below room temperature. These results are discussed and comparisons are made with previous determinations which employed flow discharge and product analysis techniques.

  1. Effect of solvent on luminescence properties of re-dispersible LaF3∶Ln3+ (Ln3+=Eu3+,Dy3+,Sm3+ and Tb3+) nanoparticles

    Ganngam Phaomei; W.Rameshwor Singh


    LaF3∶Ln3+ (Eu3+,Dy3+,Sm3+ and Tb3+) nanoparticles were prepared in different solvents such as water,EG (ethylene glycol),DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and their mixed solvents at a relatively low temperature of 150 ℃ by simple chemical route.All the prepared samples showed hexagonal phase and exhibited spherical morphology.The highest luminescence intensity was observed for the samples prepared in EG than the samples prepared in other solvents.However,the sample prepared in water showed anomalously higher luminescence intensity than that of the sample prepared in DMSO.

  2. Endogenous activation of adenosine A(1) receptors accelerates ischemic suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity

    Ilie, Andrei; Ciocan, Dragos; Zagrean, Ana-Maria


    Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid suppression of spontaneous brain rhythms prior to major alterations in ionic homeostasis. It was found in vitro during ischemia that the rapidly formed adenosine, resulting from the intracellular breakdown of ATP, may inhibit synaptic transmission via the A(1...... with either 1.25 mg/kg DPCPX dissolved in 2 ml/kg dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or the same volume of DMSO alone, 15 min before the third ischemic episode. Time to electrocortical suppression was estimated based on the decay of the root mean square of two-channel electrocorticographic recordings. During the first...

  3. Pre-Incident Indicators of Terrorist Incidents: The Identification of Behavioral, Geographic, and Temporal Patterns of Preparatory Conduct


    fingernail polish bottle as two separate substances: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and a skin-care gel such as aloe vera . DMSO is a powerful solvent...the superiority of the Aryan race. Believing they were God’s chosen people, the new group felt the need for a true homeland in order to preserve the...civilization and was the only group who could preserve it. He believed that the United States was in decline, and only a bloody revolution could save it from

  4. A study on the composition and structure of cyclic sulfoxide derivative palladium(Ⅱ) complex

    WU Songping; GU Guobang; MENG Shuyuan


    The composition and structure of cyclic sulfoxide derivative Pd(Ⅱ) complex were investigated. The coordinated number was studied with slope method. The coordination number is 2 in lower acidity, but it is 3 in higher acidity. Four methods, UV (ultraviolet) spectra, FrIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra, 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance)spectra, and 13C-NMR spectra, were used to determine the coordinated atom in complex. Pd is coordinated with O and S atom in S=O group in lower acidity media. The conversion of coordination bond appears with an increasing time. Pd is coordinated with S atom in S=O group in higher acidity media, and inter-ligand-transfer reaction occurs.

  5. On the Additions of Lithium Methyl p-Tolyl Sulfoxide to N-(PMPArylaldimines

    Matteo Zanda


    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper confirm that the stereochemical outcome of the reversible additions of lithium (R-methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide to N-arylidene-p-anisidines (NPMP imines depends on: (a the reaction conditions used and (b the electronic properties of the arylidene moiety on the starting imine. In particular, we show that under kinetic control (-70 °C the additions involving electron-rich N-arylidene groups occur with very high stereocontrol in favor of the (2S,RS-diastereomers, whereas an electron-deficient group favors the opposite stereochemical outcome. Based on the observations above, a mechanistic hypothesis is proposed.

  6. Dimethyl trisulfide: A novel cyanide countermeasure.

    Rockwood, Gary A; Thompson, David E; Petrikovics, Ilona


    In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7.4, DMTS was observed to convert cyanide to thiocyanate with greater than 40 times higher efficacy than does thiosulfate, the sulfur donor component of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved cyanide countermeasure Nithiodote(®) In the absence of Rh, DMTS was observed to be almost 80 times more efficient than sodium thiosulfate in vitro The fact that DMTS converts cyanide to thiocyanate more efficiently than does thiosulfate both with and without Rh makes it a promising sulfur donor-type cyanide antidote (scavenger) with reduced enzyme dependence in vitro The therapeutic cyanide antidotal efficacies for DMTS versus sodium thiosulfate were measured following intramuscular administration in a mouse model and expressed as antidotal potency ratios (APR = LD50 of cyanide with antidote/LD50 of cyanide without antidote). A dose of 100 mg/kg sodium thiosulfate given intramuscularly showed only slight therapeutic protection (APR = 1.1), whereas the antidotal protection from DMTS given intramuscularly at the same dose was substantial (APR = 3.3). Based on these data, DMTS will be studied further as a promising next-generation countermeasure for cyanide intoxication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Two Cyano-bridged Bimetallic Complexes [Ce(DMSO)4(H2O)3Fe(CN)6]·H2O and [La(DMSO)4(H2O)3Co(CN)6]·H2O (DMSO = Dimethylsulfoxide)

    ZHAO Zhen-Qian; CHEN Wen-Tong; LIU Xi; CAI Li-Zhen; GUO Guo-Cong; HUANG Jin-Shun


    Two new bimetallic cyano-bridged complexes [Ce(DMSO)4(H2O)3Fe(CN)6]·H2O 1 and [La(DMSO)4(H2O)3Co(CN)6]·H2O 2 have been prepared by the ball milling reaction method and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal structure analyses. Crystallographic data for 1:C14H32CeFeN6O8S4, Mr = 736.67, monoclinic, space group P21/n, a = 14.952(1), b =13.7276(9), c = 15.392(1) (A), β = 108.288(1)°, V = 2999.6(4) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc= 1.631 g/cm3,μ =2.304 mm-1, F(000) = 1480, R = 0.0593 and wR = 0.1611; and those for 2: C14H32CoLaN6O8S4,Mr=738.54, monoclinic, space group P21/n, a = 14.945(3), b = 13.731(3), c = 15.300(3) (A), β=107.806(1)°, V= 2989.3(11) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.641 g/cm3,μ = 2.288 mm-1, F(000) = 1480, R =0.0383 and wR = 0.1132. In both complexes the lanthanide ion is eight-coordinated in a square antiprism arrangement, and the Fe(Ⅲ) or Co(Ⅲ) ion in a nearly regular octahedral environment.The [LnM(CN)6(DMSO)4(H2O)3]·H2O (Ln = Ce and M = Fe for 1; Ln = La and M = Co for 2)species are held together via hydrogen bonds by coordinated water molecules, lattice water molecules and nitrogen atoms of cyanide groups to form a three-dimensional framework.

  8. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen.

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young


    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury via enhanced oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger by catalyzing the cyclic reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide. Herein, we investigated the protective role of MsrA against APAP-induced liver damage using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA(-/-)). We found that MsrA(-/-) mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced acute liver injury than wild-type mice (MsrA(+/+)). The central lobule area of the MsrA(-/-) liver was more impaired with necrotic lesions. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) mice after APAP challenge. Deletion of MsrA enhanced APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress, leading to increased susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury in MsrA-deficient mice. APAP challenge increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) livers. Expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its target gene expression were significantly elevated in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) livers after APAP challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity. The data provided herein constitute the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of MsrA in hepatic function under APAP challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactivity of Imidazole Derivatives toward Phosphate Triester in DMSO/Water Mixtures: A Comprehensive Study on the Solvent Effect.

    Campos, Renan B; Santos, Everton H; Oliveira, Alfredo R M; Ocampos, Fernanda Maria Marins; Souza, Bruno S; Barison, Andersson; Orth, Elisa S


    Many imidazole (IMZ) derivatives of pharmaceutical interest, which are potentially catalytic in dephosphorylation reactions, are soluble solely in mixtures of water and organic solvent. In order to understand these poorly explored reactions and properly compare them, a thorough study related to solvent effects for the analogous spontaneous reaction and with common IMZ derivatives is necessary, which is lacking in the literature. Herein, we report a quantitative solvent effect analysis in DMSO/water mixtures for (i) the hydrolysis reaction of diethyl 2,4-dinitrophenylphosphate (DEDNPP) and (ii) the nucleophilic reaction of IMZ and 1-methylimidazole (MEI) with DEDNPP. The solvent effect was fitted satisfactorily with multiple regression analysis, correlating the obtained second-order rate constants with solvent parameters such as acidity, basicity, and polarity/polarizability from Catalán's scale. The contribution of these parameters can be taken into account to elucidate the reactivity in these media. Interestingly, IMZ is more reactive than MEI in DMSO, compared to water alone, which is attributed to the availability of hydrogen-bond formation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P), mass spectrometry, thermodynamic analysis, and density functional theory calculations were carried out to corroborate the proposed nucleophilic mechanism.

  10. The separation of waste printed circuit board by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using organic solvent.

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J


    Separation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been a bottleneck in WPCBs resource processing. In this study, the separation of WPCBs was performed using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Various parameters, which included solid to liquid ratio, temperature, WPCB sizes, and time, were studied to understand the separation of WPCBs by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using DMSO. Experimental results showed that the concentration of dissolving the bromine epoxy resin increased with increasing various parameters. The optimum condition of complete separation of WPCBs was solid to liquid ratio of 1:7 and WPCB sizes of 16 mm(2) at 145°C for 60 min. The used DMSO was vapored under the decompression, which obtained the regenerated DMSO and dissolved bromine epoxy resin. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to separate valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of waste printed circuit boards effectively.

  11. Tailored design of ruthenium molecular catalysts with 2,2'-bypyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate and pyrazole based ligands for water oxidation.

    Daniel, Quentin; Wang, Lei; Duan, Lele; Li, Fusheng; Sun, Licheng


    With the incorporation of pyrazole and DMSO as axial ligands, a series of tailor-designed Ru water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)(DMSO)(L)] (H2bda = 2,2'-bypyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; L = pyrazole, A-1; 4-Br-3-methyl pyrazole, B-1) and [Ru(bda)(L)2] (L = pyrazole, A-2; 4-Br-3-methyl pyrazole, B-2) have been generated in situ from their corresponding precursors [Ru(κ3(O,N,N)-bda)(DMSO)x(L)3-x] which are in a zwitterionic form with an extra pyrazole based ligand in the equatorial position. Formation of the active catalyst has been investigated under pH 1.0 conditions. Electrochemistry and water oxidation activity of these catalysts were investigated. By fine tuning of the catalyst structure, the turnover frequency was increased up to 500 s(-1) and the stability over 6000 turnovers.

  12. A novel, molybdenum-containing methionine sulfoxide reductase supports survival of Haemophilus influenzae in an in vivo model of infection

    Rabeb Dhouib


    Full Text Available H. influenzae is a host adapted human mucosal pathogen involved in a variety of acute and chronic respiratory tract infections, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and asthma, all of which rely on ability to efficiently establish continuing interactions with the host. Here we report the characterization of a novel molybdenum enzyme, TorZ/MtsZ that supports interactions of H. influenzae with host cells during growth in oxygen-limited environments. Strains lacking TorZ/MtsZ showed a reduced ability to survive in contact with epithelial cells as shown by immunofluorescence microscopy and adherence/invasion assays. This included a reduction in the ability of the strain to invade human epithelial cells, a trait that could be linked to the persistence of H. influenzae. The observation that in a murine model of H. influenzae infection, strains lacking TorZ/MtsZ were almost undetectable after 72h of infection, while ~ 3.6 x 103 CFU/mL of the wild type strain were measured under the same conditions is consistent with this view. To understand how TorZ/MtsZ mediates this effect we purified and characterized the enzyme, and were able to show that it is an S- and N-oxide reductase with a stereospecificity for S-sulfoxides. The enzyme converts two physiologically relevant sulfoxides, biotin sulfoxide and methionine sulfoxide, with the kinetic parameters suggesting that methionine sulfoxide is the natural substrate of this enzyme. TorZ/MtsZ was unable to repair sulfoxides in oxidized Calmodulin, suggesting that a role in cell metabolism/ energy generation and not protein repair is the key function of this enzyme. Phylogenetic analyses showed that H.influenzae TorZ/MtsZ is only distantly related to the E. coli TorZ TMAO reductase, but instead is a representative of a new, previously uncharacterized clade of molybdenum enzyme that is widely distributed within the Pasteurellaceae family of pathogenic bacteria. It is likely that MtsZ/TorZ has a

  13. Perovskite solar cells with a DMSO-treated PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer exhibit higher photovoltaic performance and enhanced durability.

    Huang, Di; Goh, Tenghooi; Kong, Jaemin; Zheng, Yifan; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Taylor, André D


    Despite being the most commonly used hole transport layer for p-i-n perovskite solar cells, the conventional PEDOT:PSS layer is far from being optimal for the best photovoltaic performance. Herein, we demonstrate highly conductive thin DMSO-doped PEDOT:PSS layers which significantly enhance the light harvesting, charge extraction, and photocurrent production of organo-lead iodide devices. Both imaging and X-ray analysis reveal that the perovskite thin films grown on DMSO-doped PEDOT:PSS exhibit larger grains with increased crystallinity. Altogether, these improvements result in a 37% boost in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to standard p-i-n photovoltaics with pristine PEDOT:PSS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DMSO-doped PEDOT:PSS devices possess enhanced PCE durability over time which we attribute primarily to fill factor stability.

  14. Synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide) hydrochloride; Synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide)

    Herbert, M.; Pichat, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A description of the synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 hydrochloride passing through the {sup 14}C{sub 2} dicyandiamide. The overall yield with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3} is 38 per cent. (author) [French] Description de la synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 par l'intermediaire de la dicyandiamide {sup 14}C{sub 2}. Le rendement global par rapport a {sup 14}CO{sub 3}Ba est de 38 pour cent. (auteur)

  15. In vitro susceptibilities of the AIDS-associated microsporidian Encephalitozoon intestinalis to albendazole, its sulfoxide metabolite, and 12 additional benzimidazole derivatives.

    Katiyar, S. K.; Edlind, T D


    Recent reports have described the successful treatment of Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in AIDS patients with albendazole. However, this compound is rapidly metabolized in vivo to albendazole sulfoxide, and furthermore it is only 1 of about 15 commercially developed benzimidazole derivatives. To compare the activities of albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, and other benzimidazoles, an in vitro system involving infection of green monkey kidney cell (E6) monolayers with E. intestinalis...

  16. Dimetilsulfóxido - DMSO no teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro em cepas de Rhodococcus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

    Ribeiro Márcio Garcia


    Full Text Available Comparou-se a sensibilidade microbiana in vitro de isolados de Rhodococcus equi pelo teste padrão de difusão com discos, com o modificado, pela adição de 5% de dimetilsulfóxido-DMSO. Observou-se aumento da sensibilidade do R. equi no teste com DMSO, frente a aminoglicosídeos (canamicina, amicacina, estreptomicina e ao cloranfenicol, enquanto para a eritromicina e derivados ß-lactâmicos (penicilina G, cefalosporinas, amoxicilina, oxacilina, constatou-se redução da sensibilidade do agente.

  17. Role of solvents on the oxygen reduction and evolution of rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    Christy, Maria; Arul, Anupriya; Zahoor, Awan; Moon, Kwang Uk; Oh, Mi Young; Stephan, A. Manuel; Nahm, Kee Suk


    The choice of electrolyte solvent is expected to play a key role in influencing the lithium-oxygen battery performance. The electrochemical performances of three electrolytes composed of lithium bis (trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt and different solvents namely, ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (EC/PC), tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are investigated by assembling lithium oxygen cells. The electrolyte composition significantly varied the specific capacity of the battery. The choice of electrolyte also influences the overpotential, cycle life, and rechargeability of the battery. Electrochemical impedance spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry were utilized to determine the reversible reactions associated with the air cathode.

  18. The synergic extraction of uranium (Ⅵ) with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and petroleum sulfoxides(PSO)/benzene


    The synergistic extraction of uranium (Ⅵ) from nitric acid aqueous solution with a mixture of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in benzene was studied. It has been found that the maximum synergistic extraction effect occurs where the molar ratio of PSO to TBP is one to two. The composition of the complex of synergistic extraction is UO2(NO3)2.TB P.PSO. The formation constant of the complex KTp=57.44.

  19. 一种镧系-过渡金属二维氰桥配合物[Nd(DMSO)2(H2O)2][Ni(CN)4]Cl(DMSO=二甲亚砜)的合成和晶体结构%Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cyano-Bridged Lanthanide-Transition-Metal Complex [Nd(DMSO)2(H2O)2][Ni(CN)4]Cl (DMSO=Dimethylsulfoxide) with Two-dimensional Gridding Molecule Structure

    梁淑惠; 车云霞; 郑吉民


    The cyano-bridged bimetallic complex [Nd(DMSO)2(H2O)2][Ni(CN)4]Cl with two-dimensional gridding molecule structure was synthesized and characterized. In the complex all four cyano groups of unit Ni(CN)42- are bound to Nd3+ ions. The crystal data for the title complex: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a=0.780 0(3) nm,b=1.5097(6) nm, c=1.683 2(6) nm, β=115.231(14)°, Z=4, μ=4.311 mm-1, final R1=0.020 9, wR2=0.045 4. CCDC:272214.

  20. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO.

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro


    Proton caged compounds exhibit a characteristic behavior when directly dosed into cells or being coupled to gold nanoparticles prior to the dosing. When irradiated in the near ultraviolet region, they release protons that interact with intracellular HCO3 (-) to yield H2CO3. The dissociation of carbonic acid, then, releases CO2 that can be distinctively singled out in infrared spectra. In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS) with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments.

  1. DMA and Conductivity Studies in PVA:NH4SCN:DMSO:MWNT Nanocomposite Polymer Dried Gel Electrolytes

    S. L. Agrawal


    Full Text Available This paper deals with findings on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and ion-conduction behavior of MWNTs (multiwall carbon nanotubes doped PVA:NH4SCN:DMSO dried gel electrolyte system prepared for four filler concentrations (2, 4, 6 & 8 wt% by solution cast technique. XRD measurements reveal enhancement in amorphous behavior of composite gel electrolyte upon incorporation of filler particles. Better mechanical stability is noticed in the composite system upon dispersal of MWNT along with presence of dynamic Tg during DMA measurements. Enhancement in ionic conductivity has been noticed with an optimum value of 4.5 × 10−3 Scm−1 for 6 wt% MWNTs filled composite electrolyte. Composite system exhibits combination of Arrhenius and Vogel-Tammam-Fulcher (VTF behavior in temperature dependent conductivity study. The a.c. conductivity response seems to follow universal power law.

  2. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro


    Proton caged compounds exhibit a characteristic behavior when directly dosed into cells or being coupled to gold nanoparticles prior to the dosing. When irradiated in the near ultraviolet region, they release protons that interact with intracellular HCO3− to yield H2CO3. The dissociation of carbonic acid, then, releases CO2 that can be distinctively singled out in infrared spectra. In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS) with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments. PMID:26870760

  3. New ways to derivatize at position 6 of 7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterin

    Shi, Genbin; Ji, Xinhua


    Reported are the synthesis of two intermediates for derivatization at position 6 of 7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterin: 6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester-7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterin, which is a novel compound, and 6-aldehyde-7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydropterin, which is synthesized by a new method with a yield of 90%.

  4. Enhancing stress tolerance by overexpression of a methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) gene in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Yin, Chaomin; Zheng, Liesheng; Zhu, Jihong; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin


    Proteins are subjected to modification by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidation of specific amino acid residues can impair their biological functions. Methionine as a sulfur-containing amino acid is easily oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO). The modified methionine can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. In this study, a methionine sulfoxide reductase A (PoMsrA) gene from Pleurotus ostreatus was cloned and characterized. Furthermore, the function of PoMsrA gene was analyzed by overexpression in P. ostreatus via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Stable integration of the target gene into the genome of P. ostreatus was confirmed by PCR, fluorescence observation, and Southern blot hybridization. qRT-PCR analysis showed that PoMsrA was highly expressed in the stage of mature and young fruiting bodies as well as the osmotic stress condition of 0.3 M NaCl. Additionally, the transgenic strains with PoMsrA overexpression exhibited an enhanced tolerance to high temperature, high osmotic stress, and oxidative stress. This suggests that PoMsrA is an active player in the protection of the cellular proteins from oxidative stress damage.

  5. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika


    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  6. Characterization of a novel methionine sulfoxide reductase A from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ), and its protecting role in Escherichia coli.

    Dai, Changbo; Singh, Naresh Kumar; Park, Myungho


    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) is a ubiquitous enzyme that has been demonstrated to reduce the S enantiomer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) to methionine (Met) and can protect cells against oxidative damage. In this study, we isolated a novel MSRA (SlMSRA2) from Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom) and characterized it by subcloning the coding sequence into a pET expression system. Purified recombinant protein was assayed by HPLC after expression and refolding. This analysis revealed the absolute specificity for methionine-S-sulfoxide and the enzyme was able to convert both free and protein-bound MetSO to Met in the presence of DTT. In addition, the optimal pH, appropriate temperature, and Km and Kcat values for MSRA2 were observed as 8.5, 25oC, 352 ± 25 μM, and 0.066 ± 0.009 S(-1), respectively. Disk inhibition and growth rate assays indicated that SlMSRA2 may play an essential function in protecting E. coli against oxidative damage.

  7. Dimethyl ether in diesel engines - progress and perspectives

    Sorenson, Spencer C


    A review of recent developments related to the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in engines is presented Research work discussed is in the areas of engine performance and emissions, fuel injection systems, spray and ignition delay, and detailed chemical kinetic modeling. DME's properties and safety...

  8. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert


    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  9. The effect of gasses on the viscosity of dimethyl ether

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen


    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as a clean substitute for diesel oil as it does not form soot during combustion. DME has a vapour pressure of 6 bar at 25 degrees C; so pressurisation is necessary to keep DME liquid at ambient temperature. Inert gases are good candidates as pressurising m...

  10. Conversion Excess Coal Gas to Dimethyl Ether in Steel Works


    With the technical progress of metallurgical industry, more excess gas will be produced in steel works. The feasibility of producing dimethyl ether by gas synthesis was discussed, which focused on marketing, energy balance, process design, economic evaluation, and environmental protection etc. DME was considered to be a new way to utilize excess coal gas in steel works.

  11. Arginine dimethylation products in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease

    Akram E. El-Sadek


    Conclusion: Disturbed serum levels of arginine and its dimethyl derivatives may underlie development and/or progression of CKD. Elevated serum SDMA level is strongly correlated with impaired kidney functions and could be considered as a predictor for kidney functions deterioration and CKD progression.

  12. Dimethyl fumarate: a new oral treatment option for multiple sclerosis

    Sarjana S. Atal


    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a slowly progressive, immunologically mediated disease of the CNS. The recent years have witnessed great efforts in establishing new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis. There is a clear need for more effective, safe and at the same time orally available treatment options. Here we review the recently approved drug Dimethyl fumarate (DMF, Tecfidera® as a new therapeutic option for MS and its role in context to the existing oral treatment options for MS. Dimethyl fumarate is the methyl ester of fumaric acid and has been claimed to possess immunomodulatory properties and is already in clinical use as Fumaderm for severe systemic psoriasis. In addition, Dimethyl fumarate was also shown to act on the blood-brain barrier and exert neuroprotective properties via activation of anti-oxidative pathways and displayed beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model mimicking many aspects of MS. Based on two global phase III studies. Dimethyl fumarate has been clinically proven to significantly reduce important measures of disease activity, including relapses and development of brain lesions, as well as to slow disability progression over time, while demonstrating a favourable safety and tolerability profile. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 849-856

  13. Response of soil organisms to dimethyl disulfide fumigation

    After the commonly used soil fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in the United States, alternatives to MeBr such as dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) which is known to have broad pest control spectrum, is increasingly used. However, effectiveness of DMDS has been mainly investigated to study targe...

  14. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A regulates cell growth through the p53-p21 pathway

    Choi, Seung Hee [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA inhibits normal cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA deficiency leads to an increase in p21 by enhanced p53 acetylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA causes cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway. -- Abstract: MsrA is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine. Although MsrA is well-characterized as an antioxidant and has been implicated in the aging process and cellular senescence, its roles in cell proliferation are poorly understood. Here, we report a critical role of MsrA in normal cell proliferation and describe the regulation mechanism of cell growth by this protein. Down-regulation of MsrA inhibited cell proliferation, but MsrA overexpression did not promote it. MsrA deficiency led to an increase in p21, a major cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, thereby causing cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. While protein levels of p53 were not altered upon MsrA deficiency, its acetylation level was significantly elevated, which subsequently activated p21 transcription. The data suggest that MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway.

  15. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Kyle R. Baum


    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  16. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Protect against Oxidative Stress in Staphylococcus aureus Encountering Exogenous Oxidants and Human Neutrophils

    Pang, Yun Yun; Schwartz, Jamie; Bloomberg, Sarah; Boyd, Jeffrey M; Horswill, Alexander R.; Nauseef, William M.


    To establish infection successfully, S. aureus must evade clearance by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We studied the expression and regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) that are involved in the repair of oxidized staphylococcal proteins and investigated their influence over the fate of S. aureus exposed to oxidants or PMN. We evaluated a mutant deficient in msrA1 and msrB for susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid and PMN. The expression of msrA1 in wild-type bacteria ingested by human PMN was assessed by real-time PCR. The regulation of msr was studied by screening a library of two-component regulatory system (TCS) mutants for altered msr responses. Relative to the wild-type, bacteria deficient in Msr were more susceptible to oxidants and to PMN. Upregulation of staphylococcal msrA1 occurred within the phagosomes of normal PMN and PMN deficient in NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, PMN granule-rich extract stimulated the upregulation of msrA1. Modulation of msrA1 within PMN was shown to be partly dependent on the VraSR TCS. Msr contributes to staphylococcal responses to oxidative attack and PMN. Our study highlights a novel interaction between the oxidative protein repair pathway and the VraSR TCS that is involved in cell wall homeostasis. PMID:24247266

  17. NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.

    Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng


    A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dimethyl fumarate on neuroprotection and immunomodulation

    Albrecht Philipp


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate is a promising novel oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. These effects are presumed to originate from a combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. We aimed to clarify whether neuroprotective concentrations of dimethyl fumarate have immunomodulatory effects. Findings We determined time- and concentration-dependent effects of dimethyl fumarate and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate on viability in a model of endogenous neuronal oxidative stress and clarified the mechanism of action by quantitating cellular glutathione content and recycling, nuclear translocation of transcription factors, and the expression of antioxidant genes. We compared this with changes in the cytokine profiles released by stimulated splenocytes measured by ELISPOT technology and analyzed the interactions between neuronal and immune cells and neuronal function and viability in cell death assays and multi-electrode arrays. Our observations show that dimethyl fumarate causes short-lived oxidative stress, which leads to increased levels and nuclear localization of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and a subsequent increase in glutathione synthesis and recycling in neuronal cells. Concentrations that were cytoprotective in neuronal cells had no negative effects on viability of splenocytes but suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines in cultures from C57BL/6 and SJL mice and had no effects on neuronal activity in multi-electrode arrays. Conclusions These results suggest that immunomodulatory concentrations of dimethyl fumarate can reduce oxidative stress without altering neuronal network activity.

  19. Highly Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells with Average Efficiency of 18.3% and Best Efficiency of 19.7% Fabricated via Lewis Base Adduct of Lead(II) Iodide.

    Ahn, Namyoung; Son, Dae-Yong; Jang, In-Hyuk; Kang, Seong Min; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu


    High efficiency perovskite solar cells were fabricated reproducibly via Lewis base adduct of lead(II) iodide. PbI2 was dissolved in N,N-dimethyformamide with equimolar N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and CH3NH3I. Stretching vibration of S═O appeared at 1045 cm(-1) for bare DMSO, which was shifted to 1020 and 1015 cm(-1) upon reacting DMSO with PbI2 and PbI2 + CH3NH3I, respectively, indicative of forming the adduct of PbI2·DMSO and CH3NH3I·PbI2·DMSO due to interaction between Lewis base DMSO and/or iodide (I(-)) and Lewis acid PbI2. Spin-coating of a DMF solution containing PbI2, CH3NH3I, and DMSO (1:1:1 mol %) formed a transparent adduct film, which was converted to a dark brown film upon heating at low temperature of 65 °C for 1 min due to removal of the volatile DMSO from the adduct. The adduct-induced CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited high charge extraction characteristics with hole mobility as high as 3.9 × 10(-3) cm(2)/(V s) and slow recombination rate. Average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.3% was achieved from 41 cells and the best PCE of 19.7% was attained via adduct approach.

  20. Efeitos colaterais do uso da ribavirina, prednisona e DMSO em cães naturalmente infectados pelo vírus da cinomose

    Simone H. Mangia


    Full Text Available O estudo tem o objetivo de identificar efeitos indesejáveis da ribavirina, prednisona e DMSO em cães naturalmente infectados com o vírus da cinomose. Foram utilizados 60 cães apresentando quadro neurológico da cinomose com evolução de 10 dias. Os animais foram internados e receberam tratamento de suporte; foram avaliados diariamente e realizados hemograma, dosagem bioquímica e exame de urina tipo I. Os grupos 1 e 2 foram tratados com ribavirina e sua associação com DMSO; os grupos 3 e 4 com DMSO e prednisona e o grupos 5 com ribavirina e prednisona e o grupo 6 com ribavirina, prednisona e DMSO. Os animais foram anestesiados para a colheita de líquor, medula óssea e sangue, antes do tratamento para diagnóstico através da RT-PCR. As amostras negativas foram analisadas pela técnica de hn-PCR. Todos os animais apresentaram resultado positivo em pelo menos uma das duas reações. O efeito adverso da ribavirina e a sua associação com a prednisona foi a anemia hemolítica, que foi confirmada pela observação de bilirrubina na urina apenas dos cães tratados com ribavirina.

  1. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun


    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  2. Increased methionine sulfoxide content of apoA-I in type 1 diabetes.

    Brock, Jonathan W C; Jenkins, Alicia J; Lyons, Timothy J; Klein, Richard L; Yim, Eunsil; Lopes-Virella, Maria; Carter, Rickey E; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W


    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality in diabetes. HDL plays an important role in limiting vascular damage by removing cholesterol and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides from oxidized low density lipoprotein and foam cells. Methionine (Met) residues in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDL, reduce peroxides in HDL lipids, forming methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)]. We examined the extent and sites of Met(O) formation in apoA-I of HDL isolated from plasma of healthy control and type 1 diabetic subjects to assess apoA-I exposure to lipid peroxides and the status of oxidative stress in the vascular compartment in diabetes. Three tryptic peptides of apoA-I contain Met residues: Q(84)-M(86)-K(88), W(108)-M(112)-R(116), and L(144)-M(148)-R(149). These peptides and their Met(O) analogs were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. Relative to controls, Met(O) formation was significantly increased at all three locations (Met(86), Met(112), and Met(148)) in diabetic patients. The increase in Met(O) in the diabetic group did not correlate with other biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as N(epsilon)-malondialdehyde-lysine or N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, in plasma or lipoproteins. The higher Met(O) content in apoA-I from diabetic patients is consistent with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma in diabetes. Using the methods developed here, future studies can address the relationship between Met(O) in apoA-I and the risk, development, or progression of the vascular complications of diabetes.

  3. Time evolution of dimethyl carbinol in water vortex rings

    Omocea, Ioana-Laura; Damian, Iulia-Rodica; Simionescu, Štefan-Mugur; Bǎlan, Corneliu; Mihǎilescu, Mona


    The paper is concerned with the experimental study of the time evolution of a single laminar vortex ring generated at the interface between water and dimethyl carbinol. The experiments were performed by the submerged injection with a constant rate of dimethyl carbinol (isopropyl alcohol) in a water tank. The dynamics of the vortex formation was recorded at 1000 fps with a Photron Fastcam SA1 camera, equipped with a microscopic Edmund Optics objective. A symmetrical buoyant vortex ring with an elongated topology was observed at the interface between the two immiscible liquids. The analyses of the time dependence of the vortex rings disclosed three regions for the evolution of the interface: one dominated by inertia force, a transition region and a third region, dominated by buoyancy force.

  4. Dimethyl-ammonium 3-carb-oxy-benzoate.

    Siddiqui, Tausif; Koteswara Rao, Vandavasi; Zeller, Matthias; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri R


    The asymmetric unit of the title organic salt, C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(8)H(5)O(4) (-), consists of two dimethyl-ammonium cations and two 3-carb-oxy-benzoate anions. The 3-carb-oxy-benzoate anions are linked via strong inter-molecular and nearly symmetrical O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite chains parallel to [111]. Neighbouring chains are further connected by the dimethyl-ammonium cations via N-H⋯O bonds, resulting in a double-chain-like structure. The dihedral angles of all carboxylate groups with respect to the phenylene rings are in the range 7.9 (1)-20.48 (9)°.

  5. Intrinsic Kinetics of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    Zhaoguang Nie; Hongwei Liu; Dianhua Liu; Weiyong Ying; Dingye Fang


    The intrinsic kinetics of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from syngas over a methanol synthesis catalyst mixed with methanol dehydration catalyst has been investigated in a tubular integral reactor at 3-7 MPa and 220-260 ℃. The three reactions including methanol synthesis from CO and H2, CO2 and H2, and methanol dehydration were chosen as the independent reactions. The L-H kinetic model was presented for dimethyl ether synthesis and the parameters of the model were obtained by using simplex method combined with genetic algorithm. The model is reliable according to statistical analysis and residual error analysis. The synergy effect of the reactions over the bifunctional catalyst was compared with the effect for methanol synthesis catalyst under the same conditions based on the model. The effects of syngas containing N2 on the reactions were also simulated.

  6. Crystal structure of dichloridobis(dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonatezinc

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop


    Full Text Available The ZnII atom in the title complex, [ZnCl2(C4H6N2S22], is coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral manner by two Cl atoms and two terminal N atoms of two dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonate ligands. In the crystal, the complex molecules are connected through C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds and Cl...S contacts, leading to a two-dimensional structure extending parallel to the ab plane.

  7. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    Sugohara, RT; Homem, MGP; Iga, I; de Souza, GLC; MACHADO, LE; Ferraz, JR; dos Santos, AS; Brescansin, LM; Lucchese, RR; Lee, MT


    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e(-)-DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using th...

  8. Regioselective synthesis of chiral dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene sulfones

    Flavia Pop


    Full Text Available Enantiopure (R,R and (S,S-dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene monosulfones have been synthesized by the aerial oxidation of the chiral dithiolates generated from the propionitrile-protected precursors. Both enantiomers crystallize in the orthorhombic chiral space group P212121. They show a boat-type conformation of the TTF moiety, a rather rigid dithiin sulfone ring and the methyl groups in a bisequatorial conformation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate fully reversible oxidation in radical cation and dication species.

  9. Study on Synergy Effect in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    王志良; 刁杰; 王金福; 金涌


    Influence of reaction temperature, pressure and space velocity on the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas is studied in an isothermal fixed-bed reactor. The catalyst is a physical mixture of C30 copper-based methanol (MeOH) synthesis catalyst and ZSM-5 dehydration catalyst. The experimental results show that the chemical synergy between methanol synthesis reaction and methanol dehydration reaction is evident. The conversion of carbon monoxide is over 90%.

  10. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper


    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio...

  11. Catena-dichloro(4,4?-dimethyl-2,2?-bipyridine) Cadmium(II), a New One-dimensional Chain with Blue Fluorescent Emission

    ZHANG Gui-Ling; LI Yan-Tuan; LUO Xu-Qiang; WU Zhi-Yong


    A new μ-chloro-bridged one-dimensional coordination polymer [Cd(dmbpy)Cl2]n (dmbpy = 4,4?-dimethyl-2,2?-bipyridine) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with a = 17.745(4), b = 10.326(2), c = 7.3382(15) ?, β = 106.85(3)o, V = 1286.9(4) ?3, Z = 4, C12H12N2Cl2Cd, Mr = 367.54, Dc = 1.897 g/cm3, F(000) = 720, λ(MoK() = 0.71073 ?, ( = 2.089 mm-1, R = 0.0368 and wR = 0.1048 for 1041 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). Cadmium(II) adopts a distorted octahedral coordination geometry and adjacent coordination chains are intercalated in a zipper-like fashion into 2D layers through the π-π stacking interactions between dmbpy. Fluorescent analyses show that it exhibits intense blue photoluminescence in both DMF and DMSO solutions at room temperature.

  12. Fragrance material review on 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol.

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M


    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides and relative pungency measurements of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic tissues of Allium porrum.

    Doran, James A; O'Donnell, Jennifer S; Lairson, Luke L; McDonald, Mary Ruth; Schwan, Adrian L; Grodzinski, Bernard


    Three standard assays for pyruvate gave equivalent measurements of relative pungency for two leek cultivars ( 'Tadorna' and 'Ramona'). Background pyruvate levels varied depending on the assay used, ranging from 0.4 (lactate dehydrogenase) to 1.5 (high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) micromol g(-1) fresh weight (FW) on average. The relative pungencies of the two leek cultivars were also compared to total concentrations of the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (RCSOs). The average ratio of EPy to total RCSOs was 10.9, indicating that standard pungency assays underestimate the levels of RCSOs in the tissue. A detailed analysis of 'Tadorna' leaves showed that total RCSO concentrations decreased acropetally. Profiles were composed of (-/+)-methyl-, (-/+)-ethyl-, (+)-propyl-, and (+)-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO, ECSO, PCSO, and 1-PeCSO, respectively). (+)-PCSO was the most prominent in green (2.4 mg g (-1) FW), yellow (5.5 mg g (-1) FW), and white (3.8 mg g (-1) FW) tissues. The prop(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide derivatives were dominant in tissues that had photosynthetic capacity. The (+)-MCSO levels were high in the bulb (3.6 mg g (-1) FW). Interestingly, detectable levels of (-/+)-ECSO were measured in the leaves ( approximately 0.5 mg g (-1) FW). RCSO profiles of the different tissue regions were similar, but more (+)-PCSO and (+)-1-PeCSO were detected in the bulb. In general, mature upper leaf tissues had lower levels of total RCSOs. Overall, mild extraction methods and a low-temperature HPLC protocol (preferably with long retention times) achieved adequate compound separation and resolution of the diastereomers.

  14. Acyclic forms of aldohexoses and ketohexoses in aqueous and DMSO solutions: conformational features studied using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Plazinski, Wojciech; Plazinska, Anita; Drach, Mateusz


    The molecular properties of aldohexoses and ketohexoses are usually studied in the context of their cyclic, furanose or pyranose structures which is due to the abundance of related tautomeric forms in aqueous solution. We studied the conformational features of a complete series of D-aldohexoses (D-allose, D-altrose, D-glucose, D-mannose, D-gulose, d-idose, D-galactose and D-talose) and D-ketohexoses (D-psicose, D-fructose, D-sorbose and D-tagatose) as well as of L-psicose by using microsecond-timescale molecular dynamics in explicit water and DMSO with the use of enhanced sampling methods. In each of the studied cases the preferred conformation corresponded to an extended chain structure; the less populated conformers included the quasi-cyclic structures, close to furanose rings and common for both aldo- and ketohexoses. The orientational preferences of the aldehyde or ketone groups are correlated with the relative populations of anomers characteristic of cyclic aldo- and ketohexoses, respectively, thus indicating that basic features of anomeric equilibria are preserved even if hexose molecules are not in their cyclic forms. No analogous relationship is observed in the case of other structural characteristics, such as the preferences of acyclic molecules to form either the furanose-or pyranose-like structures or maintaining the chair-like geometry of pseudo-pyranose rings.

  15. ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

    Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L.; Lowe, Todd M.; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W.


    Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

  16. Ultrasound-promoted synthesis of flavones by oxidation of 2’-hydroxychalcones and flavanones using I2/DMSO

    Paulo César Evaristo Milane


    Full Text Available Flavones constitute a large class of natural products with a broad range of biological activities. Among various methods, flavones have been synthesized by the oxidation of 2’-hydroxychalcones and flavanones. Most of these oxidative methods are of limited use since toxic reagents are used. Furthermore, these procedures require prolonged reaction times and high temperatures. The demand for cleaner and efficient methods led us to explore a new system to prepare flavones using I2/DMSO and ultrasonic irradiation as a reaction promoter. Initially, we prepared a series of 2’-hydroxychalcones     (3a-c and flavanones (4a-c       by  the   condensation of 2’-hydroxyacetophenone (1 with aromatic aldehydes (2a-c. The obtained mixture was then subjected to the oxidation condition shown above to furnish the target flavones (5a-c after sonication during 60 min. The products were purified using silica-gel column chromatography (hexane/AcOEt (9:1 to give 86-98% of yields.

  17. Diastereoselective Addition of α-Metalated Sulfoxides to Imines Revisited: Mechanism, Computational Studies, and the Effect of External Chiral Ligands

    Pedersen, Brian; Rein, Tobias; Søtofte, Inger


    six-membered "flat chair") was probed by quantum mechanical calculations, which underpinned the idea of using external chiral ligands to enhance the diastereoselectivity of otherwise moderately selective reactions. In this way, the diastereomeric ratio of the product 3a could be raised from (84 : 16......Some new results on asymmetric synthesis via the addition of a-metalated methyl tolyl sulfoxides to imines are presented. Good diastereoselectivity (up to > 98% d.e. for product 3g) can be obtained under conditions of kinetic control (short reaction time, low temperature). The transition state (a...

  18. Population and relaxation kinetics of laser-excitated photofunctional ruthenium-sulfoxide complexes in highly concentrated solutions; Populations- und Relaxationskinetiken laserangeregter photofunktionaler Ruthenium-Sulfoxid-Komplexe in hochkonzentrierten Loesungen

    Eicke, Sebastian


    Photofunctionality of ruthenium sulfoxide complexes offer a distinct photochromy, which results from their light-induced binding isomerization. By this the complexes are suited for the usage in photonic applications like fast optical switches or optical data memories. The present thesis studies the photofunctionality of the complexes by means of laser-excited population and thermally activated relaxation kinetics. In view to photonic applications thereby exclusively highly concentrated sample solutions are considered, which exhibit beside a distinct photochromy a just remarkable photosensitivity. The photochromic kinetics usable in an application are described by means of a model and rate equations, so that a statement on an optimal sample-solution concentration in connection of drived and driving light beam can be met. By means of the characteristics of the photochromic kinetics complex properties, like for instance the thermal stability of the metastable isomers, can be defined. The applicative suitability of the photofunctional ruthenium sulfoxide complexes is finally shown by the selective fitting of their complex properties by diverse structural and environmental modifications.

  19. Low-vibrational luminescent polymers including tris(bis-perfluoromethane and ethanesulfonylaminate)neodymium(III) with 8 coordinated DMSO-d{sub 6}

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Sogabe, Kensaku; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo E-mail:


    Novel Nd(III) complexes, tris(bis-perfluoromethane and ethanesulfonylaminato)neodymium(III)octa(deuterated dimethylsulfoxide) were designed and synthesized to apply to luminescent materials in plastic optical fiber. The IR and the near-IR spectra analyses has been done to estimate the radiationless transition via vibrational excitation of the Nd(III) complexes. [Nd(pms){sub 3}(DMSO-d{sub 6}){sub 8}] and [Nd(pes){sub 3}(DMSO-d{sub 6}){sub 8}] in polyhexafluoroisopropylmethacrylate gave a emission quantum yield of 1.3% and 1.6%, which was the largest in luminescent Nd(III) polymers. A research field for telecommunication network using 1.3 {mu}m light would be achieved by luminescent Nd(III) materials encapsulated low-vibrational coordination sites.

  20. Development and evaluation of the improved iron chelating agents EHPG, HBED and their dimethyl esters.

    Hershko, C; Grady, R W; Link, G


    The phenolic EDTA analogues ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis-(2- hydroxyphenylglycine ) ( EHPG ), N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-ethylenediamine diacetic acid ( HBED ), and their respective dimethyl esters ( dimethylEHPG and dimethylHBED ) were studied in hypertransfused rats. Radioiron bound to these compounds was cleared mainly by the liver and excreted in the bile. After a single 40 mg i.m. injection, the percentage of radioiron removed from 59Fe-ferritin-labelled hepatocytes and excreted in the bile was 4% in untreated controls, 24% for desferral , 42% for dimethylEHPG , 58% for EHPG , 63% for HBED , and 80% for dimethylHBED . DimethylHBED combines oral effectiveness with superior chelating ability, selective hepatocellular action, and low apparent toxicity. It may represent a significant advance in the development of new iron chelating drugs.